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Sample records for poverty health management

  1. Social evils, poverty & health.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Praneet

    2007-10-01

    There is a close association between social circumstances and health. In India, there is a significant burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases. Risk factors responsible for these conditions are underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene, indoor smoke pollution, zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiency, tobacco use, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. All these risk factors are influenced by social factors and in India the more important factors are poverty and illiteracy. Changing lifestyles as a result of rising incomes are significant risk factors for non communicable diseases. The social evils that influence poverty and health are macrolevel national and regional issues such as physical geography, governance patterns and failures, geopolitics, economic policy, natural resources decline, population growth, the demographic trap and the fiscal trap. Household and microlevel factors include the poverty trap, cultural barriers, lack of innovation and saving, absence of trade or business, unemployment, technological reversal, adverse productivity shock, social issues related to females, and adolescent social issues. Social determinants important for non communicable diseases, defined by the World Health Organization include the social gradient, stress, early life events, social exclusion, improper work conditions, unemployment, lack of social support, addiction, food scarcity or excess and uneven distribution, lack of proper transport, and illiteracy or low educational status. There are multiple pathways through which social factors influence health, and pathophysiological mechanisms involve homeostatic and allostatic changes in response to stress, neuroendocrine changes and altered autonomic functions, and abnormal inflammatory and immune responses. A concerted action to eradicate these social evils shall have to focus on reducing poverty, improving educational status and providing equitable and accessible healthcare to all

  2. Poverty and health sector inequalities.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities. PMID:11953787

  3. Child Poverty and the Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Racine, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty. PMID:27044708

  4. Health systems perspectives - infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization's charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty - its social, political and economic dimensions - remain in the reader's mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor populations world-wide. Applying a health systems framework to a discussion on infectious diseases of poverty emerges from the papers in this journal's first edition. Many of the articles discuss treatments, indicating the importance of pharmaceuticals for neglected diseases. Delivery strategies to reach impoverished populations also figure within this first round of papers. Innovative programs that provide diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases to hard-to-reach rural and urban communities are needed clearly needed, and some good examples are discussed here. Future editions will explore other health system components, broadening the evidence base to increase understanding of effective and sustainable interventions to reduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor. The editors are to be congratulated on the release of this inaugural issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty. We look forward to reading subsequent editions. PMID:23848993

  5. Environment, poverty and health linkages in the Wami River basin: A search for sustainable water resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madulu, Ndalahwa F.

    The Wami Rivers basin is an important area due to its diversified use which benefits a multi-diversity of stakeholders. While large scale irrigated sugar production is the main issue of concern upstream, there are other equally important socio-economic activities which include biodiversity and environmental conservation, domestic water supply, livestock water needs, and fishing. A large water supply project has just been completed downstream of the Wami River to provide water for the Chalinze township and surrounding villages. Other important undertakings include irrigated rice farming in Dakawa area, livestock keeping activities, and the establishment of the Sadani National Park (SANAPA) and the Wami-Mbiki Wildlife Management Area (WMA). The Wami River basin forms significant parts of both the Wami-Mbiki WMA and the SANAPA wildlife conservation areas. Regardless of its importance, the basin is increasingly being degraded through deforestation for agricultural expansion, timber, and more important charcoal making. The basin is also being polluted through disposal of excess molasses from the sugar industry, and use of poisonous substances and herbs in fishing. The worsening environmental condition in the basin has become a health threat to both people in the surrounding villages and wildlife. To a large extent, such changes are intensifying poverty levels among the local population. These changes are raising concerns about the long-term environmental sustainability and health implications of the current water use competition and conflicts in the basin. The purpose of this paper is to examine the main water resource use conflicts and how they affect environmental sustainability in the long-run. It also intends to establish linkages between wildlife management, pastoralism, agricultural activities and how such linkages influence poverty alleviation efforts in the basin. An attempt has been made to examine the environmental and health implications of human activities

  6. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647

  7. A Health Plan to Reduce Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Noting that the failures of the U.S. health care system are compounding the problems faced by low-income Americans, Alan Weil argues that any strategy to reduce poverty must provide access to health care for all low-income families. Although nearly all children in families with incomes under 200 percent of poverty are eligible for either Medicaid…

  8. [Poverty, social exclusion, social capital and health].

    PubMed

    Del Rey Calero, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Social capital is the social structure which facilitates the actions of individuals, stimulates production and allows for success. Poverty maintains basic needs unmet (food, health, autonomy) over time and unvoluntarily. Social exclusion does not allow individuals to participate in society. The following dimensions are assessed: financial poverty, social inclusion, employment, health and education. Social participation, work integration, empowerment, self-esteem, and personal achievement should be promoted. In Europe 15% of people is exposed to poverty; in Spain corresponding figures are 13.4%, while for the elderly reached 21%. Extreme poverty affects 6.2% population and severe poverty 14.2%. Women and those living in Andalusia, Canary Islands and Extremadura are particularly affected, health inequality are for elderly, immigration, gender, social class, and should be reduced 10% for 2010. The Gini indez measures the income distribution; in the European Union (EU) it is 0.29 while in Spain is 0.33. Poverty and health are inversely correlated, health care expenditure in Spain is 7.5% og GDP. Life expectancy in U.E. is 75.5 years for men and 81.6 years for women, while in Spain it is 78 and 83.1 respectively. Infant mortality in EU is 4.5/1000, 4.1 per thousand in Spain. Lastly, the number of children per women in EU is 1.47 and in Spain 1.3. PMID:15553403

  9. Poverty, tobacco, and health: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Majra, J P; Gur, A

    2009-06-01

    Poverty and health have a two-way relationship. Poverty increases the vulnerability of people to disease, and sickness affects their income leading to poverty. Tobacco has been identified as a major avoidable cause of illness and premature death. In India, more than half of men and one-tenth of women use one or more forms of tobacco. Tobacco-use shows a clear and continual increase with decreasing wealth quintiles. Poor smokers, who are at a greater risk of illness, are also at a greater risk of not being treated or of falling into greater poverty if they seek treatment. Poor people spend money on tobacco that could be spent on food, shelter, education, and healthcare. These decisions can entrench families in an ongoing cycle of poverty and ill-health. The direct and indirect costs of tobacco-use are immense for national economy. This has positioned control of tobacco relevant in India's per suite to achieve the goals of poverty eradication and health for all. PMID:19507746

  10. Poverty dynamics in Germany: Evidence on the relationship between persistent poverty and health behavior.

    PubMed

    Aue, Katja; Roosen, Jutta; Jensen, Helen H

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have found poverty to be related to lower levels of health due to poor health behavior such as unhealthy eating, smoking or less physical activity. Longer periods of poverty seem to be especially harmful for individual health behavior. Studies have shown that poverty has a dynamic character. Moreover, poverty is increasingly regarded as being a multidimensional construct and one that considers more aspects than income alone. Against this background this paper analyzes the relationship between health behavior and persistent spells of income poverty as well as a combined poverty indicator using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2000-2010). Next to cross-sectional logistic regression models we estimate fixed-effects models to analyze the effect of persistent poverty on dietary behavior, tobacco consumption, and physical activity. Cross-sectional results suggest that persistent poverty is related to poor health behavior, particularly regarding tobacco consumption and physical activity. Results also show that multidimensional and dynamic aspects of poverty matter. Complementary panel analyses reveal negative effects for the combined poverty indicator only for dietary behavior in the total sample. However, by analyzing the sample by gender we identify further effects of persistent poverty on health behavior. The analyses show that not only do individuals in poverty but also those in precarious situations show health-damaging behavior more often. PMID:26874825

  11. Aging in poverty: making the case for comprehensive care management.

    PubMed

    Judd, Rebecca G; Moore, Brenda A

    2011-10-01

    A model for holistic care management that would enhance outcomes for economically vulnerable older adults who receive an array of disjointed services administered through the older Americans Act (OAA) and local Area Agencies on Aging (AAA) is proposed. Fragmented service delivery is typically wasteful and ineffectual, but comprehensive care management that includes an autonomous care manager, a single interagency plan of care and ongoing monitoring that is client-centered may protect those aging in poverty from negative health outcomes. PMID:21967136

  12. Maternal mental health and parenting in poverty.

    PubMed

    Beeber, Linda S; Miles, Margaret Shandor

    2003-01-01

    Maternal mental health is a key factor affecting the quality of parenting and, ultimately, a child's developmental outcomes. Thus, the persistence of mental health problems such as chronic depressive symptoms or addiction in low-income mother-child dyads may be the critical determinant of their collective future. This review examines the research conducted by nurses that focuses on maternal mental health, mothering, and child outcomes in the context of rearing children in poverty. Multiple methods were used for the search. Four programs showed evidence of sustained, related studies focused on the mental health of low-income mothers and their parenting. Two of these programs included intervention studies aimed at improving the mental health of mothers and developmental outcomes for their children. There were four newer programs of research in which the research teams had begun to focus on mothers rearing children in poverty and five other researchers who conducted single studies of maternal mental health. Additionally, two investigators focused on mothers who were prisoners, one team focused on homeless mothers, and another on mothers with HIV. Studies were critiqued using a developmental science framework. Studies varied widely in the degree to which they used developmentally based conceptual frameworks, designs, and measures. While nurse scientists have made progress in conducting research with mothers rearing children in poverty, there is an urgent need for more developmentally sensitive research aimed at strengthening maternal mental health and assisting mothers to be more effective parents in the midst of the challenges of poverty and welfare reform. By doing so, nursing interventions can improve the child's developmental outcomes. PMID:12858701

  13. Effect of poverty on eye health and implications for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Swapna; Seewoodhary, Ramesh; Dampies, Lavona

    2016-08-10

    Poverty is a global issue that affects the health and quality of life of millions of people. It predisposes people to many health conditions, including sight loss or blindness as a result of the immune system becoming compromised. Blindness is common in areas of the world where there is extreme poverty. In the UK, poverty has become a major social issue, contributing to many health problems, including eye conditions. These eye conditions can result in sight loss if they are not managed effectively. Psychosocial care is an essential aspect of patient care, because poverty and sight loss are interrelated. Healthcare practitioners have a significant role in the management and prevention of blindness. Blindness caused by poverty is largely preventable, and health promotion is an important strategy in care management. PMID:27507393

  14. Nexus of Poverty, Energy Balance and Health

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, C. P.

    2012-01-01

    Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years), 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%), having main occupation of family as business (55.3%), and highest per capita income group (57.1%) with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0%) in SC/ST category and least (65.7%) in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd's Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56), not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56), belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh Classification

  15. The effects of school poverty on adolescents’ sexual health knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Robert; Sulik, Michael J.; Hart, Daniel; Ayres, Cynthia; Read, Nichole

    2012-01-01

    Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to estimate the association of school poverty concentration to the sexual health knowledge of 6,718 adolescents. Controlling for individual socio-economic status, school poverty had modest negative effects on sexual health knowledge. Although not directly associated with sexual health knowledge, after controlling for demographic characteristics, school poverty interactions showed that sexual health knowledge was associated with higher grade point average (GPA) and age. The combination of low GPA and high-levels of school poverty was especially detrimental for students’ sexual health knowledge. There are differences in the sexual health knowledge of adolescents attending low poverty and high poverty schools that can be attributed to the school environment. PMID:22431188

  16. Poverty, underdevelopment and infant mental health.

    PubMed

    Richter, L M

    2003-01-01

    Very great advances have occurred in disciplinary and professional knowledge of infant development and its influence on subsequent development. This expertise includes the ways in which early experiences affect the capacity of mature individuals for social adjustment and productive competence, and promising methods of intervention to promote infant mental health and prevent adverse sequelae of risk conditions. However, very little of this knowledge has been applied in work among infants and children living in conditions of poverty and underdevelopment. This lack of application continues despite the enormous threats to the well-being of infants and young children brought about by the combined effects of poverty and the AIDS pandemic, especially in southern Africa. Protein-energy malnutrition, maternal depression, and institutional care of infants and small children are cited as illustrative of areas in which interventions, and their evaluation, are desperately needed in resource-poor countries. An argument is made for the critical importance of considering and addressing psychological factors in care givers and children in conditions of extreme material need. An example is provided of a simple intervention model based on sound developmental principles that can be implemented by trained non-professionals in conditions of poverty and underdevelopment. PMID:12755927

  17. A health plan to reduce poverty.

    PubMed

    Weil, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Noting that the failures of the U.S. health care system are compounding the problems faced by low-income Americans, Alan Weil argues that any strategy to reduce poverty must provide access to health care for all low-income families. Although nearly all children in families with incomes under 200 percent of poverty are eligible for either Medicaid or the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), the parents of poor children often lack health insurance. Parents who leave welfare normally get a year of coverage but then lose coverage unless their employer provides it, and many employers of low-wage workers do not offer health insurance. Similarly, parents who take low-paying jobs to avoid welfare usually have no coverage at all. This lack of coverage discourages adults from working and may also affect the health of children because adults without health insurance are less likely to take their children for preventive care. Weil proposes creating a federal earned income health credit (EIHC) and redefining the federal floor of coverage through Medicaid and SCHIP. His aim is to make health insurance affordable for low-income families and to make sure enough options are available that individuals and families can get coverage using a combination of their own, their employer's, and public resources. Weil would expand Medicaid eligibility to include all families whose income falls below the poverty line. The EIHC would be a refundable tax credit that would be available to parents during the year in advance of filing a tax return. The credit, which would be based on taxpayer earnings and family structure, would phase in as earnings increase, reach a plateau, and then phase out farther up the income scale. The credit would be larger for families with dependents. The EIHC would function seamlessly with the employee payroll withholding system. It would be available only to adults who demonstrate that they had health insurance coverage during the year and, for adults

  18. Poverty and inequity in adolescent health care.

    PubMed

    Girard, Gustavo A

    2009-12-01

    Although poverty is not a new phenomenon, currently it has peculiar characteristics: globalization, inequity, new features in education, exclusion, gender inequalities, marginalization of native peoples and migrations, difficulties found by different sectors to have access to technology, and unemployment. These characteristics are seen not only in countries considered to be developing nations, but affect the whole world. The present international financial crisis, this time originating in industrialized countries, represents an aggravating factor, the consequences of which are still difficult to estimate. It has a particular impact on adolescents and young people in terms of health as a whole, mortality rates, violence, nutrition, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, mental health, and disabilities, all being aggravated by the difficulties of access to ap propriate health services. Social capital is seriously affected, and this entails a strong and deleterious impact not only on present generations but also on future ones. It is a challenge that cannot be ignored. PMID:20653207

  19. A Poverty Simulation to Inform Public Health Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Sheryl; Smith, Megan O.; Pendrick Denney, Danielle; Jackson, Matt C.; Buckmaster, Pam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Poverty is a pervasive condition linked to a myriad of health conditions and severe health outcomes. Public health professionals are at the forefront of addressing poverty-related issues and require education that enhances their understanding and cultural competence. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impacts of…

  20. Poverty and Child Health in the United States.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    Almost half of young children in the United States live in poverty or near poverty. The American Academy of Pediatrics is committed to reducing and ultimately eliminating child poverty in the United States. Poverty and related social determinants of health can lead to adverse health outcomes in childhood and across the life course, negatively affecting physical health, socioemotional development, and educational achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates for programs and policies that have been shown to improve the quality of life and health outcomes for children and families living in poverty. With an awareness and understanding of the effects of poverty on children, pediatricians and other pediatric health practitioners in a family-centered medical home can assess the financial stability of families, link families to resources, and coordinate care with community partners. Further research, advocacy, and continuing education will improve the ability of pediatricians to address the social determinants of health when caring for children who live in poverty. Accompanying this policy statement is a technical report that describes current knowledge on child poverty and the mechanisms by which poverty influences the health and well-being of children. PMID:26962238

  1. Poverty, inequality and a political economy of mental health.

    PubMed

    Burns, J K

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between poverty and mental health is indisputable. However, to have an influence on the next set of sustainable global development goals, we need to understand the causal relationships between social determinants such as poverty, inequality, lack of education and unemployment; thereby clarifying which aspects of poverty are the key drivers of mental illness. Some of the major challenges identified by Lund (2014) in understanding the poverty-mental health relationship are discussed including: the need for appropriate poverty indicators; extending this research agenda to a broader range of mental health outcomes; the need to engage with theoretical concepts such as Amartya Sen's capability framework; and the need to integrate the concept of income/economic inequality into studies of poverty and mental health. Although income inequality is a powerful driver of poor physical and mental health outcomes, it features rarely in research and discourse on social determinants of mental health. This paper interrogates in detail the relationships between poverty, income inequality and mental health, specifically: the role of income inequality as a mediator of the poverty-mental health relationship; the relative utility of commonly used income inequality metrics; and the likely mechanisms underlying the impact of inequality on mental health, including direct stress due to the setting up of social comparisons as well as the erosion of social capital leading to social fragmentation. Finally, we need to interrogate the upstream political, social and economic causes of inequality itself, since these should also become potential targets in efforts to promote sustainable development goals and improve population (mental) health. In particular, neoliberal (market-oriented) political doctrines lead to both increased income inequality and reduced social cohesion. In conclusion, understanding the relationships between politics, poverty, inequality and mental health

  2. Stakeholder perceptions of mental health stigma and poverty in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background World wide, there is plentiful evidence regarding the role of stigma in mental illness, as well as the association between poverty and mental illness. The experiences of stigma catalyzed by poverty revolve around experiences of devaluation, exclusion, and disadvantage. Although the relationship between poverty, stigma and mental illness has been documented in high income countries, little has been written on this relationship in low and middle income countries. The paper describes the opinions of a range of mental health stakeholders regarding poverty, stigma, mental illness and their relationship in the Ugandan context, as part of a wider study, aimed at exploring policy interventions required to address the vicious cycle of mental ill-health and poverty. Methods Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with purposefully selected mental health stakeholders from various sectors. The interviews and FGDs were audio-recorded, and transcriptions were coded on the basis of a pre-determined coding frame. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted using NVivo7, adopting a framework analysis approach. Results Most participants identified a reciprocal relationship between poverty and mental illness. The stigma attached to mental illness was perceived as a common phenomenon, mostly associated with local belief systems regarding the causes of mental illness. Stigma associated with both poverty and mental illness serves to reinforce the vicious cycle of poverty and mental ill-health. Most participants emphasized a relationship between poverty and internalized stigma among people with mental illness in Uganda. Conclusion According to a range of mental health stakeholders in Uganda, there is a strong interrelationship between poverty, stigma and mental illness. These findings re-affirm the need to recognize material resources as a central element in the fight against stigma of mental illness, and the importance of stigma reduction

  3. Redesigning Health Care Practices to Address Childhood Poverty.

    PubMed

    Fierman, Arthur H; Beck, Andrew F; Chung, Esther K; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Siegel, Benjamin; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Conroy, Kathleen; Federico, Steven G; Flanagan, Patricia J; Garg, Arvin; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Grace, Aimee M; Gross, Rachel S; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri; Kraft, Colleen; Kuo, Alice; Lewis, Gena; Lobach, Katherine S; Long, Dayna; Ma, Christine T; Messito, Mary; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberley R; Osman, Cynthia; Sadof, Matthew D; Schickedanz, Adam B; Cox, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty. PMID:27044692

  4. Poverty, Trauma, and Infant Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Alicia F.; Osofsky, Joy D.

    2009-01-01

    Young children growing up in poverty face chronic risk factors, including abuse and neglect, severe maternal depression, parental substance abuse, harsh parenting, and family and community violence as well as greater exposure to physical risks, including substandard housing, lack of access to resources, and environmental toxins. The authors offer…

  5. The Role of Public Health Insurance in Reducing Child Poverty.

    PubMed

    Wherry, Laura R; Kenney, Genevieve M; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 30 years, there have been major expansions in public health insurance for low-income children in the United States through Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and other state-based efforts. In addition, many low-income parents have gained Medicaid coverage since 2014 under the Affordable Care Act. Most of the research to date on health insurance coverage among low-income populations has focused on its effect on health care utilization and health outcomes, with much less attention to the financial protection it offers families. We review a growing body of evidence that public health insurance provides important financial benefits to low-income families. Expansions in public health insurance for low-income children and adults are associated with reduced out of pocket medical spending, increased financial stability, and improved material well-being for families. We also review the potential poverty-reducing effects of public health insurance coverage. When out of pocket medical expenses are taken into account in defining the poverty rate, Medicaid plays a significant role in decreasing poverty for many children and families. In addition, public health insurance programs connect families to other social supports such as food assistance programs that also help reduce poverty. We conclude by reviewing emerging evidence that access to public health insurance in childhood has long-term effects for health and economic outcomes in adulthood. Exposure to Medicaid and CHIP during childhood has been linked to decreased mortality and fewer chronic health conditions, better educational attainment, and less reliance on government support later in life. In sum, the nation's public health insurance programs have many important short- and long-term poverty-reducing benefits for low-income families with children. PMID:27044710

  6. Early-Childhood Poverty and Adult Attainment, Behavior, and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…

  7. The primary solution of global poor health and poverty.

    PubMed

    Tegegne, Ayalew

    2008-01-01

    There is a huge global burden of disease and mortality. The principal underlying cause is regarded as poverty. This is associated with a global order of fear, over-consumption, over-population and violence, which can interact in a vicious circle. It is proposed that the solution to the problem is not only the relief of poverty, but the institution of a new order in which the individual is sovereign. This in turn requires a trinity of ideals for the individual: self-control to avoid over-consumption, altruism to cope with fear, and peace to manage violence. PMID:18488673

  8. Social determinants of health: poverty, national infrastructure and investment.

    PubMed

    Douthit, Nathan T; Alemu, Haimanot Kasahun

    2016-01-01

    This case presentation of a 19-year-old Ethiopian woman diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma reveals the barriers the patient has to medical treatment, including poverty and a lack of national infrastructure. The patient lives a life of poverty, and the outcome of her illness is a result of her being unable to overcome barriers to accessing health care due to inability to afford transport, lodging and treatment. In this case, the patient's vulnerability to disease due to her poverty is not overcome because of lack of infrastructure. The infrastructure fails to develop because of inadequate investment and other delays in building. The end result is that the patient is vulnerable to disease. Her disease process impacts her family and their contribution to Ethiopia's development. PMID:27335366

  9. Poverty during pregnancy: Its effects on child health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Charles P

    2007-01-01

    It is estimated that nearly 100,000 children are born into poverty each year in Canada. During pregnancy, their mothers are likely to face multiple stressful life events, including lone-mother and teenage pregnancies, unemployment, more crowded or polluted physical environments, and far fewer resources to deal with these exposures. The early child health consequences of poverty and pregnancy are multiple, and often set a newborn child on a life-long course of disparities in health outcomes. Included are greatly increased risks for preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal or infant death. Poverty has consistently been found to be a powerful determinant of delayed cognitive development and poor school performance. Behaviour problems among young children and adolescents are strongly associated with maternal poverty. Sound evidence in support of policies and programs to reduce these disparities among the poor, including the role of health practitioners, is difficult to find. This is partly because many interventions and programs targeting the poor are not properly evaluated or critically appraised. PMID:19030445

  10. Improving animal health for poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Andy

    2014-11-29

    Animals are vital to ensuring food security for individuals, families and communities in countries around the world. In this, the latest article in Veterinary Record's series promoting One Health, Andy Stringer, director of veterinary programmes at the Society for the Protection of Animals Abroad, discusses how improving animal health, particularly of poultry and working equids, has the potential to reduce poverty and promote food security and sustainable livelihoods in low-income countries. PMID:25431381

  11. Poverty Takes Bigger Toll on A Man's Health If He's Black

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159937.html Poverty Takes Bigger Toll on a Man's Health If ... t surprised by the finding. "The fact that poverty in African Americans can be considered a life- ...

  12. Catchment Management Agencies for poverty eradication in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Barbara; Van Koppen, Barbara

    This paper discusses the changes in water law in South Africa since the new dispensation. The focus is on the poverty dimensions of the early experiences of implementation of one of the components of the National Water Act: the establishment of Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs). From a diversity of recent experiences in decentralizing integrated water resources management, key areas emerge where future actions by the government are crucial to establish pro-poor, developmental CMAs.

  13. Bisexuality, poverty and mental health: A mixed methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lori E; O'Gorman, Laurel; MacLeod, Melissa A; Bauer, Greta R; MacKay, Jenna; Robinson, Margaret

    2016-05-01

    Bisexuality is consistently associated with poor mental health outcomes. In population-based data, this is partially explained by income differences between bisexual people and lesbian, gay, and/or heterosexual individuals. However, the interrelationships between bisexuality, poverty, and mental health are poorly understood. In this paper, we examine the relationships between these variables using a mixed methods study of 302 adult bisexuals from Ontario, Canada. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling to complete an internet-based survey including measures of psychological distress and minority stress. A subset of participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview to contextualize their mental health experiences. Using information regarding household income, number of individuals supported by the income and geographic location, participants were categorized as living below or above the Canadian Low Income Cut Off (LICO). Accounting for the networked nature of the sample, participants living below the LICO had significantly higher mean scores for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and reported significantly more perceived discrimination compared to individuals living above the LICO. Grounded theory analysis of the qualitative interviews suggested four pathways through which bisexuality and poverty may intersect to impact mental health: through early life experiences linked to bisexuality or poverty that impacted future financial stability; through effects of bisexual identity on employment and earning potential; through the impact of class and sexual orientation discrimination on access to communities of support; and through lack of access to mental health services that could provide culturally competent care. These mixed methods data help us understand the income disparities associated with bisexual identity in population-based data, and suggest points of intervention to address their impact on bisexual mental

  14. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

    2013-11-23

    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints. PMID:24268002

  15. Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J.; Morley, David W.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Pezzulo, Carla; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Kuleszo, Joanna; Rogers, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. Methods In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West Africa. Results This research showed that the intensity of poverty (and hence child mortality and nutrition) varies inversely with NDVI. From the spatial point-of-view, similarities in the spatial variation of intensity of poverty and NDVI were found. Conclusions These results highlight the utility of satellite-based metrics for poverty models including health and ecological components and, in general for large scale analysis, estimation and optimisation of multidimensional poverty metrics. However, it also stresses the need for further studies on the causes of the association between NDVI, health and poverty. Once these relationships are confirmed and better understood, the presence of this ecological component in poverty metrics has the potential to facilitate the analysis of the impacts of climate change on the rural populations afflicted by poverty and child mortality. PMID:25733559

  16. Poverty, health & intellectual property rights with special reference to India.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, K; Srivastava, S

    2007-10-01

    This paper examines the nexus between poverty and global health with specific focus on IPR protection and attempts to highlight the current global endeavours to overcome barriers to access to medicines for diseases of the poor. The number of very poor people in the world has increased by 10.4 per cent between 1987 and 2001 to 2735 million. India is now home to the largest number of millionaires in the developing countries. But over 800 million Indians who still survive on Rs 20.0 (US$0.5) a day, and rural poverty is on the rise. The link between poverty and health is well established with the underprivileged are more vulnerable to major health risks due to poor nutrition, inadequate access to clean drinking water, sanitation, exposure to indoor smoke, etc. all of which contribute to the huge and growing burden of disease in the poor countries. The global disease burden is not just huge but growing: over 10 million children die of preventable conditions including vaccine-preventable diseases, about 14 million are killed by infectious diseases every year, 90-95 per cent in poor countries. An estimated third of global population has limited or no access to essential medicines. While the number of poor and unhealthy is growing, Government expenditure on health is dwindling. Many of the diseases of the poor require new medicines and none are forthcoming as there is little R&D for these infections. There are several barriers to access to existing and the newly discovered drugs. One major reason is the general lack of interest by the pharma industry to discover new medicines for diseases of the poor due to very limited market in developing countries. In addition, global intellectual property rights (IPR) protection regimes like the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) are considered a major obstacle for the poor access to medicines. There have been some global initiatives on the need to improve affordability and accessibility of medicines. Some strategies to

  17. Poverty and child health in the UK: using evidence for action.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-08-01

    There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action. PMID:26857824

  18. Poverty and child health in the UK: using evidence for action

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-01-01

    There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action. PMID:26857824

  19. [Social urban development and poverty control as health promotion].

    PubMed

    Trojan, A

    2001-03-01

    The Salomon Neumann Medal of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention bears the inscription. "Medicine is a Social Science". This provocative statement is most topical. It compels us to actively promote health by healthier living and environmental conditions apart from medical prevention. A core of this sphere of action is the reduction of social inequalities. Several recent congresses and publications have clearly shown that this subject remains one of the biggest challenges facing health promotion. German law has set the signs for reducing socially rooted inequalities for chances of health. This article postulates the thesis that health promotion can find allies for a healthy public policy in programmes planning for healthy urban development and for combatting poverty. The specific approaches for combatting social inequalities in the health sphere are reported and examples are given how such a health promotion policy may be translated into reality on a communal level. Finally, spotlight is on the dilemma of combatting inequality of chance due to differences in social status. PMID:11329919

  20. Health Insecurity and Social Protection: Pathways, Gaps, and Their Implications on Health Outcomes and Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Elvis

    2016-01-01

    Health insecurity has emerged as a major concern among health policy-makers particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It includes the inability to secure adequate healthcare today and the risk of being unable to do so in the future as well as impoverishing healthcare expenditure. The increasing health insecurity among 150 million of the world’s poor has moved social protection in health (SPH) to the top of the agenda among health policy-makers globally. This paper aims to provide a debate on the potential of social protection contribution to addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability brought by healthcare expenditure in low-income countries, to explore the gaps in current and proposed social protection measures in healthcare and provide suggestions on how social protection intervention aimed at addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability may be effectively implemented. PMID:26927589

  1. Health Insecurity and Social Protection: Pathways, Gaps, and Their Implications on Health Outcomes and Poverty.

    PubMed

    Gama, Elvis

    2015-01-01

    Health insecurity has emerged as a major concern among health policy-makers particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It includes the inability to secure adequate healthcare today and the risk of being unable to do so in the future as well as impoverishing healthcare expenditure. The increasing health insecurity among 150 million of the world's poor has moved social protection in health (SPH) to the top of the agenda among health policy-makers globally. This paper aims to provide a debate on the potential of social protection contribution to addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability brought by healthcare expenditure in low-income countries, to explore the gaps in current and proposed social protection measures in healthcare and provide suggestions on how social protection intervention aimed at addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability may be effectively implemented. PMID:26927589

  2. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nikulina, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N = 675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls followed into adulthood (Mage = 41). Health indicators (C-Reactive Protein [CRP], hypertension, and pulmonary functioning) were assessed through blood collection and measurements by a registered nurse. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models to control for clustering of participants in childhood neighborhoods. Main effects showed that growing up Black predicted CRP and hypertension elevations, despite controlling for neglect and childhood family and neighborhood poverty and their interactions. Multivariate results showed that race and childhood adversities interacted to predict adult health outcomes. Childhood family poverty predicted increased risk for hypertension for Blacks, not Whites. In contrast, among Whites, childhood neglect predicted elevated CRP. Childhood neighborhood poverty interacted with childhood family poverty to predict pulmonary functioning in adulthood. Gender differences in health indicators were also observed. The effects of childhood neglect, childhood poverty, and growing up Black in the United States are manifest in physical health outcomes assessed 30 years later. Implications are discussed. PMID:24189205

  3. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-03-01

    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N=675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls followed into adulthood (M(age)=41). Health indicators (C-Reactive Protein [CRP], hypertension, and pulmonary functioning) were assessed through blood collection and measurements by a registered nurse. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models to control for clustering of participants in childhood neighborhoods. Main effects showed that growing up Black predicted CRP and hypertension elevations, despite controlling for neglect and childhood family and neighborhood poverty and their interactions. Multivariate results showed that race and childhood adversities interacted to predict adult health outcomes. Childhood family poverty predicted increased risk for hypertension for Blacks, not Whites. In contrast, among Whites, childhood neglect predicted elevated CRP. Childhood neighborhood poverty interacted with childhood family poverty to predict pulmonary functioning in adulthood. Gender differences in health indicators were also observed. The effects of childhood neglect, childhood poverty, and growing up Black in the United States are manifest in physical health outcomes assessed 30 years later. Implications are discussed. PMID:24189205

  4. Relate better and judge less: poverty simulation promoting culturally competent care in community health nursing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyeongra; Woomer, Gail Ratliff; Agbemenu, Kafuli; Williams, Lynne

    2014-11-01

    The study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a poverty simulation in increasing understanding of and attitudes toward poverty and resulting in changes in clinical practice among nursing seniors. A poverty simulation was conducted using a diverse group of nursing professors and staff from local community agencies assuming the role of community resource providers. Students were assigned roles as members of low-income families and were required to complete tasks during a simulated month. A debriefing was held after the simulation to explore students' experiences in a simulated poverty environment. Students' understanding of and attitude toward poverty pre- and post-simulation were examined. Changes in the students' clinical experiences following the simulation were summarized into identified categories and themes. The poverty simulation led to a greater empathy for the possible experiences of low income individuals and families, understanding of barriers to health care, change in attitudes towards poverty and to those living in poverty, and changes in the students' nursing practice. Use of poverty simulation is an effective means to teach nursing students about the experience of living in poverty. The simulation experience changed nursing students' clinical practice, with students providing community referrals and initiating inter-professional collaborations. PMID:25262065

  5. Health, Education and Poverty Reduction. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian

    2002-01-01

    It is generally agreed that spending on education and health is key to poverty reduction, but simply allocating more resources to these sectors does not ensure that poverty actually declines. On the basis of four in-depth case studies (on Indonesia, Madagascar, Peru and Tanzania) and three Technical Papers on malnutrition and primary education in…

  6. Creating Nurturing Environments: A Science-Based Framework for Promoting Child Health and Development within High-Poverty Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komro, Kelli A.; Flay, Brian R.; Biglan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods…

  7. Struggling to survive: sexual assault, poverty, and mental health outcomes of African American women.

    PubMed

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Tsong, Yuying; Tillman, Shaquita; Smith, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women's increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed. PMID:20397989

  8. A Commentary on "Piercing the Bubble": Should Management Education "Confront" Poverty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dart, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    This commentary contrasts "Piercing the Bubble" by proposing "pull" (rather than "push") strategies as a way for business schools to more meaningfully engage poverty and social exclusion. By reframing poverty issues in such a manner that they connect with core business student interests of career opportunities, current management practices, and…

  9. Environmental victims: environmental injustice issues that threaten the health of children living in poverty.

    PubMed

    Cureton, Shava

    2011-01-01

    Children living in poverty are disproportionately at risk from and affected by environmental hazards. According to the National Center for Children in Poverty, 13 million children in America live in poverty. Thus, not only are millions of children living in poverty but are also living in environments that are hazardous to their health. Impoverished children are more likely to live in environments with heavily polluting industries, hazardous waste sites, contaminated water and soil, in old housing with deteriorating lead-based paint, in areas with limited access to healthy food, and more. Poor children residing in these toxic environments are either at risk or suffer from a myriad of health disparities, such as asthma, cancer, lead poisoning, obesity, and hyperactivity. This unfortunate reality is better known as environmental injustice. Environmental injustice recognizes that economically disadvantaged groups are adversely affected by environmental hazards more than other groups. To remedy this dilemma, environmental justice seeks to address these unfair burdens of environmental health hazards on poor communities. The purpose of this article is to (a) examine the environmental living conditions of children living in poverty, (b) examine the environmental health disparities of children living in poverty, (c) discuss environmental justice legislation, (d) describe government initiatives to improve environmental health, and (e) propose recommendations that executes measures to protect the health of children. PMID:22206190

  10. The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth: Implications for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Aber, J. Lawrence; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the implications for prevention science of recent advances in research on family poverty and children's mental, emotional, and behavioral health. First, we describe definitions of poverty and the conceptual and empirical challenges to estimating the causal effects of poverty on children's mental, emotional, and behavioral…

  11. Poverty and Health: Debt Relief Could Help Achieve Human Rights Objectives.

    PubMed

    Logie; Rowson

    1998-01-01

    Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights clearly emphasizes health as a human right. Poverty and social exclusion are the most important drivers of ill-health. The causes of increasing poverty are complex but one significant factor is international debt. This affects mainly sub-Saharan Africa but, with the global economic crisis in South East Asia, may spread. Structural adjustment policies which cut social spending compound the health effects of debt and poverty. Privatization of health care and user charges particularly affect women, children, the disabled, and other marginalized communities. To improve health, governments and international institutions have a duty to examine the determinants of health, including human rights and economic policy. PMID:10343295

  12. Urban air pollution, poverty, violence and health--Neurological and immunological aspects as mediating factors.

    PubMed

    Kristiansson, Marianne; Sörman, Karolina; Tekwe, Carmen; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2015-07-01

    Rapid rural-urban migration has created overcrowded areas characterized by concentrated poverty and increases in indoor and outdoor air pollutants. These "hotspots" constitute an increased risk of violence and disease outbreaks. We hypothesize that the effects of poverty and associated air pollution-related stress on impaired cognitive skills are mediated by inflammatory cytokines. A research framework is proposed, encompassing (i) an epidemiological investigation of associations between poverty, high concentrations of air pollutants, violence and health, (ii) a longitudinal follow-up of working memory capacities and inflammatory markers, and (iii) intervention programs aiming to strengthen employability and decreased exposures to toxic air pollutants. PMID:26005121

  13. Poverty and psychological health among AIDS-orphaned children in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don

    2009-06-01

    This study examined associations between AIDS-orphanhood status, poverty indicators, and psychological problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, peer problems, delinquency, conduct problems) among children and adolescents in townships surrounding Cape Town, South Africa. One thousand and twenty-five children and adolescents completed standardized and culturally sensitive cross-sectional surveys. Children orphaned by AIDS had more psychological problems including depression, peer problems, post-traumatic stress, and conduct problems. Specific poverty indicators including food security, access to social welfare grants, employment in the household and access to school were associated with better psychological health. Poverty indicators mediated associations of AIDS-orphanhood with psychological problems. Food security showed the most consistent association with reduced psychological problems. Poverty alleviation measures have the potential to improve psychological health for AIDS-orphaned children in South African townships. PMID:19806489

  14. Fostering food security in areas of extreme poverty through Integrated Farm Management: the case of Burundi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Aad; van Duivenbooden, Niek; van Beek, Christy

    2014-05-01

    Extreme poverty in Burundi's rural area and tensions between families with limited access to arable land hinder development towards a more stable and peaceful society. Due to these tensions and a rapid population growth, agricultural land is currently subject to increased degradation and low agricultural productivity. A whole range of other limiting factors contributes to this, such as: poor seed quality, poor nutrient management combined with low soil fertility, inadequate agronomic practices, pests and crop diseases, poorly developed supply chains, health problems, difficult access to credit, and insecurity. Solving one of these problems will not solve the chain that eventually leads to low food production; it will simply move the emphasis to the next constraining factor. An integrated rural development approach is therefore required to break this vicious circle. The project Fanning the Spark, a Public-Private-Partnership between Achmea Foundation, Alterra of Wageningen University and Research Centre, and HealthNet-TPO in Burundi started in September 2013 with an intervention in several rural villages in Gitega. The project's objective is to increase food production at village level, by means of investments in crop production, a family (income) insurance package that protects rural families against the financial consequences of catastrophic events (natural and health) and making micro-credits available. This will enhance farmers' workability and generate income from agricultural activities in order to break the poverty cycle and enhance food security. The insurance package comprises agricultural and health insurances, and will be jointly implemented with the sustainable agriculture component. The latter component focuses on Integrated Farm Management and the use of innovative soil management practices. Farmer-to-farmer training and scaling-up are crucial components, and in the first phase of the project "innovative farmer groups" have a central role in the

  15. [Summary and conclusions of the document "Population, reproductive health, and poverty"].

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    This paper briefly examines the impact on reproductive health of social inequalities and poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean. The need to improve the quality of health services and to develop appropriate programs that promote reproductive rights is emphasized. PMID:12321988

  16. The contribution of veterinary medicine to public health and poverty reduction in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Muma, John B; Mwacalimba, Kennedy K; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Matope, Gift; Jenkins, Akinbowale; Siamudaala, Victor; Mweene, Aaron S; Marcotty, Tanguy

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have explicitly examined the linkages between human health, animal disease control and poverty alleviation. This paper reviews the contribution that veterinary medicine can make to poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our analysis attempts to explore aspects of this contribution under five themes: food production; food safety; impact and control of zoonotic infections; promotion of ecotourism; and environmental protection. While these areas of human activity have, more or less, fallen under the influence of the veterinary profession to varying degrees, we attempt to unify this mandate using a 'One Health' narrative, for the purpose of providing clarity on the linkages between the veterinary and other professions, livestock production and poverty alleviation. Future opportunities for improving health and reducing poverty in the context of developing African countries are also discussed. We conclude that veterinary science is uniquely positioned to play a key role in both poverty reduction and the promotion of health, a role that can be enhanced through the reorientation of the profession's goals and the creation of synergies with allied and related professions. PMID:24981913

  17. Multidimensional Poverty in Rural Mozambique: A New Metric for Evaluating Public Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Bart; Blevins, Meridith; Green, Ann F.; Ndatimana, Elisée; González-Calvo, Lázaro; Fischer, Edward F.; Vergara, Alfredo E.; Vermund, Sten H.; Olupona, Omo; Moon, Troy D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon and unidimensional measurements have proven inadequate to the challenge of assessing its dynamics. Dynamics between poverty and public health intervention is among the most difficult yet important problems faced in development. We sought to demonstrate how multidimensional poverty measures can be utilized in the evaluation of public health interventions; and to create geospatial maps of poverty deprivation to aid implementers in prioritizing program planning. Methods Survey teams interviewed a representative sample of 3,749 female heads of household in 259 enumeration areas across Zambézia in August-September 2010. We estimated a multidimensional poverty index, which can be disaggregated into context-specific indicators. We produced an MPI comprised of 3 dimensions and 11 weighted indicators selected from the survey. Households were identified as “poor” if were deprived in >33% of indicators. Our MPI is an adjusted headcount, calculated by multiplying the proportion identified as poor (headcount) and the poverty gap (average deprivation). Geospatial visualizations of poverty deprivation were created as a contextual baseline for future evaluation. Results In our rural (96%) and urban (4%) interviewees, the 33% deprivation cut-off suggested 58.2% of households were poor (29.3% of urban vs. 59.5% of rural). Among the poor, households experienced an average deprivation of 46%; thus the MPI/adjusted headcount is 0.27 ( = 0.58×0.46). Of households where a local language was the primary language, 58.6% were considered poor versus Portuguese-speaking households where 73.5% were considered non-poor. Living standard is the dominant deprivation, followed by health, and then education. Conclusions Multidimensional poverty measurement can be integrated into program design for public health interventions, and geospatial visualization helps examine the impact of intervention deployment within the context of distinct

  18. Beyond Income Poverty: Measuring Disadvantage in Terms of Material Hardship and Health.

    PubMed

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Garfinkel, Irwin; Teitler, Julien O; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The New York City (NYC) Longitudinal Study of Wellbeing, or "Poverty Tracker," is a survey of approximately 2300 NYC residents. Its purpose is to provide a multidimensional and dynamic understanding of economic disadvantage in NYC. Measures of disadvantage were collected at baseline and a 12-month follow-up, and include 3 types of disadvantage: 1) income poverty, using a measure on the basis of the new Supplemental Poverty Measure; 2) material hardship, including indicators of food insecurity, housing hardship, unmet medical needs, utility cutoffs, and financial insecurity; and 3) adult health problems, which can drain family time and resources. In this article initial results for NYC families with children younger than the age of 18 years are presented. At baseline, 56% of families with children had 1 or more type of disadvantage, including 28% with income poverty, 39% with material hardship, and 17% with an adult health problem. Even among nonpoor families, 33% experienced material hardship and 14% reported an adult health problem. Two-thirds of all families faced disadvantage at either baseline or follow-up, with 46% experiencing some kind of disadvantage at both time points. Respondents with a college education were much less likely to face disadvantage. Even after adjusting for educational attainment and family characteristics, the families of black and Hispanic respondents had increased rates of disadvantage. Considering income poverty alone the extent of disadvantage among families with children in NYC is greatly understated. These results suggest that in addition to addressing income poverty, policymakers should give priority to efforts to reduce material hardship and help families cope with chronic physical or mental illness. The need for these resources extends far above the poverty line. PMID:27044702

  19. Managing and Leveraging Poverty: Implications for Teaching International Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Abhijit; Roy, Mousumi

    2010-01-01

    Over half of the world's population lives on less than $2 a day, and yet international business education to date has continued to ignore the not so well-off customers. We propose a holistic pedagogical approach to studying this market by considering the historical background of the growth of inequality and poverty in different regions of the…

  20. Race, Poverty May Affect Early Stage Breast Cancer Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Breast Cancer Health Disparities Women's Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Breast Cancer Health Disparities Women's Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  1. Does caregiving increase poverty among women in later life? Evidence from the Health and Retirement survey.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Chizuko; Donato, Katharine M

    2006-09-01

    Given the rapid aging of the U.S. population and reductions in federal funding, elder care has become a major issue for many families. This paper focuses on a long-term consequence of elder care by asking how caring for elderly parents affects women's subsequent risks of living in poverty. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examine whether and how caregiving for parents in 1991 increases women's risks of living in households with incomes less than the poverty threshold, receiving public assistance, and receiving Medicaid in 1999. Our findings illustrate that caregiving in earlier life raises women's poverty risks in later life by intensifying the negative effects of stopping work and declining health on women's economic well-being. PMID:17066776

  2. Mozambique's Debt and the International Monetary Fund's Influence on Poverty, Education, and Health.

    PubMed

    Beste, Jason; Pfeiffer, James

    2016-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, Mozambique has been facing austerity measures regulated by the IMF. These austerity measures, grounded in macroeconomic policies, were supposed to lift Mozambique out of poverty, and improve its healthcare and education systems. By taking an in-depth look at the major etiologies of Mozambique's debt and the conditions which forced the country to accept austerity measures-despite their protests-prior to receiving IMF funding, this paper examines how IMF policies over the past 30 years have affected poverty, health, and the education system. The results of these policies have contributed to Mozambique's enduring classification as one of the poorest countries in the world. Aside from economic outcomes, Mozambique also has abysmal health and education systems, with one of the lowest life expectancies in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is time to re-evaluate how the current IMF macroeconomic policies negatively affect, health, education and the socioeconomic status of those who live in abject poverty. As short term macroeconomic policies of PARPA have been ineffective at reducing poverty, promoting education and improving health, the IMF should consider using longer term macroeconomic policies which invest in-rather than limit-public services such as health and education. PMID:26966019

  3. Piercing the Bubble: How Management Students Can Confront Poverty in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbloom, Al; Cortes, Juan Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the current relationship between management education in Colombia and the efforts of the management program at Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB) in Medellin to reduce local poverty. The article uses the metaphor of "the bubble" to illustrate how social class, family socialization, and the current UPB management…

  4. Poverty, Education and Health in Indonesia: Who Benefits from Public Spending? Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanjouw, Peter; Pradhan, Menno; Saadah, Fadia; Sayed, Haneen; Sparrow, Robert

    This paper focuses on two important dimensions of Indonesia's development record: education and health. The paper investigates the extent to which the poor benefit from public and private provisioning of these services. Multiple rounds of annual household surveys document a reversal in the rate of decline in poverty and a slowdown in improvements…

  5. Creating Nurturing Environments: A Science-Based Framework for Promoting Child Health and Development within High-Poverty Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Komro, Kelli A.; Flay, Brian R.; Biglan, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods Research Consortium describes a science-based framework for the promotion of child health and development within distressed high-poverty neighborhoods. We lay out a model of child and adolescent developmental outcomes, and integrate knowledge of potent and malleable influences to define a comprehensive intervention framework to bring about a significant increase in the proportion of young people in high-poverty neighborhoods who will develop successfully. Based on a synthesis of research from diverse fields, we designed the Creating Nurturing Environments framework to guide community-wide efforts to improve child outcomes and reduce health and educational inequalities. PMID:21468644

  6. Making a technological choice for disaster management and poverty alleviation in India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sanjay K

    2009-03-01

    The right mix of policy, institutional arrangements and use of technology provides the framework for a country's approach to disaster mitigation. Worldwide, there has been a shift away from a strictly 'top-down' approach relying on government alone, to a combination of 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches. The aim is to enhance the indigenous coping mechanisms of vulnerable communities; draw on their cooperative spirit and energy; and empower them through appropriate information and contextual knowledge to mitigate natural disasters. In light of this, the paper examines India's use of space technology in its disaster management efforts. Poverty alleviation and disaster management are almost inseparable in many parts of the country, as vulnerability to natural disasters is closely aligned with poverty. Addressing these issues together requires integrated knowledge systems. The paper examines how knowledge inputs from space technology have strengthened the national resolve to combat natural disasters in conjunction with alleviating rural poverty. PMID:18498370

  7. County-Level Poverty Is Equally Associated with Unmet Health Care Needs in Rural and Urban Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lars E.; Litaker, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Regional poverty is associated with reduced access to health care. Whether this relationship is equally strong in both rural and urban settings or is affected by the contextual and individual-level characteristics that distinguish these areas, is unclear. Purpose: Compare the association between regional poverty with self-reported unmet…

  8. Neighborhoods and mental health: exploring ethnic density, poverty, and social cohesion among Asian Americans and Latinos.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seunghye; Zhang, Wei; Walton, Emily

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the associations of neighborhood ethnic density and poverty with social cohesion and self-rated mental health among Asian Americans and Latinos. Path analysis is employed to analyze data from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the 2000 U.S. Census (N = 2095 Asian Americans living in N = 259 neighborhoods; N = 2554 Latinos living in N = 317 neighborhoods). Findings reveal that neighborhood ethnic density relates to poor mental health in both groups. Social cohesion partially mediates that structural relationship, but is positively related to ethnic density among Latinos and negatively related to ethnic density among Asian Americans. Although higher neighborhood poverty is negatively associated with mental health for both groups, the relationship does not hold in the path models after accounting for social cohesion and covariates. Furthermore, social cohesion fully mediates the association between neighborhood poverty and mental health among Latinos. This study highlights the necessity of reconceptualizing existing theories of social relationships to reflect complex and nuanced mechanisms linking neighborhood structure and mental health for diverse racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24769491

  9. Neighborhoods and Mental Health: Exploring Ethnic Density, Poverty, and Social Cohesion among Asian Americans and Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seunghye; Zhang, Wei; Walton, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations of neighborhood ethnic density and poverty with social cohesion and self-rated mental health among Asian Americans and Latinos. Path analysis is employed to analyze data from the 2002–2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the 2000 U.S. Census (N=2095 Asian Americans living in N=259 neighborhoods; N=2554 Latinos living in N=317 neighborhoods). Findings reveal that neighborhood ethnic density relates to poor mental health in both groups. Social cohesion partially mediates that structural relationship, but is positively related to ethnic density among Latinos and negatively related to ethnic density among Asian Americans. Although higher neighborhood poverty is negatively associated with mental health for both groups, the relationship does not hold in the path models after accounting for social cohesion and covariates. Furthermore, social cohesion fully mediates the association between neighborhood poverty and mental health among Latinos. This study highlights the necessity of reconceptualizing existing theories of social relationships to reflect complex and nuanced mechanisms linking neighborhood structure and mental health for diverse racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24769491

  10. Poverty indicators and mental health functioning among adults living with HIV in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ezer; Delzell, Darcie A P; McNamara, Paul E; Cuffey, Joel; Cherian, Anil; Matthew, Saira

    2016-01-01

    Poor mental health functioning among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) has gained considerable attention particularly in low-income countries that disproportionately carry the global HIV/AIDS burden. Fewer studies, however, have examined the relationship between poverty indicators and mental health among PHLIV in India. Based on this cross-sectional study of 196 HIV-seropositive adults who received medical services at Shalom AIDS Project in Delhi, India, structural equation modeling and mediation analysis were employed to estimate the associations between poverty indices (household asset index, food security, unemployment, water treatment, sanitation), HIV-health factors (illness in the past 3 months, co-morbid medical conditions), and psychological distress. In the final model, ownership of fewer household assets was associated with higher levels of food insecurity, which in turn was associated with higher psychological distress. Also, the household asset index, food insecurity, and unemployment had a larger effect on psychological distress than new opportunistic infections. These findings build on increasing evidence that support concerted efforts to design, evaluate, and refine HIV mental health interventions that are mainstreamed with livelihood programming in high poverty regions in India. PMID:26513366

  11. Screening for Social Determinants of Health Among Children and Families Living in Poverty: A Guide for Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chung, Esther K; Siegel, Benjamin S; Garg, Arvin; Conroy, Kathleen; Gross, Rachel S; Long, Dayna A; Lewis, Gena; Osman, Cynthia J; Jo Messito, Mary; Wade, Roy; Shonna Yin, H; Cox, Joanne; Fierman, Arthur H

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 20% of all children in the United States live in poverty, which exists in rural, urban, and suburban areas. Thus, all child health clinicians need to be familiar with the effects of poverty on health and to understand associated, preventable, and modifiable social factors that impact health. Social determinants of health are identifiable root causes of medical problems. For children living in poverty, social determinants of health for which clinicians may play a role include the following: child maltreatment, child care and education, family financial support, physical environment, family social support, intimate partner violence, maternal depression and family mental illness, household substance abuse, firearm exposure, and parental health literacy. Children, particularly those living in poverty, exposed to adverse childhood experiences are susceptible to toxic stress and a variety of child and adult health problems, including developmental delay, asthma and heart disease. Despite the detrimental effects of social determinants on health, few child health clinicians routinely address the unmet social and psychosocial factors impacting children and their families during routine primary care visits. Clinicians need tools to screen for social determinants of health and to be familiar with available local and national resources to address these issues. These guidelines provide an overview of social determinants of health impacting children living in poverty and provide clinicians with practical screening tools and resources. PMID:27101890

  12. Poverty, human development, environmental and health risks: the role of precaution and cautionary policies.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    First of all a definition is given of "poverty" and "precaution". A short, by no means comprehensive, presentation of some especially relevant recent publications on both topics is included, with a view to offering also readers who are not familiar with these issues a broad overview of the specialised literature available. This is followed by a description of the solidarity concept, following various philosophical, cultural and religious trends, analysing their relationship with precaution. An attempt is then made to show how solidarity and precaution could help counteract poverty, the risks for the environment and health, with the ensuing social and health damage. Reasons are outlined which support the adoption of the precaution principle in economics, as well as some arguments which could be put forward to oppose these views. The final remarks are a reply to such criticisms with a view to showing how precaution could be an effective economic tool, as well as a way to tackle those health-related and environmental problems that are also associated with poverty. PMID:18209266

  13. Is wealthier always healthier? The impact of national income level, inequality, and poverty on public health in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Brian; King, Lawrence; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2010-07-01

    Despite findings indicating that both national income level and income inequality are each determinants of public health, few have studied how national income level, poverty and inequality interact with each other to influence public health outcomes. We analyzed the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in purchasing power parity, extreme poverty rates, the gini coefficient for personal income and three common measures of public health: life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and tuberculosis (TB) mortality rates. Introducing poverty and inequality as modifying factors, we then assessed whether the relationship between GDP and health differed during times of increasing, decreasing, and decreasing or constant poverty and inequality. Data were taken from twenty-two Latin American countries from 1960 to 2007 from the December 2008 World Bank World Development Indicators, World Health Organization Global Tuberculosis Database 2008, and the Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean. Consistent with previous studies, we found increases in GDP have a sizable positive impact on population health. However, the strength of the relationship is powerfully influenced by changing levels of poverty and inequality. When poverty was increasing, greater GDP had no significant effect on life expectancy or TB mortality, and only led to a small reduction in infant mortality rates. When inequality was rising, greater GDP had only a modest effect on life expectancy and infant mortality rates, and no effect on TB mortality rates. In sharp contrast, during times of decreasing or constant poverty and inequality, there was a very strong relationship between increasing GDP and higher life expectancy and lower TB and infant mortality rates. Finally, inequality and poverty were found to exert independent, substantial effects on the relationship between national income level and health. Wealthier is indeed healthier, but how much healthier depends on how

  14. Poverty, global health, and infectious disease: lessons from Haiti and Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Alsan, Marcella M; Westerhaus, Michael; Herce, Michael; Nakashima, Koji; Farmer, Paul E

    2011-09-01

    Poverty and infectious diseases interact in complex ways. Casting destitution as intractable, or epidemics that afflict the poor as accidental, erroneously exonerates us from responsibility for caring for those most in need. Adequately addressing communicable diseases requires a biosocial appreciation of the structural forces that shape disease patterns. Most health interventions in resource-poor settings could garner support based on cost/benefit ratios with appropriately lengthy time horizons to capture the return on health investments and an adequate accounting of externalities; however, such a calculus masks the suffering of inaction and risks eroding the most powerful incentive to act: redressing inequality. PMID:21896362

  15. Assessing the Effects of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme on Alleviating the Health Payment-Induced Poverty in Shaanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianmin; Zhou, Zhongliang; Yan, Jue; Lai, Sha; Xu, Yongjian; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease has become one of the key causes of falling into poverty in rural China. The poor households are even more likely to suffer. The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) has been implemented to provide rural residents financial protection against health risks. This study aims to assess the effect of the NCMS on alleviating health payment-induced poverty in the Shaanxi Province of China. Methods The data was drawn from the 5th National Health Service Survey of Shaanxi Province, conducted in 2013. In total, 41,037 individuals covered by NCMS were selected. Poverty headcount ratio (HCR), poverty gap and mean positive poverty gap were used for measuring the incidence, depth and intensity of poverty, respectively. The differences on poverty measures pre- and post- insurance reimbursement indicate the effectiveness of alleviating health payment-induced poverty under NCMS. Results For the general insured, 5.81% of households fell below the national poverty line owing to the health payment; this HCR dropped to 4.84% after insurance reimbursement. The poverty HCRs for the insured that had hospitalization in the past year dropped from 7.50% to 2.09% after reimbursement. With the NCMS compensation, the poverty gap declined from 42.90 Yuan to 34.49 Yuan (19.60% decreased) for the general insured and from 57.48 Yuan to 10.01 Yuan (82.59% decreased) for the hospital admission insured. The mean positive poverty gap declined 3.56% and 37.40% for two samples, respectively. Conclusion The NCMS could alleviate the health payment-induced poverty. The effectiveness of alleviating health payment-induced poverty is greater for hospital admission insured than for general insured, mainly because NCMS compensates for serious diseases. Our study suggests that a more comprehensive insurance benefit package design could further improve the effectiveness of poverty alleviation. PMID:27380417

  16. Fish Health Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For commercial success, a recirculating aquaculture operation must maintain fish at densities far greater than normally found in nature. At the same time, the producer must maintain an environment that supports good fish health. This chapter discusses various aspects of fish health management, inclu...

  17. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors. PMID:20407173

  18. Examining effects of food insecurity and food choices on health outcomes in households in poverty.

    PubMed

    Lombe, Margaret; Nebbitt, Von Eugene; Sinha, Aakanksha; Reynolds, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Evidence documenting effects of food assistance programs, household food insecurity, and nutrition knowledge on health outcomes is building. Using data from a sub-sample of adults who are 185% of the poverty line from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 2,171), we examine whether household food insecurity, food stamp take-up, and use of informal food supports are associated with health risk among low-income households. Findings indicate that while nutrition knowledge provides protection against health risk in food secure households, the health benefits of nutrition knowledge were not evident in food insecure households. We discuss these findings in light of current policy and practice interventions that recognize the importance of providing healthy, affordable food options for food insecure households. PMID:27045462

  19. Managed health care.

    PubMed

    Curtiss, F R

    1989-04-01

    The fundamental components of managed-care plans are described; the development of managed-care programs is discussed; and the impact of managed care on pharmacy services and the price, quality, and accessibility of health care are reviewed. Health care can be considered to be managed when at least one of the following fundamental components is present: prospective pricing, "UCR" (usual, customary, and reasonable) pricing of services, peer review, mandatory use review, benefit redesign, capitation payments, channeling, quality criteria, and health promotion. The managed-care industry consists of health maintenance organizations (HMOs), preferred provider organizations (PPOs), and managed fee-for-service plans. Managed-care reimbursement principles involve transferring some or all of the impetus for controlling use of services to the health-care provider. Means by which this is done include prospective pricing, services bundling, price discounts and negotiated fees, and capitation financing and reimbursement. Financial risk-sharing arrangements with providers--including hospitals, physicians, pharmacies, and home-care companies--are necessary for any managed-care plan to attain true control over its service costs. Use-review and use-management services are also fundamental to containing health-care spending. These include retrospective, concurrent, and prospective reviews of the necessity and appropriateness of medical services. Use management, like services bundling and prospective pricing, has been more effective in reducing costs of hospital inpatient services than costs associated with ambulatory care. Per case payments and services bundling have made individual charges for items irrelevant to hospital revenue. This has forced hospital pharmacy managers to become more sensitive to cost management. Drug formularies, improved productivity, and use of prescribing protocols are means by which hospital pharmacies have controlled costs. However, since shorter hospital

  20. The Impact of Relative Poverty on Norwegian Adolescents’ Subjective Health: A Causal Analysis with Propensity Score Matching

    PubMed Central

    Elstad, Jon Ivar; Pedersen, Axel West

    2012-01-01

    Studies have revealed that relative poverty is associated with ill health, but the interpretations of this correlation vary. This article asks whether relative poverty among Norwegian adolescents is causally related to poor subjective health, i.e., self-reported somatic and mental symptoms. Data consist of interview responses from a sample of adolescents (N = 510) and their parents, combined with register data on the family’s economic situation. Relatively poor adolescents had significantly worse subjective health than non-poor adolescents. Relatively poor adolescents also experienced many other social disadvantages, such as parental unemployment and parental ill health. Comparisons between the relatively poor and the non-poor adolescents, using propensity score matching, indicated a negative impact of relative poverty on the subjective health among those adolescents who lived in families with relatively few economic resources. The results suggest that there is a causal component in the association between relative poverty and the symptom burden of disadvantaged adolescents. Relative poverty is only one of many determinants of adolescents’ subjective health, but its role should be acknowledged when policies for promoting adolescent health are designed. PMID:23249858

  1. Cost and results of information systems for health and poverty indicators in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Rommelmann, Vanessa; Setel, Philip W.; Hemed, Yusuf; Angeles, Gustavo; Mponezya, Hamisi; Whiting, David; Boerma, Ties

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the costs of complementary information generation activities in a resource-constrained setting and compare the costs and outputs of information subsystems that generate the statistics on poverty, health and survival required for monitoring, evaluation and reporting on health programmes in the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Nine systems used by four government agencies or ministries were assessed. Costs were calculated from budgets and expenditure data made available by information system managers. System coverage, quality assurance and information production were reviewed using questionnaires and interviews. Information production was characterized in terms of 38 key sociodemographic indicators required for national programme monitoring. FINDINGS: In 2002-03 approximately US$ 0.53 was spent per Tanzanian citizen on the nine information subsystems that generated information on 37 of the 38 selected indicators. The census and reporting system for routine health service statistics had the largest participating populations and highest total costs. Nationally representative household surveys and demographic surveillance systems (which are not based on nationally representative samples) produced more than half the indicators and used the most rigorous quality assurance. Five systems produced fewer than 13 indicators and had comparatively high costs per participant. CONCLUSION: Policy-makers and programme planners should be aware of the many trade-offs with respect to system costs, coverage, production, representativeness and quality control when making investment choices for monitoring and evaluation. In future, formal cost-effectiveness studies of complementary information systems would help guide investments in the monitoring, evaluation and planning needed to demonstrate the impact of poverty-reduction and health programmes. PMID:16184275

  2. [Single-parent mothers, poverty and mental health: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Langlois, J; Fortin, D

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this article is to discuss an overview of literature published from 1968 to 1993 and dealing with links between single-parenting, poverty and mental health. A total of 56 articles were selected based on the most current data banks. Results show that the population of single-parent mothers is growing and that they are becoming increasingly poor. Of the six mental health variables listed by the author, four (psychological distress, self-esteem, perception of one's own skills and psychological isolation) clearly demonstrate that single-parent mothers are in a less healthy mental state than are mothers in two-parent families. Results also indicate that self-esteem, distress and psychological well-being are affected by economic variables. Results therefore vary according to the variable being measured. Although single-parent mothers experience more psychological discomfort than mothers in two-parent families, they do not seem to experience more serious mental health problems. The authors argue that future research on the subject should take into consideration a certain number of aspects, discussed in the conclusion of this article, which account for links between single-parenting, poverty and mental health. PMID:7794997

  3. A Developing Theology of Poverty and Health Applied to Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Pamela M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history, the issue of poverty has been a problem in society. In this article, examination of Hebrew and Greek words related to poverty throughout the Bible revealed descriptions of the various types and causes of poverty. Historical research uncovered writings on poverty by several early Church Fathers and influential Christian scholars…

  4. Paying attention to gender and poverty in health research: content and process issues.

    PubMed Central

    Ostlin, Piroska; Sen, Gita; George, Asha

    2004-01-01

    Despite the magnitude of the problem of health inequity within and between countries, little systematic research has been done on the social causes of ill-health. Health researchers have overwhelmingly focused on biomedical research at the level of individuals. Investigations into the health of groups and the determinants of health inequities that lie outside the control of the individual have received a much smaller share of research resources. Ignoring factors such as socioeconomic class, race and gender leads to biases in both the content and process of research. We use two such factors--poverty and gender--to illustrate how this occurs. There is a systematic imbalance in medical journals: research into diseases that predominate in the poorest regions of the world is less likely to be published. In addition, the slow recognition of women's health problems, misdirected and partial approaches to understanding women's and men's health, and the dearth of information on how gender interacts with other social determinants continue to limit the content of health research. In the research community these imbalances in content are linked to biases against researchers from poorer regions and women. Researchers from high-income countries benefit from better funding and infrastructure. Their publications dominate journals and citations, and these researchers also dominate advisory boards. The way to move forward is to correct biases against poverty and gender in research content and processes and provide increased funding and better career incentives to support equity-linked research. Journals need to address equity concerns in their published content and in the publishing process. Efforts to broaden access to research information need to be well resourced, publicized and expanded. PMID:15643794

  5. Poverty, welfare and single teenage mothers: a primary health care concern.

    PubMed

    Fahy, K

    1995-03-01

    This paper draws upon the international literature to support the thesis that poverty is more the cause, then the effect, of single teenage childbearing. The paper demonstrates that the rate of single teenage births has dramatically declined over the past twenty years while the level of government support for sole parents has significantly increased over the same period (an example of current rates of payment is included). The author asserts that there is no direct relationship between the level of welfare support and the incidence of adolescent childbearing. Midwives who function as primary health care providers should be aware of the socio-political environment as it affects disadvantaged young women. PMID:7619013

  6. Poverty, Socio-Economic Position, Social Capital and the Health of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities in Britain: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, E.; Hatton, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: When compared with their nonintellectually disabled peers, people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have poorer health and are more likely to be exposed to poverty during childhood. Given that exposure to child poverty has been linked to poorer health outcomes, we attempted to estimate the extent to which the health inequalities…

  7. Social welfare matters: a realist review of when, how, and why unemployment insurance impacts poverty and health.

    PubMed

    O'Campo, Patricia; Molnar, Agnes; Ng, Edwin; Renahy, Emilie; Mitchell, Christiane; Shankardass, Ketan; St John, Alexander; Bambra, Clare; Muntaner, Carles

    2015-05-01

    The recent global recession and concurrent rise in job loss makes unemployment insurance (UI) increasingly important to smooth patterns of consumption and keep households from experiencing extreme material poverty. In this paper, we undertake a realist review to produce a critical understanding of how and why UI policies impact on poverty and health in different welfare state contexts between 2000 and 2013. We relied on literature and expert interviews to generate an initial theory and set of propositions about how UI might alleviate poverty and mental distress. We then systematically located and synthesized peer-review studies to glean supportive or contradictory evidence for our initial propositions. Poverty and psychological distress, among unemployed and even the employed, are impacted by generosity of UI in terms of eligibility, duration and wage replacement levels. Though unemployment benefits are not intended to compensate fully for a loss of earnings, generous UI programs can moderate harmful consequences of unemployment. PMID:25795992

  8. Connecting the Dots Between Health, Poverty and Place in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Weeks, John R; Getis, Arthur; Stow, Douglas A; Hill, Allan G; Rain, David; Engstrom, Ryan; Stoler, Justin; Lippitt, Christopher; Jankowska, Marta; Lopez-Carr, Anna Carla; Coulter, Lloyd; Ofiesh, Caetlin

    2012-01-01

    West Africa has a rapidly growing population, an increasing fraction of which lives in urban informal settlements characterized by inadequate infrastructure and relatively high health risks. Little is known, however, about the spatial or health characteristics of cities in this region or about the spatial inequalities in health within them. In this article we show how we have been creating a data-rich field laboratory in Accra, Ghana, to connect the dots between health, poverty, and place in a large city in West Africa. Our overarching goal is to test the hypothesis that satellite imagery, in combination with census and limited survey data, such as that found in demographic and health surveys (DHSs), can provide clues to the spatial distribution of health inequalities in cities where fewer data exist than those we have collected for Accra. To this end, we have created the first digital boundary file of the city, obtained high spatial resolution satellite imagery for two dates, collected data from a longitudinal panel of 3,200 women spatially distributed throughout Accra, and obtained microlevel data from the census. We have also acquired water, sewerage, and elevation layers and then coupled all of these data with extensive field research on the neighborhood structure of Accra. We show that the proportional abundance of vegetation in a neighborhood serves as a key indicator of local levels of health and well-being and that local perceptions of health risk are not always consistent with objective measures. PMID:24532846

  9. Dimensions of Poverty and Health Outcomes among People Living with HIV Infection: Limited Resources and Competing Needs

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Hernandez, Dominica; Kegler, Christopher; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O.; Grebler, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection is concentrated in populations living in poverty. We examined the overlapping and independent effects of multiple poverty indicators on HIV-related health status. Because substance use can create competing survival needs when resources are limited, we also sought to objectively measure expenditures on food relative to alcohol and tobacco products. To achieve these aims, 459 men and 212 women living with HIV infection in Atlanta, GA completed measures of socio-demographic and heath characteristics as well as multiple indicators of poverty including housing stability, transportation, food insecurity, and substance use. Participants were given a $30 grocery gift card for their participation and we collected receipts which were coded for alcohol (beer, wine, liquors) and tobacco purchases. Results showed that participants with unsuppressed HIV replication were significantly more likely to experience multiple indicators of poverty. In addition, one in four participants purchased alcohol or tobacco products with their gift cards, with as much as one-fourth of money spent on these products. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that food insecurity was independently associated with unsuppressed HIV, and purchasing alcohol or tobacco products did not moderate this association. Results confirm previous research to show the primacy of food insecurity in relation to HIV-related health outcomes. Competing survival needs, including addictive substances, should be addressed in programs that aim to alleviate poverty to enhance the health and well-being of people with HIV infection. PMID:25572901

  10. Community concepts of poverty: an application to premium exemptions in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poverty is multi dimensional. Beyond the quantitative and tangible issues related to inadequate income it also has equally important social, more intangible and difficult if not impossible to quantify dimensions. In 2009, we explored these social and relativist dimension of poverty in five communities in the South of Ghana with differing socio economic characteristics to inform the development and implementation of policies and programs to identify and target the poor for premium exemptions under Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme. Methods We employed participatory wealth ranking (PWR) a qualitative tool for the exploration of community concepts, identification and ranking of households into socioeconomic groups. Key informants within the community ranked households into wealth categories after discussing in detail concepts and indicators of poverty. Results Community defined indicators of poverty covered themes related to type of employment, educational attainment of children, food availability, physical appearance, housing conditions, asset ownership, health seeking behavior, social exclusion and marginalization. The poverty indicators discussed shared commonalities but contrasted in the patterns of ranking per community. Conclusion The in-depth nature of the PWR process precludes it from being used for identification of the poor on a large national scale in a program such as the NHIS. However, PWR can provide valuable qualitative input to enrich discussions, development and implementation of policies, programs and tools for large scale interventions and targeting of the poor for social welfare programs such as premium exemption for health care. PMID:23497484

  11. Dimensions of Poverty and Health Outcomes Among People Living with HIV Infection: Limited Resources and Competing Needs.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Hernandez, Dominica; Kegler, Christopher; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O; Grebler, Tamar

    2015-08-01

    HIV infection is concentrated in populations living in poverty. We examined the overlapping and independent effects of multiple poverty indicators on HIV-related health status. Because substance use can create competing survival needs when resources are limited, we also sought to objectively measure expenditures on food relative to alcohol and tobacco products. To achieve these aims, 459 men and 212 women living with HIV infection in Atlanta, GA completed measures of socio-demographic and heath characteristics as well as multiple indicators of poverty including housing stability, transportation, food insecurity, and substance use. Participants were given a $30 grocery gift card for their participation and we collected receipts which were coded for alcohol (beer, wine, liquors) and tobacco purchases. Results showed that participants with unsuppressed HIV replication were significantly more likely to experience multiple indicators of poverty. In addition, one in four participants purchased alcohol or tobacco products with their gift cards, with as much as one-fourth of money spent on these products. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that food insecurity was independently associated with unsuppressed HIV, and purchasing alcohol or tobacco products did not moderate this association. Results confirm previous research to show the primacy of food insecurity in relation to HIV-related health outcomes. Competing survival needs, including addictive substances, should be addressed in programs that aim to alleviate poverty to enhance the health and well-being of people with HIV infection. PMID:25572901

  12. Evaluating the unintended health consequences of poverty alleviation strategies: or what is the relevance of Mohammed Yunus to public health?

    PubMed

    Mohindra, K S; Haddad, Slim

    2008-01-01

    Public health researchers are increasingly shifting their attention away from merely documenting those factors that determine health--a solid evidence base on health determinants now exists--to improving our understanding of how various interventions influence population health. This paper argues for greater investigations of the potential unintended health benefits associated with participation in a poverty alleviation strategy (PAS) in low-income countries. We focus on microcredit, a PAS that has been spreading across the developing world. Microcredit aims to address the "credit gap" between the poor and the better off by offering an alternative for the poor to acquire loans: small groups are formed and loans are allocated to members based on group solidarity instead of formal collateral. We argue that microcredit corresponds with activities that will help build up health capital (e.g., greater access to resources) and describe the main pathways from microcredit participation to health. We advocate that microcredit and other potential pro-health PAS be included among the range of interventions considered by public health researchers in improving the health of the poor. PMID:18435395

  13. Animal Health Equipment Management.

    PubMed

    Rethorst, David N

    2015-07-01

    Proper health equipment management requires significant attention to detail. Establishing and following protocols during processing (eg, cleaning and disinfecting equipment at the end of the work day) is required to ensure a safe product that is free of defects and residues. Overall cleanliness of equipment and facilities is important not only from a food safety standpoint but many view these as an overall indicator of attention to detail in the entire production system. Ensuring that needles are changed, implant guns are managed properly, vaccine is handled in an acceptable manner, and that proper chute operation occurs is essential. PMID:26139191

  14. A responsive evaluation of mental health treatment in Cambodia: Intentionally addressing poverty to increase cultural responsiveness in therapy.

    PubMed

    Seponski, Desiree M; Lewis, Denise C; Megginson, Maegan C

    2014-01-01

    Mental health issues are significant contributors to the global burden of disease with the highest incidence in resource poor countries; 90% of those in need of mental health treatment reside in low resource countries but receive only 10% of the world's resources. Cambodia, the eighth least developed country in the world, serves as one example of the need to address mental health concerns in low-income, resource poor countries. The current study utilises responsive evaluation methodology to explore how poverty-stricken Cambodian clients, therapists and supervisors experience Western models of therapy as culturally responsive to their unique needs. Quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated across multiple stakeholders using numerous methods including a focus group, interviews, surveys, case illustrations and live supervision observation and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Emerging findings suggest that poverty, material needs, therapy location and financial situations greatly impact the daily lives and mental health conditions of Cambodians and hinder clients' therapeutic progress. The local community needs and context of poverty greatly hinder clients' therapeutic progress in therapy treatment and when therapy does not directly address the culture of poverty, clients did not experience therapy as valuable despite some temporary decreases in mental health symptoms. PMID:25204750

  15. Childhood Poverty: Understanding and Preventing the Adverse Impacts of a Most-Prevalent Risk to Pediatric Health and Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Schickedanz, Adam; Dreyer, Benard P; Halfon, Neal

    2015-10-01

    Poor children are at greater risk for worse health, less productivity, and harms to well-being that extend into adulthood and subsequent generations. Timing and duration of poverty matter and influence life course outcomes, especially for education, health, and lifetime productivity. This article focuses on interventions by policy advocacy and the pediatric health system, and protection of the health and well-being of families in economic hardship from disadvantages and trauma wrought by poverty. A framework is presented for child poverty prevention and its consequences for lifelong health and success on a national scale. PMID:26318943

  16. Socially Responsible Mining: the Relationship between Mining and Poverty, Human Health and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Raina M.; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Field, James A.; Hopkins, James; Klein, Bern; Poulton, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing global demand for metals is straining the ability of the mining industry to physically keep up with demand (physical scarcity). On the other hand, social issues including the environmental and human health consequences of mining as well as the disparity in income distribution from mining revenues are disproportionately felt at the local community level. This has created social rifts, particularly in the developing world, between affected communities and both industry and governments. Such rifts can result in a disruption of the steady supply of metals (situational scarcity). Here we discuss the importance of mining in relationship to poverty, identify steps that have been taken to create a framework for socially responsible mining, and then discuss the need for academia to work in partnership with communities, government, and industry to develop trans-disciplinary research-based step change solutions to the intertwined problems of physical and situational scarcity. PMID:24552962

  17. The Perceptions of Principals and Teachers Regarding Mental Health Providers' Impact on Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals and teachers regarding mental health provider's impact on student achievement and behavior in high poverty schools using descriptive statistics, t-test, and two-way ANOVA. Respondents in this study shared similar views concerning principal and teacher satisfaction and levels of support for the…

  18. "The walls were so damp and cold" fuel poverty and ill health in Northern Ireland: results from a housing intervention.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Niamh; Rugkåsa, Jorun

    2007-03-01

    This article reports the findings from an evaluation of a fuel poverty programme in the Armagh and Dungannon Health Action Zone in Northern Ireland. Focusing on a rural community, it adds to the debate surrounding the hidden nature of rural fuel poverty. As part of the programme, energy efficiency measures, including some central heating systems, were installed in 54 homes. Surveys were conducted both pre and post intervention and analysed to assess any changes. The programme demonstrated that energy efficiency intervention can lead to improvements in health and well being, increased comfort levels in the home and a reduction in the use of health services, therefore having potential cost savings for the NHS. Some households, however, remain in fuel poverty after having full central heating installed, reflecting the significant contribution of low income on the production of fuel poverty. The article concludes by suggesting that interventions in this area require commitment from multiple sectors of society, including health professionals and local communities. PMID:16343973

  19. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  20. [Smoking in developing countries: a health risk and a factor in poverty].

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In 2000, smoking-related deaths (approximately 5 million) were evenly divided between industrialized and developing countries, whereas by 2030 it is expected that some 70-80% of the predicted 8-10 million smoking-related deaths will occur in developing countries. This heavy health burden is compounded by the economic burden of smoking at both the individual and national levels. Smoking aggravates poverty for both smokers and their families, diverting meager financial resources away from essentials such as food, education and healthcare. Women and children are the first victims. And, as tobacco consumption shifts increasingly from rich countries to poor countries, smoking represents a further obstacle to development, notably by increasing national healthcare costs and absorbing valuable arable land for tobacco cultivation. The tobacco industry is exploiting markets in developing countries through price cuts, smuggling, widespread advertising, and promotion of positive images of smokers. As in other countries, prevention campaigns must encourage young people not to start the habit, help current users to quit, and protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke. Developing countries have a special incentive to build on the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first international public health treaty signed under the auspices of WHO, adopted in 2003 and ratified by over 170 countries. This treaty not only plays a major role in health policy, but also constitutes a powerful instrument for economic development and resistance to manipulation by the tobacco industry PMID:22530518

  1. The topography of poverty in the United States: a spatial analysis using county-level data from the Community Health Status Indicators project.

    PubMed

    Holt, James B

    2007-10-01

    Socioeconomic and health-related data at the county level are now available through the Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) database. These data are useful for assessing the health of communities and regions. Users of the CHSI data can access online reports and an online mapping application for visualizing patterns in various community-related measures. It also is possible to download these data to conduct local analyses. This paper describes a spatial analysis of poverty in the United States at the county level for 2000. Spatial statistical techniques in a geographic information system were used to quantify significant spatial patterns, such as concentrated poverty rates and spatial outliers. The analysis revealed significant and stark patterns of poverty. A distinctive north-south demarcation of low versus high poverty concentrations was found, along with isolated pockets of high and low poverty within areas in which the predominant poverty rates were opposite. This pattern can be described as following a continental poverty divide. These insights can be useful in explicating the underlying processes involved in forming such spatial patterns that result in concentrated wealth and poverty. The spatial analytic techniques are broadly applicable to socioeconomic and health-related data and can provide important information about the spatial structure of datasets, which is important for choosing appropriate analysis methods. PMID:17875255

  2. Participatory assessment of animal health and husbandry practices in smallholder pig production systems in three high poverty districts in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dione, Michel M; Ouma, Emily A; Roesel, Kristina; Kungu, Joseph; Lule, Peter; Pezo, Danilo

    2014-12-01

    While animal health constraints have been identified as a major limiting factor in smallholder pig production in Uganda, researchers and policy makers lack information on the relative incidence of diseases and their impacts on pig production. This study aimed to assess animal health and management practices, constraints and opportunities for intervention in smallholder pig value chains in three high poverty districts of Uganda. Semi-qualitative interview checklists through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were administered to 340 pig farmers in 35 villages in Masaka, Kamuli and Mukono districts. Quantitative data was obtained during the exercise through group consensus. Results of FGDs were further triangulated with secondary data and information obtained from key informant interviews. Findings show that pig keeping systems are dominated by tethering and scavenging in rural areas. In peri-urban and urban areas, intensive production systems are more practiced, with pigs confined in pens. The main constraints identified by farmers include high disease burden such as African swine fever (ASF) and parasites, poor housing and feeding practices, poor veterinary services, ineffective drugs and a general lack of knowledge on piggery management. According to farmers, ASF is the primary cause of pig mortality with epidemics occurring mainly during the dry season. Worms and ectoparasites namely; mange, lice and flies are endemic leading to stunted growth which reduces the market value of pigs. Diarrhoea and malnutrition are common in piglets. Ninety-three percent of farmers say they practice deworming, 37% practice ectoparasite spraying and 77% castrate their boars. Indigenous curative treatments include the application of human urine and concoctions of local herbs for ASF control and use of old engine oil or tobacco extracts to control ectoparasites. There is a need for better technical services to assist farmers with these problems. PMID:25458705

  3. [Health and the green economy: challenges for sustainable development and the eradication of poverty].

    PubMed

    Gallo, Edmundo; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Buss, Daniel Forsin; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Buss, Paulo Marchiori

    2012-06-01

    In a scenario where ecosystemic services are being eroded and there is high social inequity, a new model of development is necessary, namely one capable of promoting social development with a reduction of its ecological footprint. The 'Green Economy' model is one of the proposed models. This paper seeks to analyze the environmental, social and individual impacts on human health in the context of a 'brown economy', and discusses the contributions of a green economy on the promotion of equity and health. The assumption is that economic development and environmental sustainability are not incompatible and both contribute to the eradication of poverty. The transition to a sustainable economy depends on political decisions, and transcends technological developments. Above all, it should instigate new models of production, consumption and social organization, which promote socio-environmental justice, encouraging social participation and democratic forms of governance to define a solid agenda for the implementation of sustainable development and mechanisms to implement them at all levels. PMID:22699637

  4. Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Collinson, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD thesis of Mark Collinson, titled, ‘Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa’. The findings show that in rural South Africa, temporary migration has a major impact on household well-being and health. Remittances from migrants make a significant difference to socioeconomic status (SES) in households left behind by the migrant. For the poorest households the key factors improving SES are government grants and female temporary migration, while for the less poor it is male temporary migration and local employment. Migration is associated with HIV but not in straightforward ways. Migrants that return more frequently may be less exposed to outside partners and therefore less implicated in the HIV epidemic. There are links between migration and mortality patterns, including a higher risk of dying for returnee migrants compared with permanent residents. A mother's migration impacts significantly on child survival for South African and former refugee parents, but there is an additional mortality risk for children of Mozambican former refugees. It is recommended that national censuses and surveys account for temporary migration when collecting information on household membership, because different migration types have different outcomes. Without discriminating between different migration types, the implications for sending and receiving communities will remain lost to policy-makers. PMID:20531981

  5. Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD thesis of Mark Collinson, titled, 'Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa'. The findings show that in rural South Africa, temporary migration has a major impact on household well-being and health. Remittances from migrants make a significant difference to socioeconomic status (SES) in households left behind by the migrant. For the poorest households the key factors improving SES are government grants and female temporary migration, while for the less poor it is male temporary migration and local employment. Migration is associated with HIV but not in straightforward ways. Migrants that return more frequently may be less exposed to outside partners and therefore less implicated in the HIV epidemic. There are links between migration and mortality patterns, including a higher risk of dying for returnee migrants compared with permanent residents. A mother's migration impacts significantly on child survival for South African and former refugee parents, but there is an additional mortality risk for children of Mozambican former refugees. It is recommended that national censuses and surveys account for temporary migration when collecting information on household membership, because different migration types have different outcomes. Without discriminating between different migration types, the implications for sending and receiving communities will remain lost to policy-makers. PMID:20531981

  6. Is Violent Radicalisation Associated with Poverty, Migration, Poor Self-Reported Health and Common Mental Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Warfa, Nasir; Jones, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Background Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders), and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. Results 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>£75,000 a year). People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. Conclusions Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors. PMID:24599058

  7. Poverty, Violence and Health: The Impact of Domestic Violence During Pregnancy on Newborn Health.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Two percent of women in the US suffer from intimate partner violence annually, with poor and minority women disproportionately affected. I provide evidence of an important negative externality associated with domestic violence by estimating a negative and causal relationship between violence during pregnancy and newborn health, exploiting variation in the enforcement of laws against domestic violence for identification. I find that hospitalization for an assault while pregnant reduces birth weight by 163 grams. This sheds new light on the infant health production process as well as observed income gradients in health given that poor mothers are disproportionately affected by violence. PMID:24839303

  8. Poverty, Violence, and Health: The Impact of Domestic Violence during Pregnancy on Newborn Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aizer, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Two percent of women in the United States suffer from intimate partner violence annually, with poor and minority women disproportionately affected. I provide evidence of an important negative externality associated with domestic violence by estimating a negative and causal relationship between violence during pregnancy and newborn health,…

  9. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  10. The effects of poverty, race, and family structure on US children's health: data from the NHIS, 1978 through 1980 and 1989 through 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, L E; Kiely, J L; Pappas, G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the independent and relative effects of family structure, race, and poverty on the health of US children and youth under 20 years of age at two time periods, 1978 through 1980 and 1989 through 1991. METHODS: Data were from the National Health Interview Surveys. Multivariate logit regression methods were used to analyze the effects of family structure, poverty, and race on children's health. RESULTS: Children in families headed by single mothers, Black children, and those living below 150% of the poverty index were much more likely to be in poor or fair health than children in two-parent families, White children, or those in more affluent families. Poverty had the strongest effect on child health in both time periods. CONCLUSIONS: The association between children's health and living below 150% of the poverty index is not explained by race or family structure. The disparity in child health by family income has serious consequences for both the child and society. PMID:8876508

  11. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  12. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  13. Food Insecurity and Other Poverty Indicators among People Living with HIV/AIDS: Effects on Treatment and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Hernandez, Dominica; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O.; Grebler, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as the demands of long-term medication adherence have meant the full benefits of HIV treatment are often not realized. In particular, food insecurity has emerged as a robust predictor of ART non-adherence. However, research is limited in determining whether food insecurity uniquely impedes HIV treatment or if food insecurity is merely a marker for poverty that interferes more broadly with treatment. This study examined indicators of poverty at multiple levels in a sample of 364 men and 157 women living with HIV recruited through an offering of a free holiday food basket. Results showed that 61% (N = 321) of participants had experienced at least one indicator of food insecurity in the previous month. Multivariate analyses showed that food insecurity was closely tied to lack of transportation. In addition, food insecurity was associated with lacking access to ART and poor ART adherence after adjusting for neighbourhood poverty, living in an area without a supermarket (food desert), education, stable housing, and reliable transportation. Results therefore affirm previous research that has suggested food insecurity is uniquely associated with poor ART adherence and calls for structural interventions that address basic survival needs among people living with HIV, especially food security. PMID:24705680

  14. Managed consumerism in health care.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2005-01-01

    The future of market-oriented health policy and practice lies in "managed consumerism," a blend of the patient-centric focus of consumer-driven health care and the provider-centric focus of managed competition. The optimal locus of incentives will vary among health services according to the nature of the illness, the clinical technology, and the extent of discretion in utilization. A competitive market will manifest a variety of comprehensive and limited benefit designs, broad and narrow contractual networks, and single-and multispecialty provider organizations. PMID:16284020

  15. Intelligent Integrated System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems

  16. Managed care and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S S; Williams, D R

    1998-01-01

    Managed care poses special challenges to midwives providing reproductive health care. This is owing to the sensitive nature of issues surrounding reproductive health and aspects of managed care that may impede a woman's ability to obtain continuous, confidential, and comprehensive care from the provider of her choice. Variations across payers (ie, Medicare, Medicaid, and commercial insurers) regarding covered benefits and reimbursement of midwifery services also may create obstacles. Furthermore, some physicians and managed care organizations are embracing policies that threaten the ability of midwives to function as primary health care providers for women. Despite these hurdles, midwives have the potential to remain competitive in the new marketplace. This article underscores the importance of being knowledgeable about legislation and policy issues surrounding the financing of midwifery services, quality performance measurement for HMOs as they pertain to reproductive health, and discussions regarding which clinicians should be defined as primary care providers. PMID:9674347

  17. Knowledge management in health care.

    PubMed

    Guptill, Janet

    2005-01-01

    It is a long-term, sustainable commitment to changing the culture of health care to become more collaborative, more transparent, and more proactive. Knowledge management, implemented well, will transform the health care delivery system over the next few decades, into a more cost-effective, error-averse, and accountable public resource. For the sake of simplicity, this article will limit the application of knowledge management principles to the context of hospitals, hospital systems or associations, or other groupings of hospitals based on a common interest or focus. The field of knowledge management has tremendous application and value to the health care industry, particularly for hospitals and hospital systems. For many who have invested in a knowledge management infrastructure, it has become the measure of value of belonging to a hospital system or membership organization. PMID:16080410

  18. Causal Relationships between Poverty and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Although research suggests why disability may cause poverty, it is not well understood why poverty may cause disability. This article presents the Poverty Disability Model, which includes four groups of factors that increase the risk that poverty will cause disability and chronic health problems. Rehabilitation interventions and counselor…

  19. Gamification and geospatial health management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortley, David

    2014-06-01

    Sensor and Measurement technologies are rapidly developing for many consumer applications which have the potential to make a major impact on business and society. One of the most important areas for building a sustainable future is in health management. This opportunity arises because of the growing popularity of lifestyle monitoring devices such as the Jawbone UP bracelet, Nike Fuelband and Samsung Galaxy GEAR. These devices measure physical activity and calorie consumption and, when visualised on mobile and portable devices, enable users to take more responsibility for their personal health. This presentation looks at how the process of gamification can be applied to develop important geospatial health management applications that could not only improve the health of nations but also significantly address some of the issues in global health such as the ageing society and obesity.

  20. Outcomes management in women's health.

    PubMed

    Houston, S; Fleschler, R

    1997-01-01

    Outcomes management uses a quality and research approach to reducing costs in health care. Populations may be targeted for high volumes or their potential for cost savings. Outcomes are identified and measured through data collection and analysis. System and care processes that drive these outcomes are analyzed. Tenets related to outcomes management include questioning practice, administrative and physician involvement; recognizing that change is necessary; accepting uncontrollable factors; and valuing the outcomes management process. Resources necessary for managing outcomes include the use of collaborative practice teams, outcomes assessment, information systems, and educational support services. The women's health population can benefit from an outcomes management effort by improving and standardizing care for mothers and infants across the continuum. There is the opportunity to affect the wellness of this population even before the pregnancy occurs. PMID:9170599

  1. Health-Specific Information and Communication Technology Use and Its Relationship to Obesity in High-Poverty, Urban Communities: Analysis of a Population-Based Biosocial Survey

    PubMed Central

    Makelarski, Jennifer A; Garibay, Lori B; Escamilla, Veronica; Merchant, Raina M; Wolfe Sr, Marcus B; Holbrook, Rebecca; Lindau, Stacy Tessler

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 35% of American adults are obese. For African American and Hispanic adults, as well as individuals residing in poorer or more racially segregated urban neighborhoods, the likelihood of obesity is even higher. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) may substitute for or complement community-based resources for weight management. However, little is currently known about health-specific ICT use among urban-dwelling people with obesity. Objective We describe health-specific ICT use and its relationship to measured obesity among adults in high-poverty urban communities. Methods Using data collected between November 2012 and July 2013 from a population-based probability sample of urban-dwelling African American and Hispanic adults residing on the South Side of Chicago, we described patterns of ICT use in relation to measured obesity defined by a body mass index (BMI) of ≥30 kg/m2. Among those with BMI≥30 kg/m2, we also assessed the association between health-specific ICT use and diagnosed versus undiagnosed obesity as well as differences in health-specific ICT use by self-reported comorbidities, including diabetes and hypertension. Results The survey response rate was 44.6% (267 completed surveys/598.4 eligible or likely eligible individuals); 53.2% were African American and 34.6% were Hispanic. More than 35% of the population reported an annual income of less than US $25,000. The population prevalence of measured obesity was 50.2%. People with measured obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were more likely to report both general (81.5% vs 67.0%, P=.04) and health-specific (61.1% vs 41.2%, P=.01) ICT use. In contrast, among those with measured obesity, being told of this diagnosis by a physician was not associated with increased health-specific ICT use. People with measured obesity alone had higher rates of health-specific use than those with comorbid hypertension and/or diabetes diagnoses (77.1% vs 60.7% vs 47.4%, P=.04). Conclusions In conclusion

  2. What socio-demographic factors influence poverty and financial health care access among disabled people in Flanders: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current literature shows that people with a disability have a lower income than people without a disability. Disabled people often experience difficulties with health care access. The objective of this study is to assess the current financial situation and poverty rate amongst disabled people in Flanders. Furthermore we wanted to analyze factors that contribute to the risk of poverty and problems with financial health care access in adult people with a disability in Flanders. Methods An online and paper survey were constructed and made available through two large organizations for people with different types of disability in Flanders. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results In this convenience sample, 20.9% of the 889 respondents live under the poverty threshold. Important contributing factors to the risk of poverty are having children (OR 3.43, 95% CI 2.10-5.59) and a low level of dependence (OR 16.40, 95% CI 6.21-43.28). 25.2% of the respondents did not access health care because of financial shortcomings. A low level of dependence is one important contributing factor (OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.41-6.98) to limited financial health care access. Conclusion This research confirms that disability is associated with a higher risk of poverty and impaired financial health care access. PMID:24521283

  3. Reengineering health care materials management.

    PubMed

    Connor, L R

    1998-01-01

    Health care executives across the country, faced with intense competition, are being forced to consider drastic cost cutting measures as a matter of survival. The entire health care industry is under siege from boards of directors, management and others who encourage health care systems to take actions ranging from strategic acquisitions and mergers to simple "downsizing" or "rightsizing," to improve their perceived competitive positions in terms of costs, revenues and market share. In some cases, management is poorly prepared to work within this new competitive paradigm and turns to consultants who promise that following their methodologies can result in competitive advantage. One favored methodology is reengineering. Frequently, cost cutting attention is focused on the materials management budget because it is relatively large and is viewed as being comprised mostly of controllable expenses. Also, materials management is seldom considered a core competency for the health care system and the organization performing these activities does not occupy a strongly defensible position. This paper focuses on the application of a reengineering methodology to healthcare materials management. PMID:9785300

  4. Poverty, food security and universal access to sexual and reproductive health services: a call for cross-movement advocacy against neoliberal globalisation.

    PubMed

    Sundari Ravindran, T K

    2014-05-01

    Universal access to sexual and reproductive health services is one of the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development of 1994. The Millennium Development Goals were intended above all to end poverty. Universal access to health and health services are among the goals being considered for the post-2015 agenda, replacing or augmenting the MDGs. Yet we are not only far from reaching any of these goals but also appear to have lost our way somewhere along the line. Poverty and lack of food security have, through their multiple linkages to health and access to health care, deterred progress towards universal access to health services, including for sexual and reproductive health needs. A more insidious influence is neoliberal globalisation. This paper describes neoliberal globalisation and the economic policies it has engendered, the ways in which it influences poverty and food security, and the often unequal impact it has had on women as compared to men. It explores the effects of neoliberal economic policies on health, health systems, and universal access to health care services, and the implications for access to sexual and reproductive health. To be an advocate for universal access to health and health care is to become an advocate against neoliberal globalisation. PMID:24908453

  5. X-33/RLV System Health Management/ Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbos, Raymond J.; Mouyos, William

    1998-01-01

    To reduce operations cost, the RLV must include the following elements: highly reliable, robust subsystems designed for simple repair access with a simplified servicing infrastructure and incorporating expedited decision making about faults and anomalies. A key component for the Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) RLV System used to meet these objectives is System Health Management (SHM). SHM deals with the vehicle component- Vehicle Health Management (VHM), the ground processing associated with the fleet (GVHM) and the Ground Infrastructure Health Management (GIHM). The objective is to provide an automated collection and paperless health decision, maintenance and logistics system. Many critical technologies are necessary to make the SHM (and more specifically VHM) practical, reliable and cost effective. Sanders is leading the design, development and integration of the SHM system for RLV and X-33 SHM (a sub-scale, sub-orbit Advanced Technology Demonstrator). This paper will present the X-33 SHM design which forms the baseline for RLV SHM. This paper will also discuss other applications of these technologies.

  6. Poverty, user fees and ability to pay for health care for children with suspected dengue in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

    2008-01-01

    User fees were introduced in public health facilities in Cambodia in 1997 in order to inject funds into the health system to enhance the quality of services. Because of inadequate health insurance, a social safety net scheme was introduced to ensure that all people were able to attend the health facilities. However, continuing high rates of hospitalization and mortality from dengue fever among infants and children reflect the difficulties that women continue to face in finding sufficient cash in cases of medical emergency, resulting in delays in diagnosis and treatment. In this article, drawing on in-depth interviews conducted with mothers of children infected with dengue in eastern Cambodia, we illustrate the profound economic consequences for households when a child is ill. The direct costs for health care and medical services, and added indirect costs, deterred poor women from presenting with sick children. Those who eventually sought care often had to finance health spending through out-of-pocket payments and loans, or sold property, goods or labour to meet the costs. Costs were often catastrophic, exacerbating the extreme poverty of those least able to afford it. PMID:18439268

  7. X-33/RLV System Health Management/Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouyos, William; Wangu, Srimal

    1998-01-01

    To reduce operations costs, Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVS) must include highly reliable robust subsystems which are designed for simple repair access with a simplified servicing infrastructure, and which incorporate expedited decision-making about faults and anomalies. A key component for the Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) RLV system used to meet these objectives is System Health Management (SHM). SHM incorporates Vehicle Health Management (VHM), ground processing associated with the vehicle fleet (GVHM), and Ground Infrastructure Health Management (GIHM). The primary objective of SHM is to provide an automated and paperless health decision, maintenance, and logistics system. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, is leading the design, development, and integration of the SHM system for RLV and for X-33 (a sub-scale, sub-orbit Advanced Technology Demonstrator). Many critical technologies are necessary to make SHM (and more specifically VHM) practical, reliable, and cost effective. This paper will present the X-33 SHM design which forms the baseline for the RLV SHM, and it will discuss applications of advanced technologies to future RLVs. In addition, this paper will describe a Virtual Design Environment (VDE) which is being developed for RLV. This VDE will allow for system design engineering, as well as program management teams, to accurately and efficiently evaluate system designs, analyze the behavior of current systems, and predict the feasibility of making smooth and cost-efficient transitions from older technologies to newer ones. The RLV SHM design methodology will reduce program costs, decrease total program life-cycle time, and ultimately increase mission success.

  8. Vehicle health management technology needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Jones, W. G.

    1992-01-01

    Background material on vehicle health management (VHM) and health monitoring/control is presented. VHM benefits are described and a list of VHM technology needs that should be pursued is presented. The NASA funding process as it impacts VHM technology funding is touched upon, and the VHM architecture guidelines for generic launch vehicles are described. An example of a good VHM architecture, design, and operational philosophy as it was conceptualized for the National Launch System program is presented. Consideration is given to the Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group's role in VHM, earth-to-orbit, and space vehicle avionics technology development considerations, and some actual examples of VHM benefits for checkout are given.

  9. The concept of poverty.

    PubMed

    Carney, P

    1992-06-01

    Although poverty is one of the most familiar and enduring conditions known to humanity, it is an extremely complicated concept to understand. Some researchers view it as a reaction to the stress of being poor, whereas others perceive it as a process of adapting to the condition of poverty. Historical definitions are numerous, but can be classified as relating to either lack of financial income or lower social status. Numerous factors contribute to the concept of poverty, including political, economic, social, and cultural forces. The one that has consistently had the greatest effect on the evolving concept is the passage of time, which encompasses all these forces in a very intricate manner. This author explored the evolution of the concept of poverty to identify relevant themes for consideration in the public health nursing domain. PMID:1508832

  10. Mental health, well-being, and poverty: A study in urban and rural communities in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, Bárbara Barbosa; Cardoso, Antonio Alan Vieira; Ximenes, Verônica Morais; Barros, João Paulo Pereira; Leite, Jáder Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the relations between mental health and well-being in urban and rural contexts marked by poverty. The analysis takes as its basis a quantitative research conducted with 417 adult inhabitants of two communities, one rural and the other urban, in Northeastern Brazil. The data were constructed using questionnaires composed of sociodemographic data, the Personal Wellbeing Index and Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) scales. We found significant differences between the inhabitants of the rural and urban communities regarding well-being and the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD), with a higher average well-being score in the rural context; the urban sample had a higher average regarding the prevalence of CMD. The variable income significantly influenced the SRQ-20 average scores; the same was not observed with well-being scores. Besides, it was observed that there is a negative correlation with well-being and CMD. PMID:26697905

  11. Learning Disabilities and Poverty: Moving towards a New Understanding of Learning Disabilities as a Public Health and Economic-Risk Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Glenn; Gerber, Paul J.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on environmental issues that affect learning disabilities and provides a rationale for learning disabilities as a public health and economic-risk issue. The link between learning disabilities and poverty and the impact of low birth weight and lead poisoning are discussed. Action steps are provided. (CR)

  12. SSME Advanced Health Management: Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plowden, John

    2000-01-01

    This document is the viewgraphs from a presentation concerning the development of the Health Management system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). It reviews the historical background of the SSME Advanced Health Management effort through the present final Health management configuration. The document includes reviews of three subsystems to the Advanced Health Management System: (1) the Real-Time Vibration Monitor System, (2) the Linear Engine Model, and (3) the Optical Plume Anomaly Detection system.

  13. Reading Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    The central purpose of this book is to challenge current social constructions of poverty, reading education, and the putative relationship between the two. It explores how official and popular representations of poverty are bound to specific historical, social, and economic conditions of their own production. The book offers four stances of…

  14. Beware the Managed Health-Care Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbaugh, John; Smith, Gary

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses implications of the movement toward managed health care models for long-term health care services for people with disabilities, especially people with developmental disabilities. It notes possible advantages of managed care but raises issues concerning consumer choice, management and financial capacity of managed care…

  15. Prevention through health risk management.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G M

    1992-08-01

    Risk can lead to catastrophe. Risk-management systems are highly effective in preventing the catastrophes of fire, earthquakes, and work-site injuries. No such effective systems are present to prevent health and social problems. A practical, cost-effective system to manage risk in children is being developed by the nonprofit Arizona Health Evaluation and Longevity Planning (HELP) Foundation. Information regarding such risk is collected in the school setting. This voluntary information comes from the administration, the school nurse, physical fitness testing, blood testing by the local hospital, self-esteem instruments, and parent, teacher, and child questionnaires. The HELP Foundation then develops an individual child and class risk profile that is presented to the teacher, school nurse, principal, and parent. Those involved with each child then prioritize, plan, and implement programs and activities to manage the identified risk(s). Risks is tracked throughout the child's school career by periodic reassessment. Evaluation of change in problem outcome will be a natural extension of the process. PMID:1643740

  16. Social risk management--reducing disparities in risk, vulnerability and poverty equitably.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2008-03-01

    Hurricane Katrina, which struck the Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005 and took 1,000 lives or more, was the third deadliest storm to hit the United States, falling behind only the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 and the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane. It is New Orleans' worst natural disaster in its nearly 300-year history. The storm left hundreds of thousands without access to shelter, food, water, clothing and basic sanitation. The human suffering and health consequences are immeasurable. Dissatisfaction with the federal, national and local governments' planning and response is widespread. Many believe that the system discriminated cruelly by race and class against those in greatest need. The storm revealed serious flaws in disaster relief and preparedness structures, which require major reform. As an alternative, this article proposes a social risk management system to provide both universal risk protection and an efficient, more equitable approach to managing and reducing disparities in vulnerability. While one must realize that incremental rather than comprehensive reform of the system is most likely and most politically feasible, Katrina's horrific consequences and revealed inequities necessitate an alternative model. PMID:18592885

  17. [Considerations about health risk management].

    PubMed

    Bossi, A; Abetti, P; De Luca, S; Masullo, M

    2003-01-01

    From the birth of doctrines of Risk Management to today a lot of time is passed. From the initial application in the field of the insurances and the management of the enterprises, theories inspired to the identification, evaluation and correction of connected risks to the activity and the industrial trial has been figurative to the health, field in which the application of these principles results to be how much never profit and productive of benefits above all for the patients that suffer consequences of errors but also for the physicians and the personnel that, perfectly inserted in an organization aware of the trials to put into effect, can bring their contribution to underline the weak points of the relief trial. The economic cost and consequences of errors can decrease if a new culture is established inspired to the learning and the communication of the adverse events, to minimize the possibility that they again occurs. PMID:14969298

  18. Poverty Reduction Begins with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This report describes how children bear the brunt of poverty and explains why they are central to poverty reduction in developing nations. The report also illustrates UNICEF's support for the process of improving access to, and quality of, health care, education, water and sanitation, and child protection. It describes how the participation of the…

  19. Fair Starts for Children. An Assessment of Rural Poverty and Maternal and Infant Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couto, Richard A.

    The Maternal and Infant Health Outreach Worker Program (MIHOW) of Vanderbilt University's Center for Health Services gathered data on family planning, prenatal care, pregnancy outcomes, breastfeeding, and preventive child health care from 60 women in 6 rural, low income communities in Tennessee, Kentucky, and West Virginia. The resulting baseline…

  20. Child Poverty: Definition and Measurement.

    PubMed

    Short, Kathleen S

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a discussion of what we mean when we refer to 'child poverty.' Many images come to mind when we discuss child poverty, but when we try to measure and quantify the extent of child poverty, we often use a very narrow concept. In this article a variety of poverty measures that are used in the United States are described and some of the differences between those measures are illustrated. In this article 3 measures are explored in detail: a relative measure of poverty that is used more often in an international context, the official US poverty measure, and a new supplemental poverty measure (SPM). The new measure differs from the other 2 because it takes into account noncash benefits that are provided to poor families. These include nutrition assistance such as food stamps, subsidized housing, and home energy assistance. The SPM also takes account of necessary expenses that families face, such as taxes and expenses related to work and health care. Comparing estimates for 2012, the SPM showed lower poverty rates for children than the other 2 measures. Because noncash benefits help those in extreme poverty, there were also lower percentages of children in extreme poverty with resources below half the SPM threshold. These results suggest that 2 important measures of poverty, the relative measure used in international comparisons, and the official poverty measure, are not able to gauge the effect of government programs on the alleviation of poverty, and the SPM illustrates that noncash benefits do help families meet their basic needs. PMID:27044701

  1. Support for agriculture during economic transformation: Impacts on poverty and undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health risks associated with rising obesity in rural as well as urban areas. Thus, the transition process must be managed better, through targeted support for smallholder agriculture and health interventions, if the negative consequences of obesity and chronic disease are to be mitigated. PMID:21173245

  2. Support for agriculture during economic transformation: impacts on poverty and undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

    2012-07-31

    This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health risks associated with rising obesity in rural as well as urban areas. Thus, the transition process must be managed better, through targeted support for smallholder agriculture and health interventions, if the negative consequences of obesity and chronic disease are to be mitigated. PMID:21173245

  3. Management Education in Public Health: Further Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Darr, Kurt J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowing and applying the basic management functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling, as well as their permutations and combinations, are vital to effective delivery of public health services. Presently, graduate programs that prepare public health professionals neither emphasize teaching management theory, nor its application. This deficit puts those who become managers in public health and those they serve at a distinct disadvantage. This deficit can be remedied by enhanced teaching of management subjects PMID:26673475

  4. Utilization of Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme, Kerala: A Comparative Study of Insured and Uninsured Below-Poverty-Line Households.

    PubMed

    Philip, Neena Elezebeth; Kannan, Srinivasan; Sarma, Sankara P

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare the sociodemographics, health care utilization pattern, and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses of 149 insured and 147 uninsured below-poverty-line households insured under the Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme, Kerala, through a comparative cross-sectional study. Family size more than 4 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-4.82), family member with chronic disease (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.18-3.57), high socioeconomic status (OR = 2.95; 95% CI = 1.74-5.03), and an employed household head (OR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.44-5.02) were significantly associated with insured households. Insured households had higher inpatient service utilization (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.05-2.34). Only 40% of inpatient service utilization among the insured was covered by insurance. The mean OOP expenses for inpatient services among insured (INR 448.95) was higher than among uninsured households (INR 159.93); P = .003. These findings show that urgent attention of the government is required to redesign and closely monitor the scheme. PMID:26316502

  5. Palliative chemotherapy among people living in poverty with metastasised colon cancer: facilitation by primary care and health insurance

    PubMed Central

    Gorey, Kevin M; Bartfay, Emma; Kanjeekal, Sindu M; Wright, Frances C; Hamm, Caroline; Luginaah, Isaac N; Zou, Guangyong; Holowaty, Eric J; Richter, Nancy L; Balagurusamy, Madhan K

    2016-01-01

    Background Many Americans with metastasised colon cancer do not receive indicated palliative chemotherapy. We examined the effects of health insurance and physician supplies on such chemotherapy in California. Methods We analysed registry data for 1199 people with metastasised colon cancer diagnosed between 1996 and 2000 and followed for 1 year. We obtained data on health insurance, census tract-based socioeconomic status and county-level physician supplies. Poor neighbourhoods were oversampled and the criterion was receipt of chemotherapy. Effects were described with rate ratios (RR) and tested with logistic regression models. Results Palliative chemotherapy was received by less than half of the participants (45%). Facilitating effects of primary care (RR=1.23) and health insurance (RR=1.14) as well as an impeding effect of specialised care (RR=0.86) were observed. Primary care physician (PCP) supply took precedence. Adjusting for poverty, PCP supply was the only significant and strong predictor of chemotherapy (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.56). The threshold for this primary care advantage was realised in communities with 8.5 or more PCPs per 10 000 inhabitants. Only 10% of participants lived in such well-supplied communities. Conclusions This study’s observations of facilitating effects of primary care and health insurance on palliative chemotherapy for metastasised colon cancer clearly suggested a way to maximise Affordable Care Act (ACA) protections. Strengthening America’s system of primary care will probably be the best way to ensure that the ACA’s full benefits are realised. Such would go a long way towards facilitating access to palliative care.

  6. Research-policy partnerships - experiences of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Partnerships are increasingly common in conducting research. However, there is little published evidence about processes in research-policy partnerships in different contexts. This paper contributes to filling this gap by analysing experiences of research-policy partnerships between Ministries of Health and research organisations for the implementation of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Methods A conceptual framework for understanding and assessing research-policy partnerships was developed and guided this study. The data collection methods for this qualitative study included semi-structured interviews with Ministry of Health Partners (MOHPs) and Research Partners (RPs) in each country. Results The term partnership was perceived by the partners as a collaboration involving mutually-agreed goals and objectives. The principles of trust, openness, equality and mutual respect were identified as constituting the core of partnerships. The MOHPs and RPs had clearly defined roles, with the MOHPs largely providing political support and RPs leading the research agenda. Different influences affected partnerships. At the individual level, personal relationships and ability to compromise within partnerships were seen as important. At the organisational level, the main influences included the degree of formalisation of roles and responsibilities and the internal structures and procedures affecting decision-making. At the contextual level, political environment and the degree of health system decentralisation affected partnerships. Conclusions Several lessons can be learned from these experiences. Taking account of influences on the partnership at individual, organisation and contextual/system levels can increase its effectiveness. A common understanding of mutually-agreed goals and objectives of the partnership is essential. It is important to give attention to the processes of initiating and maintaining partnerships

  7. Education and Health: Evaluating Theories and Evidence. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #06-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, David M.; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    There is a well known large and persistent association between education and health. This relationship has been observed in many countries and time periods, and for a wide variety of health measures. The differences between the more and the less educated are significant: in 1999, the age-adjusted mortality rate of high school dropouts ages 25 to…

  8. Health and Nutritional Status of Working and Non-Working Mothers in Poverty Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Daphne A.; Eickwort, Kathleen R.

    The aim of this study was to examine the health and nutritional status of low-income women in Upstate New York and to identify problems that interfere with their employment. Questionnaires on health and work, complete medical and employment histories, physical examination, laboratory tests, dental examination and diet recalls were obtained for 469…

  9. Poverty, out-of-pocket payments and access to health care: evidence from Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Falkingham, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Most countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have either initiated or are contemplating reform of the health sector. With negative real income growth and falling government revenues, a key concern of many governments is to secure additional finance through non-budgetary sources such as hypothecated payroll taxes, voluntary insurance, and increased private finance through patient cost-sharing. However, before such reforms can be considered, information is needed both on the current levels and distribution of household expenditures on health care, and the extent to which increased charges may affect access to health services, especially amongst the poor. This paper uses the Tajikistan Livings Standard Survey to investigate the level and distribution of out-of-pocket payments for health care in Tajikistan and to examine the extent to which such payments act as barriers to health-care access. The data show that there are significant differences in health-care utilisation rates across socio-economic groups and that these differences are related to ability to pay. Official and informal payments are acting both to deter people from seeking medical assistance and once advice has been sought, from receiving the most appropriate treatment. Despite informal exemptions, out-of-pocket payments for health care are exacting a high toll on household welfare with households being forced to sell assets or go into debt to meet the costs of care. Urgent action is needed to ensure equity in access to health care. PMID:14604611

  10. Characteristics of effective health care managers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherryl W

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of traditional and contemporary management theories. Concerns, characteristics, and skills of effective managers are also presented. Further, a self-assessment (survey) of 7 highly effective health care managers in a South Georgia community was conducted to determine their ratings on 6 management indices. The assessment or Scale of Transformational Leadership uses a Likert-type scale to allow for the evaluation of managers. The scale contains 6 management elements for assessment: attention, meaning, trust, self, vision, and feeling. Individual ratings and group summary skills rating are presented. Findings revealed the order of managerial importance of the elements as follows (from highest to lowest): Management of Trust, Management of Attention, Management of Self, Management of Feeling, Management of Meaning, and Management of Risk. As a second tier, the final ratings are corroborated by health care management interns. PMID:15923923

  11. Disentangling associations between poverty at various levels of aggregation and mental health.

    PubMed

    Drukker, Marjan; Gunther, Nicole; van Os, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The present editorial discusses whether socioeconomic status of the individual and of the neighbourhood could be important in prevalence, treatment and prevention of psychiatric morbidity. Previous research showed that patients diagnosed with mental disorders are concentrated in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. This could be the result of (1) an association between individual socioeconomic status and mental health, (2) an association between neighbourhood socioeconomic status and mental health, or (3) social selection. Research disentangling associations between individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic status on the one hand and mental health outcomes on the other, reported that neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with individual mental health over and above individual-level socioeconomic status, indicating deleterious effects for all inhabitants both poor and affluent. In conclusion, subjective mental health outcomes showed stronger evidence for an effect of neighbourhood socioeconomic status than research focussing on treated incidence. Within the group of patients, however, service use was higher in patients living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Social capital was identified as one of the mechanisms whereby neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage may become associated with observed reductions in mental health. After controlling for individual socioeconomic status, there is evidence for an association between neighbourhood socioeconomic status and objective as well as subjective mental health in adults. Evidence for such an association in young children is even stronger. PMID:17427598

  12. Spirulina in health care management.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish J; Jarouliya, Urmila; Bhadauriya, Pratiksha; Prasad, G B K S; Bisen, P S

    2008-10-01

    Spirulina is a photosynthetic, filamentous, spiral-shaped and multicellular edible microbe. It is the nature's richest and most complete source of nutrition. Spirulina has a unique blend of nutrients that no single source can offer. The alga contains a wide spectrum of prophylactic and therapeutic nutrients that include B-complex vitamins, minerals, proteins, gamma-linolenic acid and the super anti-oxidants such as beta-carotene, vitamin E, trace elements and a number of unexplored bioactive compounds. Because of its apparent ability to stimulate whole human physiology, Spirulina exhibits therapeutic functions such as antioxidant, anti-bacterial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic and plethora of beneficial functions. Spirulina consumption appears to promote the growth of intestinal micro flora as well. The review discusses the potential of Spirulina in health care management. PMID:18855693

  13. The employer's case for health management.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Christopher H

    2006-01-01

    Employers' past solutions to rising health benefit costs--adopting managed care strategies, cost shifting to employees and reducing benefits-are no longer effectively controlling costs and are depressing the value of health benefits for employee recruitment and retention. An alternative strategy is to implement health management approaches that improve the health status of employees. These programs reduce medical costs and have a documented positive impact on workers' compensation, disability costs, absenteeism and productivity. Further, this approach is complementary to health care consumerism as a strategy for health improvement and benefit cost reduction and results in improved employee health, outlook and satisfaction. PMID:16792389

  14. Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the characteristics and advantages of autonomy and artificial intelligence in systems health monitoring. The presentation lists technologies relevant to Intelligent System Health Management (ISHM), and some potential applications.

  15. Community health nursing practices in contexts of poverty, uncertainty and unpredictability: a systematization of personal experiences.

    PubMed

    Laperrière, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    Several years of professional nursing practices, while living in the poorest neighbourhoods in the outlying areas of Brazil's Amazon region, have led the author to develop a better understanding of marginalized populations. Providing care to people with leprosy and sex workers in riverside communities has taken place in conditions of uncertainty, insecurity, unpredictability and institutional violence. The question raised is how we can develop community health nursing practices in this context. A systematization of personal experiences based on popular education is used and analyzed as a way of learning by obtaining scientific knowledge through critical analysis of field practices. Ties of solidarity and belonging developed in informal, mutual-help action groups are promising avenues for research and the development of knowledge in health promotion, prevention and community care and a necessary contribution to national public health programmers. PMID:17934576

  16. Poverty and Health Disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native Children: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Sarche, Michelle; Spicer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the current state of knowledge regarding inequalities and their effect on American Indian and Alaska Native children, underscoring gaps in our current knowledge and the opportunities for early intervention to begin to address persistent challenges in young American Indian and Alaska Native children’s development. This overview documents demographic, social, health, and health care disparities as they affect American Indian and Alaska Native children, the persistent cultural strengths that must form the basis for any conscientious intervention effort, and the exciting possibilities for early childhood interventions. PMID:18579879

  17. Rising Poverty, Declining Health: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.

    Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,…

  18. Enhancing health policymakers' information literacy knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of infectious diseases of poverty in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background In Nigeria, one of the major challenges associated with evidence-to-policy link in the control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDP), is deficient information literacy knowledge and skill among policymakers. There is need for policymakers to acquire the skill to discover relevant information, accurately evaluate retrieved information and to apply it correctly. Objectives To use information literacy tool of International Network for Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) to enhance policymakers' knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of IDP in Nigeria. Methods Modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and participants were career health policy makers. A two-day health-policy information literacy training workshop was organized to enhance participants" information literacy capacity. Topics covered included: introduction to information literacy; defining information problem; searching for information online; evaluating information; science information; knowledge sharing interviews; and training skills. Results A total of 52 policymakers attended the workshop. The pre-workshop mean rating (MNR) of knowledge and capacity for information literacy ranged from 2.15-2.97, while the post-workshop MNR ranged from 3.34-3.64 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in MNR of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 22.6%-55.3%. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that through information literacy training workshop policy makers can acquire the knowledge and skill to identify, capture and share the right kind of information in the right contexts to influence relevant action or a policy decision. PMID:26284149

  19. Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums

    PubMed Central

    Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

  20. Poverty and working status in changes of unmet health care need in old age.

    PubMed

    Park, Sojung; Kim, BoRin; Kim, Soojung

    2016-06-01

    This study examined relationships between socioeconomic disadvantage and unmet health care needs among older adults in Korea adjusting for predisposing and health need factors. We examined how older adults' low-income status and working status affect unmet needs for healthcare over time, and how the association varies by reason for unmet needs (i.e. financial or non-financial). We used three waves of data (2009, 2011, 2012) from the Korea Health Panel (KHP) survey and a multinomial logistic mixed model to analyze how low socioeconomic disadvantages affects changes in unmet healthcare needs independently and in combination. Results showed that near-poor elders were more likely to experience increased risk of unmet need due to non-financial constraints over time. When working, near-poor elders risk of unmet healthcare needs due to financial and non-financial factors increases substantially over time. Across societies, different subgroups of older adults may be at risk of unmet healthcare needs, contingent on healthcare policies. Our finding suggests that in Korea, near-poor working elders are the vulnerable subgroup at highest risk of unmet healthcare needs. This finding provides much-needed evidence of heterogeneity of vulnerability in unmet healthcare needs and can be used to design more affordable and accessible programs and services for this group. PMID:27025977

  1. Multidisciplinary and participatory workshops with stakeholders in a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon: Development of priority concerns and potential health, nutrition and education interventions

    PubMed Central

    Casapia, Martin; Joseph, Serene A; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2007-01-01

    Background Communities of extreme poverty suffer disproportionately from a wide range of adverse outcomes, but are often neglected or underserved by organized services and research attention. In order to target the first Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty, thereby reducing health inequalities, participatory research in these communities is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the priority problems and respective potential cost-effective interventions in Belen, a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon, using a multidisciplinary and participatory focus. Methods Two multidisciplinary and participatory workshops were conducted with important stakeholders from government, non-government and community organizations, national institutes and academic institutions. In Workshop 1, participants prioritized the main health and health-related problems in the community of Belen. Problem trees were developed to show perceived causes and effects for the top six problems. In Workshop 2, following presentations describing data from recently completed field research in school and household populations of Belen, participants listed potential interventions for the priority problems, including associated barriers, enabling factors, costs and benefits. Results The top ten priority problems in Belen were identified as: 1) infant malnutrition; 2) adolescent pregnancy; 3) diarrhoea; 4) anaemia; 5) parasites; 6) lack of basic sanitation; 7) low level of education; 8) sexually transmitted diseases; 9) domestic violence; and 10) delayed school entry. Causes and effects for the top six problems, proposed interventions, and factors relating to the implementation of interventions were multidisciplinary in nature and included health, nutrition, education, social and environmental issues. Conclusion The two workshops provided valuable insight into the main health and health-related problems facing the community of Belen. The

  2. Health, Stress, and the Manager's Life Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a preventive approach to health which incorporates an understanding of how stress operates in modern organizations and its effect on organizational members. Describes two impact studies that suggest stress and life-style management training have a positive outcome. Suggests a protective health-management paradigm. (Author)

  3. Software for Intelligent System Health Management (ISHM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation is a briefing in four areas: overview of health management paradigms; overview of the ARC-Houston Software Engineering Technology Workshop held on April 20-22, 2004; identified technologies relevant to technical themes of intelligent system health management; and the author's thoughts on these topics.

  4. The inverse of managed health.

    PubMed

    Borremans, V

    1978-01-01

    In providing a non-professional view on health, on health in a desirable modern world, the modern form of "medicalized health" is contrasted with the conception of health among the Aztecs before the arrival of the Spaniards. Health was "medicalized" in the 1960s; the medical model of health care was determined mostly by what physicians do. Since that time, 4 distinct professional approaches each have challenged the monopoly of doctors over the definition of health. 1 of the key mistakes of modern civilization is to assume that there is only 1 health - a universal health, which is given in the form of health services and imposed on the people. In actuality, there are many different kinds of health - as many as there are cultures. In modern society health will be high when 2 conditions are met: 1) when society distributes equitably what it produces; and 2) when society produces just barely as many goods and services as are needed to equip people equitably with the tools they need for the most effective level of autonomous action. The answer is not simply to redistribute health. People need to be involved in determining their own health needs. A lesson can be learned from what the Spaniards did to the Aztecs in Mexico. In 1519 there was a population of 25 million in Mexico, but by 1608 there were just 1 million after the Spaniards had begun their campaign to bring health to the Aztecs. PMID:12260676

  5. Poverty determinants of acute respiratory infections among Mapuche indigenous peoples in Chile's Ninth Region of Araucania, using GIS and spatial statistics to identify health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Flavio

    2007-01-01

    Background This research concerns Araucanía, often called the Ninth Region, the poorest region of Chile where inequalities are most extreme. Araucanía hasn't enjoyed the economic success Chile achieved when the country returned to democracy in 1990. The Ninth Region also has the largest ethnic Mapuche population, located in rural areas and attached to small agricultural properties. Written and oral histories of diseases have been the most frequently used methods to explore the links between an ancestral population's perception of health conditions and their deprived environments. With census data and hospital records, it is now possible to incorporate statistical data about the links between poverty and disease among ethnic communities and compare results with non-Mapuche population. Data sources Hospital discharge records from Health Services North N = 24,126 patients, year 2003, and 7 hospitals), Health Services South (N = 81,780 patients and 25 hospitals); CAS-2/Family records (N = 527,539 individuals, 439 neighborhoods, 32 Comunas). Methods Given the over-dispersion of data and the clustered nature of observations, we used the global Moran's I and General G Gettis-Ord procedures to test spatial dependence. These tests confirmed the clusters of disease and the need to use spatial regression within a General Linear Mixed Model perspective. Results Health outcomes indicate significantly higher morbidity rates for the Mapuche compared to non-Mapuche in both age groups < 5 and 15–44, respectively; for the groups 70–79 and 80 + years of age, this trend is reversed. Mortality rates, however, are higher among Mapuches than non-Mapuches for the entire Ninth Region and for all age groups. Mortality caused by respiratory infections is higher among Mapuches than non-Mapuches in all age-groups. A major finding is the link between poverty and respiratory infections. Conclusion Poverty is significantly associated with respiratory infections in the population of Chile

  6. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation. PMID:12294462

  7. A Population Health Management Approach to Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Jeff; Phillips, Kathryn E

    2016-03-01

    Clinical outcomes have been shown to be better, and total costs lower, when patients with chronic illness such as diabetes are managed using a population health strategy in a primary care setting that includes structured coordination of care with specialty services. This "population health management approach" offers a promising new vision for addressing oral disease as a chronic illness through a collaborative partnership between primary care teams and dental professionals. PMID:27044237

  8. Managing diversity in health services organizations.

    PubMed

    Muller, H J; Haase, B E

    1994-01-01

    The changing ethnic, racial, and gender workforce characteristics require innovations in management philosophy and practice. Valuing employees' differences is believed to be a competitive advantage in many modern corporations. This article offers recommendations to health care managers for rethinking and improving the management of their heterogeneous workforces. A conceptual framework and evaluative criteria are developed in an attempt to better understand the factors that influence effective diversity management. The experiences of health services institutions in the Southwest (already a multicultural region) are studied to illustrate various approaches to diversity management. Leader philosophy and support, organizational policies and programs, workforce composition, structural integration, and organizational type constitute the main elements in this study. As the nation debates restructuring the health industry, it should also take the opportunity to integrate a management philosophy that values diversity and its practice. PMID:10138715

  9. eHealth Terminology Management in Austria.

    PubMed

    Seerainer, Carina; Sabutsch, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to establishing and operating a nationwide personal health record (PHR), effective and efficient terminology management including the development, administration, maintenance and publishing of terminologies is a precondition for semantic interoperability. In the Austrian national patient health record "ELGA" all relevant terminologies are provided and distributed by means of a CTS2-conformant terminology server. In the following article, issues and lessons learned from terminology management in a large-scale eHealth project are presented. Experience has proved the necessity of a national authority for medical terminology management in Austria. PMID:27577418

  10. Future developments in health care performance management

    PubMed Central

    Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the challenges of performance management in health care, wherein multiple different objectives have to be pursued. The literature suggests starting with quality performance, following the sand cone theory, but considering a multidimensional concept of health care quality. Moreover, new managerial approaches coming from an industrial context and adapted to health care, such as lean management and risk management, can contribute to improving quality performance. Therefore, the opportunity to analyze them arises from studying their overlaps and links in order to identify possible synergies and to investigate the opportunity to develop an integrated methodology enabling improved performance. PMID:24255600

  11. Concept Development for Software Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riecks, Jung; Storm, Walter; Hollingsworth, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) under NASA contract NNL06AA08B, delivery order NNL07AB06T. The Concept Development for Software Health Management (CDSHM) program was a NASA funded effort sponsored by the Integrated Vehicle Health Management Project, one of the four pillars of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. The CD-SHM program focused on defining a structured approach to software health management (SHM) through the development of a comprehensive failure taxonomy that is used to characterize the fundamental failure modes of safety-critical software.

  12. Future developments in health care performance management.

    PubMed

    Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the challenges of performance management in health care, wherein multiple different objectives have to be pursued. The literature suggests starting with quality performance, following the sand cone theory, but considering a multidimensional concept of health care quality. Moreover, new managerial approaches coming from an industrial context and adapted to health care, such as lean management and risk management, can contribute to improving quality performance. Therefore, the opportunity to analyze them arises from studying their overlaps and links in order to identify possible synergies and to investigate the opportunity to develop an integrated methodology enabling improved performance. PMID:24255600

  13. Joining together to combat poverty.

    PubMed

    Heath, I; Haines, A; Malenica, Z; Oulton, J A; Leopando, Z; Kaseje, D; Addington, W W; Giscard D'Estaing, O; Tumwine, J K; Koivusalo, M; Biscoe, G; Nickson, P; Marusić, M; Vuk Pavlović, S

    2000-03-01

    The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around 1.3 billion people live on less than US$1 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries nearly 60% lack access to sanitation, 30% do not have clean water, 20% have no health care, and 20% do not have enough dietary energy and protein. Even among rich nations there are gross socioeconomic inequalities. Many children are robbed of their physical and mental potential through poverty. Expressed in constant 1963 US dollars, an average Croatian family needed the annual income of US$894 to meet the poverty line in 1960 and US$9,027 in 1995. Accordingly, 9-25% of Croatian households were below the poverty line between 1960 and 1995. The increase in the poverty rate after 1991 was compounded by the war that destroyed almost a third of industrial capacity and infrastructure. Dissipation of the communist economy and inadequate privatization have contributed to the increase in unemployment rate, corruption, and other social ills. IPHN invited Croatian Medical Journal to publish this editorial to help push the issue of poverty up political and medical agendas on a global level. We argue that a factor contributing to the failure of most large-scale programs against poverty to date is the excessive emphasis on material and infrastructure assistance at the expense of spiritual, moral, and intellectual development. PMID:10810165

  14. Health informatics: managing information to deliver value.

    PubMed

    Ball, M J; Douglas, J V; Lillis, J

    2001-01-01

    Can informatics improve health? This paper answers yes, exploring its components, benefits, and effect on a wide variety of health-related activities. We first examine how information technology enables health informatics, supporting information management and knowledge creation through its four cornerstones. Success factors in using informatics are covered next, including human factors, the role of trained health informaticians, and the importance of matching informatics initiatives with business goals and establishing and measuring value. We demonstrate the potential effect of the Internet on health services through such e-health applications as enterprise-wide patient records, state-of-the-art call centers, and data repositories. For current evidence that informatics is already improving health, we turn to such topics as disease management, telehealth, patient safety, and decision support. As more organizations move informatics from theory into practice and realize its value, they will transform inefficient processes and improve care for all. PMID:11604752

  15. Cooperative Education: Training Health Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, William N.

    Health administration students attending a college or university in Los Angeles, California, participated in a study of the effect of cooperative education. Three groups of students were selected. Group 1 consisted of undergraduate minority students--five males and five females (19-28 years old) with no prior health related work experience. Groups…

  16. Neighborhood Context and the Hispanic Health Paradox: Differential Effects of Immigrant Density on Children’s Wheezing by Poverty, Nativity and Medical History

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-An; Grineski, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that immigrant enclaves provide respiratory health benefits for US Hispanic residents. We test if immigrant enclaves provide differential respiratory health benefits for Hispanic children in El Paso (Texas) based on individual-level factors. Results reveal that higher neighborhood immigrant density is associated with reduced odds of wheezing, but that the protective immigrant enclave effect is modified by poverty, general health status, body mass index (BMI), and caretaker nativity. Higher immigrant density is significantly more protective for poor children and those with foreign-born caretakers; conversely, it is significantly less protective for children in worse health and those with higher BMI. These findings foster a novel understanding of how immigrant enclaves may be differentially protective for Hispanic children based on individual-level factors. PMID:24509419

  17. Rotorcraft Health Management Issues and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Huff, Edward M.; Augustin, Michael; Safa-Bakhsh, Robab; Ephraim, Piet; Grabil, Paul; Decker, Harry J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of health management issues and challenges that are specific to rotorcraft. Rotorcraft form a unique subset of air vehicles in that their propulsion system is used not only for propulsion, but also serves as the primary source of lift and maneuvering of the vehicle. No other air vehicle relies on the propulsion system to provide these functions through a transmission system with single critical load paths without duplication or redundancy. As such, health management of the power train is a critical and unique part of any rotorcraft health management system. This paper focuses specifically on the issues and challenges related to the dynamic mechanical components in the main power train. This includes the transmission and main rotor mechanisms. This paper will review standard practices used for rotorcraft health management, lessons learned from fielded trials, and future challenges.

  18. Managing Health and Safety in Science Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrows, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Discusses strategies for managing health and safety within science departments. Emphasizes the importance of risk assessment for both pupil activities and those carried out by technicians. Stresses the role of training and the need for security. (MM)

  19. Development and Testing of Propulsion Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Lekki, John D.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    An Integrated Vehicle Health Management system aims to maintain vehicle health through detection, diagnostics, state awareness, prognostics, and lastly, mitigation of detrimental situations for each of the vehicle subsystems and throughout the vehicle as a whole. This paper discusses efforts to advance Propulsion Health Management technology for in-flight applications to provide improved propulsion sensors measuring a range of parameters, improve ease of propulsion sensor implementation, and to assess and manage the health of gas turbine engine flow-path components. This combined work is intended to enable real-time propulsion state assessments to accurately determine the vehicle health, reduce loss of control, and to improve operator situational awareness. A unique aspect of this work is demonstration of these maturing technologies on an operational engine.

  20. Risk management issues in postmenopausal health care.

    PubMed

    Edozien, Leroy C

    2007-12-01

    As in other areas of clinical activity, unintended harm to patients may occur in the course of postmenopausal health care, and measures to ensure patient safety should be actively promoted. This paper discusses the application of some basic principles of risk management to postmenopausal health care. To facilitate communication and reduce errors in diagnosis and treatment, risk management should be incorporated in the development of a dedicated menopause service. PMID:18088524

  1. The Learning, Physical and Emotional Environment of the Home in the Context of Poverty: The Infant Health and Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gun, Jeanne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the impact of individual environmental and biological risks on the home environment of three-year olds in a sample of low birth weight, premature infants. Suggests that compared to nonpoor families, poor families experienced more multiple risk factors. Poverty clearly had a negative effect on the provision of learning experiences,…

  2. American Health Information Management Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stakeholders Code-Check™ ICD-10 Trainer Program Privacy & Security Overview HIM Role Education Certification P&S Month Informatics & ... Sponsorship Events Calendar Of Events HIP Week Privacy & Security Month CAREER & STUDENT CENTER Health Information 101 What ...

  3. Applying business management models in health care.

    PubMed

    Trisolini, Michael G

    2002-01-01

    Most health care management training programmes and textbooks focus on only one or two models or conceptual frameworks, but the increasing complexity of health care organizations and their environments worldwide means that a broader perspective is needed. This paper reviews five management models developed for business organizations and analyses issues related to their application in health care. Three older, more 'traditional' models are first presented. These include the functional areas model, the tasks model and the roles model. Each is shown to provide a valuable perspective, but to have limitations if used in isolation. Two newer, more 'innovative' models are next discussed. These include total quality management (TQM) and reengineering. They have shown potential for enabling dramatic improvements in quality and cost, but have also been found to be more difficult to implement. A series of 'lessons learned' are presented to illustrate key success factors for applying them in health care organizations. In sum, each of the five models is shown to provide a useful perspective for health care management. Health care managers should gain experience and training with a broader set of business management models. PMID:12476639

  4. Managed care in four managed competition OECD health systems.

    PubMed

    Shmueli, Amir; Stam, Piet; Wasem, Jürgen; Trottmann, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Managed care emerged in the American health system in the 1980s as a way to manage suppliers' induced demand and to contain insurers' costs. While in Israel the health insurers have always been managed care organizations, owning health care facilities, employing medical personnel or contracting selectively with independent providers, European insurers have been much more passive, submitting themselves to collective agreements between insurers' and providers' associations, accompanied by extensive government regulation of prices, quantities, and budgets. With the 1990s reforms, and the introduction of risk-adjusted "managed competition", a growing pressure to allow the European insurers to manage their own care - including selective contracting with providers - has emerged, with varying speed of the introduction of policy changes across the individual countries. This paper compares experiences with managed care in Israel, The Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland since the 1990s. After a brief description of the health insurance markets in the four countries, we focus comparatively on the emergence of managed care in the markets for ambulatory care and inpatient market care. We conclude with an evaluation of the current situation and a discussion of selected health policy issues. PMID:25776034

  5. Financial management in leading health care systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, D G; Wheeler, J R; Rivenson, H L; Reiter, K L

    2000-01-01

    To understand better the financial management practices and strategies of modern health care organizations, we conducted interviews with chief financial officers (CFOs) of several leading health care systems. In this introduction, we present an overview of the project and summary responses on corporate financial structures and strategic challenges facing CFOs. PMID:10845383

  6. Integrated System Health Management Development Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Jorge; Smith, Harvey; Morris, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This software toolkit is designed to model complex systems for the implementation of embedded Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) capability, which focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex system (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, and predict future anomalies), and to provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) to control systems for safe and effective operation.

  7. Home Health Management Aide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincemoyer, Betty Jane

    The report describes a demonstration project to provide a course of study at the senior high level in home health management for the academically handicapped. The course consisted of practice in nursing skills, home management and laboratory work in food preparation techniques, the family, and child care. Activities included field trips,…

  8. Training managers for primary health care.

    PubMed

    Kekki, P

    1994-01-01

    The University of Helsinki has devised a powerful in-service training course for managers of health centres. By working together at the University and their own centres on setting objectives, analysing data and solving problems, the participants greatly enhance their management and teamwork skills. PMID:7945761

  9. Research collaboration in health management research communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study uses scientometrics methodology to reveal the status quo and emerging issues of collaboration in health management. Methods We searched all the articles with the keyword “health management” in the period 1999–2011 in Web of Knowledge, then 3067 articles were found. Methods such as Social network analysis (SNA), co-authorship, co-word analysis were used in this study. Results Analysis of the past 13 years of research in the field of health management indicates that, whether the production of scientific research, or authors, institutions and scientific research collaboration at the national level, collaboration behavior has been growing steadily across all collaboration types. However, the international scientific research cooperation about health management study between countries needs to be further encouraged. 17 researchers can be seen as the academic leaders in this field. 37 research institutions play a vital role in the information dissemination and resources control in health management. The component analysis found that 22 research groups can be regarded as the backbone in this field. The 8 institution groups consisting of 33 institutions form the core of this field. USA, UK and Australia lie in the center by cohesive subgroup analysis; Based on keywords analysis, 44 keywords with high frequency such as care, disease, system and model were involved in the health management field. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although it is growing steadily, collaboration behavior about health management study needs to be enhanced, especially between different institutions or countries/regions, which would promote the progress and internationalization of health management. Besides, researchers should pay attention to the cooperation of representative scholars and institutions, as well as the hot areas of research, because their experience would help us promote the research development of our nation. PMID:23617236

  10. Structural adjustment programs and the trickle-down effect: a case study of the Fujimori period in Peru, using reproductive health as an indicator for levels of poverty.

    PubMed

    Menon, Sonia Simone

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to investigate whether the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/United Nations/World Bank (OECD/UN/WB) poverty reduction objectives are compatible with the neo-liberal development model, using Peru as a case study. Three OECD/UN reproductive health indicators were selected to assess poverty: female literacy, infant mortality and maternal mortality. Fertility rates were also analyzed to explore the impact that neo-Malthusian policies have wielded. Shortly after his ascendance to power in 1990, President Fujimori undertook health finance reforms to promote cost-effectiveness and efficiency under political guidance from international financial institutions (IFIs). Internationally, Peru was portrayed as a neo-liberal success story. However, maternal mortality rates throw into contention claims that economic growth has a trickle-down effect. From the fertility rates, it can be deduced that the advent of structural adjustment has led to a resurgence of a neo-Malthusianism approach, putting family planning on the front burner, to the detriment of reproductive health. PMID:18567951

  11. Simulation modeling for the health care manager.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the use of simulation software to solve administrative problems faced by health care managers. Spreadsheet add-ins, process simulation software, and discrete event simulation software are available at a range of costs and complexity. All use the Monte Carlo method to realistically integrate probability distributions into models of the health care environment. Problems typically addressed by health care simulation modeling are facility planning, resource allocation, staffing, patient flow and wait time, routing and transportation, supply chain management, and process improvement. PMID:19668066

  12. Job redesign and the health care manager.

    PubMed

    Layman, Elizabeth J

    2007-01-01

    Health care supervisors and managers are often asked to redesign jobs in their departments. Frequently, little information accompanies the directive. This article lists sources of change in work and defines key terms. Also reviewed are factors that supervisors and managers can weigh in their redesigns. The article suggests actions aligned to common problems in the work environment. Finally, guidelines for a practical, step-by-step approach are provided. For health care supervisors and managers, the key to a successful job redesign is to achieve the unique balance of factors that matches the situation. PMID:17464222

  13. Avoiding the Water-Climate-Poverty Trap: Adaptive Risk Management for Bangladesh's Coastal Embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Our recent research on water security (Sadoff et al., 2015, Dadson et al., 2015) has revealed the dynamic relationship between water security and human well-being. A version of this dynamic is materialising in the coastal polder areas of Khulna, Bangladesh. Repeated coastal floods increase salinity, wipe out agricultural yields for several years and increase out-migration. As a tool to help inform and target future cycles of investment in improvements to the coastal embankments, in this paper we propose a dynamical model of biophysical processes and human well-being, which downscales our previous research to the Khulna region. State variables in the model include agricultural production, population, life expectancy and child mortality. Possible infrastructure interventions include embankment improvements, groundwater wells and drainage infrastructure. Hazard factors include flooding, salinization and drinking water pollution. Our system model can be used to inform adaptation decision making by testing the dynamical response of the system to a range of possible policy interventions, under uncertain future conditions. The analysis is intended to target investment and enable adaptive resource reallocation based on learning about the system response to interventions over the seven years of our research programme. The methodology and paper will demonstrate the complex interplay of factors that determine system vulnerability to climate change. The role of climate change uncertainties (in terms of mean sea level rise and storm surge frequency) will be evaluated alongside multiple other uncertain factors that determine system response. Adaptive management in a 'learning system' will be promoted as a mechanism for coping with climate uncertainties. References:Dadson, S., Hall, J.W., Garrick, D., Sadoff, C. and Grey, D. Water security, risk and economic growth: lessons from a dynamical systems model, Global Environmental Change, in review.Sadoff, C.W., Hall, J.W., Grey, D

  14. Management academy for public health: creating entrepreneurial managers.

    PubMed

    Orton, Stephen; Umble, Karl; Zelt, Sue; Porter, Janet; Johnson, Jim

    2007-04-01

    The Management Academy for Public Health develops public health managers' management skills. Ultimately, the program aims to develop civic entrepreneurs who can improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of their organizations. With help from a coach, teams write public health business plans to meet needs in their communities. An external evaluation found that 119 teams trained during the first 3 years of the program generated more than $6 million in enhanced revenue-including grants, contracts, and fees through their business plans--from $2 million in program funding. Approximately 38% of the teams expected to generate revenue from an academy business plan or a spin-off plan. Action-learning methods can help midcareer managers transfer their training to the workplace and build entrepreneurial skills. PMID:17329658

  15. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health. PMID:18049180

  16. Grazing management and ecosystem health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbivore activity interacts with weather and vegetation to markedly affect soil condition, biotic activity, and nutrient cycling in pasture and range. In turn, soil condition regulates the impact of environment on nutrient cycling, vegetation, herd or flock management, and animal productivity. Ther...

  17. Legacy for ChildrenTM: a pair of randomized controlled trials of a public health model to improve developmental outcomes among children in poverty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One in five Americans under age 18 lives in a family below the Federal poverty threshold. These more than 15 million children are at increased risk of a wide variety of adverse long-term health and developmental outcomes. The early years of life are critical to short- and long-term health and well-being. The Legacy for ChildrenTM model was developed in response to this need and marries the perspectives of epidemiology and public health to developmental psychology theory in order to better address the needs of children at environmental risk for poor developmental outcomes. Methods/design The Legacy for ChildrenTM group-based parenting intervention model was evaluated as a pair of randomized controlled trials among low-income families in Miami and Los Angeles. The study was designed to allow for site-stratified analysis in order to evaluate each model implementation separately. Evaluation domains include comprehensive assessments of family, maternal, and child characteristics, process outcomes, and prospective programmatic cost. Data collection began prenatally or at birth and continues into school-age. Discussion The societal costs of poor developmental outcomes are substantial. A concerted effort from multiple sectors and disciplines, including public health, is necessary to address these societal concerns. Legacy uses a public health model to engage parents and promote overall child well-being in families in poverty through rigorous evaluation methodologies and evidence-based intervention strategies. This study collects rich and modular information on maternal and child outcomes, process, and cost that will enable a detailed understanding of how Legacy works, how it can be refined and improved, and how it can be translated and disseminated. Taken together, these results will inform public policy and help to address issues of health disparities among at-risk populations. Trial registration NCT00164697 PMID:22917446

  18. Real health plans manage care.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The public sector might seem to be an appealing growth opportunity to commercial insurers confronted by stalled private-sector coverage expansion, but whether these insurers have the means and motivation to deliver value to Medicare and Medicaid is unproven. State Medicaid purchasers in particular have found alternative sources for care management and have sound reasons to question whether industry-leading commercial insurers will be responsive to their needs. PMID:17102171

  19. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  20. Health-care waste management in India.

    PubMed

    Patil, A D; Shekdar, A V

    2001-10-01

    Health-care waste management in India is receiving greater attention due to recent regulations (the Biomedical Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998). The prevailing situation is analysed covering various issues like quantities and proportion of different constituents of wastes, handling, treatment and disposal methods in various health-care units (HCUs). The waste generation rate ranges between 0.5 and 2.0 kg bed-1 day-1. It is estimated that annually about 0.33 million tonnes of waste are generated in India. The solid waste from the hospitals consists of bandages, linen and other infectious waste (30-35%), plastics (7-10%), disposable syringes (0.3-0.5%), glass (3-5%) and other general wastes including food (40-45%). In general, the wastes are collected in a mixed form, transported and disposed of along with municipal solid wastes. At many places, authorities are failing to install appropriate systems for a variety of reasons, such as non-availability of appropriate technologies, inadequate financial resources and absence of professional training on waste management. Hazards associated with health-care waste management and shortcomings in the existing system are identified. The rules for management and handling of biomedical wastes are summarised, giving the categories of different wastes, suggested storage containers including colour-coding and treatment options. Existing and proposed systems of health-care waste management are described. A waste-management plan for health-care establishments is also proposed, which includes institutional arrangements, appropriate technologies, operational plans, financial management and the drawing up of appropriate staff training programmes. PMID:11721600

  1. Applying e-health to case management.

    PubMed

    Adams, J M

    2000-01-01

    The healthcare industry is only beginning to understand e-health. E-health can be defined as the use of technology to directly improve healthcare delivery-affording patients the opportunity to participate in their own healthcare management, provider, and institution. The market is changing rapidly, and innovations, partnerships, and mergers are taking place daily. For healthcare institutions, setting a long-term, yet adaptable e-health strategy is of vital importance for the continued success of the organization. For clinicians, an understanding of and familiarity with technologies can significantly improve workflow, organization, and patient interaction. For the patient, technology can be leveraged as a means to take initiative and responsibility for his/her own health. This article defines e-health and explains the implications and benefits of e-health to nurses and their patients. The article also identifies unique opportunities e-health/e-commerce can provide case managers in promoting patient connectivity, care management, and economy in cost of care. PMID:16397993

  2. Health monitoring for effective management of infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktan, A. Emin; Catbas, Fikret N.; Grimmelsman, Kirk A.; Pervizpour, Mesut; Curtis, Joshua M.; Shen, Kaizhen; Qin, Xiaoli

    2002-06-01

    Significance of effectively managing civil infrastructure systems (CIS) throughout CIS life-cycles, and especially during and after natural or man-made disasters is well recognized. Disaster mitigation includes preparedness for hazards to avoid casualties and human suffering, as well as to ensure that critical CIS components can become operational within a short amount of time following a disaster. It follows that mitigating risk due to disasters and CIS managementare intersecting and interacting societal concerns. A coordinated, multi-disciplinary approach that integrates field, theoretical and laboratory research is necessary for innovating both hazard mitigation and infrastructure management. Health monitoring (HM) of CIS is an emerging paradigm for effective management, including emergency response and recovery management. Challenges and opportunities in health monitoring enabled by recent advances in information technology are discussed in this paper. An example of HM research on an actual CIS test-bed is presented.

  3. Responding to health care reform: how managed health care providers can manage major change overload.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, J J

    1994-02-01

    Multiple pressures for clinical, administrative, economical, and political change face providers today. To cope with a changing society and health care delivery system, change management skills have become essential for survival. However, implementing and managing organizational change demands a level of expertise that is, unfortunately, not readily found in many managed health care organizations. In this article, the author addresses the importance for providers to understand the process of change implementation. PMID:10132445

  4. Managing diversity in the health care workplace.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Dowd, S; Newman Giger, J

    1999-03-01

    Cultural diversity is increasing in the United States as increasing numbers of minorities enter the United States from abroad, and cultural diversity is especially prevalent in the health care workplace. In fact, the health care professions are particularly interested in the presence of minorities among caregivers because this often enhances the cultural competence of care delivery. Nevertheless, subtle discrimination can still be found, and managers must be alert that such behavior is not tolerated. Use of the Giger-Davidhizar Cultural Assessment Model can provide managers with information needed to respond to diversity among staff appropriately. PMID:10351046

  5. Ninez y Pobreza (Childhood and Poverty).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didonet, Vital

    1992-01-01

    Reviews data on child poverty worldwide, providing statistics on 20 poverty-related problems. Examines effects of economic factors (i.e., unemployment, wage stagnation, inflation, and internal migration) and political policies (i.e., military spending over health and education) on child well-being, arguing that families and children themselves…

  6. Adolescent Coping with Poverty-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Wolff, Brian; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Moran, Erica G.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents living in poverty face numerous stressors that are toxic for their mental health and well-being. There are effective strategies for coping with poverty-related stress that have been shown to reduce psychological symptoms in the face of this stress. However, stress itself weakens an adolescent's ability to use these cognitively…

  7. Physicians in health care management: 10. Managing conflict through negotiation.

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux-Charles, L

    1994-01-01

    The recent focus on collaborative relationships in health care means that people and groups must cooperate to accomplish clinical and management tasks. This increasing interdependence may also cause increased organizational conflict. The management of conflicts is critical to the effectiveness of an organization. Negotiating strategies, based on Fisher and Ury's method of "principled negotiation," include establishing superordinate goals, separating the people from the problem, focussing on interests, inventing options, using objective criteria and defining success in terms of gains. PMID:7922944

  8. Hope out of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Roy F.; Tolbert, Marsha; Myers-Oliver, Donna; Brissett, Julia M.; Roland, Annissa J.

    2007-01-01

    In "A Framework of Poverty," Ruby Payne (1998) itemizes the things that characterize poverty-stricken people. She talks about how hard it is for a person to move out of poverty. To not pass poverty on to another generation, one must have a vision. One must have a desire to achieve a better life or a strong support system. Schools must become the…

  9. Strategic service quality management for health care.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E A; Zwelling, L A

    1996-01-01

    Quality management has become one of the most important and most debated topics within the service sector. This is especially true for health care, as the controversy rages on how the existing American system should be restructured. Health care reform aimed at reducing costs and ensuring access to all Americans cannot be allowed to jeopardize the quality of care. As such, total quality management (TQM) has become a vital ingredient to strategic planning within the health care domain. At the heart of any such quality improvement effort is the issue of measurement. TQM cannot be effectively utilized as a competitive weapon unless quality can be accurately defined, measured, evaluated, and monitored over time. Through such analysis a hospital can elect how to expend its limited resources toward those quality improvement projects which will impact customer perceptions of service quality the most. Thus, the purpose of this report is to establish a framework by which to approach the issue of quality measurement, delineate the various components of quality that exist in health care, and explore how these elements affect one another. We propose that the issue of quality measurement in health care be approached as an integration of service quality attributes common to other service organizations and technical quality attributes unique to health care. We hope that this research will serve as a first step toward the synthesis of the various quality attributes inherent in the health care domain and encourage other researchers to address the interactions of the various quality attributes. PMID:8763215

  10. 76 FR 3637 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... was delayed, as described at 75 FR 45628. However, the level of the 2011 poverty guidelines presented... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of... Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar year's increase in...

  11. Towards Open Information Management in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Yli-Hietanen, J; Niiranen, S

    2008-01-01

    The utilization of information technology as tool in health care is increasing. The main benefits stem from the fact that information in electronic form can be transferred to different locations rapidly and from the possibility to automate certain information management tasks. The current technological approach for this automation relies on structured, formally coded representation of information. We discuss the limitations of the current technological approach and present a viewpoint, grounded on previous research and the authors’ own experiences, on how to progress. We present that a bottleneck in the automation of the management of constantly evolving clinical information is caused by the fact that the current technological approach requires the formal coding of information to be static in nature. This inherently hinders the expandability of the information case space to be managed. We present a new paradigm entitled open information management targeting unlimited case spaces. We also present a conceptual example from clinical medicine demonstrating open information management principles and mechanisms. PMID:19415134

  12. Health Occupations Education Program Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.

    This final report describes a project to develop a secondary education program management guide for health occupations education in Iowa. Introductory material includes the following: a summary sheet on project objectives, a description of how the objectives were met, the audience served, an educational equity statement, a statement that the…

  13. Relationship between Managers' Performance and Organizational Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadisadr, Mohammad; Siadat, Seyyedali; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between managers' performance in the field of interpersonal, informational and decision-making tasks with organizational health. To measure the indicators of the model, a questionnaire was prepared and distributed among 113 company of Tehran stock Exchange Market. According to the…

  14. Managing interoperability and complexity in health systems.

    PubMed

    Bouamrane, M-M; Tao, C; Sarkar, I N

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed substantial progress in the use of clinical informatics systems to support clinicians during episodes of care, manage specialised domain knowledge, perform complex clinical data analysis and improve the management of health organisations' resources. However, the vision of fully integrated health information eco-systems, which provide relevant information and useful knowledge at the point-of-care, remains elusive. This journal Focus Theme reviews some of the enduring challenges of interoperability and complexity in clinical informatics systems. Furthermore, a range of approaches are proposed in order to address, harness and resolve some of the many remaining issues towards a greater integration of health information systems and extraction of useful or new knowledge from heterogeneous electronic data repositories. PMID:25579862

  15. Towards a Personal Health Management Assistant.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, G; Quinn, J; Horwitz, C; Swift, M; Allen, J; Galescu, L

    2010-10-01

    We describe design and prototyping efforts for a Personal Health Management Assistant for heart failure patients as part of Project HealthDesign. An assistant is more than simply an application. An assistant understands what its users need to do, interacts naturally with them, reacts to what they say and do, and is proactive in helping them manage their health. In this project, we focused on heart failure, which is not only a prevalent and economically significant disease, but also one that is very amenable to self-care. Working with patients, and building on our prior experience with conversational assistants, we designed and developed a prototype system that helps heart failure patients record objective and subjective observations using spoken natural language conversation. Our experience suggests that it is feasible to build such systems and that patients would use them. The system is designed to support rapid application to other self-care settings. PMID:20937478

  16. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  17. Software Health Management with Bayesian Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengshoel, Ole; Schumann, JOhann

    2011-01-01

    Most modern aircraft as well as other complex machinery is equipped with diagnostics systems for its major subsystems. During operation, sensors provide important information about the subsystem (e.g., the engine) and that information is used to detect and diagnose faults. Most of these systems focus on the monitoring of a mechanical, hydraulic, or electromechanical subsystem of the vehicle or machinery. Only recently, health management systems that monitor software have been developed. In this paper, we will discuss our approach of using Bayesian networks for Software Health Management (SWHM). We will discuss SWHM requirements, which make advanced reasoning capabilities for the detection and diagnosis important. Then we will present our approach to using Bayesian networks for the construction of health models that dynamically monitor a software system and is capable of detecting and diagnosing faults.

  18. Convergent Evolution of Health Information Management and Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, C. J.; Abrams, K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Clearly defined boundaries are disappearing among the activities, sources, and uses of health care data and information managed by health information management (HIM) and health informatics (HI) professionals. Definitions of the professional domains and scopes of practice for HIM and HI are converging with the proliferation of information and communication technologies in health care settings. Convergence is changing both the roles that HIM and HI professionals serve in their organizations as well as the competencies necessary for training future professionals. Many of these changes suggest a blurring of roles and responsibilities with increasingly overlapping curricula, job descriptions, and research agendas. Blurred lines in a highly competitive market create confusion for students and employers. In this essay, we provide some perspective on the changing landscape and suggest a course for the future. First we review the evolving definitions of HIM and HI. We next compare the current domains and competencies, review the characteristics as well as the education and credentialing of both disciplines, and examine areas of convergence. Given the current state, we suggest a path forward to strengthen the contributions HIM and HI professionals and educators make to the evolving health care environment. PMID:25848421

  19. Transforming health information management through technology.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Mary Ellen

    2002-08-01

    No one would deny the need to transform health care. Information technology is capable of transforming health care organizations and delivering measurable value. However, these organizations will have to deploy effective, proactive strategies for managing information and adapting to the opportunities the technology offers. If, for example, an organization wants to become paperless, its information strategy must include appropriate tools to store and access unstructured data components of the medical record as well as structured data. An Electronic Document Management System (EDMS) is a critical element of this strategy. Also, a plan for managing change must be developed to mitigate technology risks. This can be realized through the development of a clear vision of the future and strong leadership, among other key items. PMID:12402636

  20. Poverty nutrition linkages.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2007-10-01

    At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per

  1. Public Employment and Urban Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Bennett

    Improvements in the quality of national--and particularly of urban--life will require even greater expenditures than at present on the delivery of crucial services as education, health protection, recreation, waste disposal, and police and fire protection. Simultaneously, the problem of poverty continues to plague millions, even many who are in…

  2. The Implications of Death for Health: A Terror Management Health Model for Behavioral Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a terror management health model (TMHM). The model integrates disparate health and social psychology literatures to elucidate how the conscious and nonconscious awareness of death can influence the motivational orientation that is most operative in the context of health decisions. Three formal propositions are presented.…

  3. Best practices for health technology management.

    PubMed

    2006-12-01

    In 2006, ECRI's Health Devices Group instituted the Health Devices Achievement Award to honor excellence in health technology management. The application process for this award yielded descriptions of many unique and effective technology management initiatives. This Guidance Article presents some of the best practices gleaned from the top award submissions. The following topics are discussed: The role of human factors testing in the technology management process. We describe one facility's approach to solving a particularly vexing problem: slow telemetry-alarm response times. The use of performance-based service contracting to improve inspection and preventive maintenance (IPM) completion rates. The advantages associated with one health system's process for grouping ventilator-dependent patients who are being cared for outside the intensive care unit. The ability of a technology assessment committee to bring a disciplined approach to the adoption of new technologies. The importance of customer satisfaction to a clinical engineering department. We describe how meeting the caregivers' needs contributes to building a patient-safe environment. The successful implementation of a new patient care technology: local anesthetic pumps. PMID:17300103

  4. Conflict management styles in the health professions.

    PubMed

    Sportsman, Susan; Hamilton, Patti

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine prevalent conflict management styles chosen by students in nursing and to contrast these styles with those chosen by students in allied health professions. The associations among the level of professional health care education and the style chosen were also determined. A convenience sample of 126 students in a comprehensive university completed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), which requires respondents to choose behaviors most characteristic of their response to conflict and classifies these behaviors as one of five styles. There was no significant difference between the prevalent conflict management styles chosen by graduate and undergraduate nursing students and those in allied health. Some of the students were already licensed in their discipline; others had not yet taken a licensing exam. Licensure and educational level were not associated with choice of styles. Women and men had similar preferences. The prevalent style for nursing students was compromise, followed by avoidance. In contrast, avoidance, followed by compromise and accommodation, was the prevalent style for allied health students. When compared to the TKI norms, slightly more than one half of all participants chose two or more conflict management styles, commonly avoidance and accommodation at the 75th percentile or above. Only 9.8% of the participants chose collaboration at that level. Implications for nurse educators, researchers, and administrators are discussed. PMID:17540319

  5. Value-managed mental health benefits.

    PubMed

    Burton, W N; Conti, D J

    1991-03-01

    The First National Bank of Chicago's comprehensive program for mental health services has been shown to be an effective response to the rising demand and cost of mental health care. By assertively managing a benefit plan rather than capriciously cutting it, employees are afforded quality care while the corporation is able to handle the costs of a worthwhile benefit. The plan represented a collaboration of the Benefits and Medical Units, which brought together philosophies of benefit plan management and research regarding primary prevention and early intervention. Employees are afforded education and early intervention while at the work site and appropriate referrals to cost-efficient providers outside the bank. Should they need time away from the work site for treatment, this along with their reentry is also managed to increase the probability of successful recovery. In this way continuity of care is assured so that recurrent disability (eg, rehospitalization, further STD) may be reduced. The 4-year follow-up investigation of the program reveals management of overall mental health care costs, reduction in inpatient psychiatric hospitalization costs, and reduction in the average length of psychiatric short-term disability episodes for employees. PMID:1903154

  6. Poverty Linked to Asthma, Allergy Treatment Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157642.html Poverty Linked to Asthma, Allergy Treatment Failure Patients from low-income households more ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with asthma or food allergies who are poor have worse treatment outcomes, two ...

  7. FAILSAFE Health Management for Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Gregory A.; Wagner, David A.; Wen, Hui Ying; Barry, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The FAILSAFE project is developing concepts and prototype implementations for software health management in mission- critical, real-time embedded systems. The project unites features of the industry-standard ARINC 653 Avionics Application Software Standard Interface and JPL s Mission Data System (MDS) technology (see figure). The ARINC 653 standard establishes requirements for the services provided by partitioned, real-time operating systems. The MDS technology provides a state analysis method, canonical architecture, and software framework that facilitates the design and implementation of software-intensive complex systems. The MDS technology has been used to provide the health management function for an ARINC 653 application implementation. In particular, the focus is on showing how this combination enables reasoning about, and recovering from, application software problems.

  8. Child poverty. Ways forward for the paediatrician: A comprehensive overview of poverty reduction strategies requiring paediatric support

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suparna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The harmful effects of child poverty are well documented. Despite this, progress in poverty reduction in Canada has been slow. A significant gap exists between what is known about eradicating poverty and its implementation. Paediatricians can play an important role in bridging this gap by understanding and advancing child poverty reduction. Establishment of a comprehensive national poverty reduction plan is essential to improving progress. The present review identifies the key components of an effective poverty reduction strategy. These elements include effective poverty screening, promoting healthy child development and readiness to learn, ensuring food and housing security, providing extended health care coverage for the uninsured and using place-based solutions and team-level interventions. Specific economic interventions are also reviewed. Addressing the social determinants of health in these ways is crucial to narrowing disparities in wealth and health so that all children in Canada reach their full potential. PMID:26038640

  9. Child poverty. Ways forward for the paediatrician: A comprehensive overview of poverty reduction strategies requiring paediatric support.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suparna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    The harmful effects of child poverty are well documented. Despite this, progress in poverty reduction in Canada has been slow. A significant gap exists between what is known about eradicating poverty and its implementation. Paediatricians can play an important role in bridging this gap by understanding and advancing child poverty reduction. Establishment of a comprehensive national poverty reduction plan is essential to improving progress. The present review identifies the key components of an effective poverty reduction strategy. These elements include effective poverty screening, promoting healthy child development and readiness to learn, ensuring food and housing security, providing extended health care coverage for the uninsured and using place-based solutions and team-level interventions. Specific economic interventions are also reviewed. Addressing the social determinants of health in these ways is crucial to narrowing disparities in wealth and health so that all children in Canada reach their full potential. PMID:26038640

  10. Making Technology Ready: Integrated Systems Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Oliver, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies work needed by developers to make integrated system health management (ISHM) technology ready and by programs to make mission infrastructure ready for this technology. This paper examines perceptions of ISHM technologies and experience in legacy programs. Study methods included literature review and interviews with representatives of stakeholder groups. Recommendations address 1) development of ISHM technology, 2) development of ISHM engineering processes and methods, and 3) program organization and infrastructure for ISHM technology evolution, infusion and migration.

  11. Structural health management for aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Roy; Haugse, Eric D.

    2001-06-01

    An effective structural health management (SHM) system can be a useful tool for making aircraft fleet management decisions ranging from individual aircraft maintenance scheduling and usage restrictions to fleet rotation strategies. This paper discusses the end-user requirements for the elements and architecture of an effective SHM system for application to both military and commercial aging aircraft fleets. The elements discussed include the sensor systems for monitoring and characterizing the health of the structure, data processing methods for interpreting sensor data and converting it into useable information, and automated methods for erroneous data detection, data archiving and information dissemination. Current and past SHM technology development/maturation efforts in these areas at the Boeing Company will be described. An evolutionary technology development strategy is developed in which the technologies needed will be matured, integrated into a vehicle health management system, and benefits established without requiring extensive changes to the end-user's existing operation and maintenance infrastructure. Issues regarding the end-user customer acceptance of SHM systems are discussed and summarized.

  12. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation. ISHM is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this chapter, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an ISHM capability relevant to intelligent systems. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system, emphasizing an advance toward an on-board, autonomous capability. Both ground-based and on-board ISHM capabilities are addressed. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  13. Using rangeland health assessment to inform successional management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland health assessment provides qualitative information on ecosystem attributes. Successional management is a conceptual framework that allows managers to link information gathered in rangeland health assessment to ecological processes that need to be repaired to allow vegetation to change in ...

  14. The Effects of Poverty Simulation, an Experiential Learning Modality, on Students' Understanding of Life in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandsburger, Etty; Duncan-Daston, Rana; Akerson, Emily; Dillon, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the impact of the Poverty Simulation Project, an experiential learning modality, on students' understanding of life in poverty. A total of 101 students representing 5 undergraduate majors in the College of Health and Human Services completed measures of critical thinking, understanding of others, and the active learning…

  15. Evidence-based health care management: what is the research evidence available for health care managers?

    PubMed

    Jaana, Mirou; Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M

    2014-09-01

    In light of increasing interest in evidence-based management, we conducted a scoping review of systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) to determine the availability and accessibility of evidence for health care managers; 14 MAs and 61 SRs met the inclusion criteria. Most reviews appeared in medical journals (53%), originated in the United States (29%) or United Kingdom (22%), were hospital-based (55%), and targeted clinical providers (55%). Topics included health services organization (34%), quality/patient safety (17%), information technology (15%), organization/workplace management (13%), and health care workforce (12%). Most reviews addressed clinical topics of relevance to managers; management-related interventions were rare. The management issues were mostly classified as operational (65%). Surprisingly, 96.5% of search results were not on target. A better classification within PubMed is needed to increase the accessibility of meaningful resources and facilitate evidence retrieval. Health care journals should take initiatives encouraging the publication of reviews in relevant management areas. PMID:24296471

  16. ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Darwiche, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    This presentation presents status and results of research on Software Health Management done within the NRA "ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management." Topics include: Ingredients of a Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (GN and C); Selected GN and C Testbed example; Health Management of major ingredients; ISWHM testbed architecture; and Conclusions and next Steps.

  17. An Assessment of Integrated Health Management Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Lybeck, Nancy; Coble, Jamie B.; Tawfik, Magdy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-05-18

    In order to meet the ever increasing demand for energy, the United States nuclear industry is turning to life extension of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs). Economically ensuring the safe, secure, and reliable operation of aging NPPs presents many challenges. The 2009 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop identified online monitoring of active and structural components as essential to better understanding and management of the challenges posed by aging NPPs. Additionally, there is increasing adoption of condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components in NPPs. These techniques provide a foundation upon which a variety of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic, and prognostic techniques can be deployed to continuously monitor and assess the health of NPP systems and components. The next step in the development of advanced online monitoring is to move beyond CBM to estimating the remaining useful life of active components using prognostic tools. Deployment of prognostic health management (PHM) on the scale of an NPP requires the use of an integrated health management (IHM) framework - a software product (or suite of products) used to manage the necessary elements needed for a complete implementation of online monitoring and prognostics. This paper provides a thoughtful look at the desirable functions and features of IHM architectures. A full PHM system involves several modules, including data acquisition, system modeling, fault detection, fault diagnostics, system prognostics, and advisory generation (operations and maintenance planning). The standards applicable to PHM applications are indentified and summarized. A list of evaluation criteria for PHM software products, developed to ensure scalability of the toolset to an environment with the complexity of an NPP, is presented. Fourteen commercially available PHM software products are identified and classified into four groups: research tools, PHM system development tools, deployable architectures

  18. Sharing Earth Observation Data When Health Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, E. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    While the global community is struck by pandemics and epidemics from time to time the ability to fully utilize earth observations and integrate environmental information has been limited - until recently. Mature science understanding is allowing new levels of situational awareness be possible when and if the relevant data is available and shared in a timely and useable manner. Satellite and other remote sensing tools have been used to observe, monitor, assess and predict weather and water impacts for decades. In the last few years much of this has included a focus on the ability to monitor changes on climate scales that suggest changes in quantity and quality of ecosystem resources or the "one-health" approach where trans-disciplinary links between environment, animal and vegetative health may provide indications of best ways to manage susceptibility to infectious disease or outbreaks. But the scale of impacts and availability of information from earth observing satellites, airborne platforms, health tracking systems and surveillance networks offer new integrated tools. This presentation will describe several recent events, such as Superstorm Sandy in the United States and the Ebola outbreak in Africa, where public health and health infrastructure have been exposed to environmental hazards and lessons learned from disaster response in the ability to share data have been effective in risk reduction.

  19. Management for School Environmental Health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    Some acts such as the Basic Environment Act are aimed at managing environmental health for a productive living environment in Japan. School is not only a place where lessons for a better future are taught but also an environment in which children spend many hours of their day. Therefore, activities involving regular checks are important to maintain and improve the school environment. Article 5 of the School Health and Safety Act states that schools must make plans and carry out regular checks on school environmental health. Article 6 prescribes that the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology establish a "school environmental health standard". This standard involves metrics on the classroom environment (quality of air, illumination, and noise levels), quality of drinking/pool water and so on, and their standard values and evaluation methods. Article 23 prescribes that each school except colleges/universities have a school pharmacist. The school pharmacist plays an important role in maintaining and improving the school's environmental health. However, the current actions taken are not adequate. Therefore, prospects for future activities will be discussed based on the current situations and problems. PMID:27252052

  20. Towards reframing health service delivery in Uganda: the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of Non-Communicable Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jeremy I.; Dunkle, Ashley; Akiteng, Ann R.; Birabwa-Male, Doreen; Kagimu, Richard; Mondo, Charles K.; Mutungi, Gerald; Rabin, Tracy L.; Skonieczny, Michael; Sykes, Jamila; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is accelerating. Given that the capacity of health systems in LMICs is already strained by the weight of communicable diseases, these countries find themselves facing a double burden of disease. NCDs contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality, thereby playing a major role in the cycle of poverty, and impeding development. Methods Integrated approaches to health service delivery and healthcare worker (HCW) training will be necessary in order to successfully combat the great challenge posed by NCDs. Results In 2013, we formed the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of NCDs (UINCD), a multidisciplinary research collaboration that aims to present a systems approach to integrated management of chronic disease prevention, care, and the training of HCWs. Discussion Through broad-based stakeholder engagement, catalytic partnerships, and a collective vision, UINCD is working to reframe integrated health service delivery in Uganda. PMID:25563451

  1. Poverty in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greever, Sadie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the topic of poverty and its effects upon student behavior and academic performance. Presented in this chapter of the review of the related literature will be: (a) description of poverty and the role of education, (b) effects of poverty on student behavior, (c) effects…

  2. Adolescents and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Vanessa R.

    2011-01-01

    More youth live in poverty and poor youth comprise a larger share of the youth population than was the case a decade ago. This article first provides a descriptive analysis of children in poverty; examining the incidence of poverty among children by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics with a particular focus on…

  3. Reducing Poverty among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1985

    1985-01-01

    In response to the highest poverty rate among children since the 1960s, this report examines existing Federal policies to assist poor families with children and analyzes over 40 policy alternatives. Chapter 1 discusses how poverty is measured, recent trends and current patterns of childhood poverty as officially measured, and the effects of using…

  4. Poverty Profile USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procopio, Mariellen; Perella, Frederick J., Jr.

    This second edition of "Poverty Profile", published by the Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle as part of their Campaign for Human Development, updates the data examined in the earlier (1972) edition and examines some of the current social welfare programs designed to alleviate the affects of poverty. The extent to which poverty affects…

  5. Cumulative risk and AIDS-orphanhood: interactions of stigma, bullying and poverty on child mental health in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Research shows that AIDS-orphaned children are more likely to experience clinical-range psychological problems. Little is known about possible interactions between factors mediating these high distress levels. We assessed how food insecurity, bullying, and AIDS-related stigma interacted with each other and with likelihood of experiencing clinical-range disorder. In South Africa, 1025 adolescents completed standardised measures of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress. 52 potential mediators were measured, including AIDS-orphanhood status. Logistic regressions and hierarchical log-linear modelling were used to identify interactions among significant risk factors. Food insecurity, stigma and bullying all independently increased likelihood of disorder. Poverty and stigma were found to interact strongly, and with both present, likelihood of disorder rose from 19% to 83%. Similarly, bullying interacted with AIDS-orphanhood status, and with both present, likelihood of disorder rose from 12% to 76%. Approaches to alleviating psychological distress amongst AIDS-affected children must address cumulative risk effects. PMID:19713022

  6. The hierarchy of work pursuits of public health managers.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Luft, Sabine; Bender, Wolfgang; Callen, Joanne; Westbrook, Johanna I; Westbrook, Mary T; Mallock, Nadine A; Iedema, Rick; Hindle, Donald; Jochelson, Tanya

    2007-05-01

    How public health is managed in various settings is an important but under-examined issue. We examine themes in the management literature, contextualize issues facing public health managers and investigate the relative importance placed on their various work pursuits using a 14-activity management model empirically derived from studies of clinician-managers in hospitals. Ethnographic case studies of 10 managers in nine diverse public health settings were conducted. The case study accounts of managers' activities were content analysed, and substantive words encapsulating their work were categorized using the model. Managerial activities of the nine public health managers were ranked according to the number of words describing each activity. Kendall's coefficient of concordance yielded W = 0.710, P < 0.000, revealing significant similarity between the activity patterns of the public health managers. A rank order correlation between the activity patterns of the average ranks for the public health sample and for the hospital clinician-managers (n = 52) was R = 0.420, P = 0.131, indicating no significant relationship between relative activity priorities of the two groups. Public health managers put less emphasis on pursuits associated with structure, hierarchy and education, and more on external relations and decision-making. The model of hospital clinician-managers' managerial activities is applicable to public health managers while identifying differences in the way the two groups manage. The findings suggest that public health management work is more managerialist than previously thought. PMID:17524219

  7. [Population trends and poverty].

    PubMed

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs. PMID:12178231

  8. Structural Health Management for Future Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Allison, S. G.; Woodard, S. E.; Wincheski, R. A.; Cooper, E. G.; Price, D. C.; Hedley, M.; Prokopenko, M.; Scott, D. A.; Tessler, A.

    2004-01-01

    Structural Health Management (SHM) will be of critical importance to provide the safety, reliability and affordability necessary for the future long duration space missions described in America's Vision for Space Exploration. Long duration missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond cannot be accomplished with the current paradigm of periodic, ground based structural integrity inspections. As evidenced by the Columbia tragedy, this approach is also inadequate for the current Shuttle fleet, thus leading to its initial implementation of on-board SHM sensing for impact detection as part of the return to flight effort. However, future space systems, to include both vehicles as well as structures such as habitation modules, will require an integrated array of onboard in-situ sensing systems. In addition, advanced data systems architectures will be necessary to communicate, store and process massive amounts of SHM data from large numbers of diverse sensors. Further, improved structural analysis and design algorithms will be necessary to incorporate SHM sensing into the design and construction of aerospace structures, as well as to fully utilize these sensing systems to provide both diagnosis and prognosis of structural integrity. Ultimately, structural integrity information will feed into an Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) system that will provide real-time knowledge of structural, propulsion, thermal protection and other critical systems for optimal vehicle management and mission control. This paper will provide an overview of NASA research and development in the area of SHM as well as to highlight areas of technology improvement necessary to meet these future mission requirements.

  9. A Distributed Prognostic Health Management Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskar, Saha; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a generic distributed prognostic health management (PHM) architecture with specific application to the electrical power systems domain. Current state-of-the-art PHM systems are mostly centralized in nature, where all the processing is reliant on a single processor. This can lead to loss of functionality in case of a crash of the central processor or monitor. Furthermore, with increases in the volume of sensor data as well as the complexity of algorithms, traditional centralized systems become unsuitable for successful deployment, and efficient distributed architectures are required. A distributed architecture though, is not effective unless there is an algorithmic framework to take advantage of its unique abilities. The health management paradigm envisaged here incorporates a heterogeneous set of system components monitored by a varied suite of sensors and a particle filtering (PF) framework that has the power and the flexibility to adapt to the different diagnostic and prognostic needs. Both the diagnostic and prognostic tasks are formulated as a particle filtering problem in order to explicitly represent and manage uncertainties; however, typically the complexity of the prognostic routine is higher than the computational power of one computational element ( CE). Individual CEs run diagnostic routines until the system variable being monitored crosses beyond a nominal threshold, upon which it coordinates with other networked CEs to run the prognostic routine in a distributed fashion. Implementation results from a network of distributed embedded devices monitoring a prototypical aircraft electrical power system are presented, where the CEs are Sun Microsystems Small Programmable Object Technology (SPOT) devices.

  10. Functions and Positions of Corporate Occupational Health Managers in Company-Wide Occupational Health Management.

    PubMed

    Mori, Koji; Nagata, Tomohisa; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Hino, Yoshiyuki; Nagata, Masako

    2013-08-21

    Objectives: It has become necessary for Japanese corporations to manage occupational health (OH) programs consistently throughout their organizations. Corporations need to clarify their health policies, develop standardized programs, assign OH staff, and ensure that they communicate with each other. To realize such conditions, many occupational physicians (OPs), who have the skills to lead corporation-wide OH activities, are now being assigned to head offices of corporations and referred to as corporate OH managers. However, there has been no research to date in Japan on their actual situation and function. We conducted an interview study of corporate OH managers to clarify their functions and positions in corporations. Subjects and Methods: We conducted semi-structural interviews with 14 corporate OH managers in large corporations employing more than 5,000 workers and multiple OPs. Interview scripts were coded to identify their functions as corporate OH managers and the context of their positions within corporate-wide OH management systems. Results: Five contexts were suggested. 1) Corporate OH managers played central roles in developing corporate health policies, standards and plans. 2) Head office department managers who supervised the sites distributed the policies and standards, and corporate OH managers instructed site OPs and OH staff. 3) In some corporations, corporate OH managers participated in the evaluation process of OH programs as part of occupational safety and health management systems or business audits. 4) Corporate OH managers led communications among OPs and OH staff by facilitating corporate OH meetings, and provided technical training. 5) Corporate OH managers in positions that enabled them to report directly or indirectly to decision makers (i.e., directors in charge) on human resource issues. Discussion: The results of this study suggest that companies that promote consistent company-wide OH programs also utilized the professional knowledge