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1

The Poverty of Information Systems Management in Home Health Agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home health agencies are increasingly being challenged to cope with economic, financial and clinical pressures. This study examines the extent to which home health agencies have cultivated their information systems as an aid for managing performance and external forces. Colorado and New Mexico home health agencies participated in the research project. The findings indicate that only modest investments have been

Howard L. Smith; Richard Discenza

2000-01-01

2

[Globalization, poverty and health].  

PubMed

This paper analyses the relationship between globalization, poverty and health, defining and presenting the main characteristics of contemporary globalization. It also establishes the characteristics of poverty today, both globally and regionally. Reviewing articles and world reports, it presents a set of evidence on the relationships between globalization and poverty, as well as their influence on health. Furthermore, it presents the opportunities offered by globalization, through a series of worldwide initiatives prompted by actions among countries under the aegis of the United Nations in general and the WHO in particular, in addition to intergovernmental alliances and coalitions and other civil society representatives. PMID:18813494

Buss, Paulo Marchiori

2007-01-01

3

Social evils, poverty & health.  

PubMed

There is a close association between social circumstances and health. In India, there is a significant burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases. Risk factors responsible for these conditions are underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene, indoor smoke pollution, zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiency, tobacco use, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. All these risk factors are influenced by social factors and in India the more important factors are poverty and illiteracy. Changing lifestyles as a result of rising incomes are significant risk factors for non communicable diseases. The social evils that influence poverty and health are macrolevel national and regional issues such as physical geography, governance patterns and failures, geopolitics, economic policy, natural resources decline, population growth, the demographic trap and the fiscal trap. Household and microlevel factors include the poverty trap, cultural barriers, lack of innovation and saving, absence of trade or business, unemployment, technological reversal, adverse productivity shock, social issues related to females, and adolescent social issues. Social determinants important for non communicable diseases, defined by the World Health Organization include the social gradient, stress, early life events, social exclusion, improper work conditions, unemployment, lack of social support, addiction, food scarcity or excess and uneven distribution, lack of proper transport, and illiteracy or low educational status. There are multiple pathways through which social factors influence health, and pathophysiological mechanisms involve homeostatic and allostatic changes in response to stress, neuroendocrine changes and altered autonomic functions, and abnormal inflammatory and immune responses. A concerted action to eradicate these social evils shall have to focus on reducing poverty, improving educational status and providing equitable and accessible healthcare to all. PMID:18032803

Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Praneet

2007-10-01

4

The Poverty of Information Systems Management in Home Health Agencies: Implications for Survivability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home health agencies are increasingly being challenged to cope with economic, financial and clinical pressures. This study examines the extent to which home health agencies have cultivated their information systems as an aid for managing performance and external forces. Colorado and New Mexico home health agencies participated in the research project. The findings indicate that only modest investments have been

Howard L. Smith; Richard Discenza

2000-01-01

5

Consumption, health, gender and poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard methods of poverty measurement assume that an individual is poor if he or she lives in a family whose income or consumption lies below an appropriate poverty line. Such methods can provide only limited insight into male and female poverty separately. Nevertheless, there are reasons why household resources are linked to the gender composition of the household; women’s earnings

Anne Case; Angus Deaton

2002-01-01

6

Consumption, Health, Gender, and Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard methods of measuring poverty assume that an individual is poor if he or she lives in a family whose income or consumption lies below an appropriate poverty line. Such methods provide only limited insight into male and female poverty separately. Nevertheless, there are reasons why household resources are linked to the gender composition of the household: women?s earnings are

Anne Case; angus deaton

2003-01-01

7

Poverty, social exclusion and health in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

People in Portugal have never been so healthy. Nevertheless, there are great differences in health status between social groups and regions. In 1994, Portugal was the country with the second worst level of inequality in terms of income distribution and with the highest level of poverty in the European Union (EU). Poverty in Portugal affects mainly the elderly and women

Paula Santana

2002-01-01

8

Trajectories of poverty and children's mental health.  

PubMed

Using data from three waves of the Children of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth data set (1986, 1988, 1990), we examine the dynamic relationship between children's family histories of poverty and their developmental trajectories of mental health. Children who were poor in 1986 or who had prior histories of poverty had higher levels of depression and antisocial behavior in that year. Furthermore, subsequent poverty histories were also related to children's mental health trajectories. The number of years that children were poor between 1986 and 1990 correlates significantly with changes in children's antisocial behavior during those years. Finally, rates of increase in antisocial behavior were substantially higher for children with histories of persistent poverty during those years than for transiently poor or nonpoor children. These results demonstrate the accelerating behavioral disadvantages faced by persistently poor children. PMID:8898493

Mcleod, J D; Shanahan, M J

1996-09-01

9

Poverty, Tobacco, and Health: An Indian Scenario  

PubMed Central

Poverty and health have a two-way relationship. Poverty increases the vulnerability of people to disease, and sickness affects their income leading to poverty. Tobacco has been identified as a major avoidable cause of illness and premature death. In India, more than half of men and one-tenth of women use one or more forms of tobacco. Tobacco-use shows a clear and continual increase with decreasing wealth quintiles. Poor smokers, who are at a greater risk of illness, are also at a greater risk of not being treated or of falling into greater poverty if they seek treatment. Poor people spend money on tobacco that could be spent on food, shelter, education, and healthcare. These decisions can entrench families in an ongoing cycle of poverty and ill-health. The direct and indirect costs of tobacco-use are immense for national economy. This has positioned control of tobacco relevant in India's per suite to achieve the goals of poverty eradication and health for all.

Gur, A.

2009-01-01

10

Agricultural water management and poverty linkages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is critically important to the livelihoods of more than 1 billion people living on less than $1 a day, particularly for the 850 million rural poor primarily engaged in agriculture. In many developing countries, water is a major factor constraining agricultural output, and income of the world's rural poor. Improved agricultural water management can contribute to poverty reduction through

Regassa E. Namara; Munir A. Hanjra; Gina E. Castillo; Helle Munk Ravnborg; Lawrence Smith; Barbara Van Koppen

2010-01-01

11

Nexus of Poverty, Energy Balance and Health  

PubMed Central

Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years), 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%), having main occupation of family as business (55.3%), and highest per capita income group (57.1%) with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0%) in SC/ST category and least (65.7%) in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd's Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56), not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56), belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh Classification (AOR 3.73, CI 1.22-11.41), with lowest per capita income (AOR 15.14, CI 2.44-94.14) and in age group >80 years (AOR 5.76, CI 1.03-32.39). Of those in negative energy balance, 70.21% rural adolescent girls and 7 out of 10 geriatric subjects (activity based) were victims of CED. Extent of undernutrition and CED in rural reproductive age group females were more in those caste groups where energy deficit was also of higher magnitude. Energy balance must be visualized giving due consideration to the importance of exercise on human health. The evidence thus generated needs to be translated to the masses based on principles of translational research.

Mishra, C. P.

2012-01-01

12

A Poverty Simulation to Inform Public Health Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Poverty is a pervasive condition linked to a myriad of health conditions and severe health outcomes. Public health professionals are at the forefront of addressing poverty-related issues and require education that enhances their understanding and cultural competence. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impacts of…

Strasser, Sheryl; Smith, Megan O.; Pendrick Denney, Danielle; Jackson, Matt C.; Buckmaster, Pam

2013-01-01

13

Mental health and poverty in the inner city.  

PubMed

Rapid urbanization globally threatens to increase the risk to mental health and requires a rethinking of the relationship between urban poverty and mental health. The aim of this article is to reveal the cyclic nature of this relationship: Concentrated urban poverty cultivates mental illness, while the resulting mental illness reinforces poverty. The authors used theories about social disorganization and crime to explore the mechanisms through which the urban environment can contribute to mental health problems. They present some data on crime, substance abuse, and social control to support their claim that mental illness reinforces poverty. The authors argue that, to interrupt this cycle and improve outcomes, social workers and policymakers must work together to implement a comprehensive mental health care system that emphasizes prevention, reaches young people, crosses traditional health care provision boundaries, and involves the entire community to break this cycle and improve the outcomes of those living in urban poverty. PMID:24437020

Anakwenze, Ujunwa; Zuberi, Daniyal

2013-08-01

14

Does poverty reduce mental health? An instrumental variable analysis.  

PubMed

That poverty and mental health are negatively associated in developing countries is well known among epidemiologists. Whether the relationship is causal or associational, however, remains an open question. This paper aims to estimate the causal effect of poverty on mental health by exploiting a natural experiment induced by weather variability across 440 districts in Indonesia (N = 577,548). Precipitation anomaly in two climatological seasons is used as an instrument for poverty status, which is measured using per capita household consumption expenditure. Results of an instrumental variable estimation suggest that poverty causes poor mental health: halving one's consumption expenditure raises the probability of suffering mental illness by 0.06 point; in terms of elasticity, a 1% decrease in consumption brings about 0.62% more symptoms of common mental disorders. This poverty effect is approximately five times stronger than that obtained prior to instrumenting and is robust to alternative distributional assumption, model specification, sample stratification and estimation technique. An individual's mental health is also negatively correlated with district income inequality, suggesting that income distribution may have a significant influence upon mental health over and above the effect of poverty. The findings imply that mental health can be improved not only by influencing individuals' health knowledge and behaviour but also by implementing a more equitable economic policy. PMID:24836844

Hanandita, Wulung; Tampubolon, Gindo

2014-07-01

15

The effects of poverty on children's development and oral health.  

PubMed

According to the US Census Bureau, the poverty rate for children under 18 years of age increased to 22% in 2010. Poverty leads to adverse health outcomes in children and adolescents such as harmful effects on learning, psychosocial development, physical health, productivity and family life. Because the citizens and residents of a country are its most valuable assets, it is unwise to allow housing instability, food insecurity and hunger to continue to exist at its current levels. Reducing poverty is likely to prevent illnesses, decrease hospitalizations, and lead to lower health care costs. There is also a need for intervention strategies to ensure equitable access to healthy foods across the world. Children who are food insecure are more likely to be in poor health and to have poor nutritional outcomes. Poverty may lead to poor dental health due to malnutrition or incorrect diet and it may also have an effect on the child's behavior in the dental office. An understanding of poverty will lessen the anger, frustration and prejudice that pediatric dentists may feel when working with low-income families. This manuscript presents a concise overview of the effects of poverty in children's lives. PMID:22353454

da Fonseca, Marcio A

2012-01-01

16

The Effects of Poverty on Child Health and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty has been shown to negatively influence child health and development along a number of dimensions. For example, poverty-net of a variety of po- tentially confounding factors-is associated with increased neonatal and post- neonatal mortality rates, greater risk of injuries resulting from accidents or phys- ical abuse\\/neglect, higher risk for asthma, and lower developmental scores in a range of tests

J. Lawrence Aber; Neil G. Bennett; Dalton C. Conley; Jiali Li

1997-01-01

17

Poverty and transitions in health in later life.  

PubMed

Using a sample of Europeans aged 50+ from 12 countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we analyse the role of poor material conditions as a determinant of changes in health over a four- to five-year period. We find that poverty defined with respect to relative income has no effect on changes in health. However, broader measures of poor material conditions, such as subjective poverty or low wealth, significantly increase the probability of transition to poor health among the healthy and reduce the chance of recovery from poor health over the time interval analysed. In addition to this, the subjective measure of poverty has a significant effect on mortality, increasing it by 65% among men and by 68% among those aged 50-64. Material conditions affect health among older people. We suggest that if attempts to reduce poverty in later life and corresponding policy targets are to focus on the relevant measures, they should take into account broader definitions of poverty than those based only on relative incomes. PMID:25042393

Adena, Maja; Myck, Michal

2014-09-01

18

Globalization, poverty and women's health: mapping the connections.  

PubMed

Poverty and other forms of inequity undermine individual and population health and retard development. Although absolute poverty has reportedly declined in recent years, research suggests that relative poverty or the gap between the rich and poor within and between countries has been exacerbated over this same period. There is growing concern about the feminization of poverty, and the impact globalization is having on this important social problem. Gender inequality persists in all regions, and women and girls continue to be over-represented among the world's poor. This suggests that women are not consistently benefitting from the economic, political and social gains globalization can offer. Instead, it appears that poor women and girls, particularly those living in developing countries, are disproportionately burdened by the costs of these swift changes to the detriment of their personal health and well-being. Immediate action is needed to correct these disparities and ensure that globalization supports both national and international commitments to poverty reduction, and the, promotion of women's health and human rights. PMID:16512333

Sicchia, Suzanne R; Maclean, Heather

2006-01-01

19

Early-Childhood Poverty and Adult Attainment, Behavior, and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…

Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

2010-01-01

20

Poverty, health and development in dermatology.  

PubMed

The WHO Constitution states that "The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political, economic or social condition." The right to health means that governments must generate conditions in which everyone can be as healthy as possible. Such conditions range from ensuring availability of health services, healthy and safe working conditions, adequate housing and nutritious food. In this report the author analyzes the relationship among health, dermatology and development and tries to find out what the scientific world, including dermatologists, could do for the improvement of health systems. PMID:17958622

Morrone, Aldo

2007-10-01

21

Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity explores the topic of poverty and how income interacts with race/ethnicity and family type in the United States. This activity uses two customized data sets; one made from combining census information from 1970-2000 and one from the 2000 Census. It guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the datasets for the activity, see links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP see instructions here.

Benefo, Kofi

22

Catchment Management Agencies for poverty eradication in South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the changes in water law in South Africa since the new dispensation. The focus is on the poverty dimensions of the early experiences of implementation of one of the components of the National Water Act: the establishment of Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs). From a diversity of recent experiences in decentralizing integrated water resources management, key areas emerge where future actions by the government are crucial to establish pro-poor, developmental CMAs.

Schreiner, Barbara; Van Koppen, Barbara

23

The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.  

PubMed

Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints. PMID:24268002

Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

2013-11-23

24

The Link between Neighborhood Poverty and Health: Context or Composition?  

PubMed Central

Cross-sectional studies of neighborhood context and health are subject to upward bias due to unobserved heterogeneity and to downward bias due to overadjustment for potential mediators in the pathway between neighborhood context and health. In this study, the authors employed two strategies that addressed these two sources of bias. First, to mitigate overadjustment of mediators, they adjusted for baseline characteristics observed just prior to the measurement of neighborhood context, using a combined propensity score and regression strategy. Second, to mitigate underadjustment of unmeasured confounders, they employed a fixed-effects modeling strategy to account for unobserved non-time-varying heterogeneity. Analyses were based on a nationally representative sample of the nonimmigrant US population from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1980–1997) in which respondent-rated health was regressed on neighborhood poverty. The samples consisted of approximately 6,000 respondents for the propensity score/regression models and 45,000 person-years for the fixed-effects models. Both modeling strategies yielded significant estimates of neighborhood poverty and supported a causal link between neighborhood context and health.

Finch, Brian Karl

2008-01-01

25

Health, Education and Poverty Reduction. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 19  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally agreed that spending on education and health is key to poverty reduction, but simply allocating more resources to these sectors does not ensure that poverty actually declines. On the basis of four in-depth case studies (on Indonesia, Madagascar, Peru and Tanzania) and three Technical Papers on malnutrition and primary education in…

Morrisson, Christian

2002-01-01

26

Creating Nurturing Environments: A Science-Based Framework for Promoting Child Health and Development within High-Poverty Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods…

Komro, Kelli A.; Flay, Brian R.; Biglan, Anthony

2011-01-01

27

A Commentary on "Piercing the Bubble": Should Management Education "Confront" Poverty?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary contrasts "Piercing the Bubble" by proposing "pull" (rather than "push") strategies as a way for business schools to more meaningfully engage poverty and social exclusion. By reframing poverty issues in such a manner that they connect with core business student interests of career opportunities, current management practices, and…

Dart, Raymond

2008-01-01

28

Reconnecting with poverty: new challenges of disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – It is clear that poverty can be a key factor to take into consideration at time of potentiating or mitigating the unexpected aftermaths of disasters. In some extent, the degree of vulnerability created by poverty leads scholars to preclude material conditions of life plays a pivotal role in disaster rebuilt. Nonetheless, the present paper aims to explore precisely

Maximiliano E. Korstanje

2011-01-01

29

Children's Health Status: Examining the Associations among Income Poverty, Material Hardship, and Parental Factors  

PubMed Central

Background We examined a model of multiple mediating pathways of income poverty, material hardship, parenting factors, and child health status to understand how material hardship and parental factors mediate the effects of poverty on child health. We hypothesized that: (a) poverty will be directly associated with material hardship, parental depression, and health status, and indirectly with parenting behaviors through its effects on parental depression and material hardship; (b) material hardship will be associated with parental depression, parenting behaviors, and health status; and (c) parental depression will be correlated with parenting behaviors, and that both parental depression and parenting behaviors will predict child health. Methods and Results We used data from the 2002 National Survey of American Families for a sample of 9,645 6-to-11 year-olds to examine a 4-step structural equation model. The baseline model included covariates and income poverty. In the hardship model, food insufficiency and medical need were added to the baseline model. The parental model included parental depression and parenting behavior and baseline model. In the full model, all the constructs were included. First, income poverty had a direct effect on health status, and an indirect effect through its association with material hardship, parental depressive affect, and parenting behaviors. Medical need and food insufficiency had negative effects on child health, and indirect effects on health through their association with parental depression and parenting behaviors. Finally, parental depression and parenting behaviors were associated with child health, and part of the effect of parental depression on health was explained by its association with parenting behaviors. Conclusions Poverty has an independent effect on health, however, its effects are partially explained by material hardship, parental depression and parental behaviors. To improve children's health would require a multi-pronged approach involving income transfers, health insurance coverage, food and nutrition assistance, and parenting interventions.

Ashiabi, Godwin S.; O'Neal, Keri K.

2007-01-01

30

Mutual influences of health and poverty. Evidence from German panel data.  

PubMed

While a large body of literature is concerned with the interplay of health and poverty in developing countries, comparable studies for developed countries are rare. Using data drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), this paper investigates the relationships between changes in relative income poverty, income changes and health-related quality of life in Germany, i.e. in an environment with nominally equal access to medical care, education and social security. A fundamental five-dimensional health concept is introduced and tested for its empirical performance. The background of the causal analysis is formed by two hypotheses, one regarding low income as a possible cause for poor health (prevention hypothesis) and the other assuming the opposite causal direction (deprivation hypothesis). By means of a descriptive analysis and a structural equations model, the existence of a more complex relational web between health and poverty is demonstrated. PMID:9255919

Thiede, M; Traub, S

1997-09-01

31

Global health and local poverty: rich countries' responses to vulnerable populations.  

PubMed

Poverty is an important determinant of ill health, mortality and suffering across the globe. This commentary asks what we can learn about poverty by looking at the way rich countries respond to the needs of vulnerable populations both within their own societies and those of low-income countries. Taking advantage of recent efforts to redefine child poverty in a way that is consistent with the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, three sets of data are reviewed: levels of child well-being within 23 Organization of Economic Community Development countries; the amount of official development assistance these countries disburse to poor countries; and, government social transfers targeted at families as a percentage of GDP. Analysis shows that countries in Northern Europe tend to have lower levels of child poverty, and are the most generous with social transfers and providing development assistance to poor countries; in contrast, the non-European countries like Australia, Canada, Japan, and the United States, and generally, the G7 countries, are the least generous towards the vulnerable at home and abroad and tend to have the highest levels of child poverty. The findings suggest that nations' responses tend to be ideologically based rather than evidence or needs based and that poverty is neither inevitable nor intractable. PMID:19507717

Simms, Chris D; Persaud, D David

2009-01-01

32

Fostering food security in areas of extreme poverty through Integrated Farm Management: the case of Burundi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme poverty in Burundi's rural area and tensions between families with limited access to arable land hinder development towards a more stable and peaceful society. Due to these tensions and a rapid population growth, agricultural land is currently subject to increased degradation and low agricultural productivity. A whole range of other limiting factors contributes to this, such as: poor seed quality, poor nutrient management combined with low soil fertility, inadequate agronomic practices, pests and crop diseases, poorly developed supply chains, health problems, difficult access to credit, and insecurity. Solving one of these problems will not solve the chain that eventually leads to low food production; it will simply move the emphasis to the next constraining factor. An integrated rural development approach is therefore required to break this vicious circle. The project Fanning the Spark, a Public-Private-Partnership between Achmea Foundation, Alterra of Wageningen University and Research Centre, and HealthNet-TPO in Burundi started in September 2013 with an intervention in several rural villages in Gitega. The project's objective is to increase food production at village level, by means of investments in crop production, a family (income) insurance package that protects rural families against the financial consequences of catastrophic events (natural and health) and making micro-credits available. This will enhance farmers' workability and generate income from agricultural activities in order to break the poverty cycle and enhance food security. The insurance package comprises agricultural and health insurances, and will be jointly implemented with the sustainable agriculture component. The latter component focuses on Integrated Farm Management and the use of innovative soil management practices. Farmer-to-farmer training and scaling-up are crucial components, and in the first phase of the project "innovative farmer groups" have a central role in the project. Each innovative farmer formulates and implements an Integrated Farm Management plan. This is a tool for farmers to plan, reflect and learn about sustainable land management, and particularly about the integration of all farm activities and how these contribute together to enhanced food security. Activities considered in these Integrated Farm Management plans are related to agriculture, livestock, infrastructure, agroforestry, soil conservation and training. The first results of the acceptance and impact of the strategy are now available, and in the next phase all innovative farmers will implement their plans and train fellow farmers to start planning their own Integrated Farm Management.

Kessler, Aad; van Duivenbooden, Niek; van Beek, Christy

2014-05-01

33

Piercing the Bubble: How Management Students Can Confront Poverty in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the current relationship between management education in Colombia and the efforts of the management program at Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB) in Medellin to reduce local poverty. The article uses the metaphor of "the bubble" to illustrate how social class, family socialization, and the current UPB management

Rosenbloom, Al; Cortes, Juan Alejandro

2008-01-01

34

Community concepts of poverty: an application to premium exemptions in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme  

PubMed Central

Background Poverty is multi dimensional. Beyond the quantitative and tangible issues related to inadequate income it also has equally important social, more intangible and difficult if not impossible to quantify dimensions. In 2009, we explored these social and relativist dimension of poverty in five communities in the South of Ghana with differing socio economic characteristics to inform the development and implementation of policies and programs to identify and target the poor for premium exemptions under Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme. Methods We employed participatory wealth ranking (PWR) a qualitative tool for the exploration of community concepts, identification and ranking of households into socioeconomic groups. Key informants within the community ranked households into wealth categories after discussing in detail concepts and indicators of poverty. Results Community defined indicators of poverty covered themes related to type of employment, educational attainment of children, food availability, physical appearance, housing conditions, asset ownership, health seeking behavior, social exclusion and marginalization. The poverty indicators discussed shared commonalities but contrasted in the patterns of ranking per community. Conclusion The in-depth nature of the PWR process precludes it from being used for identification of the poor on a large national scale in a program such as the NHIS. However, PWR can provide valuable qualitative input to enrich discussions, development and implementation of policies, programs and tools for large scale interventions and targeting of the poor for social welfare programs such as premium exemption for health care.

2013-01-01

35

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released in August 2005 by the U.S. Census Bureau, this timely 85-page report examines recent changes within the demographic profile of the real median household income of US residents, along with material on the nation's official poverty rate and those persons without health insurance coverage. The data in the report is based on information from 2003 and 2004, and notes that the nation's official poverty rate rose from 12.5 percent in 2003 to 12.7 percent in 2004. The report also notes that the number of persons without health insurance coverage increased by approximately 800,000 to 45.8 million. The report itself is divided into six chapters, and also includes four appendices which details such crucial research questions as how the Bureau measures income and poverty. For persons with a keen interest in this subject (such as policy makers or scholars) this report will be a valued research tool.

2005-01-01

36

Managing and Leveraging Poverty: Implications for Teaching International Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over half of the world's population lives on less than $2 a day, and yet international business education to date has continued to ignore the not so well-off customers. We propose a holistic pedagogical approach to studying this market by considering the historical background of the growth of inequality and poverty in different regions of the…

Roy, Abhijit; Roy, Mousumi

2010-01-01

37

Effectiveness of a Mexican Health Education Program in a Poverty-Stricken Rural Area of Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors discuss the transfer to Guatemala of an integral health education program, originally developed for indigenous women in southern Mexico. The program was implemented with some 400 indigenous women in rural Guatemala living under dire poverty, and was carried out through a closely supervised cascade process in which specially trained local women conducted workshops to their

Iwin Leenen; Martha Givaudan; Susan Pick; Tere Venguer; Judith Vera; Ype H. Poortinga

2008-01-01

38

Poverty, Education and Health in Indonesia: Who Benefits from Public Spending? Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on two important dimensions of Indonesia's development record: education and health. The paper investigates the extent to which the poor benefit from public and private provisioning of these services. Multiple rounds of annual household surveys document a reversal in the rate of decline in poverty and a slowdown in improvements…

Lanjouw, Peter; Pradhan, Menno; Saadah, Fadia; Sayed, Haneen; Sparrow, Robert

39

School-Based Mental Health Services for Children Living in High Poverty Urban Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the effectiveness of a school-based mental health service model, PALS (Positive Attitudes toward Learning in School), focused on increasing initial and ongoing access to services, and promoting improved classroom and home behavior for children referred for Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD) from three high poverty urban elementary schools. Classrooms were randomly assigned to PALS or referral to a neighborhood mental

Marc S. Atkins; Stacy L. Frazier; Dina Birman; Jaleel Abdul Adil; Maudette Jackson; Patricia A. Graczyk; Elizabeth Talbott; A. David Farmer; Carl C. Bell; Mary M. McKay

2006-01-01

40

Creating Nurturing Environments: A Science-Based Framework for Promoting Child Health and Development within High-Poverty Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods Research Consortium describes a science-based framework for the promotion of child health and development within distressed high-poverty neighborhoods. We lay out a model of child and adolescent developmental outcomes, and integrate knowledge of potent and malleable influences to define a comprehensive intervention framework to bring about a significant increase in the proportion of young people in high-poverty neighborhoods who will develop successfully. Based on a synthesis of research from diverse fields, we designed the Creating Nurturing Environments framework to guide community-wide efforts to improve child outcomes and reduce health and educational inequalities.

Komro, Kelli A.; Flay, Brian R.; Biglan, Anthony

2013-01-01

41

The effects of poverty on the mental, emotional, and behavioral health of children and youth: implications for prevention.  

PubMed

This article considers the implications for prevention science of recent advances in research on family poverty and children's mental, emotional, and behavioral health. First, we describe definitions of poverty and the conceptual and empirical challenges to estimating the causal effects of poverty on children's mental, emotional, and behavioral health. Second, we offer a conceptual framework that incorporates selection processes that affect who becomes poor as well as mechanisms through which poverty appears to influence child and youth mental health. Third, we use this conceptual framework to selectively review the growing literatures on the mechanisms through which family poverty influences the mental, emotional, and behavioral health of children. We illustrate how a better understanding of the mechanisms of effect by which poverty impacts children's mental, emotional, and behavioral health is valuable in designing effective preventive interventions for those in poverty. Fourth, we describe strategies to directly reduce poverty and the implications of these strategies for prevention. This article is one of three in a special section (see also Biglan, Flay, Embry, & Sandler, 2012; Muñoz, Beardslee, & Leykin, 2012) representing an elaboration on a theme for prevention science developed by the 2009 report of the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. PMID:22583341

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Aber, J Lawrence; Beardslee, William R

2012-01-01

42

Making a technological choice for disaster management and poverty alleviation in India.  

PubMed

The right mix of policy, institutional arrangements and use of technology provides the framework for a country's approach to disaster mitigation. Worldwide, there has been a shift away from a strictly 'top-down' approach relying on government alone, to a combination of 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches. The aim is to enhance the indigenous coping mechanisms of vulnerable communities; draw on their cooperative spirit and energy; and empower them through appropriate information and contextual knowledge to mitigate natural disasters. In light of this, the paper examines India's use of space technology in its disaster management efforts. Poverty alleviation and disaster management are almost inseparable in many parts of the country, as vulnerability to natural disasters is closely aligned with poverty. Addressing these issues together requires integrated knowledge systems. The paper examines how knowledge inputs from space technology have strengthened the national resolve to combat natural disasters in conjunction with alleviating rural poverty. PMID:18498370

Srivastava, Sanjay K

2009-03-01

43

The Effect of Health and Poverty on Early Childhood Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although evidence of a link between socioeconomic status and child health has been researched extensively, much less attention\\u000a has been devoted to studying the link between child health and cognitive development. This paper seeks to determine whether\\u000a early childhood illnesses and poverty significantly impede cognitive development. The empirical model attempts to control\\u000a for observed and unobserved heterogeneity through the use

David M. Welsch; David M. Zimmer

2010-01-01

44

Linking Mental Health and After School Systems for Children in Urban Poverty: Preventing Problems, Promoting Possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current mental health system is failing to meet the extensive needs of children living in urban poverty. After school\\u000a programs, whose mission includes children’s socialization, peer relations, and adaptive functioning, are uniquely positioned\\u000a to support and promote children’s healthy development. We propose that public sector mental health resources can be reallocated\\u000a to support after school settings, and we offer

Stacy L. Frazier; Elise Cappella; Marc S. Atkins

2007-01-01

45

GP attitudes towards health, prevention and poverty in deprived communities: does working with capitation or fee-for-service make a difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To explore general practitioners' attitudes towards health, poverty and prevention and to examine if payment system or practice setting plays a role. Design: a qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Setting: two neighbouring deprived inner-city areas in Ghent, Belgium. Participants: 20 general practitioners. Main outcome measures: practice and payment type. Respondents' definitions of health and poverty, attitudes towards poverty and

Snauwaert C; Masureel B

46

Poverty and mental health: how do low-income adults and children fare in psychotherapy?  

PubMed

Poverty is associated with an increased risk for psychological problems. Even with this increased risk for mental health problems and need for care, many low-income adults and families do not receive treatment because of logistical, attitudinal, and systemic barriers. Despite significant barriers to obtaining care, research suggests that low-income individuals show significant benefit from evidence-based mental healthcare. In this article, we review the link between poverty and mental health, common barriers to obtaining mental health services, and treatment studies that have been conducted with low-income groups. Finally, we discuss the implications of the research reviewed and offer recommendations for clinicians working with low-income children or adults, highlighting the importance of evidence-based care, extensive outreach, and empathic respect. PMID:23280880

Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Kaltman, Stacey; Miranda, Jeanne

2013-02-01

47

Neighborhoods and mental health: exploring ethnic density, poverty, and social cohesion among Asian Americans and Latinos.  

PubMed

This study examines the associations of neighborhood ethnic density and poverty with social cohesion and self-rated mental health among Asian Americans and Latinos. Path analysis is employed to analyze data from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the 2000 U.S. Census (N = 2095 Asian Americans living in N = 259 neighborhoods; N = 2554 Latinos living in N = 317 neighborhoods). Findings reveal that neighborhood ethnic density relates to poor mental health in both groups. Social cohesion partially mediates that structural relationship, but is positively related to ethnic density among Latinos and negatively related to ethnic density among Asian Americans. Although higher neighborhood poverty is negatively associated with mental health for both groups, the relationship does not hold in the path models after accounting for social cohesion and covariates. Furthermore, social cohesion fully mediates the association between neighborhood poverty and mental health among Latinos. This study highlights the necessity of reconceptualizing existing theories of social relationships to reflect complex and nuanced mechanisms linking neighborhood structure and mental health for diverse racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24769491

Hong, Seunghye; Zhang, Wei; Walton, Emily

2014-06-01

48

Housing and health: intersection of poverty and environmental exposures.  

PubMed

The importance of adequate housing for the maintenance of health and well-being has long been a topic of scientific and public health policy discussion, but the links remain elusive. Here we explore the role of the residential environment in the etiology of illness (specifically asthma) and the persistence of socioeconomic health disparities. Housing conditions, shaped by social forces, affect exposure to physical and chemical "toxicants," thereby translating social adversities into individual illness and population health disparities. We discuss the mediating role of housing in determining health outcomes at multiple levels (social-structural, neighborhood, and individual family). To date, little attention has been paid by most environmental health scientists to the social-structural conditions underlying gross inequities in the distribution of toxic exposures, with even less attention to the processes whereby these social conditions may directly affect susceptibility to the toxic exposures themselves. This chapter goes beyond traditional medical and environmental science models to incorporate a range of social and physical determinants of environmental pollutions, illustrating how these conditions result in health and illness. We focus here on childhood asthma as an example of a serious public health problem that has been associated with low income, minority status, and characteristics of the home environment. We end the chapter with a discussion of the environmental justice movement and the role of housing as a potential agent of change and focus of interventions aimed to reduce the harmful effects of environmental pollutants. PMID:18579887

Rauh, Virginia A; Landrigan, Philip J; Claudio, Luz

2008-01-01

49

Food poverty and health among schoolchildren in Ireland: findings from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the relationships between food poverty and food consumption, health and life satisfaction among schoolchildren. Design: Analysis of the 2002 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, a cross-sectional survey that employs a self-completion questionnaire in a nationally representative random sample of school classrooms in the Republic of Ireland. Subjects: A total of 8424 schoolchildren (aged 10-17 years)

Michal Molcho; Saoirse Nic Gabhainn; Colette Kelly; Sharon Friel; Cecily Kelleher

2007-01-01

50

Poverty, Family Process, and the Mental Health of Immigrant Children in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study examined the differential effects of poverty on the mental health of foreign- born children, Canadian-born children of immigrant parents, and children of nonimmigrant parents. Methods. Secondary analysis of data from a national Canadian study of children between 4 and 11 years of age was conducted. Results. Compared with their receiving-society counterparts, foreign-born children were more than twice

Morton Beiser; Ilene Hyman; Michel Tousignant

2002-01-01

51

Health management guide. Managing mergers.  

PubMed

Structural change is everywhere in the health service. Driven by political imperatives, the logic of the market and the frenetic pace of development in medical technology, the impetus on both purchasers and providers is towards merger into fewer, more influential organisations. But as health authorities combine to increase their purchasing power, moving ever closer to family health services authorities, and as trusts rethink patterns of service provision to maintain a competitive edge, are they getting it right? This Health Management Guide surveys the changing health service landscape and puts forward a practical manifesto for successful mergers. PMID:10139295

1994-11-17

52

Is wealthier always healthier? The impact of national income level, inequality, and poverty on public health in Latin America.  

PubMed

Despite findings indicating that both national income level and income inequality are each determinants of public health, few have studied how national income level, poverty and inequality interact with each other to influence public health outcomes. We analyzed the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in purchasing power parity, extreme poverty rates, the gini coefficient for personal income and three common measures of public health: life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and tuberculosis (TB) mortality rates. Introducing poverty and inequality as modifying factors, we then assessed whether the relationship between GDP and health differed during times of increasing, decreasing, and decreasing or constant poverty and inequality. Data were taken from twenty-two Latin American countries from 1960 to 2007 from the December 2008 World Bank World Development Indicators, World Health Organization Global Tuberculosis Database 2008, and the Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean. Consistent with previous studies, we found increases in GDP have a sizable positive impact on population health. However, the strength of the relationship is powerfully influenced by changing levels of poverty and inequality. When poverty was increasing, greater GDP had no significant effect on life expectancy or TB mortality, and only led to a small reduction in infant mortality rates. When inequality was rising, greater GDP had only a modest effect on life expectancy and infant mortality rates, and no effect on TB mortality rates. In sharp contrast, during times of decreasing or constant poverty and inequality, there was a very strong relationship between increasing GDP and higher life expectancy and lower TB and infant mortality rates. Finally, inequality and poverty were found to exert independent, substantial effects on the relationship between national income level and health. Wealthier is indeed healthier, but how much healthier depends on how increases in wealth are distributed. PMID:20471147

Biggs, Brian; King, Lawrence; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

2010-07-01

53

Poverty and Poor Health among Elderly Hispanic Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This national survey of 2,299 elderly Hispanic Americans found that a great number face a daily struggle, living on limited incomes and coping with poor health. Problems in later years are the result of immigration patterns, low educational attainment, and limited English proficiency that have resulted in a lifetime of low income, no pension, and…

Andrews, Jane

54

Poverty, global health, and infectious disease: lessons from Haiti and Rwanda.  

PubMed

Poverty and infectious diseases interact in complex ways. Casting destitution as intractable, or epidemics that afflict the poor as accidental, erroneously exonerates us from responsibility for caring for those most in need. Adequately addressing communicable diseases requires a biosocial appreciation of the structural forces that shape disease patterns. Most health interventions in resource-poor settings could garner support based on cost/benefit ratios with appropriately lengthy time horizons to capture the return on health investments and an adequate accounting of externalities; however, such a calculus masks the suffering of inaction and risks eroding the most powerful incentive to act: redressing inequality. PMID:21896362

Alsan, Marcella M; Westerhaus, Michael; Herce, Michael; Nakashima, Koji; Farmer, Paul E

2011-09-01

55

Role Of Women In Watershed Management For Poverty Alleviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watershed management in India was first started in the Damodar Barakar Basin under Damodar Valley Corporation (1949-50), while watershed technologies were first demonstrated in actual field settings through operational research projects on watersheds at Sukhomajri (Haryana) ad Nada (Haryana). The people's participation was the key to the success of these projects. In the context of national resource management, the gender

Reena Ahuja

56

The impact of relative poverty on Norwegian adolescents’ subjective health: a causal analysis with propensity score matching.  

PubMed

Studies have revealed that relative poverty is associated with ill health, but the interpretations of this correlation vary. This article asks whether relative poverty among Norwegian adolescents is causally related to poor subjective health, i.e., self-reported somatic and mental symptoms. Data consist of interview responses from a sample of adolescents (N = 510) and their parents, combined with register data on the family's economic situation. Relatively poor adolescents had significantly worse subjective health than non-poor adolescents. Relatively poor adolescents also experienced many other social disadvantages, such as parental unemployment and parental ill health. Comparisons between the relatively poor and the non-poor adolescents, using propensity score matching, indicated a negative impact of relative poverty on the subjective health among those adolescents who lived in families with relatively few economic resources. The results suggest that there is a causal component in the association between relative poverty and the symptom burden of disadvantaged adolescents. Relative poverty is only one of many determinants of adolescents' subjective health, but its role should be acknowledged when policies for promoting adolescent health are designed. PMID:23249858

Elstad, Jon Ivar; Pedersen, Axel West

2012-12-01

57

POVERTY IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines poverty in transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe, the Balkan and former Soviet Union. The outcome of this research emphasized that unemployment, inflation and state d esertion generally increased people's vulnerability to poverty, with l arge regional fluctuations. Poverty is associated with insufficient food and cl othing, poor housing, limited access to utilities, poorer health and

Dirk J Bezemer

2006-01-01

58

Measles: pathology, management and public health issues.  

PubMed

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease that continues to occur in epidemics in the UK despite efforts to eradicate it. In the acute stage, measles is associated with several complications including otitis media, but some of the most severe consequences of the disease occur months and even years after the initial infection. Worldwide, measles contributes significantly to deaths in childhood and places an additional burden on families already living with the consequence of poverty and conflict. This article aims to develop the reader's understanding of measles, including its pathophysiology, management and associated public health issues. PMID:24844521

Bentley, Jackie; Rouse, Jo; Pinfield, Jenny

2014-05-27

59

Paying attention to gender and poverty in health research: content and process issues.  

PubMed Central

Despite the magnitude of the problem of health inequity within and between countries, little systematic research has been done on the social causes of ill-health. Health researchers have overwhelmingly focused on biomedical research at the level of individuals. Investigations into the health of groups and the determinants of health inequities that lie outside the control of the individual have received a much smaller share of research resources. Ignoring factors such as socioeconomic class, race and gender leads to biases in both the content and process of research. We use two such factors--poverty and gender--to illustrate how this occurs. There is a systematic imbalance in medical journals: research into diseases that predominate in the poorest regions of the world is less likely to be published. In addition, the slow recognition of women's health problems, misdirected and partial approaches to understanding women's and men's health, and the dearth of information on how gender interacts with other social determinants continue to limit the content of health research. In the research community these imbalances in content are linked to biases against researchers from poorer regions and women. Researchers from high-income countries benefit from better funding and infrastructure. Their publications dominate journals and citations, and these researchers also dominate advisory boards. The way to move forward is to correct biases against poverty and gender in research content and processes and provide increased funding and better career incentives to support equity-linked research. Journals need to address equity concerns in their published content and in the publishing process. Efforts to broaden access to research information need to be well resourced, publicized and expanded.

Ostlin, Piroska; Sen, Gita; George, Asha

2004-01-01

60

Poverty, Socio-Economic Position, Social Capital and the Health of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities in Britain: A Replication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: When compared with their nonintellectually disabled peers, people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have poorer health and are more likely to be exposed to poverty during childhood. Given that exposure to child poverty has been linked to poorer health outcomes, we attempted to estimate the extent to which the health inequalities…

Emerson, E.; Hatton, C.

2007-01-01

61

Implementing Parent Management Training in the Context of Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parent management training (PMT) is a well-investigated, effective, and preferred treatment for children's externalizing behaviors and related disorders. This article explores why, unfortunately, PMT is not as effective for children living in poor families, who disproportionately exhibit the behaviors that PMT is designed to correct. (Contains 40…

Eamon, Mary Keegan; Venkataraman, Meenakshi

2003-01-01

62

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and their contribution to health: An Analysis of Three Countries.  

PubMed

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) represent the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) most recent initiative for reducing the plight of the poor. This paper examines whether the PRSPs for Liberia, Afghanistan and Haiti follow World Bank guidance on health. The health data, analysis and strategy content of the three PRSPs are assessed with respect to the 'Health, Nutrition and Population' chapter of the World Bank's PRSP Sourcebook. This guidance states that PRSPs should include: health data on the poor and a clear analysis showing the determinants of ill health and pro-poor health strategies. Unfortunately, none of the PRSPs analysed comply with the guidance and, consequently, do not adequately portray the health situation within their countries. Thus health is not given a high priority in the PRSP process and is seemingly low on the agenda of both poor country governments and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). If the situation for the world's poorest people is to improve, health and the right to health need to be promoted within PRSPs. PMID:22690131

Bartlett, Sam

2011-06-01

63

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and their contribution to health: An Analysis of Three Countries  

PubMed Central

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) represent the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) most recent initiative for reducing the plight of the poor. This paper examines whether the PRSPs for Liberia, Afghanistan and Haiti follow World Bank guidance on health. The health data, analysis and strategy content of the three PRSPs are assessed with respect to the 'Health, Nutrition and Population' chapter of the World Bank's PRSP Sourcebook. This guidance states that PRSPs should include: health data on the poor and a clear analysis showing the determinants of ill health and pro-poor health strategies. Unfortunately, none of the PRSPs analysed comply with the guidance and, consequently, do not adequately portray the health situation within their countries. Thus health is not given a high priority in the PRSP process and is seemingly low on the agenda of both poor country governments and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). If the situation for the world's poorest people is to improve, health and the right to health need to be promoted within PRSPs.

Bartlett, Sam

2011-01-01

64

Connecting the Dots Between Health, Poverty and Place in Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

West Africa has a rapidly growing population, an increasing fraction of which lives in urban informal settlements characterized by inadequate infrastructure and relatively high health risks. Little is known, however, about the spatial or health characteristics of cities in this region or about the spatial inequalities in health within them. In this article we show how we have been creating a data-rich field laboratory in Accra, Ghana, to connect the dots between health, poverty, and place in a large city in West Africa. Our overarching goal is to test the hypothesis that satellite imagery, in combination with census and limited survey data, such as that found in demographic and health surveys (DHSs), can provide clues to the spatial distribution of health inequalities in cities where fewer data exist than those we have collected for Accra. To this end, we have created the first digital boundary file of the city, obtained high spatial resolution satellite imagery for two dates, collected data from a longitudinal panel of 3,200 women spatially distributed throughout Accra, and obtained microlevel data from the census. We have also acquired water, sewerage, and elevation layers and then coupled all of these data with extensive field research on the neighborhood structure of Accra. We show that the proportional abundance of vegetation in a neighborhood serves as a key indicator of local levels of health and well-being and that local perceptions of health risk are not always consistent with objective measures.

Weeks, John R.; Getis, Arthur; Stow, Douglas A.; Hill, Allan G.; Rain, David; Engstrom, Ryan; Stoler, Justin; Lippitt, Christopher; Jankowska, Marta; Lopez-Carr, Anna Carla; Coulter, Lloyd; Ofiesh, Caetlin

2013-01-01

65

The political economy of urban poverty and environmental management in Asia: access, empowerment and community based alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The political economy of urban poverty and environmental management in Asia describes the major environmental problems facing the urban poor in this regionand suggests the need for alternative avenues of action to address them. It concentrates on the current and potential role of community level initiatives, including what constrains their effectiveness and the pre-conditions for empowering and mobilizing the poor

Mike Douglass

1992-01-01

66

Barriers to addressing the societal determinants of health: public health units and poverty in Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Despite Canada's reputation as a leader in health promotion and population health concepts, actual public health practice for the most part remains wedded to downstream strategies focussed on behaviour change. In Canada's largest province this has led to the implemen- tation of a heart health promotion approach focussed on diet, activity and tobacco use. This is so despite increasing

DENNIS RAPHAEL

2003-01-01

67

Medical and Health Services Managers  

MedlinePLUS

... health administration often include hospital organization and management, accounting and budgeting, human resources administration, strategic planning, law and ethics, health economics, and health information systems. Some programs allow students ...

68

Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa.  

PubMed

This article is a review of the PhD thesis of Mark Collinson, titled, 'Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa'. The findings show that in rural South Africa, temporary migration has a major impact on household well-being and health. Remittances from migrants make a significant difference to socioeconomic status (SES) in households left behind by the migrant. For the poorest households the key factors improving SES are government grants and female temporary migration, while for the less poor it is male temporary migration and local employment. Migration is associated with HIV but not in straightforward ways. Migrants that return more frequently may be less exposed to outside partners and therefore less implicated in the HIV epidemic. There are links between migration and mortality patterns, including a higher risk of dying for returnee migrants compared with permanent residents. A mother's migration impacts significantly on child survival for South African and former refugee parents, but there is an additional mortality risk for children of Mozambican former refugees. It is recommended that national censuses and surveys account for temporary migration when collecting information on household membership, because different migration types have different outcomes. Without discriminating between different migration types, the implications for sending and receiving communities will remain lost to policy-makers. PMID:20531981

Collinson, Mark A

2010-01-01

69

Is Violent Radicalisation Associated with Poverty, Migration, Poor Self-Reported Health and Common Mental Disorders?  

PubMed Central

Background Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders), and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. Results 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>£75,000 a year). People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. Conclusions Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors.

Bhui, Kamaldeep; Warfa, Nasir; Jones, Edgar

2014-01-01

70

Poverty Matters: The Cost of Child Poverty in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The poverty affecting 14.5 million U.S. children living below the poverty line poses long-term effects, including risks to health, educational achievement, family stability, and employment prospects. This report provides compelling evidence of the substantial costs of poverty among children to our nation's economic well-being, and shows that…

Sherman, Arloc

71

Enhancing Schools' Capacity to Support Children in Poverty: An Ecological Model of School-Based Mental Health Services  

PubMed Central

School based mental health services for children in poverty can capitalize on schools’ inherent capacity to support development and bridge home and neighborhood ecologies. We propose an ecological model informed by public health and organizational theories to refocus school based services in poor communities on the core function of schools to promote learning. We describe how coalescing mental health resources around school goals includes a focus on universal programming, mobilizing indigenous school and community resources, and supporting core teaching technologies. We suggest an iterative research–practice approach to program adaptation and implementation as a means toward advancing science and developing healthy children.

Frazier, Stacy L.; Atkins, Marc S.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Glisson, Charles

2013-01-01

72

Poverty Increases Type 2 Diabetes Incidence and Inequality of Care Despite Universal Health Coverage  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The discrepancy of diabetes incidence and care between socioeconomic statuses has seldom been studied concurrently in nations with universal health coverage. We aimed to delineate whether income disparity is associated with diabetes incidence and inequality of care under a national health insurance (NHI) program in Asia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS From the Taiwan NHI database in 2000, a representative cohort aged ?20 years and free of diabetes (n = 600,662) were followed up until 2005. We regarded individuals exempt from paying the NHI premium as being poor. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were used to discover any excess risk of diabetes in the poor population. The indicators used to evaluate quality of diabetes care included the proportion of diabetic patients identified through hospitalization, visits to diabetes clinics, and completion of recommended diabetes tests. RESULTS The incidence of type 2 diabetes in the poor population was 20.4 per 1,000 person-years (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3–1.7). Compared with their middle-income counterparts, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the poor population incidentally identified as having diabetes through hospitalization was 2.2 (P < 0.001). Poor persons with diabetes were less likely to visit any diabetes clinic (OR, 0.4; P < 0.001). The ORs for the poor population with diabetes to receive tests for glycated hemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and retinopathy were 0.6 (0.4–0.9), 0.4 (0.2–0.7), 0.5 (0.4–0.8), and 0.4 (0.2–0.9), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Poverty is associated not only with higher diabetes incidence but also with inequality of diabetes care in a northeast Asian population, despite universal health coverage.

Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Hua; Wahlqvist, Mark L.; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chen, Likwang; Shih, Shu-Fang; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Chen, Ted; Huang, Chi-Ting; Cheng, Jur-Shan

2012-01-01

73

Social Structure and Child Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

Ferriss, Abbott L.

2006-01-01

74

CHILD POVERTY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This briefing provides an overview of child poverty in Scotland. The different methods of measuring child poverty are outlined, and figures are provided on the numbers of children living in poverty in Scotland. The causes and effects of child poverty, and the policy responses from the Scottish and UK governments, are discussed. The briefing also highlights some of the recent

SIMON WAKEFIELD

75

Intelligent Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

76

Poverty, Violence and Health: The Impact of Domestic Violence During Pregnancy on Newborn Health  

PubMed Central

Two percent of women in the US suffer from intimate partner violence annually, with poor and minority women disproportionately affected. I provide evidence of an important negative externality associated with domestic violence by estimating a negative and causal relationship between violence during pregnancy and newborn health, exploiting variation in the enforcement of laws against domestic violence for identification. I find that hospitalization for an assault while pregnant reduces birth weight by 163 grams. This sheds new light on the infant health production process as well as observed income gradients in health given that poor mothers are disproportionately affected by violence.

2014-01-01

77

Do Community Health Centers Improve Health? Evidence from the War on Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy changes in the late 1960’s greatly reshaped the involvement of the U.S. federal government in health care. In addition to establishing more well-known programs like Medicare and Medicaid, the federal government began funding “Community Health Centers” (CHCs). Political support for CHCs has varied over time, but recently both Republicans and Democrats have supported their expansion as a key component

Martha Bailey; Andrew Goodman-Bacon

2010-01-01

78

Poverty, Violence, and Health: The Impact of Domestic Violence during Pregnancy on Newborn Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two percent of women in the United States suffer from intimate partner violence annually, with poor and minority women disproportionately affected. I provide evidence of an important negative externality associated with domestic violence by estimating a negative and causal relationship between violence during pregnancy and newborn health,…

Aizer, Anna

2011-01-01

79

The 1998 HHS Federal Poverty Guidelines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has recently released the 1998 federal poverty measures. There are two slightly different versions of the federal poverty measure: poverty thresholds and poverty guidelines. Data for both versions are available at this site. Separate data are listed for the 48 states, Alaska, and Hawaii.

1998-01-01

80

Disparities in health, poverty, incarceration, and social justice among racial groups in the United States: a critical review of evidence of close links with neoliberalism.  

PubMed

Problems of poverty, poor health, and incarceration are unevenly distributed among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. We argue that this is due, in part, to the ascendance of United States-style neoliberalism, a prevailing political and economic doctrine that shapes social policy, including public health and anti-poverty intervention strategies. Public health research most often associates inequalities in health outcomes, poverty, and incarceration with individual and cultural risk factors. Contextual links to structural inequality and the neoliberal doctrine animating state-sanctioned interventions are given less attention. The interrelationships among these are not clear in the extant literature. Less is known about public health and incarceration. Thus, the authors describe the linkages between neoliberalism, public health, and criminal justice outcomes. We suggest that neoliberalism exacerbates racial disparities in health, poverty, and incarceration in the United States. We conclude by calling for a new direction in public health research that advances a pro-poor public health agenda to improve the general well-being of disadvantaged groups. PMID:23821903

Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Agbanu, Samuel Kwami; Miller, Reuben Jonathan

2013-01-01

81

Poverty, food security and universal access to sexual and reproductive health services: a call for cross-movement advocacy against neoliberal globalisation.  

PubMed

Universal access to sexual and reproductive health services is one of the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development of 1994. The Millennium Development Goals were intended above all to end poverty. Universal access to health and health services are among the goals being considered for the post-2015 agenda, replacing or augmenting the MDGs. Yet we are not only far from reaching any of these goals but also appear to have lost our way somewhere along the line. Poverty and lack of food security have, through their multiple linkages to health and access to health care, deterred progress towards universal access to health services, including for sexual and reproductive health needs. A more insidious influence is neoliberal globalisation. This paper describes neoliberal globalisation and the economic policies it has engendered, the ways in which it influences poverty and food security, and the often unequal impact it has had on women as compared to men. It explores the effects of neoliberal economic policies on health, health systems, and universal access to health care services, and the implications for access to sexual and reproductive health. To be an advocate for universal access to health and health care is to become an advocate against neoliberal globalisation. PMID:24908453

Sundari Ravindran, Tk

2014-06-01

82

National poverty reduction strategies and HIV/AIDS governance in Malawi: a preliminary study of shared health governance.  

PubMed

The public health and development communities understand clearly the need to integrate anti-poverty efforts with HIV/AIDS programs. This article reports findings about the impact of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process on Malawi's National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework (NSF). In this article we ask, how does the PRSP process support NSF accountability, participation, access to information, funding, resource planning and allocation, monitoring, and evaluation? In 2007, we developed and conducted a survey of Malawian government ministries, United Nations agencies, members of the Country Coordination Mechanism, the Malawi National AIDS Commission (NAC), and NAC grantees (N = 125, 90% response rate), seeking survey respondents' retrospective perceptions of NSF resource levels, participation, inclusion, and governance before, during, and after Malawi's PRSP process (2000-2004). We also assessed principle health sector and economic indicators and budget allocations for HIV/AIDS. These indicators are part of a new conceptual framework called shared health governance (SHG), which seeks congruence among the values and goals of different groups and actors to reflect a common purpose. Under this framework, global health policy should encompass: (i) consensus among global, national, and sub-national actors on goals and measurable outcomes; (ii) mutual collective accountability; and (iii) enhancement of individual and group health agency. Indicators to assess these elements included: (i) goal alignment; (ii) adequate resource levels; (iii) agreement on key outcomes and indicators for evaluating those outcomes; (iv) meaningful inclusion and participation of groups and institutions; (v) special efforts to ensure participation of vulnerable groups; and (vi) effectiveness and efficiency measures. Results suggest that the PRSP process supported accountability for NSF resources. However, the process may have marginalized key stakeholders, potentially undercutting the implementation of HIV/AIDS Action Plans. PMID:20675024

Wachira, Catherine; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

2011-06-01

83

The Feminization of Poverty for Midlife and Older Women and Its Effects on Their Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are 16.4 million women over age 65 in this country, compared to 11 million men. The 41 percent of this population who live alone are the poorest of the poor in this country, with an annual median income of just over $3,000 for white women and little more than $2,000 for black women. This abject poverty affects the ability of these women to…

Porcino, Jane

84

Intelligent Integrated System Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems

Figueroa, Fernando

2012-01-01

85

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies sto...

F. Figueroa K. Melcher

2011-01-01

86

Poverty, Educational Attainment and Health Among America’s Children: Current and Future Effects of Population Diversification and Associated Socioeconomic Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex of interrelated factors including minority status, poverty, education, health status, and other factors determine the general welfare of children in America, particularly in heavily diverse states such as Texas. Although racial\\/ethnic status is clearly only a concomitant factor in that determination it is a factor for which future projections are available and for which the relationships with the

Steve Murdock; Mary Zey; Michael E. Cline; Stephen Klineberg

2010-01-01

87

Learning Disabilities and Poverty: Moving towards a New Understanding of Learning Disabilities as a Public Health and Economic-Risk Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on environmental issues that affect learning disabilities and provides a rationale for learning disabilities as a public health and economic-risk issue. The link between learning disabilities and poverty and the impact of low birth weight and lead poisoning are discussed. Action steps are provided. (CR)

Young, Glenn; Gerber, Paul J.

1998-01-01

88

Support for agriculture during economic transformation: impacts on poverty and undernutrition.  

PubMed

This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health risks associated with rising obesity in rural as well as urban areas. Thus, the transition process must be managed better, through targeted support for smallholder agriculture and health interventions, if the negative consequences of obesity and chronic disease are to be mitigated. PMID:21173245

Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

2012-07-31

89

Support for agriculture during economic transformation: Impacts on poverty and undernutrition  

PubMed Central

This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health risks associated with rising obesity in rural as well as urban areas. Thus, the transition process must be managed better, through targeted support for smallholder agriculture and health interventions, if the negative consequences of obesity and chronic disease are to be mitigated.

Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

2012-01-01

90

Families, Managed Care, & Children's Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of a bulletin on family support and children's mental health focuses on managed care and the impact on children who are in need of mental health services. Articles include: "Private Sector Managed Care and Children's Mental Health" (Ira S. Lourie and others); "Just What Is Managed Care?" (Chris Koyanagi); "Managed Behavioral…

McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.

1996-01-01

91

X-33/RLV System Health Management/ Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To reduce operations cost, the RLV must include the following elements: highly reliable, robust subsystems designed for simple repair access with a simplified servicing infrastructure and incorporating expedited decision making about faults and anomalies. A key component for the Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) RLV System used to meet these objectives is System Health Management (SHM). SHM deals with the vehicle component- Vehicle Health Management (VHM), the ground processing associated with the fleet (GVHM) and the Ground Infrastructure Health Management (GIHM). The objective is to provide an automated collection and paperless health decision, maintenance and logistics system. Many critical technologies are necessary to make the SHM (and more specifically VHM) practical, reliable and cost effective. Sanders is leading the design, development and integration of the SHM system for RLV and X-33 SHM (a sub-scale, sub-orbit Advanced Technology Demonstrator). This paper will present the X-33 SHM design which forms the baseline for RLV SHM. This paper will also discuss other applications of these technologies.

Garbos, Raymond J.; Mouyos, William

1998-01-01

92

X-33/RLV System Health Management/Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To reduce operations costs, Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVS) must include highly reliable robust subsystems which are designed for simple repair access with a simplified servicing infrastructure, and which incorporate expedited decision-making about faults and anomalies. A key component for the Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) RLV system used to meet these objectives is System Health Management (SHM). SHM incorporates Vehicle Health Management (VHM), ground processing associated with the vehicle fleet (GVHM), and Ground Infrastructure Health Management (GIHM). The primary objective of SHM is to provide an automated and paperless health decision, maintenance, and logistics system. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, is leading the design, development, and integration of the SHM system for RLV and for X-33 (a sub-scale, sub-orbit Advanced Technology Demonstrator). Many critical technologies are necessary to make SHM (and more specifically VHM) practical, reliable, and cost effective. This paper will present the X-33 SHM design which forms the baseline for the RLV SHM, and it will discuss applications of advanced technologies to future RLVs. In addition, this paper will describe a Virtual Design Environment (VDE) which is being developed for RLV. This VDE will allow for system design engineering, as well as program management teams, to accurately and efficiently evaluate system designs, analyze the behavior of current systems, and predict the feasibility of making smooth and cost-efficient transitions from older technologies to newer ones. The RLV SHM design methodology will reduce program costs, decrease total program life-cycle time, and ultimately increase mission success.

Mouyos, William; Wangu, Srimal

1998-01-01

93

Research Priorities for Health Systems Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings of a 1978 conference on research priorities for health systems management held in Washington, DC, are summarized. Participants included researchers, health care providers, and government officials. The management research needs addressed i...

S. Frawley R. C. Jones J. Corman J. Levy

1978-01-01

94

SSME Advanced Health Management: Project Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is the viewgraphs from a presentation concerning the development of the Health Management system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). It reviews the historical background of the SSME Advanced Health Management effort through the present final Health management configuration. The document includes reviews of three subsystems to the Advanced Health Management System: (1) the Real-Time Vibration Monitor System, (2) the Linear Engine Model, and (3) the Optical Plume Anomaly Detection system.

Plowden, John

2000-01-01

95

Poverty in Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site from World Bank offers an ongoing look at poverty in Africa and the ways in which World Bank continues to monitor it. The Africa Household Survey Database (AHSD) is featured on the site, and holds, at present, 106 completed surveys from 36 countries. The surveys in the database include Labor Force Surveys, Household Budget Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, Population and Housing Censuses, and more. Poverty in Africa also contains several other sections that support the AHSD, including explanations of the ways in which poverty levels are monitored and measured. Related resources offered at the site include links to Websites from other NGOs and academic sources, as well as information on the World Bank's partners in Africa, such as the African National Statistics Offices.

96

Research-policy partnerships - experiences of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Partnerships are increasingly common in conducting research. However, there is little published evidence about processes in research-policy partnerships in different contexts. This paper contributes to filling this gap by analysing experiences of research-policy partnerships between Ministries of Health and research organisations for the implementation of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Methods A conceptual framework for understanding and assessing research-policy partnerships was developed and guided this study. The data collection methods for this qualitative study included semi-structured interviews with Ministry of Health Partners (MOHPs) and Research Partners (RPs) in each country. Results The term partnership was perceived by the partners as a collaboration involving mutually-agreed goals and objectives. The principles of trust, openness, equality and mutual respect were identified as constituting the core of partnerships. The MOHPs and RPs had clearly defined roles, with the MOHPs largely providing political support and RPs leading the research agenda. Different influences affected partnerships. At the individual level, personal relationships and ability to compromise within partnerships were seen as important. At the organisational level, the main influences included the degree of formalisation of roles and responsibilities and the internal structures and procedures affecting decision-making. At the contextual level, political environment and the degree of health system decentralisation affected partnerships. Conclusions Several lessons can be learned from these experiences. Taking account of influences on the partnership at individual, organisation and contextual/system levels can increase its effectiveness. A common understanding of mutually-agreed goals and objectives of the partnership is essential. It is important to give attention to the processes of initiating and maintaining partnerships, based on clear roles, responsibilities and commitment of parties at different levels. Although partnerships are often established for a specific purpose, such as carrying out a particular project, the effects of partnership go beyond a particular initiative.

2012-01-01

97

Poverty, Wealth Inequality and Health among Older Adults in Rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Little research exists on health determinants among adults living in economically deprived regions despite the fact that these areas comprise a good part of the world. This paper examines the distribution of wealth then tests associations between wealth inequality and a variety of health outcomes, among older adults, in one of the world's poorest regions – rural Cambodia. Data from the 2004 Survey of the Elderly in Cambodia are employed. Using a disablement framework to conceptualize health, associations between four health components and a wealth inequality measure are tested. The wealth inequality measure is based on an index that operationalizes wealth as ownership of household assets and household structural components. Results confirm difficult economic conditions in rural Cambodia. The lowest wealth quintile lives in households that own nothing, while the next quintiles are only slightly better off. Nevertheless, logistic regressions that adjust for other covariates indicate heterogeneity in health across quintiles that appear qualitatively similar, with the bottom quintiles reporting the most health problems. An exception is disability, which presents a U-shaped association. It is difficult to determine mechanisms behind the relationship using cross-sectional data, but the paper speculates on possible causal directions, both from wealth to health and vice-versa. The analysis suggests the ability to generalize the relationship between wealth inequality and health to extremely poor populations as a very small difference in wealth makes a relatively large difference with respect to health associations among those in meager surroundings.

Zimmer, Zachary

2007-01-01

98

Integrated Airplane Health Management System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Air Space System-Wide Simulation (NAS Sim) program advances the development and implementation of a comprehensive, integrated health management system contributing to safety and modeling of the national aviation system. This program integrates different disciplines to develop an accurate and insightful method for real-time modeling of the local integrated airplane risk exposure and monitoring of operations of the global national air space.

Bardina, Jorge; McDermott, William J.; Follen, Gregory J.; Blaser, Tammy M.; Pavlik, William R.; Zhang, Desheng; Liu, Xian-You

2000-01-01

99

Access to mental health services: The struggle of poverty affected urban children of color  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that, in the United States, one in ten children and adolescents suffer from illness severe enough to cause\\u000a some level of psychosocial dysfunction. Urban children, and in particular low-income children of color, are at greater risk\\u000a of developing mental health problems, and are less likely to receive effective child mental health services. Prompt and effective\\u000a access to

Manny John González; Manny J. Gonz

2005-01-01

100

Access to Mental Health Services: The Struggle of Poverty Affected Urban Children of Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that, in the United States, one in ten children and adolescents suffer from illness severe enough to cause\\u000a some level of psychosocial dysfunction. Urban children, and in particular low-income children of color, are at greater risk\\u000a of developing mental health problems, and are less likely to receive effective child mental health services. Prompt and effective\\u000a access to

Manny John González

2005-01-01

101

Multidisciplinary and participatory workshops with stakeholders in a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon: Development of priority concerns and potential health, nutrition and education interventions  

PubMed Central

Background Communities of extreme poverty suffer disproportionately from a wide range of adverse outcomes, but are often neglected or underserved by organized services and research attention. In order to target the first Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty, thereby reducing health inequalities, participatory research in these communities is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the priority problems and respective potential cost-effective interventions in Belen, a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon, using a multidisciplinary and participatory focus. Methods Two multidisciplinary and participatory workshops were conducted with important stakeholders from government, non-government and community organizations, national institutes and academic institutions. In Workshop 1, participants prioritized the main health and health-related problems in the community of Belen. Problem trees were developed to show perceived causes and effects for the top six problems. In Workshop 2, following presentations describing data from recently completed field research in school and household populations of Belen, participants listed potential interventions for the priority problems, including associated barriers, enabling factors, costs and benefits. Results The top ten priority problems in Belen were identified as: 1) infant malnutrition; 2) adolescent pregnancy; 3) diarrhoea; 4) anaemia; 5) parasites; 6) lack of basic sanitation; 7) low level of education; 8) sexually transmitted diseases; 9) domestic violence; and 10) delayed school entry. Causes and effects for the top six problems, proposed interventions, and factors relating to the implementation of interventions were multidisciplinary in nature and included health, nutrition, education, social and environmental issues. Conclusion The two workshops provided valuable insight into the main health and health-related problems facing the community of Belen. The participatory focus of the workshops ensured the active involvement of important stakeholders from Belen. Based on the results of the workshops, effective and essential interventions are now being planned which will contribute to reducing health inequalities in the community.

Casapia, Martin; Joseph, Serene A; Gyorkos, Theresa W

2007-01-01

102

Poverty and Health Disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native Children: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

This report explores the current state of knowledge regarding inequalities and their effect on American Indian and Alaska Native children, underscoring gaps in our current knowledge and the opportunities for early intervention to begin to address persistent challenges in young American Indian and Alaska Native children’s development. This overview documents demographic, social, health, and health care disparities as they affect American Indian and Alaska Native children, the persistent cultural strengths that must form the basis for any conscientious intervention effort, and the exciting possibilities for early childhood interventions.

Sarche, Michelle; Spicer, Paul

2008-01-01

103

Rising Poverty, Declining Health: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,…

Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.

104

Poverty, out-of-pocket payments and access to health care: evidence from Tajikistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have either initiated or are contemplating reform of the health sector. With negative real income growth and falling government revenues, a key concern of many governments is to secure additional finance through non-budgetary sources such as hypothecated payroll taxes, voluntary insurance, and increased private finance through patient cost-sharing. However, before such reforms

Jane Falkingham

2004-01-01

105

Health and Nutritional Status of Working and Non-Working Mothers in Poverty Groups.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aims were to examine health factors which determine employment status of low income women. A sample popu.ation of 469 middle-aged rural-urban fringe women in Upstate New York were studied through questionnaires, physical examination and lab tests. Current...

D. A. Roe K. R. Eickwort

1974-01-01

106

Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums  

PubMed Central

This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups.

Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

2009-01-01

107

Rural Poverty Report 2001: The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Fund for Agricultural Development's 2001 report on rural poverty argues that to reduce poverty, international efforts must focus on "legally secure entitlements to assets (especially land and water); technology (above all for increasing the output and yield of food staples); access to markets; opportunities to participate in decentralized resource management; and access to microfinance." The extensive document is posted in .pdf format with the above address linking to its table of contents.

2001-01-01

108

Efficiency of families managing home health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, cost-containment pressures, health care reform debates, movement to case-managed health care, and reductions\\u000a in health care benefits have required most families to be responsible for selecting specific health care services that keep\\u000a costs to a minimum. As Eddy [17-20] discussed in a series of articles on making decisions in health care, the consensus among\\u000a health care

Carol E. Smith; Susan V. M. Kleinbeck; Karen Fernengel; Linda S. Mayer

1997-01-01

109

Contribution of the GAVI Alliance to improving health and reducing poverty  

PubMed Central

The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), now 10 years old, was established as a successful and innovative public–private partnership to deal with a fundamental inequity. The poorest children in the poorest parts of the world were being denied access to life-saving vaccines simply on the basis of cost. GAVI has been successful in mobilizing significant funding from donors and through innovative financing instruments, immunizing large numbers of children. GAVI has been less successful, at least in the time frames first envisaged, at quickly reducing the prices of new and under-used vaccines to levels affordable by the poorest countries. Vaccines remain some of the most cost effective of public health interventions. As GAVI seeks to introduce a new set of vaccines to tackle major killers such as pneumonia and diarrhoea, and emerging threats such as cervical cancer, it needs to raise significant additional funds. There is no single solution. Multiple and new instruments will be required to raise finance both globally and at the country level, and also to incentivize industry and others to provide vaccines at affordable prices to the poorest countries.

Lob-Levyt, Julian

2011-01-01

110

Contribution of the GAVI Alliance to improving health and reducing poverty.  

PubMed

The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), now 10 years old, was established as a successful and innovative public-private partnership to deal with a fundamental inequity. The poorest children in the poorest parts of the world were being denied access to life-saving vaccines simply on the basis of cost. GAVI has been successful in mobilizing significant funding from donors and through innovative financing instruments, immunizing large numbers of children. GAVI has been less successful, at least in the time frames first envisaged, at quickly reducing the prices of new and under-used vaccines to levels affordable by the poorest countries. Vaccines remain some of the most cost effective of public health interventions. As GAVI seeks to introduce a new set of vaccines to tackle major killers such as pneumonia and diarrhoea, and emerging threats such as cervical cancer, it needs to raise significant additional funds. There is no single solution. Multiple and new instruments will be required to raise finance both globally and at the country level, and also to incentivize industry and others to provide vaccines at affordable prices to the poorest countries. PMID:21893535

Lob-Levyt, Julian

2011-10-12

111

Spirulina in health care management.  

PubMed

Spirulina is a photosynthetic, filamentous, spiral-shaped and multicellular edible microbe. It is the nature's richest and most complete source of nutrition. Spirulina has a unique blend of nutrients that no single source can offer. The alga contains a wide spectrum of prophylactic and therapeutic nutrients that include B-complex vitamins, minerals, proteins, gamma-linolenic acid and the super anti-oxidants such as beta-carotene, vitamin E, trace elements and a number of unexplored bioactive compounds. Because of its apparent ability to stimulate whole human physiology, Spirulina exhibits therapeutic functions such as antioxidant, anti-bacterial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic and plethora of beneficial functions. Spirulina consumption appears to promote the growth of intestinal micro flora as well. The review discusses the potential of Spirulina in health care management. PMID:18855693

Kulshreshtha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish J; Jarouliya, Urmila; Bhadauriya, Pratiksha; Prasad, G B K S; Bisen, P S

2008-10-01

112

Neighborhood context and the Hispanic health paradox: Differential effects of immigrant density on children?s wheezing by poverty, nativity and medical history.  

PubMed

Prior research suggests that immigrant enclaves provide respiratory health benefits for US Hispanic residents. We test if immigrant enclaves provide differential respiratory health benefits for Hispanic children in El Paso (Texas) based on individual-level factors. Results reveal that higher neighborhood immigrant density is associated with reduced odds of wheezing, but that the protective immigrant enclave effect is modified by poverty, general health status, body mass index (BMI), and caretaker nativity. Higher immigrant density is significantly more protective for poor children and those with foreign-born caretakers; conversely, it is significantly less protective for children in worse health and those with higher BMI. These findings foster a novel understanding of how immigrant enclaves may be differentially protective for Hispanic children based on individual-level factors. PMID:24509419

Kim, Young-An; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E

2014-05-01

113

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a...

F. Figueroa K. Melcher

2010-01-01

114

The Learning, Physical and Emotional Environment of the Home in the Context of Poverty: The Infant Health and Development Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the impact of individual environmental and biological risks on the home environment of three-year olds in a sample of low birth weight, premature infants. Suggests that compared to nonpoor families, poor families experienced more multiple risk factors. Poverty clearly had a negative effect on the provision of learning experiences,…

Brooks-Gun, Jeanne; And Others

1995-01-01

115

Nurse managed occupational health centers: an overview.  

PubMed

1. Nurse managed centers provide clients with direct access to professional nursing care. 2. Lillian Wald, Mary Breckenridge, and Margaret Sanger established nurse managed centers at the beginning of this century. 3. Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs and services are based on the mission, outcomes, staffing, and financing of the occupational health center. 4. Essential parameters for comprehensively evaluating an occupational health nurse managed center include, client outcomes, client satisfaction, and cost-benefit. PMID:9384001

Wachs, J E

1997-10-01

116

[The characteristics of public health resources management].  

PubMed

The article analyses the position of human health in the system of social economic relationships. The notion of material and technical resources in health institutions is defined. It is demonstrated that they are characterized by number of health institutions, their structure according levels and stages of medical care provision, costs of fixed assets, their structure and wear. The conceptual characteristics of actual management of public health resources are analyzed. PMID:22279808

2011-01-01

117

[Inequality, poverty and obesity].  

PubMed

National studies have been demonstrating the positive relationship among inequality, poverty and obesity revealing the singularities and complexity of the nutritional transition in Brazil. In this direction, the women constitute a vulnerable group to the dynamics of the obesity in the poverty context. Such fact imposes the theoretical deepening and the accomplishment of researches that make possible a larger approach with the phenomenon in subject. In this perspective, the study analyzed the daily life of poor and obese women, users of basic units of health of the city of Diamantina, Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais State. The results revealed the complex relationship between feminine obesity and poverty. The cultural and material aspects of life, as well as the different feeding and body conceptions that demonstrated to be fundamental elements for the analysis of the multiple faces of the obesity among the investigated group. Facing these results it is appropriate to encourage public policies that promote equity widening the access of those groups to the main resources for the prevention and combat of obesity. PMID:20640303

Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Silva, Aline Elizabeth; Rodrigues, Chrystiellen Ayana Aparecida; Nunes, Nádia Lúcia Almeida; Vigato, Tássia Cassimiro; Magalhães, Rosana

2010-06-01

118

Future developments in health care performance management  

PubMed Central

This paper highlights the challenges of performance management in health care, wherein multiple different objectives have to be pursued. The literature suggests starting with quality performance, following the sand cone theory, but considering a multidimensional concept of health care quality. Moreover, new managerial approaches coming from an industrial context and adapted to health care, such as lean management and risk management, can contribute to improving quality performance. Therefore, the opportunity to analyze them arises from studying their overlaps and links in order to identify possible synergies and to investigate the opportunity to develop an integrated methodology enabling improved performance.

Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

2013-01-01

119

Future developments in health care performance management.  

PubMed

This paper highlights the challenges of performance management in health care, wherein multiple different objectives have to be pursued. The literature suggests starting with quality performance, following the sand cone theory, but considering a multidimensional concept of health care quality. Moreover, new managerial approaches coming from an industrial context and adapted to health care, such as lean management and risk management, can contribute to improving quality performance. Therefore, the opportunity to analyze them arises from studying their overlaps and links in order to identify possible synergies and to investigate the opportunity to develop an integrated methodology enabling improved performance. PMID:24255600

Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

2013-01-01

120

Hope out of Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "A Framework of Poverty," Ruby Payne (1998) itemizes the things that characterize poverty-stricken people. She talks about how hard it is for a person to move out of poverty. To not pass poverty on to another generation, one must have a vision. One must have a desire to achieve a better life or a strong support system. Schools must become the…

Davenport, Roy F.; Tolbert, Marsha; Myers-Oliver, Donna; Brissett, Julia M.; Roland, Annissa J.

2007-01-01

121

CHILDREN AND POVERTY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THREE MAJOR QUESTIONS ARE RAISED--(1) WHAT IS MEANT BY POVERTY AND TO WHAT EXTENT DOES THE OVERALL AMOUNT OF POVERTY DEPEND ON THE SORT OF MEASURING ROD USED. (2) HOW MANY AND WHAT PROPORTION OF THE NATION'S CHILDREN ARE GROWING UP IN POVERTY. AND (3) WHERE, GEOGRAPHICALLY AND SOCIALLY, ARE THESE CHILDREN OF THE POOR TO BE FOUND. POVERTY IS…

WITMER, HELEN L.

122

Struggling Readers: High-Poverty Schools that Beat the Odds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poverty is a strong predictor of lack of academic success in reading, and schools serving high-poverty populations are more likely to show weak performance in high-stakes tests. But some schools manage to beat these odds, with students outperforming peers from more advantaged neighborhoods. Why? The author showcases six high-poverty schools where…

Cunningham, Patricia M.

2006-01-01

123

Rotorcraft Health Management Issues and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of health management issues and challenges that are specific to rotorcraft. Rotorcraft form a unique subset of air vehicles in that their propulsion system is used not only for propulsion, but also serves as the primary source of lift and maneuvering of the vehicle. No other air vehicle relies on the propulsion system to provide these functions through a transmission system with single critical load paths without duplication or redundancy. As such, health management of the power train is a critical and unique part of any rotorcraft health management system. This paper focuses specifically on the issues and challenges related to the dynamic mechanical components in the main power train. This includes the transmission and main rotor mechanisms. This paper will review standard practices used for rotorcraft health management, lessons learned from fielded trials, and future challenges.

Zakrajsek, James J.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Huff, Edward M.; Augustin, Michael; Safa-Bakhsh, Robab; Ephraim, Piet; Grabil, Paul; Decker, Harry J.

2006-01-01

124

Do employee health management programs work?  

PubMed

Current peer review literature clearly documents the economic return and Return-on-Investment (ROI) for employee health management (EHM) programs. These EHM programs are defined as: health promotion, self-care, disease management, and case management programs. The evaluation literature for the sub-set of health promotion and disease management programs is examined in this article for specific evidence of the level of economic return in medical benefit cost reduction or avoidance. The article identifies the methodological challenges associated with determination of economic return for EHM programs and summarizes the findings from 23 articles that included 120 peer review study results. The article identifies the average ROI and percent health plan cost impact to be expected for both types of EHM programs, the expected time period for its occurrence, and caveats related to its measurement. PMID:19288852

Serxner, Seth; Gold, Daniel; Meraz, Angela; Gray, Ann

2009-01-01

125

Applying State Mental Health Standards: Management Uses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guidelines are presented to assist State mental health agencies in developing, monitoring, and using standards. The guidelines are directed to State agency directors, to members of their management teams and support systems, and to persons charged with de...

1976-01-01

126

Are public health physicians fading out of management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent developments in health services in the local arena in Norway have challenged the theoretical and applied scientific basis for both public health medicine and management. During the 1990s although public health physicians in Norway increased in number, they worked less with public health, as well as public health management. The effects of these developments on public health management

Betty J. Pettersen; Dag Hofoss

2007-01-01

127

Development and Testing of Propulsion Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Integrated Vehicle Health Management system aims to maintain vehicle health through detection, diagnostics, state awareness, prognostics, and lastly, mitigation of detrimental situations for each of the vehicle subsystems and throughout the vehicle as a whole. This paper discusses efforts to advance Propulsion Health Management technology for in-flight applications to provide improved propulsion sensors measuring a range of parameters, improve ease of propulsion sensor implementation, and to assess and manage the health of gas turbine engine flow-path components. This combined work is intended to enable real-time propulsion state assessments to accurately determine the vehicle health, reduce loss of control, and to improve operator situational awareness. A unique aspect of this work is demonstration of these maturing technologies on an operational engine.

Hunter, Gary W.; Lekki, John D.; Simon, Donald L.

2012-01-01

128

Research collaboration in health management research communities  

PubMed Central

Background This study uses scientometrics methodology to reveal the status quo and emerging issues of collaboration in health management. Methods We searched all the articles with the keyword “health management” in the period 1999–2011 in Web of Knowledge, then 3067 articles were found. Methods such as Social network analysis (SNA), co-authorship, co-word analysis were used in this study. Results Analysis of the past 13 years of research in the field of health management indicates that, whether the production of scientific research, or authors, institutions and scientific research collaboration at the national level, collaboration behavior has been growing steadily across all collaboration types. However, the international scientific research cooperation about health management study between countries needs to be further encouraged. 17 researchers can be seen as the academic leaders in this field. 37 research institutions play a vital role in the information dissemination and resources control in health management. The component analysis found that 22 research groups can be regarded as the backbone in this field. The 8 institution groups consisting of 33 institutions form the core of this field. USA, UK and Australia lie in the center by cohesive subgroup analysis; Based on keywords analysis, 44 keywords with high frequency such as care, disease, system and model were involved in the health management field. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although it is growing steadily, collaboration behavior about health management study needs to be enhanced, especially between different institutions or countries/regions, which would promote the progress and internationalization of health management. Besides, researchers should pay attention to the cooperation of representative scholars and institutions, as well as the hot areas of research, because their experience would help us promote the research development of our nation.

2013-01-01

129

Crisis management teams in health organisations.  

PubMed

Crisis management teams (CMT) are necessary to ensure adequate and appropriate crisis management planning and response to unforeseen, adverse events. This study investigated the existence of CMTs, the membership of CMTs, and the degree of training received by CMTs in Australian health and allied health organisations. This cross-sectional study draws on data provided by executive decision makers in a broad selection of health and allied health organisations. Crisis management teams were found in 44.2 per cent of the health-related organisations surveyed, which is ten per cent lower than the figure for business organisations. Membership of these CMTs was not ideal and did not conform to standard CMT membership profiles. Similarly, the extent of crisis management training in health-related organisations is 20 per cent lower than the figure for business organisations. If organisations do not become pro-active in their crisis management practices, the onus is on government to improve the situation through regulation and the provision of more physical, monetary and skill resources to ensure that the health services of Australia are sufficiently prepared to respond to adverse events. PMID:22576140

Canyon, Deon V

2012-01-01

130

Cooperative Education: Training Health Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health administration students attending a college or university in Los Angeles, California, participated in a study of the effect of cooperative education. Three groups of students were selected. Group 1 consisted of undergraduate minority students--five males and five females (19-28 years old) with no prior health related work experience. Groups…

Washington, William N.

131

Improving diabetes management with mobile health technology.  

PubMed

Diabetes affects 25.8 million persons in the United States, and these persons make more than 35 million ambulatory care visits annually. Yet, less than half of persons with diabetes meet the recommended levels of A1C, blood pressure and lipid control. One innovative approach is to use mobile health technologies to help patients better manage their diabetes and related conditions, and 85% to 90% of patients have access to mobile health technology. A brief review of the guidelines for diabetes care and mobile health technology that can support the guidelines are reported related to (1) glycemic control and self-monitoring of blood glucose, (2) pharmacological approaches and medication management, (3) medical nutrition therapy, (4) physical activity and resistance training, (5) weight loss, (6) diabetes self-management education and (7) blood pressure control and hypertension. The patient and provider are encouraged to explore possibilities for mobile health technologies that can support behavior change. PMID:23531961

Sieverdes, John C; Treiber, Frank; Jenkins, Carolyn

2013-04-01

132

Health management of ewes during pregnancy.  

PubMed

The objectives of health management of ewes during pregnancy are as follows: (i) successful completion of pregnancy at term, (ii) birth of healthy and viable lambs, with optimal birth and potential weaning bodyweight, (iii) optimum milk production during the subsequent lactation and (iv) improved management in relation to drug residues in animal products. Knowledge of the physiological background of pregnancy in ewes: changes, mechanisms and interactions, during pregnancy is important for the overall health management of ewes during pregnancy. Health management of pregnant ewes includes diagnosis of pregnancy and evaluation of the number of foetuses borne, which will support strategies for subsequent management of the flock. Nutritional management of ewes depends upon the stage of lactation and specifically aims to (i) prevention of pregnancy toxaemia and other metabolic diseases during the peri-partum period, (ii) formation of colostrum in appropriate quantity and quality, (iii) production of lambs with normal future birth bodyweight and (iv) support of increased milk yield during the subsequent lactation. At the end of lactation, udder management of pregnant ewes includes its clinical examination, culling of ewes considered unsuitable for lactation and, possibly, the intramammary administration of antibiotics; objectives of that procedure are (i) to cure infections which have occurred during the previous lactation and (ii) to prevent development of new mammary infection during the dry period. Management of abortions includes the correct and timely diagnosis of the causative agent of the disorder, as well as the strategic administrations of chemotherapeutic agents, aiming to prevent abortions in flocks with confirmed infection with an abortifacient agent, especially if no appropriate vaccinations had been carried out before the mating season. During the final stage of pregnancy, health management of ewes includes administration of appropriate anthelmintic drugs, aiming to eliminate gastrointestinal helminthes (thus, increasing production output of ewes) and preventing the built-up of parasitic burdens in the environment (thus, reducing infection of lambs during their neonatal period). Vaccinations of pregnant ewes aim to protect these animals, as well as their offspring, especially against diseases which are a frequent cause of neonatal mortality (e.g., clostridial infections). Health management also aims to prevent the main metabolic disorders of pregnant ewes (i.e., pregnancy toxaemia and hypocalcaemia), as well as to monitor flocks for development of these disorders. Health management of pregnant ewes is completed with application of husbandry practices before the start of the lambing season. Finally, in some cases, health management may include induction and synchronisation of lambings, which is a management or therapeutic procedure. PMID:22356932

Fthenakis, G C; Arsenos, G; Brozos, C; Fragkou, I A; Giadinis, N D; Giannenas, I; Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Valasi, I

2012-02-01

133

Health maintenance and management in childhood disability.  

PubMed

Health and health-related needs of children with disabilities are very broad in scope, and it is impossible to adequately cover all aspects in a single article. This article has tried, however, to highlight the issues common to disability, and lay the groundwork for the development of health maintenance guidelines for this population. The prevalence of childhood disability is on the rise, yet life expectancies are improving, and it is not uncommon for children even with severe disabilities to live well into adulthood. The ICIDH2 paradigm shift to focus on health and function rather than impairment and disability fits well with the national initiative to promote health for all. There is a paucity of information on the impact of childhood interventions on health in adulthood, yet it would be prudent to surmise that early interventions will be effective. Directed attention to the basic health needs and preventive measures for the management of children with disabilities is required. This can be difficult because the management of a child with disability is dynamic and challenging, and health care providers may find their time and energies consumed with just managing the more obvious and striking disability-related problems. The widespread ramifications of disability on both the individual and society, call for teamwork between family, health care providers, and the community. Although the specific needs of such a diverse group vary widely; as a group, children with disabilities have many common needs. These include the need for basic health maintenance and health promotion measures such as nutrition, immunizations and physical fitness, as well as coordination of services, psychologic and family support, technical assistance, funding resources, communication between health and education fields, and access to a "medical home," the site for primary care of the child. As a tree is bent, so it will grow. Efforts to promote growth and maximize opportunities for development, to inculcate healthy eating habits, to encourage exercise and socialization behaviors, and to strengthen the bond between the child with disability, family, and community will help minimize disability-related problems in adulthood. As children with disabilities are drawn into the mainstream of the concept of health, we should start to see the much awaited change in societal attitudes toward disability. The conditions resulting in childhood disability are many varied. Rather than developing condition specific health guidelines, it would be more advantageous to use a general health framework of anticipatory guidance, growth, development, medical management, psychologic and vocational counseling, and resource planning. Working off this framework, health maintenance and promotion measures can then be further individualized to suit the child and family's specific needs. PMID:12465561

Ayyangar, Rita

2002-11-01

134

Up close and personal: poverty and human development  

PubMed Central

Poverty and health are inextricably linked: poverty diminishes access to health care (whether through reduced ability to pay, a lack of knowledge about when to seek health care or a lack of adequate services within reach), increases exposure to disease and other illness (for example, through exposure to dangerous workplaces), and is related to reduced access to clean water, housing and sanitation.

Murray, Sally; Brophy, James; Kendall, Claire; Palepu, Anita

2007-01-01

135

Child Poverty and Changes in Child Poverty  

PubMed Central

This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

CHEN, WEN-HAO; CORAK, MILES

2008-01-01

136

Medicaid managed care and public health data.  

PubMed Central

In summary, there are a number of ways in which state public health data can be of value in the design of Medicaid managed care plans. At the level of the purchaser, such as a state Medicaid agency, public health data can assist in decision-making around pricing policy and can be useful in prioritizing interventions for those conditions that most severely affect the covered population. Quality assurance standards such as the HEDIS clinical performance measures can be used to define a baseline of prevention-oriented services or, by adding additional customized data points, to emphasize a particular service. From the standpoint of the managed care plan, public health data can be useful in understanding the needs of a community it serves or would like to serve and in estimating the prevalence of various conditions in that community that will influence the premium it will charge. Thus, there are multiple routes through which public health goals and priorities can be incorporated into managed care and can leverage the power of managed care to improve the public's health. Images p228-a

Rutherford, G W; Backer, H D

1999-01-01

137

Reducing Poverty among Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the highest poverty rate among children since the 1960s, this report examines existing Federal policies to assist poor families with children and analyzes over 40 policy alternatives. Chapter 1 discusses how poverty is measured, recent trends and current patterns of childhood poverty as officially measured, and the effects of using…

Current Population Reports, 1985

1985-01-01

138

Poverty Profile USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second edition of "Poverty Profile", published by the Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle as part of their Campaign for Human Development, updates the data examined in the earlier (1972) edition and examines some of the current social welfare programs designed to alleviate the affects of poverty. The extent to which poverty affects…

Procopio, Mariellen; Perella, Frederick J., Jr.

139

Managing the myths of health care.  

PubMed

Myths impede the effective management of health care, for example that the system is failing (indeed, that is a system), and can be fixed by detached social engineering and heroic leadership, or treating it more like a business. This field needs to reframe its management, as distributed beyond the "top"; its strategy as venturing, not planning; its organizing as collaboration beyond control, and especially itself, as a system beyond its parts. PMID:23342753

Mintzberg, Henry

2012-01-01

140

Health Occupations Education Program Management Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes a project to develop a secondary education program management guide for health occupations education in Iowa. Introductory material includes the following: a summary sheet on project objectives, a description of how the objectives were met, the audience served, an educational equity statement, a statement that the…

Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.

141

Learning, changing and managing in mental health.  

PubMed

This paper draws on research which considers the implications for practitioners and managers of implementing new ideas for practice gained from learning and education in mental health in the UK. Using a questionnaire survey followed by eight semi-structured interviews, the research set out to identify the issues facing workers trying to implement change in the workplace as a result of new learning gained from study of an Open University mental health course. The paper argues that much management literature on change within organisations is problematic in this specific context. This is largely because it takes insufficient account of the complexities surrounding work within social care (particularly mental health). Findings show that workers who have undertaken learning in mental health often feel disempowered and isolated when attempting to introduce new ideas for practice into the workplace. The first line manager operates at the intersection of practice and learning and has a key role in enabling and supporting staff through practice as well as service change and professional development. This paper locates the distance learning experience within a wider framework of student/practitioner support, and explores the role of the first line manager in supporting and enabling staff. PMID:11725583

Henderson, J

2001-11-01

142

Rotorcraft Health Management Issues and Challenges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an overview of health management issues and challenges that are specific to rotorcraft. Rotorcraft form a unique subset of air vehicles in that their propulsion system is used not only for propulsion, but also serves as the primary sou...

E. M. Huff J. J. Zakrajske M. Augustin P. J. Dempsey R. Safa-Bakhsh

2006-01-01

143

Overcoming Human Poverty: UNDP Poverty Report 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year's annual Poverty Report from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the world's largest aid agency, breaks new ground in the way it directly indicates poor governance as a leading cause of continued poverty in many nations. The question of government and poverty has been a matter of some contention within the UN and between aid agencies and countries seeking assistance. This report identifies effective governance as "the 'missing link' between national anti-poverty efforts and poverty reduction," and concludes that "for many countries it is in improving governance that external assistance is needed." The authors call for a new and more sharply focused global strategy to combat poverty, one that emphasizes good government, the integration of poverty programs on the national and international level, and empowering people. The full text of the report is available by chapter at the site, along with an executive summary, country profiles, and a PowerPoint slide show. The text and summary are also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, and Spanish.

144

Building Poverty Reduction Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This World Bank site considers a new framework for reducing poverty worldwide. The three steps of this outline are highlighted. "Understanding the nature and locus of poverty" considers the demographics of the world's poor. The second step, "Choosing public actions that have the highest poverty impact," examines the factors necessary for choosing public actions that will merit the highest impact on poverty. Finally, the provisions for monitoring the chosen poverty outcome indicators are explained in "Selecting and tracking outcome indicators." This site's rich resources include information and data on poverty such as regional and social indicators, household surveys, and country data sets, and an extensive list of related links. An online library holds reports, working papers, speeches, and other materials from the World Bank as well as from other resources. Interested users may also subscribe to PovertyNet, a bimonthly e-newsletter.

145

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

2011-01-01

146

Aid allocation and poverty reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper derives a poverty-efficient allocation of aid and compares it with actual aid allocations. The allocation of aid that has the maximum effect on poverty depends on the level of poverty and the quality of policies. Using the headcount, poverty-gap, and squared poverty gap measures of poverty, alternatively, all yield similar poverty-efficient allocations. Finally, we find that the actual

Paul Collier; David Dollar

2002-01-01

147

Can I risk using public services? Perceived consequences of seeking help and health care among households living in poverty: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To improve understanding of how families living in adverse conditions perceive their encounters with public services and how past experiences influence current and future attempts to seek help. Design Qualitative interviews with adult members of households living in poverty in deprived areas, plus observations conducted in the surrounding neighbourhoods and service settings. Participants Purposive sample of 25 adults living in a deprived area, on welfare benefits. Setting Eight sites in disadvantaged areas in Merseyside, North Wales, London and Greater Manchester in 2004/05. Results Participants generally perceived public services as a source of distrust and a potential risk to well?being. Encounters with a range of services were perceived as risky in terms of losing resources, being misunderstood or harshly judged, and carrying the ultimate threat of losing custody of their children. Participants perceived that they were subjected to increasing levels of surveillance, with fear of “being told on” by neighbours, in addition to service providers, adding to anxiety. Adverse consequences included avoiding child health and social services, anxiety and self?imposed isolation. Conclusions Approaching services was perceived as akin to taking a gamble that might or might not result in their needs being met. Faced with this “choice”, participants employed strategies to minimise the risks that on the surface may appear risky to health. If public services are to succeed in providing support to disadvantaged families, greater efforts are needed to build trust and demonstrate understanding for the strategies these families use to maintain their well?being against formidable odds.

Canvin, Krysia; Jones, Chris; Marttila, Anneli; Burstrom, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

2007-01-01

148

Poverty reduction: the paradox of the endogenous poverty line  

Microsoft Academic Search

When evaluating poverty, the relative poverty line may be considered as a percentage of the median income or it may be a percentage of the average income. It is proved that, with a poverty line relative to the median income, reducing poverty may become less costly in proportion to the total income as poverty increases (measured by the Sen, the

Louis De MESNARD

2007-01-01

149

Creating and managing a paperless health information management department.  

PubMed

Over the last 10 to 15 years, the health care industry has experienced dramatic changes in health care delivery, consumer needs, and demands. The medical record, a recapitulation of the care patients receive, continues to be one of the most vital components of the health care delivery system. It serves as a crucial administrative, clinical, financial, and research tool. Health information managers, striving to meet ever-changing requirements, have turned to electronic record processing to meet these changes. The following article describes one hospital's journey from a cumbersome paper environment to an electronic environment that not only resulted in improved customer service but also provided employees with renewed job satisfaction and increased skill levels. PMID:12402633

Greene, Zelda B

2002-08-01

150

Mapping the literature of health care management  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The research provides an overview of the health care management literature and the indexing coverage of core journal literature. Method: Citations from five source journals for the years 2002 through 2004 were studied using the protocols of the Mapping the Literature of Allied Health Project and Mapping the Literature of Nursing Project. The productivity of cited journals was analyzed by applying Bradford's Law of Scattering. Results: Journals were the most frequently cited format, followed by books. Only 3.2% of the cited journal titles from all 5 source journals generated two-thirds of the cited titles. When only the health care management practitioner–oriented source journals were considered, two-thirds of the output of cited journal titles came from 10.8% of the titles. Science Citation Index and PubMed provided the best overall coverage of the titles cited by all 5 source journals, while the cited titles from the 2 practitioner-oriented journals were covered most completely by Social Sciences Citation Index and Business Source Complete. Conclusions: Health care management is a multidisciplinary field. Librarians must consider the needs of their users and assist them by providing the necessary materials and combination of indexes to access this field adequately.

Taylor, Mary K.; Gebremichael, Meseret D.; Wagner, Catherine E.

2007-01-01

151

The social costs of the International Monetary Fund's adjustment programs for poverty: the case of health care development in Ghana.  

PubMed

A primary health care (PHC) strategy was adopted in Ghana in 1978, but the civilian government at the time failed to implement the program designed to achieve health for all Ghanaians. In 1982, the revolutionary military government under Rawlings indicated its commitment to the full implementation of the PHC program. In this article, the author seeks to examine the extent to which the Economic Recovery Program initiated by the Rawlings' regime, its policy of decentralization and mobilization of the masses, and its promise to institute some fundamental organizational and structural changes in the health care delivery system, are contributing to the process of achieving "health for all" Ghanaians. PMID:2753581

Anyinam, C A

1989-01-01

152

Poverty and death in the United States.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a survival analysis to determine the effect of poverty on mortality in a national sample of blacks and whites, 25 to 74 years of age (the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-1) and NHANES-1 Epidemiologic Follow up Study). They estimated the proportion of mortality associated with poverty during 1971-1984 and in 1991 by calculating population attributable risk and assessed confounding by major known risk factors (e.g., smoking, cholesterol levels, and physical inactivity). In 1973, 6.0 percent of U.S. mortality among black and white persons 25 to 74 years of age was attributable to poverty; in 1991, the proportion was 5.9 percent. In 1991, rates of mortality attributable to poverty were lowest for white women, 2.2 times as high for white men, 8.6 times as high for black men, and 3.6 times as high for black women. Adjustment for all these potential confounders combined had little effect on the hazard ratio among men, but reduced the effect of poverty on mortality among women by 42 percent. The proportion of mortality attributable to poverty among U.S. black and white adults has changed only minimally in recent decades. The effect of poverty on mortality must be largely explained by conditions other than commonly recognized risk factors. PMID:8906445

Hahn, R A; Eaker, E D; Barker, N D; Teutsch, S M; Sosniak, W A; Krieger, N

1996-01-01

153

Trauma, poverty and mental health among Somali and Rwandese refugees living in an African refugee settlement – an epidemiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among Rwandese and Somali refugees resident in a Ugandan refugee settlement, as a measure of the mental health consequences of armed conflict, as well as to inform a subsequent mental health outreach program. The study population comprised a sample from 14400 (n

Lamaro P Onyut; Frank Neuner; Verena Ertl; Elisabeth Schauer; Michael Odenwald; Thomas Elbert

2009-01-01

154

FAILSAFE Health Management for Embedded Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FAILSAFE project is developing concepts and prototype implementations for software health management in mission- critical, real-time embedded systems. The project unites features of the industry-standard ARINC 653 Avionics Application Software Standard Interface and JPL s Mission Data System (MDS) technology (see figure). The ARINC 653 standard establishes requirements for the services provided by partitioned, real-time operating systems. The MDS technology provides a state analysis method, canonical architecture, and software framework that facilitates the design and implementation of software-intensive complex systems. The MDS technology has been used to provide the health management function for an ARINC 653 application implementation. In particular, the focus is on showing how this combination enables reasoning about, and recovering from, application software problems.

Horvath, Gregory A.; Wagner, David A.; Wen, Hui Ying; Barry, Matthew

2010-01-01

155

ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation presents status and results of research on Software Health Management done within the NRA "ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management." Topics include: Ingredients of a Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (GN and C); Selected GN and C Testbed example; Health Management of major ingredients; ISWHM testbed architecture; and Conclusions and next Steps.

Schumann, Johann; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Darwiche, Adnan

2010-01-01

156

Making Technology Ready: Integrated Systems Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper identifies work needed by developers to make integrated system health management (ISHM) technology ready and by programs to make mission infrastructure ready for this technology. This paper examines perceptions of ISHM technologies and experience in legacy programs. Study methods included literature review and interviews with representatives of stakeholder groups. Recommendations address 1) development of ISHM technology, 2) development of ISHM engineering processes and methods, and 3) program organization and infrastructure for ISHM technology evolution, infusion and migration.

Malin, Jane T.; Oliver, Patrick J.

2007-01-01

157

Distributing shared savings for population health management.  

PubMed

Lessons from outcomes-based fee-for-service payment models that can be applied to population health management models include the following: Focus on outcomes, not processes. Limit the number of outcomes measures used. Ensure that the amount distributed is substantial enough to motivate behavior change. Communicate results clearly and transparently. Ensure that the financial consequence of poor performance is proportional to the cost increase it generates. Focus on reducing the rate of excess preventable outcomes. PMID:24757873

Averill, Richard F; Goldfield, Norbert; Hughes, John S

2014-04-01

158

Management without frontiers: health system convergence leads to health care management convergence.  

PubMed

Health care managers and policymakers throughout the industrialized world are faced with a variety of new challenges at the same time that traditional constraints on action are becoming ever more restrictive. These pressures have stimulated a variety of health care reforms involving four different strategies for change: cost-containment efforts, quality and administrative efficiency improvements, cost-shifting efforts, and the adoption of market-related concepts from the private sector. These changes are leading to convergence among health systems, as seen by the reforms underway in the Netherlands, Germany, and the English component of the United Kingdom's National Health Service. This in turn will create convergence in the problems and issues faced by health care managers. Issues such as hospital contracting, managed mental health care, primary care gatekeeping, and four others are explored to illustrate how American managers can learn from the experiences of colleagues in other industrialized nations. A final section identifies common themes for health care executives in this period of global convergence. PMID:10136977

Kirkman-Liff, B L

1994-01-01

159

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation. ISHM is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this chapter, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an ISHM capability relevant to intelligent systems. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system, emphasizing an advance toward an on-board, autonomous capability. Both ground-based and on-board ISHM capabilities are addressed. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

2011-01-01

160

Poverty and Human Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Poverty, growth and human development; Human development issues and policies; Implementing human development programs: Some practical lessons; Priorities and progress in regional perspective; Summary and conclusions.

1980-01-01

161

Trauma, poverty and mental health among Somali and Rwandese refugees living in an African refugee settlement - an epidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among Rwandese and Somali refugees resident in a Ugandan refugee settlement, as a measure of the mental health consequences of armed conflict, as well as to inform a subsequent mental health outreach program. The study population comprised a sample from 14400 (n = 519 Somali and n = 906 Rwandese) refugees resident in Nakivale refugee settlement in South Western Uganda during the year 2003. Methods The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 were used to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Results Thirty two percent of the Rwandese and 48.1% of the Somali refugees were found to suffer from PTSD. The Somalis refugees had a mean of 11.95 (SD = 6.17) separate traumatic event types while the Rwandese had 8.86 (SD = 5.05). The Somalis scored a mean sum score of 21.17 (SD = 16.19) on the PDS while the Rwandese had a mean sum score of 10.05 (SD = 9.7). Conclusion Mental health consequences of conflict remain long after the events are over, and therefore mental health intervention is as urgent for post-conflict migrant populations as physical health and other emergency interventions. A mental health outreach program was initiated based on this study.

Onyut, Lamaro P; Neuner, Frank; Ertl, Verena; Schauer, Elisabeth; Odenwald, Michael; Elbert, Thomas

2009-01-01

162

Structural Health Management for Future Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural Health Management (SHM) will be of critical importance to provide the safety, reliability and affordability necessary for the future long duration space missions described in America's Vision for Space Exploration. Long duration missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond cannot be accomplished with the current paradigm of periodic, ground based structural integrity inspections. As evidenced by the Columbia tragedy, this approach is also inadequate for the current Shuttle fleet, thus leading to its initial implementation of on-board SHM sensing for impact detection as part of the return to flight effort. However, future space systems, to include both vehicles as well as structures such as habitation modules, will require an integrated array of onboard in-situ sensing systems. In addition, advanced data systems architectures will be necessary to communicate, store and process massive amounts of SHM data from large numbers of diverse sensors. Further, improved structural analysis and design algorithms will be necessary to incorporate SHM sensing into the design and construction of aerospace structures, as well as to fully utilize these sensing systems to provide both diagnosis and prognosis of structural integrity. Ultimately, structural integrity information will feed into an Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) system that will provide real-time knowledge of structural, propulsion, thermal protection and other critical systems for optimal vehicle management and mission control. This paper will provide an overview of NASA research and development in the area of SHM as well as to highlight areas of technology improvement necessary to meet these future mission requirements.

Prosser, W. H.; Allison, S. G.; Woodard, S. E.; Wincheski, R. A.; Cooper, E. G.; Price, D. C.; Hedley, M.; Prokopenko, M.; Scott, D. A.; Tessler, A.

2004-01-01

163

A Distributed Prognostic Health Management Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper introduces a generic distributed prognostic health management (PHM) architecture with specific application to the electrical power systems domain. Current state-of-the-art PHM systems are mostly centralized in nature, where all the processing is reliant on a single processor. This can lead to loss of functionality in case of a crash of the central processor or monitor. Furthermore, with increases in the volume of sensor data as well as the complexity of algorithms, traditional centralized systems become unsuitable for successful deployment, and efficient distributed architectures are required. A distributed architecture though, is not effective unless there is an algorithmic framework to take advantage of its unique abilities. The health management paradigm envisaged here incorporates a heterogeneous set of system components monitored by a varied suite of sensors and a particle filtering (PF) framework that has the power and the flexibility to adapt to the different diagnostic and prognostic needs. Both the diagnostic and prognostic tasks are formulated as a particle filtering problem in order to explicitly represent and manage uncertainties; however, typically the complexity of the prognostic routine is higher than the computational power of one computational element ( CE). Individual CEs run diagnostic routines until the system variable being monitored crosses beyond a nominal threshold, upon which it coordinates with other networked CEs to run the prognostic routine in a distributed fashion. Implementation results from a network of distributed embedded devices monitoring a prototypical aircraft electrical power system are presented, where the CEs are Sun Microsystems Small Programmable Object Technology (SPOT) devices.

Bhaskar, Saha; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

2009-01-01

164

Poverty Action Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many laboratories focus their attention on topics like Alzheimer's research, but this laboratory at MIT focuses on poverty. The objective of their work at the Poverty Action Lab is "to improve the effectiveness of poverty programs by providing policy makers with clear scientific results that help shape successful polices to combat poverty." The Lab was started in June 2003 by a group of professors at MIT and their collaborators. Visitors to the site will note that the materials here are divided into sections that include "Research", "People", "News", and "Courses". The "Research" section is a great place to start as policy makers and others can look over their completed projects (such as "Discrimination in the Job Market") and their publications. Moving on, visitors can click on the "People" section to learn more about their staff and directors. Finally, those who are curious about the reach of the Poverty Lab's work will want to look at their media features in the "News" section.

165

Sensor Systems for Prognostics and Health Management  

PubMed Central

Prognostics and health management (PHM) is an enabling discipline consisting of technologies and methods to assess the reliability of a product in its actual life cycle conditions to determine the advent of failure and mitigate system risk. Sensor systems are needed for PHM to monitor environmental, operational, and performance-related characteristics. The gathered data can be analyzed to assess product health and predict remaining life. In this paper, the considerations for sensor system selection for PHM applications, including the parameters to be measured, the performance needs, the electrical and physical attributes, reliability, and cost of the sensor system, are discussed. The state-of-the-art sensor systems for PHM and the emerging trends in technologies of sensor systems for PHM are presented.

Cheng, Shunfeng; Azarian, Michael H.; Pecht, Michael G.

2010-01-01

166

[Quality management in a public health agency].  

PubMed

This article describes the introduction of quality improvement actions in a public health organization. After ISO 17025 accreditation, which was legally mandated, was granted to the official control laboratory, the management decided to expand a quality policy in 2003, through a series of actions based on process analysis and proposals for improvement, further definition of standard operating procedures, exploration of users' opinions, the creation of improvement groups, and external audits or certification. The organizational response to these initiatives was diverse. External audit or certification of services seems to be the most powerful tool for change. Costing studies showed that up to 75% of the total expenditure of the agency in 2010 was spent on public health services subject to external audit or certification. PMID:22425456

Villalbí, Joan R; Ballestín, Manuela; Casas, Conrad; Subirana, Teresa

2012-01-01

167

Outage managment and health physics issue, 2008  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles include: Outage optimization initiatives, by George B. Beam, AREVA NP, Inc.; New plant based on excellent track records, by Jim Scarola, Progress Energy; Meeting customer needs and providing environmental benefits, by Peter S. Hastings, Duke Energy; Plants with 3-D design, by Jack A. Bailey, Tennessee Valley Authority; and Highest quality with exceptional planning, by Jason A. Walls, Duke Energy. Industry innovation articles include: Integrated exposure reduction plan, by Ed Wolfe, Exelon; Performance-based radiation worker training, by Joe Giuffre and Timothy Vriezerma, American Electric Power.

Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

2008-05-15

168

Poverty, food insecurity, and nutritional outcomes in children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examine the relationship between nutritional status, poverty, and food insecurity for household members of various ages. Our most striking result is that, while poverty is predictive of poor nutrition among preschool children, food insecurity does not provide any additional predictive power for this age group. Among school age children,

Jayanta Bhattacharya; Janet Currie; Steven Haider

2004-01-01

169

Relationships between Poverty and Psychopathology. Data Trends #97  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" asks: Does the stress and adversity associated with poverty cause mental illness or is poverty the result of downward social mobility of persons with mental illness? This is the…

Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

2004-01-01

170

The economic costs of childhood poverty in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to estimate the aggregate annual costs of child poverty to the US economy. It begins with a review of rigorous research studies that estimate the statistical association between children growing up in poverty and their earnings, propensity to commit crime, and quality of health later in life. We also review estimates of the costs that crime and

Harry J. Holzer; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach; Greg J. Duncan; Jens Ludwig

2008-01-01

171

Head Start Income Guidelines Are Out of Touch with Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children whose family income is below the official poverty line determined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) are eligible for enrollment into Head Start. The official poverty line is currently $13,400 per year. In a 1990 report, the Head Start Silver Ribbon Panel noted that: (1) Head Start eligibility requirements are more stringent…

National Head Start Association, Alexandria, VA.

172

Health Care Financial Management: Curriculum Objectives and Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum objectives for health care financial management, a bibliography and examples of financial management curricula are presented. The outline of curriculum objectives identifies a core of knowledge and skills in financial management that health administration students might obtain in their academic training. The outline's content is divided…

Zelman, William N., Ed.; And Others

173

Multiple disadvantages among older citizens: what a multidimensional measure of poverty can show.  

PubMed

Using the newly created Freedom Poverty Measure, a multidimensional measure of poverty, it can be seen that there were 534,700 individuals who were in freedom poverty, who had either poor health or poor education in addition to having low incomes. This multidimensional disadvantage would not normally be captured by single measures of poverty, such as income poverty measures. Men were significantly less likely to be in freedom poverty than women (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.54-0.74, p < .0001), and the proportion of individuals in freedom poverty increased with age, with those older than 85 being 2.3 times more likely to be in freedom poverty than those aged 65 to 69 years (95% CI: 1.73-3.11, p < .0001). Policy responses to address the marginalization of disadvantaged older people should take a multidisciplinary approach, addressing health inequalities in particular, not just low income. PMID:23216346

Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J; Shrestha, Rupendra N

2012-01-01

174

Does violent conflict make chronic poverty more likely? the Mindanao experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates whether provinces with violent conflict are more likely to experience higher rates of chronic poverty. Following the findings that education and health outcomes are key determinants of chronic poverty, the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Quality of Life Index (QLI) are used as proxy variables for chronic poverty. T-tests of means for HDI and QLI are

Hazel Jean L. Malapit; Tina S. Clemente; Cristina Yunzal

2003-01-01

175

Measuring Poverty Among the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty counts are counts of individuals in poverty but are calculated from household or family data on income or expenditure. The transition from one to the other requires assumptions about intrahousehold allocation, about differences in needs across different people, and about the extent of economies of scale. The number of elderly in poverty, or the number of children in poverty,

Angus Deaton; Christina Paxson

1995-01-01

176

Consumer-directed health care: implications for health care organizations and managers.  

PubMed

This article uses a pyramid model to illustrate the key components of consumer-directed health care. Consumer-directed health care is considered the essential strategy needed to lower health care costs and is valuable for making significant strides in health care reform. Consumer-directed health care presents new challenges and opportunities for all health care stakeholders and their managers. The viability of the health system depends on the success of managers to respond rapidly and with precision to changes in the system; thus, new and modified roles of managers are necessary to successfully sustain consumerism efforts to control costs while maintaining access and quality. PMID:20436329

Guo, Kristina L

2010-01-01

177

Where Community-Based Water Resource Management has Gone Too Far: Poverty and Disempowerment in Southern Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Madagascar has struggled with the question of decentralisation for more than three decades. Since coming to power in 2002, President Marc Ra- valomanana has both reformed and accelerated this process, granting new roles and responsibilities to regional and community leadership. This politi- cal path is consistent with shifts in natural resource management in the 1990s, notably in the water sector.

Richard R. Marcus

2007-01-01

178

Implementing a Strategic Energy Management Plan for Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adopting a strategic energy management plan (SEMP) has positioned PeaceHealth to proactively manage energy use for: 1. Operational cost savings,2. Improved environmental comfort and performance,3. Effective stewardship of resources.This plan was developed collectively by PeaceHealth facilities personnel to establish a set of guiding principles for energy management system wide. The PeaceHealth network includes regional healthcare facilities in Bellingham and Longview,

Ron Tolleson; Scott Dorough; Cynthia Putnam

2008-01-01

179

The Overview of the Health Monitoring Management System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The health monitoring management system has prominent function to improve the security and dependability of the aircraft, can also shortens the maintain cycle by a large margin, improves the sortie rate at the same time. This paper has explained the concept, the development in domestic and international and the key technology of the health monitoring management system of aircraft; Construct the structure of the aircraft health monitoring management system, and has carried on analysis and research to its implementation method.

Zhong-Ji, Tan; Zhiqiang, Zhang; Yan-Bin, Shi

180

Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Activities at Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) goals are to develop and integrate the technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce the costs of operations.

Fox, Jack

2000-01-01

181

Is your system ready for population health management?  

PubMed

Health care organizations will need to migrate to population health management sooner rather than later in response to statutory and regulatory pressures coming from the federal government. PMID:24734317

Block, Dale J

2014-01-01

182

Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health

Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

2013-01-01

183

Exploring Appalachian Poverty in Ohio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in this sociology class will role play as members of the governor's office to inform the Governor of many of the problems facing children in the United States and the State of Ohio. Data analysis pertaining to hunger, poverty, crime, health, and education are included as multiple resources for data, in addition to KidsCount, are used. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on KidsCount. KidsCount is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data.

Rowell, Kathy

184

West Coast Poverty Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Washington, the West Coast Poverty Center "serves as a hub for research, education, and policy analysis leading to greater understanding of the causes and consequences of poverty and effective approaches to reducing it in the west coast states." The Center was created in the fall of 2005, and it represents a collaborative venture between the UW School of Social Work, the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, and the College of Arts and Sciences. Scholars and others will find the site quite useful, and they may wish to start at the "Poverty Basics" section. This area includes helpful overviews like "How Many People Are Poor in the United States?" and interactive maps and charts that document the state of poverty levels on the West Coast. Moving on, the "Research" area contains links to papers, research briefs, and information about upcoming events sponsored by the Center.

185

Trade, Growth, and Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

(June 2001)The evidence from individual cases and from cross-country analysis supports the view that globalization leads to faster growth and poverty reduction in poor countries.To determine the effect of globalization on growth, poverty, and inequality, Dollar and Kraay first identify a group of developing countries that are participating more in globalization. China, India, and several other large countries are part

David Dollar; Aart Kraay

2001-01-01

186

Three Paths from Disability to Poverty.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The three paths from disability to poverty correspond to three ways in which an individual's stock of health capital might affect his constrained maximum of utility: (1) It can directly reduce utility in a pure consumption model; (2) it can indirectly red...

W. Y. Oi

1978-01-01

187

World Health Organization's Management of Substance Abuse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the larger World Health Organization's (WHO) site this section on the management of substance abuse has a variety of useful information for students, teachers and those practicing in the field. Some of the most useful are several resources related to terminology and classifications including the WHO lexicon of alcohol and drug terms. The lexicon, developed in 1994, supplies clinicians, researchers and other users with a set of definitions of terms related to tobacco, alcohol and other drugs. Also available is a Facts and Figures section which provides users with basic information about the use and misuse of alcohol and other drugs worldwide. The Activities pages allow users to get a glimpse into the research that WHO is currently undertaking that is related to substance abuse. Sections on publications, research tools, and other links round out this very useful site.

2006-11-28

188

Rocket Testing and Integrated System Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) describes a set of system capabilities that in aggregate perform: determination of condition for each system element, detection of anomalies, diagnosis of causes for anomalies, and prognostics for future anomalies and system behavior. The ISHM should also provide operators with situational awareness of the system by integrating contextual and timely data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) as needed. ISHM capabilities can be implemented using a variety of technologies and tools. This chapter provides an overview of ISHM contributing technologies and describes in further detail a novel implementation architecture along with associated taxonomy, ontology, and standards. The operational ISHM testbed is based on a subsystem of a rocket engine test stand. Such test stands contain many elements that are common to manufacturing systems, and thereby serve to illustrate the potential benefits and methodologies of the ISHM approach for intelligent manufacturing.

Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John

2005-01-01

189

Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

Uckun, Serdar

2005-01-01

190

Hospital administrator perceptions of health information managers as future leaders in health care reform.  

PubMed

The article examines hospital administrators' perceptions of health information professionals moving into leadership positions within health care organizations. Data for this study were collected from a national random sample of hospital administrators (N = 62). Findings from the study suggest that, although health information managers are viewed as integral to the success of the health care organization, health information managers are perceived as lacking appropriate educational training to move into administrative or leadership positions. For the health information professional to move into a leadership position, educational training (at the master's level) must focus on quality management, statistical process control, and performance evaluation. PMID:10140307

Rudman, W J; Kearns, L

1995-02-01

191

Food Insufficiency, Poverty, and Health: U.S. Pre-School and School-Age Children. American Journal of Public Health, vol. 91, no. 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concludes that hunger is associated with poor health among low-income children in the United States. Finds that preschool and school-age children whose families sometimes or often go hungry are up to three times more likely to have reported poorer health and to have more stomachaches and headaches than children in well-fed families. Preschool-aged children who do not get enough food

K. Alaimo; C. M. Olson; E. A. Frongillo Jr; R. Briefel

2001-01-01

192

Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture.  

PubMed

Asia contributes more than 90% to the world's aquaculture production. Like other farming systems, aquaculture is plagued with disease problems resulting from its intensification and commercialization. This paper describes the various factors, providing specific examples, which have contributed to the current disease problems faced by what is now the fastest growing food-producing sector globally. These include increased globalization of trade and markets; the intensification of fish-farming practices through the movement of broodstock, postlarvae, fry and fingerlings; the introduction of new species for aquaculture development; the expansion of the ornamental fish trade; the enhancement of marine and coastal areas through the stocking of aquatic animals raised in hatcheries; the unanticipated interactions between cultured and wild populations of aquatic animals; poor or lack of effective biosecurity measures; slow awareness on emerging diseases; the misunderstanding and misuse of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks; climate change; other human-mediated movements of aquaculture commodities. Data on the socio-economic impacts of aquatic animal diseases are also presented, including estimates of losses in production, direct and indirect income and employment, market access or share of investment, and consumer confidence; food availability; industry failures. Examples of costs of investment in aquatic animal health-related activities, including national strategies, research, surveillance, control and other health management programmes are also provided. Finally, the strategies currently being implemented in the Asian region to deal with transboundary diseases affecting the aquaculture sector are highlighted. These include compliance with international codes, and development and implementation of regional guidelines and national aquatic animal health strategies; new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and new information technology; new biosecurity measures including risk analysis, epidemiology, surveillance, reporting and planning for emergency response to epizootics; targeted research; institutional strengthening and manpower development (education, training and extension research and diagnostic services). PMID:16099592

Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Arthur, J Richard; Ogawa, Kazuo; Chinabut, Supranee; Adlard, Robert; Tan, Zilong; Shariff, Mohamed

2005-09-30

193

Strengthening health management: experience of district teams in The Gambia.  

PubMed

The lack of basic management skills of district-level health teams is often described as a major constraint to implementation of primary health care in developing countries. To improve district-level management in The Gambia, a 'management strengthening' project was implemented in two out of the three health regions. Against a background of health sector decentralization policy the project had two main objectives: to improve health team management skills and to improve resources management under specially-trained administrators. The project used a problem-solving and participatory strategy for planning and implementing activities. The project resulted in some improvements in the management of district-level health services, particularly in the quality of team planning and coordination, and the management of the limited available resources. However, the project demonstrated that though health teams had better management skills and systems, their effectiveness was often limited by the policy and practice of the national level government and donor agencies. In particular, they were limited by the degree to which decision making was centralized on issues of staffing, budgeting, and planning, and by the extent to which national level managers have lacked skills and motivation for management change. They were also limited by the extent to which donor-supported programmes were still based on standardized models which did not allow for varying and complex environments at district level. These are common problems despite growing advocacy for more devolution of decision making to the local level. PMID:10155879

Conn, C P; Jenkins, P; Touray, S O

1996-03-01

194

Associations between socioeconomic status and allostatic load: Effects of neighborhood poverty and tests of mediating pathways  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined relationships between neighborhood poverty and allostatic load in a low to moderate income multiracial urban community. We tested the hypothesis that neighborhood poverty is associated with allostatic load, controlling for household poverty. We also examined the hypotheses that this association was mediated by a) psychosocial stress and b) health related behaviors. Methods Multilevel analyses were conducted using cross sectional data from a probability sample survey in Detroit, Michigan (n=919) and 2000 Census. The outcome measure was allostatic load. Independent variables included neighborhood and household poverty, psychosocial stress, and health related behaviors. Covariates included neighborhood and individual demographic characteristics. Results Neighborhood poverty was positively associated with allostatic load (p<.05), independent of household poverty and controlling for potential confounders. Relationships between neighborhood poverty were mediated by self-reported neighborhood environment stress, but not by health-related behaviors. Conclusions Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neighborhood poverty is associated with wear and tear on physiological systems, and that this relationship is mediated through psychosocial stress. These relationships are evident after accounting for household poverty levels. Efforts to promote health equity should focus on neighborhood poverty and associated stressful environmental conditions, as well as household poverty.

Schulz, Amy J.; Mentz, Graciela; Lachance, Laurie; Johnson, Jonetta; Gaines, Causandra; Israel, Barbara A.

2012-01-01

195

The poverty-reducing effect of Medicaid.  

PubMed

Medicaid provides health insurance for 54 million Americans. Using the Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure (which subtracts out-of-pocket medical expenses from family resources), we estimated the impact of eliminating Medicaid. In our counterfactual, Medicaid beneficiaries would become uninsured or gain other insurance. Counterfactual medical expenditures were drawn stochastically from propensity-score-matched individuals without Medicaid. While this method captures the importance of risk protection, it likely underestimates Medicaid's impact due to unobserved differences between Medicaid and non-Medicaid individuals. Nonetheless, we find that Medicaid reduces out-of-pocket medical spending from $871 to $376 per beneficiary, and decreases poverty rates by 1.0% among children, 2.2% among disabled adults, and 0.7% among elderly individuals. When factoring in institutionalized populations, an additional 500,000 people were kept out of poverty. Overall, Medicaid kept at least 2.6 million-and as many as 3.4 million-out of poverty in 2010, making it the U.S.'s third largest anti-poverty program. PMID:23835200

Sommers, Benjamin D; Oellerich, Donald

2013-09-01

196

Developing health management for current and future inventory aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing and implementing health management systems for current and future aircraft poses many challenges, including interfacing with legacy onboard and offboard hardware and software systems, determining and justifying new functional requirements, and validating and verifying a robust, scalable system. Lessons learned from a current research and development program as well as prior health management system development experiences are presented as

J. B. Schroede; Greg J. Clark

2009-01-01

197

Managing Evaluation in a Federal Public Health Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, a federal manager who leads development and maintenance of evaluation for specific public health programs at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, tells the story of developing an evaluation unit in the Office on Smoking and Health. Lessons about managing evaluation, including his practices and related principles, are…

Schooley, Michael W.

2009-01-01

198

An Airplane Health Management approach for civil aviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

om Abstract-In order to improve the safety and economy of civil aviation, based on the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) System, an Airplane Health Management (AHM) technology is presented in this paper. Although the PHM system contains the abilities of fault detection, fault isolation, fault prognosis and prognosis of the remaining life, extending the time of an aircraft in the

Li Shu-ming; Dan Min; Yang Lu

2011-01-01

199

Review on integrated health management for aerospace plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The references at home and abroad are summarized in this paper. This paper introduces the basic concept and the application significance of aerospace plane, the main differences between the aerospace plane and general aircraft, integrated health management system and its compositions of aerospace plane , the development status of health management for aerospace plane in domestic and foreign countries. Especially

Li Yi-bo; Liu Jin-ying

2011-01-01

200

Simulation: A Complementary Method for Teaching Health Services Strategic Management  

PubMed Central

Rapid change in the health care environment mandates a more comprehensive approach to the education of future health administrators. The area of consideration in this study is that of health care strategic management. A comprehensive literature review suggests microcomputer-based simulation as an appropriate vehicle for addressing the needs of both educators and students. Seven strategic management software packages are reviewed and rated with an instrument adapted from the Infoworld review format. The author concludes that a primary concern is the paucity of health care specific strategic management simulations.

Reddick, W. T.

1990-01-01

201

Managed care and the public health challenge of TB.  

PubMed Central

Managed care is fast becoming the dominant form of medical care delivery and financing in the United States, yet its effects on public health practice remain largely unknown. Tuberculosis (TB) is a classic example of a disease with both public health and medical care implications, and as such it provides an opportunity for examining the impact on public health of the shift towards managed care in the medical marketplace. The authors approach the role of managed care in TB control by first considering the need for interorganizational coordination at the community level. The authors identify four basic models of how managed care organizations may fit into TB control efforts in local communities, using observations from 12 local public health jurisdictions to illustrate these models. These TB control models provide insight into the general mechanisms through which managed care organizations may affect other areas of public health practice. Images p22-a p23-a p25-a p28-a

Halverson, P K; Mays, G P; Miller, C A; Kaluzny, A D; Richards, T B

1997-01-01

202

Windows on Urban Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The spatial dimension and geographic variation of poverty has been the subject of great scholarly debate among policy-makers and academics for numerous decades. Some have commented that dense concentrations of underclass persons create a "culture of poverty," while others lay the blame on architects, urban planners, and a host of others. This engaging and useful site is a product of the Bruton Center at the University of Texas at Dallas under the direction of Professor Paul Jargowsky. The Windows on Urban Poverty project Web site contains a research paper on the changes in the concentration of poverty between 1990 and 2000 (also released as a publication through the Brookings Institution) and a mapping tool that lets visitors view the relative concentrations of poverty in cities around the United States. There is a small section that introduces users to the process of using the mapping tool, which will be quite helpful to those unfamiliar with utilizing maps in this fashion (Users should note that the interactive mapping tool on the site is only supported by Internet Explorer).

Jargowsky, Paul A.

203

HIV, poverty and women.  

PubMed

This review examines the interactions of financial status and HIV and its implications for women. MEDLINE and Google scholar were searched using the keywords 'women', 'poverty' and 'HIV' in any field of the article. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years. The first section of the article tries to establish whether poverty or wealth is a risk factor for HIV. There is credible evidence for both arguments. While wealth shows an increased risk for both sexes, poverty places women at a special disadvantage. The second section explains how the financial status interacts with other 'non biological' factors to put women at increased risk. While discrimination based on these factors disadvantage women, there are some paradoxical observations that do not fit with the traditional line of explanation (e.g. paradoxical impact of wealth and education on HIV). The final section assesses the impact of HIV in driving poverty and the role of women in interventional programmes. The specific impact of poverty on females in families living with HIV is less explored. Though microfinance initiatives to empower women are a good idea in theory, the actual outcome of such a programme is less convincing. PMID:24037044

Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

2010-03-01

204

Managing Health Care Organizations: Where Professionalism Meets Complexity Science (Articles)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the intersection of professionalism and complexity science as a source of new insights for improving the health care industry from both a clinical and business point of view. Viewing health care organizations as professional complex adaptive systems suggests eight leadership tasks for addressing the circumstances that engulf health care. Managers who adopt this view will be able

Ruth A. Anderson; Reuben R. Jr

205

Environmental Management of Pediatric Asthma: Guidelines for Health Care Providers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These guidelines are the product of a new Pediatric Asthma Initiative aimed at integrating environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This document outlines competencies in environmental health relevant to pediatric asthma that should be mastered by primary health care providers, and outlines the environmental interventions…

Roberts, James R.; McCurdy, Leyla Erk

2005-01-01

206

Children and Managed Health Care. Analysis and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the changes managed health care has brought to the delivery and use of medical services and recommends specific steps that will make the existing system more responsive to the needs of children. Systemwide health care reforms must give children stable medical care that emphasizes preventive health and developmental services. (SLD)

Deal, Lisa W.; Shiono, Patricia H.; Behrman, Richard E.

1998-01-01

207

Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poverty is not properly described solely in terms of economics. Certainly the billion people living on less than a dollar a day are the extreme poor and the two billion people who are living today on two dollars a day or less are poor also. One third of all humans live in poverty today. But poverty concerns deprivation - of good health, adequate nutrition, adequate education, properly paid employment, clean water, adequate housing and good sanitation. It is a fundamental denial of opportunity and a violation of basic human rights. Despite its prevalence and persistence of poverty and the attention given it by many scholars, the causes of poverty are not well understood and hence interventions to bring poor societies out of their condition often fail. One commonly missed component in the search for solutions to poverty is the fundamental co-dependence between the state of the Earth and the state of human well-being. These relationships, are compelling but often indirect and non-linear and sometimes deeply nuanced. They are also largely empirical in nature, lacking theory or models that describe the nature of the relationships. So while it is quite apparent that the poorest people are much more vulnerable than the rich to the Earths excesses and even to relatively small natural variations in places where the base conditions are poor, we do not presently know whether the recognized vulnerability is both an outcome of poverty and a contributing cause. Are societies poor, or held from development out of poverty because of their particular relationship to Earth's natural systems? Does how we live depend on where we live? Providing answers to these questions is one of the most fundamental research challenges of our time. That research lies in a domain squarely at the boundary between the natural and social sciences and cannot be answered by studies in either domain alone. What is clear even now, is that an understanding of the Earth gained from the natural sciences is essential and could hold the key to making gains toward alleviating the burden of global poverty.

Mutter, J. C.

2004-12-01

208

Managed care and children with special health care needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing care to children with special health care needs within a managed care environment presents special challenges for providers and parents alike. The goal of managed care is to contain costs by encouraging or requiring members to obtain services through a designated network. In managed care programs, children and families may experience limited access to specialized care and services, along

Jeanne M. Rhoades Smucker

2001-01-01

209

Strengthening Care Management with Health Information Technology. A Learning Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By unleashing the power of health IT to support care management, Beacon Communities were able to expand, enhance and improve the quality of a range of care management services in order to improve care transitions and chronic disease management, and better...

2013-01-01

210

Reframing the Pharmaceutical Manufacturer\\/ Health Plan Relationship in Managed Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managed care is stuck in a vendor stage of health care in- dustry evolution that is organized, primarily, to beat back costs through contracted discounts and utilization management. At the same time, the potential exists for an altogether dif- ferent managed care that is based on a more explicit mission of lowering costs through improved quality. The foundation for this

IRA STUDIN

2002-01-01

211

Poverty, bioethics and research.  

PubMed

The article presents a reflection on conception of poverty as a condition or circumstance that restricts personal autonomy and increases vulnerability. Focusing on bioethical arguments, the authors discuss two perspectives: (i) economic, that relates poverty to incapacity to work and (ii) ethical-philosophical, which relates poverty to inequality and injustice. The first perspective corresponds to the World Bank's view according to its recommendations to the political and economic adjustment in Latin America. The second one is based on concepts of fairness and equality as components of social justice. The subjects' autonomy and vulnerability have been under question in an international movement that requests revision of ethical guidelines for the biomedical research. The bioethical arguments presented in this article enhance a discussion on unfair treatment to subjects enlisted in protocols sponsored by rich countries and hosted by poor nations. PMID:17934593

Ribeiro, Cléa Regina de Oliveira; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone

2007-01-01

212

Global Poverty Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to this report stemming from the July 2000 Okinawa Summit, 1.2 billion people are estimated to live on less than $1 per day, and nearly 3 billion people, worldwide, live on less than $2 a day. This 23-page report examines the roles which the World Bank, IMF, and Multilateral Development Banks play "at the country level, where they provide policy advice, and financial and technical support for long-term country-driven programs, as well as support to deal with shocks." The first chapter of the report considers global poverty issues and trends, while the second chapter looks at poverty on a regional scale. Finally, the third chapter reports on possible ways these organizations can work together to combat poverty.

213

Engineers Against Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engineers Against Poverty (EAP) is a non-governmental organization that works in the field of engineering and international development. EAP works to harness members' combined skills to alleviate poverty throughout the world and work on the challenges involved with sustainable development along the way. The materials on the site are divided into five sections, including Major Initiatives, Key Issues, Publications, and EAP's Programme. A good place to start is the Major Initiatives area. Here users can learn about some of the key issues and challenges in the domain of engineering, poverty reduction, and more. The EAP's Programme area has information and working papers on the organization's work in transforming extractive industries and infrastructure projects. Finally, the Publications area contains works like "Employment Intensive Road Construction" and "Climate Compatible Development in the Infrastructure Sector Overview."

2009-01-01

214

Chronic Poverty Research Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC) is an international organization made up of partnerships with universities and research organizations all working to "stimulate national and international debate; deepen understanding of the causes of chronic poverty; and provide research, analysis and policy guidance." The CPRC's website has more than 400 publications that visitors can download. There are "Working Papers Series" for India, Bangladesh and West Africa, which address everything from child laborers, spatial inequality in social progress, and technological change in food production. There are also "Policy Briefs" and "Journal Articles" visitors can download. The "Toolbox" is an excellent and unique resource for researchers, donor agencies, and students to learn how to use a mix of methodological approaches to better reflect the multi-dimensionality and complexity of poverty. Visitors will find such areas of guidance as "Designing Research," "Collecting Data," "Dissemination," and "Impact Assessment" that can aid in producing relevant and rigorous research.

215

Manpower Information for Urban Poverty Areas. Volume I, Sources and Systems of Urban Data for the Planning and Management of Manpower Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the success of some antipoverty programs, it is not evident that conditions in poverty areas have improved; in fact, some indicators show that living conditions in the slums are worsening. One of the biggest difficulties is a lack of data on the nature of, and solutions to, the problems of these areas. Frequently revised data at least as…

Levine, Louis; Norton, John Herbert

216

Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prominent place of the chapter on poverty in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPI) is totally in keeping with the priority given to poverty reduction in the development thinking of the international community of today. The Johannesburg process did not lead to any new insights or new commitments in the fight against poverty. Section one sets out a factual

Francine Mestrum

2003-01-01

217

Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prominent place of the chapter on poverty in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPI) is totally in keeping with the priority given to poverty reduction in the development thinking of the international community of today. The Johannesburg process did not lead to any new insights or new commitments in the fight against poverty. Section one sets out a factual

Francine Mestrum

218

A Decade to Eradicate Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the global efforts of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) to ease poverty and help developing nations to build their capacity for sustainable development. Includes a glossary of poverty and human development terms, a human poverty index ranking for developing countries, and suggested teaching activities. (MJP)

Social Education, 1997

1997-01-01

219

No health for all without better trained management.  

PubMed

This article notes that existing health professionals and managers constitute the first 'generation' working in a world where Health for All is a practical possibility because, if founded on community-based public and primary health care with hospitals in support and good intersectoral help, we now have the appropriate technology, access to finance and adequate numbers of health workers. What we still lack are sufficient health professionals, at all levels, with the managerial skills and experience to apply the technology, generate the funding and motivate the staff; making full use of community involvement, the co-operation of other sectors and good relationships with local and central government. Management can be learned both at the workplace and in the training room, and from the managers a few of them will emerge as leaders, with the vision to secure the willing support of others in reaching worthwhile health goals. A very useful publication is the Training Manual on Management of Human Resources for Health, WHO/EDUC/93.201 from World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland. The paper closes with examples illustrating four principles for health management development: finding key points of entry; reaching large numbers; accelerating national self-sufficiency; and international. PMID:10169451

White, D K

1997-01-01

220

Sensor Technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Management of Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is focusing considerable efforts on technology development for Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems. The research in this area is targeted toward increasing aerospace vehicle safety and reliability, while reducing vehicle operating and maintenance costs. Onboard, real-time sensing technologies that can provide detailed information on structural integrity are central to such a health management system. This paper describes a number of sensor technologies currently under development for integrated vehicle health management. The capabilities, current limitations, and future research needs of these technologies are addressed.

Prosser, W. H.; Brown, T. L.; Woodard, S. E.; Fleming, G. A.; Cooper, E. G.

2002-01-01

221

Poverty and death in the United States--1973 and 1991.  

PubMed

We conducted a survival analysis to determine the effect of poverty on mortality in a national sample of blacks and whites 25-74 years of age (in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and National Health Examination Follow-up Survey). We estimated the proportion of mortality associated with poverty from 1973 through 1984 and in 1991 by calculating the population attributable risk. We assessed confounding by major known risk factors, such as smoking, serum total cholesterol, and inactivity. In 1973, 16.1% of U.S. mortality among black and white persons 25-74 years of age was attributable to poverty; in 1991, the proportion increased to 17.7%. In 1991, the population attributable risk of poverty on mortality was lowest for white women, 1.7 times higher for white men, 2.6 times higher for black women, and 3.6 times higher for black men. Potential confounders explained 40% of the effect of poverty on mortality among women. The proportion of mortality attributable to poverty among U.S. black and white adults has increased in recent decades and is comparable to that attributable to cigarette smoking. The effect of poverty on mortality must be explained by conditions other than commonly recognized risk factors. PMID:8562624

Hahn, R A; Eaker, E; Barker, N D; Teutsch, S M; Sosniak, W; Krieger, N

1995-09-01

222

Trade, Growth, and Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:A key issue today is the effect of globalizationon inequality and poverty. We first identify a group of developing countries that are participating more in globalization. Since China, India, and several other large countries are part of this group, well over half of the population of the developing world lives in these globalizing economies. The post-1980 globalizers have seen large

D. Dollar; A. Kraay

1993-01-01

223

Demography and Poverty.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1982, a Bank-wide Task Force reported on the impact of Bank activities on poor people. It showed that the proportion of the Bank's lending directed mainly at people in absolute or relative poverty had risen sharply - from about 5% in 1968 to 30% in 198...

M. Lipton

1983-01-01

224

Malnutrition and poverty alleviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present paper is to understand the relationship between malnutrition and poverty, and how to generate ideas and concepts for developing studies leading to policy and programme implementation in the context of establishing collaborating networks among South-East Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) centres. Malnutrition is found at all stages of life, from the fetus to older

Dwi Susilowati; Darwin Karyadi

2002-01-01

225

Taxi, Jitneys and Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Version of the paper given at The Transportation and Poverty Conference of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Argues for revival of jitneys (12-14 capacity motor vehicles, operating on fixed routes, fares zone-rated) to serve ghetto residents and provide employment, too. Taxi company competition also discussed. (KG)

Rosenbloom, Sandi

1970-01-01

226

Rural Poverty in Ecuador: Assessing Local Realities for the Development of Anti-poverty Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how the inhabitants of four poor communities in the rural Ecuadorian highlands perceive poverty and conceive of strategies to overcome it. While seemingly similar with respect to location, market access, ethnicity, and access to health care and primary schools, the four communities are quite heterogeneous, particularly with respect to educational achievement, basic services, supply, and access to

William F Waters

2002-01-01

227

Competencies required of health service managers in the 1990s.  

PubMed

A mailed survey of three hundred and twenty Australian health service managers provided a ranked list of competencies perceived as essential for effective management. A high level of concordance was evident as to the relative importance of forty-nine competencies generated in four focus groups. Of seven clusters of competencies: leadership, decision-making and public relations/communication were ranked most highly. Only eight differences between the various groups of managers reached significance and these related to level of manager, years of management experience, discipline and size and type of organisation. This study extends understanding of the 'real world' management development needs of one group of the health industry. In conclusion, it is suggested that educators and managers need to cooperate more closely to develop learning programs which facilitate the acquisition, practice and assessment of identified competencies. PMID:10121769

Harris, M G; Bleakley, M

1991-01-01

228

On the psychology of poverty.  

PubMed

Poverty remains one of the most pressing problems facing the world; the mechanisms through which poverty arises and perpetuates itself, however, are not well understood. Here, we examine the evidence for the hypothesis that poverty may have particular psychological consequences that can lead to economic behaviors that make it difficult to escape poverty. The evidence indicates that poverty causes stress and negative affective states which in turn may lead to short-sighted and risk-averse decision-making, possibly by limiting attention and favoring habitual behaviors at the expense of goal-directed ones. Together, these relationships may constitute a feedback loop that contributes to the perpetuation of poverty. We conclude by pointing toward specific gaps in our knowledge and outlining poverty alleviation programs that this mechanism suggests. PMID:24855262

Haushofer, Johannes; Fehr, Ernst

2014-05-23

229

Infant feeding, poverty and human development  

PubMed Central

The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

Beasley, Annette; Amir, Lisa H

2007-01-01

230

One Health in NSW: coordination of human and animal health sector management of zoonoses of public health significance.  

PubMed

Zoonoses of public health significance may occur in wildlife, livestock or companion animals, and may be detected by the human or animal health sectors. Of particular public health interest are foodborne, arboviral and emerging zoonoses (known/unknown, endemic/exotic). A coordinated One Health approach to the management of zoonoses in NSW uses measures including: mutually agreed intersectoral procedures for detection and response; surveillance and notification systems for defined endemic and exotic diseases; joint meetings and exercises to ensure currency of response plans; and intersectoral communication during a response. This One Health approach is effective and ensures the interests of both the human health and animal health sectors are addressed. PMID:21781617

Adamson, Sheena; Marich, Andrew; Roth, Ian

2011-07-01

231

Dual-Use Aspects of System Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System Health Management functionality is an essential part of any space launch system. Health management functionality is an integral part of mission reliability, since it is needed to verify the reliability before the mission starts. Health Management is also a key factor in life cycle cost reduction and in increasing system availability. The degree of coverage needed by the system and the degree of coverage made available at a reasonable cost are critical parameters of a successful design. These problems are not unique to the launch vehicle world. In particular, the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System, commercial aircraft systems, train systems, and many types of industrial production facilities require various degrees of system health management. In all of these applications, too, the designers must balance the benefits and costs of health management in order to optimize costs. The importance of an integrated system is emphasized. That is, we present the case for considering health management as an integral part of system design, rather than functionality to be added on at the end of the design process. The importance of maintaining the system viewpoint is discussed in making hardware and software tradeoffs and in arriving at design decisions. We describe an approach to determine the parameters to be monitored in any system health management application. This approach is based on Design of Experiments (DOE), prototyping, failure modes and effects analyses, cost modeling and discrete event simulation. The various computer-based tools that facilitate the approach are discussed. The approach described originally was used to develop a fault tolerant avionics architecture for launch vehicles that incorporated health management as an integral part of the system. Finally, we discuss generalizing the technique to apply it to other domains. Several illustrations are presented.

Owens, P. R.; Jambor, B. J.; Eger, G. W.; Clark, W. A.

1994-01-01

232

The Adoption of Mobile Health Management Services: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As their populations age, many countries are facing the increasing economic pressure of providing healthcare to their people.\\u000a In Taiwan, this problem is exacerbated by an increasing rate of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Encouraging the adoption\\u000a of personal health management services is one way to maintain current levels of personal health and to efficiently manage\\u000a the distribution of healthcare resources.

Ming-Chien Hung; Wen-Yuan Jen

233

Knowledge management in health: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Knowledge has been used as a resource for intelligent and effective action planning in organizations. Interest in research on knowledge management processes has intensified in different areas. A systematic literature review was accomplished, based on the question: what are the contributions of Brazilian and international journal publications on knowledge management in health? The sample totaled 32 items that complied with the inclusion criteria. The results showed that 78% of journals that published on the theme are international, 77% of researchers work in higher education and 65% have a Ph.D. The texts gave rise to five thematic categories, mainly: development of knowledge management systems in health (37.5%), discussion of knowledge management application in health (28.1%) and nurses' function in knowledge management (18.7%). PMID:22699742

Rocha, Elyrose Sousa Brito; Nagliate, Patricia; Furlan, Claudia Elisangela Bis; Rocha, Kerson; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

2012-01-01

234

Corporate social responsibility and the future health care manager.  

PubMed

The decisions and actions of health care managers are oftentimes heavily scrutinized by the public. Given the current economic climate, managers may feel intense pressure to produce higher results with fewer resources. This could inadvertently test their moral fortitude and their social consciousness. A study was conducted to determine what corporate social responsibility orientation and viewpoint future health care managers may hold. The results of the study indicate that future health care managers may hold patient care in high regard as opposed to profit maximization. However, the results of the study also show that future managers within the industry may continue to need rules, laws, regulations, and legal sanctions to guide their actions and behavior. PMID:21045586

Collins, Sandra K

2010-01-01

235

Impacts of Poverty on Quality of Life in Families of Children with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the impact of poverty on the quality of life in families of children with disabilities. A literature review found a variety of effects of poverty on the five dimensions of family, including health (e.g., hunger, limited health care access), productivity, physical environment, emotional well-being, and family interaction.…

Park, JiYeon; Turnbull, Ann P.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III

2002-01-01

236

Time and Money: A New Look at Poverty and the Barriers to Physical Activity in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between time, money, and regular participation in physical activities, especially at the intensities and durations required to improve one's health, is an important public health and social policy issue. The objective of this research is to develop a better understanding of the extent to which income poverty and time poverty act…

Spinney, Jamie; Millward, Hugh

2010-01-01

237

Poverty, problem behavior, and promise: differential susceptibility among infants reared in poverty.  

PubMed

Do infants reared in poverty exhibit certain physiological traits that make them susceptible to the positive and negative features of their caregiving environment? Guided by theories of differential susceptibility and biological sensitivity to context, we evaluated whether high baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) operates as a susceptibility factor among infants reared in poverty (N = 73). Baseline RSA at 5 months, the quality of the attachment relationship at 17 months, and the interaction of these two factors were included in our models as predictors of problem behavior at 17 months. Consistent with theory, results showed no significant differences in problem behavior among infants with low baseline RSA; however, infants with high baseline RSA exhibited the lowest levels of problem behavior if reared in an environment that fostered security, and they exhibited the highest levels of problem behavior if reared in an environment that fostered disorganization. These results have important implications for the psychological health of infants living in poverty. PMID:23361232

Conradt, Elisabeth; Measelle, Jeffrey; Ablow, Jennifer C

2013-03-01

238

Risk Management in Mental Health: Applying Lessons From Commercial Aviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Risk management in mental health focuses on risks in patients and fails to predict rare but catastrophic events such as suicide. Commercial aviation has a similar task in preventing rare but catastrophic accidents. This article describes the systems in place in commercial aviation that allows that industry to prevent disasters and contrasts this with the situation in mental health.Conclusions:

Simon Hatcher

2010-01-01

239

Application of Customer Relationship Management in Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care sectors of many nations are now opting for Customer Relationship Management (CRM) for building a bridge of trust between hospital and customer. The CRM system enables health care sectors to get essential customer information and use it as efficiently as possible. CRM orchestrates a number of methodologies in a synchronized approach to delivering healthcare. As one of the

Wan Yina

2010-01-01

240

Managed Mental Health Care: Intentional Misdiagnosis of Mental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors provide an overview of the effectiveness of managed health care systems and their impact on mental health counselors. They review ethical and legal dilemmas involving informed consent, confidentiality, client autonomy, competence, treatment plans, and termination that had not existed prior to the introduction of…

Braun, Sharon A.; Cox, Jane A.

2005-01-01

241

Managed Care: What Mental Health Counselors Need To Know.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys leaders from various roles in the managed-care and mental-health professions to identify current and future marketplace trends affecting the clinical practice of mental-health counseling. Identifies training and continuing education needs based upon these interviews. (Author/GCP)

Lawless, Linda L.; Ginter, Earl J.; Kelly, Kevin R.

1999-01-01

242

An Examination of Health Information Management by the Deaf  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about how Deaf people perceive, access, and utilize interpersonal and media sources for health information. In light of the scarcity of research on health information management among this group, a two-phase study was conducted that included eight focus groups (N=39) and survey data (N=366) with Deaf participants to determine the…

Karras, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

243

Overview: Adaptive Management for the Health Risks of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Climate change is expected to increase health risks in all countries. Although public health agencies and organizations have\\u000a impressive records of controlling the burden of climate-sensitive health outcomes, current and planned programs and activities\\u000a may need to be modified to address the additional risks of climate change. Programs and activities need to take an iterative\\u000a risk management approach if they

Kristie L. Ebi

244

A 3-pillar approach to integrated population health management.  

PubMed

Successful integrated population health management models include: A leadership team that includes financial managers, physicians, and advisers. A plan that clearly connects tactics to measurable goals. Infrastructure that includes care coordinators and robust IT to avoid duplicative care and ensure care protocols are followed. PMID:24757876

Wallace, John

2014-04-01

245

[Case management: a new focus on health care].  

PubMed

The study is a literature review and has the goal to present a new modality of health care delivery called case management. Authors emphasize essential aspects related to this modality of care: care methodology, history, goals, practice areas. It is considered the use of case management in the Brazilian reality. PMID:12852301

Gonzales, Roxana Isabel Cardozo; Casarin, Santina Nunes Alves; Caliri, Maria Helena Larcher; Sassaki, Cinthia Midori; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

2003-01-01

246

Evaluation, Accountability and Clinical Expertise in Managed Mental Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author identifies a number of policies and practices of managed mental health care organizations that, if allowed to continue unchecked, will have deleterious effects upon the American family. Since this industry is not regulated by either state or federal statutes, managed care organizations have had free reign to disallow coverage for a variety of DSM-III-R diagnostic

Dennis A Bagarozzi

1995-01-01

247

Poverty Among Working Families: Findings from Experimental Poverty Measures, 1998. Special Studies. Current Population Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines poverty among working families with children using experimental measures of poverty that are based on recommendations by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance. These experimental poverty measure...

J. Iceland

2000-01-01

248

Confronting Suburban Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Brookings Institution doesn't shy away from the tough topics, in fact, they often embrace them. This recent book by two of their distinguished scholars, Elizabeth Kneebone and Alan Berube, looks at the growing problem of suburban poverty. As they note, "suburbia is now home to more poor residents than central cities." This site, created to promote the book, has great resources for policy analysts, scholars, journalists, and the interested public. The accompanying blog is a great way for visitors to read thoughtful commentaries on the metropolitan geography of low wage work or an anti-poverty policy that works for working families. The Communities section is another great feature, providing background information on the seven areas profiled in the book, including south Cook County, Illinois and Tukwila outside of Seattle.

2014-01-01

249

Competent poverty training.  

PubMed

Despite numerous calls to the discipline, attention to poverty and social class remains minimal in psychology even though most human experience is significantly affected by social ranking. As a result, educators lack models for training in the context of poverty. Recent and concerted efforts to define and implement competency-based models for the practice of professional psychology have resulted in the creation of Competency Benchmarks (American Psychological Association, 2011). Here, these Competency Benchmarks frame the integration of best practices in working with poor and working-class clients with what we know about what constitutes good training. The result is a competency-based approach for those who are training psychologists-to-be to work effectively with economically challenged clients. PMID:23280419

Stabb, Sally D; Reimers, Faye A

2013-02-01

250

Self-Assessment for Managers of Health Care. How Can I Be a Better Manager? WHO Offset Publication No. 97.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to assist midlevel health care managers in assessing and improving their health care management skills. The first chapter uses the story of one health care manager's recognition of his own weaknesses and subsequent self-improvement to illustrate the qualities and skills that make a good manager. The second chapter, which…

Rotem, Arie; Fay, Joe

251

Positive Psychology and Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For millennia scholars have given attention to the relationship between material resources and the Good Life. The findings\\u000a from a large body of research literature suggest that income and related aspects of material life influence well-being at\\u000a both the individual and national levels. Much of the popular and some of the academic understanding of those living in poverty\\u000a have focused

Robert Biswas-Diener; Lindsey Patterson

252

Poverty Reduction Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A German Technical Cooperation (GTZ: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit) initiative, the Poverty Reduction Project aims to bring the needs of poor people to the forefront of economic development agendas worldwide through an Internet forum. The site describes current projects with financial intermediaries in El Salvador and food security in China and is home to a library of full-text papers, project reports, and country profiles (in German and English).

1998-01-01

253

Investigating Children in Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, created by Kathy Rowell of Sinclair Community College, provides an activity were students will attempt to explain how each of the following variables is related to child poverty within the United States: race, age, family type, family size, and immigrant status. The resource is a solid lesson plan for a statistics classroom. It focuses on many things such as hypotheses testing, distribution theory, independent and dependent variables.

Rowell, Kathy

2009-05-06

254

Managing interorganizational dependencies in the new health care marketplace.  

PubMed

To survive, let alone thrive, in an increasingly competitive and threatening environment, health care organizations must skillfully manage their dependencies. Such dependencies traditionally have been managed through marketplace exchanges (buying and selling) and ownership relationships (acquisition, merger, and business development). An alternative strategy for designing and managing interorganizational relationships, the quasi-firm, is introduced. The quasi-firm is a hybrid market/ownership arrangement that allows participating organizations to pursue strategically important purposes while simultaneously preserving a high degree of functional and legal autonomy. We suggest that this distinctive interorganizational form is particularly well suited to the features of the new health care marketplace. PMID:10302491

Pointer, D D; Begun, J W; Luke, R D

1988-01-01

255

Managing the Health Needs of Vulnerable Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project applied qualitative methods to gain insight into the experiences of vulnerable childrens families: how they define their childrens health needs, decisions regarding where and when to seek care, and their experiences with care received.

E. J. Sobo M. Seid

2003-01-01

256

[Evaluation model for human resource management in health].  

PubMed

This paper presents an assessment model for human resource management in health. This methodological research was structured through indicators tested in evaluative research. The Basic Operational Standard for Human Resources in the Unified National Health System (NOB/RH-SUS) was used as the baseline, and the following dimensions were analyzed: work management, workers' development, workers' health, and social control. The model was discussed and refined during a consensus workshop involving experts in human resources evaluation and management, by defining an assessment matrix with 12 indicators. The model was applied to 15 municipalities in Greater Metropolitan Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and proved applicable to municipalities with different population sizes and administrative structures. Data were obtained from local information systems and official documents from the municipal health departments. The model's validity was demonstrated by the results of its application, consistent with data from the literature. PMID:20464078

Scalco, Sirlesia Vigarani; Lacerda, Josimari Telino de; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino

2010-03-01

257

Retention of health workers in Malawi: perspectives of health workers and district management  

PubMed Central

Background Shortage of human resources is a major problem facing Malawi, where more than 50% of the population lives in rural areas. Most of the district health services are provided by clinical health officers specially trained to provide services that would normally be provided by fully qualified doctors or specialists. As this cadre and the cadre of enrolled nurses are the mainstay of the Malawian health service at the district level, it is important that they are supported and motivated to deliver a good standard of service to the population. This study explores how these cadres are managed and motivated and the impact this has on their performance. Methods A quantitative survey measured health workers' job satisfaction, perceptions of the work environment and sense of justice in the workplace, and was reported elsewhere. It emerged that health workers were particularly dissatisfied with what they perceived as unfair access to continuous education and career advancement opportunities, as well as inadequate supervision. These issues and their contribution to demotivation, from the perspective of both management and health workers, were further explored by means of qualitative techniques. Focus group discussions were held with health workers, and key-informant interviews were conducted with members of district health management teams and human resource officers in the Ministry of Health. The focus groups used convenience sampling that included all the different cadres of health workers available and willing to participate on the day the research team visited the health facility. The interviews targeted district health management teams in three districts and the human resources personnel in the Ministry of Health, also sampling those who were available and agreed to participate. Results The results showed that health workers consider continuous education and career progression strategies to be inadequate. Standard human resource management practices such as performance appraisal and the provision of job descriptions were not present in many cases. Health workers felt that they were inadequately supervised, with no feedback on performance. In contrast to health workers, managers did not perceive these human resources management deficiencies in the system as having an impact on motivation. Conclusion A strong human resource management function operating at the district level is likely to improve worker motivation and performance.

Manafa, Ogenna; McAuliffe, Eilish; Maseko, Fresier; Bowie, Cameron; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Normand, Charles

2009-01-01

258

Sex Differences in Poverty, 1950-1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the following questions: (1) women's risk of poverty relative to men's; (2) the sources of sex differences in poverty; and (3) the correlation between changes in the sex/poverty ratio and changes in family structure. Confirms the feminization of poverty over time and suggests measures to reduce poverty for women and their children.…

McLanahan, Sara S.; And Others

1989-01-01

259

Investigation of health care waste management in Binzhou District, China  

SciTech Connect

In China, national regulations and standards for health care waste management were implemented in 2003. To investigate the current status of health care waste management at different levels of health care facilities (HCF) after the implementation of these regulations, one tertiary hospital, one secondary hospital, and four primary health care centers from Binzhou District were visited and 145 medical staff members and 24 cleaning personnel were interviewed. Generated medical waste totaled 1.22, 0.77, and 1.17 kg/bed/day in tertiary, secondary, and primary HCF, respectively. The amount of medical waste generated in primary health care centers was much higher than that in secondary hospitals, which may be attributed to general waste being mixed with medical waste. This study found that the level of the HCF, responsibility for medical waste management in departments and wards, educational background and training experience can be factors that determine medical staff members' knowledge of health care waste management policy. Regular training programs and sufficient provision of protective measures are urgently needed to improve occupational safety for cleaning personnel. Financing and administrative monitoring by local authorities is needed to improve handling practices and the implementation of off-site centralized disposal in primary health care centers.

Ruoyan, Gai [Department of Health Policy and Planning, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Xu Lingzhong; Li Huijuan; Zhou Chengchao; He Jiangjiang [Institute of Social Medicine and Health Services Management, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Wen-hua-xi Road, No. 44, Jinan City, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yoshihisa, Shirayama [Department of Health Policy and Planning, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Tang Wei [Institute of Social Medicine and Health Services Management, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Wen-hua-xi Road, No. 44, Jinan City, Shandong Province 250012 (China); University of Tokyo Hospital, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Chushi, Kuroiwa, E-mail: ckuroiw@m.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Health Policy and Planning, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Institute of Social Medicine and Health Services Management, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Wen-hua-xi Road, No. 44, Jinan City, Shandong Province 250012 (China)

2010-02-15

260

Using matrix organization to manage health care delivery organizations.  

PubMed

Matrix organization can provide health care organization managers enhanced information processing, faster response times, and more flexibility to cope with greater organization complexity and rapidly changing operating environments. A review of the literature informed by work experience reveals that the use of matrix organization creates hard-to-manage ambiguity and balances of power in addition to providing positive benefits for health care organization managers. Solutions to matrix operating problems generally rely on the use of superior information and decision support systems and extensive staff training to develop attitudes and behavior consistent with the more collegial matrix organization culture. Further improvement in understanding the suitability of matrix organization for managing health care delivery organizations will involve appreciating the impact of partial implementation of matrix organization, temporary versus permanent uses of matrix organization, and the impact of the ambiguity created by dual lines of authority upon the exercise of power and authority. PMID:10107388

Allcorn, S

1990-01-01

261

The management of health services in Tanzania: a plea for health sector reform.  

PubMed

There are essentially four main approaches used in attempts to strengthen the management of health services in developing countries. These are: information system development; management training; use of planning and evaluation methodologies; and, health sector reform. As part of a collaborative research project based in Kisarawe District, Tanzania, we tested the hypothesis that a combination of the first three of these approaches would be sufficient to ensure that decisions and actions were taken to bring about major improvements in the management of health services. It was assumed that the decentralization, which took place as part of the 1982 reorganization of local government responsibilities, had provided managers with sufficient decision-making autonomy to allow them to bring about improvement in health service performance, provided that the other conditions were met. In fact, it was found that despite being presented with clear evidence of serious inefficiencies and inequities in the allocation of health resources, managers were often highly reluctant to decide upon actions which would alleviate the problems in situations where there were potential losers as well as winners, even if the benefits greatly outweighed the costs. This article argues that interventions based solely on training, information systems, or planning and evaluation protocols will make only marginal improvements to health service management, and that changes to the system as a whole are needed in order to provide managers and health professionals with incentives to rectify performance failings. Some ideas for health sector reform, to give managers power and incentives for improving efficiency and quality of care, are put forward. Since it is likely that the systemic problems of the health sector in Tanzania are shared by many other developing countries, the lessons drawn from this study probably have more general applicability. PMID:10172194

Sandiford, P; Kanga, G J; Ahmed, A M

1994-01-01

262

CHILDREN LIVING IN POVERTY A review of child poverty definitions, measurements, and policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is the issue of children living in poverty recognized by and incorporated into anti- poverty strategies? Who are the children living in poverty? Have governments, civil society orga- nizations, and international organizations identified them and adopted policies to reduce child poverty? Is the situation of girls living in poverty taken into account? Are poverty reduction poli- cies following a human

Alberto Minujin; Enrique Delamonica

263

The emerging need for transformational leadership in health information management.  

PubMed

The prospect of national healthcare reform, new clinical and information technologies, and the need to cut the cost of health care delivery are contributing factors in the restructuring of the health care system. In light of these rapid changes and great uncertainties, health information management (HIM) leadership must radically change its style. The appropriate new styles will move the HIM practitioner from the specialized medical records department to a larger, more professional role. The successful transformational leader will help HIM emerge as a central function in the new health care industries. PMID:10140303

Balloun, J L; Stebbins, L H; Von Bergen, C W

1995-02-01

264

Total Quality Management in Health Care - A Study on TQM Implementation and its Application to the Army Health Care System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Total Quality Management (TQM) is the new management philosophy of the Army health care system. TQM consists of principles and tools which can be applied in this health care setting. TQM represents a tremendous departure from the previous traditional mana...

T. H. Auer

1993-01-01

265

Reusable Rocket Engine Turbopump Health Management System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A health monitoring expert system software architecture has been developed to support condition-based health monitoring of rocket engines. Its first application is in the diagnosis decisions relating to the health of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The post test diagnostic system runs off-line, using as input the data recorded from hundreds of sensors, each running typically at rates of 25, 50, or .1 Hz. The system is invoked after a test has been completed, and produces an analysis and an organized graphical presentation of the data with important effects highlighted. The overall expert system architecture has been developed and documented so that expert modules analyzing other line replaceable units may easily be added. The architecture emphasizes modularity, reusability, and open system interfaces so that it may be used to analyze other engines as well.

Surko, Pamela

1994-01-01

266

Transforming a health care information management system.  

PubMed

The article presents results from a survey of 98 top executives at Baylor Health Care System (BHCS), a large, multifunction health care organization in Dallas, Texas. The survey assessed the executives' perceptions of current BHCS quality practices using the first survey developed for the health care industry based on the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) criteria. Findings regarding the quality of BHCS internal and external data and information include the need for a $50 million information system transformation to achieve seven critical success factors for all business units and improved internal and external data and information for the business process redesign and quality transformation. Results highlight the need for further research investigating the information and analysis MBNQA criteria. PMID:10174724

Prybutok, V R; Spink, A

1997-11-01

267

Poverty and language development: roles of parenting and stress.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic status affects a variety of mental and physical health outcomes, such as language development. Indeed, with poverty, disparities in the development of language processing are arguably among the most consistently found- with decreases in vocabulary, phonological awareness, and syntax at many different developmental stages. In this review, after considering basic brain systems affected by low socioeconomic status that are important for language development and related peripartum issues, we focus on two theoretical models that link poverty with the brain systems affected in language problems. The family stress model connects poverty with parental emotional distress that affects parenting, whereas the parental investment model involves a focus on basic needs that affects children's language. Understanding the mechanisms through which poverty affects the brain, parenting behaviors and language development may have implications for identification and treatment of individuals as well as social policy. PMID:23696954

Perkins, Suzanne C; Finegood, Eric D; Swain, James E

2013-04-01

268

Poverty and Language Development: Roles of Parenting and Stress  

PubMed Central

Socioeconomic status affects a variety of mental and physical health outcomes, such as language development. Indeed, with poverty, disparities in the development of language processing are arguably among the most consistently found— with decreases in vocabulary, phonological awareness, and syntax at many different developmental stages. In this review, after considering basic brain systems affected by low socioeconomic status that are important for language development and related peripartum issues, we focus on two theoretical models that link poverty with the brain systems affected in language problems. The family stress model connects poverty with parental emotional distress that affects parenting, whereas the parental investment model involves a focus on basic needs that affects children’s language. Understanding the mechanisms through which poverty affects the brain, parenting behaviors and language development may have implications for identification and treatment of individuals as well as social policy.

Perkins, Suzanne C.; Finegood, Eric D.

2013-01-01

269

Health@Home: The Work of Health Information Management in the Household (HIMH): Implications for Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) Innovations  

PubMed Central

Objective: Contemporary health care places enormous health information management demands on laypeople. Insights into their skills and habits complements current developments in consumer health innovations, including personal health records. Using a five-element human factors model of work, health information management in the household (HIMH) is characterized by the tasks completed by individuals within household organizations, using certain tools and technologies in a given physical environment. Design: We conducted a descriptive-exploratory study of the work of HIMH, involving 49 community-dwelling volunteers from a rural Midwestern community. Measurements: During in-person interviews, we collected data using semistructured questionnaires and photographs of artifacts used for HIMH. Results: The work of HIMH is largely the responsibility of a single individual, primarily engaged in the tasks of acquiring, managing, and organizing a diverse set of health information. Paper-based tools are most common, and residents develop strategies for storing information in the household environment aligned with anticipated use. Affiliative relationships, e.g., parent-child or spousal, within the household serve as the organization that gives rise to health information management practices. Synthesis of these findings led to identification of several storage strategies employed in HIMH. These strategies are labeled “just-in-time,” “just-because,” “just-in-case,” and “just-at-hand,” reflecting location of the artifacts of health information and anticipated urgency in the need to retrieve it. Conclusion: Laypeople develop and employ robust, complex strategies for managing health information in the home. Capitalizing on these strategies will complement and extend current consumer health innovations to provide functional support to people who face increasing demands to manage personal health information.

Moen, Anne; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

2005-01-01

270

Managing organizational change: strategies for the female health care supervisor.  

PubMed

In responding to resistance to change in the current health care organization, the new female supervisor can learn to support her staff in encountering and accepting these changes. The strategies and skills discussed above are characteristic of a supervisory style that may naturally occur for women, but also can be incorporated into the leadership style of men in health care management today. Health care leaders of tomorrow must work from an androgynous framework in which the behavior patterns and responses of each gender are learned and used appropriately by both men and women. Sargent suggests that the best managers are androgynous and that this is the inevitable wave of the future. Whether man or woman, a supervisor should learn, accept, and use methods that are characteristic of both sexes to be successful in managing people. Women and men must learn from each other's strengths and share these diverse skills. Given that women now outnumber men in health care management positions and organizations are changing to a more nurturing environment, the androgynous supervisor will be the successful leader of the future. Finally, women in health care supervisory positions have the potential to bring change where it is badly needed. Women in these roles often have a system wide view of health care policy issues that recognizes less federal commitment to social programs. Many women in health care positions believe that the issues of children, women, the elderly, the poor, and the homeless need focused attention. The growing number of women in health care supervisory and leadership roles is an important factor in changing national health policy for the benefit of these groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10105044

Davies, G

1990-07-01

271

Providing and funding breast health services in urban nurse-managed health centers.  

PubMed

Nurse-managed health centers (NMHCs) are an innovative health care delivery model that serves as an important point of health care access for populations at risk for disparities in health outcomes. This article describes the process and outcomes of clinical breast health services in two NMHCs located in a large Midwestern city. Findings indicate that client's knowledge about breast health was increased after they received breast health services from NMHC nurses. Significant positive changes in behavior related to the early detection of breast cancer were found in the study. NMHCs, identified for expansion in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, offer a unique health care services delivery model that promotes access to care and early identification of breast cancer in very low-income and uninsured women. PMID:24739700

Tsai, Pei-Yun; Peterman, Beth; Baisch, Mary Jo; Ji, Eun Sun; Zwiers, Kelly

2014-01-01

272

Poverty Among Working Families: Findings From Experimental Poverty Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the US Census Bureau explores poverty among working families. The report uses experimental measures based on recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences Panel of Poverty and Family Assistance, including the following elements: noncash government benefits, job-related expenses, child care costs, social security taxes, and out-of-pocket medical expenses.

273

Fundamental Technology Development for Gas-Turbine Engine Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated vehicle health management technologies promise to dramatically improve the safety of commercial aircraft by reducing system and component failures as causal and contributing factors in aircraft accidents. To realize this promise, fundamental technology development is needed to produce reliable health management components. These components include diagnostic and prognostic algorithms, physics-based and data-driven lifing and failure models, sensors, and a sensor infrastructure including wireless communications, power scavenging, and electronics. In addition, system assessment methods are needed to effectively prioritize development efforts. Development work is needed throughout the vehicle, but particular challenges are presented by the hot, rotating environment of the propulsion system. This presentation describes current work in the field of health management technologies for propulsion systems for commercial aviation.

Mercer, Carolyn R.; Simon, Donald L.; Hunter, Gary W.; Arnold, Steven M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Anderson, Lynn M.

2007-01-01

274

Supporting cancer patients' unanchored health information management with mobile technology  

PubMed Central

Cancer patients often need to manage care-related information when they are away from home, when they are experiencing pain or treatment side effects, or when their abilities to deal with information effectively are otherwise impaired. In this paper, we describe the results from a four-week evaluation of HealthWeaver Mobile, a mobile phone application that we developed to support such “unanchored” patient information activities. Based on experiences from nine cancer patients, our results indicate that HealthWeaver Mobile can help patients to access care-related information from anywhere, to capture information whenever a need arises, and to share information with clinicians during clinic visits. The enhanced ability to manage information, in turn, helps patients to manage their care and to feel more confident in their ability to stay in control of their information and their health.

Klasnja, Predrag; Hartzler, Andrea; Powell, Christopher; Pratt, Wanda

2011-01-01

275

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Toolkit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A framework of software components has been implemented to facilitate the development of ISHM systems according to a methodology based on Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). This framework is collectively referred to as the Toolkit and was developed using General Atomics' Health MAP (TM) technology. The toolkit is intended to provide assistance to software developers of mission-critical system health monitoring applications in the specification, implementation, configuration, and deployment of such applications. In addition to software tools designed to facilitate these objectives, the toolkit also provides direction to software developers in accordance with an ISHM specification and development methodology. The development tools are based on an RCM approach for the development of ISHM systems. This approach focuses on defining, detecting, and predicting the likelihood of system functional failures and their undesirable consequences.

Venkatesh, Meera; Kapadia, Ravi; Walker, Mark; Wilkins, Kim

2013-01-01

276

Evaluating the management of diarrhoea in health centres in Mozambique.  

PubMed

An evaluation of the health centre management of paediatric cases of diarrhoea, comprising observation of the consultation, interview of the guardian immediately afterwards and home follow-up was performed in one rural and three urban areas of Mozambique. Oral Rehydration Therapy was advised for 83% of patients, of whom 71% received ORS packets. Eighty-seven per cent of mothers followed up stated that they had given ORT, but only 37% had a solution present at the time of interview. The main weakness in case management was the lack of health education, especially about the quantity of fluid to give, which was reflected in the mothers' belief that ORT is a medicine to 'stop the diarrhoea' and their consequent administration of it like a syrup, one teaspoonful three times a day. The results of the evaluation have facilitated the design of more appropriate health education and health worker training materials and methods. PMID:3379655

Cutts, F; Cliff, J; Reiss, R; Stuckey, J

1988-04-01

277

Poverty reduction in Africa  

PubMed Central

Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid.

Collier, Paul

2007-01-01

278

Poverty and Young Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise was developed for use in a general sociology course. Students will hypothesize about relationships between race, education, geographic area, and poverty and analyze data sets to determine draw conclusions about variable relationships. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 1990 Census and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Morris, Joan

279

Investigating Children in Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in this sociology class will evaluate and analyze if age, race, and/or family size affect children in poverty in the United States. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 1990 Census and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Rowell, Kathy

280

Patient Health Information Management: Searching for the Right Model  

PubMed Central

Accurate and timely health information is a crucial element in the medical decision making process during a medical encounter. Inadequate or misleading patient health information can lead to medical errors, inaccurate decision making, and increased cost. Providing physicians with access to every detail of a patient's medical history is difficult. Striking the balance between adequate and effective amounts of information is difficult. The Personal Health Record and Continuity of Care Record have emerged as concepts to support that balance. This paper reviews recently published literature on (1) approaches to personal health information management, (2) distinctions between terms and definitions describing patient health information, its format, its availability, and its accessibility, (3) guidelines, studies, or standards to support the rationale of patient information data elements that should be available to the provider for any medical encounter, and (4) identification of the most important needs for patient health information that should be addressed. The purpose of the review is to clarify the benefits and detriments of the different approaches as well as to provide some recommendations for the right model of patient health information management, focusing on the idea of the appropriate health information being available when needed.

Smolij, Kamila; Dun, Kim

2006-01-01

281

Evaluation of computerized health management information system for primary health care in rural India  

PubMed Central

Background The Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Ballabgarh, run by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi has a computerized Health Management Information System (HMIS) since 1988. The HMIS at Ballabgarh has undergone evolution and is currently in its third version which uses generic and open source software. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerized Health Management Information System in rural health system in India. Methods The data for evaluation were collected by in-depth interviews of the stakeholders i.e. program managers (authors) and health workers. Health Workers from AIIMS and Non-AIIMS Primary Health Centers were interviewed to compare the manual with computerized HMIS. A cost comparison between the two methods was carried out based on market costs. The resource utilization for both manual and computerized HMIS was identified based on workers' interviews. Results There have been no major hardware problems in use of computerized HMIS. More than 95% of data was found to be accurate. Health workers acknowledge the usefulness of HMIS in service delivery, data storage, generation of workplans and reports. For program managers, it provides a better tool for monitoring and supervision and data management. The initial cost incurred in computerization of two Primary Health Centers was estimated to be Indian National Rupee (INR) 1674,217 (USD 35,622). Equivalent annual incremental cost of capital items was estimated as INR 198,017 (USD 4213). The annual savings is around INR 894,283 (USD 11,924). Conclusion The major advantage of computerization has been in saving of time of health workers in record keeping and report generation. The initial capital costs of computerization can be recovered within two years of implementation if the system is fully operational. Computerization has enabled implementation of a good system for service delivery, monitoring and supervision.

2010-01-01

282

Behavioral health and managed care contracting under SCHIP.  

PubMed

This Policy Brief examines behavioral health managed care contracting under separately administered State Children's Health Insurance Programs (SCHIP), i.e., programs that operate under the direct authority of Title XXI of the Social Security Act rather than as expansions of Medicaid. Most separate SCHIP programs buy managed care style health insurance for some or most of their enrolled children. Because Title XXI provides states with far greater administrative flexibility than Medicaid with respect to coverage and benefit design, provision of services, and administration of managed care arrangements,studying separate SCHIP managed care products sheds important light on how states might approach insurance and managed care design generally in the area of behavioral health were Medicaid modified through section 1115 demonstration or federal statutory authority to permit greater latitude. To conduct this analysis, two nationwide databases maintained by the George Washington University Center for Health Services Research and Policy (CHSRP) were used: a database consisting of all Medicaid MCO-style managed care contracts in use in Calendar Year 2000; and a nationwide database consisting of contracts used by separate SCHIP programs for the same calendar year. As of the point of collection in 2000 there were 33 such separate programs; according to CMS' latest website information, that total has now reached 35. Both sets of contracts were analyzed and separated into their components by lawyers experienced in managed care contract analysis and interpretation. The data were entered into working tables that organize the contents of the contracts into a series of searchable domains. PMID:12542079

Rosenbaum, Sara; Sonosky, Colleen; Shaw, Karen; Mauery, D Richard

2002-09-01

283

Personal health information management system and its application in referral management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, We developed a web-based personal health record (PHR) that can be used by patients to collect and manage their health information (e. g., medical history, past surgeries, medi-cations, and allergies), to request self-referrals, and to store a record of their consultations. The PHR also includes a messaging system that can be structured into the workflow of referral man-agement as

Maisie Wang; Christopher Lau; Frederick A. Matsen III; Yongmin Kim

2004-01-01

284

Human resource management in the health-care industry.  

PubMed

It has been said that managing change is a synonym for managing people through change. No other industry has experienced more change in the past ten years than the health-care industry. In order to regulate all this change, managers in health-care organizations must identify new ways to deal with the changes. The issues are as old as time: job satisfaction, cultural conflict, and compensation. This paper addresses each of these key issues with the following examples. A new nursing paradigm that was implemented at a hospital has significantly increased job satisfaction. This paper also takes a look at ways to manage cultural conflict in a diversified workforce. Finally, the results of a team approach to compensation are studied. PMID:10346306

Conant, G; Kleiner, B H

1998-01-01

285

A Hierarchical Model-based approach to Systems Health Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) provides the ability to maintain system health and performance over the life of a system. For safety-critical systems, ISHM must maintain safe operations while increasing availability by preserving functionality and minimizing downtime. This paper discusses a model-based approach to ISHM that combines fault detection, isolation and identification, fault-adaptive control, and prognosis into a common framework.

Gautam Biswas; Sankaran Mahadevan

2007-01-01

286

Health Management Technology as a General Solution Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Health maintenance and improvement of humans, artifacts, and nature are pressing requirements considering the problems human beings have faced. In this article, the health management technology is proposed by centering cause-effect structure. The important aspect of the technology is evolvement through human-machine collaboration in response to changes of target systems. One of the reasons why the cause-effect structure is centered in the technology is its feature of transparency to humans by instinct point of view. The notion has been spreaded over wide application areas such as quality control, energy management, and healthcare. Some experiments were conducted to prove effectiveness of the technology in the article.

Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Yoshifumi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Iwami, Taro; Tsuchiya, Naoki

287

SSFF Health Management Analysis Report. Part 2: Proof of Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Proof of Concept analysis on SSFF Health Management the following area was described: the Gas Distribution Subsystem (GDS) was studied and evaluated utilizing the PDR Configuration and with respect to the design features encompassing Health Management (HM) aspects outlined in the Generic Handbook. From the results of this study, it was found that there is a definite need for coordinating measurements within and between the subsystems that will ensure that Functional Failures are properly revealed and substantiated as valid by other measurements, even those from other interfacing subsystems.

Wilson, L.; Spruill, J.; Hong, Y.

1995-01-01

288

The Health Security Act's quality management and oversight requirements.  

PubMed

The Quality Agenda, a regular feature of THE QUALITY LETTER, offers practical models and information that leaders of healthcare organizations can adapt and use. This month, the Quality Agenda examines the quality management and oversight provisions of the Health Security Act, including a new National Quality Management Council to spearhead the development of quality measurement and improvement efforts. Readers can obtain a complete copy of the 1,343-page Health Security Act from the Government Printing Office (202/783-3238) for $45. PMID:10131338

289

Competencies for health management practice: a practitioner's perspective.  

PubMed

The current health care environment will require executive leadership with a new set of management competencies to effectively lead and manage the various components of a restructured health care delivery system. The traditional management skills of planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and staffing resources will remain relevant, but the true measure of professional success will be the development of conceptual skills. This means the ability to look at the health care enterprise as a whole, and recognize how changes in the environment shape your strategic mission, goals, and objectives. The successful health care leader will have a demonstrated ability to apply these conceptual skills to the development of information systems and integrated networks that position their organization to accept capitated risks. This paper examines the United States and Canadian health care systems from the perspective of both the more traditional hospital and the emerging medical care organizations. New importance of the team approach to leadership and management and all that entails is stressed. PMID:10156840

Wenzel, F J; Grady, R; Freedman, T J

1995-01-01

290

The mental health Risk Assessment and Management Process (RAMP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The Risk Assessment and Management ,Process (RAMP) is a whole-school process for the assessment,and management ,of student’s mental ,health and ,wellbeing ,in primary ,and secondary schools. A process,evaluation revealed that RAMP was implemented,as intended across six primary and three secondary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Using the RAMP risk and protective factors monitoring form and screening processes, each school identified

Alison L. Shortt; Susan Fealy; John W. Toumbourou

291

Embedding Health Management into Mission Tasking for UAV Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coordinated multi-vehicle autonomous systems can provide incredible functionality, but off-nominal conditions and degraded system components can render this capability ineffective. This paper presents techniques to improve mission-level functional reliability through better system self-awareness and adaptive mission planning. In particular, we extend the traditional definition of health management, which has historically referred to the process of actively monitoring and managing vehicle

Mario Valenti; Brett Bethke; Daniela Pucci de Farias; John Vian

2007-01-01

292

Neighborhood Poverty and Adolescent Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted over the past decade on the effects of neighborhood and poverty on adolescent normative and nonnormative development. Our review includes a summary of studies examining the associations between neighborhood poverty and adolescent identity development followed by a review of studies…

McBride Murry, Velma; Berkel, Cady; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Nation, Maury

2011-01-01

293

China's (uneven) progress against poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the incidence of extreme poverty fell dramatically in China over 1980–2001, progress was uneven over time and across provinces. Rural areas accounted for the bulk of the gains to the poor, though migration to urban areas helped. Rural economic growth was far more important to national poverty reduction than urban economic growth; agriculture played a far more important role

Martin Ravallion; Shaohua Chen

2007-01-01

294

Topics at a Glance: Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of polls on public opinion regarding poverty and appropriate responses. Shows a (perhaps naive) confidence that hard work will lead to prosperity, as well as somewhat ambiguous views on appropriate government responses to poverty (for instance increased aid to the poor enjoys overwhelming support while increased "welfare" is widely opposed.

Connecticut, Roper C.

295

Nebraska's Families: Poverty Despite Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high poverty rate (13.8 percent) among Nebraska's children is cause for concern, since there is strong evidence that poverty can hinder development and adversely affect children's ability to become productive adults. It is commonly assumed that poor children live in families where parents could work but do not. Yet in Nebraska, of poor…

Lazere, Edward B.; Ostrom, Kristin Anderson

296

Poverty in Childhood and Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of children in the United States who grow up in conditions of chronic poverty and social disadvantage remains a tragedy of epidemic proportions. Currently, approximately one out of every five children under age 18 lives in poverty (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2003). Further, the overall numbers grew by approximately 400,000 from 2001 to 2002, to exceed 12

Robert D. Felner

297

The Dynamics of Childhood Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child poverty rates have remained high since the middle of the 1970s. While several trends, including declines in the number of children per family and increases in parental years of schooling, worked to reduce child poverty rates, several others, including slow economic growth, widening economic inequality, and increases in the proportion of children living in mother-only families, had the opposite

Mary E. Corcoran; Ajay Chaudry

298

Human resource management in the health care industry.  

PubMed

Human resource management practices with special reference to the latest developments of the 1990s such as environmental effects and managing diversity, were investigated. The purpose of the study was to unveil how the health care industry can benefit from these new concepts, as well as to describe how the traditional health care facilities can adapt these new ideas. Specific examples were provided to illustrate this point. In compilation of this report, both primary and secondary research was used. As primary research, many reputable individuals in the health care industry were consulted, and asked to comment on the rough draft of this report. Secondary sources included many journal articles, original researches and books that were written on this technical subject. It can be concluded from this research, that the health care industry should adapt the latest methods to compete and survive, such as use more marketing tools to attract human resource management personnel from other industries, promote diversity at the work place, promote from within the company, and cross-train personnel whenever possible. Health care industry has generally lagged behind other industries in securing high-performance individuals and marketing personnel; however, with the development of health maintenance organizations, this trend is changing. PMID:10346316

Siddiqui, J; Kleiner, B H

1998-01-01

299

Poverty in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to a quantitative analysis that involves univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis, this module reinforces research terms introduced in Intro to Sociology (independent, dependent and control variables and includes the opportunity to discuss sample vs. population (in the comparison of national poverty data vs. the poverty rate in the sample) and value vs. variable (poverty as a value and a variable and the recoding of the values in the household data). The module also uses the Census website to define the concept "poverty threshold" and look at trends in poverty. Together this reinforces basic components of social science research and analysis in preparation for upper-level classes, including research methods and statistics.

Spade, Joan

2009-05-04

300

Directions for reducing child poverty.  

PubMed

The rate of child poverty in the United States is higher now than in 1966. Children are the poorest age group and are more likely to be poor than children in other industrial economies. The level and trends in child poverty are analyzed; the major American income support policies for children, including recent reforms of Aid to Families with Dependent Children, are described; and the impact of those policies on poverty are evaluated. Alternate strategies for reducing child poverty, including an expanded Earned Income Tax Credit, child support system reforms, and a medical insurance plan, are proposed. Pragmatic, administratively feasible policies exist that can substantially reduce child poverty without significant new government spending. PMID:10296498

Plotnick, R D

1989-11-01

301

Petroleum and health care: evaluating and managing health care's vulnerability to petroleum supply shifts.  

PubMed

Petroleum is used widely in health care-primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies-and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473

Hess, Jeremy; Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

2011-09-01

302

Petroleum and Health Care: Evaluating and Managing Health Care's Vulnerability to Petroleum Supply Shifts  

PubMed Central

Petroleum is used widely in health care—primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies—and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services.

Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

2011-01-01

303

A Multidimensional Approach to Measure Poverty in Rural Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Poverty is increasingly being understood as a multidimensional phenomenon. Other than income-consumption, which has been extensively studied in the past, health, education, shelter, and social involvement are among the most important dimensions of poverty. The present study attempts to develop a simple tool to measure poverty in its multidimensionality where it views poverty as an inadequate fulfillment of basic needs, such as food, clothing, shelter, health, education, and social involvement. The scale score ranges between 72 and 24 and is constructed in such a way that the score increases with increasing level of poverty. Using various techniques, the study evaluates the poverty-measurement tool and provides evidence for its reliability and validity by administering it in various areas of rural Bangladesh. The reliability coefficients, such as test-retest coefficient (0.85) and Cronbach's alpha (0.80) of the tool, were satisfactorily high. Based on the socioeconomic status defined by the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) exercise, the level of poverty identified by the scale was 33% in Chakaria, 26% in Matlab, and 32% in other rural areas of the country. The validity of these results was tested against some traditional methods of identifying the poor, and the association of the scores with that of the traditional indicators, such as ownership of land and occupation, asset index (r=0.72), and the wealth ranking obtained from the PRA exercise, was consistent. A statistically significant inverse relationship of the poverty scores with the socioeconomic status was observed in all cases. The scale also allowed the absolute level of poverty to be measured, and in the present study, the highest percentage of absolute poor was found in terms of health (44.2% in Chakaria, 36.4% in Matlab, and 39.1% in other rural areas), followed by social exclusion (35.7% in Chakaria, 28.5% in Matlab, and 22.3% in other rural areas), clothing (6.2% in Chakaria, 8.3% in Matlab, and 20% in other rural areas), education (14.7% in Chakaria, 8% in Matlab, and 16.8% in other rural areas), food (7.8% in Chakaria, 2.9% in Matlab and 3% in other rural areas), and shelter (0.8% in Chakaria, 1.4% in Matlab, and 3.7% in other rural areas). This instrument will also prove itself invaluable in assessing the individual effects of poverty-alleviation programmes or policies on all these different dimensions.

Bhuiya, Abbas; Shaila Mahmood, Shehrin; Rana, A.K.M. Masud; Wahed, Tania; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Chowdhury, A. Mushtaque R.

2007-01-01

304

Health insurance in India: need for managed care expertise.  

PubMed

Health insurers in India currently face many challenges, including poor consumer awareness, strict regulations, and inefficient business practices. They operate under a combination of stifling administrative costs and high medical expense ratios which have ensured that insurers operate under steep losses. External factors (eg, onerous regulations, lack of standards, high claims payouts) and internal factors (eg, high administrative costs, dependence on indemnity models that cover inpatient treatment costs only) have forced the health insurance industry into a regressive spiral. To overcome these challenges, health insurers need to innovate in their product offerings and tighten their existing processes and cost structures. But as a long-term strategy, it is imperative that health insurers deploy managed care concepts, which will go a long way toward addressing the systemic issues in the current operational models of health plans. PMID:21473657

Thomas, Thomas K

2011-02-01

305

Longitudinal associations between poverty and obesity from birth through adolescence.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined the relationship between timing of poverty and risk of first-incidence obesity from ages 3 to 15.5 years. Methods. We used the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (1991-2007) to study 1150 children with repeated measures of income, weight, and height from birth to 15.5 years in 10 US cities. Our dependent variable was the first incidence of obesity (body mass index???95th percentile). We measured poverty (income-to-needs ratio?poverty between ages 2 and 12 years. We estimated discrete-time hazard models of the relative risk of first transition to obesity. Results. Poverty prior to age 2 years was associated with risk of obesity by age 15.5 years in fully adjusted models. These associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that there are enduring associations between early life poverty and adolescent obesity. This stage in the life course may serve as a critical period for both poverty and obesity prevention. PMID:24625156

Lee, Hedwig; Andrew, Megan; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Lumeng, Julie C; Lee, Joyce M

2014-05-01

306

Managed behavioral health care premises, accountable systems of care, and AMBHA'S perms. American Managed Behavioral Healthcare Association.  

PubMed

This article discusses the concepts and approaches underlying managed behavioral health care and the need to assess quality of care. The author describes the Performance Measures for Managed Behavioral Healthcare Programs (PERMS) developed by the American Managed Behavioral Healthcare Association (AMBHA), which is offered as a first step toward enhanced quality of care assessment in managed behavioral health care. PMID:10183283

Ross, E C

1997-06-01

307

Marginal returns: re?thinking mobility and educational benefit in contexts of chronic poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of chronic poverty many people in South Asia experience poor quality schooling, interrupted schooling, or no schooling at all. People affected by poverty face multiple constraints on wellbeing, which typically include informal employment, low wages and poor health. In such contexts the benefits and, more specifically, the ‘returns’ to education are not easily observed. Standard measures of

Bryan Maddox

2010-01-01

308

The Welfare State and Relative Poverty in Rich Western Democracies, 1967-1997  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between the welfare state and poverty with multiple measures of the welfare state and poverty in an unbalanced panel of 18 Western nations from 1967 to 1997. While addressing the limitations of past research, the analysis shows that social security transfers and public health spending significantly reduce…

Brady, David

2005-01-01

309

Poverty, Inequality, and Discrimination as Sources of Depression among U.S. Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poverty, inequality, and discrimination endanger women's well-being. Poverty is a consistent predictor of depression in women. Economic inequalities relate to reduced life expectancy and various negative physical health consequences. Discrimination maintains inequalities, lessens economic security, and exposes women to unmerited contempt.…

Belle, Deborah; Doucet, Joanne

2003-01-01

310

School Health Connection Goes Electronic: Developing a Health Information Management System for New Orleans' School-Based Health Centers. Program Results Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From February 2008 through April 2011, School Health Connection, a program of the Louisiana Public Health Institute, developed an electronic health information management system for newly established school-based health centers in Greater New Orleans. School Health Connection was established as part of a broader effort to restore community health

Rastorfer, Darl

2011-01-01

311

Management of mental health problems by general practitioners in Quebec  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To document the management of mental health problems (MHPs) by general practitioners. Design A mixed-method study consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and qualitative interviews. An analysis was also performed of Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec administrative data on medical procedures. Setting Quebec. Participants Overall, 1415 general practitioners from different practice settings were invited to complete a questionnaire; 970 general practitioners were contacted. A subgroup of 60 general practitioners were contacted to participate in interviews. Main outcome measures The annual frequency of consultations over MHPs, either common (CMHPs) or serious (SMHPs), clinical practices, collaborative practices, factors that either support or interfere with the management of MHPs, and recommendations for improving the health care system. Results The response rate was 41% (n = 398 general practitioners) for the survey and 63% (n = 60) for the interviews. Approximately 25% of visits to general practitioners are related to MHPs. Nearly all general practitioners manage CMHPs and believed themselves competent to do so; however, the reverse is true for the management of SMHPs. Nearly 20% of patients with CMHPs are referred (mainly to psychosocial professionals), whereas nearly 75% of patients with SMHPs are referred (mostly to psychiatrists and emergency departments). More than 50% of general practitioners say that they do not have any contact with resources in the mental health field. Numerous factors influence the management of MHPs: patients’ profiles (the complexity of the MHP, concomitant disorders); individual characteristics of the general practitioner (informal network, training); the professional culture (working in isolation, formal clinical mechanisms); the institutional setting (multidisciplinarity, staff or consultant); organization of services (resources, formal coordination); and environment (policies). Conclusion The key role played by general practitioners and their support of the management of MHPs were evident, especially for CMHPs. For more optimal management of primary mental health care, multicomponent strategies, such as shared care, should be used more often.

Fleury, Marie-Josee; Farand, Lambert; Aube, Denise; Imboua, Armelle

2012-01-01

312

Oceans and Human Health: Linking Ocean, Organism, and Human Health for Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that sustainable coastal communities depend on healthy and resilient economies, ecosystems, and people, and that the condition or "health" of the coastal ocean and humans are intimately and inextricably connected. A wealth of ecosystem services provided by ocean and coastal environments are crucial for human survival and well being. Nonetheless, the health of coastal communities, their economies, connected ecosystems and ecosystem services, and people are under increasing threats from health risks associated with environmental degradation, climate change, and unwise land use practices, all of which contribute to growing burdens of naturally-occurring and introduced pathogens, noxious algae, and chemical contaminants. The occurrence, frequency, intensity, geographic range, and number and kinds of ocean health threats are increasing, with concomitant health and economic effects and eroding public confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of coastal environments and resources. Concerns in the research and public health communities, many summarized in the seminal 1999 NRC Report, From Monsoons to Microbes and the 2004 final report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, resulted in establishment of a new "meta-discipline" known as Oceans and Human Health (OHH). OHH brings together practitioners in oceanography, marine biology, ecology, biomedical science, medicine, economics and other social sciences, epidemiology, environmental management, and public health to focus on water- and food-borne causes of human and animal illnesses associated with ocean and coastal systems and on health benefits of seafood and other marine products. It integrates information across multiple disciplines to increase knowledge of ocean health risks and benefits and communicate such information to enhance public safety. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive approach to ocean health threats and benefits, Congress passed the Oceans and Human Health Act of 2004. Major outcomes of the OHH Act of 2004 include: --A national focus on ocean health and its relation to human health and well-being; --Enhanced interagency coordination and cooperation in research, development, and education; --Emphasis on development of a new, interdisciplinary community of practice; --Increased understanding of linkages between marine animal health and human health and the dangers of transmission of zoonotic diseases from the marine environment; --A richer understanding of factors affecting the occurrence and impacts of ocean health threats; --An enhanced ability of the ocean science and public health communities to respond to health-related emergencies; --A strong focus on development of ecological forecasts that are providing early warning of ocean health threats and impacts, thus improving the effectiveness of protection and mitigation actions. Taken together, these outcomes contribute significantly to more sustainable management of coastal resources and communities.

Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.

2012-12-01

313

Outcomes Assessment in Accredited Health Information Management Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the use and perceived usefulness of outcomes assessment methods in health information management programs. Additional characteristics of the outcomes assessment practices were recognized. The findings were evaluated for significant differences in results based on age of the program, type of institution,…

Bennett, Dorine

2010-01-01

314

Leadership Succession Management in a University Health Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a succession planning pilot project in an Australian university health faculty. The programme aimed to enhance organisational stability and develop leadership capacity in middle level academics. Six monthly sessions addressed university and general leadership topics, communication, decision-making, working with change, self-management

McMurray, Anne M.; Henly, Debra; Chaboyer, Wendy; Clapton, Jayne; Lizzio, Alf; Teml, Martin

2012-01-01

315

IMPROVING METHODS FOR MANAGING HEALTH AND EXPOSURE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The project in Colorado is evaluating the use of GIS as a tool for studying the potential impacts of exposure to DBPs from different disinfection treatments on reproductive health in populations in Colorado. GIS is a data management and visualization tool that is assisting in stu...

316

Management Accounting and Control in Health Care: An Economics Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter summarizes empirical archival accounting research in management accounting that is based on economic theory and uses health care settings. Three perspectives are investigated: (1) production cost economics, including cost structure, cost behavior, cost drivers, the design of cost allocation systems, and the appropriate level of cost aggregation; (2) agency theory, including incentives to bias information or shift costs,

Leslie Eldenburg; Ranjani Krishnan

2006-01-01

317

Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Boeing-Canoga Park (BCP) and NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) are developing an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) for use on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will improve Shuttle safety by reducing the probability of catastrop...

M. Davidson J. Stephens

2004-01-01

318

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Health Center's Community Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the case of the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Health Center's unique community management system in which neighborhood workers have been developed to assume managerial responsibilities and are directing the Center. The Martin Luther King Center experience is instructive because the Center was able to achieve significant community control by focusing primarily on the internal dimension of

Noel M. Tichy; June Irmiger Taylor

1976-01-01

319

ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND MINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serious problems of contaminants and environment impacts produced by human action in the subsurface (air, groundwater and rock in interaction with human activities), particularly in underground mines, require an integrated approach in terms of specific rules, laws and management systems in the domain of Occupational Safety and Health. As the ISO 14001 standard is mostly directed for the prevention

Navarro Torres; Dinis Da Gama

320

Propulsion safety and affordable readiness engine health management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new initiative was started to address Department of Defense safety and affordable readiness for legacy turbine engines. By using the GOTChA\\/ApPRoVal methods, a baseline research plan was established that is based on prognostics and health management. This paper outlines the decision process, investment strategy, projected return on investment, validation, and transition strategies

Brian K. Beachkofski

2006-01-01

321

Why competencies in graduate health management and policy education?  

PubMed

During the past decade there has been a growing interest in learning and competency-based systems in various areas of education, training, and professional development. As a result, a number of competency initiatives have been undertaken across the health professions, including medicine, nursing, and pharmacy. Concurrent with these activities have been the resounding calls for: 1) both curricular content and process review in health administration and related training programs, 2) rethinking and reform of current educational practices, and 3) evidence-based, outcomes-focused education in health management and policy education. In spite of governmental mandates and accrediting body specification for educational improvement, the debate about the use of competency models, competencies themselves, and competency-based education (CBE) still continues in a number of post-secondary educational settings-both within and outside of the professions. Specifically, faculties in health management and policy educational programs, including undergraduate and graduate education across the US, have questioned the need for the evolving competencies, competency models, and outcomes-based educational processes and assessment methods currently being developed and or adopted within the profession. Outlined in this paper are four of the current inflection points related to the competency/outcomes-based movement in the professions during the past decade: 1) The Changing Workforce and Workplace, 2) Reform in the Educational Continuum, 3) Evolving Accreditation Requirements, and 4) Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) in Health Management and Policy Education. PMID:19655616

Calhoun, Judith G; Vincent, Eric T; Calhoun, Gary L; Brandsen, Laura E

2008-01-01

322

Public health emergencies and the public health/managed care challenge.  

PubMed

The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response. PMID:12508505

Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra

2002-01-01

323

Disparities in Work Conditions among Early Career Special Educators in High- and Low-Poverty Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used teacher data from the Study of Personnel Needs in Special Education to compare the district and school supports, work manageability, professional development, and induction of early career special educators in high- and low-poverty districts. Teachers in high-poverty districts reported less desirable work conditions than their…

Fall, Anna-Maria; Billingsley, Bonnie S.

2011-01-01

324

Growth and Poverty Reduction in Ethiopia: Evidence from Household Panel Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates the impact of growth on poverty in Ethiopia by analysing panel data covering 1994–97, a period of economic recovery driven by peace, good weather, and much improved macroeconomic management. The analysis of poverty shows land ownership, education, type of crops planted, occupations in urban areas, dependency ratios, and location to be important determinants. The characteristics of households

Mekonnen Taddesse; Bereket Kebede; Abebe Shimeles

2003-01-01

325

Poverty Measurement in the U.S., Europe, and Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In December of 2009, many within the American community of analysts, policymakers, and program managers are looking expectantly at the possibility of change in the basic measure used to gauge poverty in the United States. A broad consensus has emerged that the current official measure of poverty in the United States is deeply flawed, in the income…

Couch, Kenneth A.; Pirog, Maureen A.

2010-01-01

326

Combating infectious diseases of poverty: a year on  

PubMed Central

The Infectious Diseases of Poverty journal, launched a year ago, is a platform to engage outside the traditional disciplinary boundaries, and disseminate high quality science towards the improvement of health. This paper reviews the milestone achievements during its first year of operation. The journal has filled an important niche, addressing some of the main priorities in the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty. Highlights include the publication of three thematic issues on health systems, surveillance and response systems, as well as co-infection and syndemics. The thematic issues have foregrounded the importance and innovation that can be achieved through transdisciplinary research. The journal has been indexed by PubMed since April 2013, with the publication of a total of 38 articles. Finally, the journal is delivering to wider range readers both in developing and developed countries with sustained efforts with a focus on relevant and strategic information towards elimination of infectious diseases of poverty.

2013-01-01

327

Poverty trap formed by the ecology of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

While most of the world has enjoyed exponential economic growth, more than one-sixth of the world is today roughly as poor as their ancestors were many generations ago. Widely accepted general explanations for the persistence of such poverty have been elusive and are needed by the international development community. Building on a well-established model of human infectious diseases, we show how formally integrating simple economic and disease ecology models can naturally give rise to poverty traps, where initial economic and epidemiological conditions determine the long-term trajectory of the health and economic development of a society. This poverty trap may therefore be broken by improving health conditions of the population. More generally, we demonstrate that simple human ecological models can help explain broad patterns of modern economic organization.

Bonds, Matthew H.; Keenan, Donald C.; Rohani, Pejman; Sachs, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

328

Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

2010-01-01

329

Solid health care waste management status at health care centers in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory  

SciTech Connect

Health care waste is considered a major public health hazard. The objective of this study was to assess health care waste management (HCWM) practices currently employed at health care centers (HCCs) in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory. Survey data on solid health care waste (SHCW) were analyzed for generated quantities, collection, separation, treatment, transportation, and final disposal. Estimated 4720.7 m{sup 3} (288.1 tons) of SHCW are generated monthly by the HCCs in the West Bank. This study concluded that: (i) current HCWM practices do not meet HCWM standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) or adapted by developed countries, and (ii) immediate attention should be directed towards improvement of HCWM facilities and development of effective legislation. To improve the HCWM in the West Bank, a national policy should be implemented, comprising a comprehensive plan of action and providing environmentally sound and reliable technological measures.

Al-Khatib, Issam A. [Institute of Environmental and Water Studies, Birzeit University, P.O. Box 14, Birzeit, Ramallah, West Bank (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)], E-mail: ikhatib@birzeit.edu; Sato, Chikashi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho (United States)

2009-08-15

330

Financial impact of population health management programs: reevaluating the literature.  

PubMed

Although many employers offer some components of worksite-based population health management (PHM), most do not yet invest in comprehensive programs. This hesitation to invest in comprehensive programs may be attributed to numerous factors, such as other more pressing business priorities, reluctance to intervene in the personal health choices of employees, or insufficient funds for employee health. Many decision makers also remain skeptical about whether investment in comprehensive programs will produce a financial return on investment (ROI). Most peer-reviewed studies assessing the financial impact of PHM were published before 2000 and include a broad array of program and study designs. Many of these studies have also included indirect productivity savings in their assessment of financial outcomes. In contrast, this review includes only peer-reviewed studies of the direct health care cost impact of comprehensive PHM programs that meet rigorous methodological criteria. A systematic search of health sciences databases identified only 5 studies with program designs and study methods meeting these selection criteria published after 2007. This focused review found that comprehensive PHM programs can yield a positive ROI based on their impact on direct health care costs, but the level of ROI achieved was lower than that reported by literature reviews with less focused and restrictive qualifying criteria. To yield substantial short-term health care cost savings, the longer term financial return that can credibly be associated with a comprehensive, prevention-oriented population health program must be augmented by other financial impact strategies. PMID:22313443

Grossmeier, Jessica; Terry, Paul E; Anderson, David R; Wright, Steven

2012-06-01

331

Rescuing gender from the poverty trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Poverty Agenda is seen as incorporating gender within a new broader concept of poverty (Lipton and Maxwell, 1992) capable of measuring, evaluating and redressing gender bias along with poverty-reduction policies based on labor-intensive growth, targeted social services and safety nets. Multilateral positions on gender and development (GAD) for their part also stress the poverty of women as a

Cecile Jackson

1996-01-01

332

Organizing and managing care in a changing health system.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine ways in which the management and organization of medical care is changing in response to the shifting incentives created by managed care. DATA SOURCES: Site visits conducted in 12 randomly selected communities in 1996/ 1997. STUDY DESIGN: Approximately 35-60 interviews were conducted per site with key informants in healthcare and community organizations; about half were with providers. DATA COLLECTION: A standardized interview protocol was implemented across all sites, enabling cross-site comparisons. Multiple respondents were interviewed on each issue. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A great deal of experimentation and apparent duplication exist in efforts to develop programs to influence physician practice patterns. Responsibility for managing care is being contested by health plans, medical groups and hospitals, as each seeks to accrue the savings that can result from the more efficient delivery of care. To manage the financial and clinical risk, providers are aggressively consolidating and reorganizing. Most significant was the rapid formation of intermediary organizations, such as independent practice arrangements (IPAs), physician-hospital organizations (PHOs), or management services organizations (MSOs), for contracting with managed care organizations. CONCLUSIONS: Managed care appears to have only a modest effect on how healthcare organizations deliver medical care, despite the profound effect that managed care has on how providers are organized. Rather than improving the efficiency of healthcare organizations, provider efforts to build large systems and become indispensable to health plans are exacerbating problems of excess capacity. It is not clear if new organizational arrangements will help providers manage the changing incentives they face, or if their intent is to blunt the effects of the incentives by forming larger organizations to improve their bargaining power and resist change.

Kohn, L T

2000-01-01

333

The Impact of Exposure to Family and Community Violence on Children's Adaptive Coping and Mental Health Symptoms among Ethnic Minority Families Living in Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor and ethnic minority children are at increased risk for exposure to violence within the family and in the community. However, there is limited research examining the differential effects of co-occurring and interrelated forms of violence on children's mental health. This study utilizes an ecological, developmental psychopathology, systems approach, theorizing that exposure to family and community violence impacts mental health

Esroruleh Tamim Mohammad

2011-01-01

334

Reverse quality management: developing evidence-based best practices in health emergency management.  

PubMed

The British Columbia Ministry of Health's Framework for Core Functions in Public Health was the catalyst that inspired this review of best practices in health emergency management. The fieldwork was conducted in the fall of 2005 between hurricane Katrina and the South Asia earthquake. These tragedies, shown on 24/7 television news channels, provided an eyewitness account of disaster management, or lack of it, in our global village world. It is not enough to just have best practices in place. There has to be a governance structure that can be held accountable. This review of best practices lists actions in support of an emergency preparedness culture at the management, executive, and corporate/governance levels of the organization. The methodology adopted a future quality management approach of the emergency management process to identify the corresponding performance indictors that correlated with practices or sets of practices. Identifying best practice performance indictors needed to conduct a future quality management audit is described as reverse quality management. Best practices cannot be assessed as stand-alone criteria; they are influenced by organizational culture. The defining of best practices was influenced by doubt about defining a practice it is hoped will never be performed, medical staff involvement, leadership, and an appreciation of the resources required and how they need to be managed. Best practice benchmarks are seen as being related more to "measures" of performance defined locally and agreed on by 2 or more parties rather than to achieving industrial standards. Relating practices to performance indicators and then to benchmarks resulted in the development of a Health Emergency Management Best Practices Matrix that lists specific practice in the different phases of emergency management. PMID:16622359

Lynch, Tim; Cox, Paul

2006-01-01

335

Emergency mental health management in bioterrorism events.  

PubMed

The United States has not suffered significant psychosocial or medical consequences from the use of biological weapons within its territories. This has contributed to a "natural" state of denial at the community level. This denial could amplify the sense of crisis, anxiety, fear, chaos, and disorder that would accompany such a bioterrorist event. A key part of primary prevention involves counteracting this possibility before an incident occurs. Doing so will require realistic information regarding the bioterrorism threat followed by the development of a planned response and regular practice of that response. Unlike in natural disasters or other situations resulting in mass casualties, emergency department physicians or nurses and primary care physicians (working in concert with epidemiologic agencies), rather than police, firemen, or ambulance personnel, will be most likely to first identify the unfolding disaster associated with a biological attack. Like community leaders, this group of medical responders must be aware of its own susceptibility to mental health sequelae and performance decrement as the increasing demands of disaster response outpace the availability of necessary resources. A bioterrorist attack will necessitate treatment of casualties who experience neuropsychiatric symptoms and syndromes. Although symptoms may result from exposure to infection with specific biological agents, similar symptoms may result from the mere perception of exposure or arousal precipitated by fear of infection, disease, suffering, and death. Conservative use of psychotropic medications may reduce symptoms in exposed and uninfected individuals, as may cognitive-behavioral interventions. Clear, consistent, accessible, reliable, and redundant information (received from trusted sources) will diminish public uncertainty about the cause of symptoms that might otherwise prompt persons to seek unnecessary treatment. Training and preparation for contingencies experienced in an attack have the potential to enhance delivery of care. Initiating supportive social, psychotherapeutic, and psychopharmacologic treatments judiciously for symptoms and syndromes known to accompany the traumatic stress response can aid the efficient treatment of some patients and reduce long-term morbidity in affected individuals. Preventive strategies and planning must take into account the idea that specific groups within the population are at higher risk for psychiatric morbidity. First responders comprise one group at psychologic risk in this situation, and healthcare providers comprise another. These and other high-risk groups will benefit from the same supportive interventions developed for the community as a whole. PMID:12120485

Benedek, David M; Holloway, Harry C; Becker, Steven M

2002-05-01

336

Managing patients with high-deductible health plans and health savings accounts.  

PubMed

High-deductible health plans and health savings accounts have many patients and providers mutually mystified. It is very important for providers and their staff to understand and manage these emerging products. If the current growth rate of enrollment in these plans continues, 25% of your patients will be presenting with this coverage in fewer than six years. Mishandling these products can cause unnecessary cash flow issues, but a little proactivity, education, and training now, will go a long way. PMID:19743709

Weaver, Catherine M

2009-01-01

337

Social work management in emerging health care systems.  

PubMed

An overview of the health care industry's trend toward multihealth systems is presented and specific adaptive strategies for social work managers in health care are suggested. The challenges to social work leaders during this transition from largely free-standing, privately owned health care institutions to corporately owned, horizontally and vertically integrated delivery systems are discussed in terms of identity, style, and substance. Directors of social work departments in multihealth corporations will need to resolve issues of institutional versus corporate identity as well as those of corporate versus professional identity. A multioptional management style that incorporates networking and political expertise should be cultivated. Substantive demands in the areas of management information systems, productivity, quality assurance, and budgeting also must be addressed. The emergence of multihealth systems poses major challenges and unique opportunities to the social work profession. Awareness of managerial strategies and critical content areas can help social work leaders enhance the role and contribution of social work in these exciting and complex health care delivery systems. PMID:2318461

Kenney, J J

1990-02-01

338

Polarity management: the key challenge for integrated health systems.  

PubMed

Integrated health systems are confronted with numerous dilemmas that must be managed. Many of these dilemmas are an inherent part of the system's structure, given that multiple competing hospitals, medical groups, and (sometimes) health plans are often under one organizational roof. This article presents an analysis of these dilemmas--referred to in the management literature as polarities--as they are found in six integrated health systems in Illinois. The nine polarities that must be managed include (1) hospital systems that want to be organizations of physicians; (2) system expansion by growing the physician component; (3) system centralization and physician decentralization; (4) centripetal and centrifugal forces involving physicians; (5) system objectives and physician interests; (6) system centralization and hospital decentralization; (7) primary care physicians and specialists; (8) physician autonomy via collectivization; and (9) vertical and virtual integration. The article identifies some of the solutions to the polarities that have been enacted by systems. In general, executives and physicians in integrated health systems must attend to the processes of integration as much as or more than the structures of integration. PMID:10345554

Burns, L R

1999-01-01

339

Poverty in Rural Areas of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The poverty problems in rural America are categorized and analyzed in terms of the extent and persistence of rural poverty, causes and costs of poverty, poverty characteristics of rural areas, and implications for anti-poverty programs. The report defines poverty and briefly traces the history of rural poverty over the past 20 years. Maps, charts,…

Bird, Alan R.

340

Health Insurance Coverage: Early Release of Estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, January -- June 2013  

MedlinePLUS

... Institute. 2009. 3. DeNavas-Walt C, Proctor BD, Smith JC. Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in ... Office. 2008. 4. DeNavas-Walt C, Proctor BD, Smith JC. Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in ...

341

Applying total quality management concepts to public health organizations.  

PubMed Central

Total quality management (TQM) is a participative, systematic approach to planning and implementing a continuous organizational improvement process. Its approach is focused on satisfying customers' expectations, identifying problems, building commitment, and promoting open decision-making among workers. TQM applies analytical tools, such as flow and statistical charts and check sheets, to gather data about activities within an organization. TQM uses process techniques, such as nominal groups, brainstorming, and consensus forming to facilitate communication and decision making. TQM applications in the public sector and particularly in public health agencies have been limited. The process of integrating TQM into public health agencies complements and enhances the Model Standards Program and assessment methodologies, such as the Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEX-PH), which are mechanisms for establishing strategic directions for public health. The authors examine the potential for using TQM as a method to achieve and exceed standards quickly and efficiently. They discuss the relationship of performance standards and assessment methodologies with TQM and provide guidelines for achieving the full potential of TQM in public health organizations. The guidelines include redefining the role of management, defining a common corporate culture, refining the role of citizen oversight functions, and setting realistic estimates of the time needed to complete a task or project.

Kaluzny, A D; McLaughlin, C P; Simpson, K

1992-01-01

342

Poverty: 1999. Census 2000 Brief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, which exhibits data on the poverty population, is part of a series that presents population and housing data collected by Census 2000. It describes population distributions for the United States, including characteristics of regions, states, ...

A. Bishaw J. Iceland

2003-01-01

343

Low level communication management for e-health systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneity of e-health systems encourages the use of standards such as Health Level 7 (HL7v3) to ensure interoperability. Many actual implementations address this problem by unoptimized high level programming of top-range portable computing platforms. However, this approach could pose excessive demands on battery-powered mid-range terminals. In this work, we propose low-level support for portable HL7v3-compatible embedded systems in order to better exploit their limited processing and communications capabilities. In particular, we present our experience in mobile communication management through two different approaches, which proves the feasibility of this proposal.

Riva, Guillermo; Zerbini, Carlos; Voos, Javier; Centeno, Carlos; González, Eduardo

2011-12-01

344

An agile enterprise regulation architecture for health information security management.  

PubMed

Information security management for healthcare enterprises is complex as well as mission critical. Information technology requests from clinical users are of such urgency that the information office should do its best to achieve as many user requests as possible at a high service level using swift security policies. This research proposes the Agile Enterprise Regulation Architecture (AERA) of information security management for healthcare enterprises to implement as part of the electronic health record process. Survey outcomes and evidential experiences from a sample of medical center users proved that AERA encourages the information officials and enterprise administrators to overcome the challenges faced within an electronically equipped hospital. PMID:20815748

Chen, Ying-Pei; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Chien, Tsan-Nan; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Luh, Jer-Junn; Lai, Jin-Shin; Lai, Feipei; Chen, Sao-Jie

2010-09-01

345

An Agile Enterprise Regulation Architecture for Health Information Security Management  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information security management for healthcare enterprises is complex as well as mission critical. Information technology requests from clinical users are of such urgency that the information office should do its best to achieve as many user requests as possible at a high service level using swift security policies. This research proposes the Agile Enterprise Regulation Architecture (AERA) of information security management for healthcare enterprises to implement as part of the electronic health record process. Survey outcomes and evidential experiences from a sample of medical center users proved that AERA encourages the information officials and enterprise administrators to overcome the challenges faced within an electronically equipped hospital.

Chen, Ying-Pei; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Chien, Tsan-Nan; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Luh, Jer-Junn; Lai, Jin-Shin; Lai, Feipei; Chen, Sao-Jie

2010-01-01

346

Medication management and practices in prison for people with mental health problems: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Common mental health problems are prevalent in prison and the quality of prison health care provision for prisoners with mental health problems has been a focus of critical scrutiny. Currently, health policy aims to align and integrate prison health services and practices with those of the National Health Service (NHS). Medication management is a key aspect of treatment for

Robert A Bowen; Anne Rogers; Jennifer Shaw

2009-01-01

347

Opportunities for Launch Site Integrated System Health Engineering and Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launch site processing flow involves operations such as functional verification, preflight servicing and launch. These operations often include hazards that must be controlled to protect human life and critical space hardware assets. Existing command and control capabilities are limited to simple limit checking durig automated monitoring. Contingency actions are highly dependent on human recognition, decision making, and execution. Many opportunities for Integrated System Health Engineering and Management (ISHEM) exist throughout the processing flow. This paper will present the current human-centered approach to health management as performed today for the shuttle and space station programs. In addition, it will address some of the more critical ISHEM needs, and provide recommendations for future implementation of ISHEM at the launch site.

Waterman, Robert D.; Langwost, Patricia E.; Waterman, Susan J.

2005-01-01

348

Managing depression in home health care: a randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

A prospective randomized trial was conducted to examine the effectiveness, feasibility, and degree of implementation of home health care quality improvement interventions when implemented under usual conditions by usual care providers. A total of 311 older adults were randomized to enhanced usual care (EUC) that included routine depression screening and staff training in depression care management for older adults or to the intervention group (INT) that included antidepressants and/or psychotherapy treatment plus EUC. Implementing a routine screening protocol using the PHQ-9 and depression care management quality improvements is feasible in diverse home health care organizations and results in consistently better (but not statistically significant) depression outcomes in the INT group. PMID:17804354

Ell, Kathleen; Unützer, Jürgen; Aranda, Maria; Gibbs, Nancy E; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Xie, Bin

2007-01-01

349

District health managers' perceptions of supervision in Malawi and Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Mid-level cadres are being used to address human resource shortages in many African contexts, but insufficient and ineffective human resource management is compromising their performance. Supervision plays a key role in performance and motivation, but is frequently characterised by periodic inspection and control, rather than support and feedback to improve performance. This paper explores the perceptions of district health management teams in Tanzania and Malawi on their role as supervisors and on the challenges to effective supervision at the district level. Methods This qualitative study took place as part of a broader project, “Health Systems Strengthening for Equity: The Power and Potential of Mid-Level Providers”. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 district health management team personnel in Malawi and 37 council health team members in Tanzania. The interviews covered a range of human resource management issues, including supervision and performance assessment, staff job descriptions and roles, motivation and working conditions. Results Participants displayed varying attitudes to the nature and purpose of the supervision process. Much of the discourse in Malawi centred on inspection and control, while interviewees in Tanzania were more likely to articulate a paradigm characterised by support and improvement. In both countries, facility level performance metrics dominated. The lack of competency-based indicators or clear standards to assess individual health worker performance were considered problematic. Shortages of staff, at both district and facility level, were described as a major impediment to carrying out regular supervisory visits. Other challenges included conflicting and multiple responsibilities of district health team staff and financial constraints. Conclusion Supervision is a central component of effective human resource management. Policy level attention is crucial to ensure a systematic, structured process that is based on common understandings of the role and purpose of supervision. This is particularly important in a context where the majority of staff are mid-level cadres for whom regulation and guidelines may not be as formalised or well-developed as for traditional cadres, such as registered nurses and medical doctors. Supervision needs to be adequately resourced and supported in order to improve performance and retention at the district level.

2013-01-01

350

Corporate management of quality in employee health plans.  

PubMed

As large companies move their employees into managed care, they must concern themselves with the quality and price of their employees' health care. Based on a survey of Fortune 500 companies, we show that most are integrating several aspects of quality into their purchasing and contracting decisions by focusing on three dimensions--customer service, network composition, and clinical quality. Companies focus on the customer service dimension while the medical community emphasizes clinical quality. PMID:12638371

Maxwell, James; Temin, Peter

2003-01-01

351

Candidate technologies for the Integrated Health Management Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this report is to assess Vehicle Health Management (VHM) technologies for implementation as a demonstration. Extensive studies have been performed to determine technologies which could be implemented on the Atlas and Centaur vehicles as part of a bridging program. This paper discusses areas today where VHM can be implemented for benefits in reliability, performance, and cost reduction. VHM Options are identified and one demonstration is recommended for execution.

Johnson, Neal F.; Martin, Fred H.

1993-01-01

352

Leader-Member Exchange Relationships in Health Information Management  

PubMed Central

This article seeks to raise awareness of the leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership and its potential benefit to the health information management (HIM) profession. A literature review that was conducted identified a leadership challenge for HIM practitioners. The review also provides examples of leadership definitions, and potential benefits of LMX to HIM professionals in leading people and influencing leaders in their organizations. The LMX concept may be an avenue to investigate in preparing future and current HIM professionals for leadership.

Hunt, T.J.

2014-01-01

353

Moral distress among health system managers: exploratory research in two British Columbia health authorities.  

PubMed

Moral distress is a concept used to date in clinical literature to describe the experience of staff in circumstances in which they are prevented from delivering the kind of bedside care they believe is expected of them, professionally and ethically. Our research objective was to determine if this concept has relevance in terms of key health care managerial functions, such as priority setting and resource allocation. We conducted interviews and focus groups with mid- and senior-level managers in two British Columbia (Canada) health authorities. Transcripts were analyzed qualitatively using constant comparison to identify key themes related to moral distress. Both mid- and senior-level managers appear to experience moral distress, with both similarities and differences in how their experiences manifest. Several examples of this concept were identified including the obligation to communicate or 'sell' organizational decisions or policies with which a manager personally may disagree and situations where scarce resources compel managers to place staff in situations where they meet with predictable and potentially avoidable risks. Given that moral distress appears to be a relevant issue for at least some health care managers, further research is warranted into its exact nature, prevalence, and possible organizational and personal responses. PMID:20217482

Mitton, Craig; Peacock, Stuart; Storch, Jan; Smith, Neale; Cornelissen, Evelyn

2011-06-01

354

Blindness and poverty in India: the way forward.  

PubMed

A few recent studies have shown that poverty is an exacerbating and often determining factor in the incidence of disabling conditions, including visual impairment. Recent estimates from the World Health Organization indicate that 90 per cent of all those affected by visual impairment live in the poorest countries of the world. India is home to one-fifth of the world's visually impaired people and therefore, any strategies to combat avoidable blindness must take into account the socio-economic conditions within which people live. This paper looks at the relationship between poverty and blindness in India and suggests strategies to address blindness prevention in a comprehensive manner. PMID:17958562

Khanna, Rohit; Raman, Usha; Rao, Gullapalli N

2007-11-01

355

Poverty and the Multiple Stakeholder Challenge for Global Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents a case study in which business leaders deal with challenging problems related to poverty, involving multiple stakeholders. This emphasizes the importance of training prospective global leaders to manage stakeholder relationships and engage in stakeholder dialogue. The authors highlight the stakeholder role played by…

Reade, Carol; Todd, Anne Marie; Osland, Asbjorn; Osland, Joyce

2008-01-01

356

Factors Influencing Students to Enroll in Health Information Management Programs  

PubMed Central

This nonexperimental quantitative descriptive-correlative research study was performed to describe the sources with the greatest influence on the participants’ decision to enroll in a postsecondary educational program with the intent of working toward a career in health information management. Participants were asked, “Which sources have the greatest influence on an individual's decision to enroll in a postsecondary educational program with the intent of working toward a career in health information management (HIM)?” The study population was composed of matriculated students enrolled in accredited postsecondary schools offering an undergraduate medical billing and coding program at a brick-and-mortar campus in a two-county area of a South Atlantic state. The study found that an environmental source, specifically career job opportunities, was statistically significant as the greatest source of influence for these participants. This research aims to support efforts to provide the health information management subsector of the healthcare industry with a sufficient number of trained professionals to fill the identified need for trained HIM professionals, particularly medical coding specialists.

Safian, Shelley C.

2012-01-01

357

IVHM Framework for Intelligent Integration for Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, this framework integrates technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear that IIVM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives. These systems include the following: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle Mission Planning, Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations.

Paris, Deidre; Trevino, Luis C.; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

358

Inventory of Federal Data Bases Related to the Measurement of Poverty. The Measure of Poverty, Technical Paper IX.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical paper provides an inventory of Federal data bases that are related to the definition and measurement of poverty. An attempt was made to make the inventory as complete as possible. The report is in two parts: Part A covers the Departments of Agriculture; Health, Education, and Welfare; Housing and Urban Development; Labor; and…

Citro, Connie; And Others

359

Role of Ayurveda in management of oral health  

PubMed Central

Oral diseases continue to be a major health problem world-wide. Oral health is integral to general well-being and relates to the quality-of-life that extends beyond the functions of the craniofacial complex. The standard Western medicine has had only limited success in the prevention of periodontal disease and in the treatment of a variety of oral diseases. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional medicine are considered to be good alternatives to synthetic chemicals. The botanicals in the Ayurvedic material medica have been proven to be safe and effective, through several hundred to several thousand years of use. The exploration of botanicals used in traditional medicine may lead to the development of novel preventive or therapeutic strategies for oral health. The present scientific evidence based review is focused on the possible role of Ayurveda in the management of various orofacial disorders.

Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Hongal, Sudhir; Goel, Pankaj; Chandrashekar, B. R.

2014-01-01

360

Cross-temporal and cross-national poverty and mortality rates among developed countries.  

PubMed

A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes. PMID:23840235

Fritzell, Johan; Kangas, Olli; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni; Hiilamo, Heikki

2013-01-01

361

Emergency planning and management in health care: priority research topics  

PubMed Central

Many major incidents have significant impacts on people's health, placing additional demands on health-care organisations. The main aim of this paper is to suggest a prioritised agenda for organisational and management research on emergency planning and management relevant to U.K. health care, based on a scoping study. A secondary aim is to enhance knowledge and understanding of health-care emergency planning among the wider research community, by highlighting key issues and perspectives on the subject and presenting a conceptual model. The study findings have much in common with those of previous U.S.-focused scoping reviews, and with a recent U.K.-based review, confirming the relative paucity of U.K.-based research. No individual research topic scored highly on all of the key measures identified, with communities and organisations appearing to differ about which topics are the most important. Four broad research priorities are suggested: the affected public; inter- and intra-organisational collaboration; preparing responders and their organisations; and prioritisation and decision making.

Boyd, Alan; Chambers, Naomi; French, Simon; Shaw, Duncan; King, Russell; Whitehead, Alison

2014-01-01

362

Use of physician assistants in a managed health care system.  

PubMed Central

Kaiser Permanente Northwest Region is a prepaid group practice health maintenance organization. Among the employed are 65 physician assistants (PAs) who work in primary care and in certain subspecialties. Kaiser Permanente was one of the first managed health care systems to use PAs and has contributed to the historical documentation of their effectiveness. An interest in experimenting with new forms of health care delivery as well as enabling State legislation has contributed to an expanded role for nonphysician providers. Together with nurse practitioners, PAs comprise 20 percent of the primary care staff and write 25 percent of the prescriptions for the membership. The use of PAs in managed health care settings will likely increase to meet growing primary care demands. Analysts have found the cost of a PA ranges from 25 percent to 53 percent of the cost of a physician. PAs are capable of providing care for 86 percent of the diagnoses seen in outpatient primary care setting, and patient acceptance is high.

Hooker, R S; Freeborn, D K

1991-01-01

363

Managed Behavioral Health Care Premises, Accountable Systems of Care, and Ambha's Perms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the concepts and approaches underlying managed behavioral health care and the need to assess quality of care. The author describes the Performance Measures for Managed Behavioral Healthcare Programs (PERMS) developed by the American Managed Behavioral Healthcare Association (AMBHA), which is offered as a first step toward enhanced quality of care assessment in managed behavioral health care.

E. Clarke Ross

1997-01-01

364

Management of Frontotemporal Dementia in Mental Health and Multidisciplinary Settings  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in the mental health setting and issues pertaining to longitudinal care of this population in a specialty clinic are reviewed. FTD is often misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder, most commonly as a mood disorder. FTD has features that overlap with those of major depression, mania, obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. We describe these features and how to differentiate FTD from these psychiatric disorders. This paper also describes practical issues in the management of FTD, specifically the issues that clinicians, patients and their families face in managing this disease. Areas of clinical care along the continuum are explored; FTD care involves collaborative management of symptoms and disability, and assisting patients and families in adapting to the disease.

Wylie, Mary Anne; Shnall, Adriana; Onyike, Chiadi U.; Huey, Edward D.

2014-01-01

365

Implications of managed care for health systems, clinicians, and patients.  

PubMed Central

The rhetoric and realities of managed care are easily confused. The rapid growth of managed care in the United States has had many implications for patients, doctors, employers, state and federal programmes, the health insurance industry, major medical institutions, medical research, and vulnerable patient populations. It has restricted patients' choice of doctors and limited access to specialists, reduced the professional autonomy and earnings of doctors, shifted power from the non-profit to the for-profit sectors and from hospitals and doctors to private corporations. It has also raised issues about the future structuring and financing of medical education and research and about practice ethics. However, managed care has also accorded greater prominence to the assessment of patient satisfaction, profiling and monitoring of doctors' work, the use of clinical guidelines and quality assurance procedures and indicated the potential to improve the integration and outcome of care.

Fairfield, G.; Hunter, D. J.; Mechanic, D.; Rosleff, F.

1997-01-01

366

Managing corporate governance risks in a nonprofit health care organization.  

PubMed

Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves. PMID:20200865

Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J

2005-01-01

367

Data mining of aviation data for advancing health management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operations of aircraft fleets typically result in large volumes of data collected during the execution of various operational and support processes. This paper reports on an Army-sponsored study conducted to research the applicability of data mining for processing such data. The study focused on three aspects: (1) understanding the aviation operations, maintenance environment, and data collection system; (2) investigating data analysis approaches with the purpose of identifying promising methods pertinent to aircraft health management; and (3) defining requirements for a tool to support the aviation maintenance planners and fleet managers. Results of preliminary analyses of two maintenance data and flight data sets are presented. An architecture for managing and mining aviation maintenance data and using results to update models used by diagnostic modules for fault isolation during maintenance activity is also presented.

Mathur, Amit

2002-07-01

368

Examining the Role of Anxiety and Apathy in Health Consumers' Intentions to Use Patient Health Portals for Personal Health Information Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated college students' attitudes toward and intentions to use personal health portals (PHPs) for managing their personal health information using a survey method. The study also aimed to examine the roles electronic Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) anxiety and apathy play in influencing students' attitudes toward…

Torres, Carlos A.

2011-01-01

369

Women, poverty and adverse maternal outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background The link between poverty and adverse maternal outcomes has been studied largely by means of quantitative data. We explore poor urban Kenyan women's views and lived experiences of the relationship between economic disadvantage and unpleasant maternal outcomes. Method Secondary analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews data with women in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Results Urban poor women in Nairobi associate poverty with adverse maternal outcomes. However, their accounts and lived experiences of the impact of poverty on maternal outcomes underscore dynamics other than those typically stressed in the extant literature. To them, poverty primarily generates adverse maternal outcomes by exposing women to exceedingly hard and heavy workloads during pregnancy and the period surrounding it; to intimate partner violence; as well as to inhospitable and unpleasant treatment by service providers. Conclusions Poverty has wider and more intricate implications for maternal outcomes than are acknowledged in extant research. To deliver their expected impact, current efforts to promote better maternal outcomes must be guided by a more thorough perspective of the link between women's livelihoods and their health and wellbeing.

2010-01-01

370

Child poverty can be reduced.  

PubMed

Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to this end. PMID:9299838

Plotnick, R D

1997-01-01

371

Personal health information management system and its application in referral management.  

PubMed

We developed a web-based personal health record (PHR) that can be used by patients to collect and manage their health information (e.g., medical history, past surgeries, medications, and allergies), to request self-referrals, and to store a record of their consultations. The PHR also includes a messaging system that can be structured into the workflow of referral management as well as allowing more general communications. A preliminary study was conducted with 61 patients. Thirty-two patients completed a survey in which 85% of respondents were satisfied with the usability and 94% were satisfied with the overall online referral process. The consulting physicians were satisfied with the content of subjects' personal health information and referral problem descriptions and found the information detailed enough to triage all requested referrals. Patients, physicians, and patient care coordinators reported that their communications were enhanced by the system and found the messaging component convenient to use. PMID:15484434

Wang, Maisie; Lau, Christopher; Matsen, Frederick A; Kim, Yongmin

2004-09-01

372

Exploratory Study of Radiology Coding in Health Information Management Practice  

PubMed Central

An exploratory study was undertaken to determine the role and practice issues of radiology coding in health information management (HIM) practice. The study sought to identify the challenges of radiology coding and the solutions implemented to address these challenges. A self-report survey was sent to 828 American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) members identified as directors, managers, or supervisors of HIM departments and/or coding. Two hundred seventy-eight surveys were used for data analysis purposes. Sites reported that on average they have 3.4 coders devoted to radiology coding who code an average of 4,245 reports per month. Productivity standards varied by exam type ranging from 7 (interventional radiology) to 31 (diagnostic) exams coded per hour. Diagnosis codes were assigned most frequently for diagnostic, ultrasound/nuclear, MRI/CT, and mammography exams, while diagnosis and procedural codes were assigned more frequently for interventional radiology exams. The need for education specifically focused on interventional radiology coding was identified along with other issues affecting the quality of radiology coding. Suggested solutions to challenges of radiology coding such as establishing a good working relationship with physicians, radiology, and charge description master (CDM) departments were suggested.

Brodnik, Melanie

2009-01-01

373

Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery chemistries have been studied in detail in literature, an accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm has eluded us. Current reliability-based techniques are insufficient to manage the use of such batteries when they are an active power source with frequently varying loads in uncertain environments. The amount of usable charge of a battery for a given discharge profile is not only dependent on the starting state-of-charge (SOC), but also other factors like battery health and the discharge or load profile imposed. This paper presents a Particle Filter (PF) based BHM framework with plug-and-play modules for battery models and uncertainty management. The batteries are modeled at three different levels of granularity with associated uncertainty distributions, encoding the basic electrochemical processes of a Lithium-polymer battery. The effects of different choices in the model design space are explored in the context of prediction performance in an electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application with emulated flight profiles.

Saha, Bhaskar; Quach, Cuong Chi; Goebel, Kai Frank

2011-01-01

374

Managing the health effects of the explosive remnants of war.  

PubMed

Many civilian deaths and injuries across the globe are a consequence of 'explosive remnants of war' (ERW). These ERW include mines, unexploded ordnance (UXO) and cluster bombs. The numbers of deaths, injuries and resulting disabilities from ERW are expected to increase as armed conflicts proliferate. This will have a substantial effect on all aspects of health. This article first describes the mechanisms of these ERW and the nature of the injuries they can cause. It then briefly outlines the immediate medical management such injuries require; the long-term outcomes and sequelae, and what can be done to manage them. It highlights how research and medical interventions must take into account cultural, social and economic factors in addition to utilising safe and appropriate techniques and practices. The article concludes by noting that medical personnel are well placed not only to intervene and manage the direct health effects of ERW, but also indirectly by advocating on behalf of those affected by adding their voices to campaigns against their proliferation. PMID:15602994

Kett, Maria E; Mannion, Steve J

2004-11-01

375

Health Weaver Mobile: Designing a Mobile Tool for Managing Personal Health Information during Cancer Care.  

PubMed

Cancer patients manage a great deal of information to coordinate their care. Critical aspects of this work take place while patients are away from home or have diminished attention due to symptoms or side effects. We describe the design of HealthWeaver Mobile, a mobile phone application we developed to help patients manage care-related information in such situations. We discuss findings from two participatory design groups with breast cancer patients and the design decisions made to implement functional requirements uncovered in those groups. PMID:21347007

Klasnja, Predrag; Hartzler, Andrea; Powell, Christopher; Phan, Giovandy; Pratt, Wanda

2010-01-01

376

Mexico's Troublesome Triangle: Poverty, Education, and Emigration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The issues of poverty, education, and emigration are intertwined in Mexico. Each issue directly affects the others, with poverty being the main shared component. Further analysis indicates that these issues also seriously affect the United States, with il...

M. T. Wilke

2011-01-01

377

Measuring Poverty: Do the Proposed Revisions of the Poverty Measure Matter for Rural America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proposed changes in poverty measurement methods would lower the nonmetro poverty rate by 3 percentage points and raise the metro poverty rate by 1 percentage point. The resulting nonmetro poverty rate would be lower than the metro rate, reversing the hist...

M. Nord P. Cook

1995-01-01

378

Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

Nandori, Eszter Siposne

2011-01-01

379

[Occupational health service management--the concept and application of lean management].  

PubMed

One of the most effective management systems is the so-called lean management (LM) aimed at loss minimization of institutions' activities while maximizing value and satisfaction to the clients. The system implementation comprises not only typical business areas but also health care sectors. The aim of the article is to present the concept and opportunity of improving the management of occupational health units. Due to its multi-profile nature of tasks and diverse relations with the environment occupational health could be a good institutional example of LM implementation. Operational perspective consists of five guidelines: describing values expected by final clients, setting value flow eliminating needless elements, creating the integrated, coherent and smooth sequence of valuable activities, offering the values to clients, and aiming at continuing improvement. LM could be implemented in occupational health units in the following areas: timing and tasks coordination, leaning some tasks and expanding others in order to maximize clients' value, cost rationalizing, improving the quality of services by eliminating mistakes, avoiding repetition of activities. PMID:23373329

Sobczak, Alicja; Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

2012-01-01

380

Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intelligent autonomous control capability has been developed and is currently being validated in ground cryogenic fluid management operations. The capability embodies a physical architecture consistent with typical launch infrastructure and control systems, augmented by a higher level autonomous control (AC) system enabled to make knowledge-based decisions. The AC system is supported by an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability that detects anomalies, diagnoses causes, determines effects, and could predict future anomalies. AC is implemented using the concept of programmed sequences that could be considered to be building blocks of more generic mission plans. A sequence is a series of steps, and each executes actions once conditions for the step are met (e.g. desired temperatures or fluid state are achieved). For autonomous capability, conditions must consider also health management outcomes, as they will determine whether or not an action is executed, or how an action may be executed, or if an alternative action is executed instead. Aside from health, higher level objectives can also drive how a mission is carried out. The capability was developed using the G2 software environment (www.gensym.com) augmented by a NASA Toolkit that significantly shortens time to deployment. G2 is a commercial product to develop intelligent applications. It is fully object oriented. The core of the capability is a Domain Model of the system where all elements of the system are represented as objects (sensors, instruments, components, pipes, etc.). Reasoning and decision making can be done with all elements in the domain model. The toolkit also enables implementation of failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), which are represented as root cause trees. FMEA's are programmed graphically, they are reusable, as they address generic FMEA referring to classes of subsystems or objects and their functional relationships. User interfaces for integrated awareness by operators have been created.

Figueroa, Fernando; Walker, Mark; Wilkins, Kim; Johnson, Robert; Sass, Jared; Youney, Justin

2014-01-01

381

Management and programmatic constraints on community mental health services.  

PubMed

While the special needs of the mentally ill are discussed in detail by society in general and by federal and state governments in particular, it is the local mental health services that must develop, integrate, and manage resources from federal and state levels and must deal with the constraints and strings attached to those resources. The author divides the constraints into several categories--clinical, administrative, fiscal, and legal--and offers suggestions for dealing with them, drawing in several cases on examples from the state of California. He feels that the control of mental health services must be kept in the hands of those who are knowledgeable about and have an investment in the delivery of those services. PMID:649067

Elpers, J R

1978-06-01

382

[History of health management for radiation accident and disaster].  

PubMed

According to the chronological evidences of radiation accident and disaster in the world, we can easily learn the valuable lessons on radiation health effects and also a necessity of well preparatory and organized system and network of emergency radiation medicine. Especially countermeasures on emergency radiation medicine have been categorized simply into two groups: acute and chronic effects, and high-dose and low-dose consequences. Based on the identification of potential impacts on radiation health and environmental effects, referring the past accidents and disasters, comprehensive risk analysis including risk estimation, risk management and risk communication is really required for maintaining healthy lives and safeguards in the unavoidable nuclear age of the 21st century. PMID:22514911

Miyazaki, Makoto; Yamashita, Shunichi

2012-03-01

383

Statistical tools for prognostics and health management of complex systems  

SciTech Connect

Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) is increasingly important for understanding and managing today's complex systems. These systems are typically mission- or safety-critical, expensive to replace, and operate in environments where reliability and cost-effectiveness are a priority. We present background on PHM and a suite of applicable statistical tools and methods. Our primary focus is on predicting future states of the system (e.g., the probability of being operational at a future time, or the expected remaining system life) using heterogeneous data from a variety of sources. We discuss component reliability models incorporating physical understanding, condition measurements from sensors, and environmental covariates; system reliability models that allow prediction of system failure time distributions from component failure models; and the use of Bayesian techniques to incorporate expert judgments into component and system models.

Collins, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huzurbazar, Aparna V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson - Cook, Christine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

384

Use of information systems as management tools in health care  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information systems that can be used as effective management tools in healthcare do not exist. This is because current information systems do not accurately reflect reality and because they do not provide information to important end-users, i.e., clinicians. To reflect reality, healthcare information systems must assess total health care costs. These not only include the direct economic costs (dollars paid) but also the indirect economic costs (dollars lost, spent, or saved) from having a person ill. These systems must also accurately assess the adjusted, qualitative costs of human life and human pain and suffering resulting from the illness and healthcare provided. Once information systems reflect reality, they can be used to manage healthcare by profiling utilization, projecting need, modeling programs, assessing quality of care and establishing guidelines.

Davila, Fidel

1995-10-01

385

Dental health and management for children with congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common developmental anomalies. Children with CHD are at increased risk of developing oral disease, and are at increased risk from the systemic effects of oral disease. Recent changes in guidelines related to prophylaxis against infective endocarditis have highlighted the importance of establishing and maintaining oral health for this group of patients. The management of children with CHD can be complex and, unfortunately, many of these children do not receive the care they require. The challenges that these children pose are discussed, and suggestions are made for the appropriate management of these patients and the key role that all those working in primary dental care have to play. PMID:20067687

FitzGerald, Kirsten; Fleming, Pádraig; Franklin, Orla

2010-01-01

386

Future prospects of health management systems using cellular phones.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Cellular phones enable communication between healthcare providers and patients for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases. However, few studies have examined the user-friendliness or effectiveness of cellular phone-based medical informatics (CPBMI) for healthcare. Materials and Methods: This study investigated the use of CPBMI to identify its current status within the medical field, advantages and disadvantages, practicability, clinical effectiveness, costs, and cost-saving potential. Results: CPBMI was validated in terms of practicality and provision of medical benefits. It is critical to use CPBMI in accordance with the different features of each disease and condition. Use of CPBMI is expected to be especially useful for patients with chronic disease. Conclusions: We discussed the current status of the clinical use, benefits, and risks of CPBMI. CPBMI and information technology-based health management tools are anticipated to become useful and effective components of healthcare management in the future. PMID:24693986

Kim, Hun-Sung; Hwang, Yunji; Lee, Jae-Ho; Oh, Hye Young; Kim, Yi-Jun; Kwon, Hyeon Yoon; Kang, Hyoseung; Kim, Hyunah; Park, Rae Woong; Kim, Ju Han

2014-06-01

387

National ignition facility environment, safety, and health management plan  

SciTech Connect

The ES&H Management Plan describes all of the environmental, safety, and health evaluations and reviews that must be carried out in support of the implementation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. It describes the policy, organizational responsibilities and interfaces, activities, and ES&H documents that will be prepared by the Laboratory Project Office for the DOE. The only activity not described is the preparation of the NIF Project Specific Assessment (PSA), which is to be incorporated into the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (PEIS). This PSA is being prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with input from the Laboratory participants. As the independent NEPA document preparers ANL is directly contracted by the DOE, and its deliverables and schedule are agreed to separately with DOE/OAK.

NONE

1995-11-01

388

Integrated System Health Management: Foundational Concepts, Approach, and Implementation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive to an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. We present concepts, procedures, and a specific approach as a foundation for implementing a credible ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. The intent is also to make possible implementation of on-board ISHM capability, in contrast to a remote capability. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems (rocket engine test facilities). The paper will address the following topics: 1. ISHM Model of a system 2. Detection of anomaly indicators. 3. Determination and confirmation of anomalies. 4. Diagnostic of causes and determination of effects. 5. Consistency checking cycle. 6. Management of health information 7. User Interfaces 8. Example implementation ISHM has been defined from many perspectives. We define it as a capability that might be achieved by various approaches. We describe a specific approach that has been matured throughout many years of development, and pilot implementations. ISHM is a capability that is achieved by integrating data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) that might be distributed throughout the system elements (which inherently implies capability to manage DIaK associated with distributed sub-systems). DIaK must be available to any element of a system at the right time and in accordance with a meaningful context. ISHM Functional Capability Level (FCL) is measured by how well a system performs the following functions: (1) detect anomalies, (2) diagnose causes, (3) predict future anomalies/failures, and (4) provide the user with an integrated awareness about the condition of every element in the system and guide user decisions.

Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John; Walker, Mark; Venkatesh, Meera; Kapadia, Ravi; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Smith, Harvey

2009-01-01

389

Botulism--Diagnosis, Management and Public Health Considerations  

PubMed Central

Botulism is an uncommon but often fatal disease associated with ingestion of a potent neurotoxin present in improperly preserved foods. Exposures to commercially preserved foods with an odd or peculiar taste almost never represent exposure to botulism toxin. Improperly prepared home-canned products which are tasted or consumed without heating are more likely to be associated with botulism. The management of suspect and confirmed cases of botulism is presented by medical epidemiologists in the State Department of Public Health, Bureau of Communicable Disease Control, to provide physicians in California with a practical approach to this problem.

Werner, S. Benson; Chin, James

1973-01-01

390

Total quality management and the Army health care system.  

PubMed

Total quality management (TQM) is the newest in a long line of magic formulas which have been touted as saviors for American industry and medicine. The author discusses the basic concepts of TQM and notes that much of it resembles philosophical beliefs long held by the medical community. TQM does offer many opportunities to refine old concepts and further those goals of quality care to which health care providers have always aspired. If, however, it becomes simply another codified bureaucracy, then a great deal of time and money will be invested for very little gain. PMID:1749501

Jeffer, E K

1991-10-01

391

Vehicle health management for guidance, navigation and control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the program was to architect a vehicle health management (VHM) system for space systems avionics that assures system readiness for launch vehicles and for space-based dormant vehicles. The platforms which were studied and considered for application of VHM for guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) included the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS), the Horizontal Landing-20/Personnel Launch System (HL-20/PLS), the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) and the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO). This set was selected because dormancy and/or availability requirements are driving the designs of these future systems.

Radke, Kathleen; Frazzini, Ron; Bursch, Paul; Wald, Jerry; Brown, Don

1993-01-01

392

Leader-member exchange relationships in health information management.  

PubMed

This article seeks to raise awareness of the leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership and its potential benefit to the health information management (HIM) profession. A literature review that was conducted identified a leadership challenge for HIM practitioners. The review also provides examples of leadership definitions, and potential benefits of LMX to HIM professionals in leading people and influencing leaders in their organizations. The LMX concept may be an avenue to investigate in preparing future and current HIM professionals for leadership. PMID:24808805

Hunt, T J

2014-01-01

393

Adaptation of intensive mental health intensive case management to rural communities in the Veterans Health Administration.  

PubMed

There has been increasing concern in recent years about the availability of mental health services for people with serious mental illness in rural areas. To meet these needs the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) implemented the Rural Access Networks for Growth Enhancement (RANGE) program, in 2007, modeled on the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) model. This study uses VA administrative data from the RANGE program (N = 343) to compare client characteristics at program entry, patterns of service delivery, and outcomes with those of Veterans who received services from the general VA ACT-like program (Mental Health Intensive Case Management (MHICM) (N = 3,077). Veterans in the rural program entered treatment with similar symptom severity, less likelihood of being diagnosed with schizophrenia and having had long-term hospitalization, but significantly higher suicidality index scores and greater likelihood of being dually diagnosed compared with those in the general program. RANGE Veterans live further away from their treatment teams but did not differ significantly in measures of face-to-face treatment intensity. Similar proportions of RANGE and MHICM Veterans were reported to have received rehabilitation services, crisis intervention and substance abuse treatment. The rural programs had higher scores on overall satisfaction with VA mental health care than general programs, slightly poorer outcomes on quality of life and on the suicidality index but no significant difference on other outcomes. These data demonstrate the clinical need, practical feasibility and potential effectiveness of providing intensive case management through small specialized case management teams in rural areas. PMID:22729625

Mohamed, Somaia

2013-03-01

394

Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) Site-Specific Health and Safety Plan, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) policy is to provide a safe and healthy workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The implementation of this policy requires that operations of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF), located one-half mile west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex, be guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to environment, safety and health (ES&H) issues. The BJC governing document for worker safety and health, BJC/OR-1745, 'Worker Safety and Health Program', describes the key elements of the BJC Safety and Industrial Hygiene (IH) programs, which includes the requirement for development and implementation of a site-specific Health and Safety Plan (HASP) where required by regulation (refer also to BJC-EH-1012, 'Development and Approval of Safety and Health Plans'). BJC/OR-1745, 'Worker Safety and Health Program', implements the requirements for worker protection contained in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 851. The EMWMF site-specific HASP requirements identifies safe operating procedures, work controls, personal protective equipment, roles and responsibilities, potential site hazards and control measures, site access requirements, frequency and types of monitoring, site work areas, decontamination procedures, and outlines emergency response actions. This HASP will be available on site for use by all workers, management and supervisors, oversight personnel and visitors. All EMWMF assigned personnel will be briefed on the contents of this HASP and will be required to follow the procedures and protocols as specified. The policies and procedures referenced in this HASP apply to all EMWMF operations activities. In addition the HASP establishes ES&H criteria for the day-to-day activities to prevent or minimize any adverse effect on the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable waste management practices. The HASP is written to make use of past experience and best management practices to eliminate or minimize hazards to workers or the environment from events such as fires, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release to the environment.

Flynn, N.C. Bechtel Jacobs

2008-04-21

395

Improving the Effectiveness of Health Care Innovation Implementation: Middle Managers as Change Agents  

PubMed Central

The rate of successful health care innovation implementation is dismal. Middle managers have a potentially important yet poorly understood role in health care innovation implementation. This study used self-administered surveys and interviews of middle managers in health centers that implemented an innovation to reduce health disparities to address the questions: Does middle managers’ commitment to health care innovation implementation influence implementation effectiveness? If so, in what ways does their commitment influence implementation effectiveness? Although quantitative survey data analysis results suggest a weak relationship, qualitative interview data analysis results indicate that middle managers’ commitment influences implementation effectiveness when middle managers are proactive. Scholars should account for middle managers’ influence in implementation research, and health care executives may promote implementation effectiveness by hiring proactive middle managers and creating climates in which proactivity is rewarded, supported, and expected.

Birken, Sarah A.; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Weiner, Bryan J.; Chin, Marshall H.; Schaefer, Cynthia T.

2013-01-01

396

Improving the effectiveness of health care innovation implementation: middle managers as change agents.  

PubMed

The rate of successful health care innovation implementation is dismal. Middle managers have a potentially important yet poorly understood role in health care innovation implementation. This study used self-administered surveys and interviews of middle managers in health centers that implemented an innovation to reduce health disparities to address the questions: Does middle managers' commitment to health care innovation implementation influence implementation effectiveness? If so, in what ways does their commitment influence implementation effectiveness? Although quantitative survey data analysis results suggest a weak relationship, qualitative interview data analysis results indicate that middle managers' commitment influences implementation effectiveness when middle managers are proactive. Scholars should account for middle managers' influence in implementation research, and health care executives may promote implementation effectiveness by hiring proactive middle managers and creating climates in which proactivity is rewarded, supported, and expected. PMID:22930312

Birken, Sarah A; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Weiner, Bryan J; Chin, Marshall H; Schaefer, Cynthia T

2013-02-01

397

Rural poverty and agricultural performance in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines time series evidence on rural poverty over the past two decades. The time series shows that the incidence of poverty fluctuates in response to variations in real agricultural output per head, but there is no significant time trend. There is a statistically significant inverse relationship between rural poverty and agricultural performance for India as a whole, suggesting

Montek S. Ahluwalia

1978-01-01

398

The Effect of Marriage on Child Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines what share of the current level of child poverty in the United States can be attributed to the growth of single parenthood since the 1960s, focusing on what the child poverty rate would be today if single parent families had remained at the levels that existed before the beginning of the war on poverty. Researchers simulated…

Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.; Fagan, Patrick F.

399

THE CULTURE OF POVERTY AMONG AMERICAN NEGROES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

WITH OSCAR LEWIS' CONCEPT OF A "CULTURE OF POVERTY" AS A FRAME OF REFERENCE, THIS PAPER EXPLORES THE NATURE OF POVERTY AMONG AMERICAN NEGROES AS PORTRAYED IN NOVELS, AUTOBIOGRAPHIES, AND SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES. THE POOR WHO LIVE IN THIS "CULTURE OF POVERTY" LOSE THEIR PLACE IN SOCIETY AND, OVER GENERATIONS, FAIL TO BECOME EFFECTIVE PARTICIPANTS IN…

GEHLBACH, SALLY J.

400

Poverty and Food Consumption in Urban Zaire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explores the problem of poverty in urban Zaire, including Kinshasa and Bandundu Town. In Kinshasa, poverty is found to have affected about a third of the population. Poverty in Bandundu Town is estimated to have been much higher, affecting as m...

H. Tabatabai

1993-01-01

401

Rural Poverty in Ecuador -- A Qualitative Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

February 1996This report aims to assess what poverty means to marginalized rural families, what kind of survival strategies families use in times of hardship, and what these families believe is needed to alleviate their poverty. The rural families express very practical solutions to overcoming poverty, largely linked to increasing the productivity of human resources and land through training and small-scale

Jesko Hentschel; William F. Waters; Anna Kathryn Vandever Webb

1999-01-01

402

The Effects of Poverty on Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poverty, which forms a specific culture and way of life, is a growing issue in the United States. The number of Americans living in poverty is continually increasing. Poverty indicates the extent to which an individual does without resources. Resources can include financial, emotional, mental, spiritual, and physical resources as well as support…

Lacour, Misty; Tissington, Laura D.

2011-01-01

403

Gender and Poverty Reduction: A Kenyan Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poverty is a dehumanising condition for every one. It erodes human rights of the affected whether women or men. Poverty subjects an individual to a state of powerlessness, hopelessness, and lack of self-esteem, confidence, and integrity, leading to a situation of multidimensional vulnerability. Poverty has a gender dimension since women and men…

Kimani, Elishiba Njambi; Kombo, Donald Kisilu

2010-01-01

404

A study for safety and health management problem of semiconductor industry in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study is to discuss and explore the safety and health management in semiconductor industry. The researcher practically investigates and interviews the input, process and output of the safety and health management of semiconductor industry by using the questionnaires and the interview method which is developed according to the framework of the OHSAS 18001. The result shows that there are six important factors for the safety and health management in Taiwan semiconductor industry. 1. The company should make employee clearly understand the safety and health laws and standards. 2. The company should make the safety and health management policy known to the public. 3. The company should put emphasis on the pursuance of the safety and health management laws. 4. The company should prevent the accidents. 5. The safety and health message should be communicated sufficiently. 6. The company should consider safety and health norm completely. PMID:19088409

Chao, Chin-Jung; Wang, Hui-Ming; Feng, Wen-Yang; Tseng, Feng-Yi

2008-12-01

405

Advanced Health Management of a Brushless Direct Current Motor/Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort demonstrates that health management can be taken to the component level for electromechanical systems. The same techniques can be applied to take any health management system to the component level, based on the practicality of the implementation for that particular system. This effort allows various logic schemes to be implemented for the identification and management of failures. By taking health management to the component level, integrated vehicle health management systems can be enhanced by protecting box-level avionics from being shut down in order to isolate a failed computer.

Pickett, R. D.

2003-01-01

406

Report details poverty-population-environment link.  

PubMed

This summary reports on the state of environmental conditions in 1993 and is a reprint from an ICPD publication. This summary refers to a Roundtable Meeting held in November 1993, preliminary to the 1994 UN Conference on the Environment and Development, and an environmental report by Mary Berberis. The report identifies five regions with serious environmental degradation and resource depletion (the Bay of Bengal; the former forested uplands of Indonesia, Nepal, the Philippines, and Thailand; the forests of Central America; the arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa; and the small South Pacific island states). These regions are not just beset with environmental problems, but those problems are exacerbated by problems with land supply and use, poverty, waste, and lack of technology. The report emphasizes that a focus solely on population growth issues obscures the urgent demand for dealing with poverty alleviation, land reform, waste reduction, and improved technologies. Environmental degradation is also caused to a great extent by unsustainable patterns of consumption by affluent groups and by the processes of urban expansion, deforestation, and cultivation of marginal lands in both developed and developing countries. Mary Barberis in her summary of the literature on the causes of environmental conditions considers that the most serious environmental damage is generated by conditions of poverty and population pressure. Environmentally unsound practices are supported by inappropriate farming and soil management techniques, unequal access to resources, and government policies. The example of Bangladesh illustrates that urban population growth has occurred mostly in poor areas, and the problems of water supply, drainage, solid waste disposal, and sanitation are compounded by population growth. Rivers and marine fisheries is contaminated by urban discharges, untreated industrial waste, and fertilizers. Increased salinization degrades the land. Harvesting of wood depletes the mangrove forests, aggravated flooding, and increased soil erosion. Delicate coastal ecosystems are degraded by expanded cultivation of land. The examples from Thailand, the Philippines, Central America, sub-Saharan Africa, and island states show similar interactions between poverty, policies, and inappropriate land use patterns. PMID:12290570

1994-01-01

407

The value of the facilities management function in the UK NHS community health-care sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper stresses the importance of the strategic integration of the organisational facilities management function as being an essential prerequisite towards facilities and organisational effectiveness. The impact of both the strategic and operational facilities management function on community health-care facility users is also documented. The value of the facilities management function in terms of other health-care related organisational core deliverables

Paul Featherstone; David Baldry

2000-01-01

408

Integrated System Health Management: Foundational Concepts, Approach, and Implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sound basis to guide the community in the conception and implementation of ISHM (Integrated System Health Management) capability in operational systems was provided. The concept of "ISHM Model of a System" and a related architecture defined as a unique Data, Information, and Knowledge (DIaK) architecture were described. The ISHM architecture is independent of the typical system architecture, which is based on grouping physical elements that are assembled to make up a subsystem, and subsystems combine to form systems, etc. It was emphasized that ISHM capability needs to be implemented first at a low functional capability level (FCL), or limited ability to detect anomalies, diagnose, determine consequences, etc. As algorithms and tools to augment or improve the FCL are identified, they should be incorporated into the system. This means that the architecture, DIaK management, and software, must be modular and standards-based, in order to enable systematic augmentation of FCL (no ad-hoc modifications). A set of technologies (and tools) needed to implement ISHM were described. One essential tool is a software environment to create the ISHM Model. The software environment encapsulates DIaK, and an infrastructure to focus DIaK on determining health (detect anomalies, determine causes, determine effects, and provide integrated awareness of the system to the operator). The environment includes gateways to communicate in accordance to standards, specially the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators.

Figueroa, Fernando

2009-01-01

409

Rocket Engine Health Management: Early Definition of Critical Flight Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA led Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program has established key requirements related to safety, reliability, launch availability and operations cost to be met by the next generation of reusable launch vehicles. Key to meeting these requirements will be an integrated vehicle health management ( M) system that includes sensors, harnesses, software, memory, and processors. Such a system must be integrated across all the vehicle subsystems and meet component, subsystem, and system requirements relative to fault detection, fault isolation, and false alarm rate. The purpose of this activity is to evolve techniques for defining critical flight engine system measurements-early within the definition of an engine health management system (EHMS). Two approaches, performance-based and failure mode-based, are integrated to provide a proposed set of measurements to be collected. This integrated approach is applied to MSFC s MC-1 engine. Early identification of measurements supports early identification of candidate sensor systems whose design and impacts to the engine components must be considered in engine design.

Christenson, Rick L.; Nelson, Michael A.; Butas, John P.

2003-01-01

410

Development of Structural Health Management Technology for Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, NASA has focused considerable resources on the development of technologies for Structural Health Management (SHM). The motivations for these efforts are to increase the safety and reliability of aerospace structural systems, while at the same time decreasing operating and maintenance costs. Research and development of SHM technologies has been supported under a variety of programs for both aircraft and spacecraft including the Space Launch Initiative, X-33, Next Generation Launch Technology, and Aviation Safety Program. The major focus of much of the research to date has been on the development and testing of sensor technologies. A wide range of sensor technologies are under consideration including fiber-optic sensors, active and passive acoustic sensors, electromagnetic sensors, wireless sensing systems, MEMS, and nanosensors. Because of their numerous advantages for aerospace applications, most notably being extremely light weight, fiber-optic sensors are one of the leading candidates and have received considerable attention.

Prosser, W. H.

2003-01-01

411

Complicating Discontinuity: What about Poverty?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, two white science teachers at tribal schools in the Upper Midwest of the United States, who were identified by community members and school administrators as successful teachers, describe experiences of how they wrestle with the daily effects of generations of oppression. Most vividly, they talk about poverty. This article…

Hermes, Mary

2005-01-01

412

Rural Organization and Poverty Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The deprivations of poverty seriously restrict the ability of millions of rural Americans to develop their potential and obtain "quality of life". If development of potential is to be maximized and if deprivations are to be reduced, structural changes are needed. The 4 change approaches that encompass much purposive social change at the locality…

Stockdale, Jerry D.

413

Trade, Growth, and Poverty &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue today is the effect of globalisation on inequality and poverty. Well over half the developing world lives in globalising economies that have seen large increases in trade and significant declines in tariffs. They are catching up the rich countries while the rest of the developing world is falling farther behind. Second, we examine the effects on the

David Dollar; Aart Kraay

2004-01-01

414

Poverty Traps and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a demo-economic model to examine the question of whether climate change could widen or deepen poverty traps. The model includes two crucial mechanisms. Parents are risk averse when deciding how many children to have; fertility is high when infant survival is low. High fertility spreads scarce household resources thin, resulting in children being poorly educated. At the macro

Richard S. J. Tol

2011-01-01

415

Poverty Assessment of Microfinance Partners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The survey was conducted for and on behalf of Rural Speed to complete the Poverty Assessment Tool for Rural SPEED program partners receiving financial support. The aim of the survey is to determine the level of financial aid that reaches the very poor acc...

2007-01-01

416

Diabetes self-management in a low-income population: impacts of social support and relationships with the health care system  

PubMed Central

Objectives This article reports on results of a qualitative study of social supports and institutional resources utilized by individuals living with diabetes in a high-poverty urban setting. The goal was to examine how access to social capital among low-income populations facilitates and impedes their self-efficacy in diabetes self-management. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 patients with diabetes from a safety net primary care practice in Buffalo, New York. Results Facilitators and barriers to successful self-management were identified in three broad areas: (1) the influence of social support networks; (2) the nature of the doctor-patient relationship; and (3) the nature of patient-health care system relationship. Patients' unmet needs were also highlighted across these three areas. Discussion Participants identified barriers to effective diabetes self-management directly related to their low-income status, such as inadequate insurance, and mistrust of the medical system. It may be necessary for patients to activate social capital from multiple social spheres to achieve the most effective diabetes management.

Vest, Bonnie M; Kahn, Linda S; Danzo, Andrew; Tumiel-Berhalter, Laurene; Schuster, Roseanne C; Karl, Renee; Taylor, Robert; Glaser, Kathryn; Danakas, Alexandra; Fox, Chester H

2014-01-01

417

Health sector development: from aid coordination to resource management.  

PubMed

Aid coordination has assumed a prominent place on health policy agendas. This paper synthesizes the findings of research undertaken to explore the changing practices of aid coordination across a number of countries. It begins by reviewing the key issues giving rise to increased attention to aid coordination in the health sector. The second section describes, assesses and compares the strengths and weaknesses of the dominant mechanisms or instruments which were found to be employed to coordinate health sector aid in the case studies. From this analysis, four factors become clear. First, in many countries, coordination mechanisms have been introduced as a part of an incremental process of trying out different approaches--there is no one model that stands out at any one time. Secondly, some instruments function largely for consultation, predominantly coordinating inputs, while others are more directive and operational, and are used to manage inputs, processes and outputs. Third, many of the mechanisms have not excelled, although, fourth, it is difficult to judge the effectiveness or impact of aid coordination. It is therefore argued that concern with the effectiveness of aid coordination arrangements must give way to a broader analysis of the processes, outputs and outcomes governing the use of both external and domestic resources, focusing on institutional characteristics, the distribution and nature of influence among the actors, and the interests which they pursue through the aid regime. These factors varied considerably across the countries indicating that aid management is context dependent and subject to continuing changes. Finally, the paper looks at the findings in the light of the introduction of sector-wide approaches. PMID:10621238

Walt, G; Pavignani, E; Gilson, L; Buse, K

1999-09-01

418

Microfinance and poverty reduction: evidence from a village study in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

To evaluate the competing claims on the impact of microfinance programs on multidimensional poverty, a village study in Bangladesh was conducted where three microfinance programs had been operating for more than five years. The study found that microfinance has resulted in a moderate reduction in the poverty of borrowers, as measured by a variety of socio-economic indicators, but has not reached many of the poorest in the village. To make microfinance a more effective means of poverty reduction other services such as skills training, technological support, education and health related strategies should be included with microfinance. PMID:21174878

Nawaz, Shah

2010-01-01

419

The importance of human resources management in health care: a global context  

PubMed Central

Background This paper addresses the health care system from a global perspective and the importance of human resources management (HRM) in improving overall patient health outcomes and delivery of health care services. Methods We explored the published literature and collected data through secondary sources. Results Various key success factors emerge that clearly affect health care practices and human resources management. This paper will reveal how human resources management is essential to any health care system and how it can improve health care models. Challenges in the health care systems in Canada, the United States of America and various developing countries are examined, with suggestions for ways to overcome these problems through the proper implementation of human resources management practices. Comparing and contrasting selected countries allowed a deeper understanding of the practical and crucial role of human resources management in health care. Conclusion Proper management of human resources is critical in providing a high quality of health care. A refocus on human resources management in health care and more research are needed to develop new policies. Effective human resources management strategies are greatly needed to achieve better outcomes from and access to health care around the world.

Kabene, Stefane M; Orchard, Carole; Howard, John M; Soriano, Mark A; Leduc, Raymond

2006-01-01

420

Financial Performance of Health Plans in Medicaid Managed Care  

PubMed Central

Objective This study assesses the financial performance of health plans that enroll Medicaid members across the key plan traits, specifically Medicaid dominant, publicly traded, and provider-sponsored. Data and Methods National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) financial data, coupled with selected state financial data, were analyzed for 170 Medicaid health plans for 2009. A mean test compared the mean values for medical loss, administrative cost, and operating margin ratios across these plan traits. Medicaid dominant plans are plans with 75 percent of their total enrollment in the Medicaid line of business. Findings Plans that are Medicaid dominant and publicly traded incurred a lower medical loss ratio and higher administrative cost ratio than multi-product and non-publicly traded plans. Medicaid dominant plans also earned a higher operating profit margin. Plans offering commercial and Medicare products are operating at a loss for their Medicaid line of business. Policy Implications Health plans that do not specialize in Medicaid are losing money. Higher medical cost rather than administrative cost is the underlying reason for this financial loss. Since Medicaid enrollees do not account for their primary book of business, these plans may not have invested in the medical management programs to reduce inappropriate emergency room use and avoid costly hospitalization.

McCue, Mike

2012-01-01

421

Management Knowledge and Skills Required in the Health Care System of the Federation Bosnia and Herzegovina  

PubMed Central

Extremely complex health care organizations, by their structure and organization, operate in a constantly changing business environment, and such situation implies and requires complex and demanding health management. Therefore, in order to manage health organizations in a competent manner, health managers must possess various managerial skills and be familiar with problems in health care. Research, identification, analysis, and assessment of health management education and training needs are basic preconditions for the development and implementation of adequate programs to meet those needs. Along with other specific activities, this research helped to determine the nature, profile, and level of top-priority needs for education. The need for knowledge of certain areas in health management, as well as the need for mastering concrete managerial competencies has been recognized as top-priorities requiring additional improvement and upgrading.

Slipicevic, Osman; Masic, Izet

2012-01-01

422

Analysing changes in the nature of health service management in England.  

PubMed

Health service management maintains a balance between collective values concerned with service provision and individual values concerned with health practice. It is also balanced between the application of co-ordinative and directive approaches to management. Over the last quarter century economic and ideological factors have caused health service management to experience more directive. Today, the role of health service management becoming more directive. Today, the role of health service management appears further threatened by staffing cuts and changes in traditional patterns of organising work. This, while it may lead to bifurcation between specialist and general management roles, is unlikely to restore the dominance of practitioner values or notably soften the form of management. PMID:10167070

Packwood, T

1997-05-01

423

Project Minerva: Management Education for Safety and Health - Selected Case Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Case studies were presented to illustrate the effect of safety and health on the success of business management. The studies were intended to be used to help business administration students understand the importance of safety and health in business. The ...

1984-01-01

424

Market-focused management: a model for US academic health centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes managed care, competition and high health care costs and reductions in funding as the major market forces that affect US academic health centers. As academic health centers continue to preserve their missions of providing patient care, educating and training health professionals and conducting research, they are negatively impacted by these market changes, thus, resulting in increased expenses

Kristina L. Guo

2003-01-01

425

Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

2012-01-01

426

Intelligent Integrated Health Management for a System of Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intelligent integrated health management system (IIHMS) incorporates major improvements over prior such systems. The particular IIHMS is implemented for any system defined as a hierarchical distributed network of intelligent elements (HDNIE), comprising primarily: (1) an architecture (Figure 1), (2) intelligent elements, (3) a conceptual framework and taxonomy (Figure 2), and (4) and ontology that defines standards and protocols. Some definitions of terms are prerequisite to a further brief description of this innovation: A system-of-systems (SoS) is an engineering system that comprises multiple subsystems (e.g., a system of multiple possibly interacting flow subsystems that include pumps, valves, tanks, ducts, sensors, and the like); 'Intelligent' is used here in the sense of artificial intelligence. An intelligent element may be physical or virtual, it is network enabled, and it is able to manage data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) focused on determining its condition in the context of the entire SoS; As used here, 'health' signifies the functionality and/or structural integrity of an engineering system, subsystem, or process (leading to determination of the health of components); 'Process' can signify either a physical process in the usual sense of the word or an element into which functionally related sensors are grouped; 'Element' can signify a component (e.g., an actuator, a valve), a process, a controller, an actuator, a subsystem, or a system; The term Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is used to describe a capability that focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex system (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, prognosis of future anomalies), and provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) not just data to control systems for safe and effective operation. A major novel aspect of the present development is the concept of intelligent integration. The purpose of intelligent integration, as defined and implemented in the present IIHMS, is to enable automated analysis of physical phenomena in imitation of human reasoning, including the use of qualitative methods. Intelligent integration is said to occur in a system in which all elements are intelligent and can acquire, maintain, and share knowledge and information. In the HDNIE of the present IIHMS, an SoS is represented as being operationally organized in a hierarchical-distributed format. The elements of the SoS are considered to be intelligent in that they determine their own conditions within an integrated scheme that involves consideration of data, information, knowledge bases, and methods that reside in all elements of the system. The conceptual framework of the HDNIE and the methodologies of implementing it enable the flow of information and knowledge among the elements so as to make possible the determination of the condition of each element. The necessary information and knowledge is made available to each affected element at the desired time, satisfying a need to prevent information overload while providing context-sensitive information at the proper level of detail. Provision of high-quality data is a central goal in designing this or any IIHMS. In pursuit of this goal, functionally related sensors are logically assigned to groups denoted processes. An aggregate of processes is considered to form a system. Alternatively or in addition to what has been said thus far, the HDNIE of this IIHMS can be regarded as consisting of a framework containing object models that encapsulate all elements of the system, their individual and relational knowledge bases, generic methods and procedures based on models of the applicable physics, and communication processes (Figure 2). The framework enables implementation of a paradigm inspired by how expert operators monitor the health of systems with the help of (1) DIaK from various sources, (2) software tools that assist in rapid visualization of the condition of the system, (3) analical software tools that assist in reasoning about the condition, (4) sharing of information via

Smith, Harvey; Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Fernando

2008-01-01

427

Ending Africa's Poverty Trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africa’s development crisis is unique. Not only is Africa the poorest region in the world, but it was also the only major developing region with negative growth in income per capita during 1980?2000 (table 1). Some African countries grew during the 1990s, but for the most part this growth recovered ground lost during the 1980s. Moreover, Africa’s health conditions are

JEFFREY D. SACHS; John W. McArthur; Guido Schmidt-Traub; Margaret Kruk; Chandrika Bahadur; Michael Faye; Gordon McCord

2004-01-01

428

Strategies for managing health problems among homeless women: three case studies.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to illustrate through case examples how homeless women experience coexisting health problems, and how they may conceal these stigmatizing health problems from others, including health professionals and shelter staff. The article will also address how nurse case managers can interact with these women so that together they can develop strategies about how to manage these complex health problems. PMID:10232218

Hatton, D C; Fisher, A

1999-01-01

429

Distributed Prognostics and Health Management with a Wireless Network Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heterogeneous set of system components monitored by a varied suite of sensors and a particle-filtering (PF) framework, with the power and the flexibility to adapt to the different diagnostic and prognostic needs, has been developed. Both the diagnostic and prognostic tasks are formulated as a particle-filtering problem in order to explicitly represent and manage uncertainties in state estimation and remaining life estimation. Current state-of-the-art prognostic health management (PHM) systems are mostly centralized in nature, where all the processing is reliant on a single processor. This can lead to a loss in functionality in case of a crash of the central processor or monitor. Furthermore, with increases in the volume of sensor data as well as the complexity of algorithms, traditional centralized systems become for a number of reasons somewhat ungainly for successful deployment, and efficient distributed architectures can be more beneficial. The distributed health management architecture is comprised of a network of smart sensor devices. These devices monitor the health of various subsystems or modules. They perform diagnostics operations and trigger prognostics operations based on user-defined thresholds and rules. The sensor devices, called computing elements (CEs), consist of a sensor, or set of sensors, and a communication device (i.e., a wireless transceiver beside an embedded processing element). The CE runs in either a diagnostic or prognostic operating mode. The diagnostic mode is the default mode where a CE monitors a given subsystem or component through a low-weight diagnostic algorithm. If a CE detects a critical condition during monitoring, it raises a flag. Depending on availability of resources, a networked local cluster of CEs is formed that then carries out prognostics and fault mitigation by efficient distribution of the tasks. It should be noted that the CEs are expected not to suspend their previous tasks in the prognostic mode. When the prognostics task is over, and after appropriate actions have been taken, all CEs return to their original default configuration. Wireless technology-based implementation would ensure more flexibility in terms of sensor placement. It would also allow more sensors to be deployed because the overhead related to weights of wired systems is not present. Distributed architectures are furthermore generally robust with regard to recovery from node failures.

Goebel, Kai; Saha, Sankalita; Sha, Bhaskar

2013-01-01

430

The invisible barrier: Neighbourhood poverty and integration of immigrants in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of poverty among industrial nations including Canada since the late 1980s has resulted in a higher number of neighbourhoods\\u000a with a high poverty rate, which in turn has led to an increase in the occurrence of other social ills such as poor educational\\u000a and health care services, high crime, and high unemployment rates. The combination of these social

Abdolmohammad Kazemipur; Shiva Halli

2000-01-01

431

Integrating complementary and alternative medicine into mainstream healthcare services: the perspectives of health service managers  

PubMed Central

Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly included within mainstream integrative healthcare (IHC) services. Health service managers are key stakeholders central to ensuring effective integrative health care services. Yet, little research has specifically investigated the role or perspective of health service managers with regards to integrative health care services under their management. In response, this paper reports findings from an exploratory study focusing exclusively on the perspectives of health service managers of integrative health care services in Australia regarding the role of CAM within their service and the health service managers rational for incorporating CAM into clinical care. Methods Health service managers from seven services were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the health service managers. The services addressed trauma and chronic conditions and comprised: five community-based programs including drug and alcohol rehabilitation, refugee mental health and women’s health; and two hospital-based specialist services. The CAM practices included in the services investigated included acupuncture, naturopathy, Western herbal medicine and massage. Results Findings reveal that the health service managers in this study understand CAM to enhance the holistic capacity of their service by: filling therapeutic gaps in existing healthcare practices; by treating the whole person; and by increasing healthcare choices. Health service managers also identified CAM as addressing therapeutic gaps through the provision of a mind-body approach in psychological trauma and in chronic disease management treatment. Health service managers describe the addition of CAM in their service as enabling patients who would otherwise not be able to afford CAM to gain access to these treatments thereby increasing healthcare choices. Some health service managers expressly align the notion of treating the whole person within a health promotion model and focus on the relevance of diet and lifestyle factors as central to a CAM approach. Conclusions From the perspectives of the health service managers, these findings contribute to our understanding around the rationale to include CAM within mainstream health services that deal with psychological trauma and chronic disease. The broader implications of this study can help assist in the development of health service policy on CAM integration in mainstream healthcare services.

2014-01-01

432

Dynamics of health behavior regarding hospital waste management in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a dysfunctional health belief model.  

PubMed

This article examined the usefulness of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and other confounding factors in determining health behavior of individuals involved in hospital waste management and tested four components of HBM in relation to demographic variables, knowledge, and occupational practices of the respondents. The study revealed that the waste pickers had a lower level of knowledge, attitude, and safe practices than nurses and sweepers. Perceived Susceptibility and Perceived Severity were moderately associated with safe occupational practices among the respondents (p < 0.05). In addition, respondents with higher levels of education and income were more likely to have higher levels of Perceived Susceptibility, Severity, and Benefits. The study findings indicate that individuals with greater economic vulnerability might be at greater risk for not using proper protective measures in handling or picking hospital wastes in Bangladesh. PMID:19959428

Amanullah, A S M; Uddin, Jalal

433

Improving Pain Management in Community Health Care Settings: The Role of the Advanced Practice Nurse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced practice nurses can play a key role in reducing or removing barriers to effective pain management in a variety of ways: as clinicians role modeling best practice pain management, as educators providing continuing education in pain management, as researchers incorporating evaluation research methods into pain management improvement projects, and as consultants to leaders of health care organizations and communities

Linda Torma

2001-01-01

434

Payment schemes for hydrological ecosystem services as a political instrument for the sustainable management of natural resources and poverty reduction - a case study from Belén, Nicaragua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of intact ecosystems for human-wellbeing as well as the dependence on functions and services they provide is undoubted. But still neither the costs of ecosystem degradation nor the benefits from ecosystem functions and services appear on socio-economic balance sheets when development takes place. Consequently overuse of natural resources is socio-economically promoted by conventional resource management policies and external effects (externalities), equally positives and negatives, remain unregarded. In this context the potential of payments for hydrological ecosystem services as a political instrument to foster sustainable natural resource use, and rural development shall be investigated. This paper introduces the principle concept of such payments, presents a case study from Nicaragua and highlights preliminary effects of the application of this instrument on natural resource use and development.

Hack, J.

2010-08-01

435

Cyanotoxin management and human health risk mitigation in recreational waters.  

PubMed

The occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial or blue-green algal blooms (HABs) have increased in recent decades, posing a serious threat of illness to humans. In some countries, water contaminated with cyanotoxins that is used for drinking or haemodialysis has posed a particularly serious risk. However, it is now recognized that recreational exposure to natural toxins by skin contact, accidental swallowing of water or inhalation can also cause a wide range of acute or chronic illnesses. In this review, we focus on the importance of cyanotoxin management in recreational waters. The symptoms related with HAB poisonings, the recommended safety concentrations limit for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in such waters, as well as early health hazard indicators of their presence and their monitoring are all discussed. We also present in this review an overview of the methods developed in recent decades for eliminating cyanobacteria and the toxic compounds that they produce. PMID:24664523

Koreivien?, Judita; Anne, Olga; Kasperovi?ien?, J?rat?; Burškyt?, Vilma

2014-07-01

436

Distributed Prognostic Health Management with Gaussian Process Regression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distributed prognostics architecture design is an enabling step for efficient implementation of health management systems. A major challenge encountered in such design is formulation of optimal distributed prognostics algorithms. In this paper. we present a distributed GPR based prognostics algorithm whose target platform is a wireless sensor network. In addition to challenges encountered in a distributed implementation, a wireless network poses constraints on communication patterns, thereby making the problem more challenging. The prognostics application that was used to demonstrate our new algorithms is battery prognostics. In order to present trade-offs within different prognostic approaches, we present comparison with the distributed implementation of a particle filter based prognostics for the same battery data.

Saha, Sankalita; Saha, Bhaskar; Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai Frank

2010-01-01

437

Concepts of health and well-being in managers: An organizational study  

PubMed Central

Global changes and new managerial challenges require new concepts of health and well-being in organizational contexts. In the South African context, health and well-being of managers have gained relevance in organizations and in management sciences. International organizations, in particular, attempt to address the increasing demand for health care and the delivery of health services to their managers. Careful and appropriate health management requires research to evaluate context-specific health concepts and strategies. The purpose and aim of this article is to assess managerial concepts on health and well-being that could be used by the organization to contribute to managerial well-being by implementing health promotion according to managerial needs. At the same time, this article contributes to salutogenetic health research that is very rare with regard to the South African organizational management research. This study is a multi-method research study conducted in a selected international organization in South Africa. However, in this article, selected qualitative findings will only be presented. This organizational study presents selected research findings on health concepts and strategies employed by managers. Findings demonstrate that the managerial concepts of health and strategies mainly refer to not only physical but also to mental and spiritual aspects, with a priority on physical health and well-being. The findings presented are based on qualitative research methods and their research criteria. This assessment serves as a foundation for new approaches to health management within the international work context in South Africa. It also contributes to a paradigm shift from pathogenetic to salutogenetic concepts of health and well-being within the South African organizational work context. The article produces new insights into the qualitative health concepts of South African managers and expatriates and contributes to promoting salutogenesis in organization within South Africa.

Boness, Christian

2011-01-01

438

Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boeing-Canoga Park (BCP) and NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) are developing an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) for use on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will improve Shuttle safety by reducing the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the powered ascent phase of a Shuttle mission. This is a phased approach that consists of an upgrade to the current Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) to add turbomachinery synchronous vibration protection and addition of a separate Health Management Computer (HMC) that will utilize advanced algorithms to detect and mitigate predefined engine anomalies. The purpose of the Shuttle AHMS is twofold; one is to increase the probability of successfully placing the Orbiter into the intended orbit, and the other is to increase the probability of being able to safely execute an abort of a Space Transportation System (STS) launch. Both objectives are achieved by increasing the useful work envelope of a Space Shuttle Main Engine after it has developed anomalous performance during launch and the ascent phase of the mission. This increase in work envelope will be the result of two new anomaly mitigation options, in addition to existing engine shutdown, that were previously unavailable. The added anomaly mitigation options include engine throttle-down and performance correction (adjustment of engine oxidizer to fuel ratio), as well as enhanced sensor disqualification capability. The HMC is intended to provide the computing power necessary to diagnose selected anomalous engine behaviors and for making recommendations to the engine controller for anomaly mitigation. Independent auditors have assessed the reduction in Shuttle ascent risk to be on the order of 40% with the combined system and a three times improvement in mission success.

Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John

2004-01-01

439

Environment and health in South Africa: gains, losses, and opportunities.  

PubMed

South Africans face a range of preventable environmental hazards to their health, many of which are rooted in the country's colonial and apartheid past, and ongoing poverty and inequality. Since the advent of democracy in the country, government has made considerable progress in improving living conditions and in developing the legal framework to prevent and manage environmental contamination. Considerable, under-exploited potential also exists in South Africa to prevent disease, including infectious and chronic diseases, and to promote health through a more holistic and public health approach. This article summarizes the main environmental health concerns and reflects on mechanisms and opportunities to improve public environmental health. PMID:21730992

Mathee, Angela

2011-01-01

440

On robust methodologies for managing public health care systems.  

PubMed

Authors focus on ontology-based multidimensional data warehousing and mining methodologies, addressing various issues on organizing, reporting and documenting diabetic cases and their associated ailments, including causalities. Map and other diagnostic data views, depicting similarity and comparison of attributes, extracted from warehouses, are used for understanding the ailments, based on gender, age, geography, food-habits and other hereditary event attributes. In addition to rigor on data mining and visualization, an added focus is on values of interpretation of data views, from processed full-bodied diagnosis, subsequent prescription and appropriate medications. The proposed methodology, is a robust back-end application, for web-based patient-doctor consultations and e-Health care management systems through which, billions of dollars spent on medical services, can be saved, in addition to improving quality of life and average life span of a person. Government health departments and agencies, private and government medical practitioners including social welfare organizations are typical users of these systems. PMID:24445953

Nimmagadda, Shastri L; Dreher, Heinz V

2014-01-01