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1

Health, poverty and human development: A review and further analysis of effects of poverty on health: Clinical manifestations and management of a patient of malnutrition in Khartoum, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Health-damaging effects of economic poverty can lead to, exacerbate and perpetuate poverty. Because the health sector generally has little or no control over many of the most powerful influences on health, such as education, food supply, housing, environmental hazards, and work conditions, it faces the practical challenge of identifying how, alone and in coordination with other sectors, it can

Nitin Ashok John

2007-01-01

2

Poverty and Women's Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the prevalence and rise of poverty in the United States, which is found particularly among women, children, and those from minority groups. Discusses the positive association between poverty and mental health problems. Describes the impact of poverty on women, and the need for research to discover the psychological impact of poverty. (JS)

Belle, Deborah

1990-01-01

3

Social evils, poverty & health.  

PubMed

There is a close association between social circumstances and health. In India, there is a significant burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases. Risk factors responsible for these conditions are underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene, indoor smoke pollution, zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiency, tobacco use, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. All these risk factors are influenced by social factors and in India the more important factors are poverty and illiteracy. Changing lifestyles as a result of rising incomes are significant risk factors for non communicable diseases. The social evils that influence poverty and health are macrolevel national and regional issues such as physical geography, governance patterns and failures, geopolitics, economic policy, natural resources decline, population growth, the demographic trap and the fiscal trap. Household and microlevel factors include the poverty trap, cultural barriers, lack of innovation and saving, absence of trade or business, unemployment, technological reversal, adverse productivity shock, social issues related to females, and adolescent social issues. Social determinants important for non communicable diseases, defined by the World Health Organization include the social gradient, stress, early life events, social exclusion, improper work conditions, unemployment, lack of social support, addiction, food scarcity or excess and uneven distribution, lack of proper transport, and illiteracy or low educational status. There are multiple pathways through which social factors influence health, and pathophysiological mechanisms involve homeostatic and allostatic changes in response to stress, neuroendocrine changes and altered autonomic functions, and abnormal inflammatory and immune responses. A concerted action to eradicate these social evils shall have to focus on reducing poverty, improving educational status and providing equitable and accessible healthcare to all. PMID:18032803

Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Praneet

2007-10-01

4

Poverty Experience, Race, and Child Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

c SYNOPSIS Objectives. Studies that examine children's poverty and health at one point in time do not account for some children experiencing poverty briefly and others living in poverty for much of their lives. The objective of this study was to determine how duration of poverty and child race are related to child health. Methods. To assess these relationships, we

Jennifer Malat; Hyun Joo Oh

2005-01-01

5

Poverty and health sector inequalities.  

PubMed Central

Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities. PMID:11953787

Wagstaff, Adam

2002-01-01

6

Environment, poverty and health linkages in the Wami River basin: A search for sustainable water resource management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wami Rivers basin is an important area due to its diversified use which benefits a multi-diversity of stakeholders. While large scale irrigated sugar production is the main issue of concern upstream, there are other equally important socio-economic activities which include biodiversity and environmental conservation, domestic water supply, livestock water needs, and fishing. A large water supply project has just been completed downstream of the Wami River to provide water for the Chalinze township and surrounding villages. Other important undertakings include irrigated rice farming in Dakawa area, livestock keeping activities, and the establishment of the Sadani National Park (SANAPA) and the Wami-Mbiki Wildlife Management Area (WMA). The Wami River basin forms significant parts of both the Wami-Mbiki WMA and the SANAPA wildlife conservation areas. Regardless of its importance, the basin is increasingly being degraded through deforestation for agricultural expansion, timber, and more important charcoal making. The basin is also being polluted through disposal of excess molasses from the sugar industry, and use of poisonous substances and herbs in fishing. The worsening environmental condition in the basin has become a health threat to both people in the surrounding villages and wildlife. To a large extent, such changes are intensifying poverty levels among the local population. These changes are raising concerns about the long-term environmental sustainability and health implications of the current water use competition and conflicts in the basin. The purpose of this paper is to examine the main water resource use conflicts and how they affect environmental sustainability in the long-run. It also intends to establish linkages between wildlife management, pastoralism, agricultural activities and how such linkages influence poverty alleviation efforts in the basin. An attempt has been made to examine the environmental and health implications of human activities in the basin in relation to poverty indicators, people’s lifestyle, and integrated water resource use in the Wami River basin. In the process of examining linkages and sources of conflicts, key strategies to harmonize the interests of various stakeholders and ensure integrated and sustainable use of the Wami River waters will be identified. As a conclusion to paper, issues related to population pressure, pollution, wildlife, pastoralism and many others will be discussed with the view of harmonizing the needs of various stakeholders and minimizing their effect on the river ecosystem. The discussion shows how poverty levels are linked to resources over-exploitation, hence limiting sustainability in the basin. Under the current poverty levels in almost all villages surrounding the Wami River basin, there is no alternative ways or technology to replace non-sustainable resource exploitation. Many villages depend on charcoal burning and selling as a survival strategy and source of income.

Madulu, Ndalahwa F.

7

Poverty and health in West Germany.  

PubMed

The relationship between poverty and several health-related characteristics in West Germany was investigated. Data were derived from the National and Regional Health Surveys conducted in West Germany from 1984 to 1992. 25,544 males and 25,719 females with German nationality aged 25-69 years were examined. Poverty was defined as a household income of 50% less than the mean for West Germany. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between poverty and four health variables: individual health behavior, subjective assessment of health status, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported prevalence of lifetime chronic diseases. 10.2% of males and 12.8% of females were classified as being below the poverty line. For most but not all health parameters, less favourable results were found for the segment of the population with a household income below the poverty line. The most striking poverty-related differences were observed for lack of regular sport activities, subjective health satisfaction, obesity and myocardial infarction/stroke. Significantly lower prevalence rates for study subjects below the poverty line were observed for hypercholesterolemia in females only. Allergic disorders were the only chronic diseases reported significantly less often in males and females below the poverty line. Poverty has strong effects on individual health status and the prevalence of chronic diseases. Due to the rising unemployment rates in Germany in the last years it is very likely that the strong negative consequences of poverty for health are increasing. PMID:9403948

Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

1997-01-01

8

Poverty, equity, human rights and health.  

PubMed Central

Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647

Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

2003-01-01

9

Child Poverty, Maternal Health and Social Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article begins with a discussion of the relations among family poverty, poor health and employment. It argues that some lone mothers are unable to keep their children out of poverty because poor health interferes with finding or maintaining employment. These issues are discussed with reference to the international literature, and also in the light of the results of a

Maureen Baker

2002-01-01

10

Poverty, Ethnic Identity, and Health Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book tries to present the health care problems of the major ethnic minority groups in perspective. Although poverty is probably the most crucial variable in the genesis of these problems, there are still many subtle and not so subtle forms of discrimination operating in the health field. Unfortunately, discrimination in other aspects of…

Bullough, Bonnie; Bullough, Vern L.

11

Women's Health, Poverty and Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wendy Harcourt maps out some concerns about the impact of globalization on poor women's health. She argues that in a pro-poor health strategy it is crucial to understand the different realities of poor women and men's lives and the complex economic and social factors determining their health and well-being. She focuses on how women's reproductive rights and health groups have

Wendy Harcourt

2001-01-01

12

Poverty & health: criticality of public financing.  

PubMed

Countries with universal or near universal access to healthcare have health financing mechanisms which are single-payer systems in which either a single autonomous public agency or a few coordinated agencies pool resources to finance healthcare. This contributes to both equity in healthcare as well as to low levels of poverty in these countries. It is only in countries like India and a number of developing countries, which still rely mostly on out-of-pocket payments, where universal access to healthcare is elusive. In such countries those who have the capacity to buy healthcare from the market most often get healthcare without having to pay for it directly because they are either covered by social insurance or buy private insurance. In contrast, a large majority of the population, who suffers a hand-to-mouth existence, is forced to make direct payments, often with a heavy burden of debt, to access healthcare from the market because public provision is grossly inadequate or non existent. Thus, the absence of adequate public health investment not only results in poor health outcomes but it also leads to escalation of poverty. This article critically reviews the linkages of poverty with healthcare financing using evidence from national surveys and concludes that public financing is critical to good access to healthcare for the poor and its inadequacy is closely associated with poverty levels in the country. PMID:18032806

Duggal, Ravi

2007-10-01

13

Child Health and Poverty in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the health status of Pakistani children using two important indicators, morbidity and malnutrition measured by weight-for-age and height-for-age. The demand for medical services has also been determined. The main data source used in this study is the 2000-01 Pakistan Social-Economic Survey (PSES), which provides sufficient information on child health and poverty. Findings of the study show that

G. M. Arif

2004-01-01

14

Evaluations of the War on Poverty: Health Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the current state of the art for evaluating health programs, with emphasis on the relationship between health status and poverty. Four health programs were examined: family planning, neighborhood health centers, migrant health programs,...

W. W. Walton

1969-01-01

15

Nexus of Poverty, Energy Balance and Health  

PubMed Central

Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years), 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%), having main occupation of family as business (55.3%), and highest per capita income group (57.1%) with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0%) in SC/ST category and least (65.7%) in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd's Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56), not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56), belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh Classification (AOR 3.73, CI 1.22-11.41), with lowest per capita income (AOR 15.14, CI 2.44-94.14) and in age group >80 years (AOR 5.76, CI 1.03-32.39). Of those in negative energy balance, 70.21% rural adolescent girls and 7 out of 10 geriatric subjects (activity based) were victims of CED. Extent of undernutrition and CED in rural reproductive age group females were more in those caste groups where energy deficit was also of higher magnitude. Energy balance must be visualized giving due consideration to the importance of exercise on human health. The evidence thus generated needs to be translated to the masses based on principles of translational research. PMID:22654278

Mishra, C. P.

2012-01-01

16

A Poverty Simulation to Inform Public Health Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Poverty is a pervasive condition linked to a myriad of health conditions and severe health outcomes. Public health professionals are at the forefront of addressing poverty-related issues and require education that enhances their understanding and cultural competence. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impacts of…

Strasser, Sheryl; Smith, Megan O.; Pendrick Denney, Danielle; Jackson, Matt C.; Buckmaster, Pam

2013-01-01

17

Poverty Status, Health Behaviours, and Health: Implications for Social Assistance and Health Care Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationships among poverty status, health behaviours, and the health of 130 Albertans living in poor families. For the purposes of this study, poverty status indicated whether poor families were receiving social assistance along with comprehensive health care benefits or whether they were working poor without comprehensive health care benefits. Findings from seven separate path analyses indicate

Deanna L. Williamson; Janet E. Fast

1998-01-01

18

Mental health and poverty in the inner city.  

PubMed

Rapid urbanization globally threatens to increase the risk to mental health and requires a rethinking of the relationship between urban poverty and mental health. The aim of this article is to reveal the cyclic nature of this relationship: Concentrated urban poverty cultivates mental illness, while the resulting mental illness reinforces poverty. The authors used theories about social disorganization and crime to explore the mechanisms through which the urban environment can contribute to mental health problems. They present some data on crime, substance abuse, and social control to support their claim that mental illness reinforces poverty. The authors argue that, to interrupt this cycle and improve outcomes, social workers and policymakers must work together to implement a comprehensive mental health care system that emphasizes prevention, reaches young people, crosses traditional health care provision boundaries, and involves the entire community to break this cycle and improve the outcomes of those living in urban poverty. PMID:24437020

Anakwenze, Ujunwa; Zuberi, Daniyal

2013-08-01

19

AIDS, Primary Health Care and Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the complex interrelation between poverty and AIDS. Poverty, in its many and diverse aspects and with its many and diverse consequences, creates a fertile breeding ground for the expansion of HIV\\/AIDS. In turn, HIV\\/AIDS, for its mode of transmission and its epidemiological features, badly affects the livelihood of its victims, their families, their entire communities and countries.

Maurizio Murru

20

The effects of poverty on children's development and oral health.  

PubMed

According to the US Census Bureau, the poverty rate for children under 18 years of age increased to 22% in 2010. Poverty leads to adverse health outcomes in children and adolescents such as harmful effects on learning, psychosocial development, physical health, productivity and family life. Because the citizens and residents of a country are its most valuable assets, it is unwise to allow housing instability, food insecurity and hunger to continue to exist at its current levels. Reducing poverty is likely to prevent illnesses, decrease hospitalizations, and lead to lower health care costs. There is also a need for intervention strategies to ensure equitable access to healthy foods across the world. Children who are food insecure are more likely to be in poor health and to have poor nutritional outcomes. Poverty may lead to poor dental health due to malnutrition or incorrect diet and it may also have an effect on the child's behavior in the dental office. An understanding of poverty will lessen the anger, frustration and prejudice that pediatric dentists may feel when working with low-income families. This manuscript presents a concise overview of the effects of poverty in children's lives. PMID:22353454

da Fonseca, Marcio A

2012-01-01

21

Poverty, Trauma, and Infant Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children growing up in poverty face chronic risk factors, including abuse and neglect, severe maternal depression, parental substance abuse, harsh parenting, and family and community violence as well as greater exposure to physical risks, including substandard housing, lack of access to resources, and environmental toxins. The authors offer…

Lieberman, Alicia F.; Osofsky, Joy D.

2009-01-01

22

Early-Childhood Poverty and Adult Attainment, Behavior, and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…

Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

2010-01-01

23

Relationship between Poverty and Health among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines data on 1,759 adolescents to assess the effect of low socioeconomic status on their health. Results confirm the relationship between income and health. Explains how the pathway to poor health care operates through the social environment, lifestyle differences, access to care, and self-esteem problems. Findings do suggest that physical…

Abernathy, Thomas J.; Webster, Greg; Vermeulen, Marian

2002-01-01

24

Poverty, health and development in dermatology.  

PubMed

The WHO Constitution states that "The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political, economic or social condition." The right to health means that governments must generate conditions in which everyone can be as healthy as possible. Such conditions range from ensuring availability of health services, healthy and safe working conditions, adequate housing and nutritious food. In this report the author analyzes the relationship among health, dermatology and development and tries to find out what the scientific world, including dermatologists, could do for the improvement of health systems. PMID:17958622

Morrone, Aldo

2007-10-01

25

The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.  

PubMed

Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints. PMID:24268002

Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

2013-11-23

26

Poverty, health & intellectual property rights with special reference to India.  

PubMed

This paper examines the nexus between poverty and global health with specific focus on IPR protection and attempts to highlight the current global endeavours to overcome barriers to access to medicines for diseases of the poor. The number of very poor people in the world has increased by 10.4 per cent between 1987 and 2001 to 2735 million. India is now home to the largest number of millionaires in the developing countries. But over 800 million Indians who still survive on Rs 20.0 (US$0.5) a day, and rural poverty is on the rise. The link between poverty and health is well established with the underprivileged are more vulnerable to major health risks due to poor nutrition, inadequate access to clean drinking water, sanitation, exposure to indoor smoke, etc. all of which contribute to the huge and growing burden of disease in the poor countries. The global disease burden is not just huge but growing: over 10 million children die of preventable conditions including vaccine-preventable diseases, about 14 million are killed by infectious diseases every year, 90-95 per cent in poor countries. An estimated third of global population has limited or no access to essential medicines. While the number of poor and unhealthy is growing, Government expenditure on health is dwindling. Many of the diseases of the poor require new medicines and none are forthcoming as there is little R&D for these infections. There are several barriers to access to existing and the newly discovered drugs. One major reason is the general lack of interest by the pharma industry to discover new medicines for diseases of the poor due to very limited market in developing countries. In addition, global intellectual property rights (IPR) protection regimes like the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) are considered a major obstacle for the poor access to medicines. There have been some global initiatives on the need to improve affordability and accessibility of medicines. Some strategies to promote R&D on diseases of the poor such as Prize Fund Model, the Medical R&D Treaty and steps to invoke flexibilities in TRIPS read with Doha Declaration are discussed. Health of the poor is a global problem that requires global solutions with global participation and commitment. PMID:18032814

Satyanarayana, K; Srivastava, S

2007-10-01

27

[Social urban development and poverty control as health promotion].  

PubMed

The Salomon Neumann Medal of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention bears the inscription. "Medicine is a Social Science". This provocative statement is most topical. It compels us to actively promote health by healthier living and environmental conditions apart from medical prevention. A core of this sphere of action is the reduction of social inequalities. Several recent congresses and publications have clearly shown that this subject remains one of the biggest challenges facing health promotion. German law has set the signs for reducing socially rooted inequalities for chances of health. This article postulates the thesis that health promotion can find allies for a healthy public policy in programmes planning for healthy urban development and for combatting poverty. The specific approaches for combatting social inequalities in the health sphere are reported and examples are given how such a health promotion policy may be translated into reality on a communal level. Finally, spotlight is on the dilemma of combatting inequality of chance due to differences in social status. PMID:11329919

Trojan, A

2001-03-01

28

A STUDY ABOUT POVERTY, HEALTH, EDUCATION AND HUMAN DEPRIVATION IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with poverty, health, education and human deprivation among Indian States. Human development evaluates development in conglomerative perspective where as human depeivation analyse it in deprivational perspective. Deprivation in poverty, health, education lead the poor to indulge in the vicious circle. Uplifting the poor from these deprivations is imperative for overall development. This paper proposes a new formula

sivakumarmarimuthu; sarvalingam

2004-01-01

29

Stakeholder perceptions of mental health stigma and poverty in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: World wide, there is plentiful evidence regarding the role of stigma in mental illness, as well as the association between poverty and mental illness. The experiences of stigma catalyzed by poverty revolve around experiences of devaluation, exclusion, and disadvantage. Although the relationship between poverty, stigma and mental illness has been documented in high income countries, little has been written

Joshua Ssebunnya; Fred Kigozi; Crick Lund; Dorothy Kizza; Elialilia Okello

2009-01-01

30

Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis.  

PubMed

Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N=675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls followed into adulthood (M(age)=41). Health indicators (C-Reactive Protein [CRP], hypertension, and pulmonary functioning) were assessed through blood collection and measurements by a registered nurse. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models to control for clustering of participants in childhood neighborhoods. Main effects showed that growing up Black predicted CRP and hypertension elevations, despite controlling for neglect and childhood family and neighborhood poverty and their interactions. Multivariate results showed that race and childhood adversities interacted to predict adult health outcomes. Childhood family poverty predicted increased risk for hypertension for Blacks, not Whites. In contrast, among Whites, childhood neglect predicted elevated CRP. Childhood neighborhood poverty interacted with childhood family poverty to predict pulmonary functioning in adulthood. Gender differences in health indicators were also observed. The effects of childhood neglect, childhood poverty, and growing up Black in the United States are manifest in physical health outcomes assessed 30 years later. Implications are discussed. PMID:24189205

Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

2014-03-01

31

Poverty, wealth, and health care utilization: a geographic assessment.  

PubMed

Geographic variation has been of interest to both health planners and social epidemiologists. However, while the major focus of interest of planners has been on variation in health care spending, social epidemiologists have focused on health; and while social epidemiologists have observed strong associations between poor health and poverty, planners have concluded that income is not an important determinant of variation in spending. These different conclusions stem, at least in part, from differences in approach. Health planners have generally studied variation among large regions, such as states, counties, or hospital referral regions (HRRs), while epidemiologists have tended to study local areas, such as ZIP codes and census tracts. To better understand the basis for geographic variation in hospital utilization, we drew upon both approaches. Counties and HRRs were disaggregated into their constituent ZIP codes and census tracts and examined the interrelationships between income, disability, and hospital utilization that were examined at both the regional and local levels, using statistical and geomapping tools. Our studies centered on the Milwaukee and Los Angeles HRRs, where per capita health care utilization has been greater than elsewhere in their states. We compared Milwaukee to other HRRs in Wisconsin and Los Angeles to the other populous counties of California and to a region in California of comparable size and diversity, stretching from San Francisco to Sacramento (termed "San-Framento"). When studied at the ZIP code level, we found steep, curvilinear relationships between lower income and both increased hospital utilization and increasing percentages of individuals reporting disabilities. These associations were also evident on geomaps. They were strongest among populations of working-age adults but weaker among seniors, for whom income proved to be a poor proxy for poverty and whose residential locations deviated from the major underlying income patterns. Among working-age adults, virtually all of the excess utilization in Milwaukee was attributable to very high utilization in Milwaukee's segregated "poverty corridor." Similarly, the greater rate of hospital use in Los Angeles than in San-Framento could be explained by proportionately more low-income ZIP codes in Los Angeles and fewer in San-Framento. Indeed, when only high-income ZIP codes were assessed, there was little variation in hospital utilization among California's 18 most populous counties. We estimated that had utilization within each region been at the rate of its high-income ZIP codes, overall utilization would have been 35 % less among working-age adults and 20 % less among seniors. These studies reveal the importance of disaggregating large geographic units into their constituent ZIP codes in order to understand variation in health care utilization among them. They demonstrate the strong association between low ZIP code income and both higher percentages of disability and greater hospital utilization. And they suggest that, given the large contribution of the poorest neighborhoods to aggregate utilization, it will be difficult to curb the growth of health care spending without addressing the underlying social determinants of health. PMID:22566148

Cooper, Richard A; Cooper, Matthew A; McGinley, Emily L; Fan, Xiaolin; Rosenthal, J Thomas

2012-10-01

32

Web services for ecosystem services management and poverty alleviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decades, near real-time environmental observation, technical advances in computer power and cyber-infrastructure, and the development of environmental software algorithms have increased dramatically. The integration of these evolutions is one of the major challenges of the next decade for environmental sciences. Worldwide, many coordinated activities are ongoing to make this integration a reality. However, far less attention is paid to the question of how these developments can benefit environmental services management in a poverty alleviation context. Such projects are typically faced with issues of large predictive uncertainties, limited resources, limited local scientific capacity. At the same time, the complexity of the socio-economic contexts requires a very strong bottom-up oriented and interdisciplinary approach to environmental data collection and processing. Here, we present the results of two projects on integrated environmental monitoring and scenario analysis aimed at poverty alleviation in the Peruvian Andes and Amazon. In the upper Andean highlands, farmers are monitoring the water cycle of headwater catchments to analyse the impact of land-use changes on stream flow and potential consequences for downstream irrigation. In the Amazon, local communities are monitoring the dynamics of turtle populations and their relations with river levels. In both cases, the use of online databases and web processing services enable real-time analysis of the data and scenario analysis. The system provides both physical and social indicators to assess the impact of land-use management options on local socio-economic development.

Buytaert, W.; Baez, S.; Veliz Rosas, C.

2011-12-01

33

Poverty in America: How Public Health Practice Can Make a Difference  

PubMed Central

Health inequities linked to poverty remain entrenched in certain subgroups in the United States, despite public health efforts to the contrary. My experiences in working with the poor in Nepal and Pakistan informed my later approach to addressing health and poverty in the Appalachians of eastern Tennessee. Three aspects of this approach include enhancing community power through participation in local decisionmaking about health, educating students within the actual context of poverty, and increasing local opportunity by employing people from the communities of concern to serve as a means to reach those communities. Empowerment, education, and opportunity can serve as ways to ameliorate poverty and may serve to modulate the persistent underlying conditions that create and sustain poverty. PMID:18633082

Erwin, Paul Campbell

2008-01-01

34

Health, Education and Poverty Reduction. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 19  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally agreed that spending on education and health is key to poverty reduction, but simply allocating more resources to these sectors does not ensure that poverty actually declines. On the basis of four in-depth case studies (on Indonesia, Madagascar, Peru and Tanzania) and three Technical Papers on malnutrition and primary education in…

Morrisson, Christian

2002-01-01

35

Wilton Park Conference WP674 INVESTING IN HEALTH FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION: NEW PERSPECTIVES AND  

E-print Network

poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduceWilton Park Conference WP674 INVESTING IN HEALTH FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION: NEW IN HEALTH FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION: NEW PERSPECTIVES AND OPPORTUNITIES 20 - 23 May 2002

Klein, Ophir

36

Creating Nurturing Environments: A Science-Based Framework for Promoting Child Health and Development within High-Poverty Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods…

Komro, Kelli A.; Flay, Brian R.; Biglan, Anthony

2011-01-01

37

Multidimensional Poverty in Rural Mozambique: A New Metric for Evaluating Public Health Interventions  

PubMed Central

Background Poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon and unidimensional measurements have proven inadequate to the challenge of assessing its dynamics. Dynamics between poverty and public health intervention is among the most difficult yet important problems faced in development. We sought to demonstrate how multidimensional poverty measures can be utilized in the evaluation of public health interventions; and to create geospatial maps of poverty deprivation to aid implementers in prioritizing program planning. Methods Survey teams interviewed a representative sample of 3,749 female heads of household in 259 enumeration areas across Zambézia in August-September 2010. We estimated a multidimensional poverty index, which can be disaggregated into context-specific indicators. We produced an MPI comprised of 3 dimensions and 11 weighted indicators selected from the survey. Households were identified as “poor” if were deprived in >33% of indicators. Our MPI is an adjusted headcount, calculated by multiplying the proportion identified as poor (headcount) and the poverty gap (average deprivation). Geospatial visualizations of poverty deprivation were created as a contextual baseline for future evaluation. Results In our rural (96%) and urban (4%) interviewees, the 33% deprivation cut-off suggested 58.2% of households were poor (29.3% of urban vs. 59.5% of rural). Among the poor, households experienced an average deprivation of 46%; thus the MPI/adjusted headcount is 0.27 (?=?0.58×0.46). Of households where a local language was the primary language, 58.6% were considered poor versus Portuguese-speaking households where 73.5% were considered non-poor. Living standard is the dominant deprivation, followed by health, and then education. Conclusions Multidimensional poverty measurement can be integrated into program design for public health interventions, and geospatial visualization helps examine the impact of intervention deployment within the context of distinct poverty conditions. Both permit program implementers to focus resources and critically explore linkages between poverty and its social determinants, thus deriving useful findings for evidence-based planning. PMID:25268951

Victor, Bart; Blevins, Meridith; Green, Ann F.; Ndatimana, Elisee; Gonzalez-Calvo, Lazaro; Fischer, Edward F.; Vergara, Alfredo E.; Vermund, Sten H.; Olupona, Omo; Moon, Troy D.

2014-01-01

38

Urban management, urban poverty and urban governance: planning and land management in Maputo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the approach to urban land management widely supported by international agencies, and its application in Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. It describes the scale of poverty in Maputo, where more than half the population is poor, including 30 percent who are destitute. Most of the city’s population gets land for housing through the informal market. Access to

Paul Jenkins

2000-01-01

39

The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth: Implications for Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the implications for prevention science of recent advances in research on family poverty and children's mental, emotional, and behavioral health. First, we describe definitions of poverty and the conceptual and empirical challenges to estimating the causal effects of poverty on children's mental, emotional, and behavioral…

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Aber, J. Lawrence; Beardslee, William R.

2012-01-01

40

Mutual influences of health and poverty. Evidence from German panel data.  

PubMed

While a large body of literature is concerned with the interplay of health and poverty in developing countries, comparable studies for developed countries are rare. Using data drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), this paper investigates the relationships between changes in relative income poverty, income changes and health-related quality of life in Germany, i.e. in an environment with nominally equal access to medical care, education and social security. A fundamental five-dimensional health concept is introduced and tested for its empirical performance. The background of the causal analysis is formed by two hypotheses, one regarding low income as a possible cause for poor health (prevention hypothesis) and the other assuming the opposite causal direction (deprivation hypothesis). By means of a descriptive analysis and a structural equations model, the existence of a more complex relational web between health and poverty is demonstrated. PMID:9255919

Thiede, M; Traub, S

1997-09-01

41

Relative Deprivation, Poverty, and Subjective Health: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the association between relative deprivation (lacking daily necessities) and subjective health in older Japanese adults, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). The data were obtained from functionally independent residents aged ?65 years from 24 municipalities in Japan (n?=?24,742). Thirteen items in three dimensions were used to evaluate relative deprivation of material conditions. Approximately 28% of older Japanese people indicated that they lacked some daily necessities (non-monetary poverty). A two-level Poisson regression analysis revealed that relative deprivation was associated with poor self-rated health (PR?=?1.3–1.5) and depressive symptoms (PR?=?1.5–1.8) in both men and women, and these relationships were stronger than those observed in people living in relative poverty (monetary poverty). The interaction effect between relative deprivation and relative poverty was not associated with poor health. As a dimension of the social determinants of health, poverty should be evaluated from a multidimensional approach, capturing not only monetary conditions but also material-based, non-monetary conditions. PMID:25350284

Saito, Masashige; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Abe, Aya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kayo

2014-01-01

42

Poverty as a contextual factor affecting sexual health behavior among female sex workers in India.  

PubMed

A thorough understanding of the environmental and structural factors that precipitate unsafe sexual practices is necessary for HIV/AIDS-prevention research among high-risk population groups like commercial sex workers. I examined how poverty contextualizes sexual health behavior, including condom compliance among commercial female sex workers in a red light district in Calcutta, India. For my research I did an ethnographic study and conducted in-depth interviews of 37 commercial female sex workers. I found that poverty, instead of serving as a catalyst for poor health choices among sex workers, acted as an impetus for pursuing safe sex practices and remaining healthy. The results indicate that sex work, poverty, and health do not always have a paradoxical relationship. PMID:23558710

Dasgupta, Satarupa

2013-06-01

43

Community concepts of poverty: an application to premium exemptions in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme  

PubMed Central

Background Poverty is multi dimensional. Beyond the quantitative and tangible issues related to inadequate income it also has equally important social, more intangible and difficult if not impossible to quantify dimensions. In 2009, we explored these social and relativist dimension of poverty in five communities in the South of Ghana with differing socio economic characteristics to inform the development and implementation of policies and programs to identify and target the poor for premium exemptions under Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme. Methods We employed participatory wealth ranking (PWR) a qualitative tool for the exploration of community concepts, identification and ranking of households into socioeconomic groups. Key informants within the community ranked households into wealth categories after discussing in detail concepts and indicators of poverty. Results Community defined indicators of poverty covered themes related to type of employment, educational attainment of children, food availability, physical appearance, housing conditions, asset ownership, health seeking behavior, social exclusion and marginalization. The poverty indicators discussed shared commonalities but contrasted in the patterns of ranking per community. Conclusion The in-depth nature of the PWR process precludes it from being used for identification of the poor on a large national scale in a program such as the NHIS. However, PWR can provide valuable qualitative input to enrich discussions, development and implementation of policies, programs and tools for large scale interventions and targeting of the poor for social welfare programs such as premium exemption for health care. PMID:23497484

2013-01-01

44

Managing and Leveraging Poverty: Implications for Teaching International Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over half of the world's population lives on less than $2 a day, and yet international business education to date has continued to ignore the not so well-off customers. We propose a holistic pedagogical approach to studying this market by considering the historical background of the growth of inequality and poverty in different regions of the…

Roy, Abhijit; Roy, Mousumi

2010-01-01

45

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released in August 2005 by the U.S. Census Bureau, this timely 85-page report examines recent changes within the demographic profile of the real median household income of US residents, along with material on the nation's official poverty rate and those persons without health insurance coverage. The data in the report is based on information from 2003 and 2004, and notes that the nation's official poverty rate rose from 12.5 percent in 2003 to 12.7 percent in 2004. The report also notes that the number of persons without health insurance coverage increased by approximately 800,000 to 45.8 million. The report itself is divided into six chapters, and also includes four appendices which details such crucial research questions as how the Bureau measures income and poverty. For persons with a keen interest in this subject (such as policy makers or scholars) this report will be a valued research tool.

2005-01-01

46

Do poverty and poor health and nutrition increase the risk of armed conflict onset?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the effects of improving the economic, food security and health status on the risk of armed cotntectflict onset, focusing on the factors related to the millennium development goals. We employ the discrete-time hazard model that allows us to examine the time-varying effects of socioeconomic factors controlling for the reverse effect of conflict. Our results show that income poverty

Per Pinstrup-Andersen; Satoru Shimokawa

2008-01-01

47

School-Based Mental Health Services for Children Living in High Poverty Urban Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the effectiveness of a school-based mental health service model, PALS (Positive Attitudes toward Learning in School), focused on increasing initial and ongoing access to services, and promoting improved classroom and home behavior for children referred for Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD) from three high poverty urban elementary schools. Classrooms were randomly assigned to PALS or referral to a neighborhood mental

Marc S. Atkins; Stacy L. Frazier; Dina Birman; Jaleel Abdul Adil; Maudette Jackson; Patricia A. Graczyk; Elizabeth Talbott; A. David Farmer; Carl C. Bell; Mary M. McKay

2006-01-01

48

Income inequality, poverty, and population health: Evidence from recent data for the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, state-level US data for the years 2000 and 1990 are used to provide additional evidence on the roles of income inequality and poverty in population health. Five main points are noted. First, contrary to the suggestion made in several recent studies, the income inequality parameter is observed to be quite robust and carries statistical significance in mortality

Rati Ram

2005-01-01

49

Poverty, Education and Health in Indonesia: Who Benefits from Public Spending? Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on two important dimensions of Indonesia's development record: education and health. The paper investigates the extent to which the poor benefit from public and private provisioning of these services. Multiple rounds of annual household surveys document a reversal in the rate of decline in poverty and a slowdown in improvements…

Lanjouw, Peter; Pradhan, Menno; Saadah, Fadia; Sayed, Haneen; Sparrow, Robert

50

Making a technological choice for disaster management and poverty alleviation in India.  

PubMed

The right mix of policy, institutional arrangements and use of technology provides the framework for a country's approach to disaster mitigation. Worldwide, there has been a shift away from a strictly 'top-down' approach relying on government alone, to a combination of 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches. The aim is to enhance the indigenous coping mechanisms of vulnerable communities; draw on their cooperative spirit and energy; and empower them through appropriate information and contextual knowledge to mitigate natural disasters. In light of this, the paper examines India's use of space technology in its disaster management efforts. Poverty alleviation and disaster management are almost inseparable in many parts of the country, as vulnerability to natural disasters is closely aligned with poverty. Addressing these issues together requires integrated knowledge systems. The paper examines how knowledge inputs from space technology have strengthened the national resolve to combat natural disasters in conjunction with alleviating rural poverty. PMID:18498370

Srivastava, Sanjay K

2009-03-01

51

Poverty and Health: Children's Medical Care. Discussion Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data obtained from a National Center for Health Statistics Household Health Survey, a model for children's medical care utilization was tested. The variables included in the model were need, physician supply, family preference, and family disposable income. The first question addressed was the income effect on children's visits to…

Lefcowitz, Myron J.

52

Health, Poverty, and Place in Accra, Ghana: Mapping Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

The overall objective of our research project is to understand the spatial inequality in health in Accra, the capital city of Ghana. We also utilize GIS technology to measure the association of adverse health and mortality outcomes with neighborhood ecology. We approached this in variety of ways, including multivariate analysis of imagery classification and census data. A key element in the research has been to obtain in-person interviews from 3,200 female respondents in the city, and then relate health data obtained from the women to the ecology of the neighborhoods in which they live. Detailed maps are a requirement for these field-based activities. However, commercially available street maps of Accra tend to be highly generalized and not very useful for the kind of health and social science research being undertaken by this project, The purpose of this paper is to describe street maps that were created for the project’s office in downtown Accra and used to locate households of respondents. They incorporate satellite imagery with other geographic layers to provide the most important visual interpretation of the linkage between imagery and neighborhoods. Ultimately, through a detailed analysis of spatial disparities in health in Accra, Ghana, we aim to provide a model for the interpretation of urban health inequalities in cities of urbanizing and often poor countries. PMID:23505395

VERUTES, GREGORY M.; FIOCCO, MAGDALENA BENZA; WEEKS, JOHN R.; COULTER, LLOYD L.

2013-01-01

53

Longevity in Russia's Regions: Do Poverty and Low Public Health Spending Kill?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of changes in poverty and public health spending on inter- temporal variations in longevity using a unique regional-level dataset that covers 77 regions of Russia over the period 1994-2000. The dynamic panel data model is used as a tool of the empirical analysis. The model is estimated using the Arellano-Bond dynamic panel data estimator. The

Oleksiy Ivaschenko

2004-01-01

54

Poverty, human development, environmental and health risks: the role of precaution and cautionary policies.  

PubMed

First of all a definition is given of "poverty" and "precaution". A short, by no means comprehensive, presentation of some especially relevant recent publications on both topics is included, with a view to offering also readers who are not familiar with these issues a broad overview of the specialised literature available. This is followed by a description of the solidarity concept, following various philosophical, cultural and religious trends, analysing their relationship with precaution. An attempt is then made to show how solidarity and precaution could help counteract poverty, the risks for the environment and health, with the ensuing social and health damage. Reasons are outlined which support the adoption of the precaution principle in economics, as well as some arguments which could be put forward to oppose these views. The final remarks are a reply to such criticisms with a view to showing how precaution could be an effective economic tool, as well as a way to tackle those health-related and environmental problems that are also associated with poverty. PMID:18209266

Petrini, Carlo

2007-01-01

55

Poverty and Mental Health in the Breadline Britain Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the difficulties in the research has long been the issue of 'drift'. This theory suggests that the greater proportion of psychiatric admissions from poorer areas and higher levels of observed psychiatric symptoms is the result of inward migration which is prompted by poor mental health, either due to decreasing income or to 'disintegration' which means that people with

Sarah Payne

56

Poverty, global health, and infectious disease: lessons from Haiti and Rwanda.  

PubMed

Poverty and infectious diseases interact in complex ways. Casting destitution as intractable, or epidemics that afflict the poor as accidental, erroneously exonerates us from responsibility for caring for those most in need. Adequately addressing communicable diseases requires a biosocial appreciation of the structural forces that shape disease patterns. Most health interventions in resource-poor settings could garner support based on cost/benefit ratios with appropriately lengthy time horizons to capture the return on health investments and an adequate accounting of externalities; however, such a calculus masks the suffering of inaction and risks eroding the most powerful incentive to act: redressing inequality. PMID:21896362

Alsan, Marcella M; Westerhaus, Michael; Herce, Michael; Nakashima, Koji; Farmer, Paul E

2011-09-01

57

Cost and results of information systems for health and poverty indicators in the United Republic of Tanzania.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the costs of complementary information generation activities in a resource-constrained setting and compare the costs and outputs of information subsystems that generate the statistics on poverty, health and survival required for monitoring, evaluation and reporting on health programmes in the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Nine systems used by four government agencies or ministries were assessed. Costs were calculated from budgets and expenditure data made available by information system managers. System coverage, quality assurance and information production were reviewed using questionnaires and interviews. Information production was characterized in terms of 38 key sociodemographic indicators required for national programme monitoring. FINDINGS: In 2002-03 approximately US$ 0.53 was spent per Tanzanian citizen on the nine information subsystems that generated information on 37 of the 38 selected indicators. The census and reporting system for routine health service statistics had the largest participating populations and highest total costs. Nationally representative household surveys and demographic surveillance systems (which are not based on nationally representative samples) produced more than half the indicators and used the most rigorous quality assurance. Five systems produced fewer than 13 indicators and had comparatively high costs per participant. CONCLUSION: Policy-makers and programme planners should be aware of the many trade-offs with respect to system costs, coverage, production, representativeness and quality control when making investment choices for monitoring and evaluation. In future, formal cost-effectiveness studies of complementary information systems would help guide investments in the monitoring, evaluation and planning needed to demonstrate the impact of poverty-reduction and health programmes. PMID:16184275

Rommelmann, Vanessa; Setel, Philip W.; Hemed, Yusuf; Angeles, Gustavo; Mponezya, Hamisi; Whiting, David; Boerma, Ties

2005-01-01

58

The Impact of Relative Poverty on Norwegian Adolescents' Subjective Health: A Causal Analysis with Propensity Score Matching  

PubMed Central

Studies have revealed that relative poverty is associated with ill health, but the interpretations of this correlation vary. This article asks whether relative poverty among Norwegian adolescents is causally related to poor subjective health, i.e., self-reported somatic and mental symptoms. Data consist of interview responses from a sample of adolescents (N = 510) and their parents, combined with register data on the family’s economic situation. Relatively poor adolescents had significantly worse subjective health than non-poor adolescents. Relatively poor adolescents also experienced many other social disadvantages, such as parental unemployment and parental ill health. Comparisons between the relatively poor and the non-poor adolescents, using propensity score matching, indicated a negative impact of relative poverty on the subjective health among those adolescents who lived in families with relatively few economic resources. The results suggest that there is a causal component in the association between relative poverty and the symptom burden of disadvantaged adolescents. Relative poverty is only one of many determinants of adolescents’ subjective health, but its role should be acknowledged when policies for promoting adolescent health are designed. PMID:23249858

Elstad, Jon Ivar; Pedersen, Axel West

2012-01-01

59

Overview of migration, poverty and health dynamics in Nairobi City's slum settlements.  

PubMed

The Urbanization, Poverty, and Health Dynamics research program was designed to generate and provide the evidence base that would help governments, development partners, and other stakeholders understand how the urban slum context affects health outcomes in order to stimulate policy and action for uplifting the wellbeing of slum residents. The program was nested into the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System, a uniquely rich longitudinal research platform, set up in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements in Nairobi city, Kenya. Findings provide rich insights on the context in which slum dwellers live and how poverty and migration status interacts with health issues over the life course. Contrary to popular opinions and beliefs that see slums as homogenous residential entities, the findings paint a picture of a highly dynamic and heterogeneous setting. While slum populations are highly mobile, about half of the population comprises relatively well doing long-term dwellers who have lived in slum settlements for over 10 years. The poor health outcomes that slum residents exhibit at all stages of the life course are rooted in three key characteristics of slum settlements: poor environmental conditions and infrastructure; limited access to services due to lack of income to pay for treatment and preventive services; and reliance on poor quality and mostly informal and unregulated health services that are not well suited to meeting the unique realities and health needs of slum dwellers. Consequently, policies and programs aimed at improving the wellbeing of slum dwellers should address comprehensively the underlying structural, economic, behavioral, and service-oriented barriers to good health and productive lives among slum residents. PMID:21713552

Zulu, Eliya M; Beguy, Donatien; Ezeh, Alex C; Bocquier, Philippe; Madise, Nyovani J; Cleland, John; Falkingham, Jane

2011-06-01

60

Paying attention to gender and poverty in health research: content and process issues.  

PubMed Central

Despite the magnitude of the problem of health inequity within and between countries, little systematic research has been done on the social causes of ill-health. Health researchers have overwhelmingly focused on biomedical research at the level of individuals. Investigations into the health of groups and the determinants of health inequities that lie outside the control of the individual have received a much smaller share of research resources. Ignoring factors such as socioeconomic class, race and gender leads to biases in both the content and process of research. We use two such factors--poverty and gender--to illustrate how this occurs. There is a systematic imbalance in medical journals: research into diseases that predominate in the poorest regions of the world is less likely to be published. In addition, the slow recognition of women's health problems, misdirected and partial approaches to understanding women's and men's health, and the dearth of information on how gender interacts with other social determinants continue to limit the content of health research. In the research community these imbalances in content are linked to biases against researchers from poorer regions and women. Researchers from high-income countries benefit from better funding and infrastructure. Their publications dominate journals and citations, and these researchers also dominate advisory boards. The way to move forward is to correct biases against poverty and gender in research content and processes and provide increased funding and better career incentives to support equity-linked research. Journals need to address equity concerns in their published content and in the publishing process. Efforts to broaden access to research information need to be well resourced, publicized and expanded. PMID:15643794

Ostlin, Piroska; Sen, Gita; George, Asha

2004-01-01

61

Death by disconnection: the missing public health voice in newspaper coverage of a fuel poverty-related death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determinants of population health such as fuel poverty (inability to afford adequate household temperatures) are difficult to highlight in the media. In this paper we analyse newspaper reports of the death of a Pacific migrant, Mrs Muliaga, who could not afford her electricity bill, and reflect on using individual cases to highlight the importance of the social determinants of health,

KC OSullivan; PL Howden-Chapman; G Fougere

2012-01-01

62

Benefits of a health impact assessment in relation to fuel poverty: assessing Luton's Affordable Warmth Strategy and the need for a national mandatory strategy.  

PubMed

The links between fuel poverty and poor health are well documented, yet there is no statutory requirement on local authorities to develop fuel poverty strategies, which tend to be patchy nationally and differ substantially in quality. Fuel poverty starts from the perspective of income, even though interventions can improve health. The current public health agenda calls for more partnership-based, cost-effective strategies based on sound evidence. Fuel poverty represents a key area where there is currently little local evidence quantifying and qualifying health gain arising from strategic interventions. As a result, this initial study sought to apply the principles of a health impact assessment to Luton's Affordable Warmth Strategy, exploring the potential to identify health impact arising--as a baseline for future research--in the context of the public health agenda. A national strategy would help ensure the promotion of targeted fuel poverty strategies. PMID:18595628

Stewart, Jill; Habgood, Veronica

2008-05-01

63

Poverty: Moving Forward with  

E-print Network

Reducing Poverty: Moving Forward with Alberta's Social Policy Framework 1 Heather Collier Director Implementing the Framework Alberta's Poverty Reduction Strategy What Does Poverty in Alberta Look Like and Mandate #12;What is Social Policy? Housing Employment Education Recreation Health Safety Care Social

Saskatchewan, University of

64

Sexual and reproductive health and HIV in border districts affected by migration and poverty in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives To assess HIV knowledge, attitudes, sexual practices and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) service delivery in border areas of Tanzania, with a view to support the prioritisation of SRH interventions in border areas. Methods The target sample comprised randomly selected people living near the border, aged 15 to 49 years. To gather information, we utilised: (i) a standardised questionnaire (n = 86; 42 men and 44 women) previously used in national household surveys conducted by the Tanzanian government; (ii) focus group discussions (ten male groups, n = 47; ten female groups, n = 51); and (iii) semi-structured interviews with service providers (n = 37). Results The mean number of sexual partners, frequency of multiple concurrent partnerships and engagement in transactional sex were significantly higher in the border community than in the national population. Knowledge about HIV was comparable with that in the general population. Access to SRH services was limited in the border areas. Conclusion Efforts to reduce HIV transmission and to improve SRH in the border areas should focus on gaps in service delivery rather than education and information activities alone. In addition, multi-sectorial efforts spanning the health, social, legal and private sectors addressing gender imbalances and poverty alleviation are imperative for reducing poverty-driven unsafe transactional sex. PMID:25112145

Obel, Josephine; Larsson, Markus; Sodemann, Morten

2014-12-01

65

Afro-American women, poverty and mental health: a social essay.  

PubMed

The experience of poverty can be a risk factor for mental illness. Afro-American women are disproportionately represented among the poor, the majority of whom are single mothers and heads of households who are concentrated in the secondary labor market and the secondary welfare system. These economic and social factors can engender stress and can limit opportunities for its resolution or for the gratification of psychological needs. The consequences can range from mild emotional distresses to severe mental illnesses. Recommendations for improving mental health status include public mental health promotion and education programs, and social, economic and political actions such as increased and better quality employment opportunities and educational system reforms. PMID:3448821

Bennett, M B

1987-01-01

66

Intelligent Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

67

"The walls were so damp and cold" fuel poverty and ill health in Northern Ireland: results from a housing intervention.  

PubMed

This article reports the findings from an evaluation of a fuel poverty programme in the Armagh and Dungannon Health Action Zone in Northern Ireland. Focusing on a rural community, it adds to the debate surrounding the hidden nature of rural fuel poverty. As part of the programme, energy efficiency measures, including some central heating systems, were installed in 54 homes. Surveys were conducted both pre and post intervention and analysed to assess any changes. The programme demonstrated that energy efficiency intervention can lead to improvements in health and well being, increased comfort levels in the home and a reduction in the use of health services, therefore having potential cost savings for the NHS. Some households, however, remain in fuel poverty after having full central heating installed, reflecting the significant contribution of low income on the production of fuel poverty. The article concludes by suggesting that interventions in this area require commitment from multiple sectors of society, including health professionals and local communities. PMID:16343973

Shortt, Niamh; Rugkåsa, Jorun

2007-03-01

68

2006 Harben Lecture. World poverty and population health: the need for sustainable change.  

PubMed

Despite important recent initiatives to improve the health of the most disadvantaged in the world (the Millennium Development Goals, debt cancellation campaigns), poverty and preventable diseases still plague many parts of the globe. Sub-Saharan Africa remains one of the most severely affected. It is the only region in the world where life expectancy has not seen much improvement. Some countries have employed strategies of investment in public services, such as education, with positive results (e.g. the 'tiger economies'). Others have tried to follow prescribed strategies from global institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and World Bank with varying degrees of success. Sustainable development will require continuous commitment from donors and recipients to long-term strategies. Oxfam believes investment in public services and education is key to sustainability, in combination with more effective debt cancellation. These concepts are explored in the 2006 Harben Lecture given by Barbara Stocking, Director of Oxfam. PMID:18609761

Aitsi-Selmi, Amina

2008-06-01

69

Socially responsible mining: the relationship between mining and poverty, human health and the environment.  

PubMed

Increasing global demand for metals is putting strain on the ability of the mining industry to physically keep up with demand (physical scarcity). Conversely, social issues including the environmental and human health consequences of mining as well as the disparity in income distribution from mining revenues are disproportionately felt at the local community level. This has created social rifts, particularly in the developing world, between affected communities and both industry and governments. Such rifts can result in a disruption of the steady supply of metals (situational scarcity). Here we discuss the importance of mining in relationship to poverty, identify steps that have been taken to create a framework for socially responsible mining, and then discuss the need for academia to work in partnership with communities, government, and industry to develop transdisciplinary research-based step change solutions to the intertwined problems of physical and situational scarcity. PMID:24552962

Maier, Raina M; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Field, James A; Hopkins, James; Klein, Bern; Poulton, Mary M

2014-01-01

70

Janet Craig Occupational Health Manager  

E-print Network

of Occupational Safety and Health Emerging trends - Government strategy for Health and Work Service Dame Carol, safety and wellbeing of staff and students · Review and develop Occupational Health support across20/02/2014 1 Janet Craig Occupational Health Manager RGN BSc RSCPHN(OH) 1556 1700 Bauer 1494

Schnaufer, Achim

71

[Smoking in developing countries: a health risk and a factor in poverty].  

PubMed

Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In 2000, smoking-related deaths (approximately 5 million) were evenly divided between industrialized and developing countries, whereas by 2030 it is expected that some 70-80% of the predicted 8-10 million smoking-related deaths will occur in developing countries. This heavy health burden is compounded by the economic burden of smoking at both the individual and national levels. Smoking aggravates poverty for both smokers and their families, diverting meager financial resources away from essentials such as food, education and healthcare. Women and children are the first victims. And, as tobacco consumption shifts increasingly from rich countries to poor countries, smoking represents a further obstacle to development, notably by increasing national healthcare costs and absorbing valuable arable land for tobacco cultivation. The tobacco industry is exploiting markets in developing countries through price cuts, smuggling, widespread advertising, and promotion of positive images of smokers. As in other countries, prevention campaigns must encourage young people not to start the habit, help current users to quit, and protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke. Developing countries have a special incentive to build on the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first international public health treaty signed under the auspices of WHO, adopted in 2003 and ratified by over 170 countries. This treaty not only plays a major role in health policy, but also constitutes a powerful instrument for economic development and resistance to manipulation by the tobacco industry PMID:22530518

Thomas, Daniel

2011-06-01

72

[Health management in private health insurance].  

PubMed

German private health insurance faces new challenges. The classical tools of cost containment are no longer sufficient to keep up with ever increasing expenses for health care, and international competitors with managed care experience from their home markets are on the point of entering business in Germany. Although the American example of managed care is not fully compatible with customer demands and state regulations, some elements of this approach will gradually be introduced. First agreements were signed with networks or individual preferred providers in outpatient care and rehabilitation medicine. Insurance companies become more and more interested in supporting evidence based guidelines and programmes for disease and case management. The pros and cons of various other health management tools are discussed against the specific background of the quite unique German health care system. PMID:10992797

Ziegenhagen, D J; Schilling, M K

2000-09-01

73

Poverty and Social Exclusion May 8, 2012  

E-print Network

Poverty and Social Exclusion May 8, 2012 Social Determinants of Health Conference Johns Hopkins% of Baltimore communities are racially homogeneous Redlined communities map onto persistent poverty, lack, evaluation, advocacy Concentrated poverty, racial & economic segregation Housing policies (housing choice

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

74

Poverty reduction and Millennium Development Goals: recognizing population, health, and environment linkages in rural Madagascar.  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), committed to by all 191 United Nations member states, are rooted in the concept of sustainable development. Although 2007 (midway) reports indicated that programs are under way, unfortunately many countries are unlikely to reach their goals by 2015 due to high levels of poverty. Madagascar is one such example, although some gains are being made. Attempts of this island nation to achieve its MDGs, expressed most recently in the form of a Madagascar Action Plan, are notable in their emphasis on (1) conserving the country's natural resource base, (2) the effect of demographic trends on development, and (3) the importance of health as a prerequisite for development. Leadership in the country's struggle for economic growth comes from the president of the Republic, in part, through his "Madagascar Naturally" vision as well as his commitment to universal access to family planning, among other health and development interventions. However, for resource-limited countries, such as Madagascar, to get or stay "on track" to achieving the MDGs will require support from many sides. "Madagascar cannot do it alone and should not do it alone." This position is inherent in the eighth MDG: "Develop a global partnership for development." Apparently, it takes a village after all - a global one. PMID:18311367

Gaffikin, Lynne; Ashley, Jeffrey; Blumenthal, Paul D

2007-01-01

75

Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

This article is a review of the PhD thesis of Mark Collinson, titled, ‘Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa’. The findings show that in rural South Africa, temporary migration has a major impact on household well-being and health. Remittances from migrants make a significant difference to socioeconomic status (SES) in households left behind by the migrant. For the poorest households the key factors improving SES are government grants and female temporary migration, while for the less poor it is male temporary migration and local employment. Migration is associated with HIV but not in straightforward ways. Migrants that return more frequently may be less exposed to outside partners and therefore less implicated in the HIV epidemic. There are links between migration and mortality patterns, including a higher risk of dying for returnee migrants compared with permanent residents. A mother's migration impacts significantly on child survival for South African and former refugee parents, but there is an additional mortality risk for children of Mozambican former refugees. It is recommended that national censuses and surveys account for temporary migration when collecting information on household membership, because different migration types have different outcomes. Without discriminating between different migration types, the implications for sending and receiving communities will remain lost to policy-makers. PMID:20531981

Collinson, Mark A.

2010-01-01

76

Poverty Increases Type 2 Diabetes Incidence and Inequality of Care Despite Universal Health Coverage  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The discrepancy of diabetes incidence and care between socioeconomic statuses has seldom been studied concurrently in nations with universal health coverage. We aimed to delineate whether income disparity is associated with diabetes incidence and inequality of care under a national health insurance (NHI) program in Asia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS From the Taiwan NHI database in 2000, a representative cohort aged ?20 years and free of diabetes (n = 600,662) were followed up until 2005. We regarded individuals exempt from paying the NHI premium as being poor. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were used to discover any excess risk of diabetes in the poor population. The indicators used to evaluate quality of diabetes care included the proportion of diabetic patients identified through hospitalization, visits to diabetes clinics, and completion of recommended diabetes tests. RESULTS The incidence of type 2 diabetes in the poor population was 20.4 per 1,000 person-years (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3–1.7). Compared with their middle-income counterparts, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the poor population incidentally identified as having diabetes through hospitalization was 2.2 (P < 0.001). Poor persons with diabetes were less likely to visit any diabetes clinic (OR, 0.4; P < 0.001). The ORs for the poor population with diabetes to receive tests for glycated hemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and retinopathy were 0.6 (0.4–0.9), 0.4 (0.2–0.7), 0.5 (0.4–0.8), and 0.4 (0.2–0.9), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Poverty is associated not only with higher diabetes incidence but also with inequality of diabetes care in a northeast Asian population, despite universal health coverage. PMID:22912425

Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Hua; Wahlqvist, Mark L.; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chen, Likwang; Shih, Shu-Fang; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Chen, Ted; Huang, Chi-Ting; Cheng, Jur-Shan

2012-01-01

77

UNIVERSITY OF CONNECICUT HEALTH CENTER CORRECTIONAL MANAGED HEALTH CARE  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF CONNECICUT HEALTH CENTER CORRECTIONAL MANAGED HEALTH CARE POLICY AND PROCEDURES SERVICES Effective Date: 04/01/01 POLICY: University of Connecticut Health Center (UCHC), Correctional Managed Health Care (CMHC) shall ensure that newly admitted inmates to Connecticut Department

Oliver, Douglas L.

78

Poverty alleviation through reproductive health in Nigeria exploring other non-formal alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deteriorating socio-economic situation in Nigeria over the past twenty years has caused a phenomenal increase in the rate of pauperization with the population of the poor rising from 36.1 million in 1985 to 55.8 million in 1997 (Onwudiegwu 2001). Given the demographic distribution of poverty, this has drastically reduced quality of life, feminized and ruralized poverty and shut women

Oluyemisi Obilade

79

Poverty, Violence, and Health: The Impact of Domestic Violence during Pregnancy on Newborn Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two percent of women in the United States suffer from intimate partner violence annually, with poor and minority women disproportionately affected. I provide evidence of an important negative externality associated with domestic violence by estimating a negative and causal relationship between violence during pregnancy and newborn health,…

Aizer, Anna

2011-01-01

80

Poverty Matters: The Cost of Child Poverty in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The poverty affecting 14.5 million U.S. children living below the poverty line poses long-term effects, including risks to health, educational achievement, family stability, and employment prospects. This report provides compelling evidence of the substantial costs of poverty among children to our nation's economic well-being, and shows that…

Sherman, Arloc

81

Comparative Perspectives on Child poverty: a review of poverty measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child poverty matters directly as children constitute a large share of the population and indirectly for future individual and national well- being. Developed country measures of child poverty are dominated by income-poverty, although health and education are often included. But these are not necessarily the most direct measures of the things that matter to children. Moreover, a broader range of

Howard White; Andrew Masters; Jennifer Leavy

2005-01-01

82

Comparative Perspectives on Child Poverty: A review of poverty measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child poverty matters directly because children constitute a large share of the population, and indirectly for future individual and national well-being. Developed country measures of child poverty are dominated by income-poverty, although health and education are often included. But these are not necessarily the most direct measures of the things that matter to children. Moreover, a broader range of factors

Howard White; Jennifer Leavy; Andrew Masters

2003-01-01

83

Managed consumerism in health care.  

PubMed

The future of market-oriented health policy and practice lies in "managed consumerism," a blend of the patient-centric focus of consumer-driven health care and the provider-centric focus of managed competition. The optimal locus of incentives will vary among health services according to the nature of the illness, the clinical technology, and the extent of discretion in utilization. A competitive market will manifest a variety of comprehensive and limited benefit designs, broad and narrow contractual networks, and single-and multispecialty provider organizations. PMID:16284020

Robinson, James C

2005-01-01

84

mobilizing undergrads to break the link between poverty and poor health " The world is calling. Heal the world and in the  

E-print Network

mobilizing undergrads to break the link between poverty and poor health " The world is calling, the activist, the hero." [Tony Kushner, to the Columbia College Class of 2004] Project HEALTH Harlem mobilizes Columbia undergraduates, in partnership with health professionals at Harlem Hospital, to break the well

Tong, Liang

85

Gamification and geospatial health management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensor and Measurement technologies are rapidly developing for many consumer applications which have the potential to make a major impact on business and society. One of the most important areas for building a sustainable future is in health management. This opportunity arises because of the growing popularity of lifestyle monitoring devices such as the Jawbone UP bracelet, Nike Fuelband and Samsung Galaxy GEAR. These devices measure physical activity and calorie consumption and, when visualised on mobile and portable devices, enable users to take more responsibility for their personal health. This presentation looks at how the process of gamification can be applied to develop important geospatial health management applications that could not only improve the health of nations but also significantly address some of the issues in global health such as the ageing society and obesity.

Wortley, David

2014-06-01

86

Food Insecurity and Other Poverty Indicators Among People Living with HIV/AIDS: Effects on Treatment and Health Outcomes.  

PubMed

Health disparities in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as the demands of long-term medication adherence have meant the full benefits of HIV treatment are often not realized. In particular, food insecurity has emerged as a robust predictor of ART non-adherence. However, research is limited in determining whether food insecurity uniquely impedes HIV treatment or if food insecurity is merely a marker for poverty that interferes more broadly with treatment. This study examined indicators of poverty at multiple levels in a sample of 364 men and 157 women living with HIV recruited through an offering of a free holiday food basket. Results showed that 61 % (N = 321) of participants had experienced at least one indicator of food insecurity in the previous month. Multivariate analyses showed that food insecurity was closely tied to lack of transportation. In addition, food insecurity was associated with lacking access to ART and poor ART adherence after adjusting for neighbourhood poverty, living in an area without a supermarket (food desert), education, stable housing, and reliable transportation. Results therefore affirm previous research that has suggested food insecurity is uniquely associated with poor ART adherence and calls for structural interventions that address basic survival needs among people living with HIV, especially food security. PMID:24705680

Kalichman, Seth C; Hernandez, Dominica; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar

2014-12-01

87

The 1998 HHS Federal Poverty Guidelines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has recently released the 1998 federal poverty measures. There are two slightly different versions of the federal poverty measure: poverty thresholds and poverty guidelines. Data for both versions are available at this site. Separate data are listed for the 48 states, Alaska, and Hawaii.

1998-01-01

88

Causal Relationships between Poverty and Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research suggests why disability may cause poverty, it is not well understood why poverty may cause disability. This article presents the Poverty Disability Model, which includes four groups of factors that increase the risk that poverty will cause disability and chronic health problems. Rehabilitation interventions and counselor…

Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

2007-01-01

89

Disparities in health, poverty, incarceration, and social justice among racial groups in the United States: a critical review of evidence of close links with neoliberalism.  

PubMed

Problems of poverty, poor health, and incarceration are unevenly distributed among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. We argue that this is due, in part, to the ascendance of United States-style neoliberalism, a prevailing political and economic doctrine that shapes social policy, including public health and anti-poverty intervention strategies. Public health research most often associates inequalities in health outcomes, poverty, and incarceration with individual and cultural risk factors. Contextual links to structural inequality and the neoliberal doctrine animating state-sanctioned interventions are given less attention. The interrelationships among these are not clear in the extant literature. Less is known about public health and incarceration. Thus, the authors describe the linkages between neoliberalism, public health, and criminal justice outcomes. We suggest that neoliberalism exacerbates racial disparities in health, poverty, and incarceration in the United States. We conclude by calling for a new direction in public health research that advances a pro-poor public health agenda to improve the general well-being of disadvantaged groups. PMID:23821903

Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Agbanu, Samuel Kwami; Miller, Reuben Jonathan

2013-01-01

90

What socio-demographic factors influence poverty and financial health care access among disabled people in Flanders: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Current literature shows that people with a disability have a lower income than people without a disability. Disabled people often experience difficulties with health care access. The objective of this study is to assess the current financial situation and poverty rate amongst disabled people in Flanders. Furthermore we wanted to analyze factors that contribute to the risk of poverty and problems with financial health care access in adult people with a disability in Flanders. Methods An online and paper survey were constructed and made available through two large organizations for people with different types of disability in Flanders. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results In this convenience sample, 20.9% of the 889 respondents live under the poverty threshold. Important contributing factors to the risk of poverty are having children (OR 3.43, 95% CI 2.10-5.59) and a low level of dependence (OR 16.40, 95% CI 6.21-43.28). 25.2% of the respondents did not access health care because of financial shortcomings. A low level of dependence is one important contributing factor (OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.41-6.98) to limited financial health care access. Conclusion This research confirms that disability is associated with a higher risk of poverty and impaired financial health care access. PMID:24521283

2014-01-01

91

Families, Managed Care, & Children's Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of a bulletin on family support and children's mental health focuses on managed care and the impact on children who are in need of mental health services. Articles include: "Private Sector Managed Care and Children's Mental Health" (Ira S. Lourie and others); "Just What Is Managed Care?" (Chris Koyanagi); "Managed Behavioral…

McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.

1996-01-01

92

Vehicle health management technology needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background material on vehicle health management (VHM) and health monitoring/control is presented. VHM benefits are described and a list of VHM technology needs that should be pursued is presented. The NASA funding process as it impacts VHM technology funding is touched upon, and the VHM architecture guidelines for generic launch vehicles are described. An example of a good VHM architecture, design, and operational philosophy as it was conceptualized for the National Launch System program is presented. Consideration is given to the Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group's role in VHM, earth-to-orbit, and space vehicle avionics technology development considerations, and some actual examples of VHM benefits for checkout are given.

Hammond, Walter E.; Jones, W. G.

1992-01-01

93

Women and Poverty in Saskatchewan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project explored female poverty in Saskatchewan, Canada, and its implications within the framework of Health Canada's Population Health Promotion Model. Data were collected through consultations with 59 women who had experienced poverty, interviews with administrators of agencies and projects that serve poor women, and a literature review.…

Whyte, Jayne Melville; Thompson, Loraine

94

BSc in Occupational Safety & Health Management  

E-print Network

BSc in Occupational Safety & Health Management UCD School of Public Health, Physiotherapy in Occupational Safety and Health Management is a part-time multidisciplinary undergraduate degree programme, which is designed for Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) professionals, who are both practising

95

Health & Safety Management System Queen's University  

E-print Network

Health & Safety Management System Queen's University December 2003 #12;Queen's University Health & Safety Management System 2 1. Introduction Under Provincial Health and Safety legislation, the Occupational Health and Safety Act, (the OH&S Act), places the onus for compliance with the legislation

Ellis, Randy

96

Agent-based health care management An Agent-based Approach to Health Care Management  

E-print Network

Agent-based health care management 1 An Agent-based Approach to Health Care Management Jun Huang1, London WC2A 3PX, UK. Abbreviated title: Agent-based health care management Complete Mailing Address. London E1 4NS UK #12;Agent-based health care management 2 Abstract The provision of medical care

Mascardi, Viviana

97

The Effects of Parental Death and Chronic Poverty on Children’s Education and Health : Evidence from Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sufficiently long-spanning longitudinal dataset, we estimate the short and long term effects of maternal and paternal death on childrens school enrollment, educational attainment, and health in Indonesia, then compare them to the effect of chronic poverty. We also investigate whether there are any gender dimensions in the effects. We find that young maternal orphans have worse educational outcomes

Daniel Suryadarma; Yus Medina Pakpahan; Asep Suryahadi

2009-01-01

98

Poverty, Educational Attainment and Health Among America’s Children: Current and Future Effects of Population Diversification and Associated Socioeconomic Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex of interrelated factors including minority status, poverty, education, health status, and other factors determine the general welfare of children in America, particularly in heavily diverse states such as Texas. Although racial\\/ethnic status is clearly only a concomitant factor in that determination it is a factor for which future projections are available and for which the relationships with the

Steve Murdock; Mary Zey; Michael E. Cline; Stephen Klineberg

2010-01-01

99

Beyond the feminisation of poverty: gender-aware poverty reduction.  

PubMed

There must be an awareness of gender issues in poverty reduction programs. For example, program efforts that direct aid to the promotion of labor intensive employment options disregard women's already overburdened work regime. Public expenditures to benefit the poor, such as primary education or reformed agricultural extension, may be based on the assumption that men and women will benefit equally, yet there is often gender bias in the delivery of services. One recommendation is to target female headed households in budget-constrained anti-poverty programs. One of the few examples of such programs provides urban female household heads in Chile with employment training, housing, health care, child care, and legal aid services. Causes of female headship vary, and a simple correlation with poverty is not always the case. Well-intentioned women-in-development credit programs in Ghana and Bangladesh have been "hijacked" by men. Programs to address gender discrimination only among the poor may overlook other oppressed women. In India gender discrimination is often greatest among women in wealthy households. Programs must offer more than economic resources, they must help women stretch traditional gender boundaries and obtain skills such as literacy or financial management. They must help women organize collectively to protest injustices and achieve institutional reforms. PMID:12290189

Lockwood, M; Baden, S

1995-09-01

100

The Impact of Local Government Expenditure Efficiency on Economics and Poverty Growth of East Java Province (Study of Educational Expenditure, Health and Infrastructure)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research aims to test the influence of East Java Propince Budget on growth and poverty. Beside of this, the results of this study will not only estimate the efficiency of the management of the local government on budget, but estimate also how big the effects in increasing the efficiency of spending to society welfare in East Java Province. In

Rahmah Yabbar

2013-01-01

101

Support for agriculture during economic transformation: impacts on poverty and undernutrition.  

PubMed

This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health risks associated with rising obesity in rural as well as urban areas. Thus, the transition process must be managed better, through targeted support for smallholder agriculture and health interventions, if the negative consequences of obesity and chronic disease are to be mitigated. PMID:21173245

Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

2012-07-31

102

Overview of Nurse Managed Health Centers Nurse Managed Health Centers (NMHC) are outpatient facilities that provide health services to the  

E-print Network

Overview of Nurse Managed Health Centers Nurse Managed Health Centers (NMHC) are outpatient, primary care, college health care, school- based care, and occupational health, Pohl, et. al. (2010). A Nurse Managed Health Center can be independently operated, be based in a public school, or University

Firestone, Jeremy

103

Poverty Reduction Begins with Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes how children bear the brunt of poverty and explains why they are central to poverty reduction in developing nations. The report also illustrates UNICEF's support for the process of improving access to, and quality of, health care, education, water and sanitation, and child protection. It describes how the participation of the…

United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

104

Joining together to combat poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around 1.3 billion people live on less than US$1 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries nearly 60% lack access to sanitation, 30%

A. Haines; Zoran Malenica; Judith A. Oulton; Zorayda Leopando; Dan Kaseje

2000-01-01

105

Environmental scanning and the health care manager.  

PubMed

Health care managers and supervisors work in an environment of major changes and ongoing turbulence. Basic terms and strategic approaches are described to enable managers and supervisors to better understand the process of environmental scanning in the turbulent health care environment. Drawing from multiple disciplines, the information allows health care managers and supervisors to improve their skills as environmental scanners as they develop and implement strategic plans in this environment. PMID:16131929

Layman, Elizabeth J; Bamberg, Richard

2005-01-01

106

Office of Risk Management Environmental Health Services  

E-print Network

Office of Risk Management Environmental Health Services 141 General Services Fort Collins, Colorado Provost and Director Colorado State University Extension From: Sally Alexander Environmental Health highway, road, or street which physically interferes with the movement of traffic; 5. a dangerous

107

The Effects of Poverty on Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although hundreds of studies have documented the association between family poverty and children's health, achievement, and behavior, few measure the effects of the timing, depth, and duration of poverty on children, and many fail to adjust for other family characteristics (for example, female headship, mother's age, and school- ing) that may account for much of the observed correlation between poverty

Jeanne Brooks-Gunn; Greg J. Duncan

1997-01-01

108

Personal Health Record: Managing Personal Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents the work of the TIGER Collaborative on Consumer Empowerment and the Personal Health Record (PHR). The\\u000a entire body of work for the TIGER Collaborative Team #9 is available at http:\\/\\/tigerphr.pbworks.com\\/ The first part of this\\u000a chapter will review the state of the science on the potential of health consumerism as seen through the lens of health literacy

Charlotte Weaver; Rita Zielstorff

109

Education and Health: Evaluating Theories and Evidence. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #06-19  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a well known large and persistent association between education and health. This relationship has been observed in many countries and time periods, and for a wide variety of health measures. The differences between the more and the less educated are significant: in 1999, the age-adjusted mortality rate of high school dropouts ages 25 to…

Cutler, David M.; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

2006-01-01

110

Poverty, wealth inequality and health among older adults in rural Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research exists on health determinants among adults living in economically deprived regions despite the fact that these areas comprise a good part of the world. This paper examines the distribution of wealth then tests associations between wealth inequality and a variety of health outcomes, among older adults, in one of the world's poorest regions—rural Cambodia. Data from the 2004

Zachary Zimmer

2008-01-01

111

Health and Nutritional Status of Working and Non-Working Mothers in Poverty Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the health and nutritional status of low-income women in Upstate New York and to identify problems that interfere with their employment. Questionnaires on health and work, complete medical and employment histories, physical examination, laboratory tests, dental examination and diet recalls were obtained for 469…

Roe, Daphne A.; Eickwort, Kathleen R.

112

Poverty, out-of-pocket payments and access to health care: evidence from Tajikistan.  

PubMed

Most countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have either initiated or are contemplating reform of the health sector. With negative real income growth and falling government revenues, a key concern of many governments is to secure additional finance through non-budgetary sources such as hypothecated payroll taxes, voluntary insurance, and increased private finance through patient cost-sharing. However, before such reforms can be considered, information is needed both on the current levels and distribution of household expenditures on health care, and the extent to which increased charges may affect access to health services, especially amongst the poor. This paper uses the Tajikistan Livings Standard Survey to investigate the level and distribution of out-of-pocket payments for health care in Tajikistan and to examine the extent to which such payments act as barriers to health-care access. The data show that there are significant differences in health-care utilisation rates across socio-economic groups and that these differences are related to ability to pay. Official and informal payments are acting both to deter people from seeking medical assistance and once advice has been sought, from receiving the most appropriate treatment. Despite informal exemptions, out-of-pocket payments for health care are exacting a high toll on household welfare with households being forced to sell assets or go into debt to meet the costs of care. Urgent action is needed to ensure equity in access to health care. PMID:14604611

Falkingham, Jane

2004-01-01

113

Promoting Maternal and Child Health in the Context of Rural Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW) program which operates in Appalachia and rural Western Tennessee. The program, which constitutes a partnership between community organizations and the Vanderbilt University Center for Health Services, trains local women to use home visitations to educate and support other…

Clinton, Barbara; And Others

114

Poverty, Wealth Inequality, and Health among Older Adults in Rural Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper examines,the distribution of household,wealth and tests whether associations exist between ,wealth inequality and health outcomes ,among ,older adults living in one ,of the world’s poorest regions, rural Cambodia. The 2004 Survey of the Elderly in Cambodia, the first probability sample survey of the country’s elderly population, is employed. Health is conceptualized,as having ,multiple components ,and is operationalized

Zachary Zimmer

2006-01-01

115

Medical and Health Services Managers  

MedlinePLUS

... are large enough to need them Manage the finances of the facility, such as patient fees and ... services managers: Nursing home administrators manage staff, admissions, finances, and care of the building, as well as ...

116

Community health nursing practices in contexts of poverty, uncertainty and unpredictability: a systematization of personal experiences.  

PubMed

Several years of professional nursing practices, while living in the poorest neighbourhoods in the outlying areas of Brazil's Amazon region, have led the author to develop a better understanding of marginalized populations. Providing care to people with leprosy and sex workers in riverside communities has taken place in conditions of uncertainty, insecurity, unpredictability and institutional violence. The question raised is how we can develop community health nursing practices in this context. A systematization of personal experiences based on popular education is used and analyzed as a way of learning by obtaining scientific knowledge through critical analysis of field practices. Ties of solidarity and belonging developed in informal, mutual-help action groups are promising avenues for research and the development of knowledge in health promotion, prevention and community care and a necessary contribution to national public health programmers. PMID:17934576

Laperrière, Hélène

2007-01-01

117

Poverty and Health Disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native Children: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

This report explores the current state of knowledge regarding inequalities and their effect on American Indian and Alaska Native children, underscoring gaps in our current knowledge and the opportunities for early intervention to begin to address persistent challenges in young American Indian and Alaska Native children’s development. This overview documents demographic, social, health, and health care disparities as they affect American Indian and Alaska Native children, the persistent cultural strengths that must form the basis for any conscientious intervention effort, and the exciting possibilities for early childhood interventions. PMID:18579879

Sarche, Michelle; Spicer, Paul

2008-01-01

118

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series August, 2006  

E-print Network

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #0630 August, 2006 Developmental Health. Simonton, University of Michigan This paper is available online at the National Poverty(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Poverty Center or any sponsoring agency. #12

Shyy, Wei

119

The poverty of theory: class configurations in the discourse of Physical Education and Health (PEH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: At the heart of this polemic1 lies the view that contemporary research in PE and Health (PEH) has largely overlooked one of the key determinants of social behaviour, social class and its expression in and outside schools; an omission that has quite serious consequences for how we (researchers and teachers) think about and conceptualise the purposes of PE in

John Evans; Brian Davies

2008-01-01

120

The Poverty of Theory: Class Configurations in the Discourse of Physical Education and Health (PEH)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: At the heart of this polemic lies the view that contemporary research in PE and Health (PEH) has largely overlooked one of the key determinants of social behaviour, social class and its expression in and outside schools; an omission that has quite serious consequences for how we (researchers and teachers) think about and conceptualise…

Evans, John; Davies, Brian

2008-01-01

121

Poverty, out-of-pocket payments and access to health care: evidence from Tajikistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have either initiated or are contemplating reform of the health sector. With negative real income growth and falling government revenues, a key concern of many governments is to secure additional finance through non-budgetary sources such as hypothecated payroll taxes, voluntary insurance, and increased private finance through patient cost-sharing. However, before such reforms

Jane Falkingham

2004-01-01

122

Correctional Managed Health Care CMHC ANNUAL REPORT  

E-print Network

The Connecticut Department of Correction (CDOC) historically provided health services to inmates directly, using provide compassionate and clinically appropriate health care to inmates within the DOC correctionalCorrectional Managed Health Care CMHC ANNUAL REPORT July 2011 - June 2012 Introduction Correctional

Oliver, Douglas L.

123

A guide to performance management for the Health Information Manager  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a summary of human resource management practices that have been identifi ed as being associated with better outcomes in performance management. In general, essential practices include transformational leadership and a coherent program of goal setting, performance monitoring and feedback. Some Health Information Managers may feel they require training assistance to develop the necessary skills in the establishment

Sandra G Leggat

2009-01-01

124

Multidisciplinary and participatory workshops with stakeholders in a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon: Development of priority concerns and potential health, nutrition and education interventions  

PubMed Central

Background Communities of extreme poverty suffer disproportionately from a wide range of adverse outcomes, but are often neglected or underserved by organized services and research attention. In order to target the first Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty, thereby reducing health inequalities, participatory research in these communities is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the priority problems and respective potential cost-effective interventions in Belen, a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon, using a multidisciplinary and participatory focus. Methods Two multidisciplinary and participatory workshops were conducted with important stakeholders from government, non-government and community organizations, national institutes and academic institutions. In Workshop 1, participants prioritized the main health and health-related problems in the community of Belen. Problem trees were developed to show perceived causes and effects for the top six problems. In Workshop 2, following presentations describing data from recently completed field research in school and household populations of Belen, participants listed potential interventions for the priority problems, including associated barriers, enabling factors, costs and benefits. Results The top ten priority problems in Belen were identified as: 1) infant malnutrition; 2) adolescent pregnancy; 3) diarrhoea; 4) anaemia; 5) parasites; 6) lack of basic sanitation; 7) low level of education; 8) sexually transmitted diseases; 9) domestic violence; and 10) delayed school entry. Causes and effects for the top six problems, proposed interventions, and factors relating to the implementation of interventions were multidisciplinary in nature and included health, nutrition, education, social and environmental issues. Conclusion The two workshops provided valuable insight into the main health and health-related problems facing the community of Belen. The participatory focus of the workshops ensured the active involvement of important stakeholders from Belen. Based on the results of the workshops, effective and essential interventions are now being planned which will contribute to reducing health inequalities in the community. PMID:17623093

Casapia, Martin; Joseph, Serene A; Gyorkos, Theresa W

2007-01-01

125

Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums  

PubMed Central

This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

2009-01-01

126

Effects of anti-poverty programs on electoral behavior : evidence from the Mexican Education, Health, and Nutrition Program  

E-print Network

Ever since Latin American economies collapsed in the 1980s and early 1990s, traditional redistributive programs began to coexist with new anti-poverty programs that usually took the form of conditional cash transfers (CCT). ...

De La O Torres, Ana Lorena

2007-01-01

127

Strengthening natural resource institutions in Africa - applying social learning to reconciling poverty reduction and environmental management  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In the past two decades social and political changes in Africa have unmasked the underlying complexity and pluralism of natural resource management landscapes and exposed the untenable nature of linear, centralized technocratic approaches. Institutional pluralism as both reality and approach has arisen to address complexity in natural resource management by attempting to negotiate and accommodate contradictory interests and knowledge.

Louise E. Buck; Jon Anderson

2003-01-01

128

Poverty, diet and health behaviours. A quantitative and qualitative study among young urbanised women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic, socio-economic, attitudinal, dietary, health behavioural and anthropometric data were collected from 221 “disadvantaged” and 74 “advantaged” women aged 18-35 years across Dublin, according to the provisions of a novel socio-economic sampling frame. Internal and external validation techniques established the dietary assessment method of choice and identified “valid” dietary reporters (n=216, 153 disadvantaged, 63 advantaged) among this sample. Five qualitative

Daniel McCartney

2008-01-01

129

A different disease: HIV\\/AIDS and health care for women in poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that HIV\\/AIDS for poor women is a qualitatively different disease than the one first defined in the United States in the 1980s. HIV\\/AIDS for poor women is not a new disease; it is only another life-threatening condition which parallels serious health problems already experienced by these populations. A time-honored and broad continuum

Martha C. Ward

1993-01-01

130

Poverty, Education, and Health in Indonesia: Who Benefits from Public Spending?  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 2001Static and dynamic incidence analysis underscores the importance of Indonesia?s public spending on primary health care to the poor. In education, evidence suggests that the poor are well represented in primary schooling and would benefit from increased public provisioning of secondary schooling.Lanjouw and his coauthors investigate the extent to which Indonesia?s poor benefit from public and private provisioning of

Peter Lanjouw; Menno Pradhan; Fadia Saadah; Haneed Sayed; Robert Sparrow

2001-01-01

131

Future developments in health care performance management  

PubMed Central

This paper highlights the challenges of performance management in health care, wherein multiple different objectives have to be pursued. The literature suggests starting with quality performance, following the sand cone theory, but considering a multidimensional concept of health care quality. Moreover, new managerial approaches coming from an industrial context and adapted to health care, such as lean management and risk management, can contribute to improving quality performance. Therefore, the opportunity to analyze them arises from studying their overlaps and links in order to identify possible synergies and to investigate the opportunity to develop an integrated methodology enabling improved performance. PMID:24255600

Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

2013-01-01

132

Concept Development for Software Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the work performed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) under NASA contract NNL06AA08B, delivery order NNL07AB06T. The Concept Development for Software Health Management (CDSHM) program was a NASA funded effort sponsored by the Integrated Vehicle Health Management Project, one of the four pillars of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. The CD-SHM program focused on defining a structured approach to software health management (SHM) through the development of a comprehensive failure taxonomy that is used to characterize the fundamental failure modes of safety-critical software.

Riecks, Jung; Storm, Walter; Hollingsworth, Mark

2011-01-01

133

Contribution of the GAVI Alliance to improving health and reducing poverty  

PubMed Central

The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), now 10 years old, was established as a successful and innovative public–private partnership to deal with a fundamental inequity. The poorest children in the poorest parts of the world were being denied access to life-saving vaccines simply on the basis of cost. GAVI has been successful in mobilizing significant funding from donors and through innovative financing instruments, immunizing large numbers of children. GAVI has been less successful, at least in the time frames first envisaged, at quickly reducing the prices of new and under-used vaccines to levels affordable by the poorest countries. Vaccines remain some of the most cost effective of public health interventions. As GAVI seeks to introduce a new set of vaccines to tackle major killers such as pneumonia and diarrhoea, and emerging threats such as cervical cancer, it needs to raise significant additional funds. There is no single solution. Multiple and new instruments will be required to raise finance both globally and at the country level, and also to incentivize industry and others to provide vaccines at affordable prices to the poorest countries. PMID:21893535

Lob-Levyt, Julian

2011-01-01

134

Research collaboration in health management research communities  

PubMed Central

Background This study uses scientometrics methodology to reveal the status quo and emerging issues of collaboration in health management. Methods We searched all the articles with the keyword “health management” in the period 1999–2011 in Web of Knowledge, then 3067 articles were found. Methods such as Social network analysis (SNA), co-authorship, co-word analysis were used in this study. Results Analysis of the past 13 years of research in the field of health management indicates that, whether the production of scientific research, or authors, institutions and scientific research collaboration at the national level, collaboration behavior has been growing steadily across all collaboration types. However, the international scientific research cooperation about health management study between countries needs to be further encouraged. 17 researchers can be seen as the academic leaders in this field. 37 research institutions play a vital role in the information dissemination and resources control in health management. The component analysis found that 22 research groups can be regarded as the backbone in this field. The 8 institution groups consisting of 33 institutions form the core of this field. USA, UK and Australia lie in the center by cohesive subgroup analysis; Based on keywords analysis, 44 keywords with high frequency such as care, disease, system and model were involved in the health management field. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although it is growing steadily, collaboration behavior about health management study needs to be enhanced, especially between different institutions or countries/regions, which would promote the progress and internationalization of health management. Besides, researchers should pay attention to the cooperation of representative scholars and institutions, as well as the hot areas of research, because their experience would help us promote the research development of our nation. PMID:23617236

2013-01-01

135

Rural Poverty Report 2001: The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Fund for Agricultural Development's 2001 report on rural poverty argues that to reduce poverty, international efforts must focus on "legally secure entitlements to assets (especially land and water); technology (above all for increasing the output and yield of food staples); access to markets; opportunities to participate in decentralized resource management; and access to microfinance." The extensive document is posted in .pdf format with the above address linking to its table of contents.

2001-01-01

136

www.abdn.ac.uk/study Global Health  

E-print Network

on Health Systems and Policy, Managing for Health and Global Health. Global Health topics include: · Poverty · Disability and mental health · Health financing and donor funding · Health care for humanitarian crisis for global, regional, national and sub-national health policy and planning, governance and administration

Levi, Ran

137

Poverty and Poverty Dynamics in Rural Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty in rural Ethiopia is vast by any standard. Using the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey (ERHS), which is a panel data set consisting of four rounds between 1994 and 1997, this analysis aims to examine the broad trends in poverty by calculating and decomposing poverty measures of the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke class, as well as to analyse the correlates of poverty by

Christelle Swanepoel

2005-01-01

138

Assessment of time management attitudes among health managers.  

PubMed

These days, working people are finding it difficult to manage their time, get more done at work, and find some balance in their work and personal lives. Successful time management is often suggested to be a product of organizing skills, however, what works for one person may not work for others. Context current competence assessment formats for physicians, health professionals, and managers during their training years reliably test core knowledge and basic skills. However, they may underemphasize some important domains of professional medical practice. Thus, in addition to assessments of basic skills, new formats that assess clinical reasoning, expert judgment, management of ambiguity, professionalism, time management, learning strategies, and teamwork to promise a multidimensional assessment while maintaining adequate reliability and validity in classic health education and health care institutional settings are needed to be worked on. It should be kept in mind that institutional support, reflection, and mentoring must accompany the development of assessment programs. This study was designed to describe the main factors that consume time, effective hours of work, time management opportunities, and attitudes and behaviors of health professionals and managers on time management concept through assessment by the assessment tool Time Management Inquiry Form (TMIQ-F). The study was conducted at the State Hospital, Social Security Hospital, and University Hospital at Kirikkale, Turkey between October 1999 and January 2000, including 143 subjects defined as medical managers and medical specialists. According to the results, a manager should give priority to the concept of planning, which may be counted among the efficient time management techniques, and educate him/herself on time management. PMID:16131933

Sarp, Nilgun; Yarpuzlu, Aysegul Akbay; Mostame, Fariba

2005-01-01

139

Financial management in leading health care systems.  

PubMed

To understand better the financial management practices and strategies of modern health care organizations, we conducted interviews with chief financial officers (CFOs) of several leading health care systems. In this introduction, we present an overview of the project and summary responses on corporate financial structures and strategic challenges facing CFOs. PMID:10845383

Smith, D G; Wheeler, J R; Rivenson, H L; Reiter, K L

2000-01-01

140

Joining together to combat poverty.  

PubMed

The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around 1.3 billion people live on less than US$1 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries nearly 60% lack access to sanitation, 30% do not have clean water, 20% have no health care, and 20% do not have enough dietary energy and protein. Even among rich nations there are gross socioeconomic inequalities. Many children are robbed of their physical and mental potential through poverty. Expressed in constant 1963 US dollars, an average Croatian family needed the annual income of US$894 to meet the poverty line in 1960 and US$9,027 in 1995. Accordingly, 9-25% of Croatian households were below the poverty line between 1960 and 1995. The increase in the poverty rate after 1991 was compounded by the war that destroyed almost a third of industrial capacity and infrastructure. Dissipation of the communist economy and inadequate privatization have contributed to the increase in unemployment rate, corruption, and other social ills. IPHN invited Croatian Medical Journal to publish this editorial to help push the issue of poverty up political and medical agendas on a global level. We argue that a factor contributing to the failure of most large-scale programs against poverty to date is the excessive emphasis on material and infrastructure assistance at the expense of spiritual, moral, and intellectual development. PMID:10810165

Heath, I; Haines, A; Malenica, Z; Oulton, J A; Leopando, Z; Kaseje, D; Addington, W W; Giscard D'Estaing, O; Tumwine, J K; Koivusalo, M; Biscoe, G; Nickson, P; Marusi?, M; Vuk Pavlovi?, S

2000-03-01

141

75 FR 3734 - 2009 HHS Poverty Guidelines Extended Until March 1, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SERVICES Office of the Secretary 2009 HHS Poverty Guidelines Extended Until March 1, 2010...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines will remain in effect until updated 2010 poverty guidelines are published, which...

2010-01-22

142

75 FR 45628 - Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of 2010 AGENCY...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines for the remainder of 2010, and until the 2011 poverty guidelines are published, which is...

2010-08-03

143

Managing complaints in health and social care.  

PubMed

An important aspect of allowing patients to take control of their health care is the introduction of new procedures for dealing with complaints. This article examines the concepts that underpin the new Department of Health regulations on complaints management and what they will mean for health and social care professionals. It also explains why these regulations focus on restorative justice rather than blame when adverse events occur. PMID:20432639

Holmes-Bonney, Kathy

2010-04-01

144

The effect of a poverty reduction policy and service quality standards on commune-level primary health care utilization in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Although universal access to quality health services is a primary policy goal of the Government of Vietnam (GOVN), economic restructuring and privatization of health services have been associated with emerging inequities in access to care. A GOVN programme for socio-economic development known as Program 135 (P135) designates communes known to be relatively poor as priority localities for development resources. Under this programme, basic curative and preventive health services, including some prescription drugs, are provided free of charge at commune health centres (CHCs). In an effort to improve the quality of care provided at CHCs, the national Ministry of Health (MOH) has implemented a set of national benchmarks for commune health care, which defines a minimum configuration of equipment, staff, training and other elements of service provision. This research examines the impact of P135 poverty reduction policy, achievement of MOH benchmark indicators and commune socio-economic characteristics on CHC utilization rates in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. The analysis uses administrative data reported from 178 CHCs in Thai Nguyen Province for nine quarters, including 2004, 2005 and the first quarter of 2006. Mixed linear regression models are used to estimate the main and interaction effects on utilization rates of exposure to the P135 policies, achievement of MOH benchmarks, poverty, distance to the district hospital and ethnic composition. Communes that are poor and remote have comparatively high CHC utilization rates. Multivariate regression results suggest that communes exposed to the P135 policy have higher utilization rates, but these effects are conditional upon achievement of benchmark standards, thus perceived quality care enhances CHC utilization. Combining Program P135 with benchmark investment reduced the gap between primary health care utilization in poor communes versus those that are less poor. These commune-level findings suggest that CHC policies differentially benefit poor communities and reduce inequality in use of health care services. PMID:20038572

Nguyen, Phuong; Bich Hanh, Duong; Lavergne, M Ruth; Mai, Tung; Nguyen, Quang; Phillips, James F; Hughes, Jane; Van Thuc, Ha

2010-07-01

145

Improving health service management education: the manager speaks.  

PubMed

This paper uses health service manager judgements to discuss educational approaches and environments suitable to the development of required competencies and reports barriers to and opportunities for competency development. Practising managers were found to recognise and value the educational contributions made by academic programs, health service organisations and professional associations to the development of professional competence. Academic programs are seen as the appropriate vehicle for developing conceptual, analytical, problem solving and communication competencies that require considerable maturation time. Health service organisations are seen to have a key role in promoting professional competence through maintaining a culture conductive to encouraging managers to undertake further education, supported by appropriate system strategies. Professional associations are regarded as appropriate sponsors for promoting knowledge and skill update in relation to current issues in management through short courses, conferences and timely educational meetings. Wherever possible, collaboration between professional and educational organisations was seen to be desirable. PMID:10131177

Harris, M G; Harris, R D; Tapsell, L

1993-01-01

146

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series June, 2006  

E-print Network

of social policies can have health consequences. Poverty and Health In the United States, persons who to affect patterns in the distribution of disease in the in the United States. Some of the findings of prior National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #0616 June, 2006 Poverty, Migration

Shyy, Wei

147

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series June, 2006  

E-print Network

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #0619 June, 2006 Education and Health reflect the view of the National Poverty Center or any sponsoring agency. #12;Education and Health University This paper is available online at the National Poverty Center Working Paper

Shyy, Wei

148

77 FR 4034 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of Health...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar...for that program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the...

2012-01-26

149

76 FR 3637 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of Health...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar...for that program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the...

2011-01-20

150

78 FR 5182 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of Health...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar...for that program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the...

2013-01-24

151

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM HEALTH MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most critical systems in any aerospace vehicle is the electrical power system. Comprised of energy generation, energy storage, power distribution, and power management, the electrical power system (EPS) is relied upon by every major subsystem for proper operation. In order to meet the safety requirements of aeronautics and space systems - and provide for their reliability, maintainability,

Robert M. Button; Amy Chicatelli

152

Applying e-health to case management.  

PubMed

The healthcare industry is only beginning to understand e-health. E-health can be defined as the use of technology to directly improve healthcare delivery-affording patients the opportunity to participate in their own healthcare management, provider, and institution. The market is changing rapidly, and innovations, partnerships, and mergers are taking place daily. For healthcare institutions, setting a long-term, yet adaptable e-health strategy is of vital importance for the continued success of the organization. For clinicians, an understanding of and familiarity with technologies can significantly improve workflow, organization, and patient interaction. For the patient, technology can be leveraged as a means to take initiative and responsibility for his/her own health. This article defines e-health and explains the implications and benefits of e-health to nurses and their patients. The article also identifies unique opportunities e-health/e-commerce can provide case managers in promoting patient connectivity, care management, and economy in cost of care. PMID:16397993

Adams, J M

2000-01-01

153

Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.  

PubMed

Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health. PMID:18049180

Krieger, Nancy

2007-11-01

154

Legacy for ChildrenTM: a pair of randomized controlled trials of a public health model to improve developmental outcomes among children in poverty  

PubMed Central

Background One in five Americans under age 18 lives in a family below the Federal poverty threshold. These more than 15 million children are at increased risk of a wide variety of adverse long-term health and developmental outcomes. The early years of life are critical to short- and long-term health and well-being. The Legacy for ChildrenTM model was developed in response to this need and marries the perspectives of epidemiology and public health to developmental psychology theory in order to better address the needs of children at environmental risk for poor developmental outcomes. Methods/design The Legacy for ChildrenTM group-based parenting intervention model was evaluated as a pair of randomized controlled trials among low-income families in Miami and Los Angeles. The study was designed to allow for site-stratified analysis in order to evaluate each model implementation separately. Evaluation domains include comprehensive assessments of family, maternal, and child characteristics, process outcomes, and prospective programmatic cost. Data collection began prenatally or at birth and continues into school-age. Discussion The societal costs of poor developmental outcomes are substantial. A concerted effort from multiple sectors and disciplines, including public health, is necessary to address these societal concerns. Legacy uses a public health model to engage parents and promote overall child well-being in families in poverty through rigorous evaluation methodologies and evidence-based intervention strategies. This study collects rich and modular information on maternal and child outcomes, process, and cost that will enable a detailed understanding of how Legacy works, how it can be refined and improved, and how it can be translated and disseminated. Taken together, these results will inform public policy and help to address issues of health disparities among at-risk populations. Trial registration NCT00164697 PMID:22917446

2012-01-01

155

The Implications of Death for Health: A Terror Management Health Model for Behavioral Health Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a terror management health model (TMHM). The model integrates disparate health and social psychology literatures to elucidate how the conscious and nonconscious awareness of death can influence the motivational orientation that is most operative in the context of health decisions. Three formal propositions are presented. Proposition 1 suggests that conscious thoughts about death can instigate health-oriented responses

Jamie L. Goldenberg; Jamie Arndt

2008-01-01

156

Health Data Management top 10 special report.  

PubMed

The top 10 health care information technology companies control only about 30% of the software market. Because these leading companies do not yet dominate the market, observers predict vendors will continue to consolidate. In this in-depth special report, Health Data Management profiles the 10 leading companies, ranked on their 1996 revenues. Each corporate profile offers insights from top company executives about their strategies, as well as comments from stock analysts. PMID:10167252

Bazzoli, F; McCormack, J

1997-05-01

157

Managing the myths of health care.  

PubMed

Myths impede the effective management of health care, for example that the system is failing (indeed, that is a system), and can be fixed by detached social engineering and heroic leadership, or treating it more like a business. This field needs to reframe its management, as distributed beyond the "top"; its strategy as venturing, not planning; its organizing as collaboration beyond control, and especially itself, as a system beyond its parts. PMID:23342753

Mintzberg, Henry

2012-01-01

158

Health care management in workers' compensation.  

PubMed

A high-performing, effective health care delivery system is critical to the recovery of injured workers within a workers' compensation insurance system. Timely and effective health care has the potential to minimize indemnity costs and therefore contribute to the insurer's financial state. While costs remain a concern to insurers, cost-containment initiatives within the health care arena have evolved from a strict "deep discount" approach to more sophisticated health care strategies that follow managed care-style models. In the future, health care strategies are likely to become more integrated within the business operations of workers' compensation insurance systems. The next evolution of health care strategy within workers' compensation will likely include consensus-based contracts with providers that stipulate the role and function of each party while reinforcing a continuous improvement mindset. It is probable that a component of this evolving system will include shared risk and reimbursement that is based on performance. Insurers who begin to evaluate the true impact of a comprehensive health care strategy will find it necessary and advantageous to modify their business relationship with health care providers. Those who are able to articulate a business strategy that capitalizes on the skills of the health care community are likely to gain a competitive advantage. Most importantly, this bridging of intellectual capacity across the insurance and health care domains will result in a delivery system that is valued by, and contributes to, its key participants--the employers and the injured workers. PMID:9589449

Nikolaj, S; Boon, B

1998-01-01

159

The Role of Childhood Neglect and Childhood Poverty in Predicting Mental Health, Academic Achievement and Crime in Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the roles of childhood neglect and childhood poverty (family and neighborhood) in predicting Posttraumatic\\u000a Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), academic achievement, and crime in young adulthood. Using existing\\u000a data from a prospective cohort design study, 1,005 children with documented histories of neglect (N = 507) and matched controls\\u000a (N = 497) were interviewed in young adulthood (mean age 29).

Valentina NikulinaCathy; Cathy Spatz Widom; Sally Czaja

160

75 FR 54804 - Safety and Health Management Programs for Mines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...comprehensive safety and health management programs at...Academia; safety and health professionals; industry...prevent injuries and illnesses, maintain compliance...Federal Mine Safety and Health Act, safety and health...experience low injury and illness rates and low...

2010-09-09

161

Towards Open Information Management in Health Care  

PubMed Central

The utilization of information technology as tool in health care is increasing. The main benefits stem from the fact that information in electronic form can be transferred to different locations rapidly and from the possibility to automate certain information management tasks. The current technological approach for this automation relies on structured, formally coded representation of information. We discuss the limitations of the current technological approach and present a viewpoint, grounded on previous research and the authors’ own experiences, on how to progress. We present that a bottleneck in the automation of the management of constantly evolving clinical information is caused by the fact that the current technological approach requires the formal coding of information to be static in nature. This inherently hinders the expandability of the information case space to be managed. We present a new paradigm entitled open information management targeting unlimited case spaces. We also present a conceptual example from clinical medicine demonstrating open information management principles and mechanisms. PMID:19415134

Yli-Hietanen, J; Niiranen, S

2008-01-01

162

Learning, changing and managing in mental health.  

PubMed

This paper draws on research which considers the implications for practitioners and managers of implementing new ideas for practice gained from learning and education in mental health in the UK. Using a questionnaire survey followed by eight semi-structured interviews, the research set out to identify the issues facing workers trying to implement change in the workplace as a result of new learning gained from study of an Open University mental health course. The paper argues that much management literature on change within organisations is problematic in this specific context. This is largely because it takes insufficient account of the complexities surrounding work within social care (particularly mental health). Findings show that workers who have undertaken learning in mental health often feel disempowered and isolated when attempting to introduce new ideas for practice into the workplace. The first line manager operates at the intersection of practice and learning and has a key role in enabling and supporting staff through practice as well as service change and professional development. This paper locates the distance learning experience within a wider framework of student/practitioner support, and explores the role of the first line manager in supporting and enabling staff. PMID:11725583

Henderson, J

2001-11-01

163

The health and management of poultry production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poultry industry in the USA is a fully integrated system of animal agriculture. Each company has control over the bird husbandry and health management aspects of production, including the use of antimicrobial agents. The three segments of the industry—broiler chickens, turkeys, and layer chickens—have few antibiotics available for the therapeutic treatment of bacterial diseases. Prior to approval of the

Charles L. Hofacre

2002-01-01

164

MIS for Health Care Human Resource Management: A Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human resources (HR) represent a key resource for the health care system in any coun try. Its development and management are considered vital for establishing a sustain able health system infrastructure. A human resources management information system (MIS) is essential for sound planning and management of a health system. This paper briefly discusses the conceptual development of health care human

Basu Ghosh

2000-01-01

165

Adolescent Coping with Poverty-Related Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents living in poverty face numerous stressors that are toxic for their mental health and well-being. There are effective strategies for coping with poverty-related stress that have been shown to reduce psychological symptoms in the face of this stress. However, stress itself weakens an adolescent's ability to use these cognitively…

Wadsworth, Martha E.; Wolff, Brian; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Moran, Erica G.

2008-01-01

166

Ninez y Pobreza (Childhood and Poverty).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews data on child poverty worldwide, providing statistics on 20 poverty-related problems. Examines effects of economic factors (i.e., unemployment, wage stagnation, inflation, and internal migration) and political policies (i.e., military spending over health and education) on child well-being, arguing that families and children themselves…

Didonet, Vital

1992-01-01

167

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

2011-01-01

168

Software Health Management with Bayesian Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most modern aircraft as well as other complex machinery is equipped with diagnostics systems for its major subsystems. During operation, sensors provide important information about the subsystem (e.g., the engine) and that information is used to detect and diagnose faults. Most of these systems focus on the monitoring of a mechanical, hydraulic, or electromechanical subsystem of the vehicle or machinery. Only recently, health management systems that monitor software have been developed. In this paper, we will discuss our approach of using Bayesian networks for Software Health Management (SWHM). We will discuss SWHM requirements, which make advanced reasoning capabilities for the detection and diagnosis important. Then we will present our approach to using Bayesian networks for the construction of health models that dynamically monitor a software system and is capable of detecting and diagnosing faults.

Mengshoel, Ole; Schumann, JOhann

2011-01-01

169

The Implications of Death for Health: A Terror Management Health Model for Behavioral Health Promotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a terror management health model (TMHM). The model integrates disparate health and social psychology literatures to elucidate how the conscious and nonconscious awareness of death can influence the motivational orientation that is most operative in the context of health decisions. Three formal propositions are presented.…

Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie

2008-01-01

170

CHILDREN AND POVERTY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THREE MAJOR QUESTIONS ARE RAISED--(1) WHAT IS MEANT BY POVERTY AND TO WHAT EXTENT DOES THE OVERALL AMOUNT OF POVERTY DEPEND ON THE SORT OF MEASURING ROD USED. (2) HOW MANY AND WHAT PROPORTION OF THE NATION'S CHILDREN ARE GROWING UP IN POVERTY. AND (3) WHERE, GEOGRAPHICALLY AND SOCIALLY, ARE THESE CHILDREN OF THE POOR TO BE FOUND. POVERTY IS…

WITMER, HELEN L.

171

Hope out of Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "A Framework of Poverty," Ruby Payne (1998) itemizes the things that characterize poverty-stricken people. She talks about how hard it is for a person to move out of poverty. To not pass poverty on to another generation, one must have a vision. One must have a desire to achieve a better life or a strong support system. Schools must become the…

Davenport, Roy F.; Tolbert, Marsha; Myers-Oliver, Donna; Brissett, Julia M.; Roland, Annissa J.

2007-01-01

172

Conceptualizing Chronic Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a meaning for the term chronic poverty “in a nutshell” and explores the concepts of poverty, vulnerability and poverty dynamics that underpin this meaning. Subsequently, it reviews “who” is chronically poor, “why” they stay poor and what is known about policies to reduce chronic poverty. Despite the limited knowledge available it is clear that hundreds of millions

Andrew Shepherd

2003-01-01

173

Creating and managing a paperless health information management department.  

PubMed

Over the last 10 to 15 years, the health care industry has experienced dramatic changes in health care delivery, consumer needs, and demands. The medical record, a recapitulation of the care patients receive, continues to be one of the most vital components of the health care delivery system. It serves as a crucial administrative, clinical, financial, and research tool. Health information managers, striving to meet ever-changing requirements, have turned to electronic record processing to meet these changes. The following article describes one hospital's journey from a cumbersome paper environment to an electronic environment that not only resulted in improved customer service but also provided employees with renewed job satisfaction and increased skill levels. PMID:12402633

Greene, Zelda B

2002-08-01

174

Second discipline in Health Management and Policy HMP 401, US Health Care Systems  

E-print Network

Second discipline in Health Management and Policy Required: HMP 401, US Health Care Systems HMP 501, Epidemiology and Community Medicine HMP 721, Managing Health Care Organizations Either HMP 711, Health Systems] HMP 712, Health Systems Research II Course Descriptions: HMP 401 - United States Health Care Systems

New Hampshire, University of

175

Poverty nutrition linkages.  

PubMed

At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per cent and about half the children are undernourished. While poverty and mortality rates came down by 50 per cent, fertility rate by 40 per cent, the reduction in undernutrition in children is only 20 per cent. National surveys indicate that a third of the children from high income group who have not experienced any deprivations are undernourished. The high undernutrition rates among children appears to be mainly due to high low birthweight rates, poor infant and young child feeding and caring practices. At the other end of the spectrum, surveys in school children from high income groups indicate that between 10-20 per cent are overnourished; the major factor responsible appears to be reduction in physical activity. Some aspects of the rapidly changing, complex relationship between economic status, poverty, dietary intake, nutritional and health status are explored in this review. PMID:18032800

Ramachandran, Prema

2007-10-01

176

Entrepreneurship management in health services: an integrative model.  

PubMed

This research develops an integrated systems model of entrepreneurship management as a method for achieving health care organizational survival and growth. Specifically, it analyzes current health care environment challenges, identifies roles of managers and discusses organizational theories that are relevant to the health care environment, outlines the role of entrepreneurship in health care, and describes the entrepreneurial manager in the entrepreneurial management process to produce desirable organizational outcomes. The study concludes that as current health care environment continues to show intense competition, entrepreneurial managers are responsible for creating innovations, managing change, investing in resources, and recognizing opportunities in the environment to increase organizational viability. PMID:16583849

Guo, Kristina L

2006-01-01

177

Making Technology Ready: Integrated Systems Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper identifies work needed by developers to make integrated system health management (ISHM) technology ready and by programs to make mission infrastructure ready for this technology. This paper examines perceptions of ISHM technologies and experience in legacy programs. Study methods included literature review and interviews with representatives of stakeholder groups. Recommendations address 1) development of ISHM technology, 2) development of ISHM engineering processes and methods, and 3) program organization and infrastructure for ISHM technology evolution, infusion and migration.

Malin, Jane T.; Oliver, Patrick J.

2007-01-01

178

Towards software health management with bayesian networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more systems such as aircraft, machinery, and cars rely heavily on software, which performs safety-critical operations. Assuring software safety though traditional V&V has become a tremendous, if not impossible task, given the growing size and complexity of the software. We propose that SWHM (SoftWare Health Management) has the potential to increase safety and reliability of high-assurance software systems.

Johann Schumann; Ole J. Mengshoel; Ashok N. Srivastava; Adnan Darwiche

2010-01-01

179

Knowledge Management and E-Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Knowledge management (KM) has made a significant impact on the global healthcare sector. However, it is important to address\\u000a the link between knowledge, information and engineering. This paper discusses how concepts from the established KM field can\\u000a be applied to the area of e-Health. Explicit and tacit modes of knowledge transfer are presented and discussed. We conclude\\u000a by advocating “tacit-to-tacit”

Rajeev K. Bali; M. Chris Gibbons; Vikraman Baskaran; Raouf N. G. Naguib

180

[Veterinary herd health management in swine production].  

PubMed

The paper describes the current tendencies in the field of pork production since the EU single market has come into being. The challenges to the veterinary profession resulting from them are the development of quality assurance systems through the whole production chain and the idea of the Alternative Veterinary Mandatory Alternative Meat Inspection System. The "new" veterinary activities to meet the growing demands are explained with special regard to slaughter checks, preventive veterinary consultation and future herd health management. PMID:8591754

Blaha, T

1995-07-01

181

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation. ISHM is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this chapter, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an ISHM capability relevant to intelligent systems. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system, emphasizing an advance toward an on-board, autonomous capability. Both ground-based and on-board ISHM capabilities are addressed. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

2011-01-01

182

Constructing management practice in the new public management: the case of mental health managers.  

PubMed

There has been a growth in managerialism of professionals in the Public Sector. This paper contributes to this debate by examining perceptions of senior managers in mental health services within Health Authorities, NHS Trusts and Local Authorities' Social Services departments in Wales. The paper explores how different professions responded differently to the growth of managerialism. The results suggest important differences and similarities between management in health and social services settings. PMID:12908995

Connolly, M; Jones, N

2003-08-01

183

ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation presents status and results of research on Software Health Management done within the NRA "ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management." Topics include: Ingredients of a Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (GN and C); Selected GN and C Testbed example; Health Management of major ingredients; ISWHM testbed architecture; and Conclusions and next Steps.

Schumann, Johann; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Darwiche, Adnan

2010-01-01

184

Building Resilience for Sustainable Development of the Sundarbans through Estuary Management, Poverty Reduction, and Biodiversity Conservation: A Non-Lending  

E-print Network

...................... 19 4.2 Bangladesh: Disaster Management.................................................................................. 20 4.3 India: Disaster Management ............................................................................................ 23 4.4 Sri Lanka: Disaster Management

Webster, Peter J.

185

Data Management for Meeting Global Health Challenges Tapan S. Parikh  

E-print Network

Data Management for Meeting Global Health Challenges Tapan S. Parikh UC Berkeley School global health challenges are becoming increasingly data driven. Governments and donors are demanding activities, and responding to remote outbreaks of disease. Data challenges in global health intersect

Parikh, Tapan S.

186

NIH POLICY MANUAL 1340 -NIH Occupational Safety and Health Management  

E-print Network

NIH POLICY MANUAL 1340 - NIH Occupational Safety and Health Management Issuing Office: ORS establishes the scope and objectives of the Occupational Safety and Health Program and details a comprehensive and effective Occupational Safety and Health Program and provides the foundation

Bandettini, Peter A.

187

APPLICATION FOR CANDIDACY Environmental Management and Occupational Safety & Health Programs  

E-print Network

APPLICATION FOR CANDIDACY Environmental Management and Occupational Safety & Health Programs Please Program in Occupational Safety and Health (requires Algebra, Trigonometry and Chemistry) B. Verify your of Hazardous Materials. Occupational Safety and Health Certificate ________ I attest that I have successfully

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

188

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY Risk Management Services, University of Alberta  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY Risk Management Services, University of Alberta www planning, assessment and audits Develop and implement health & safety policies, procedures and programs, regulations and standards & health and safety records Review safe work procedures Testing and coordination

Machel, Hans

189

Training evaluation: a case study of training Iranian health managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Ministry of Health and Medical Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran has undertaken a reform of its health system, in which-lower level managers are given new roles and responsibilities in a decentralized system. To support these efforts, a United Kingdom-based university was contracted by the World Health Organization to design a series of courses for health managers

Maye Omar; Nancy Gerein; Ehsanullah Tarin; Christopher Butcher; Stephen Pearson; Gholamreza Heidari

2009-01-01

190

Multidimensional Poverty and Interlocking Poverty Traps: Framework and Application to Ethiopian Household Panel Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact and potential interactions of health, education and consumption dimensions of persistent poverty at the household level. Our application is to indictors of assets, undernutrition, and illiteracy drawn from the Ethiopia Rural Household Survey (ERHS) panel data set. We develop a framework for operationalizing the concept of multidimensional traps, involving two or more simultaneous distinct poverty

Stephen C. Smith; Sungil Kwak

2011-01-01

191

The Effects of Poverty Simulation, an Experiential Learning Modality, on Students' Understanding of Life in Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the impact of the Poverty Simulation Project, an experiential learning modality, on students' understanding of life in poverty. A total of 101 students representing 5 undergraduate majors in the College of Health and Human Services completed measures of critical thinking, understanding of others, and the active learning…

Vandsburger, Etty; Duncan-Daston, Rana; Akerson, Emily; Dillon, Tom

2010-01-01

192

A Distributed Prognostic Health Management Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper introduces a generic distributed prognostic health management (PHM) architecture with specific application to the electrical power systems domain. Current state-of-the-art PHM systems are mostly centralized in nature, where all the processing is reliant on a single processor. This can lead to loss of functionality in case of a crash of the central processor or monitor. Furthermore, with increases in the volume of sensor data as well as the complexity of algorithms, traditional centralized systems become unsuitable for successful deployment, and efficient distributed architectures are required. A distributed architecture though, is not effective unless there is an algorithmic framework to take advantage of its unique abilities. The health management paradigm envisaged here incorporates a heterogeneous set of system components monitored by a varied suite of sensors and a particle filtering (PF) framework that has the power and the flexibility to adapt to the different diagnostic and prognostic needs. Both the diagnostic and prognostic tasks are formulated as a particle filtering problem in order to explicitly represent and manage uncertainties; however, typically the complexity of the prognostic routine is higher than the computational power of one computational element ( CE). Individual CEs run diagnostic routines until the system variable being monitored crosses beyond a nominal threshold, upon which it coordinates with other networked CEs to run the prognostic routine in a distributed fashion. Implementation results from a network of distributed embedded devices monitoring a prototypical aircraft electrical power system are presented, where the CEs are Sun Microsystems Small Programmable Object Technology (SPOT) devices.

Bhaskar, Saha; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

2009-01-01

193

Structural Health Management for Future Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural Health Management (SHM) will be of critical importance to provide the safety, reliability and affordability necessary for the future long duration space missions described in America's Vision for Space Exploration. Long duration missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond cannot be accomplished with the current paradigm of periodic, ground based structural integrity inspections. As evidenced by the Columbia tragedy, this approach is also inadequate for the current Shuttle fleet, thus leading to its initial implementation of on-board SHM sensing for impact detection as part of the return to flight effort. However, future space systems, to include both vehicles as well as structures such as habitation modules, will require an integrated array of onboard in-situ sensing systems. In addition, advanced data systems architectures will be necessary to communicate, store and process massive amounts of SHM data from large numbers of diverse sensors. Further, improved structural analysis and design algorithms will be necessary to incorporate SHM sensing into the design and construction of aerospace structures, as well as to fully utilize these sensing systems to provide both diagnosis and prognosis of structural integrity. Ultimately, structural integrity information will feed into an Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) system that will provide real-time knowledge of structural, propulsion, thermal protection and other critical systems for optimal vehicle management and mission control. This paper will provide an overview of NASA research and development in the area of SHM as well as to highlight areas of technology improvement necessary to meet these future mission requirements.

Prosser, W. H.; Allison, S. G.; Woodard, S. E.; Wincheski, R. A.; Cooper, E. G.; Price, D. C.; Hedley, M.; Prokopenko, M.; Scott, D. A.; Tessler, A.

2004-01-01

194

Investigation of Integrated Vehicle Health Management Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is to present the work that was performed during the summer in the Advance Computing Application office. The NFFP (NASA Faculty Fellow Program) had ten summer faculty members working on IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) technologies. The objective of this project was two-fold: 1) to become familiar with IVHM concepts and key demonstrated IVHM technologies; and 2) to integrate the research that has been performed by IVHM faculty members into the MASTLAB (Marshall Avionic Software Test Lab). IVHM is a NASA-wide effort to coordinate, integrate and apply advanced software, sensors and design technologies to increase the level of intelligence, autonomy, and health state of future vehicles. IVHM is an important concept because it is consistent with the current plan for NASA to go to the moon, mars, and beyond. In order for NASA to become more involved in deep exploration, avionic systems will need to be highly adaptable and autonomous.

Paris, Deidre

2005-01-01

195

Outage management and health physics issue, 2006  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A design with experience for the U.S., by Michael J. Wallace, Constellation Generation Group; Hope to be among the first, by Randy Hutchinson, Entergy Nuclear; Plans to file COLs in 2008, by Garry Miller, Progress Energy; Evolution of ICRP's recommendations, by Lars-Erik Holm, ICRP; European network on education and training in radiological protection, by Michele Coeck, SCK-CEN, Belgium; Outage managment: an important tool for improving nuclear power plant performance, by Thomas Mazour and Jiri Mandula, IAEA, Austria; and Plant profile: Exploring new paths to excellence, by Anne Thomas, Exelon Nuclear.

Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

2006-05-15

196

Poverty in the Midst of Plenty: Unmet Needs and Distribution of Health Care Resources in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Background The unmet needs for health care have been used as an alternative measurement to monitor equity in health services. We sought to examine contextual influences on unmet needs for health care whereas precedent studies have been focused on individual characteristics on them. Methods and Findings The current study conducted multilevel logistic regression analysis to assess the effects of individual- and contextual-level predictors in meeting individual health care needs in South Korea. We sampled 7,200 individuals over the age of 19 in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009. Included in the regression model were individual predictors such as demographic variables, socio-economic status, and self-rated health; the density of beds and physicians in public and private sectors within different regions were used as contextual-level predictors. This study showed the inverse association between unmet needs and regional resources in private sectors after controlling for the effects of individual-level predictors. Conclusion Our findings suggest that increasing regional resources in private sectors might produce inefficiency in the health care system and inequity in access to health services, particularly where the competition in private health care sectors was highly stimulated under the fee-for-service reimbursement scheme. Policies for the reallocation of health care resources and for reduction of individual health care costs are needed in Korea. PMID:23226447

Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juwhan; Kim, Jukyung; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Jin-seok; Kwon, Soonman; Subramanian, S. V.; Kawachi, Ichiro

2012-01-01

197

‘More health for the money’: an analytical framework for access to health care through microfinance and savings groups  

PubMed Central

The main contributors to inequities in health relates to widespread poverty. Health cannot be achieved without addressing the social determinants of health, and the answer does not lie in the health sector alone. One of the potential pathways to address vulnerabilities linked to poverty, social exclusion, and empowerment of women is aligning health programmes with empowerment interventions linked to access to capital through microfinance and self-help groups. This paper presents a framework to analyse combined health and financial interventions through microfinance programmes in reducing barriers to access health care. If properly designed and ethically managed such integrated programmes can provide more health for the money spent on health care. PMID:25364028

Saha, Somen

2014-01-01

198

Sustainability and the health care manager: Part II.  

PubMed

Are there additional costs associated with achieving goals of sustainable health care? Will going green enhance or impede financial performance? These are questions that all health care managers should confront, yet there is little evidence to show that health care sustainability is affordable or profitable. This article considers what is presently known and suggests that health care managers use an assessment framework to determine whether they are ready to achieve health care sustainability. PMID:21808179

Ramirez, Bernardo; Oetjen, Reid M; Malvey, Donna

2011-01-01

199

Adolescents and Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More youth live in poverty and poor youth comprise a larger share of the youth population than was the case a decade ago. This article first provides a descriptive analysis of children in poverty; examining the incidence of poverty among children by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics with a particular focus on…

Wight, Vanessa R.

2011-01-01

200

The implications of death for health: a terror management health model for behavioral health promotion.  

PubMed

This article introduces a terror management health model (TMHM). The model integrates disparate health and social psychology literatures to elucidate how the conscious and nonconscious awareness of death can influence the motivational orientation that is most operative in the context of health decisions. Three formal propositions are presented. Proposition 1 suggests that conscious thoughts about death can instigate health-oriented responses aimed at removing death-related thoughts from current focal attention. Proposition 2 suggests that the unconscious resonance of death-related cognition promotes self-oriented defenses directed toward maintaining, not one's health, but a sense of meaning and self-esteem. The last proposition suggests that confrontations with the physical body may undermine symbolic defenses and thus present a previously unrecognized barrier to health promotion activities. In the context of each proposition, moderators are proposed, research is reviewed, and implications for health promotion are discussed. PMID:18954213

Goldenberg, Jamie L; Arndt, Jamie

2008-10-01

201

Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model  

PubMed Central

Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:24620040

Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

2014-01-01

202

Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model.  

PubMed

Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:24620040

Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

2014-04-01

203

[Population trends and poverty].  

PubMed

Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs. PMID:12178231

Olmedo, C

1998-04-01

204

Vaccines against poverty  

PubMed Central

With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

2014-01-01

205

The social costs of the International Monetary Fund's adjustment programs for poverty: the case of health care development in Ghana.  

PubMed

A primary health care (PHC) strategy was adopted in Ghana in 1978, but the civilian government at the time failed to implement the program designed to achieve health for all Ghanaians. In 1982, the revolutionary military government under Rawlings indicated its commitment to the full implementation of the PHC program. In this article, the author seeks to examine the extent to which the Economic Recovery Program initiated by the Rawlings' regime, its policy of decentralization and mobilization of the masses, and its promise to institute some fundamental organizational and structural changes in the health care delivery system, are contributing to the process of achieving "health for all" Ghanaians. PMID:2753581

Anyinam, C A

1989-01-01

206

76 FR 64110 - Safety and Health Management Programs for Mines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...outside of mining, as well as international...other safety and health events. MSHA will...effective safety and health management programs...injuries, and illnesses. In the past year...develop safety and health management programs...OSHA's Injury and Illness Prevention...

2011-10-17

207

Phar 6232: Health System Pharmacy Management Meeting Time and Place  

E-print Network

of health-system pharmacy management. This course uses face-to-face ITV lectures and small group learning. The role of distributive and purchasing functions 6. The basic principles of pharmacy benefits management 7, conflict management, and communication. 3.5 Use health informatics and information technologies to foster

Thomas, David D.

208

Health Care Financial Management: Curriculum Objectives and Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum objectives for health care financial management, a bibliography and examples of financial management curricula are presented. The outline of curriculum objectives identifies a core of knowledge and skills in financial management that health administration students might obtain in their academic training. The outline's content is divided…

Zelman, William N., Ed.; And Others

209

Trauma, poverty and mental health among Somali and Rwandese refugees living in an African refugee settlement – an epidemiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among Rwandese and Somali refugees resident in a Ugandan refugee settlement, as a measure of the mental health consequences of armed conflict, as well as to inform a subsequent mental health outreach program. The study population comprised a sample from 14400 (n

Lamaro P Onyut; Frank Neuner; Verena Ertl; Elisabeth Schauer; Michael Odenwald; Thomas Elbert

2009-01-01

210

The Biological Residue of Childhood Poverty  

PubMed Central

Children raised in poverty are prone to physical health problems late in life. To understand these findings and address the scientific challenge they represent, we must formulate integrative conceptual frameworks at the crossroads of behavioral and biomedical science, with a strong developmental emphasis. In this article, we outline such a framework and discuss research bearing on its validity. We address how childhood poverty gets under the skin, at the level of tissues and organs, in a manner that affects later disease risks. We also tackle questions about resilience; Even with lengthy exposure to childhood poverty, why do only a subset of people acquire diseases? Why are some individuals protected while others remain vulnerable? Maternal nurturance might be a source of resilience, buffering children from the long-term health consequences of poverty. We conclude with research priorities. PMID:24032051

Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith

2012-01-01

211

Building Poverty Reduction Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This World Bank site considers a new framework for reducing poverty worldwide. The three steps of this outline are highlighted. "Understanding the nature and locus of poverty" considers the demographics of the world's poor. The second step, "Choosing public actions that have the highest poverty impact," examines the factors necessary for choosing public actions that will merit the highest impact on poverty. Finally, the provisions for monitoring the chosen poverty outcome indicators are explained in "Selecting and tracking outcome indicators." This site's rich resources include information and data on poverty such as regional and social indicators, household surveys, and country data sets, and an extensive list of related links. An online library holds reports, working papers, speeches, and other materials from the World Bank as well as from other resources. Interested users may also subscribe to PovertyNet, a bimonthly e-newsletter.

212

Health Plans Respond to Parity: Managing Behavioral Health Care in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program  

PubMed Central

The government often uses the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program as a model for both public and private health policy choices. In 2001, the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) implemented full parity, requiring that FEHB carriers offer mental health and substance abuse benefits equal to general medical benefits. OPM instructed carriers to alter their benefit design but permitted them to determine whether they would manage care and what structures or processes they would use. This article reports on the experience of 156 carriers and the government-wide BlueCross and BlueShield Service Benefit Plan. Carriers dropped cost-restraining benefit limits. A smaller percentage also changed the management of the benefit, but these changes affected the care of many enrollees, making the overall parity effect noteworthy. PMID:16529573

Ridgely, M Susan; Burnam, M Audrey; Barry, Colleen L; Goldman, Howard H; Hennessy, Kevin D

2006-01-01

213

Hispanic Poverty and Inequality Grant Competition Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality  

E-print Network

trends in poverty, inequality, and mobility among Hispanics in the United States within the Administration for Children and Families within the U.S. Department market and other outcomes among Hispanic populations, and (e) the health

Li, Fei-Fei

214

'My health is not a job': a qualitative exploration of personal health management and imperatives of the 'new public health'  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing push in Western healthcare for people to ‘manage’ their health, a key aspect of what has been called the ‘new public health’. It has been argued that this ‘personal health management’ – informal work done to monitor, inform, or influence one’s health – may be a burden, with potential to contribute to poor health outcomes. However, there is little research actually examining perceptions of personal health management and the ‘burden’ of these activities, particularly for generally healthy individuals. Methods We conducted exploratory qualitative interviews with 30 generally healthy men and women about their perceptions and experiences of personal health management. Questions focused on health behaviours (e.g., information seeking), as well as feelings about these behaviours and perceptions of the time dedicated to health. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively using NVivo 10. Where appropriate, quantitative codes were applied and descriptive statistics are reported alongside qualitative findings. Results Participants were generally satisfied with the amount of time spent on their health and few perceived personal health management as a burden. Many participants took issue with the concept of ‘work’ being associated with health and stressed the importance of taking personal responsibility for health. Conclusions Our findings suggest that generally healthy people have internalised the notion of the ‘new public health’ and accepted the imperative of personal health responsibility. On the one hand, this bodes well for healthy individuals; their positive attitude may lead to better health outcomes, and the manageable amount of time spent suggests personal health management is unlikely to cause negative health consequences associated with stress. On the other hand, our findings may indicate that other factors, such as social determinants of health, are ignored in health promotion efforts and that those who cannot manage their own health may fall further behind. Future research should continue to explore the time people spend ‘working’ for their health, and how they perceive and respond to ‘new public health’ imperatives. PMID:25030501

2014-01-01

215

Health Tip: Manage Stress to Keep Diabetes in Check  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Health Tip: Manage Stress to Keep Diabetes in Check Get regular exercise (* ... Monday, August 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Stress (HealthDay News) -- Physical and emotional stress can be ...

216

Trauma, poverty and mental health among Somali and Rwandese refugees living in an African refugee settlement - an epidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among Rwandese and Somali refugees resident in a Ugandan refugee settlement, as a measure of the mental health consequences of armed conflict, as well as to inform a subsequent mental health outreach program. The study population comprised a sample from 14400 (n = 519 Somali and n = 906 Rwandese) refugees resident in Nakivale refugee settlement in South Western Uganda during the year 2003. Methods The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 were used to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Results Thirty two percent of the Rwandese and 48.1% of the Somali refugees were found to suffer from PTSD. The Somalis refugees had a mean of 11.95 (SD = 6.17) separate traumatic event types while the Rwandese had 8.86 (SD = 5.05). The Somalis scored a mean sum score of 21.17 (SD = 16.19) on the PDS while the Rwandese had a mean sum score of 10.05 (SD = 9.7). Conclusion Mental health consequences of conflict remain long after the events are over, and therefore mental health intervention is as urgent for post-conflict migrant populations as physical health and other emergency interventions. A mental health outreach program was initiated based on this study. PMID:19470171

Onyut, Lamaro P; Neuner, Frank; Ertl, Verena; Schauer, Elisabeth; Odenwald, Michael; Elbert, Thomas

2009-01-01

217

Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health

Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

2013-01-01

218

Aid allocation and poverty reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper derives a poverty-efficient allocation of aid and compares it with actual aid allocations. The allocation of aid that has the maximum effect on poverty depends on the level of poverty and the quality of policies. Using the headcount, poverty-gap, and squared poverty gap measures of poverty, alternatively, all yield similar poverty-efficient allocations. Finally, we find that the actual

Paul Collier; David Dollar

2002-01-01

219

Multidimensional Poverty in China: Findings Based on the CHNS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates multidimensional poverty in China by applying the Alkire-Foster methodology to the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2000-2009 data. Five dimensions are included: income, living standard, education, health and social security. Results suggest that rapid economic growth has resulted not only in a reduction in income poverty but…

Yu, Jiantuo

2013-01-01

220

Rocket Testing and Integrated System Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) describes a set of system capabilities that in aggregate perform: determination of condition for each system element, detection of anomalies, diagnosis of causes for anomalies, and prognostics for future anomalies and system behavior. The ISHM should also provide operators with situational awareness of the system by integrating contextual and timely data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) as needed. ISHM capabilities can be implemented using a variety of technologies and tools. This chapter provides an overview of ISHM contributing technologies and describes in further detail a novel implementation architecture along with associated taxonomy, ontology, and standards. The operational ISHM testbed is based on a subsystem of a rocket engine test stand. Such test stands contain many elements that are common to manufacturing systems, and thereby serve to illustrate the potential benefits and methodologies of the ISHM approach for intelligent manufacturing.

Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John

2005-01-01

221

World Health Organization's Management of Substance Abuse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the larger World Health Organization's (WHO) site this section on the management of substance abuse has a variety of useful information for students, teachers and those practicing in the field. Some of the most useful are several resources related to terminology and classifications including the WHO lexicon of alcohol and drug terms. The lexicon, developed in 1994, supplies clinicians, researchers and other users with a set of definitions of terms related to tobacco, alcohol and other drugs. Also available is a Facts and Figures section which provides users with basic information about the use and misuse of alcohol and other drugs worldwide. The Activities pages allow users to get a glimpse into the research that WHO is currently undertaking that is related to substance abuse. Sections on publications, research tools, and other links round out this very useful site.

2006-11-28

222

[Chances for health within the new water management].  

PubMed

The European Water Framework Directive and the Protocol on Water and Health are two legally binding documents, which exist parallel to one another. A multi-disciplinary management of surface waters, which includes the participation of health experts, is necessary if the Protocol on Water and Health is to have an impact on human health rather than randomly promoting the effects of water management within the European Water Framework Directive. PMID:20661847

Schreiber, C; Völker, S; Wienand, I; Kistemann, T

2011-06-01

223

Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

Uckun, Serdar

2005-01-01

224

Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health. PMID:21897489

2011-01-01

225

Faculty of Medicine Health Research Data and Systems Management (HRDSM)  

E-print Network

Faculty of Medicine Health Research Data and Systems Management (HRDSM) Core Facility Governance technical manager who reports to the Associate Dean, Research. The HRDSM Core Facility is supported by a Users Management Committee that meets at least four times annually. Users Management Committee: Terms

Brownstone, Rob

226

Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery.\\u000a However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides\\u000a a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care\\u000a delivery, (ii) identifies and

Regina Gyampoh-Vidogah; Robert Moreton; David Sallah

2010-01-01

227

Health Management Applications for International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow for the ISS Electrical Power System and can predict power balance for nominal and off-nominal conditions. SimStation uses realtime telemetry data to keep detailed computational physics models synchronized with actual ISS power system state. In the event of failure, the application can then rapidly diagnose root cause, predict future resource levels and even correlate technical documents relevant to the specific failure. These advanced computational models will allow better insight and more precise control of ISS subsystems, increasing safety margins by speeding up anomaly resolution and reducing,engineering team effort and cost. This technology will make operating ISS more efficient and is directly applicable to next-generation exploration missions and Crew Exploration Vehicles.

Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

2005-01-01

228

The adoption of mobile health management services: an empirical study.  

PubMed

As their populations age, many countries are facing the increasing economic pressure of providing healthcare to their people. In Taiwan, this problem is exacerbated by an increasing rate of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Encouraging the adoption of personal health management services is one way to maintain current levels of personal health and to efficiently manage the distribution of healthcare resources. This study introduces Mobile Health Management Services (MHMS) and employs the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the intention of students in Executive Master of Business Management programs to adopt mobile health management technology. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to analyze the collected data, and the results revealed that "perceived usefulness" and "attitude" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting MHMS. Both "perceived ease of use" and "perceived usefulness," significantly affected "attitude," and "perceived ease of use" significantly affected "perceived usefulness" as well. The results also show that the determinants of intention toward MHMS differed with age; young adults had higher intention to adopt MHMS to manage their personal health. Therefore, relevant governmental agencies may profitably promote the management of personal health among this population. Successful promotion of personal health management will contribute to increases in both the level of general health and the efficient management of healthcare resources. PMID:20878452

Hung, Ming-Chien; Jen, Wen-Yuan

2012-06-01

229

Strengthening health management: experience of district teams in The Gambia.  

PubMed

The lack of basic management skills of district-level health teams is often described as a major constraint to implementation of primary health care in developing countries. To improve district-level management in The Gambia, a 'management strengthening' project was implemented in two out of the three health regions. Against a background of health sector decentralization policy the project had two main objectives: to improve health team management skills and to improve resources management under specially-trained administrators. The project used a problem-solving and participatory strategy for planning and implementing activities. The project resulted in some improvements in the management of district-level health services, particularly in the quality of team planning and coordination, and the management of the limited available resources. However, the project demonstrated that though health teams had better management skills and systems, their effectiveness was often limited by the policy and practice of the national level government and donor agencies. In particular, they were limited by the degree to which decision making was centralized on issues of staffing, budgeting, and planning, and by the extent to which national level managers have lacked skills and motivation for management change. They were also limited by the extent to which donor-supported programmes were still based on standardized models which did not allow for varying and complex environments at district level. These are common problems despite growing advocacy for more devolution of decision making to the local level. PMID:10155879

Conn, C P; Jenkins, P; Touray, S O

1996-03-01

230

PREMATURE MORTALITY AND POVERTY MEASUREMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a glaring paradox in all commonly used measures of poverty. The death of a poor person, because of poverty, reduces poverty according to these measures. This surely violates our basic intuitions of how poverty measures should behave. It cannot be right in concept that differentially higher mortality among the poor serves to reduce poverty. This paper begins the

Ravi Kanbur; Diganta Mukherjee

2003-01-01

231

Incentives in water management reform: assessing the effect on water use, production, and poverty in the Yellow River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal of our paper is to better understand water management reform in China s rural communities, especially focusing on the effect that improving incentives to water managers will have on the nation s water resources and the welfare of the rural population. To pursue this goal, the paper has three objectives. First, we track the evolution of water

JINXIA WANG; ZHIGANG XU; JIKUN HUANG; SCOTT ROZELLE

2005-01-01

232

Can I risk using public services? Perceived consequences of seeking help and health care among households living in poverty: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To improve understanding of how families living in adverse conditions perceive their encounters with public services and how past experiences influence current and future attempts to seek help. Design Qualitative interviews with adult members of households living in poverty in deprived areas, plus observations conducted in the surrounding neighbourhoods and service settings. Participants Purposive sample of 25 adults living in a deprived area, on welfare benefits. Setting Eight sites in disadvantaged areas in Merseyside, North Wales, London and Greater Manchester in 2004/05. Results Participants generally perceived public services as a source of distrust and a potential risk to well?being. Encounters with a range of services were perceived as risky in terms of losing resources, being misunderstood or harshly judged, and carrying the ultimate threat of losing custody of their children. Participants perceived that they were subjected to increasing levels of surveillance, with fear of “being told on” by neighbours, in addition to service providers, adding to anxiety. Adverse consequences included avoiding child health and social services, anxiety and self?imposed isolation. Conclusions Approaching services was perceived as akin to taking a gamble that might or might not result in their needs being met. Faced with this “choice”, participants employed strategies to minimise the risks that on the surface may appear risky to health. If public services are to succeed in providing support to disadvantaged families, greater efforts are needed to build trust and demonstrate understanding for the strategies these families use to maintain their well?being against formidable odds. PMID:17933957

Canvin, Krysia; Jones, Chris; Marttila, Anneli; Burstrom, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

2007-01-01

233

Managing Home Health Care (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

Intensive Health Care at Home Kids can need intensive health care at home after they have been in the hospital ... dolls to help you practice different procedures. Home Health Care Assistance The hospital social worker can help families ...

234

Sustainable waste management in the UK: the public health role.  

PubMed

This paper discusses waste management in the UK and its relationship with health. It aims to outline the role of health professionals in the promotion of waste management, and argues for a change in their role in waste management regulation to help make the process more sustainable. The most common definition of sustainable development is that by the Brundtland commission, i.e. "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Managing waste sites in a manner that minimises toxic impacts on the current and future generations is obviously a crucial part of this. Although the management of waste facilities is extremely complex, the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control regime, which requires the input of public health professionals on the regulation of such sites, means that all waste management installations should now be operating in a fashion that minimises any toxicological risks to human health. However, the impacts upon climate change, resource use and health inequalities, as well as the effects of waste transportation, are currently not considered to be part of public health professionals' responsibilities when dealing with these sites. There is also no requirement for public health professionals to become involved in waste management planning issues. The fact that public health professionals are not involved in any of these issues makes it unlikely that the potential impacts upon health are being considered fully, and even more unlikely that waste management will become more sustainable. This paper aims to show that by only considering direct toxicological impacts, public health professionals are not fully addressing all the health issues and are not contributing towards sustainability. There is a need for a change in the way that health professionals deal with waste management issues. PMID:16962620

Mohan, R; Spiby, J; Leonardi, G S; Robins, A; Jefferis, S

2006-10-01

235

Investigating health management practices of individuals with diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic diseases, endemic in the rapidly aging population, are stretching the capacity of healthcare resources. Increasingly, individuals need to adopt proactive health attitudes and contribute to the management of their own health. We investigate existing diabetes self-management practices and ways in which reflection on prior actions impacts future lifestyle choices. The findings suggest that individuals generate and evaluate hypotheses regarding

Lena Mamykina; Elizabeth D. Mynatt; David R. Kaufman

2006-01-01

236

Needs Assessment for Health Care Management Education in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: For more than 70 years, health care management in the Soviet Union reflected a centralized directive style familiar to the Soviet political system. Market-oriented reform in post-Soviet Russia is pushing practicing physicians and physician-executives to acquire new information and skills regarding health care management. To assist…

Rekhter, Natalia; Togunov, Igor A.

2006-01-01

237

The practical value of health management in space exploration systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a body of evidence, and a group of advocates, supporting the need for integrated system health management for space exploration systems. The advocates include operators responsible for complex and inherently risky decisions, and the technologists working in the domain of health management and looking for application for their products. Others in the decision loops take the view that

William Kahle; Jim Miller

2005-01-01

238

Health management and controls for earth to orbit propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault detection and isolation for advanced rocket engine controllers are discussed focusing on advanced sensing systems and software which significantly improve component failure detection for engine safety and health management. Aerojet's Space Transportation Main Engine controller for the National Launch System is the state of the art in fault tolerant engine avionics. Health management systems provide high levels of automated

R. L. Bickford

1992-01-01

239

Managing Evaluation in a Federal Public Health Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, a federal manager who leads development and maintenance of evaluation for specific public health programs at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, tells the story of developing an evaluation unit in the Office on Smoking and Health. Lessons about managing evaluation, including his practices and related principles, are…

Schooley, Michael W.

2009-01-01

240

Human dimensions of wildlife health management Shauna Hanisch  

E-print Network

in wildlife health management. My research supports the National Fish and Wildlife Health Initiative (NFWHI), a policy framework developed by the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies with the aim of helping fish and wildlife management agencies "conserve, restore, and enhance healthy fish and wildlife resources

241

The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children's health, mental health and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care  

PubMed Central

This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (CHAMP – Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively-designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health and mental health needs of poverty-impacted, African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or who are perinatally-infected and at high risk for re-infection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multi-level contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include: the Triadic Theory of Influence (TTI) (Bell, Flay, & Paikoff, 2002), Social Action Theory (SAT) (Ewart, 1991) and Ecological Developmental Perspectives (Paikoff, Traube, & McKay, 2006). CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers. PMID:24787707

McKay, Mary McKernan; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R.B.; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Ann Mellins, Claude

2014-01-01

242

The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children's health, mental health, and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care.  

PubMed

This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007 ) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health, and mental health needs of poverty-impacted African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or perinatally infected and at high risk for reinfection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multilevel contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include the triadic theory of influence, social action theory, and ecological developmental perspectives. CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence, and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers. PMID:24787707

McKernan McKay, Mary; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R B; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Mellins, Claude Ann

2014-01-01

243

[The prospective model of human resources' management in health institution].  

PubMed

The article postulates the actuality of developing the concept of the psychological aspects of institution management as projected into health care area where the medical personnel is working in the conditions of higher responsibility, emotional and intellectual overloads under permanent nervous psychological stress. This contingent of medical institutions stuff very often ignore the positive psychological interventions both due to the poor labor management and the corresponding knowledge lacking. The topicality of this research vector is determined by the deficiency of the human resources' management studies in the public health field. The need in searching the investigation prospective directions is ascertained by the unexploredness of personnel management in national health care. PMID:19382656

Rastorgueva, T I; Shchepin, V O

2009-01-01

244

[Essential competences for the management of health care networks].  

PubMed

We suggest that in order to fulfill the health needs of the majority of the Chilean population, which is beneficiary of the public health system, essential organizational skills should be developed for network administration among Self-administered Hospitals, Network Manager and Primary Health Care facilities. Self-administered Hospitals should be competent in managing service options according to their strategy for development, reference and counter-reference mechanisms and waiting lists, to optimize queuing. The Network Manager should be competent in demand management that is regulated, investments management that determines future development in terms of population needs and stakeholders' management, which is a political viability type of management. Finally, the Primary Health Care manager should be competent in demand management as a strategic partner of the Network Manager, community participation and management of interlinked areas, articulating social networks and sanitary impact management. At each level and within levels, there are crossroads that promote synergies. Based on the development of essential skills, a practice with strategic intentions, organization managers will develop team work skills. PMID:23677235

Vergara, Marcos; Bisama, Ligia; Moncada, Patricio

2012-12-01

245

The Impact of School-Based Management on School Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three-year study examines the effects of school-based management (SBM) on the organizational health of 28 elementary schools in Jerusalem using 7 indicators from the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire and the Organizational Health Inventory. Finds no significant impact of SBM on the schools' organizational health, but finds…

Nir, Adam E.

2002-01-01

246

HCMS: conceptual description of a health content management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health is a hot topic on the Internet. Health websites are unique from other websites because they require a more acute awareness of ethical issues due to potential life threatening risks from misuse of information. We propose and give a high-level description of a Health Content Management System (HCMS) that addresses these issues and other functional needs found in most

Hamman W. Samuel; Osmar R. Zaïane

2011-01-01

247

Environmental Management of Pediatric Asthma: Guidelines for Health Care Providers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These guidelines are the product of a new Pediatric Asthma Initiative aimed at integrating environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This document outlines competencies in environmental health relevant to pediatric asthma that should be mastered by primary health care providers, and outlines the environmental interventions…

Roberts, James R.; McCurdy, Leyla Erk

2005-01-01

248

Health Advisor An Online Game for Managing Healthcare Delivery  

E-print Network

focused on assessing the impact of information on healthcare delivery strategies and, consequently, health through the healthcare system with a goal of maximizing the value of outcomes ­ the average health stateHealth Advisor An Online Game for Managing Healthcare Delivery Tennenbaum Institute Georgia

249

Children and Managed Health Care. Analysis and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the changes managed health care has brought to the delivery and use of medical services and recommends specific steps that will make the existing system more responsive to the needs of children. Systemwide health care reforms must give children stable medical care that emphasizes preventive health and developmental services. (SLD)

Deal, Lisa W.; Shiono, Patricia H.; Behrman, Richard E.

1998-01-01

250

The Medicaid Managed Care Program. In To Improve Health and Health Care, vol. IX  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1990s, insurance companies and employers began to rely on managed care to control costs, and state governments followed suit by adopting managed care in Medicaid programs. To deal with the challenges associated with developing effective state Medicaid managed care programs, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation developed the Medicaid Managed Care Initiative in 1995 to help states, health plans,

Marsha R. Gold; Justin S. White; Erin Fries Taylor

2005-01-01

251

Supporting cancer patients' unanchored health information management with mobile technology  

E-print Network

, Seattle, WA Abstract Cancer patients often need to manage care-related information when they are away from that HealthWeaver Mobile can help patients to access care-related information from anywhere, to capture. The enhanced ability to manage information, in turn, helps patients to manage their care and to feel more

Anderson, Richard

252

POVERTY EQUIVALENT GROWTH RATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new type of growth rate, called the “poverty equivalent growth rate” (PEGR), which takes into account both the growth rate in mean income and how the benefits of growth are distributed between the poor and the non-poor. The proposed measure satisfies a basic requirement that the proportional reduction in poverty is a monotonically increasing function of

N anak K akwani; H yun H. S on

2008-01-01

253

Poverty. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How many people reading this brief believes they could financially survive in a household of four people on $19,784 a year? Yet, this was the official poverty threshold as determined by the federal government for 2005. During this same year, 17% of children under 18 lived below the poverty line, of which 14% were white, 11% Asian, 28% Hispanic and…

Walker, Karen

2007-01-01

254

Poverty and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child poverty in Canada is related to parents' low-wage employment, prevalence of single-parent families, and parents' low educational levels. Discusses how schools can alleviate impacts of child poverty by improving instruction to students with low achievement, strengthening preschool education, and building links with parents and the community.…

Levin, Benjamin

1995-01-01

255

Forest Tenure in Africa and South and Southeast Asia: Implications for Sustainable Forest Management and Poverty Alleviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on recent studies conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) on forest tenure systems in Asia and Africa, the paper presents an overview of the present situation, characterized by the predominance of public forests under the direct control and management of governments. The paper reviews the achievements of various forest tenure systems in relation

Dominique Reeb; Francesca Romano

256

Public health response to striking solid waste management.  

PubMed

In 2009, the City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, experienced a six-week labor disruption involving 24,000 city workers that included solid waste and public health employees. In an attempt to control illegal dumping and to manage garbage storage across the city during this period, 24 temporary garbage storage sites were established by the city (mostly in local parks) for residents to dispose of their household waste. No other municipality in North America has attempted to operate this many temporary sites for this long a period. Management and nonunion staff from Healthy Environments in Toronto Public Health performed daily inspections, responded to community questions, issued public health orders, and worked closely with Solid Waste Management and the Ministry of the Environment to actively manage the public health concerns associated with these sites. This intensive oversight mitigated public health risks to the community and facilitated an effective, safe solution to the temporary garbage storage problem. PMID:22010330

Murti, Michelle; Ayre, Reg; Shapiro, Howard; de Burger, Ron

2011-10-01

257

Health coaching in diabetes: empowering patients to self-manage.  

PubMed

To effectively manage diabetes mellitus, patients must adhere to treatment recommendations and healthy lifestyle behaviors, but research shows many patients do not do this. Education is effective when combined with self-management support but peer-support programs do not lead to lasting changes. Health coaching, or professional support, can be highly effective if it focuses on developing self-efficacy and skills such as goal-setting, problem-solving and managing cognitive and emotional barriers. This overview discusses the benefits of patient self-management for chronic conditions such as diabetes, core competencies for health coaching, theoretical bases and principles of health coaching interventions, delivery methods and the evidence that health coaching works for diabetes self-management. PMID:24070747

Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Rieger, Francis P

2013-02-01

258

Progressing the health information management and information technology agenda.  

PubMed

Developments and policy direction at a national level may seem far removed from the day-to-day practice of health information management. But there are lots of examples of a national approach to many of the initiatives which we now accept as part of our daily work (e.g., casemix funding, ICD-10-AM, the National Health Information Model and the National Health Data Dictionary). Many of these can be attributed to Commonwealth and State and Territory Governments working collaboratively with expert committees to achieve change or establish a program of innovation. More recently, Australian Health Ministers have established the National Health Information Management Advisory Council (NHIMAC) to bring together private and public sector expertise to progress the health information management and information technology agenda nationally. PMID:10977164

1999-01-01

259

Pesticides and public health: integrated methods of mosquito management.  

PubMed Central

Pesticides have a role in public health as part of sustainable integrated mosquito management. Other components of such management include surveillance, source reduction or prevention, biological control, repellents, traps, and pesticide-resistance management. We assess the future use of mosquito control pesticides in view of niche markets, incentives for new product development, Environmental Protection Agency registration, the Food Quality Protection Act, and improved pest management strategies for mosquito control. PMID:11266290

Rose, R. I.

2001-01-01

260

Sensor Technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Management of Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is focusing considerable efforts on technology development for Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems. The research in this area is targeted toward increasing aerospace vehicle safety and reliability, while reducing vehicle operating and maintenance costs. Onboard, real-time sensing technologies that can provide detailed information on structural integrity are central to such a health management system. This paper describes a number of sensor technologies currently under development for integrated vehicle health management. The capabilities, current limitations, and future research needs of these technologies are addressed.

Prosser, W. H.; Brown, T. L.; Woodard, S. E.; Fleming, G. A.; Cooper, E. G.

2002-01-01

261

Fiscal Consequences of Concentrated Poverty in a Metropolitan Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty concentration has a significant negative effect on the fiscal health of cities in that it increases spending on antipoverty programs and also raises the cost of providing more general public services such as police and fire protection. Spending patterns among Southern California cities over the last two decades show that poverty strongly influences local public expenditures after controlling for

Pascale M. Joassart-Marcelli; Juliet A. Musso; Jennifer R. Wolch

2005-01-01

262

Pride and Poverty: A Report on San Antonio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication offers a portrait of poverty in San Antonio (Texas) based on an analysis of available statistical data and focusing on health, education, employment, housing, and human services. Five chapters each contain statistics regarding poverty in the United States, Texas, and San Antonio. Each chapter also begins with true stories about…

Partnership for Hope, Inc., San Antonio, TX.

263

The economic costs of childhood poverty in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to estimate the aggregate annual costs of child poverty to the US economy. It begins with a review of rigorous research studies that estimate the statistical association between children growing up in poverty and their earnings, propensity to commit crime, and quality of health later in life. We also review estimates of the costs that crime and

Harry J. Holzer; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach; Greg J. Duncan; Jens Ludwig

2008-01-01

264

Marital Transitions, Poverty, and Gender Differences in Mortality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used health production model and microlevel data from Panel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate sex-specific proportional hazard rate models of death as function of recent marital transitions and poverty status. Found that spells of poverty increased hazard of dying for both sexes, whereas recent marital status transitions altered hazard of dying…

Zick, Cathleen D.; Smith, Ken R.

1991-01-01

265

The Effects of Measuring Poverty Indicators of the World Bank  

E-print Network

The Effects of Measuring Poverty ­ Indicators of the World Bank SFB 882 Working Paper Series No of Measuring Poverty ­ Indicators of the World Bank SFB 882 Working Paper Series, No. 27 DFG Research Center fields such as education, the labor market, equality, migration, health, or gender. One goal of the SFB

Moeller, Ralf

266

Childhood nutrition and poverty.  

PubMed

One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the health of children. PMID:10946800

Nelson, M

2000-05-01

267

Financial coping strategies of mental health consumers: managing social benefits.  

PubMed

Mental health consumers depend on social benefits in the forms of supplemental security income and social security disability insurance for their livelihood. Although these programs pay meager benefits, little research has been undertaken into how this population makes ends meet. Using a qualitative approach, this study asks what are the financial coping strategies of mental health consumers? Seven approaches were identified: subsidies, cost-effective shopping, budgeting, prioritizing, technology, debt management, and saving money. Results illustrate the resourcefulness of mental health consumers in managing meager social benefits and highlight the need to strengthen community mental health efforts with financial capabilities education. PMID:24346222

Caplan, Mary Ager

2014-05-01

268

[Information systems supporting the management work in health].  

PubMed

The article presents some aspects on the relevance of the information systems as tool of support to the management of the work of the health professionals, a time that is a computational resource capable to potential the knowledge search. Know that the information systems available of fast form, easy and insurance the information, allowing that the professionals of the health search knowledge and if become able, creative and competent to inside act with the complexity of the work in health of the Brazilian system of health aiming at to consolidate the politics of the National Health System. It is reflected on what it is the management of the work in health and as the information systems they come contribute for the fortify of action and processes of health in this area. PMID:19597670

Benito, Gladys Amélia Véles; Licheski, Ana Paula

2009-01-01

269

Health literacy in health systems: perspectives on patient self-management in Israel.  

PubMed

Health systems will face new challenges in this millennium. Striking the balance between the best quality of care and optimal use of dwindling resources will challenge health policy makers, managers and practitioners. Increasingly, improvements in the outcomes of interventions for both acute and chronic patients will depend on partnerships between health service providers, the individual and their family. Patient education that incorporates self-management and empowerment has proven to be cost-effective. It is essential that health care providers promote informed decision making, and facilitate actions designed to improve personal capacity to exert control over factors that determine health and improve health outcomes. It is for these reasons that promoting health literacy is a central strategy for improving self-management in health. The different types of health literacy--functional, interactive and critical health literacy--are considered. The potential to improve health literacy at each of these levels has been demonstrated in practice among diabetics and other chronic disease patients in Clalit Health Services (CHS) in Israel is used as an example to demonstrate possibilities. The application of all three types of health literacy is expressed in: (i) developing appropriate health information tools for the public to be applied in primary, secondary and tertiary care settings, and in online and media information accessibility and appropriateness using culturally relevant participatory methods; (ii) training of health professionals at all levels, including undergraduate and in-service training; and (iii) developing and applying appropriate assessment and monitoring tools which include public/patient participatory methods. Health care providers need to consider where their patients are getting information on disease and self-management, whether or not that information is reliable, and inform their patients of the best sources of information and its use. The improved collaboration with patient and consumer groups, whose goals are to promote rights and self-management capabilities and advocate for improved health services, can be very beneficial. PMID:11257858

Levin-Zamir, D; Peterburg, Y

2001-03-01

270

College of Health Sciences HSM Health Services Management  

E-print Network

, medical/moral problems, malpractice, tax laws, contracts, labor law, regulation and institutional.Prereq:Professionalprogramstatus(whichincludesanearnedAssociateDegreeinahealthcaredisciplineandoneyearofpost- degree work in a health care setting) or consent of instructor. (Same as CLM 355.) HSM 450 HOSPITAL

MacAdam, Keith

271

UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT HEALTH CENTER CORRECTIONAL MANAGED HEALTH CARE  

E-print Network

/Department of Health and Human Services Food Guide Pyramid · The current Recommended Dietary Allowances for appropriate with the provisions of CDOC Administrative Directive 10.18, Food Services. The major therapeutic diet choices

Oliver, Douglas L.

272

Child Indicators: Children in Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the incidence of child poverty in the United States, criticisms of official poverty thresholds, and the influence of family structure and race on child poverty. Recent data show that 60% of poor children lived in families headed by single females and that the majority of African-American children will experience poverty at some point in…

Lewit, Eugene M.

1993-01-01

273

On the Measurement of Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines three basic issues in the measurement of poverty: the choice of poverty line, the index of poverty, and the relation between poverty and inequality. The general theme is that th ere is a diversity of judgments which enter the measurement of povert y and it is necessary to recognize these explicitly in the procedures adopted. It is

A. B. Atkinson

1987-01-01

274

Active Social Media Management: The Case of Health Care  

E-print Network

Given the demand for authentic personal interactions over social media, it is unclear how much firms should actively manage their social media presence. We study this question empirically in a health care setting. We show ...

Miller, Amalia R.

275

Managing American Health Network Outpatient Testing Records Franciscan St. Francis Health  

E-print Network

method for the reconciliation of American Health Network medical records, which will also provide more Farmer Problem: Franciscan St. Francis Health now manages the medical records for four American Health Network outpatient diagnostic testing facilities. St. Francis reconciles the medical records with the list

Zhou, Yaoqi

276

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2014-2015  

E-print Network

Foundations 3 UF 200 Civic and Ethical Foundations 3 DLM MATH 254 Applied Statistics with Computers 3 DLN BIOL Introduction to Health Informatics HLTHST 300 Pathophysiology HLTHST 314 Health Law and Ethics CID HLTHST 382 Accounting ACCT 206 Introduction to Managerial Accounting HLTHST 330 Health Information Management I with lab

Barrash, Warren

277

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2013-2014  

E-print Network

Foundations 3 UF 200 Civic and Ethical Foundations 3 DLM MATH 254 Applied Statistics with Computers 3 DLN BIOL Introduction to Health Informatics HLTHST 300 Pathophysiology HLTHST 314 Health Law and Ethics CID HLTHST 382 Accounting ACCT 206 Introduction to Managerial Accounting HLTHST 330 Health Information Management I with lab

Barrash, Warren

278

Nomination Guidelines THE JOAN H. TISCH COMMUNITY HEALTH PRIZE 2013-2014  

E-print Network

and management Environmental health HIV/AIDS Health problems associated with poverty Healthy aging Mental Nomination Guidelines THE JOAN H. TISCH COMMUNITY HEALTH PRIZE 2013-2014 Deadline: January 24, 2014 Purpose The mission of The Joan H. Tisch Community Health Prize is to recognize and honor one not

Qiu, Weigang

279

Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.  

PubMed

A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision-Making Framework for Identifying, Assessing and Managing Health Risks (Health Canada, 2000). 4. Canadian Environmental Protection Act: Human Health Risk Assessment of Priority Substances(Health Canada, 1994). 5. CSA-Q8550 Risk Management: Guidelines for Decision-Makers (Canada Standards Association, 1997). 6. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process (US National Research Council, 1983). 7. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society (US National Research Council, 1996). 8. Environmental Health Risk Assessment (enHealth Council of Australia, 2002). 9. A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment (CCME, 1996). 10. Ecological Risk Assessments of Priority Substances Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (Environment Canada, 1996).11. Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment (US EPA, 1998b). 12. Proposed Model for Occupational Health Risk Assessment and Management (Rampal & Sadhra, 1999). Based on the extensive review of these frameworks, seven key elements that should be included in a comprehensive framework for human health, ecological, and occupational risk assessment and management were identified: 1. Problem formulation stage. 2. Stakeholder involvement. 3. Communication. 4. Quantitative risk assessment components. 5. Iteration and evaluation. 6. Informed decision making. 7. Flexibility. On the basis of this overarching approach to risk management, the following "checklist" to ensure a good risk management decision is proposed: - Make sure you're solving the right problem. - Consider the problem and the risk within the full context of the situation, using a broad perspective. - Acknowledge, incorporate, and balance the multiple dimensions of risk. - Ensure the highest degree of reliability for all components of the risk management process. - Involve interested and effected parties from the outset of the process. - Commit to honest and open communication between all parties. - Employ continuous evaluation throughout the process (formative, process, and outcome evaluation), and be prepared t

Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

2003-01-01

280

Children, Schools, and Poverty = L'enfance, l'ecole, et la pauvrete.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph (in both English and French) examines the impact of poverty on children, with particular reference to the situation of poor children in Canadian elementary and secondary schools. Section 1 briefly introduces the topics of education and poverty. The link between poverty and children's physical and mental health and educational…

Hess, Melanie

281

The effects of healthcare provisions on the 4X poverty population In the United States  

E-print Network

1 The effects of healthcare provisions on the 4X poverty population In the United States Kathleen M contained in this document are those of the authors. #12;2 Keywords: 4x poverty, health care, taxpayers #12 to households at or below 400 percent of the federal poverty threshold. To be eligible to receive

Sadeh, Norman M.

282

Empirical Study on the Relationship between Farmers’ Human Capital Investment and Rural Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literatures about the relationship between human capital investment and rural poverty are reviewed. According to the time-series data from 1990 to 2007, VAR model and variance research are used to study the relationship between household human capital investment and rural poverty. Results shows that there is long-run equilibrium relationship between household capital investment and rural poverty. Educational investment and health

Cuijin Li

2010-01-01

283

Physicians in health care management: 1. Physicians as managers: roles and future challenges.  

PubMed

Physicians are increasingly expected to assume responsibility for the management of human and financial resources in health care, particularly in hospitals. Juggling their new management responsibilities with clinical care, teaching and research can lead to conflicting roles. However, their presence in management is crucial to shaping the future health care system. They bring to management positions important skills and values such as observation, problem-solving, analysis and ethical judgement. To improve their management skills physicians can benefit from management education programs such as those offered by the Physician-Manager Institute and several Canadian universities. To manage in the future environment they must increase their knowledge and skills in policy and political processes, financial strategies and management, human resources management, systems and program quality improvement and organizational design. PMID:8287339

Leatt, P

1994-01-15

284

The modern health care materiel manager.  

PubMed

Today's successful materiel managers must possess a wide range of skills. They must above all be highly adaptable to change and influence others to accept rather than resist change. The role and responsibility of the materiel manager have expanded significantly, requiring higher levels of formal education. In conjunction with this, the quality of communication, both verbal and written, becomes essential. A high degree of human, conceptual, and technical skills must be employed to accommodate the many demands encountered. Finally, the successful materiel manager who feels confident and secure will hire others who do not mirror the manager's style, but rather allow for contrast of expression and technique. PMID:10125276

Spirakes, A L

1993-05-01

285

The research of spacecraft on-orbit health management technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to avoid causing serious aftermath by faults of on-orbit spacecraft, need for timely faults diagnosis and faults prediction to take effective measures to minimize security risks and the impact on the mission. The research of spacecraft on-orbit health management technology is carried out in this paper, the system components of spacecraft on-orbit health management system and a solution

Wang Zhi-gang; Xie Kai-ping

2010-01-01

286

Managed care redux: health plans shift responsibilities to consumers.  

PubMed

Confronted with conflicting pressures to stem double-digit premium increases and provide unfettered access to care, health plans are developing products that shift more financial and care management responsibilities to consumers, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2002-03 site visits to 12 nationally representative communities. Plans are pursuing these strategies in collaboration with employers that want to gain control over rapidly rising premiums while continuing to respond to employee demands for less restrictive managed care practices. Mindful of the managed care backlash, health plans also are stepping up utilization management activities for high-cost services and focusing care management on high-cost patients. While the move toward greater consumer engagement is clear, the impact on costs and consumer willingness to assume these new responsibilities remain to be seen. PMID:15046076

Draper, Debra A; Claxton, Gary

2004-03-01

287

Managing Software Development for Global Health  

E-print Network

. · Safer childbirth and healthy children. · Health equity for women, among the world's most vulnerable--and influential--populations. · The basic protection of vaccines for women and children around the world. 3 · Immunization & vaccine technologies · Diagnostic tests for diseases · Reproductive health technologies

Anderson, Richard

288

Poverty in the United States: 1988 and 1989. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents social and economic characteristics of the population below the poverty level in 1988 and 1989 based on the March 1989 and 1990 Current Population Surveys. The poverty definition is that of the Office of Management and Budget, consisting of a set of thresholds that vary by family size and composition. The average poverty

Current Population Reports, 1991

1991-01-01

289

Health Insurance Data  

MedlinePLUS

... the nation's overall well-being. Disability Expenses and Investments Fertility Health Care Industries Health Insurance HIV/AIDS ... Area Income and Poverty Supplemental Poverty Measure Wealth International Trade The U.S. Census Bureau is the official ...

290

Exploring Appalachian Poverty in Ohio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in this sociology class will role play as members of the governor's office to inform the Governor of many of the problems facing children in the United States and the State of Ohio. Data analysis pertaining to hunger, poverty, crime, health, and education are included as multiple resources for data, in addition to KidsCount, are used. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on KidsCount. KidsCount is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data.

Rowell, Kathy

291

Secure e-Health: managing risks to patient health data.  

PubMed

e-Health, as an inter-jurisdictional enterprise, presents risks to patient health data that involve not only technology and professional protocols but also laws, regulations and professional security cultures. The USA Patriot Act is one example of how national laws can shape these concerns. Secure e-Health therefore requires not only national standardization of professional education and protocols but also global interoperability of regulations and laws. Some progress in this regard has been made in the European context; however, even here developments are incomplete, and nothing similar has been accomplished on a global scale. Professional health information organizations must take the lead in developing appropriate high-level principles for professional certification and security protocols and in harmonizing these on a global basis, so that they can provide a firm and consistent foundation for international treaties. Such developments should occur in concert with other health professions, so that coordinated requirements are integrated into revisions of the relevant codes of ethics. This presentation identifies and addresses some of the ethical and legal issues and proposes a series of recommendations. PMID:17084665

Kluge, Eike-Henner W

2007-01-01

292

Managed Mental Health Care: Intentional Misdiagnosis of Mental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors provide an overview of the effectiveness of managed health care systems and their impact on mental health counselors. They review ethical and legal dilemmas involving informed consent, confidentiality, client autonomy, competence, treatment plans, and termination that had not existed prior to the introduction of…

Braun, Sharon A.; Cox, Jane A.

2005-01-01

293

Correctional Managed Health Care July 2010 -June 2011  

E-print Network

The Connecticut Department of Correction (CDOC) historically provided health services to inmates directly, using care to inmates within the DOC correctional facilities and halfway houses. Our services shallCorrectional Managed Health Care July 2010 - June 2011 CMHC ANNUAL REPORT Introduction Correctional

Kim, Duck O.

294

An Examination of Health Information Management by the Deaf  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about how Deaf people perceive, access, and utilize interpersonal and media sources for health information. In light of the scarcity of research on health information management among this group, a two-phase study was conducted that included eight focus groups (N=39) and survey data (N=366) with Deaf participants to determine the…

Karras, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

295

poverty reduction in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the evaluation of poverty sensitivity to growth and distributional changes in Italy, across its regions and over a three- decade period, spanning from 1977 to 2004. We use the \\\\Survey on Household Income and Wealth\\

Vincenzo Lombardo

296

West Coast Poverty Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Washington, the West Coast Poverty Center "serves as a hub for research, education, and policy analysis leading to greater understanding of the causes and consequences of poverty and effective approaches to reducing it in the west coast states." The Center was created in the fall of 2005, and it represents a collaborative venture between the UW School of Social Work, the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, and the College of Arts and Sciences. Scholars and others will find the site quite useful, and they may wish to start at the "Poverty Basics" section. This area includes helpful overviews like "How Many People Are Poor in the United States?" and interactive maps and charts that document the state of poverty levels on the West Coast. Moving on, the "Research" area contains links to papers, research briefs, and information about upcoming events sponsored by the Center.

297

Stop Child Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of international organizations are committed to helping end child poverty, and one of the best known of their number is the Global Volunteer Network. Through their advocacy work and the Stop Child Poverty campaign, they are dedicated to the proposition that child poverty can be completed eradicated. Through sections titled "Learn It", "Live It", and "Pass it On", visitors to this site will learn about the "big picture" of child poverty and how they can become directly involved in any number of volunteer projects. The "Pass It On" area is quite fine in this regard, as visitors can look over a message board where they can discuss the campaign, and then use a zip-code search engine to find volunteer opportunities in their area.

298

Global Distribution of Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For policymakers and academics alike, having access to information about the global distribution of poverty is crucial. Based at the Earth Institute at Columbia University, The Poverty Mapping Project at The Center for International Earth Science Information Network is a very fine resource for anyone interested in this subject. Understandably, the site provides access to dozens of maps which document the geographic and biophysical conditions of where the poor live. Visitors can look over 300 poverty maps offered at a number of spatial scales. Persons looking for data for their own research will want to consider downloading the subnational and national poverty data sets that are made available here. Overall, it's a well-designed site and one which can be used in a variety of settings.

2008-01-01

299

Measuring adverse selection in managed health care.  

PubMed

Health plans paid by capitation have an incentive to distort the quality of services they offer to attract profitable and to deter unprofitable enrollees. We characterize plans' rationing as a "shadow price" on access to various areas of care and show how the profit maximizing shadow price depends on the dispersion in health costs, individuals' forecasts of their health costs, the correlation between use in different illness categories, and the risk adjustment system used for payment. These factors are combined in an empirically implementable index that can be used to identify the services that will be most distorted by selection incentives. PMID:11186848

Frank, R G; Glazer, J; McGuire, T G

2000-11-01

300

Planning By Objectives, Cost Accountability Help Manage Health Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes Oregon's use of the system of Management By Objectives (M.B.O.) to improve the decision-making process and allow better utilization of available resources in the management of public health programs. Included is th Program P.O.M.E., the Daily Activity Report, the Monthly Accomplishments and M.B.O. objectives. (MLB)

Cipolla, John J.

1974-01-01

301

Analysis of EHRs for research, quality management and health politics.  

PubMed

Lifelong electronic health records can supply valuable information for research, quality management and health politics in addition to supporting treatment of patients. Based on experiences with scientific data analysis in a university hospital environment, requirements on cross-institutional analysis of electronic health records in a healthcare system are discussed. The concept of archetypes can play a key role in this context. Archetypes can be utilized in data analysis for visualization, semantic linkage and finally for standardized data transfer. PMID:18487768

Gall, Walter; Grossmann, Wilfried; Duftschmid, Georg; Wrba, Thomas; Dorda, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

302

Trade, Growth, and Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

(June 2001)The evidence from individual cases and from cross-country analysis supports the view that globalization leads to faster growth and poverty reduction in poor countries.To determine the effect of globalization on growth, poverty, and inequality, Dollar and Kraay first identify a group of developing countries that are participating more in globalization. China, India, and several other large countries are part

David Dollar; Aart Kraay

2001-01-01

303

What passes and fails as health policy and management.  

PubMed

The field of health policy and management (HPAM) faces a gap between theory, policy, and practice. Despite decades of efforts at reforming health policy and health care systems, prominent analysts state that the health system is "stuck" and that models for change remain "aspirational." We discuss four reasons for the failure of current ideas and models for redesigning health care: (1) the dominance of microeconomic thinking; (2) the lack of comparative studies of health care organizations and the limits of health management theory in recognizing the importance of local contexts; (3) the separation of HPAM from the rank and file of health care, particularly physicians; and (4) the failure to expose medical students to issues of HPAM. We conclude with suggestions for rethinking how the field of HPAM might generate more-promising policies for health care providers and managers by abandoning the illusion of context-free theories and, instead, seeking to facilitate the processes by which organizations can learn to improve their own performance. PMID:25037829

Chinitz, David; Rodwin, Victor G

2014-10-01

304

Texas camelid health and management survey  

E-print Network

A web-based and mail-out survey instrument was created to gather information on camelids in Texas. Information on management, nutrition, diseases, and reproductive problems was collected. The objectives of this research study were: (1) to establish...

Jacklitsch, Brenda Louise

2009-06-02

305

What health care managers do: applying Mintzberg's structured observation method.  

PubMed

Aim The aim of the present study was to explore and describe what characterizes first- and second-line health care managers' use of time. Background Many Swedish health care managers experience difficulties managing their time. Methods Structured and unstructured observations were used. Ten first- and second-line managers in different health care settings were studied in detail from 3.5 and 4 days each. Duration and frequency of different types of work activities were analysed. Results The individual variation was considerable. The managers' days consisted to a large degree of short activities (<9 minutes). On average, nearly half of the managers' time was spent in meetings. Most of the managers' time was spent with subordinates and <1% was spent alone with their superiors. Sixteen per cent of their time was spent on administration and only a small fraction on explicit strategic work. Conclusions The individual variations in time use patterns suggest the possibility of interventions to support changes in time use patterns. Implications for nursing management A reliable description of what managers do paves the way for analyses of what they should do to be effective. PMID:19694915

Arman, Rebecka; Dellve, Lotta; Wikström, Ewa; Törnström, Linda

2009-09-01

306

Investigation of health care waste management in Binzhou District, China  

SciTech Connect

In China, national regulations and standards for health care waste management were implemented in 2003. To investigate the current status of health care waste management at different levels of health care facilities (HCF) after the implementation of these regulations, one tertiary hospital, one secondary hospital, and four primary health care centers from Binzhou District were visited and 145 medical staff members and 24 cleaning personnel were interviewed. Generated medical waste totaled 1.22, 0.77, and 1.17 kg/bed/day in tertiary, secondary, and primary HCF, respectively. The amount of medical waste generated in primary health care centers was much higher than that in secondary hospitals, which may be attributed to general waste being mixed with medical waste. This study found that the level of the HCF, responsibility for medical waste management in departments and wards, educational background and training experience can be factors that determine medical staff members' knowledge of health care waste management policy. Regular training programs and sufficient provision of protective measures are urgently needed to improve occupational safety for cleaning personnel. Financing and administrative monitoring by local authorities is needed to improve handling practices and the implementation of off-site centralized disposal in primary health care centers.

Ruoyan, Gai [Department of Health Policy and Planning, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Xu Lingzhong; Li Huijuan; Zhou Chengchao; He Jiangjiang [Institute of Social Medicine and Health Services Management, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Wen-hua-xi Road, No. 44, Jinan City, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yoshihisa, Shirayama [Department of Health Policy and Planning, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Tang Wei [Institute of Social Medicine and Health Services Management, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Wen-hua-xi Road, No. 44, Jinan City, Shandong Province 250012 (China); University of Tokyo Hospital, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Chushi, Kuroiwa, E-mail: ckuroiw@m.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Health Policy and Planning, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Institute of Social Medicine and Health Services Management, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Wen-hua-xi Road, No. 44, Jinan City, Shandong Province 250012 (China)

2010-02-15

307

Managing health(-care systems) using information health technologies.  

PubMed

This study aims to compare and contrast how specific information health technologies (IHTs) have been debated, how they have proliferated, and what they have enabled in Germany’s and England’s healthcare systems. For this a discourse analysis was undertaken that specifically focussed on future-scenarios articulated in policy documents and strategy papers released by relevant actors from both healthcare systems. The study reveals that the way IHTs have been debated and how they have proliferated depends on country-specific regulatory structures, their respective values, actors’ and institutions’ organized interests, and the status of health professionals. These conditions have enabled IHTs to promote a new and similar concept of patienthood in both countries, although they tend to affect practitioners’ practices more dramatically in England. The conclusion is drawn that with the usage of IHTs, healthcare systems reproduced existing patterns of health provision while also enabling a sort of convergence. Future research should investigate whether the new concept of patienthood emerging in both welfare states actually suits patients and professionals needs and requirements. PMID:20390452

Mathar, Thomas

2011-06-01

308

Governance in managing public health resources in Brazilian municipalities.  

PubMed

This study contributes to the health governance discussion by presenting a new data set that allows for comparisons of the management of health resources among Brazilian municipalities. Research on Brazil is particularly important as the provision of health services was decentralized in 1988 and since then municipalities have been given greater responsibilities for the management of fiscal resources for public health service provision. Based on detailed information on corruption practices (such as over-invoicing, illegal procurement and fake receipts) from audit reports of health programmes in 980 randomly selected Brazilian municipalities, this study deepens understanding of the relationship between health governance institutions and the incidence of corruption at the local level by exploring the extent to which horizontal and vertical accountabilities contribute to reducing the propensity of municipal government officials to divert public health resources for private gain. The results of our multiple regression analysis suggest that the experience of health municipal councils is correlated with reductions in the incidence of corruption in public health programmes. This impact is significant over time, with each additional year of health council experience reducing corruption incidence levels by 2.1% from baseline values. The findings reported in this study do not rely on the subjectivity of corruption measures which usually conflate the actual incidence of corruption with its perception by informants. Based on our results, we provide recommendations that can assist policy makers to reduce corruption. PMID:23411119

Avelino, George; Barberia, Lorena G; Biderman, Ciro

2014-09-01

309

ADVANCES IN PLANT HEALTH MANAGEMENT IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY.  

PubMed

Plant health management is the science and practice of understanding and overcoming the succession of biotic and abiotic factors that limit plants from achieving their full genetic potential as crops, ornamentals, timber trees, or other uses. Although practiced as long as agriculture itself, as a science-based concept, plant heath management is even younger than integrated pest management (IPM), and includes and builds upon but is not a replacement for IPM. Probably the greatest collection of success stories for plant health management is the number of diseases managed by cleaning up the planting material. The record for root health management is more mixed, with the loss or phase-out of soil fumigants, and practices such as crop rotation and clean tillage being replaced with more intensive cropping and less or no tillage. Perhaps the greatest scientific and technical advances for plant health management have come from the work aimed at management of the pathogens, pests, and other hazards that arrive by air. Flor's work on flax rust, which produced the gene-for-gene model, is possibly the most significant contribution of plant pathology to the life sciences in the twentieth century. Research aimed at the management of foliar pathogens is also the basis for modern theory on epidemiology, population biology, aerobiology, and disease prediction and decision-support systems. Even IPM arose mainly in response to the need to protect crops from pests that arrive by air. If the definition of biological control includes the plant induced or genetically modified to defend itself, as it should, then biological control has been the most significant approach to plant health management during the twentieth century and promises through modern biotechnology to be even more significant in the twenty-first century. Rather than "reducing losses," the advances are discussed here within the simple framework of achieving the attainable yield by increasing the actual and/or affordable and hence the average yield. Each of these four benchmark yields, as well as the absolute yield for crops, and their significance to the goals and achievements of plant health management are defined. Plant health management is a moving target, which I discuss metaphorically like an American football game, where one team is science and technology and the other is nature, where the S & T team is only beginning to know nature's rules while playing itself with the three sets of rules written to, respectively, satisfy the laws of economics, protect the environment, and gain social acceptance. PMID:11701838

Cook, R. James

2000-01-01

310

Implementing performance management in the Irish Health Sector.  

PubMed

To realize the goals of successive health strategies, managers in the Irish Health Sector will have to proactively facilitate optimal employee performance in line with policy objectives. Along with developing employee and teams' capabilities, these managers have begun to implement performance management to achieve the latter. However, there typically are a variety of foundational organizational characteristics required for the successful implementation of performance management. These include providing top-down support for line management buy-in, providing ongoing managerial and performance management training so that trusting relationships and a culture of consensus and cooperation are developed, and appropriately managing expectations. Agreement on employee role definitions and provision of team-based conflict resolution training is also needed to facilitate performance management. There is a need for negotiated performance indicators that are of various types, specific, measurable, and aligned with strategy objectives. Associated reward systems need to be holistic and imaginative, and personal development plans need to have a broader focus than merely improving current job skills and performance. Performance review needs to be ongoing, conducted in a transparent manner, and allocated sufficient discussion time. Managers also need to be mindful of managing overperformance. PMID:16699325

Byrne, Michael

2006-01-01

311

Linking poverty, HIV\\/AIDS and climate change to human and ecosystem vulnerability in southern Africa: consequences for livelihoods and sustainable ecosystem management  

Microsoft Academic Search

People in southern Africa are facing escalating levels of risk, uncertainty and consequently vulnerability as a result of multiple interacting stressors, including HIV\\/AIDS, poverty, food insecurity, weak governance, climate change and land degradation, to name but a few. Vulnerability or livelihood insecurity emerges when poor people as individuals or social units have to face harmful threats or shocks with inadequate

Sheona E. Shackleton; Charlie M. Shackleton

2011-01-01

312

Linking poverty, HIV\\/AIDS and climate change to human and ecosystem vulnerability in southern Africa: consequences for livelihoods and sustainable ecosystem management  

Microsoft Academic Search

People in southern Africa are facing escalating levels of risk, uncertainty and consequently vulnerability as a result of multiple interacting stressors, including HIV\\/AIDS, poverty, food insecurity, weak governance, climate change and land degradation, to name but a few. Vulnerability or livelihood insecurity emerges when poor people as individuals or social units have to face harmful threats or shocks with inadequate

Sheona E. Shackleton; Charlie M. Shackleton

2012-01-01

313

Managing Software Development for Global Health  

E-print Network

-resource settings, by the people who will use them. · Safer childbirth and healthy children. · Health equity of vaccines for women and children around the world. 3/10/2010 6CSESoftware EngineeringResearchGroup #12;3/12/2010 2 Technology Solutions Primary areas of focus · Immunization & vaccine technologies · Diagnostic

Anderson, Richard

314

Web Application for Managing Electronic Health Records  

Cancer.gov

Technology to empower clinical staff in requesting and designing order sets can be transformative for hospitals and other health care organizations. This software is proving itself vital in building greater order set development efficiencies and in communication among key stakeholders responsible for certain aspects of an order set within an organization.

315

Correctional Managed Health Care Michael Vasquenza, BS  

E-print Network

f 6 t t ith i t t d j il d i tCT is 1 of 6 states with an integrated jail and prison system. 20% of admissions require prompt medical or mental health intervention Hartford Correctional Center (jail) averages

Oliver, Douglas L.

316

Multidimentional Poverty in Bhutan: Estimates and Policy Implications  

E-print Network

that the 4 The eight goals are: Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education, Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women, Goal 4: Reduce child mortality, Goal 5: Improve maternal health, Goal 6: Combat... are applicable to obtain a multidimensional poverty estimate from micro-data that is relevant for the whole population. For example, even when Improving Maternal Health (Goal 5) is a goal of utmost importance, indicators that account for these issues...

Santos, Maria Emma; Ura, Karma

2008-01-01

317

Occupational Safety, Health, and Environmental Management  

E-print Network

) This course covers concepts used in the Environmental Management courses. The course emphasizes the practi under- stand all material. Reading assignments and testing in class will also help participants prepare. A scientific calculator is required for this course. Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene Social Ecology X496

Stanford, Kyle

318

[An end to poverty  

PubMed

The African continent is distinguished by a much higher fertility rate than other regions. Fertility in Africa has remained almost constant at slightly over six children per woman on average, while important declines have occurred elsewhere over the past 25 years. High fertility in Africa is often attributed to poor diffusion of family planning, early marriage, and low female educational attainment, but other cultural and economic factors are involved. The significant decline of infant mortality over the past several decades has produced growth rates never before observed. Africa's very young populations may be at the origin of uncontrollable political disorder, as young persons with bleak prospects fall easy prey to ethnic, religious, and political extremism. Demographic growth has become an additional barrier to development. High fertility is tolerated or encouraged as constituting a cultural trait, but the resulting population growth is not a cultural trait. Demographic pressure has increased environmental problems in many regions. It is estimated that over ten million rural residents of the Sahel have been affected by soil degradation. The per capita availability of arable land fell from one-half to one-third hectare between 1965 and 1987. Shortages of firewood and water have become more common. The relationship between demographic growth, environmental crisis, and poverty in the countryside depends on other factors such as production techniques, modes of access to land and water, and the degree of security of land tenure. Population pressure was not the initial factor that disturbed the balance of the traditional societies, but it exacerbated the effects of other forces such as the introduction of cash crops and monetarization of the economy. Rural exodus and accelerated urban migration have been prompted in large part by the higher incomes and greater availability of services of all types in the cities. Achieving control of fertility in Africa will require stabilization of rural populations, territorial management, and reduction of disparities between rural and urban areas. PMID:12179395

Engelhard, P

1994-10-01

319

Promoting diversity in health management: the University of Michigan Experience.  

PubMed

There has been a resurgence in the call for greater racial and ethnic diversity in the health workforce. Researchers in health services have made the "business case" for diverse leadership of healthcare organizations, arguing that this will make these organizations more effective in serving diverse populations. Greater diversity in health management training programs will also have positive effects on their students. This article has three purposes: to discuss the importance of diversity in health management training programs; to describe the University of Michigan's Summer Enrichment Program (SEP), a program to increase the number of students of color who receive graduate training in health management; and to report the results of a survey of SEP alumni, conducted after the program's 15th year, which describe the graduate school and career experiences of 167 SEP alumni. Based upon the survey results, the SEP appears to have been very successful in enlarging the pool of students of color who attend graduate programs in health management and who embark on careers in the field. It has also had a very positive effect on diversity within the University of Michigan program. The implications of the Michigan experience and recent Supreme Court decisions for other graduate programs are discussed. PMID:16206638

Lichtenstein, Richard

2005-01-01

320

Veterinary dairy herd health management in Europe: constraints and perspectives.  

PubMed

The nature of veterinary work in dairy health management in Europe has changed over the past years and will change even more dramatically in the near future. The consumers and the media show increasing concern about animal welfare, safety of products of animal origin and traceability of animal products. Farmers in Europe have to produce under strict, often expensive and laborious regulations, while still commercially competing with farmers outside the EU and not subject to the same rules. Veterinarians should adapt their knowledge and skills to the new challenges and developments of the dairy sector. Dairy farmers nowadays ask for support in areas that go beyond clinical activities: environmental protection, welfare, nutrition, grassland management, economics and business management. Bovine practitioners should be able to advise in many different areas and subjects--that is the challenge to our profession. Veterinary education with regards to cattle health management should start with individual animal clinical work, which constitutes the basis of herd health advisory programmes. The bovine practitioner should then look beyond that and regard the herd as the unit. Each diseased cow or group of cows should be detected early enough to avoid financial losses or such losses should be prevented altogether by detecting and managing risk factors contributing to disease occurrence. Herd health and production management programmes represent the first level to optimise dairy farm performance. Expansions to that should further be considered, comprising both animal health and welfare issues, as well as food safety and public health issues. The latter could be addressed by quality risk management programmes following the HACCP-principles. Cattle veterinarians should follow recent developments and invest in new skills and knowledge in order to maintain their usefulness to the modern dairy farmer. Finally we are convinced that the cattle practitioner should evolve into this direction, otherwise the veterinarian as we know him will miss the train in the next years. PMID:16605158

Cannas da Silva, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Vagneur, M; Bexiga, R; Gelfert, C C; Baumgartner, W

2006-03-01

321

Windows on Urban Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The spatial dimension and geographic variation of poverty has been the subject of great scholarly debate among policy-makers and academics for numerous decades. Some have commented that dense concentrations of underclass persons create a "culture of poverty," while others lay the blame on architects, urban planners, and a host of others. This engaging and useful site is a product of the Bruton Center at the University of Texas at Dallas under the direction of Professor Paul Jargowsky. The Windows on Urban Poverty project Web site contains a research paper on the changes in the concentration of poverty between 1990 and 2000 (also released as a publication through the Brookings Institution) and a mapping tool that lets visitors view the relative concentrations of poverty in cities around the United States. There is a small section that introduces users to the process of using the mapping tool, which will be quite helpful to those unfamiliar with utilizing maps in this fashion (Users should note that the interactive mapping tool on the site is only supported by Internet Explorer).

Jargowsky, Paul A.

322

Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee's permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that "facilitators" under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and intermediate institutionalism. The regional interagency committee's managerial routine needs to incorporate more democratic devices for connecting with educational institutions, devices that are more permeable to social demands relating to regional policy making. PMID:25210821

Santos, Adriano Maia Dos; Giovanella, Ligia

2014-08-01

323

How does risk sharing between employers and a managed behavioral health organization affect mental health care?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To study the ways in which allocating the risk for behavioral health care expenses between employers and a managed behavioral health organization affects costs and the use of services. DATA SOURCES: Claims from 87 plans that cover mental health and substance abuse services covering over one million member years in 1996/1997. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-part regression models for health care cost are used. Dependent variables are health care costs decomposed into access to any care, costs per user, any inpatient use, costs per outpatient user, and costs per inpatient user. The study compares full-risk plans, in which the managed care organization provides managed care services and acts as the insurer by assuming the risk for claims costs, with contracts in which the managed care organization only manages care (for a fixed administrative fee) and the employer retains the risk for claims. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full-risk plans are not statistically significantly different from non-risk plans in terms of any mental health specialty use or hospitalization rates, but costs per user are significantly lower, in particular for inpatients. CONCLUSIONS: Risk contracts do not affect initial access to mental health specialty care or hospitalization rates, but patients in risk contracts have lower costs, either because of lower intensity of care or because they are treated by less expensive providers. PMID:11055447

Sturm, R

2000-01-01

324

Building on Success: Charting the Future of Knowledge Management Within the Academic Health Center  

E-print Network

BUILDING ON SUCCESS: CHARTING THE FUTURE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT WITHIN THE ACADEMIC HEALTH CENTER AAHSL Charting the Future Task Force ? Association of Academic Health Sciences... Introduction....................................................................................6 Knowledge Management in Clinic Practice ................................9 Knowledge Management in Education ......................................12...

Brewer, Karen; Hohman, J. Michael; Messerle, Judith; Yokote, Gail

2003-01-01

325

Evaluation of computerized health management information system for primary health care in rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Ballabgarh, run by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi has a computerized Health Management Information System (HMIS) since 1988. The HMIS at Ballabgarh has undergone evolution and is currently in its third version which uses generic and open source software. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a

Anand Krishnan; Baridalyne Nongkynrih; Kapil Yadav; Satyavir Singh; Vivek Gupta

2010-01-01

326

[Analysis of rulings by the Brazilian Ministry of Health and reflections on national health policy management].  

PubMed

Ministry of Health rulings and provisions are important policy regulation tools that aim to orient the enforcement of health-related laws passed by the Legislative Branch, under the terms of the 1988 Federal Constitution. Such provisions have played a major role in the health sector, due not only to the number of documents submitted since the late 1990s, but mainly because of this tool's persuasive power in defining health sector policy. The current article aims to foster reflection on both national health policy management in Brazil and the main obstacles to the implementation of health reform operational aspects. The article classified and analyzed Ministry of Health rulings issued from 1990 to 2002. The study highlights the Ministry's centralizing approach and the use of financial and political persuasion tools that subject State and Municipal governments to the system's rules without creating a negotiated and sustained health policy that the country's institutional realities ratify and support. PMID:17334575

Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria

2007-03-01

327

Global Poverty Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to this report stemming from the July 2000 Okinawa Summit, 1.2 billion people are estimated to live on less than $1 per day, and nearly 3 billion people, worldwide, live on less than $2 a day. This 23-page report examines the roles which the World Bank, IMF, and Multilateral Development Banks play "at the country level, where they provide policy advice, and financial and technical support for long-term country-driven programs, as well as support to deal with shocks." The first chapter of the report considers global poverty issues and trends, while the second chapter looks at poverty on a regional scale. Finally, the third chapter reports on possible ways these organizations can work together to combat poverty.

328

Chronic Poverty Research Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC) is an international organization made up of partnerships with universities and research organizations all working to "stimulate national and international debate; deepen understanding of the causes of chronic poverty; and provide research, analysis and policy guidance." The CPRC's website has more than 400 publications that visitors can download. There are "Working Papers Series" for India, Bangladesh and West Africa, which address everything from child laborers, spatial inequality in social progress, and technological change in food production. There are also "Policy Briefs" and "Journal Articles" visitors can download. The "Toolbox" is an excellent and unique resource for researchers, donor agencies, and students to learn how to use a mix of methodological approaches to better reflect the multi-dimensionality and complexity of poverty. Visitors will find such areas of guidance as "Designing Research," "Collecting Data," "Dissemination," and "Impact Assessment" that can aid in producing relevant and rigorous research.

329

[Esophageal cancer: common health problems and health management].  

PubMed

Esophageal cancer is the 9th leading cause of cancer death in Taiwan. Lack of obvious symptoms or signs during its early stages means that patients are often already in the terminal stage or metastasis at their first diagnosis. A diagnosis of cancer greatly impacts both patients and their families. The purpose of this paper is to explore the current diagnostic methods and treatments used for esophageal cancer. We discuss the effects of physical, psychological and social problems such as dysphagia, fatigue, pain, uncertainty, and social isolation. We also explore the nursing interventions related to these problems. Understanding the health issues related to esophageal cancer will not only help nurses who take care of patients with esophageal cancer provide holistic care, it will also reduce patients' suffering through the treatment and recovery process. By applying interventions that effectively address the physical, psychological, and social realms, healthcare professionals can help patients feel more secure when dealing with related problems. This will improve patients' dignity, value and quality of life through their cancer journey. PMID:23386531

Huang, Mei-Chi; Chang, Wen; Han, Chin-Yen; Wang, Shou-Yu

2013-02-01

330

Program management and health care informatics: defining relationships.  

PubMed

The program management (PM) structure is a relatively well-known organizational model for hospitals. A variation of the matrix structure, it allows for an interdisciplinary team of health care providers to facilitate patient care delivery. However, providing such focused care results in a complex, highly information-dependent operational environment. To meet the information needs of such an environment, careful planning in selecting and implementing technology is required. Along with supporting patient care, the technology will also help in managing costs, human resources, quality and utilization, as well as in monitoring performance and outcomes measurement. Focusing specifically on the information technology environment, this article addresses health care informatics (the diverse categories of information and systems) needed to support clinical program managers, executives and others in a PM organization. Examples from both a university-affiliated and a community-based program managed hospital illustrate their approach to PM and information technology. PMID:10140165

Harber, B W; Miller, S A

1994-01-01

331

Health Management Technology as a General Solution Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Health maintenance and improvement of humans, artifacts, and nature are pressing requirements considering the problems human beings have faced. In this article, the health management technology is proposed by centering cause-effect structure. The important aspect of the technology is evolvement through human-machine collaboration in response to changes of target systems. One of the reasons why the cause-effect structure is centered in the technology is its feature of transparency to humans by instinct point of view. The notion has been spreaded over wide application areas such as quality control, energy management, and healthcare. Some experiments were conducted to prove effectiveness of the technology in the article.

Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Yoshifumi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Iwami, Taro; Tsuchiya, Naoki

332

Health management and controls for earth to orbit propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fault detection and isolation for advanced rocket engine controllers are discussed focusing on advanced sensing systems and software which significantly improve component failure detection for engine safety and health management. Aerojet's Space Transportation Main Engine controller for the National Launch System is the state of the art in fault tolerant engine avionics. Health management systems provide high levels of automated fault coverage and significantly improve vehicle delivered reliability and lower preflight operations costs. Key technologies, including the sensor data validation algorithms and flight capable spectrometers, have been demonstrated in ground applications and are found to be suitable for bridging programs into flight applications.

Bickford, R. L.

1992-01-01

333

Evaluation of computerized health management information system for primary health care in rural India  

PubMed Central

Background The Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Ballabgarh, run by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi has a computerized Health Management Information System (HMIS) since 1988. The HMIS at Ballabgarh has undergone evolution and is currently in its third version which uses generic and open source software. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerized Health Management Information System in rural health system in India. Methods The data for evaluation were collected by in-depth interviews of the stakeholders i.e. program managers (authors) and health workers. Health Workers from AIIMS and Non-AIIMS Primary Health Centers were interviewed to compare the manual with computerized HMIS. A cost comparison between the two methods was carried out based on market costs. The resource utilization for both manual and computerized HMIS was identified based on workers' interviews. Results There have been no major hardware problems in use of computerized HMIS. More than 95% of data was found to be accurate. Health workers acknowledge the usefulness of HMIS in service delivery, data storage, generation of workplans and reports. For program managers, it provides a better tool for monitoring and supervision and data management. The initial cost incurred in computerization of two Primary Health Centers was estimated to be Indian National Rupee (INR) 1674,217 (USD 35,622). Equivalent annual incremental cost of capital items was estimated as INR 198,017 (USD 4213). The annual savings is around INR 894,283 (USD 11,924). Conclusion The major advantage of computerization has been in saving of time of health workers in record keeping and report generation. The initial capital costs of computerization can be recovered within two years of implementation if the system is fully operational. Computerization has enabled implementation of a good system for service delivery, monitoring and supervision. PMID:21078203

2010-01-01

334

Strategic Health Information Management and Forecast: The Birdwatching Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To facilitate communication and the exchange of information between patients, nurses, lab technicians, health insurers, physicians,\\u000a policy makers, and existing knowledge-based systems, a set of shared standard terminologies and controlled vocabularies are\\u000a necessary. In modern health information management systems, these vocabularies are defined within formal representations called\\u000a ontologies, where terminologies are only meaningful once linked to a descriptive dataset. When

Arash Shaban-Nejad; Volker Haarslev

2010-01-01

335

Forests and Poverty Reduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Close to 1.6 billion people - more than 25% of the world's population - rely on forest resources for their livelihoods and most of them (1.2 billion) use trees on farms to generate food and cash." Despite these figures, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations explains that data on these vital forest resources is "sketchy or not available." On the left hand side of the page visitors will find several interesting links including the FAO website which addresses the topic of forests and poverty reduction, the FAO forestry site which includes recent events and news topics, "Publications", information on "Workshops", and "Forestry and Poverty Reduction Strategies".

336

Embedding Health Management into Mission Tasking for UAV Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coordinated multi-vehicle autonomous systems can provide incredible functionality, but off-nominal conditions and degraded system components can render this capability ineffective. This paper presents techniques to improve mission-level functional reliability through better system self-awareness and adaptive mission planning. In particular, we extend the traditional definition of health management, which has historically referred to the process of actively monitoring and managing vehicle

Mario Valenti; Brett Bethke; Daniela Pucci de Farias; John Vian

2007-01-01

337

Chemical-management policy: prioritizing children's health.  

PubMed

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that chemical-management policy in the United States be revised to protect children and pregnant women and to better protect other populations. The Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) was passed in 1976. It is widely recognized to have been ineffective in protecting children, pregnant women, and the general population from hazardous chemicals in the marketplace. It does not take into account the special vulnerabilities of children in attempting to protect the population from chemical hazards. Its processes are so cumbersome that in its more than 30 years of existence, the TSCA has been used to regulate only 5 chemicals or chemical classes of the tens of thousands of chemicals that are in commerce. Under the TSCA, chemical companies have no responsibility to perform premarket testing or postmarket follow-up of the products that they produce; in fact, the TSCA contains disincentives for the companies to produce such data. Voluntary programs have been inadequate in resolving problems. Therefore, chemical-management policy needs to be rewritten in the United States. Manufacturers must be responsible for developing information about chemicals before marketing. The US Environmental Protection Agency must have the authority to demand additional safety data about a chemical and to limit or stop the marketing of a chemical when there is a high degree of suspicion that the chemical might be harmful to children, pregnant women, or other populations. PMID:21518722

2011-05-01

338

Test Result Management in Global Health Settings  

PubMed Central

OVERVIEW Across the globe, the ways in which patients' test results are managed are as varied as the many different types of healthcare systems that manage these data. The outcomes, however, are often not too dissimilar: too many clinically significant test results fall through the cracks. The consequences of not following up test results in a timely manner are serious and often devastating to patients: diagnoses are delayed, treatments are not initiated or altered in time, and diseases progress. In resource-poor settings, test results too commonly get filed away within the paper chart in ways that isolate them and prevent passage to future providers caring for a patient. To make matters worse, the onus to act upon these test results often rests on patients who need to return to the clinic within a specified timeframe in order to obtain their results but who may not have the means or are too ill to do so. Even in more developed healthcare settings that use electronic records, clinical data residing in the electronic medical record (EMR) are often stubbornly “static”—key pieces of clinical information are frequently not recognized, retrieved, or shared easily. In this way, EMRs are not unlike paper record systems, and therefore, EMRs alone will not solve this problem. To illustrate this problem, consider the case of a patient newly diagnosed with HIV in 3 different healthcare delivery settings. PMID:24278831

Palazuelos, Daniel; Payne, Jonathan D.

2012-01-01

339

Test result management in global health settings.  

PubMed

Across the globe, the ways in which patients' test results are managed are as varied as the many different types of healthcare systems that manage these data. The outcomes, however, are often not too dissimilar: too many clinically significant test results fall through the cracks. The consequences of not following up test results in a timely manner are serious and often devastating to patients: diagnoses are delayed, treatments are not initiated or altered in time, and diseases progress. In resource-poor settings, test results too commonly get filed away within the paper chart in ways that isolate them and prevent passage to future providers caring for a patient. To make matters worse, the onus to act upon these test results often rests on patients who need to return to the clinic within a specified timeframe in order to obtain their results but who may not have the means or are too ill to do so. Even in more developed healthcare settings that use electronic records, clinical data residing in the electronic medical record (EMR) are often stubbornly "static"-key pieces of clinical information are frequently not recognized, retrieved, or shared easily. In this way, EMRs are not unlike paper record systems, and therefore, EMRs alone will not solve this problem. To illustrate this problem, consider the case of a patient newly diagnosed with HIV in 3 different healthcare delivery settings. PMID:24278831

Palazuelos, Daniel; Payne, Jonathan D; Dalal, Anuj K

2012-09-01

340

Evaluating the impact of the Management Academy for Public Health: developing entrepreneurial managers and organizations.  

PubMed

The Management Academy for Public Health is a management development program with the goals of helping public health managers learn to manage people, data, and finance, to think and plan like entrepreneurs, and to strengthen public health organizations. Managers enroll as teams and develop business plans in the Academy's extensive project-based learning component. Extensive internal and external evaluation shows that the program improves managers' knowledge, skills, and confidence in key curriculum areas; that participants apply many of the skills in their jobs; that many of the business plans receive funding, resulting in new public health programs; that the training experience helped agencies respond and plan after September 11, 2001; and that many participants report beginning to think more like entrepreneurs through activities like teaming, partnering, innovating, negotiating, finding funds, and generating revenue. The program demonstrates that robust training including extensive work-based project work with coaching can help public health managers gain many skills needed for the drive to "reinvent" government. PMID:16912605

Umble, Karl E; Orton, Stephen; Rosen, Benson; Ottoson, Judith

2006-01-01

341

[Financial incentives in workers' health management].  

PubMed

In the countries of the European Union, several million workers meet with an accident every year. In the national economy, the costs of accidents at work and occupational diseases are born by different institutions in different proportions, and they are estimated at several percent of the gross domestic product of each of these countries. The issue concerning economic consequences of occupational diseases and accidents at work has been emphasized in the section on health and safety at work of the Community Strategy for 2007-2012. Bearing this in mind, the need have arose to strengthen the efficiency of legal instruments and economic stimuli to motivate actions aimed at improving work conditions. Economic stimuli and legal instruments complement each other in the process of motivating various institutions. The following kinds of economic stimuli have been distinguished: subsidies, grants and financial assistance of the state and stimuli incorporated into tax and insurance systems. Economic evaluation at the information, allocation and educational levels, being an economic tool, may support policymakers who can use this tool to asses economic efficiency of decisions made in the area of health and safety of workers as well as to asses economic consequences of the functioning of legal instruments. The aim of the project, implemented under the Seventh Framework Program by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, is to promote the system of economic stimuli understood as an incentive to undertake actions for the improvement of work conditions. Owing to this project the discussion forum, addressed to relevant and interested social partners, will be established, and experts in the field will assist in determining directions of further actions aimed at advancing motivation systems. PMID:19227888

Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

2008-01-01

342

Do Minimum Wages Fight Poverty?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes. The results indicate that minimum wages increase both the probability that poor families escape poverty and the probability that previously nonpoor families fall into poverty. The estimated increase in the flow into poverty is larger, although this difference is not statistically significant. We also find that minimum wages

David Neumark; William Wascher

2002-01-01

343

World Bank PovertyNet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PovertyNet, an important resource center for researchers and activists working to understand and alleviate poverty, contains several other, though more general, topic sections; a library of research papers and reports; occasional special features; datasets; a newsletter; and a Web Guide on Poverty.

344

Roles of managers in academic health centers: strategies for the managed care environment.  

PubMed

This article addresses survival strategies of academic health centers (AHCs) in responding to market pressures and government reforms. Using six case studies of AHCs, the study links strategic changes in structure and management to managerial role performance. Utilizing Mintzberg's classification of work roles, the roles of liaison, monitor, entrepreneur, and resource allocator were found to be used by top-level managers as they implement strategies to enhance the viability of their AHCs. Based on these new roles, the study recommends improving management practices through education and training as well as changing organizational culture to support management decision making and foster the continued growth of managers and their AHCs. PMID:11944815

Guo, Kristina L

2002-03-01

345

Chronic disease self-management — a health management approach for patients in rural and remote communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The Sharing Health Care SA project, a chronic disease self-management (CDSM) strategy for patients in rural and remote communities in South Australia, was designed to develop and demonstrate new approaches to chronic disease self- management within rural and remote communities. It also complemented and promoted the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) program and utilisation of new Medical Benefits Schedule (MBS)

Peter Harvey; Malcolm Battersby; Gary Misan

346

Meeting new health care challenges with a proven innovation: nurse-managed health care clinics.  

PubMed

Beginning in January 2014, millions of Americans will enroll in health insurance plans under the Affordable Care Act. Some of these individuals were obtaining health care in safety net health clinics, emergency departments, or urgent care centers; many were going without needed care and will be new to the health care system. In addition to these newly insured, the ranks of older Americans and persons in need of chronic disease management will be on the rise. The way in which health care is delivered will have to change in order for the health care workforce to meet the demand for their services without sacrificing quality or access. Nurse practitioners and registered nurses have the education and skills to provide health promotion, disease prevention, and chronic disease management services that will make up a sizable portion of the demand. Amending state practice acts so that the authority to practice matches the ability to practice and opening provider panels to advanced practice nurses will provide opportunities to establish or expand sustainable nurse-led primary care practices in health care shortage areas. Along with these changes, models of health care delivery that incorporate differentiated practice roles and shared interprofessional responsibility for providing care will maximize the capacity of the system to provide the health care that people need. PMID:24569758

Link, Denise G; Perry, Diane; Cesarotti, Evelyn L

2014-01-01

347

Petroleum and health care: evaluating and managing health care's vulnerability to petroleum supply shifts.  

PubMed

Petroleum is used widely in health care-primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies-and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473

Hess, Jeremy; Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

2011-09-01

348

Health insurance in India: need for managed care expertise.  

PubMed

Health insurers in India currently face many challenges, including poor consumer awareness, strict regulations, and inefficient business practices. They operate under a combination of stifling administrative costs and high medical expense ratios which have ensured that insurers operate under steep losses. External factors (eg, onerous regulations, lack of standards, high claims payouts) and internal factors (eg, high administrative costs, dependence on indemnity models that cover inpatient treatment costs only) have forced the health insurance industry into a regressive spiral. To overcome these challenges, health insurers need to innovate in their product offerings and tighten their existing processes and cost structures. But as a long-term strategy, it is imperative that health insurers deploy managed care concepts, which will go a long way toward addressing the systemic issues in the current operational models of health plans. PMID:21473657

Thomas, Thomas K

2011-02-01

349

An Introduction to Macro- Level Spatial Nonstationarity: a Geographically Weighted Regression Analysis of Diabetes and Poverty  

PubMed Central

Type II diabetes is a growing health problem in the United States. Understanding geographic variation in diabetes prevalence will inform where resources for management and prevention should be allocated. Investigations of the correlates of diabetes prevalence have largely ignored how spatial nonstationarity might play a role in the macro-level distribution of diabetes. This paper introduces the reader to the concept of spatial nonstationarity—variance in statistical relationships as a function of geographical location. Since spatial nonstationarity means different predictors can have varying effects on model outcomes, we make use of a geographically weighed regression to calculate correlates of diabetes as a function of geographic location. By doing so, we demonstrate an exploratory example in which the diabetes-poverty macro-level statistical relationship varies as a function of location. In particular, we provide evidence that when predicting macro-level diabetes prevalence, poverty is not always positively associated with diabetes

Siordia, Carlos; Saenz, Joseph; Tom, Sarah E.

2014-01-01

350

Poverty in School Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are acute poverty challenges for culturally disadvantaged school communities across the United States? How do practicing teacher-researchers, pursuing advanced degrees, view this issue and the 21st century skills and dispositions classroom teachers need to foster change? Curious about this topic from the viewpoints of teachers who are…

Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.

2013-01-01

351

Poverty, Work and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This contribution suggests that if we are serious about adult education in the context of poverty eradication we require some shifts away from neo-liberal assumptions and values. Women and/in the informal economy should become the central focus, and livelihood studies would better allow us to understand the complex daily struggle for food and the…

von Kotze, Astrid

2007-01-01

352

Poverty and Household Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widely held view that larger families tend to be poorer in developing countries has influenced research and policy. The scope for size economies in consumption cautions against this view. We find that the correlation between poverty and size vanishes in Pakistan when the size elasticity of the cost of living is about 0-6. This turns out to be the

Peter Lanjouw; Martin Ravallion

1995-01-01

353

Trade, Growth, and Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:A key issue today is the effect of globalizationon inequality and poverty. We first identify a group of developing countries that are participating more in globalization. Since China, India, and several other large countries are part of this group, well over half of the population of the developing world lives in these globalizing economies. The post-1980 globalizers have seen large

D. Dollar; A. Kraay

1993-01-01

354

Risk and risk assessment in health emergency management.  

PubMed

This article considers the critical roles of risk and risk assessment in the management of health emergencies and disasters. The Task Force on Quality Control of Disaster Management (TFQCDM) has defined risk as the "objective (mathematical) or subjective (inductive) probability that something negative will occur (happen)". Risks with the greatest relevance to health emergency management include: (1) the probability that a health hazard exists or will occur; (2) the probability that the hazard will become an event; (3) the probability that the event will lead to health damage; and (4) the probability that the health damage will lead to a health disaster. The overall risk of a health disaster is the product of these four probabilities. Risk assessments are the tools that help systems at risk-healthcare organizations, communities, regions, states, and countries-transform their visceral reactions to threats into rational strategies for risk reduction. Type I errors in risk assessment occur when situations are predicted that do not occur (risk is overestimated). Type II errors in risk assessment occur when situations are not predicted that do occur (risk is underestimated). Both types of error may have serious, even lethal, consequences. Errors in risk assessment may be reduced through strategies that optimize risk assessment, including the: (1) adoption of the TFQCDM definition of risk and other terms; (2) specification of the system at risk and situations of interest (hazard, event, damage, and health disaster); (3) adoption of a best practice approach to risk assessment methodology; (4) assembly of the requisite range of expert participants and information; (5) adoption of an evidence-based approach to using information; (6) exclusion of biased, irrelevant, and obsolete information; and (7) complete characterizations of any underlying fault and event trees. PMID:16018501

Arnold, Jeffrey L

2005-01-01

355

Sensor and system health management simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The health of a sensor and system is monitored by information gathered from the sensor. First, a normal mode of operation is established. Any deviation from the normal behavior indicates a change. Second, the sensor information is simulated by a main process, which is defined by a step-up, drift, and step-down. The sensor disturbances and spike are added while the system is in drift. The system runs for a period of at least three time-constants of the main process every time a process feature occurs (e.g. step change). The wavelet Transform Analysis is performed on three sets of data. The three sets of data are: the simulated data described above with Poisson distributed noise, real Manifold Pressure data, and real valve data. The simulated data with Poisson distributed noise of SNRs ranging from 10 to 500 were generated. Due to page limitations only the results of SNR of 50 is reported. The data are analyzed using continuous as well as discrete wavelet transforms. The results indicate distinct shapes corresponding to each process.

Amini, Abolfazl M.

2006-04-01

356

Can action research strengthen district health management and improve health workforce performance? A research protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction The single biggest barrier for countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to scale up the necessary health services for addressing the three health-related Millennium Development Goals and achieving Universal Health Coverage is the lack of an adequate and well-performing health workforce. This deficit needs to be addressed both by training more new health personnel and by improving the performance of the existing and future health workforce. However, efforts have mostly been focused on training new staff and less on improving the performance of the existing health workforce. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the protocol for the PERFORM project and reflect on the key challenges encountered during the development of this methodology and how they are being overcome. Methods The overall aim of the PERFORM project is to identify ways of strengthening district management in order to address health workforce inadequacies by improving health workforce performance in SSA. The study will take place in three districts each in Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda using an action research approach. With the support of the country research teams, the district health management teams (DHMTs) will lead on planning, implementation, observation, reflection and redefinition of the activities in the study. Taking into account the national and local human resource (HR) and health systems (HS) policies and practices already in place, ‘bundles’ of HR/HS strategies that are feasible within the context and affordable within the districts’ budget will be developed by the DHMTs to strengthen priority areas of health workforce performance. A comparative analysis of the findings from the three districts in each country will add new knowledge on the effects of these HR/HS bundles on DHMT management and workforce performance and the impact of an action research approach on improving the effectiveness of the DHMTs in implementing these interventions. Discussion Different challenges were faced during the development of the methodology. These include the changing context in the study districts, competing with other projects and duties for the time of district managers, complexity of the study design, maintaining the anonymity and confidentiality of study participants as well as how to record the processes during the study. We also discuss how these challenges are being addressed. The dissemination of this research protocol is intended to generate interest in the PERFORM project and also stimulate discussion on the use of action research in complex studies such as this on strengthening district health management to improve health workforce performance. PMID:23996825

Mshelia, C; Huss, R; Mirzoev, T; Elsey, H; Baine, S O; Aikins, M; Kamuzora, P; Bosch-Capblanch, X; Raven, J; Wyss, K; Green, A; Martineau, T

2013-01-01

357

Lifestyle Management Program: Promoting Cardiovascular Health: in Community College Campuses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lifestyle Management Project is a health promotion project and research study conducted in the spring of 1984 at five Los Angeles junior college campuses. Its goal was to increase knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CHD) risk factors among 400 to 2000 junior college students in each campus. This was done via five risk factor activities: blood…

Castro, Felipe G.; Jichaku, Patrick

358

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Health Center's Community Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the case of the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Health Center's unique community management system in which neighborhood workers have been developed to assume managerial responsibilities and are directing the Center. The Martin Luther King Center experience is instructive because the Center was able to achieve significant community control by focusing primarily on the internal dimension of

Noel M. Tichy; June Irmiger Taylor

1976-01-01

359

Outcomes Assessment in Accredited Health Information Management Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the use and perceived usefulness of outcomes assessment methods in health information management programs. Additional characteristics of the outcomes assessment practices were recognized. The findings were evaluated for significant differences in results based on age of the program, type of institution,…

Bennett, Dorine

2010-01-01

360

Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -Part 1  

E-print Network

Cir 120 Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems - Part 1 Cooperating. Nick T. Place , Dean Introduction Recirculating aquaculture systems, also known as water reuse in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems: Parts 1, 2 and 3 ­ provides basic information that should assist

Watson, Craig A.

361

Demographics, management and health of donkeys in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the management and health problems of donkeys on loan to independent carers from The Donkey Sanctuary are characterised, and the demographics of the UK’s donkey population are described using data from a variety of sources. All carers that fostered a donkey from The Donkey Sanctuary between September 2004 and August 2005 (1432 donkeys) were surveyed using a

R. Cox; F. Burden; C. J. Proudman; A. F. Trawford; G. L. Pinchbeck

2010-01-01

362

Concepts for integrated electronic health records management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer systems and communication technologies are making a strong and influential presence in the different fields of medicine. The cornerstone of a functional medical information system represents the electronic health records management system. Due to a very sensitive nature of medical information, such systems are faced with a number of stringent requirements, like security and confidentiality of patients' related data,

Miroslav Kon

363

Health Promotion, Disability Management, and Rehabilitation in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses industry-based efforts to improve the quality of work life through various methods including health promotion programs; early intervention and disability management; and rehabilitation of industrially injured workers. Program models in each of these areas are described. (CB)

Galvin, Donald E.

1986-01-01

364

IMPROVING METHODS FOR MANAGING HEALTH AND EXPOSURE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The project in Colorado is evaluating the use of GIS as a tool for studying the potential impacts of exposure to DBPs from different disinfection treatments on reproductive health in populations in Colorado. GIS is a data management and visualization tool that is assisting in stu...

365

Correctional Managed Health Care Contract for Student Experience  

E-print Network

will retain records in accordance with the state of Connecticut's record retention policy. 2. Student1 Correctional Managed Health Care Contract for Student Experience Academic Year 2011 listed below) CMHC student experience with on-site faculty. CMHC student experience with off-site faculty

Oliver, Douglas L.

366

Disparities in diabetes: the nexus of race, poverty, and place.  

PubMed

Objectives. We sought to determine the role of neighborhood poverty and racial composition on race disparities in diabetes prevalence. Methods. We used data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 2000 US Census to estimate the impact of individual race and poverty and neighborhood racial composition and poverty concentration on the odds of having diabetes. Results. We found a race-poverty-place gradient for diabetes prevalence for Blacks and poor Whites. The odds of having diabetes were higher for Blacks than for Whites. Individual poverty increased the odds of having diabetes for both Whites and Blacks. Living in a poor neighborhood increased the odds of having diabetes for Blacks and poor Whites. Conclusions. To address race disparities in diabetes, policymakers should address problems created by concentrated poverty (e.g., lack of access to reasonably priced fruits and vegetables, recreational facilities, and health care services; high crime rates; and greater exposures to environmental toxins). Housing and development policies in urban areas should avoid creating high-poverty neighborhoods. PMID:24228660

Gaskin, Darrell J; Thorpe, Roland J; McGinty, Emma E; Bower, Kelly; Rohde, Charles; Young, J Hunter; LaVeist, Thomas A; Dubay, Lisa

2014-11-01

367

Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

2010-01-01

368

Oceans and Human Health: Linking Ocean, Organism, and Human Health for Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that sustainable coastal communities depend on healthy and resilient economies, ecosystems, and people, and that the condition or "health" of the coastal ocean and humans are intimately and inextricably connected. A wealth of ecosystem services provided by ocean and coastal environments are crucial for human survival and well being. Nonetheless, the health of coastal communities, their economies, connected ecosystems and ecosystem services, and people are under increasing threats from health risks associated with environmental degradation, climate change, and unwise land use practices, all of which contribute to growing burdens of naturally-occurring and introduced pathogens, noxious algae, and chemical contaminants. The occurrence, frequency, intensity, geographic range, and number and kinds of ocean health threats are increasing, with concomitant health and economic effects and eroding public confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of coastal environments and resources. Concerns in the research and public health communities, many summarized in the seminal 1999 NRC Report, From Monsoons to Microbes and the 2004 final report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, resulted in establishment of a new "meta-discipline" known as Oceans and Human Health (OHH). OHH brings together practitioners in oceanography, marine biology, ecology, biomedical science, medicine, economics and other social sciences, epidemiology, environmental management, and public health to focus on water- and food-borne causes of human and animal illnesses associated with ocean and coastal systems and on health benefits of seafood and other marine products. It integrates information across multiple disciplines to increase knowledge of ocean health risks and benefits and communicate such information to enhance public safety. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive approach to ocean health threats and benefits, Congress passed the Oceans and Human Health Act of 2004. Major outcomes of the OHH Act of 2004 include: --A national focus on ocean health and its relation to human health and well-being; --Enhanced interagency coordination and cooperation in research, development, and education; --Emphasis on development of a new, interdisciplinary community of practice; --Increased understanding of linkages between marine animal health and human health and the dangers of transmission of zoonotic diseases from the marine environment; --A richer understanding of factors affecting the occurrence and impacts of ocean health threats; --An enhanced ability of the ocean science and public health communities to respond to health-related emergencies; --A strong focus on development of ecological forecasts that are providing early warning of ocean health threats and impacts, thus improving the effectiveness of protection and mitigation actions. Taken together, these outcomes contribute significantly to more sustainable management of coastal resources and communities.

Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.

2012-12-01

369

Poverty in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to a quantitative analysis that involves univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis, this module reinforces research terms introduced in Intro to Sociology (independent, dependent and control variables and includes the opportunity to discuss sample vs. population (in the comparison of national poverty data vs. the poverty rate in the sample) and value vs. variable (poverty as a value and a variable and the recoding of the values in the household data). The module also uses the Census website to define the concept "poverty threshold" and look at trends in poverty.

Joan Spade, Suny- B.

370

Poverty and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poor are disproportionately vulnerable to environmental change because they have the least amount of resources with which to adapt, and they live in areas (e.g. flood plains, low-lying coastal areas, and marginal drylands) that are particularly vulnerable to the manifestations of climate change. By quantifying the various environmental, economic, and social factors that can contribute to poverty, we identify populations that are most vulnerable to poverty and poverty traps due to environmental change. We define vulnerability as consisting of risk (probability of event and exposed elements), resiliency, and capacity to respond. Resiliency captures the social system's ability to absorb a natural disaster while retaining the same basic structure, organization, and ways of functioning, as well as its general capacity to adapt to stress and change. Capacity to respond is a surrogate for technical skills, institutional capabilities, and efficacy within countries and their economies. We use a "climate change multiplier" to account for possible increases in the frequency and severity of natural events due to climate change. Through various analytical methods, we quantify the social, political, economic, and environmental factors that contribute to poverty or poverty traps. These data sets are then used to determine vulnerability through raster multiplication in geospatial analysis. The vulnerability of a particular location to climate change is then mapped, with areas of high vulnerability clearly delineated. The success of this methodology indicates that it is indeed possible to quantify the effects of climate change on global vulnerability to natural disasters, and can be used as a mechanism to identify areas where proactive measures, such as improving adaptation or capacity to respond, can reduce the humanitarian and economic impacts of climate change.

van der Vink, G.; Franco, E.; Fuckar, N. S.; Kalmbach, E. R.; Kayatta, E.; Lankester, K.; Rothschild, R. E.; Sarma, A.; Wall, M. L.

2008-05-01

371

Poverty in India Since 1974: A Country Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Poverty in India Since 1974; Background; Trends in Poverty, 1950 to 1974; Indian Poverty Since 1974; Explanantions for Poverty Trends; Poverty Reduction Across India; Are the Poverty Data Correct; Concluding Remarks; Bibliography; Illustrations;...

J. W. Fox

2002-01-01

372

Solid health care waste management status at health care centers in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory  

SciTech Connect

Health care waste is considered a major public health hazard. The objective of this study was to assess health care waste management (HCWM) practices currently employed at health care centers (HCCs) in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory. Survey data on solid health care waste (SHCW) were analyzed for generated quantities, collection, separation, treatment, transportation, and final disposal. Estimated 4720.7 m{sup 3} (288.1 tons) of SHCW are generated monthly by the HCCs in the West Bank. This study concluded that: (i) current HCWM practices do not meet HCWM standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) or adapted by developed countries, and (ii) immediate attention should be directed towards improvement of HCWM facilities and development of effective legislation. To improve the HCWM in the West Bank, a national policy should be implemented, comprising a comprehensive plan of action and providing environmentally sound and reliable technological measures.

Al-Khatib, Issam A. [Institute of Environmental and Water Studies, Birzeit University, P.O. Box 14, Birzeit, Ramallah, West Bank (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)], E-mail: ikhatib@birzeit.edu; Sato, Chikashi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho (United States)

2009-08-15

373

Creating an integrated health care system: the health and human risk management model.  

PubMed

This article critiques the current health care system and presents a new conceptual model that offers the potential for an integrated health care system in the future. Health care currently consists of parallel care systems based on the competing conceptual frameworks of the medical model and the psychosocial model. It is argued that psychosocial factors must be included in an integrated system. Research literature is reviewed that documents the need for, the therapeutic effectiveness of, and the medical cost-offset benefits of mental and behavioral health interventions. The Health and Human Risk Management Model is described and illustrated with a case example as well as research outcomes from its implementation at United HealthCare Corporation. PMID:10154064

Bergmark, R E; Dell, P; Attridge, M; Parker, M

1996-01-01

374

DUAL MBA/MPP Nonprofit Management and Public Policy  

E-print Network

worldwide. Whether working in the United States or abroad, our graduates offer skills derived from rigorous in the areas of health and behavioral health, children, youth and families and poverty alleviation. Graduates) Marketing (4) Corporate Finance (4) Social Justice & Management (2) Team Consulting Project (6) Human

Fraden, Seth

375

A knowledge management tool for public health: health-evidence.ca  

PubMed Central

Background The ultimate goal of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) activities is to facilitate incorporation of research knowledge into program and policy development decision making. Evidence-informed decision making involves translation of the best available evidence from a systematically collected, appraised, and analyzed body of knowledge. Knowledge management (KM) is emerging as a key factor contributing to the realization of evidence-informed public health decision making. The goal of health-evidence.ca is to promote evidence-informed public health decision making through facilitation of decision maker access to, retrieval, and use of the best available synthesized research evidence evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Methods The systematic reviews that populate health evidence.ca are identified through an extensive search (1985-present) of 7 electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, BIOSIS, and SportDiscus; handsearching of over 20 journals; and reference list searches of all relevant reviews. Reviews are assessed for relevance and quality by two independent reviewers. Commonly-used public health terms are used to assign key words to each review, and project staff members compose short summaries highlighting results and implications for policy and practice. Results As of June 2010, there are 1913 reviews in the health-evidence.ca registry in 21 public health and health promotion topic areas. Of these, 78% have been assessed as being of strong or moderate methodological quality. Health-evidence.ca receives approximately 35,000 visits per year, 20,596 of which are unique visitors, representing approximately 100 visits per day. Just under half of all visitors return to the site, with the average user spending six minutes and visiting seven pages per visit. Public health nurses, program managers, health promotion workers, researchers, and program coordinators are among the largest groups of registered users, followed by librarians, dieticians, medical officers of health, and nutritionists. The majority of users (67%) access the website from direct traffic (e.g., have the health-evidence.ca webpage bookmarked, or type it directly into their browser). Conclusions Consistent use of health-evidence.ca and particularly the searching for reviews that correspond with current public health priorities illustrates that health-evidence.ca may be playing an important role in achieving evidence-informed public health decision making. PMID:20718970

2010-01-01

376

Distributional Implications of Halving Poverty in South Africa  

E-print Network

, electricity, gas and other fuels; furnishings, household equipment and routine maintenance of the house; health; transport; communication; recreation and culture; education; restaurants and hotels; miscellaneous goods and services (which includes personal... and the poverty headcount ratio between 1995 and 2005, and attributes this decline primarily to government’s social welfare grants. The generally unimpressive record of income poverty reduction since the advent of democracy in South Africa highlights...

Tregenna, Fiona

377

Effects of managed care on the health and health-care of the non-elderly with diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation attempts to examine the quality effect of managed care plans (as compared with traditional fee-for-service plans, or FFS) on the health outcome and health care use of patients with diabetes. As the number of diabetics is growing rapidly with many of them are relying on managed care plans, knowing better the effects of different plans on health status

Meihua Lu

2011-01-01

378

Effects Of Managed Care On The Health And HealthCare Of The Non-Elderly With Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation attempts to examine the quality effect of managed care plans (as compared with traditional fee-for-service plans, or FFS) on the health outcome and health care use of patients with diabetes. As the number of diabetics is growing rapidly with many of them are relying on managed care plans, knowing better the effects of different plans on health status

Meihua Lu

2011-01-01

379

Economic Impact of a Medicaid Population Health Management Program  

PubMed Central

Abstract A population health management program was implemented to assess growth in health care expenditures for the disabled segment of Georgia's Medicaid population before and during the first year of a population health outcomes management program, and to compare those expenditures with projected costs based on various cost inflation trend assumptions. A retrospective, nonexperimental approach was used to analyze claims data from Georgia Medicaid claims files for all program-eligible persons for each relevant time period (intent-to-treat basis). These included all non-Medicare, noninstitutionalized Medicaid aged-blind-disabled adults older than 18 years of age. Comparisons of health care expenditures and utilization were made between base year (2003–2004) and performance year one (2006–2007), and of the difference between actual expenditures incurred in the performance year vs. projected expenditures based on various cost inflation assumptions. Demographic characteristics and clinical complexity of the population (as measured by the Chronic Illness and Disability Payment System risk score) actually increased from baseline to implementation. Actual expenditures were less than projected expenditures using any relevant medical inflation assumption. Actual expenditures were less than projected expenditures by $9.82 million when using a conservative US general medical inflation rate, by $43.6 million using national Medicaid cost trends, and by $106 million using Georgia Medicaid's own cost projections for the non-dually eligible disabled segment of Medicaid enrollees. Quadratic growth curve modeling also demonstrated a lower rate of increase in total expenditures. The rate of increase in expenditures was lower over the first year of program implementation compared with baseline. Weighted utilization rates were also lower in high-cost categories, such as inpatient days, despite increases in the risk profile of the population. Varying levels of cost avoidance could be inferred from differences between actual and projected expenditures using each of the health-related inflation assumptions. (Population Health Management 2011;14:215–222) PMID:21506728

Strothers, Harry; Miller, William Johnson; McLaren, Susan; Moore, Barbara; Sambamoorthi, Usha

2011-01-01

380

Depression care management: impact of implementation on health system costs.  

PubMed

This study examined the mental health care costs associated with implementation of a collaborative care management (CCM) of treatment for depression in primary care. A retrospective review of all costs was performed over a 2-year period associated with providing care to adult patients at clinical sites with CCM versus those with usual care, comparing total and mental health per member per month (PMPM) costs for 2008 and 2009 (patient population = 103,000). The mental health-PMPM costs as a percentage of total health care costs at the clinic without CCM were 4.65% in 2008 and 4.5% in 2009 (p = .085). In the clinics with CCM, there was a significant difference between the 2 years with a decrease noted in 2009 of 4.91% compared with 4.36% in 2008 (p < .0001). This study demonstrated that, on a population basis with the implementation of CCM, the metric of mental health-PMPM (using the actual costs of delivering care) suggested that an increased short-term cost of care is not always realized. Collaborative care management treatment for depression may be a more cost-efficient method of care for the population as a whole, even in the short term. PMID:21537138

Angstman, Kurt B; Rasmussen, Norman H; Herman, David C; Sobolik, Jerry J

2011-01-01

381

Applying total quality management concepts to public health organizations.  

PubMed Central

Total quality management (TQM) is a participative, systematic approach to planning and implementing a continuous organizational improvement process. Its approach is focused on satisfying customers' expectations, identifying problems, building commitment, and promoting open decision-making among workers. TQM applies analytical tools, such as flow and statistical charts and check sheets, to gather data about activities within an organization. TQM uses process techniques, such as nominal groups, brainstorming, and consensus forming to facilitate communication and decision making. TQM applications in the public sector and particularly in public health agencies have been limited. The process of integrating TQM into public health agencies complements and enhances the Model Standards Program and assessment methodologies, such as the Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEX-PH), which are mechanisms for establishing strategic directions for public health. The authors examine the potential for using TQM as a method to achieve and exceed standards quickly and efficiently. They discuss the relationship of performance standards and assessment methodologies with TQM and provide guidelines for achieving the full potential of TQM in public health organizations. The guidelines include redefining the role of management, defining a common corporate culture, refining the role of citizen oversight functions, and setting realistic estimates of the time needed to complete a task or project. PMID:1594734

Kaluzny, A D; McLaughlin, C P; Simpson, K

1992-01-01

382

The health plan choices of retirees under managed competition.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of price on the health insurance decisions of Medicare-eligible retirees in a managed competition setting. DATA SOURCE: The study is based on four years of administrative data from the University of California (UC) Retiree Health Benefits Program, which closely resembles the managed competition model upon which several leading Medicare reform proposals are based. STUDY DESIGN: A change in UC's premium contribution policy between 1993 and 1994 created a unique natural experiment for investigating the effect of price on retirees' health insurance decisions. This study consists of two related analyses. First, I estimate the effect of changes in out-of-pocket premiums between 1993 and 1994 on the decision to switch plans during open enrollment. Second, using data from 1993 to 1996, I examine the extent to which rising premiums for fee-for-service Medigap coverage increased HMO enrollment among Medicare-eligible UC retirees. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Price is a significant factor affecting the health plan decisions of Medicare-eligible UC retirees. However, these retirees are substantially less price sensitive than active UC employees and the non-elderly in other similar programs. This result is likely attributable to higher nonpecuniary switching costs facing older individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Although it is not clear exactly how price sensitive enrollees must be in order to generate price competition among health plans, the behavioral differences between retirees and active employees suggest that caution should be taken in extrapolating from research on the non-elderly to the Medicare program. PMID:11130806

Buchmueller, T C

2000-01-01

383

Errors as allies: error management training in health professions education.  

PubMed

This paper adopts methods from the organisational team training literature to outline how health professions education can improve patient safety. We argue that health educators can improve training quality by intentionally encouraging errors during simulation-based team training. Preventable medical errors are inevitable, but encouraging errors in low-risk settings like simulation can allow teams to have better emotional control and foresight to manage the situation if it occurs again with live patients. Our paper outlines an innovative approach for delivering team training. PMID:23293120

King, Aimee; Holder, Michael G; Ahmed, Rami A

2013-06-01

384

Low level communication management for e-health systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneity of e-health systems encourages the use of standards such as Health Level 7 (HL7v3) to ensure interoperability. Many actual implementations address this problem by unoptimized high level programming of top-range portable computing platforms. However, this approach could pose excessive demands on battery-powered mid-range terminals. In this work, we propose low-level support for portable HL7v3-compatible embedded systems in order to better exploit their limited processing and communications capabilities. In particular, we present our experience in mobile communication management through two different approaches, which proves the feasibility of this proposal.

Riva, Guillermo; Zerbini, Carlos; Voos, Javier; Centeno, Carlos; González, Eduardo

2011-12-01

385

Developing Self-Management Tools with Vulnerable Populations for use in Personal Health Information Management Systems.  

PubMed

Vulnerable populations have potential to be significant partners and informants in the development of health information technology. We describe our experience in conducting human-centered participatory design methods with community-dwelling elders in the development of a computer-based falls prevention self-management tool for use in a personal health information management system. Community-dwelling elders contributed significantly to understanding appropriate content and functions; task performance; and graphical representations that should be considered in designing our self-management tool. Design participants should include those who have and have not experienced the clinical condition being considered during the process of system development. Knowledge transfer between system developers and community members about health and personal safety issues can be facilitated through human-centered participatory design methods. PMID:24199096

Lucero, Robert J; Sheehan, Barbara; Yen, Po-Yin; Velez, Olivia; Nobile-Hernandez, Diana L; Tiase, Victoria L; Bakken, Suzanne

2012-01-01

386

Resolving ethical conflicts in a managed health care environment.  

PubMed

The managed health care environment is replete with situations that create ethical conflicts for the professional social worker. This article examines two such conflicts--competing fiduciary relationships and justice versus injustice--as they relate to social work practice and the 1996 revised NASW Code of Ethics. Mechanisms to reduce these ethical conflicts are presented. The obligation for social workers to participate in social action as a method of reducing injustices found in managed care environments is examined through the principle of distributive justice, egalitarianism, and the NASW Code of Ethics. PMID:10505280

Galambos, C

1999-08-01

387

[Economic evaluation and rationale for human health risk management decisions].  

PubMed

The priority task of human health maintenance and improvement is risk management using the new economic concepts based on the assessment of potential and real human risks from exposure to poor environmental factors and on the estimation of cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness ratios. The application of economic tools to manage a human risk makes it possible to assess various measures both as a whole and their individual priority areas, to rank different scenarios in terms of their effectiveness, to estimate costs per unit of risk reduction and benefit increase (damage decrease). PMID:21845769

Fokin, S G; Bobkova, T E

2011-01-01

388

[Economic evaluation and rationale for human health risk management decisions].  

PubMed

The priority task of human health maintenance and improvement is risk management using the new economic concepts based on the assessment of potential and real human risks from exposure to poor environmental factors and on the estimation of cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness ratios. The application of economic tools to manage a human risk makes it possible to assess various measures both as a whole and their individual priority areas, to rank different scenarios in terms of their effectiveness, to estimate costs per unit of risk reduction and benefit increase (damage decrease). PMID:21842745

Bobkova, T E; Fokin, S G

2011-01-01

389

Poverty, Sex and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an ongoing debate about the relative importance of economic factors (notably poverty) and sexual behavior in driving\\u000a the AIDS epidemic. This paper draws on relevant research and cross-country regression analysis to argue that the impact of\\u000a economic determinants is dwarfed by contextual factors within Africa. The regression analysis suggests that controlling for\\u000a per capita income, calories per capita

Nicoli Nattrass

2009-01-01

390

Investigating Children in Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, created by Kathy Rowell of Sinclair Community College, provides an activity were students will attempt to explain how each of the following variables is related to child poverty within the United States: race, age, family type, family size, and immigrant status. The resource is a solid lesson plan for a statistics classroom. It focuses on many things such as hypotheses testing, distribution theory, independent and dependent variables.

Rowell, Kathy

2009-05-06

391

Poverty Reduction Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A German Technical Cooperation (GTZ: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit) initiative, the Poverty Reduction Project aims to bring the needs of poor people to the forefront of economic development agendas worldwide through an Internet forum. The site describes current projects with financial intermediaries in El Salvador and food security in China and is home to a library of full-text papers, project reports, and country profiles (in German and English).

1998-01-01

392

Risk management assessment of Health Maintenance Organisations participating in the National Health Insurance Scheme  

PubMed Central

Background: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), operated majorly in Nigeria by health maintenance organisations (HMOs), took off formally in June 2005. In view of the inherent risks in the operation of any social health insurance, it is necessary to efficiently manage these risks for sustainability of the scheme. Consequently the risk-management strategies deployed by HMOs need regular assessment. This study assessed the risk management in the Nigeria social health insurance scheme among HMOs. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 33 HMOs participating in the NHIS. Results: Utilisation of standard risk-management strategies by the HMOs was 11 (52.6%). The other risk-management strategies not utilised in the NHIS 10 (47.4%) were risk equalisation and reinsurance. As high as 11 (52.4%) of participating HMOs had a weak enrollee base (less than 30,000 and poor monthly premium and these impacted negatively on the HMOs such that a large percentage 12 (54.1%) were unable to meet up with their financial obligations. Most of the HMOs 15 (71.4%) participated in the Millennium development goal (MDG) maternal and child health insurance programme. Conclusions: Weak enrollee base and poor monthly premium predisposed the HMOs to financial risk which impacted negatively on the overall performance in service delivery in the NHIS, further worsened by the non-utilisation of risk equalisation and reinsurance as risk-management strategies in the NHIS. There is need to make the scheme compulsory and introduce risk equalisation and reinsurance.

Campbell, Princess Christina; Korie, Patrick Chukwuemeka; Nnaji, Feziechukwu Collins

2014-01-01

393

Study Protocol for the Fukushima Health Management Survey  

PubMed Central

Background The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. Conclusions The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long-term large-scale epidemiologic study is expected to provide valuable data in the investigation of the health effects of low-dose radiation and disaster-related stress. PMID:22955043

Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

2012-01-01

394

Opportunities for Launch Site Integrated System Health Engineering and Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launch site processing flow involves operations such as functional verification, preflight servicing and launch. These operations often include hazards that must be controlled to protect human life and critical space hardware assets. Existing command and control capabilities are limited to simple limit checking durig automated monitoring. Contingency actions are highly dependent on human recognition, decision making, and execution. Many opportunities for Integrated System Health Engineering and Management (ISHEM) exist throughout the processing flow. This paper will present the current human-centered approach to health management as performed today for the shuttle and space station programs. In addition, it will address some of the more critical ISHEM needs, and provide recommendations for future implementation of ISHEM at the launch site.

Waterman, Robert D.; Langwost, Patricia E.; Waterman, Susan J.

2005-01-01

395

Managed Care and Provider Satisfaction in Mental Health Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the satisfaction of mental health providers using four dimensions from the medical practice literature—degree of\\u000a autonomy, relationship with patients, compensation, and administrative burden—and extend current work on professional satisfaction\\u000a to include frontline service providers rather than only psychiatrists or other physicians. In contrast to results reported\\u000a for primary care settings, we find that the impact of managed care

Kimberley R. Isett; Alan R. Ellis; Sharon Topping; Joseph P. Morrissey

2009-01-01

396

Corporate management of quality in employee health plans.  

PubMed

As large companies move their employees into managed care, they must concern themselves with the quality and price of their employees' health care. Based on a survey of Fortune 500 companies, we show that most are integrating several aspects of quality into their purchasing and contracting decisions by focusing on three dimensions--customer service, network composition, and clinical quality. Companies focus on the customer service dimension while the medical community emphasizes clinical quality. PMID:12638371

Maxwell, James; Temin, Peter

2003-01-01

397

Candidate technologies for the Integrated Health Management Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this report is to assess Vehicle Health Management (VHM) technologies for implementation as a demonstration. Extensive studies have been performed to determine technologies which could be implemented on the Atlas and Centaur vehicles as part of a bridging program. This paper discusses areas today where VHM can be implemented for benefits in reliability, performance, and cost reduction. VHM Options are identified and one demonstration is recommended for execution.

Johnson, Neal F.; Martin, Fred H.

1993-01-01

398

Sex Differences in Poverty, 1950-1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the following questions: (1) women's risk of poverty relative to men's; (2) the sources of sex differences in poverty; and (3) the correlation between changes in the sex/poverty ratio and changes in family structure. Confirms the feminization of poverty over time and suggests measures to reduce poverty for women and their children.…

McLanahan, Sara S.; And Others

1989-01-01

399

Chronic Poverty in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method of measuring chronic and transitory poverty using an axiomatically sound, additively decomposable index of aggregate poverty. Our approach is contrasted with alternative methods of measuring poverty persistence. We use our method to measure chronic and transitory poverty in the United States during the 1980s and late 1970s and find that chronic poverty is a more

Joan R. Rodgers; John L. Rodgers

1993-01-01

400

Factors Influencing Students to Enroll in Health Information Management Programs  

PubMed Central

This nonexperimental quantitative descriptive-correlative research study was performed to describe the sources with the greatest influence on the participants’ decision to enroll in a postsecondary educational program with the intent of working toward a career in health information management. Participants were asked, “Which sources have the greatest influence on an individual's decision to enroll in a postsecondary educational program with the intent of working toward a career in health information management (HIM)?” The study population was composed of matriculated students enrolled in accredited postsecondary schools offering an undergraduate medical billing and coding program at a brick-and-mortar campus in a two-county area of a South Atlantic state. The study found that an environmental source, specifically career job opportunities, was statistically significant as the greatest source of influence for these participants. This research aims to support efforts to provide the health information management subsector of the healthcare industry with a sufficient number of trained professionals to fill the identified need for trained HIM professionals, particularly medical coding specialists. PMID:22783152

Safian, Shelley C.

2012-01-01

401

Factors influencing students to enroll in health information management programs.  

PubMed

This nonexperimental quantitative descriptive-correlative research study was performed to describe the sources with the greatest influence on the participants' decision to enroll in a postsecondary educational program with the intent of working toward a career in health information management. Participants were asked, "Which sources have the greatest influence on an individual's decision to enroll in a postsecondary educational program with the intent of working toward a career in health information management (HIM)?" The study population was composed of matriculated students enrolled in accredited postsecondary schools offering an undergraduate medical billing and coding program at a brick-and-mortar campus in a two-county area of a South Atlantic state. The study found that an environmental source, specifically career job opportunities, was statistically significant as the greatest source of influence for these participants. This research aims to support efforts to provide the health information management subsector of the healthcare industry with a sufficient number of trained professionals to fill the identified need for trained HIM professionals, particularly medical coding specialists. PMID:22783152

Safian, Shelley C

2012-01-01

402

IVHM Framework for Intelligent Integration for Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, this framework integrates technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear that IIVM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives. These systems include the following: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle Mission Planning, Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations.

Paris, Deidre; Trevino, Luis C.; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

403

Submitted to the International Journal of Health Planning and Management, June 2011 Mental Health in France, Policies and Actors  

E-print Network

1 Submitted to the International Journal of Health Planning and Management, June 2011 Mental Health) ; Nicolas Daumerie (CCOMS, Lille) ; Jean-Luc Roelandt (CCOMS, Lille) SUMMARY : The new mental health care the 2000s: the emphasis is shifting from psychiatry to mental health care. This shift focuses mainly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

Growth, poverty and chronic poverty in rural Ethiopia: Evidence from 15 Communities 1994-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines growth, poverty and chronic poverty in 15 Ethiopian villages between 1994 and 2004. Growth and poverty reduction in these communities was substantial; headcount poverty fell from 48 to 35 percent. However, there is also movement in and out of poverty over this period and a significant proportion of the sample was chronically poor. Chronic poverty is associated

S. Dercon; J. Hoddinott; T. Woldehanna

2008-01-01

405

Regional analysis of functions and demographics of health information managers.  

PubMed

Based on the findings of this study, HIM professionals' tasks or functions tend to vary across regions and in relation to levels of experience. As experience increased for RRAs, the task performed by them tended to be more management related. All other HIM professionals performed tasks that were more related to data collection than management. The most frequent title for the RRA (Director/manager/chief of medical records or HIM) was also more related to management activities while the title for the ART (Coder) was directly related to data collection. The majority of all HIM professionals work in acute care with approximately 3-8 percent working in long term care, ambulatory care, mental health care, and other healthcare settings such as software companies or health departments. The two most important predictors of salary across all regions were years of experience and educational level. When experience and education were controlled for, there was a slight salary advantage for males in the Midwest and West regions. PMID:10163162

Watzlaf, V J; Rudman, W; Abdelhak, M; Anania-Firouzan, P; Rubinstein, E

1996-01-01

406

Managing corporate governance risks in a nonprofit health care organization.  

PubMed

Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves. PMID:20200865

Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J

2005-01-01

407

Management of Frontotemporal Dementia in Mental Health and Multidisciplinary Settings  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in the mental health setting and issues pertaining to longitudinal care of this population in a specialty clinic are reviewed. FTD is often misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder, most commonly as a mood disorder. FTD has features that overlap with those of major depression, mania, obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. We describe these features and how to differentiate FTD from these psychiatric disorders. This paper also describes practical issues in the management of FTD, specifically the issues that clinicians, patients and their families face in managing this disease. Areas of clinical care along the continuum are explored; FTD care involves collaborative management of symptoms and disability, and assisting patients and families in adapting to the disease. PMID:23611352

Wylie, Mary Anne; Shnall, Adriana; Onyike, Chiadi U.; Huey, Edward D.

2014-01-01

408

European Anti Poverty Network (EAPN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

European Anti Poverty Network was created in 1989 "to put the fight against poverty and social exclusion on the political agenda of the European Union." The Network consists of 25 European organizations that work to alleviate poverty and 15 national networks that fight poverty specifically inside the EU. EAPN offers a nice collection of position papers and reports analyzing the ongoings of the European Union, its member countries and their policies, as well as news releases and news flashes. The site gives general information about the EAPN including its mission, members, and activities, as well as providing a tightly organized set of links.

409

The importance of human resources management in health care: a global context  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper addresses the health care system from a global perspective and the importance of human resources management (HRM) in improving overall patient health outcomes and delivery of health care services. METHODS: We explored the published literature and collected data through secondary sources. RESULTS: Various key success factors emerge that clearly affect health care practices and human resources management.

Stefane M. Kabene; Carole Orchard; John M. Howard; Mark A. Soriano; Raymond Leduc

2006-01-01

410

Poverty and language development: roles of parenting and stress.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic status affects a variety of mental and physical health outcomes, such as language development. Indeed, with poverty, disparities in the development of language processing are arguably among the most consistently found- with decreases in vocabulary, phonological awareness, and syntax at many different developmental stages. In this review, after considering basic brain systems affected by low socioeconomic status that are important for language development and related peripartum issues, we focus on two theoretical models that link poverty with the brain systems affected in language problems. The family stress model connects poverty with parental emotional distress that affects parenting, whereas the parental investment model involves a focus on basic needs that affects children's language. Understanding the mechanisms through which poverty affects the brain, parenting behaviors and language development may have implications for identification and treatment of individuals as well as social policy. PMID:23696954

Perkins, Suzanne C; Finegood, Eric D; Swain, James E

2013-04-01

411

Poverty and Language Development: Roles of Parenting and Stress  

PubMed Central

Socioeconomic status affects a variety of mental and physical health outcomes, such as language development. Indeed, with poverty, disparities in the development of language processing are arguably among the most consistently found— with decreases in vocabulary, phonological awareness, and syntax at many different developmental stages. In this review, after considering basic brain systems affected by low socioeconomic status that are important for language development and related peripartum issues, we focus on two theoretical models that link poverty with the brain systems affected in language problems. The family stress model connects poverty with parental emotional distress that affects parenting, whereas the parental investment model involves a focus on basic needs that affects children’s language. Understanding the mechanisms through which poverty affects the brain, parenting behaviors and language development may have implications for identification and treatment of individuals as well as social policy. PMID:23696954

Perkins, Suzanne C.; Finegood, Eric D.

2013-01-01

412

Health information management using optical storage technology: case studies.  

PubMed

All the health care facilities examined in the case studies addressed several important organizational issues before and during the installation of their systems. All the facilities examined employee commitment. The prudent managers considered how easily their employees adapt to changes in their jobs and work environment. They considered how enthusiastic cooperation can be fostered in the creation of a liberated and reengineered office. This was determined not only by each individual's reaction to change, but also by the health care facility's track record with other system installations. For example, document image, diagnostic image, and coded data processing systems allow the integration of divergent health care information systems within complex institutions. Unfortunately, many institutions are currently struggling with how to create an information management architecture that will integrate their mature systems, such as their patient care and financial systems. Information managers must realize that if optical storage technology-based systems are used in a strategic and planned fashion, these systems can act as focal points for systems integration, not as promises to further confuse the issue. Another issue that needed attention in all the examples was the work environment. The managers considered how the work environment was going to affect the ability to integrate optical image and data systems into the institution. For example, many of these medical centers have created alliances with clinics, HMOs, and large corporate users of medical services. This created a demand for all or part of the health information outside the confines of the original institution. Since the work environment is composed of a handful of factors such as merged medical services, as many work environment factors as possible were addressed before application of the optical storage technology solution in the institutions. And finally, the third critical issue was the organization of work. "Organizations that understand their business processes are having no trouble whatsoever justifying the cost of optical storage-based information management systems," said Thornton May, director of imaging research at Nolan Norton Institute. "It is only confusing to organizations that do not have a feel for what is happening in the flow of work in the company. If an organization has on-line performance measurements with regard to time, cost, quality, error rates, and customer service, the move to optical image and data management technology is a no-brainer."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:10119028

Kohn, D

1992-05-01

413

Racism, Poverty and HIV\\/AIDS Among African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Substantive evidence links racism and poverty to a host of chronic health ­conditions, adverse mental health outcomes and\\u000a excess mortality, particularly among African Americans (Brondolo, ver Halen, Pencille, Beatty, & Contrada, 2009; Harrell, Hall, & Taliaferro, 2003; Jones, 2000, 2003; Krieger, 2000, 2005; Krieger, Rowley, Hermann, Avery, & Phillips, 1993; Kwate, Valdimarsdottir, Guevarra, & Vovbjerg, 2003; Mays, Cochran, & Barnes,

Kim M. Williams; Cynthia M. Prather

414

Attitudes toward Poverty of Upper Midwestern Baccalaureate Nursing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poverty is widespread and its consequence of poorer health increases the likelihood that nurses will provide care for poor clients and their families in many health care settings. Although the importance of understanding attitudes toward the poor is recognized, there have been few studies of attitudes of nursing students. The purpose of this…

Randall, Rebecca

2009-01-01

415

Examining the Role of Anxiety and Apathy in Health Consumers' Intentions to Use Patient Health Portals for Personal Health Information Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated college students' attitudes toward and intentions to use personal health portals (PHPs) for managing their personal health information using a survey method. The study also aimed to examine the roles electronic Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) anxiety and apathy play in influencing students' attitudes toward…

Torres, Carlos A.

2011-01-01

416

Developing health informatics as a recognised professional domain supporting clinical and health management activity.  

PubMed

This paper puts forward a case for use of the term "health informatics" to be deployed as a catalyst to collective recognition of the contribution that technology, information handling and decision support can provide to effective health care internationally. It cautions against disregarding the impact that the collective 'health informatics' may have on cohesion and recognition across the specialist clinical areas, management sectors and diverse professions involved in specialist areas. It also recognises that commonality of standards and consistency of protocols can be identified in many of the technical and clinical specialist areas, confirming the basis for a collective term. Having looked at potentially generic factors in the development of both a learned society and professional regulation body in the UK, the paper concludes that without recognition of the collective term "health informatics" there will be an grossy extended time frame before any of those working in this area gain the recognition and respect of a formal discipline. PMID:17396757

Roberts, Jean

2006-01-01

417

Educational Poverty in a Comparative Perspective  

E-print Network

Educational Poverty in a Comparative Perspective: Theoretical and Empirical Implications SFB 882 Ferger Educational Poverty in a Comparative Perspective: Theoretical and Empirical Implications SFB 882 and Education: An International Comparison of Educational Poverty" This project studies the determinants

Moeller, Ralf

418

24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597.103 Housing...DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance...

2011-04-01

419

24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597.103 Housing...DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance...

2013-04-01

420

24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597.103 Housing...DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance...

2012-04-01

421

24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597.103 Housing...DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance...

2010-04-01

422

24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.  

...3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597.103 Housing...DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance...

2014-04-01

423

Health Management Information System in Leprosy Control Programme.  

PubMed

Health Management Information System was introduced methodically and enforced with ruthless punctuality in Maharashtra State from April 1981. It has paid excellent dividends so far as the implementation of the National Leprosy Control Programme is concerned. Key indicators have been fixed for new case detection, bacteriological examination, regularity of treatment and screening of old patients for activity status. Monitoring of these activities is done regularly and a feed back is provided. Marks are assigned for each kidney indicator and ranking is done based on the achievement of targets by each district, Municipal Corporation, Health Circle etc., every month. The same procedure is adopted at Primary Health Centre and even lower level. This has introduced a spirit of competition and generated a desire to better one's own performance by identifying and removing deficiencies. Maximum assistance is being derived from the Primary Health Care and use is being made of Multi Purpose Workers, Community Health Volunteers and other anciliary agencies in case finding and case holding programmes. The improvement in performance in respect of all key indicators during 1981-82 has been between 40 and 60 percent over the performance during 1980-81. PMID:6384383

Yellapurkar, M V

1984-01-01

424

‘Housing Poverty’ and Income Poverty in England and The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether the distributional consequences of contrasting welfare systems are enhanced, replicated or countered by housing systems in England and the Netherlands. It adopts the monetised concepts of ‘net housing income’ and ‘net housing resources’, which are commensurable with disposable income and income-based measures of poverty. It was found that both housing systems exert a poverty-reducing impact compared

Mark Stephens; Guido van Steen

2011-01-01

425

The Literature of Poverty, the Poverty of Literature Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author focuses on the possibilities--and the limits--of undergraduate courses on the literature of poverty. He describes an undergraduate course he has taught on U.S. literature about poverty, but he also expresses doubt that such courses can help produce major social change. He argues that something about the literature of…

Marsh, John

2011-01-01

426

Poverty Among Working Families: Findings From Experimental Poverty Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the US Census Bureau explores poverty among working families. The report uses experimental measures based on recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences Panel of Poverty and Family Assistance, including the following elements: noncash government benefits, job-related expenses, child care costs, social security taxes, and out-of-pocket medical expenses.

427

Health economics of weight management: evidence and cost.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization estimates that around one billion people throughout the world are overweight and that over 300 million of these are obese and if current trends continue, the number of overweight persons will increase to 1.5 billion by 2015. The number of obese adults in Australia is estimated to have risen from 2.0 million in 1992/93 to 3.1 million in 2005. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing due to a convergence of factors--the rise of TV viewing, our preference for takeaway and pre-prepared foods, the trend towards more computer-bound sedentary jobs, and fewer opportunities for sport and physical exercise. Obesity is not only linked to lack of self esteem, social and work discrimination, but also to illnesses such as the metabolic syndrome and hyperinsulinaemia (which increases the risk of developing heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, fatty liver), cancer, asthma, dementia, arthritis and kidney disease. It has been estimated that the cost of obesity in Australia in 2005 was $1,721 million. Of this amount, $1,084 million were direct health costs, and $637 million indirect health costs (due to lost work productivity, absenteeism and unemployment). The prevalence cost per year for each obese adult has been estimated at $554 and the value of an obesity cure is about $6,903 per obese person. Government efforts at reducing the burden remain inadequate and a more radical approach is needed. The Australian government, for example, has made changes to Medicare so that GPs can refer people with chronic illness due to obesity to an exercise physiologist and dietitian and receive a Medicare rebate, but so far these measures are having no perceptible effect on obesity levels. There is a growing recognition that both Public Health and Clinical approaches, and Private and Public resources, need to be brought to this growing problem. Australian health economist, Paul Gross, from the Institute of Health Economics and Technology Assessment claims there is too much reliance on health workers to treat the problem, especially doctors, who have not been given additional resources to manage obesity outside a typical doctor's consultation. Gross has recommended that further changes should be made to Medicare, private health insurance, and workplace and tax legislation to give people financial incentives to change their behaviour because obesity should not just be treated by governments as a public health problem but also as a barrier to productivity and a drain on resources. A Special Report of the WMCACA (Weight Management Code Administration Council of Australia) (www.weightcouncil.org) on the "Health Economics of Weight Management" has been published in the Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition in September 2006. This report explores the cost benefit analysis of weight management in greater detail. PMID:17392129

Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Wahlqvist, Mark L

2007-01-01

428

Personal health information management system and its application in referral management.  

PubMed

We developed a web-based personal health record (PHR) that can be used by patients to collect and manage their health information (e.g., medical history, past surgeries, medications, and allergies), to request self-referrals, and to store a record of their consultations. The PHR also includes a messaging system that can be structured into the workflow of referral management as well as allowing more general communications. A preliminary study was conducted with 61 patients. Thirty-two patients completed a survey in which 85% of respondents were satisfied with the usability and 94% were satisfied with the overall online referral process. The consulting physicians were satisfied with the content of subjects' personal health information and referral problem descriptions and found the information detailed enough to triage all requested referrals. Patients, physicians, and patient care coordinators reported that their communications were enhanced by the system and found the messaging component convenient to use. PMID:15484434

Wang, Maisie; Lau, Christopher; Matsen, Frederick A; Kim, Yongmin

2004-09-01

429

Rethinking health: ICT-enabled services to empower people to manage their health.  

PubMed

Lifestyle is a key determinant in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. If we would exercise regularly, eat healthy, control our weight, sleep enough, manage stress, not smoke and use alcohol only moderately, 90% of type II diabetes, 80% of coronary heart disease, and 70% of stroke could be prevented. Health statistics show that lifestyle related diseases are increasing at an alarming rate. Public health promotion campaigns and healthcare together are not effective enough to stop this "tsunami". The solution that is offered is to empower people to manage their health with the assistance of ICT-enabled services. A lot of R&D and engineering effort is being invested in Personal Health Systems. Although some progress has been made, the market for such systems has not yet emerged. The aim of this critical review is to identify the barriers which are holding back the growth of the market. It looks into the theoretical foundations of behavior change support, the maturity of the technologies for behavior change support, and the business context in which behavior change support systems are used. PMID:22273795

Honka, Anita; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Hietala, Henri; Saranummi, Niilo

2011-01-01

430

Agricultural Pesticide Management in Thailand: Situation and Population Health Risk.  

PubMed

As an agricultural country and one of the world's major food exporters, Thailand relies heavily on the use of pesticides to protect crops and increase yields. During the past decade, the Kingdom of Thailand has experienced an approximate four-fold increase in pesticide use. This increase presents a challenge for the Royal Thai Government in effectively managing and controlling pesticide use based upon the current policies and legal infrastructure. We have reviewed several key components for managing agricultural pesticides in Thailand. One of the main obstacles to effective pesticide regulation in Thailand is the lack of a consolidated, uniform system designed specifically for pesticide management. This deficit has weakened the enforcement of existing regulations, resulting in misuse/overuse of pesticides, and consequently, increased environmental contamination and human exposure. This article provides a systematic review of how agricultural pesticides are regulated in Thailand. In addition, we provide our perspectives on the current state of pesticide management, the potential health effects of widespread, largely uncontrolled use of pesticides on the Thai people and ways to improve pesticide management in Thailand. PMID:22308095

Panuwet, Parinya; Siriwong, Wattasit; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Ryan, P Barry; Fiedler, Nancy; Robson, Mark G; Barr, Dana Boyd

2012-03-01

431

Poverty and Young Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise was developed for use in a general sociology course. Students will hypothesize about relationships between race, education, geographic area, and poverty and analyze data sets to determine draw conclusions about variable relationships. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 1990 Census and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Morris, Joan

432

Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery chemistries have been studied in detail in literature, an accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm has eluded us. Current reliability-based techniques are insufficient to manage the use of such batteries when they are an active power source with frequently varying loads in uncertain environments. The amount of usable charge of a battery for a given discharge profile is not only dependent on the starting state-of-charge (SOC), but also other factors like battery health and the discharge or load profile imposed. This paper presents a Particle Filter (PF) based BHM framework with plug-and-play modules for battery models and uncertainty management. The batteries are modeled at three different levels of granularity with associated uncertainty distributions, encoding the basic electrochemical processes of a Lithium-polymer battery. The effects of different choices in the model design space are explored in the context of prediction performance in an electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application with emulated flight profiles.

Saha, Bhaskar; Quach, Cuong Chi; Goebel, Kai Frank

2011-01-01

433

Technology management: case study of an integrated health system.  

PubMed

Technology management has assumed a role of vital importance in today's health care environment. Capital reserves and operating income have been stretched by pervasive and expensive technologies, while overall reimbursement has been reduced. It is imperative for hospitals to develop and consistently use technology management processes that begin prior to a technology's introduction in the hospital and continue throughout its life cycle. At Samaritan Health System (SHS), an integrated health care delivery system based in Phoenix, technology management provides tools to improve decision making and assist in the system's integration strategy as well as control expenses. SHS uses a systemwide technology-specific plan to guide acquisition and/or funding decisions. This plan describes how particular technologies can help achieve SHS' organizational goals such as promoting system integration and/or improving patient outcomes while providing good economic value. After technologies are targeted in this systemwide plan they are prioritized using a two-stage capital prioritization process. The first stage of the capital prioritization process considers the quantitative and qualitative factors critical for equitable capital distribution across the system. The second stage develops a sense of ownership among the parties that affect and are affected by the allocation at a facility level. This process promotes an efficient, effective, equitable, and defensible approach to resource allocation and technology decision making. Minimizing equipment maintenance expenditures is also an integral part of technology management at SHS. The keys to reducing maintenance expenditures are having a process in place that supports a routine fiscal evaluation of maintenance coverage options and ensuring that manufacturers are obligated to provide critical maintenance resources at the time of equipment purchase. Maintenance service options under consideration in this report include full-service contracts with the manufacturer, insurance coverage, time and materials, and independent service vendors/in-house support. Careful consideration of all the ramifications of each option is warranted because there are substantial cost differences among these methods. At SHS, technology management efforts resulted in equipment purchases and maintenance negotiations representing savings of more than $1.5 million in a single year. SHS undertakes an intensive review of purchases and maintenance expenditures, using the techniques described in this report, with the objective of reducing expenses by 10% per year. This report describes the technology management methods that SHS uses to achieve these results. PMID:10139509

Dahl, D H; McFarlan, T K

1994-12-01

434

The World Bank and poverty.  

PubMed

During the 1970s it was World Bank policy to use its funds to raise the productivity and living standards of the poor. It has increased its lending for sector and subsectors considered to offer the most direct benefits to the poor such as rural development, population, health, and nutrition. Projects with particular emphasis on poverty have benefitted large numbers of poor people and have had good economic rates of return. Lending for rural projects increased in the 1970s from US$2.6 billion in 1969-73 to over US$13 billion in 1978-81; rural development projects audited in 1979 benfitted 660 small farmers for every US$1 million loaned compared with 47 farmers/US$1 million in other agricultural projects. Some problems are: 1) low-risk technical packages appropriate for poor farmers in semi-arid rainfed areas are not readily available; 2) the Bank's rural development strategy seeks mainly to raise the production of small farms, but other aspects need to be emphasized; 3) domestic pricing and postharvest policies often undermine the success of projects aimed at the rural poor; and 4) success in rural development often rests on sociological and cultural factors, difficult areas that deserve more attention. For urban areas the Bank has strongly endorsed providing "sites and sources" instead of structures; since 1972, 52 Bank projects centered on urban shelter involving US$1.6 billion have been undertaken. Cost recovery is established at 66-95%. About 5% of Bank lending is for education and despite the importance of population, health, and nutrition, these areas absorb less than 1% of the Bank's total lending program. Only US$400 million in population loans were made to 13 countries in the 1970s and only recently have separate health projects been started. Emphasis for the 1980s must be on rural development, urban shelter, primary education, health, education, and population. PMID:12338639

Lipton, M; Shakow, A

1982-06-01

435

Trade Liberalization And Poverty Dynamics  

E-print Network

Trade Liberalization And Poverty Dynamics in Vietnam 2002-2006 Barbara COELLO World Bank Madior FALL Afristat Paris School of Economics INRA Akiko SUWA-EISEMANN Paris School of Economics INRA June-28Mar2014 #12;1 Trade liberalization and poverty dynamics in Vietnam 2002-2006 Barbara Coello, the World

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

436

The Dynamics of Childhood Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews child poverty in the United States. Child poverty rates have been high since the 1970s, and it is expected that one-third of all children will be poor at some time. African American and Latino children and children in mother-only families are disproportionately poor. Both family structure and the labor market are implicated in child…

Corcoran, Mary E.; Chaudry, Ajay

1997-01-01

437

URBAN POVERTY IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the urban\\/rural dimension of poverty in developed countries. We provide original estimates for Italy, we gather published statistics for France and the United States, and we produce novel cross-country estimates from the LIS database. We show that the size of urban poverty depends on where the boundaries of metropolitan districts are drawn and we observe

Andrea Brandolini; Piero Cipollone

438

Topics at a Glance: Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of polls on public opinion regarding poverty and appropriate responses. Shows a (perhaps naive) confidence that hard work will lead to prosperity, as well as somewhat ambiguous views on appropriate government responses to poverty (for instance increased aid to the poor enjoys overwhelming support while increased "welfare" is widely opposed.

Connecticut, Roper C.

439

China's (uneven) progress against poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the incidence of extreme poverty fell dramatically in China over 1980–2001, progress was uneven over time and across provinces. Rural areas accounted for the bulk of the gains to the poor, though migration to urban areas helped. Rural economic growth was far more important to national poverty reduction than urban economic growth; agriculture played a far more important role

Martin Ravallion; Shaohua Chen

2007-01-01

440

The Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many authors have insisted on the necessity of defining poverty as a multidimensional concept rather than relying on income or consumption expenditures per capita. Yet, not much has actually been done to include the various dimensions of deprivation into the practical definition and measurement of poverty. Existing attempts along that direction consist of aggregating various attributes into a single index

François Bourguignon; SATYA R. CHAKRAVARTY

2003-01-01

441

College of Public Health & Health Professions Department of Health Services Research, Management and Policy  

E-print Network

Cynthia M. Toth, MBA, MHA Work: Independent HealthCare Consultant 6939 SW 107th Avenue Gainesville, FL effectively as a personally accountable member of a professional work team. UF ­ MHA Targeted Competencies 1

Kane, Andrew S.

442

Master's Degree in Agriculture Plant Health Management Option Option Title: Master of Science (MS) in Agriculture: Plant Health  

E-print Network

Master's Degree in Agriculture ­ Plant Health Management Option Option Title: Master of Science (MS) in Agriculture: Plant Health Management Department(s) or Program(s): Supported of Agricultural, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences (CAHNRS) Contact Name: Dr. Kim Kidwell, Director MS

Collins, Gary S.

443

Poverty in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to a quantitative analysis that involves univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis, this module reinforces research terms introduced in Intro to Sociology (independent, dependent and control variables and includes the opportunity to discuss sample vs. population (in the comparison of national poverty data vs. the poverty rate in the sample) and value vs. variable (poverty as a value and a variable and the recoding of the values in the household data). The module also uses the Census website to define the concept "poverty threshold" and look at trends in poverty. Together this reinforces basic components of social science research and analysis in preparation for upper-level classes, including research methods and statistics.

Spade, Joan

2009-05-04

444

Demographics, management and health of donkeys in the UK.  

PubMed

In this paper, the management and health problems of donkeys on loan to independent carers from The Donkey Sanctuary are characterised, and the demographics of the UK's donkey population are described using data from a variety of sources. All carers that fostered a donkey from The Donkey Sanctuary between September 2004 and August 2005 (1432 donkeys) were surveyed using a postal questionnaire requesting information about the donkey, its premises, daily care, health and preventive medicine. The response rate was 77.8 percent. The mean (sd) age of the donkeys was 20.8 (7.4) years. The majority (92 percent) of the donkeys were kept as pets. Approximately one-third (33.6 percent) of the donkeys were overweight. The most common medical problems were hoof, dermal and oral problems. A total of 86 percent of the donkeys had a dental examination at least every 12 months, and at least 45 percent had at least one dental problem. PMID:20435979

Cox, R; Burden, F; Proudman, C J; Trawford, A F; Pinchbeck, G L

2010-05-01

445

"Sleep disparity" in the population: poor sleep quality is strongly associated with poverty and ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the social determinants of sleep attainment. This study examines the relationship of race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and other factors upon sleep quality. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 9,714 randomly selected subjects was used to explore sleep quality obtained by self-report, in relation to socioeconomic factors including poverty, employment status, and education level. The primary outcome was poor sleep quality. Data were collected by the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation. Results Significant differences were observed in the outcome for race/ethnicity (African-American and Latino versus White: unadjusted OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.24-2.05 and OR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.37-1.98, respectively) and income (below poverty threshold, unadjusted OR = 2.84, 95%CI 2.41-3.35). In multivariable modeling, health indicators significantly influenced sleep quality most prominently in poor individuals. After adjusting for socioeconomic factors (education, employment) and health indicators, the association of income and poor sleep quality diminished, but still persisted in poor Whites while it was no longer significant in poor African-Americans (adjusted OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.47-2.58 versus OR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.87-1.54, respectively). Post-college education (adjusted OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.31-0.71) protected against poor sleep. Conclusions A "sleep disparity" exists in the study population: poor sleep quality is strongly associated with poverty and race. Factors such as employment, education and health status, amongst others, significantly mediated this effect only in poor subjects, suggesting a differential vulnerability to these factors in poor relative to non-poor individuals in the context of sleep quality. Consideration of this could help optimize targeted interventions in certain groups and subsequently reduce the adverse societal effects of poor sleep. PMID:20701789

2010-01-01

446

Integrated System Health Management: Foundational Concepts, Approach, and Implementation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive to an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. We present concepts, procedures, and a specific approach as a foundation for implementing a credible ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. The intent is also to make possible implementation of on-board ISHM capability, in contrast to a remote capability. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems (rocket engine test facilities). The paper will address the following topics: 1. ISHM Model of a system 2. Detection of anomaly indicators. 3. Determination and confirmation of anomalies. 4. Diagnostic of causes and determination of effects. 5. Consistency checking cycle. 6. Management of health information 7. User Interfaces 8. Example implementation ISHM has been defined from many perspectives. We define it as a capability that might be achieved by various approaches. We describe a specific approach that has been matured throughout many years of development, and pilot implementations. ISHM is a capability that is achieved by integrating data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) that might be distributed throughout the system elements (which inherently implies capability to manage DIaK associated with distributed sub-systems). DIaK must be available to any element of a system at the right time and in accordance with a meaningful context. ISHM Functional Capability Level (FCL) is measured by how well a system performs the following functions: (1) detect anomalies, (2) diagnose causes, (3) predict future anomalies/failures, and (4) provide the user with an integrated awareness about the condition of every element in the system and guide user decisions.

Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John; Walker, Mark; Venkatesh, Meera; Kapadia, Ravi; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Smith, Harvey

2009-01-01

447

Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) Site-Specific Health and Safety Plan, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) policy is to provide a safe and healthy workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The implementation of this policy requires that operations of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF), located one-half mile west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex, be guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to environment, safety and health (ES&H) issues. The BJC governing document for worker safety and health, BJC/OR-1745, 'Worker Safety and Health Program', describes the key elements of the BJC Safety and Industrial Hygiene (IH) programs, which includes the requirement for development and implementation of a site-specific Health and Safety Plan (HASP) where required by regulation (refer also to BJC-EH-1012, 'Development and Approval of Safety and Health Plans'). BJC/OR-1745, 'Worker Safety and Health Program', implements the requirements for worker protection contained in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 851. The EMWMF site-specific HASP requirements identifies safe operating procedures, work controls, personal protective equipment, roles and responsibilities, potential site hazards and control measures, site access requirements, frequency and types of monitoring, site work areas, decontamination procedures, and outlines emergency response actions. This HASP will be available on site for use by all workers, management and supervisors, oversight personnel and visitors. All EMWMF assigned personnel will be briefed on the contents of this HASP and will be required to follow the procedures and protocols as specified. The policies and procedures referenced in this HASP apply to all EMWMF operations activities. In addition the HASP establishes ES&H criteria for the day-to-day activities to prevent or minimize any adverse effect on the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable waste management practices. The HASP is written to make use of past experience and best management practices to eliminate or minimize hazards to workers or the environment from events such as fires, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release to the environment.

Flynn, N.C. Bechtel Jacobs

2008-04-21

448

Marginal returns: re?thinking mobility and educational benefit in contexts of chronic poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of chronic poverty many people in South Asia experience poor quality schooling, interrupted schooling, or no schooling at all. People affected by poverty face multiple constraints on wellbeing, which typically include informal employment, low wages and poor health. In such contexts the benefits and, more specifically, the ‘returns’ to education are not easily observed. Standard measures of

Bryan Maddox

2010-01-01