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1

Health, poverty and human development: A review and further analysis of effects of poverty on health: Clinical manifestations and management of a patient of malnutrition in Khartoum, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Health-damaging effects of economic poverty can lead to, exacerbate and perpetuate poverty. Because the health sector generally has little or no control over many of the most powerful influences on health, such as education, food supply, housing, environmental hazards, and work conditions, it faces the practical challenge of identifying how, alone and in coordination with other sectors, it can

Nitin Ashok John

2007-01-01

2

Social evils, poverty & health.  

PubMed

There is a close association between social circumstances and health. In India, there is a significant burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases. Risk factors responsible for these conditions are underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene, indoor smoke pollution, zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiency, tobacco use, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. All these risk factors are influenced by social factors and in India the more important factors are poverty and illiteracy. Changing lifestyles as a result of rising incomes are significant risk factors for non communicable diseases. The social evils that influence poverty and health are macrolevel national and regional issues such as physical geography, governance patterns and failures, geopolitics, economic policy, natural resources decline, population growth, the demographic trap and the fiscal trap. Household and microlevel factors include the poverty trap, cultural barriers, lack of innovation and saving, absence of trade or business, unemployment, technological reversal, adverse productivity shock, social issues related to females, and adolescent social issues. Social determinants important for non communicable diseases, defined by the World Health Organization include the social gradient, stress, early life events, social exclusion, improper work conditions, unemployment, lack of social support, addiction, food scarcity or excess and uneven distribution, lack of proper transport, and illiteracy or low educational status. There are multiple pathways through which social factors influence health, and pathophysiological mechanisms involve homeostatic and allostatic changes in response to stress, neuroendocrine changes and altered autonomic functions, and abnormal inflammatory and immune responses. A concerted action to eradicate these social evils shall have to focus on reducing poverty, improving educational status and providing equitable and accessible healthcare to all. PMID:18032803

Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Praneet

2007-10-01

3

Environment, poverty and health linkages in the Wami River basin: A search for sustainable water resource management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wami Rivers basin is an important area due to its diversified use which benefits a multi-diversity of stakeholders. While large scale irrigated sugar production is the main issue of concern upstream, there are other equally important socio-economic activities which include biodiversity and environmental conservation, domestic water supply, livestock water needs, and fishing. A large water supply project has just been completed downstream of the Wami River to provide water for the Chalinze township and surrounding villages. Other important undertakings include irrigated rice farming in Dakawa area, livestock keeping activities, and the establishment of the Sadani National Park (SANAPA) and the Wami-Mbiki Wildlife Management Area (WMA). The Wami River basin forms significant parts of both the Wami-Mbiki WMA and the SANAPA wildlife conservation areas. Regardless of its importance, the basin is increasingly being degraded through deforestation for agricultural expansion, timber, and more important charcoal making. The basin is also being polluted through disposal of excess molasses from the sugar industry, and use of poisonous substances and herbs in fishing. The worsening environmental condition in the basin has become a health threat to both people in the surrounding villages and wildlife. To a large extent, such changes are intensifying poverty levels among the local population. These changes are raising concerns about the long-term environmental sustainability and health implications of the current water use competition and conflicts in the basin. The purpose of this paper is to examine the main water resource use conflicts and how they affect environmental sustainability in the long-run. It also intends to establish linkages between wildlife management, pastoralism, agricultural activities and how such linkages influence poverty alleviation efforts in the basin. An attempt has been made to examine the environmental and health implications of human activities in the basin in relation to poverty indicators, people’s lifestyle, and integrated water resource use in the Wami River basin. In the process of examining linkages and sources of conflicts, key strategies to harmonize the interests of various stakeholders and ensure integrated and sustainable use of the Wami River waters will be identified. As a conclusion to paper, issues related to population pressure, pollution, wildlife, pastoralism and many others will be discussed with the view of harmonizing the needs of various stakeholders and minimizing their effect on the river ecosystem. The discussion shows how poverty levels are linked to resources over-exploitation, hence limiting sustainability in the basin. Under the current poverty levels in almost all villages surrounding the Wami River basin, there is no alternative ways or technology to replace non-sustainable resource exploitation. Many villages depend on charcoal burning and selling as a survival strategy and source of income.

Madulu, Ndalahwa F.

4

Impact of poverty on women's health.  

PubMed Central

Women's health is determined not only by biology but also by social context. While the health of both men and women is adversely affected by poverty, a higher proportion of women suffer from its effects because of increasing "feminization of poverty." The extent of this phenomenon, its multiple roots, and the role physicians could play in addressing it are discussed. Images p950-a PMID:8038638

Cohen, M.

1994-01-01

5

The effects of school poverty on adolescents' sexual health knowledge.  

PubMed

Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to estimate the association of school poverty concentration to the sexual health knowledge of 6,718 adolescents. Controlling for individual socio-economic status, school poverty had modest negative effects on sexual health knowledge. Although not directly associated with sexual health knowledge, after controlling for demographic characteristics, school poverty interactions showed that sexual health knowledge was associated with higher grade point average (GPA) and age. The combination of low GPA and high-levels of school poverty was especially detrimental for students' sexual health knowledge. There are differences in the sexual health knowledge of adolescents attending low poverty and high poverty schools that can be attributed to the school environment. PMID:22431188

Atkins, Robert; Sulik, Michael J; Hart, Daniel; Ayres, Cynthia; Read, Nichole

2012-06-01

6

A Poverty Simulation to Inform Public Health Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Poverty is a pervasive condition linked to a myriad of health conditions and severe health outcomes. Public health professionals are at the forefront of addressing poverty-related issues and require education that enhances their understanding and cultural competence. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impacts of…

Strasser, Sheryl; Smith, Megan O.; Pendrick Denney, Danielle; Jackson, Matt C.; Buckmaster, Pam

2013-01-01

7

Does poverty reduce mental health? An instrumental variable analysis.  

PubMed

That poverty and mental health are negatively associated in developing countries is well known among epidemiologists. Whether the relationship is causal or associational, however, remains an open question. This paper aims to estimate the causal effect of poverty on mental health by exploiting a natural experiment induced by weather variability across 440 districts in Indonesia (N = 577,548). Precipitation anomaly in two climatological seasons is used as an instrument for poverty status, which is measured using per capita household consumption expenditure. Results of an instrumental variable estimation suggest that poverty causes poor mental health: halving one's consumption expenditure raises the probability of suffering mental illness by 0.06 point; in terms of elasticity, a 1% decrease in consumption brings about 0.62% more symptoms of common mental disorders. This poverty effect is approximately five times stronger than that obtained prior to instrumenting and is robust to alternative distributional assumption, model specification, sample stratification and estimation technique. An individual's mental health is also negatively correlated with district income inequality, suggesting that income distribution may have a significant influence upon mental health over and above the effect of poverty. The findings imply that mental health can be improved not only by influencing individuals' health knowledge and behaviour but also by implementing a more equitable economic policy. PMID:24836844

Hanandita, Wulung; Tampubolon, Gindo

2014-07-01

8

Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health.  

PubMed

African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them. PMID:25486153

Snowden, Lonnie R

2014-11-01

9

Articulations of Health and Poverty Among Women on WIC.  

PubMed

With the global financial meltdown, the crisis of poverty has deepened in communities across the United States. This essay reports results from a culture-centered project on fostering spaces for listening to the voices of the poor in CrossRoads County, Indiana. It highlights the intersections of health and poverty as they emerge from the narratives of mothers utilizing the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Depression, humiliation, and inaccessibility to health care and healthy living outline the struggles of women as they negotiate their access to health. The articulations of agency are situated around competing cultural narratives that, on the one hand, draw on the threads of individual responsibility which resonate through mainstream discourses of poverty in the United States and, on the other hand, interrogate the structural erasure of the basic capacities of health. PMID:25412104

Yehya, Nadine A; Dutta, Mohan J

2014-11-20

10

Poverty, Trauma, and Infant Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children growing up in poverty face chronic risk factors, including abuse and neglect, severe maternal depression, parental substance abuse, harsh parenting, and family and community violence as well as greater exposure to physical risks, including substandard housing, lack of access to resources, and environmental toxins. The authors offer…

Lieberman, Alicia F.; Osofsky, Joy D.

2009-01-01

11

[Poverty : cause or space for problems in mental health.].  

PubMed

The frequent association made in the academic press between poverty and minor and major mental health problems is unfounded. There is absolutely no proof that lack of revenue is the main cause of such a hardship. Poverty is first and foremost an area in society where mostly vulnerable groups congregate, particularly mothers of single-parent families, immigrants and refugees, the unemployed, as well as former psychiatric patients. Problems are also much more concentrated in poor districts with high-rise, multiple dwelling apartment buildings. On a different note, it appears that people with better personal resources occupy middle-class districts. Poverty is definitively not a source of psychological problems unless it is combined with such factors as social isolation, emigration, unemployment or an anomic district. PMID:17093621

Tousignant, M

1989-01-01

12

Poverty during pregnancy: Its effects on child health outcomes  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that nearly 100,000 children are born into poverty each year in Canada. During pregnancy, their mothers are likely to face multiple stressful life events, including lone-mother and teenage pregnancies, unemployment, more crowded or polluted physical environments, and far fewer resources to deal with these exposures. The early child health consequences of poverty and pregnancy are multiple, and often set a newborn child on a life-long course of disparities in health outcomes. Included are greatly increased risks for preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal or infant death. Poverty has consistently been found to be a powerful determinant of delayed cognitive development and poor school performance. Behaviour problems among young children and adolescents are strongly associated with maternal poverty. Sound evidence in support of policies and programs to reduce these disparities among the poor, including the role of health practitioners, is difficult to find. This is partly because many interventions and programs targeting the poor are not properly evaluated or critically appraised. PMID:19030445

Larson, Charles P

2007-01-01

13

Poverty, health and development in dermatology.  

PubMed

The WHO Constitution states that "The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political, economic or social condition." The right to health means that governments must generate conditions in which everyone can be as healthy as possible. Such conditions range from ensuring availability of health services, healthy and safe working conditions, adequate housing and nutritious food. In this report the author analyzes the relationship among health, dermatology and development and tries to find out what the scientific world, including dermatologists, could do for the improvement of health systems. PMID:17958622

Morrone, Aldo

2007-10-01

14

Effect of Child and Family Poverty on Child Health in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Issue. Poverty has been described as an economic state that does not allow for the provision of basic family and child needs, such as adequate food, clothing, and housing. However, the debate about the effects of poverty on the growth, development, and health of children is as much involved with the culture or general context of poverty as it

David Wood

2003-01-01

15

Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity explores the topic of poverty and how income interacts with race/ethnicity and family type in the United States. This activity uses two customized data sets; one made from combining census information from 1970-2000 and one from the 2000 Census. It guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the datasets for the activity, see links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP see instructions here.

Kofi Benefo

16

The Role of Public Health Agencies in Addressing Child and Family Poverty: Public Health Nurses’ Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Poverty rates among child-bearing families in industrialised countries remain unacceptably high and have significant implications for population health. Both today and in the past, public health nurses have observed the impact of poverty on family health and well-being every day in their practice; yet, their perspectives on their role in addressing child and family poverty are currently absent from the literature. This paper presents findings of a qualitative descriptive study that explored perspectives of public health nurses in an urban Canadian setting about the impact of poverty on the well-being of children and families, and the potential roles of health organisations and public health nurses in addressing this issue. A key finding is the large gap between the role that nurses believe they can potentially play, and their current role. Barriers that public health nurses encounter when attempting to address poverty are identified, and implications of the findings for public health policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:21347213

Cohen, Benita E; McKay, Marion

2010-01-01

17

The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.  

PubMed

Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints. PMID:24268002

Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

2013-11-23

18

Supporting the Mental Health of Mothers Raising Children in Poverty  

PubMed Central

Poverty increases maternal stress by heightening exposure to negative life events, job loss, chronic strains, poor housing, dangerous neighborhoods, and conflict with partners, culminating in crippling depressive symptoms, the most prevalent mental health threat. Depressive symptoms interfere with the provision of the strong maternal support needed to counter the hardships of poverty, thus placing infants and toddlers at risk for delayed language, social, and emotional development. Initial clinical trials in high-risk mothers have shown promise, and successive tests of interventions will be strengthened if mothers who have mental health risks can be accurately targeted for inclusion. This article reports on a sequential, data-driven process by which high-risk mothers were targeted for intervention in two trials currently in progress to reduce depressive symptoms. An iterative process of using data to identify at-risk mothers and validate the presence of risk factors helped hone the recruitment and design of the intervention trials. This report also offers guidance for further study. PMID:17954677

Beeber, Linda S.; Perreira, Krista M.; Schwartz, Todd

2013-01-01

19

Web services for ecosystem services management and poverty alleviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decades, near real-time environmental observation, technical advances in computer power and cyber-infrastructure, and the development of environmental software algorithms have increased dramatically. The integration of these evolutions is one of the major challenges of the next decade for environmental sciences. Worldwide, many coordinated activities are ongoing to make this integration a reality. However, far less attention is paid to the question of how these developments can benefit environmental services management in a poverty alleviation context. Such projects are typically faced with issues of large predictive uncertainties, limited resources, limited local scientific capacity. At the same time, the complexity of the socio-economic contexts requires a very strong bottom-up oriented and interdisciplinary approach to environmental data collection and processing. Here, we present the results of two projects on integrated environmental monitoring and scenario analysis aimed at poverty alleviation in the Peruvian Andes and Amazon. In the upper Andean highlands, farmers are monitoring the water cycle of headwater catchments to analyse the impact of land-use changes on stream flow and potential consequences for downstream irrigation. In the Amazon, local communities are monitoring the dynamics of turtle populations and their relations with river levels. In both cases, the use of online databases and web processing services enable real-time analysis of the data and scenario analysis. The system provides both physical and social indicators to assess the impact of land-use management options on local socio-economic development.

Buytaert, W.; Baez, S.; Veliz Rosas, C.

2011-12-01

20

Relate better and judge less: poverty simulation promoting culturally competent care in community health nursing.  

PubMed

The study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a poverty simulation in increasing understanding of and attitudes toward poverty and resulting in changes in clinical practice among nursing seniors. A poverty simulation was conducted using a diverse group of nursing professors and staff from local community agencies assuming the role of community resource providers. Students were assigned roles as members of low-income families and were required to complete tasks during a simulated month. A debriefing was held after the simulation to explore students' experiences in a simulated poverty environment. Students' understanding of and attitude toward poverty pre- and post-simulation were examined. Changes in the students' clinical experiences following the simulation were summarized into identified categories and themes. The poverty simulation led to a greater empathy for the possible experiences of low income individuals and families, understanding of barriers to health care, change in attitudes towards poverty and to those living in poverty, and changes in the students' nursing practice. Use of poverty simulation is an effective means to teach nursing students about the experience of living in poverty. The simulation experience changed nursing students' clinical practice, with students providing community referrals and initiating inter-professional collaborations. PMID:25262065

Yang, Kyeongra; Woomer, Gail Ratliff; Agbemenu, Kafuli; Williams, Lynne

2014-11-01

21

Health, Education and Poverty Reduction. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 19  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally agreed that spending on education and health is key to poverty reduction, but simply allocating more resources to these sectors does not ensure that poverty actually declines. On the basis of four in-depth case studies (on Indonesia, Madagascar, Peru and Tanzania) and three Technical Papers on malnutrition and primary education in…

Morrisson, Christian

2002-01-01

22

Empowering Ontario Public Health Nurses to Address the Causes of Poverty: A Qualitative Descriptive Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has demonstrated repeatedly that income and income distribution are powerful determinants of health. While Ontario public health units are mandated to promote health and reduce health inequities, they have done little to help eliminate poverty, instead focusing on individual behaviours such as smoking, diet, and physical activity – an approach likely to worsen health inequities, rather than mend them.

Jeri A Dunne

2011-01-01

23

Creating Nurturing Environments: A Science-Based Framework for Promoting Child Health and Development within High-Poverty Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods…

Komro, Kelli A.; Flay, Brian R.; Biglan, Anthony

2011-01-01

24

Wilton Park Conference WP674 INVESTING IN HEALTH FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION: NEW PERSPECTIVES AND  

E-print Network

poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduceWilton Park Conference WP674 INVESTING IN HEALTH FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION: NEW IN HEALTH FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION: NEW PERSPECTIVES AND OPPORTUNITIES 20 - 23 May 2002

Klein, Ophir

25

Multidimensional Poverty in Rural Mozambique: A New Metric for Evaluating Public Health Interventions  

PubMed Central

Background Poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon and unidimensional measurements have proven inadequate to the challenge of assessing its dynamics. Dynamics between poverty and public health intervention is among the most difficult yet important problems faced in development. We sought to demonstrate how multidimensional poverty measures can be utilized in the evaluation of public health interventions; and to create geospatial maps of poverty deprivation to aid implementers in prioritizing program planning. Methods Survey teams interviewed a representative sample of 3,749 female heads of household in 259 enumeration areas across Zambézia in August-September 2010. We estimated a multidimensional poverty index, which can be disaggregated into context-specific indicators. We produced an MPI comprised of 3 dimensions and 11 weighted indicators selected from the survey. Households were identified as “poor” if were deprived in >33% of indicators. Our MPI is an adjusted headcount, calculated by multiplying the proportion identified as poor (headcount) and the poverty gap (average deprivation). Geospatial visualizations of poverty deprivation were created as a contextual baseline for future evaluation. Results In our rural (96%) and urban (4%) interviewees, the 33% deprivation cut-off suggested 58.2% of households were poor (29.3% of urban vs. 59.5% of rural). Among the poor, households experienced an average deprivation of 46%; thus the MPI/adjusted headcount is 0.27 (?=?0.58×0.46). Of households where a local language was the primary language, 58.6% were considered poor versus Portuguese-speaking households where 73.5% were considered non-poor. Living standard is the dominant deprivation, followed by health, and then education. Conclusions Multidimensional poverty measurement can be integrated into program design for public health interventions, and geospatial visualization helps examine the impact of intervention deployment within the context of distinct poverty conditions. Both permit program implementers to focus resources and critically explore linkages between poverty and its social determinants, thus deriving useful findings for evidence-based planning. PMID:25268951

Victor, Bart; Blevins, Meridith; Green, Ann F.; Ndatimana, Elisée; González-Calvo, Lázaro; Fischer, Edward F.; Vergara, Alfredo E.; Vermund, Sten H.; Olupona, Omo; Moon, Troy D.

2014-01-01

26

Struggling to Survive: Sexual Assault, Poverty, and Mental Health Outcomes of African American women  

PubMed Central

A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women’s increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, PTSD, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed. PMID:20397989

Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E.; Tsong, Yuying; Tillman, Shaquita; Smith, Kimberly

2013-01-01

27

A Commentary on "Piercing the Bubble": Should Management Education "Confront" Poverty?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary contrasts "Piercing the Bubble" by proposing "pull" (rather than "push") strategies as a way for business schools to more meaningfully engage poverty and social exclusion. By reframing poverty issues in such a manner that they connect with core business student interests of career opportunities, current management practices, and…

Dart, Raymond

2008-01-01

28

Environmental victims: environmental injustice issues that threaten the health of children living in poverty.  

PubMed

Children living in poverty are disproportionately at risk from and affected by environmental hazards. According to the National Center for Children in Poverty, 13 million children in America live in poverty. Thus, not only are millions of children living in poverty but are also living in environments that are hazardous to their health. Impoverished children are more likely to live in environments with heavily polluting industries, hazardous waste sites, contaminated water and soil, in old housing with deteriorating lead-based paint, in areas with limited access to healthy food, and more. Poor children residing in these toxic environments are either at risk or suffer from a myriad of health disparities, such as asthma, cancer, lead poisoning, obesity, and hyperactivity. This unfortunate reality is better known as environmental injustice. Environmental injustice recognizes that economically disadvantaged groups are adversely affected by environmental hazards more than other groups. To remedy this dilemma, environmental justice seeks to address these unfair burdens of environmental health hazards on poor communities. The purpose of this article is to (a) examine the environmental living conditions of children living in poverty, (b) examine the environmental health disparities of children living in poverty, (c) discuss environmental justice legislation, (d) describe government initiatives to improve environmental health, and (e) propose recommendations that executes measures to protect the health of children. PMID:22206190

Cureton, Shava

2011-01-01

29

The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth: Implications for Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the implications for prevention science of recent advances in research on family poverty and children's mental, emotional, and behavioral health. First, we describe definitions of poverty and the conceptual and empirical challenges to estimating the causal effects of poverty on children's mental, emotional, and behavioral…

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Aber, J. Lawrence; Beardslee, William R.

2012-01-01

30

Fostering food security in areas of extreme poverty through Integrated Farm Management: the case of Burundi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme poverty in Burundi's rural area and tensions between families with limited access to arable land hinder development towards a more stable and peaceful society. Due to these tensions and a rapid population growth, agricultural land is currently subject to increased degradation and low agricultural productivity. A whole range of other limiting factors contributes to this, such as: poor seed quality, poor nutrient management combined with low soil fertility, inadequate agronomic practices, pests and crop diseases, poorly developed supply chains, health problems, difficult access to credit, and insecurity. Solving one of these problems will not solve the chain that eventually leads to low food production; it will simply move the emphasis to the next constraining factor. An integrated rural development approach is therefore required to break this vicious circle. The project Fanning the Spark, a Public-Private-Partnership between Achmea Foundation, Alterra of Wageningen University and Research Centre, and HealthNet-TPO in Burundi started in September 2013 with an intervention in several rural villages in Gitega. The project's objective is to increase food production at village level, by means of investments in crop production, a family (income) insurance package that protects rural families against the financial consequences of catastrophic events (natural and health) and making micro-credits available. This will enhance farmers' workability and generate income from agricultural activities in order to break the poverty cycle and enhance food security. The insurance package comprises agricultural and health insurances, and will be jointly implemented with the sustainable agriculture component. The latter component focuses on Integrated Farm Management and the use of innovative soil management practices. Farmer-to-farmer training and scaling-up are crucial components, and in the first phase of the project "innovative farmer groups" have a central role in the project. Each innovative farmer formulates and implements an Integrated Farm Management plan. This is a tool for farmers to plan, reflect and learn about sustainable land management, and particularly about the integration of all farm activities and how these contribute together to enhanced food security. Activities considered in these Integrated Farm Management plans are related to agriculture, livestock, infrastructure, agroforestry, soil conservation and training. The first results of the acceptance and impact of the strategy are now available, and in the next phase all innovative farmers will implement their plans and train fellow farmers to start planning their own Integrated Farm Management.

Kessler, Aad; van Duivenbooden, Niek; van Beek, Christy

2014-05-01

31

Struggling to survive: Sexual assault, poverty, and mental health outcomes of African American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women?s increased risk for sexual assault and increased

Thema Bryant-Davis; Sarah E. Ullman; Yuying Tsong; Shaquita Tillman; Kimberly Smith

2010-01-01

32

Relative Deprivation, Poverty, and Subjective Health: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the association between relative deprivation (lacking daily necessities) and subjective health in older Japanese adults, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). The data were obtained from functionally independent residents aged ?65 years from 24 municipalities in Japan (n?=?24,742). Thirteen items in three dimensions were used to evaluate relative deprivation of material conditions. Approximately 28% of older Japanese people indicated that they lacked some daily necessities (non-monetary poverty). A two-level Poisson regression analysis revealed that relative deprivation was associated with poor self-rated health (PR?=?1.3–1.5) and depressive symptoms (PR?=?1.5–1.8) in both men and women, and these relationships were stronger than those observed in people living in relative poverty (monetary poverty). The interaction effect between relative deprivation and relative poverty was not associated with poor health. As a dimension of the social determinants of health, poverty should be evaluated from a multidimensional approach, capturing not only monetary conditions but also material-based, non-monetary conditions. PMID:25350284

Saito, Masashige; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Abe, Aya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kayo

2014-01-01

33

Can Economic Deprivation Protect Health? Paradoxical Multilevel Effects of Poverty on Hispanic Children’s Wheezing  

PubMed Central

Prior research suggests that economic deprivation has a generally negative influence on residents’ health. We employ hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test if economic deprivation presents respiratory health risks or benefits to Hispanic children living in the City of El Paso (Texas, USA) at neighborhood- and individual-levels, and whether individual-level health effects of economic deprivation vary based on neighborhood-level economic deprivation. Data come from the US Census Bureau and a population-based survey of El Paso schoolchildren. The dependent variable is children’s current wheezing, an established respiratory morbidity measure, which is appropriate for use with economically-deprived children with an increased likelihood of not receiving a doctor’s asthma diagnosis. Results reveal that economic deprivation (measured based on poverty status) at both neighborhood- and individual-levels is associated with reduced odds of wheezing for Hispanic children. A sensitivity analysis revealed similar significant effects of individual- and neighborhood-level poverty on the odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Neighborhood-level poverty did not significantly modify the observed association between individual-level poverty and Hispanic children’s wheezing; however, greater neighborhood poverty tends to be more protective for poor (as opposed to non-poor) Hispanic children. These findings support a novel, multilevel understanding of seemingly paradoxical effects of economic deprivation on Hispanic health. PMID:25101769

Collins, Timothy W.; Kim, Young-an; Grineski, Sara E.; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie

2014-01-01

34

Poverty as a contextual factor affecting sexual health behavior among female sex workers in India.  

PubMed

A thorough understanding of the environmental and structural factors that precipitate unsafe sexual practices is necessary for HIV/AIDS-prevention research among high-risk population groups like commercial sex workers. I examined how poverty contextualizes sexual health behavior, including condom compliance among commercial female sex workers in a red light district in Calcutta, India. For my research I did an ethnographic study and conducted in-depth interviews of 37 commercial female sex workers. I found that poverty, instead of serving as a catalyst for poor health choices among sex workers, acted as an impetus for pursuing safe sex practices and remaining healthy. The results indicate that sex work, poverty, and health do not always have a paradoxical relationship. PMID:23558710

Dasgupta, Satarupa

2013-06-01

35

Piercing the Bubble: How Management Students Can Confront Poverty in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the current relationship between management education in Colombia and the efforts of the management program at Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB) in Medellin to reduce local poverty. The article uses the metaphor of "the bubble" to illustrate how social class, family socialization, and the current UPB management

Rosenbloom, Al; Cortes, Juan Alejandro

2008-01-01

36

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released in August 2005 by the U.S. Census Bureau, this timely 85-page report examines recent changes within the demographic profile of the real median household income of US residents, along with material on the nation's official poverty rate and those persons without health insurance coverage. The data in the report is based on information from 2003 and 2004, and notes that the nation's official poverty rate rose from 12.5 percent in 2003 to 12.7 percent in 2004. The report also notes that the number of persons without health insurance coverage increased by approximately 800,000 to 45.8 million. The report itself is divided into six chapters, and also includes four appendices which details such crucial research questions as how the Bureau measures income and poverty. For persons with a keen interest in this subject (such as policy makers or scholars) this report will be a valued research tool.

2005-01-01

37

Creating nurturing environments: a science-based framework for promoting child health and development within high-poverty neighborhoods.  

PubMed

Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods Research Consortium describes a science-based framework for the promotion of child health and development within distressed high-poverty neighborhoods. We lay out a model of child and adolescent developmental outcomes and integrate knowledge of potent and malleable influences to define a comprehensive intervention framework to bring about a significant increase in the proportion of young people in high-poverty neighborhoods who will develop successfully. Based on a synthesis of research from diverse fields, we designed the Creating Nurturing Environments framework to guide community-wide efforts to improve child outcomes and reduce health and educational inequalities. PMID:21468644

Komro, Kelli A; Flay, Brian R; Biglan, Anthony

2011-06-01

38

Creating Nurturing Environments: A Science-Based Framework for Promoting Child Health and Development within High-Poverty Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods Research Consortium describes a science-based framework for the promotion of child health and development within distressed high-poverty neighborhoods. We lay out a model of child and adolescent developmental outcomes, and integrate knowledge of potent and malleable influences to define a comprehensive intervention framework to bring about a significant increase in the proportion of young people in high-poverty neighborhoods who will develop successfully. Based on a synthesis of research from diverse fields, we designed the Creating Nurturing Environments framework to guide community-wide efforts to improve child outcomes and reduce health and educational inequalities. PMID:21468644

Komro, Kelli A.; Flay, Brian R.; Biglan, Anthony

2013-01-01

39

Health and Millennium Development Goal 1: Reducing Out-of-pocket Expenditures to Reduce Income Poverty - Evidence from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first of the eight Millennium Development Goals is to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In India, thirty two and a half million people fall below the national poverty line by making out-of- pocket payments for health care in a single year. This paper shows how in a country with large out of pocket payments, targeting a few

Charu C. Garg; Anup Karan

2008-01-01

40

Government health insurance for people below poverty line in India: quasi-experimental evaluation of insurance and health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the effects of a government insurance program covering tertiary care for people below the poverty line in Karnataka, India, on out-of-pocket expenditures, hospital use, and mortality. Design Geographic regression discontinuity study. Setting 572 villages in Karnataka, India. Participants 31 476 households (22 796 below poverty line and 8680 above poverty line) in 300 villages where the scheme was implemented and 28 633 households (21 767 below poverty line and 6866 above poverty line) in 272 neighboring matched villages ineligible for the scheme. Intervention A government insurance program (Vajpayee Arogyashree scheme) that provided free tertiary care to households below the poverty line in about half of villages in Karnataka from February 2010 to August 2012. Main outcome measure Out-of-pocket expenditures, hospital use, and mortality. Results Among households below the poverty line, the mortality rate from conditions potentially responsive to services covered by the scheme (mostly cardiac conditions and cancer) was 0.32% in households eligible for the scheme compared with 0.90% among ineligible households just south of the eligibility border (difference of 0.58 percentage points, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.75; P<0.001). We found no difference in mortality rates for households above the poverty line (households above the poverty line were not eligible for the scheme), with a mortality rate from conditions covered by the scheme of 0.56% in eligible villages compared with 0.55% in ineligible villages (difference of 0.01 percentage points, ?0.03 to 0.03; P=0.95). Eligible households had significantly reduced out-of-pocket health expenditures for admissions to hospitals with tertiary care facilities likely to be covered by the scheme (64% reduction, 35% to 97%; P<0.001). There was no significant increase in use of covered services, although the point estimate of a 44.2% increase approached significance (?5.1% to 90.5%; P=0.059). Both reductions in out-of-pocket expenditures and potential increases in use might have contributed to the observed reductions in mortality. Conclusions Insuring poor households for efficacious but costly and underused health services significantly improves population health in India. PMID:25214509

Bendavid, Eran; Mukherji, Arnab; Wagner, Zachary; Nagpal, Somil; Mullen, Patrick

2014-01-01

41

Discounting future health benefits: the poverty of consistency arguments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In economic evaluation of health care, main stream practice is to discount benefits at the same rate as costs. But main papers in which this practice is advocated have missed a distinction between two quite different evaluation problems: (1) How much does the time of program occurrence matter for value and (2) how much do delays in health benefits from

Erik Nord

2011-01-01

42

Protocol: realist synthesis of the impact of unemployment insurance policies on poverty and health.  

PubMed

Unemployment insurance is an important social protection policy that buffers unemployed workers against poverty and poor health. Most unemployment insurance studies focus on whether increases in unemployment insurance generosity are predictive of poverty and health outcomes. Less work has used theory-driven approaches to understand and explain how and why unemployment insurance works, for whom, and under what circumstances. Given this, we present a realist synthesis protocol that seeks to unpack how contextual influences trigger relevant mechanisms to generate poverty and health outcomes. In this protocol, we conceptualize unemployment insurance as a key social protection policy; provide a supporting rationale on the need for a realist synthesis; and describe our process on identifying context-mechanism-outcome pattern configurations. Six methodological steps are described: initial theory development, search strategy; selection and appraisal of documents; data extraction; analysis and synthesis process; and presentation and dissemination of revised theory. Our forthcoming realist synthesis will be the first to build and test theory on the intended and unintended outcomes of unemployment insurance policies. Anticipated findings will allow policymakers to move beyond 'black box' approaches to consider 'mechanism-based' explanations that explicate the logic on how and why unemployment insurance matters. PMID:25265163

Molnar, Agnes; O'Campo, Patricia; Ng, Edwin; Mitchell, Christiane; Muntaner, Carles; Renahy, Emilie; St John, Alexander; Shankardass, Ketan

2015-02-01

43

Poverty and Mental Health in the Breadline Britain Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the difficulties in the research has long been the issue of 'drift'. This theory suggests that the greater proportion of psychiatric admissions from poorer areas and higher levels of observed psychiatric symptoms is the result of inward migration which is prompted by poor mental health, either due to decreasing income or to 'disintegration' which means that people with

Sarah Payne

44

Fish Health Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For commercial success, a recirculating aquaculture operation must maintain fish at densities far greater than normally found in nature. At the same time, the producer must maintain an environment that supports good fish health. This chapter discusses various aspects of fish health management, inclu...

45

Health supply chain management.  

PubMed

This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors. PMID:20407173

Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

2010-01-01

46

Elements of an Institutional Framework for the Management of Water for Poverty Reduction in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper focuses on issues that need to be considered when addressing the issue of water management for poverty reduction.\\u000a On the national level, the need is for devolution of the decision-making processes to local communities (Water Users Associations)\\u000a firmly placed within a wider regulatory framework. The “framework” would need to ensure outcome that are socially and environmentally\\u000a sustainable, promote

Henning Bjornlund; Jennifer McKay

47

Information overload and information poverty: challenges for healthcare services managers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into managers' decision-making practices when challenged by inappropriate information quality, and to test frameworks developed from research to see whether they apply to these managers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This exploratory, multiple case study used the critical incident technique in 19 semi-structured interviews. Responses were analyzed using framework analysis, a matrix-based

Jackie MacDonald; Peter Bath; Andrew Booth

2011-01-01

48

Paying attention to gender and poverty in health research: content and process issues.  

PubMed Central

Despite the magnitude of the problem of health inequity within and between countries, little systematic research has been done on the social causes of ill-health. Health researchers have overwhelmingly focused on biomedical research at the level of individuals. Investigations into the health of groups and the determinants of health inequities that lie outside the control of the individual have received a much smaller share of research resources. Ignoring factors such as socioeconomic class, race and gender leads to biases in both the content and process of research. We use two such factors--poverty and gender--to illustrate how this occurs. There is a systematic imbalance in medical journals: research into diseases that predominate in the poorest regions of the world is less likely to be published. In addition, the slow recognition of women's health problems, misdirected and partial approaches to understanding women's and men's health, and the dearth of information on how gender interacts with other social determinants continue to limit the content of health research. In the research community these imbalances in content are linked to biases against researchers from poorer regions and women. Researchers from high-income countries benefit from better funding and infrastructure. Their publications dominate journals and citations, and these researchers also dominate advisory boards. The way to move forward is to correct biases against poverty and gender in research content and processes and provide increased funding and better career incentives to support equity-linked research. Journals need to address equity concerns in their published content and in the publishing process. Efforts to broaden access to research information need to be well resourced, publicized and expanded. PMID:15643794

Ostlin, Piroska; Sen, Gita; George, Asha

2004-01-01

49

Connecting the Dots Between Health, Poverty and Place in Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

West Africa has a rapidly growing population, an increasing fraction of which lives in urban informal settlements characterized by inadequate infrastructure and relatively high health risks. Little is known, however, about the spatial or health characteristics of cities in this region or about the spatial inequalities in health within them. In this article we show how we have been creating a data-rich field laboratory in Accra, Ghana, to connect the dots between health, poverty, and place in a large city in West Africa. Our overarching goal is to test the hypothesis that satellite imagery, in combination with census and limited survey data, such as that found in demographic and health surveys (DHSs), can provide clues to the spatial distribution of health inequalities in cities where fewer data exist than those we have collected for Accra. To this end, we have created the first digital boundary file of the city, obtained high spatial resolution satellite imagery for two dates, collected data from a longitudinal panel of 3,200 women spatially distributed throughout Accra, and obtained microlevel data from the census. We have also acquired water, sewerage, and elevation layers and then coupled all of these data with extensive field research on the neighborhood structure of Accra. We show that the proportional abundance of vegetation in a neighborhood serves as a key indicator of local levels of health and well-being and that local perceptions of health risk are not always consistent with objective measures. PMID:24532846

Weeks, John R.; Getis, Arthur; Stow, Douglas A.; Hill, Allan G.; Rain, David; Engstrom, Ryan; Stoler, Justin; Lippitt, Christopher; Jankowska, Marta; Lopez-Carr, Anna Carla; Coulter, Lloyd; Ofiesh, Caetlin

2013-01-01

50

Prognostics in Battery Health Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we examine prognostics and health management (PHM) issues using battery health management of Gen 2 cells, an 18650-size lithium-ion cell, as a test case. We will show where advanced regression, classification, and state estimation algorithms have an important role in the solution of the problem and in the data collection scheme for battery health management that we

Kai Goebel; Bhaskar Saha; Abhinav Saxena; Jose R. Celaya; Jon P. Christophersen

2008-01-01

51

Community concepts of poverty: an application to premium exemptions in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme  

PubMed Central

Background Poverty is multi dimensional. Beyond the quantitative and tangible issues related to inadequate income it also has equally important social, more intangible and difficult if not impossible to quantify dimensions. In 2009, we explored these social and relativist dimension of poverty in five communities in the South of Ghana with differing socio economic characteristics to inform the development and implementation of policies and programs to identify and target the poor for premium exemptions under Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme. Methods We employed participatory wealth ranking (PWR) a qualitative tool for the exploration of community concepts, identification and ranking of households into socioeconomic groups. Key informants within the community ranked households into wealth categories after discussing in detail concepts and indicators of poverty. Results Community defined indicators of poverty covered themes related to type of employment, educational attainment of children, food availability, physical appearance, housing conditions, asset ownership, health seeking behavior, social exclusion and marginalization. The poverty indicators discussed shared commonalities but contrasted in the patterns of ranking per community. Conclusion The in-depth nature of the PWR process precludes it from being used for identification of the poor on a large national scale in a program such as the NHIS. However, PWR can provide valuable qualitative input to enrich discussions, development and implementation of policies, programs and tools for large scale interventions and targeting of the poor for social welfare programs such as premium exemption for health care. PMID:23497484

2013-01-01

52

The Perceptions of Principals and Teachers Regarding Mental Health Providers' Impact on Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the perceptions of principals and teachers regarding mental health provider's impact on student achievement and behavior in high poverty schools using descriptive statistics, t-test, and two-way ANOVA. Respondents in this study shared similar views concerning principal and teacher satisfaction and levels of support for the…

Perry, Teresa

2012-01-01

53

"The walls were so damp and cold" fuel poverty and ill health in Northern Ireland: results from a housing intervention.  

PubMed

This article reports the findings from an evaluation of a fuel poverty programme in the Armagh and Dungannon Health Action Zone in Northern Ireland. Focusing on a rural community, it adds to the debate surrounding the hidden nature of rural fuel poverty. As part of the programme, energy efficiency measures, including some central heating systems, were installed in 54 homes. Surveys were conducted both pre and post intervention and analysed to assess any changes. The programme demonstrated that energy efficiency intervention can lead to improvements in health and well being, increased comfort levels in the home and a reduction in the use of health services, therefore having potential cost savings for the NHS. Some households, however, remain in fuel poverty after having full central heating installed, reflecting the significant contribution of low income on the production of fuel poverty. The article concludes by suggesting that interventions in this area require commitment from multiple sectors of society, including health professionals and local communities. PMID:16343973

Shortt, Niamh; Rugkåsa, Jorun

2007-03-01

54

Intelligent Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

55

Poverty and Social Exclusion May 8, 2012  

E-print Network

Poverty and Social Exclusion May 8, 2012 Social Determinants of Health Conference Johns Hopkins% of Baltimore communities are racially homogeneous Redlined communities map onto persistent poverty, lack, evaluation, advocacy Concentrated poverty, racial & economic segregation Housing policies (housing choice

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

56

Health & Safety Management System Queen's University  

E-print Network

Health & Safety Management System Queen's University December 2003 #12;Queen's University Health & Safety Management System 2 1. Introduction Under Provincial Health and Safety legislation Responsibility System provides the building blocks for an effective Health and Safety Management System. The key

Ellis, Randy

57

Competence in health management qualifications.  

PubMed

A special report on health management qualifications detailed the number of management qualifications. One aspect which deserves additional mention is the use of accreditation of prior learning (APL) which is a growing feature of management qualification courses. Sue Balderson and John Knibbs describe their research into the use of APL as part of an NHS trust's management development strategy. PMID:10134709

Balderson, S; Knibbs, J

1994-05-01

58

Participatory assessment of animal health and husbandry practices in smallholder pig production systems in three high poverty districts in Uganda.  

PubMed

While animal health constraints have been identified as a major limiting factor in smallholder pig production in Uganda, researchers and policy makers lack information on the relative incidence of diseases and their impacts on pig production. This study aimed to assess animal health and management practices, constraints and opportunities for intervention in smallholder pig value chains in three high poverty districts of Uganda. Semi-qualitative interview checklists through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were administered to 340 pig farmers in 35 villages in Masaka, Kamuli and Mukono districts. Quantitative data was obtained during the exercise through group consensus. Results of FGDs were further triangulated with secondary data and information obtained from key informant interviews. Findings show that pig keeping systems are dominated by tethering and scavenging in rural areas. In peri-urban and urban areas, intensive production systems are more practiced, with pigs confined in pens. The main constraints identified by farmers include high disease burden such as African swine fever (ASF) and parasites, poor housing and feeding practices, poor veterinary services, ineffective drugs and a general lack of knowledge on piggery management. According to farmers, ASF is the primary cause of pig mortality with epidemics occurring mainly during the dry season. Worms and ectoparasites namely; mange, lice and flies are endemic leading to stunted growth which reduces the market value of pigs. Diarrhoea and malnutrition are common in piglets. Ninety-three percent of farmers say they practice deworming, 37% practice ectoparasite spraying and 77% castrate their boars. Indigenous curative treatments include the application of human urine and concoctions of local herbs for ASF control and use of old engine oil or tobacco extracts to control ectoparasites. There is a need for better technical services to assist farmers with these problems. PMID:25458705

Dione, Michel M; Ouma, Emily A; Roesel, Kristina; Kungu, Joseph; Lule, Peter; Pezo, Danilo

2014-12-01

59

Is Violent Radicalisation Associated with Poverty, Migration, Poor Self-Reported Health and Common Mental Disorders?  

PubMed Central

Background Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders), and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. Results 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>£75,000 a year). People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. Conclusions Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors. PMID:24599058

Bhui, Kamaldeep; Warfa, Nasir; Jones, Edgar

2014-01-01

60

Independent and Combined Influence of Homeownership, Occupation, Education, Income and Community Poverty on Physical Health in Persons with Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the independent and combined influence of individual and community-level socioeconomic (SES) measures with physical health status outcomes in people with self-reported arthritis. Methods From 2004-2005, 968 participants completed a telephone survey assessing health status, chronic conditions, community characteristics, and socio-demographic variables. Individual-level SES measures: homeownership, occupation [professional, or not], educational attainment (< high school (HS), HS degree, and > HS), income (<15, 15-45, >$45K) and community poverty: 2000 U.S. Census block-group “% of individuals living below the poverty line” (low, medium, high) were used. Outcomes were physical functioning (MOS SF-12v2 PCS), functional disability (HAQ) and the CDC HRQOL Healthy Days physical and limited activity days and were analyzed via multivariable regressions. Results When entered separately, all individual-level SES variables were significantly (p<0.01) associated with poorer PCS, HAQ, and CDC HRQOL scores. A higher magnitude of effect was seen for household income, specifically <$15,000 in final models with all 4 individual SES measures and community poverty. The magnitude of effect for education is reduced and marginally significant for PCS and number of physically unhealthy days. No effects were seen for occupation, homeownership, and community poverty. Conclusions Findings confirm that after adjusting for important covariates, lower individual and community-level SES are associated with poorer physical health outcomes, while household income is the strongest predictor (as measured by both significance and effect) of poorer health status in final models. Studies not having participant-reported income available should make use of other SES measures as they do independently predict physical health. PMID:21225675

Callahan, Leigh F.; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Shreffler, Jack; Kumar, Deepak; Schoster, Britta; Kaufman, Jay S.; Schwartz, Todd A.

2011-01-01

61

Enhancing schools' capacity to support children in poverty: an ecological model of school-based mental health services.  

PubMed

School based mental health services for children in poverty can capitalize on schools' inherent capacity to support development and bridge home and neighborhood ecologies. We propose an ecological model informed by public health and organizational theories to refocus school based services in poor communities on the core function of schools to promote learning. We describe how coalescing mental health resources around school goals includes a focus on universal programming, mobilizing indigenous school and community resources, and supporting core teaching technologies. We suggest an iterative research-practice approach to program adaptation and implementation as a means toward advancing science and developing healthy children. PMID:18581225

Cappella, Elise; Frazier, Stacy L; Atkins, Marc S; Schoenwald, Sonja K; Glisson, Charles

2008-09-01

62

Enhancing Schools’ Capacity to Support Children in Poverty: An Ecological Model of School-Based Mental Health Services  

PubMed Central

School based mental health services for children in poverty can capitalize on schools’ inherent capacity to support development and bridge home and neighborhood ecologies. We propose an ecological model informed by public health and organizational theories to refocus school based services in poor communities on the core function of schools to promote learning. We describe how coalescing mental health resources around school goals includes a focus on universal programming, mobilizing indigenous school and community resources, and supporting core teaching technologies. We suggest an iterative research–practice approach to program adaptation and implementation as a means toward advancing science and developing healthy children. PMID:18581225

Frazier, Stacy L.; Atkins, Marc S.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Glisson, Charles

2013-01-01

63

Poverty Matters: The Cost of Child Poverty in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The poverty affecting 14.5 million U.S. children living below the poverty line poses long-term effects, including risks to health, educational achievement, family stability, and employment prospects. This report provides compelling evidence of the substantial costs of poverty among children to our nation's economic well-being, and shows that…

Sherman, Arloc

64

CAPACITY CONSTRAINTS, MANAGEMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS OF POVERTY-ORIENTED MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS IN MALAWI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty remains a growing concern in many developing countries. Limited accessibility to production factors and credit facilities in the formal financial system by the poor is usually identified as one of the causes of poverty in Malawi. In response to this problem, there are many institutions that provide credit facilities to the poor. Most of the institutions received seed capital

Ephraim W. Chirwa; Peter M. Mvula; Lucy Namata; Evious K. Zgovu

1999-01-01

65

Intelligent Integrated System Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems

Figueroa, Fernando

2012-01-01

66

Gamification and geospatial health management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensor and Measurement technologies are rapidly developing for many consumer applications which have the potential to make a major impact on business and society. One of the most important areas for building a sustainable future is in health management. This opportunity arises because of the growing popularity of lifestyle monitoring devices such as the Jawbone UP bracelet, Nike Fuelband and Samsung Galaxy GEAR. These devices measure physical activity and calorie consumption and, when visualised on mobile and portable devices, enable users to take more responsibility for their personal health. This presentation looks at how the process of gamification can be applied to develop important geospatial health management applications that could not only improve the health of nations but also significantly address some of the issues in global health such as the ageing society and obesity.

Wortley, David

2014-06-01

67

Food insecurity and other poverty indicators among people living with HIV/AIDS: effects on treatment and health outcomes.  

PubMed

Health disparities in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as the demands of long-term medication adherence have meant the full benefits of HIV treatment are often not realized. In particular, food insecurity has emerged as a robust predictor of ART non-adherence. However, research is limited in determining whether food insecurity uniquely impedes HIV treatment or if food insecurity is merely a marker for poverty that interferes more broadly with treatment. This study examined indicators of poverty at multiple levels in a sample of 364 men and 157 women living with HIV recruited through an offering of a free holiday food basket. Results showed that 61 % (N = 321) of participants had experienced at least one indicator of food insecurity in the previous month. Multivariate analyses showed that food insecurity was closely tied to lack of transportation. In addition, food insecurity was associated with lacking access to ART and poor ART adherence after adjusting for neighbourhood poverty, living in an area without a supermarket (food desert), education, stable housing, and reliable transportation. Results therefore affirm previous research that has suggested food insecurity is uniquely associated with poor ART adherence and calls for structural interventions that address basic survival needs among people living with HIV, especially food security. PMID:24705680

Kalichman, Seth C; Hernandez, Dominica; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar

2014-12-01

68

Food Insecurity and Other Poverty Indicators among People Living with HIV/AIDS: Effects on Treatment and Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Health disparities in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as the demands of long-term medication adherence have meant the full benefits of HIV treatment are often not realized. In particular, food insecurity has emerged as a robust predictor of ART non-adherence. However, research is limited in determining whether food insecurity uniquely impedes HIV treatment or if food insecurity is merely a marker for poverty that interferes more broadly with treatment. This study examined indicators of poverty at multiple levels in a sample of 364 men and 157 women living with HIV recruited through an offering of a free holiday food basket. Results showed that 61% (N = 321) of participants had experienced at least one indicator of food insecurity in the previous month. Multivariate analyses showed that food insecurity was closely tied to lack of transportation. In addition, food insecurity was associated with lacking access to ART and poor ART adherence after adjusting for neighbourhood poverty, living in an area without a supermarket (food desert), education, stable housing, and reliable transportation. Results therefore affirm previous research that has suggested food insecurity is uniquely associated with poor ART adherence and calls for structural interventions that address basic survival needs among people living with HIV, especially food security. PMID:24705680

Kalichman, Seth C.; Hernandez, Dominica; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O.; Grebler, Tamar

2014-01-01

69

The 1998 HHS Federal Poverty Guidelines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has recently released the 1998 federal poverty measures. There are two slightly different versions of the federal poverty measure: poverty thresholds and poverty guidelines. Data for both versions are available at this site. Separate data are listed for the 48 states, Alaska, and Hawaii.

1998-01-01

70

Causal Relationships between Poverty and Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research suggests why disability may cause poverty, it is not well understood why poverty may cause disability. This article presents the Poverty Disability Model, which includes four groups of factors that increase the risk that poverty will cause disability and chronic health problems. Rehabilitation interventions and counselor…

Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

2007-01-01

71

National poverty reduction strategies and HIV/AIDS governance in Malawi: a preliminary study of shared health governance.  

PubMed

The public health and development communities understand clearly the need to integrate anti-poverty efforts with HIV/AIDS programs. This article reports findings about the impact of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process on Malawi's National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework (NSF). In this article we ask, how does the PRSP process support NSF accountability, participation, access to information, funding, resource planning and allocation, monitoring, and evaluation? In 2007, we developed and conducted a survey of Malawian government ministries, United Nations agencies, members of the Country Coordination Mechanism, the Malawi National AIDS Commission (NAC), and NAC grantees (N = 125, 90% response rate), seeking survey respondents' retrospective perceptions of NSF resource levels, participation, inclusion, and governance before, during, and after Malawi's PRSP process (2000-2004). We also assessed principle health sector and economic indicators and budget allocations for HIV/AIDS. These indicators are part of a new conceptual framework called shared health governance (SHG), which seeks congruence among the values and goals of different groups and actors to reflect a common purpose. Under this framework, global health policy should encompass: (i) consensus among global, national, and sub-national actors on goals and measurable outcomes; (ii) mutual collective accountability; and (iii) enhancement of individual and group health agency. Indicators to assess these elements included: (i) goal alignment; (ii) adequate resource levels; (iii) agreement on key outcomes and indicators for evaluating those outcomes; (iv) meaningful inclusion and participation of groups and institutions; (v) special efforts to ensure participation of vulnerable groups; and (vi) effectiveness and efficiency measures. Results suggest that the PRSP process supported accountability for NSF resources. However, the process may have marginalized key stakeholders, potentially undercutting the implementation of HIV/AIDS Action Plans. PMID:20675024

Wachira, Catherine; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

2011-06-01

72

The Rising Prevalence of Severe Poverty in America A Growing Threat to Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

1990-2004 period. The severely poor, moderately poor, and near-poor were classified as those with I\\/P ratios of less than 0.5, 0.5 to 1.0, or 1.0 to 2.0, respectively. Income deficits\\/surpluses were classified relative to the poverty threshold as Tier I (deficit $8000 or more), Tier II (deficit or surplus less than $8000), or Tier III (surplus more than $8000). Odds

Steven H. Woolf; Robert E. Johnson; H. Jack Geiger

73

Poverty Durations and Poverty Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Currently available measures of poverty typically usean annual accounting period, which implicitly ignores both the duration of deprivation experience within a particular year and after or before the year in question. This article argues that since the incomes,of the poor often fluctuate within a year, and since long duration poverty is of great social concern, measures of aggregate poverty

Lars Osberg; Kuan Xu

74

X-33/RLV System Health Management/Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To reduce operations costs, Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVS) must include highly reliable robust subsystems which are designed for simple repair access with a simplified servicing infrastructure, and which incorporate expedited decision-making about faults and anomalies. A key component for the Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) RLV system used to meet these objectives is System Health Management (SHM). SHM incorporates Vehicle Health Management (VHM), ground processing associated with the vehicle fleet (GVHM), and Ground Infrastructure Health Management (GIHM). The primary objective of SHM is to provide an automated and paperless health decision, maintenance, and logistics system. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, is leading the design, development, and integration of the SHM system for RLV and for X-33 (a sub-scale, sub-orbit Advanced Technology Demonstrator). Many critical technologies are necessary to make SHM (and more specifically VHM) practical, reliable, and cost effective. This paper will present the X-33 SHM design which forms the baseline for the RLV SHM, and it will discuss applications of advanced technologies to future RLVs. In addition, this paper will describe a Virtual Design Environment (VDE) which is being developed for RLV. This VDE will allow for system design engineering, as well as program management teams, to accurately and efficiently evaluate system designs, analyze the behavior of current systems, and predict the feasibility of making smooth and cost-efficient transitions from older technologies to newer ones. The RLV SHM design methodology will reduce program costs, decrease total program life-cycle time, and ultimately increase mission success.

Mouyos, William; Wangu, Srimal

1998-01-01

75

Occupational Safety, Health, and Environmental Management  

E-print Network

Occupational Safety, Health, and Environmental Management Certificate Program Corporate examination; other professionals in the industry who are involved in the development or management of a safety, hearing conservation, machine guarding, system safety, and environmental health. The workshop setting

Stanford, Kyle

76

SSME Advanced Health Management: Project Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is the viewgraphs from a presentation concerning the development of the Health Management system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). It reviews the historical background of the SSME Advanced Health Management effort through the present final Health management configuration. The document includes reviews of three subsystems to the Advanced Health Management System: (1) the Real-Time Vibration Monitor System, (2) the Linear Engine Model, and (3) the Optical Plume Anomaly Detection system.

Plowden, John

2000-01-01

77

Agent-based health care management An Agent-based Approach to Health Care Management  

E-print Network

Agent-based health care management 1 An Agent-based Approach to Health Care Management Jun Huang1, London WC2A 3PX, UK. Abbreviated title: Agent-based health care management Complete Mailing Address. London E1 4NS UK #12;Agent-based health care management 2 Abstract The provision of medical care

Mascardi, Viviana

78

[Management of biohazard in health care settings].  

PubMed

The management of biohazard in health care settings entails multidisciplinarity, valuing the interactions among stakeholders (General Manager, Medical Director, health care workers, prevention and protection units, infection control panels, occupational physicians), with the aim of protecting health and safety of workers, third parties and the health care service. The management issue was tackled within SIMLII guidelines on biohazards, as well as by the SIMLII Section on Preventive Medicine for Health Care Workers, followed by editorial initiatives. This contribution focuses on afield example on the management of data stemming from accidents involving biohazards, highlighting the need of information technology enabling management of enormous amount of health data. This work underlines the primacy of individual risk assessment and management, while combining information on working techniques and procedures with modern health surveillance, on the basis of accredited literature and good medical, organizational and technical practices. PMID:23405633

Porru, S; Agresta, A; Cimaglia, C; De Carli, G; Piselli, P; Puro, V; Micheloni, G P

2012-01-01

79

Reading Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central purpose of this book is to challenge current social constructions of poverty, reading education, and the putative relationship between the two. It explores how official and popular representations of poverty are bound to specific historical, social, and economic conditions of their own production. The book offers four stances of…

Shannon, Patrick

80

Poverty Reduction Begins with Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes how children bear the brunt of poverty and explains why they are central to poverty reduction in developing nations. The report also illustrates UNICEF's support for the process of improving access to, and quality of, health care, education, water and sanitation, and child protection. It describes how the participation of the…

United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

81

Poverty Alleviation under Fiscal Decentralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years considerable progress has been made in designing and implementing policies and in building appropriate structures of incentives and institutions to combat poverty. Yet, almost a billion people in the world continue to be in abject poverty. They can not afford minimum requirements of food, clothing, shelter, and education and health facilities. Majority of the poor in live

M. Govinda Rao

82

Fair Starts for Children. An Assessment of Rural Poverty and Maternal and Infant Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Maternal and Infant Health Outreach Worker Program (MIHOW) of Vanderbilt University's Center for Health Services gathered data on family planning, prenatal care, pregnancy outcomes, breastfeeding, and preventive child health care from 60 women in 6 rural, low income communities in Tennessee, Kentucky, and West Virginia. The resulting baseline…

Couto, Richard A.

83

The Effects of Poverty on Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although hundreds of studies have documented the association between family poverty and children's health, achievement, and behavior, few measure the effects of the timing, depth, and duration of poverty on children, and many fail to adjust for other family characteristics (for example, female headship, mother's age, and school- ing) that may account for much of the observed correlation between poverty

Jeanne Brooks-Gunn; Greg J. Duncan

1997-01-01

84

Software for Intelligent System Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the characteristics and advantages of autonomy and artificial intelligence in systems health monitoring. The presentation lists technologies relevant to Intelligent System Health Management (ISHM), and some potential applications.

Trevino, Luis C.

2004-01-01

85

Integrated Environment, Safety, & Health Management Plan  

E-print Network

Management System Description Revision 8 i July 2013 Integrated Safety* Management provides important Management System. A high level of attention to environmental protection, safety, health, and performance is discussed, the following applies: DOE Policy 450.4 Safety Management System Policy "...the term safety

Knowles, David William

86

Leadership in Health Care Systems: Health Care Organization Management  

E-print Network

Leadership in Health Care Systems: Health Care Organization Management and Leadership Track ­ Program Evaluation in 2007: Our grads told us they needed more leadership, informatics and management, employer interviews, needs assessment The Program #12;Leadership in Heath Care Systems · Three tracks

Goldman, Steven A.

87

Poverty Makes Diabetes Care Tougher  

MedlinePLUS

... Map FAQs Contact Us Search MedlinePlus Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poverty Makes Diabetes Care Tougher, Study Reports Too little ...

88

A Arts |CS Community Services | D Disabilities | ED Education | EL Elderly | ENV Environment | F Family H Health | L Literacy | P Poverty, Housing, Hunger | S Science and Technology | Y Youth  

E-print Network

Family H Health | L Literacy | P Poverty, Housing, Hunger | S Science and Technology | Y Youth Wittenberg families and individuals from a lower income and addresses the greater need of hunger. Stocking shelves

Bogaerts, Steven

89

A Arts |CS Community Services | D Disabilities | ED Education | EL Elderly | ENV Environment | F Family H Health | L Literacy | P Poverty, Housing, Hunger | S Science and Technology | Y Youth  

E-print Network

Family H Health | L Literacy | P Poverty, Housing, Hunger | S Science and Technology | Y Youth Wittenberg a lower income and addresses the greater need of hunger. Stocking shelves, collecting data, carrying

Bogaerts, Steven

90

Feeder and Stocker Health and Management Practices  

E-print Network

of disease loss. Goals for herd health management in a stocker setting should be centered aroundFeeder and Stocker Health and Management Practices W. Dee Whittier, Extension Specialist Specialist and Professor, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech Disease

Liskiewicz, Maciej

91

Software for Intelligent System Health Management (ISHM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The slide presentation is a briefing in four areas: overview of health management paradigms; overview of the ARC-Houston Software Engineering Technology Workshop held on April 20-22, 2004; identified technologies relevant to technical themes of intelligent system health management; and the author's thoughts on these topics.

Trevino, Luis C.

2004-01-01

92

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series August, 2006  

E-print Network

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #0630 August, 2006 Developmental Health. Simonton, University of Michigan This paper is available online at the National Poverty(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Poverty Center or any sponsoring agency. #12

Shyy, Wei

93

Poverty in Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site from World Bank offers an ongoing look at poverty in Africa and the ways in which World Bank continues to monitor it. The Africa Household Survey Database (AHSD) is featured on the site, and holds, at present, 106 completed surveys from 36 countries. The surveys in the database include Labor Force Surveys, Household Budget Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, Population and Housing Censuses, and more. Poverty in Africa also contains several other sections that support the AHSD, including explanations of the ways in which poverty levels are monitored and measured. Related resources offered at the site include links to Websites from other NGOs and academic sources, as well as information on the World Bank's partners in Africa, such as the African National Statistics Offices.

94

Poverty and Health Disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native Children: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

This report explores the current state of knowledge regarding inequalities and their effect on American Indian and Alaska Native children, underscoring gaps in our current knowledge and the opportunities for early intervention to begin to address persistent challenges in young American Indian and Alaska Native children’s development. This overview documents demographic, social, health, and health care disparities as they affect American Indian and Alaska Native children, the persistent cultural strengths that must form the basis for any conscientious intervention effort, and the exciting possibilities for early childhood interventions. PMID:18579879

Sarche, Michelle; Spicer, Paul

2008-01-01

95

Poverty and health disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native children: current knowledge and future prospects.  

PubMed

This report explores the current state of knowledge regarding inequalities and their effect on American Indian and Alaska Native children, underscoring gaps in our current knowledge and the opportunities for early intervention to begin to address persistent challenges in young American Indian and Alaska Native children's development. This overview documents demographic, social, health, and health care disparities as they affect American Indian and Alaska Native children, the persistent cultural strengths that must form the basis for any conscientious intervention effort, and the exciting possibilities for early childhood interventions. PMID:18579879

Sarche, Michelle; Spicer, Paul

2008-01-01

96

Poverty, out-of-pocket payments and access to health care: evidence from Tajikistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have either initiated or are contemplating reform of the health sector. With negative real income growth and falling government revenues, a key concern of many governments is to secure additional finance through non-budgetary sources such as hypothecated payroll taxes, voluntary insurance, and increased private finance through patient cost-sharing. However, before such reforms

Jane Falkingham

2004-01-01

97

The poverty of theory: class configurations in the discourse of Physical Education and Health (PEH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: At the heart of this polemic1 lies the view that contemporary research in PE and Health (PEH) has largely overlooked one of the key determinants of social behaviour, social class and its expression in and outside schools; an omission that has quite serious consequences for how we (researchers and teachers) think about and conceptualise the purposes of PE in

John Evans; Brian Davies

2008-01-01

98

Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums  

PubMed Central

This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

2009-01-01

99

Effects of anti-poverty programs on electoral behavior : evidence from the Mexican Education, Health, and Nutrition Program  

E-print Network

Ever since Latin American economies collapsed in the 1980s and early 1990s, traditional redistributive programs began to coexist with new anti-poverty programs that usually took the form of conditional cash transfers (CCT). ...

De La O Torres, Ana Lorena

2007-01-01

100

Overview of Nurse Managed Health Centers Nurse Managed Health Centers (NMHC) are outpatient facilities that provide health services to the  

E-print Network

Overview of Nurse Managed Health Centers Nurse Managed Health Centers (NMHC) are outpatient). A Nurse Managed Health Center can be independently operated, be based in a public school, or University-owned. The NMHCs also serve as research oriented clinical practice sites for undergraduate and graduate nursing

Firestone, Jeremy

101

Future developments in health care performance management  

PubMed Central

This paper highlights the challenges of performance management in health care, wherein multiple different objectives have to be pursued. The literature suggests starting with quality performance, following the sand cone theory, but considering a multidimensional concept of health care quality. Moreover, new managerial approaches coming from an industrial context and adapted to health care, such as lean management and risk management, can contribute to improving quality performance. Therefore, the opportunity to analyze them arises from studying their overlaps and links in order to identify possible synergies and to investigate the opportunity to develop an integrated methodology enabling improved performance. PMID:24255600

Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

2013-01-01

102

Concept Development for Software Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the work performed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) under NASA contract NNL06AA08B, delivery order NNL07AB06T. The Concept Development for Software Health Management (CDSHM) program was a NASA funded effort sponsored by the Integrated Vehicle Health Management Project, one of the four pillars of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. The CD-SHM program focused on defining a structured approach to software health management (SHM) through the development of a comprehensive failure taxonomy that is used to characterize the fundamental failure modes of safety-critical software.

Riecks, Jung; Storm, Walter; Hollingsworth, Mark

2011-01-01

103

Poverty determinants of acute respiratory infections among Mapuche indigenous peoples in Chile's Ninth Region of Araucania, using GIS and spatial statistics to identify health disparities  

PubMed Central

Background This research concerns Araucanía, often called the Ninth Region, the poorest region of Chile where inequalities are most extreme. Araucanía hasn't enjoyed the economic success Chile achieved when the country returned to democracy in 1990. The Ninth Region also has the largest ethnic Mapuche population, located in rural areas and attached to small agricultural properties. Written and oral histories of diseases have been the most frequently used methods to explore the links between an ancestral population's perception of health conditions and their deprived environments. With census data and hospital records, it is now possible to incorporate statistical data about the links between poverty and disease among ethnic communities and compare results with non-Mapuche population. Data sources Hospital discharge records from Health Services North N = 24,126 patients, year 2003, and 7 hospitals), Health Services South (N = 81,780 patients and 25 hospitals); CAS-2/Family records (N = 527,539 individuals, 439 neighborhoods, 32 Comunas). Methods Given the over-dispersion of data and the clustered nature of observations, we used the global Moran's I and General G Gettis-Ord procedures to test spatial dependence. These tests confirmed the clusters of disease and the need to use spatial regression within a General Linear Mixed Model perspective. Results Health outcomes indicate significantly higher morbidity rates for the Mapuche compared to non-Mapuche in both age groups < 5 and 15–44, respectively; for the groups 70–79 and 80 + years of age, this trend is reversed. Mortality rates, however, are higher among Mapuches than non-Mapuches for the entire Ninth Region and for all age groups. Mortality caused by respiratory infections is higher among Mapuches than non-Mapuches in all age-groups. A major finding is the link between poverty and respiratory infections. Conclusion Poverty is significantly associated with respiratory infections in the population of Chile's Ninth Region. High deprivation areas are associated with poverty, and poverty is a predictor of respiratory infections. Mapuches are at higher risk of deaths caused by respiratory infections in all age groups. Exponential and spherical spatial correlation models were tested to estimate the previous association and were compared with non-spatial Poisson, concluding that significant spatial variability was present in the data. PMID:17605804

Rojas, Flavio

2007-01-01

104

Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.  

PubMed

This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation. PMID:12294462

Pethe, V P

1998-08-01

105

Rotorcraft Health Management Issues and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of health management issues and challenges that are specific to rotorcraft. Rotorcraft form a unique subset of air vehicles in that their propulsion system is used not only for propulsion, but also serves as the primary source of lift and maneuvering of the vehicle. No other air vehicle relies on the propulsion system to provide these functions through a transmission system with single critical load paths without duplication or redundancy. As such, health management of the power train is a critical and unique part of any rotorcraft health management system. This paper focuses specifically on the issues and challenges related to the dynamic mechanical components in the main power train. This includes the transmission and main rotor mechanisms. This paper will review standard practices used for rotorcraft health management, lessons learned from fielded trials, and future challenges.

Zakrajsek, James J.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Huff, Edward M.; Augustin, Michael; Safa-Bakhsh, Robab; Ephraim, Piet; Grabil, Paul; Decker, Harry J.

2006-01-01

106

75 FR 3734 - 2009 HHS Poverty Guidelines Extended Until March 1, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SERVICES Office of the Secretary 2009 HHS Poverty Guidelines Extended Until March 1, 2010...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines will remain in effect until updated 2010 poverty guidelines are published, which...

2010-01-22

107

75 FR 45628 - Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of 2010 AGENCY...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines for the remainder of 2010, and until the 2011 poverty guidelines are published, which is...

2010-08-03

108

Research collaboration in health management research communities  

PubMed Central

Background This study uses scientometrics methodology to reveal the status quo and emerging issues of collaboration in health management. Methods We searched all the articles with the keyword “health management” in the period 1999–2011 in Web of Knowledge, then 3067 articles were found. Methods such as Social network analysis (SNA), co-authorship, co-word analysis were used in this study. Results Analysis of the past 13 years of research in the field of health management indicates that, whether the production of scientific research, or authors, institutions and scientific research collaboration at the national level, collaboration behavior has been growing steadily across all collaboration types. However, the international scientific research cooperation about health management study between countries needs to be further encouraged. 17 researchers can be seen as the academic leaders in this field. 37 research institutions play a vital role in the information dissemination and resources control in health management. The component analysis found that 22 research groups can be regarded as the backbone in this field. The 8 institution groups consisting of 33 institutions form the core of this field. USA, UK and Australia lie in the center by cohesive subgroup analysis; Based on keywords analysis, 44 keywords with high frequency such as care, disease, system and model were involved in the health management field. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although it is growing steadily, collaboration behavior about health management study needs to be enhanced, especially between different institutions or countries/regions, which would promote the progress and internationalization of health management. Besides, researchers should pay attention to the cooperation of representative scholars and institutions, as well as the hot areas of research, because their experience would help us promote the research development of our nation. PMID:23617236

2013-01-01

109

Rural Poverty Report 2001: The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Fund for Agricultural Development's 2001 report on rural poverty argues that to reduce poverty, international efforts must focus on "legally secure entitlements to assets (especially land and water); technology (above all for increasing the output and yield of food staples); access to markets; opportunities to participate in decentralized resource management; and access to microfinance." The extensive document is posted in .pdf format with the above address linking to its table of contents.

2001-01-01

110

Managing gut health through nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?To study gut health, a multi-pronged approach is necessary. It should be considered from the point of view of immunology, microbiology and nutrient supply.2.?The impact on gut health often comes from microbial imbalance in the gut, which will be exacerbated if antibiotics are withdrawn from feed.3.?Any gut damage caused by pathogens will lead to poor gut health, which will, in

M. Choct

2009-01-01

111

Joining together to combat poverty.  

PubMed

The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around 1.3 billion people live on less than US$1 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries nearly 60% lack access to sanitation, 30% do not have clean water, 20% have no health care, and 20% do not have enough dietary energy and protein. Even among rich nations there are gross socioeconomic inequalities. Many children are robbed of their physical and mental potential through poverty. Expressed in constant 1963 US dollars, an average Croatian family needed the annual income of US$894 to meet the poverty line in 1960 and US$9,027 in 1995. Accordingly, 9-25% of Croatian households were below the poverty line between 1960 and 1995. The increase in the poverty rate after 1991 was compounded by the war that destroyed almost a third of industrial capacity and infrastructure. Dissipation of the communist economy and inadequate privatization have contributed to the increase in unemployment rate, corruption, and other social ills. IPHN invited Croatian Medical Journal to publish this editorial to help push the issue of poverty up political and medical agendas on a global level. We argue that a factor contributing to the failure of most large-scale programs against poverty to date is the excessive emphasis on material and infrastructure assistance at the expense of spiritual, moral, and intellectual development. PMID:10810165

Heath, I; Haines, A; Malenica, Z; Oulton, J A; Leopando, Z; Kaseje, D; Addington, W W; Giscard D'Estaing, O; Tumwine, J K; Koivusalo, M; Biscoe, G; Nickson, P; Marusi?, M; Vuk Pavlovi?, S

2000-03-01

112

Managing Software Development for Global Health  

E-print Network

3/12/2010 1 Managing Software Development for Global Health Richard Anderson Outline · PATH · Managing a software product · Lessons learned 3/10/2010 CSESoftware EngineeringResearchGroup 2 Today's talk and was in serious trouble · Applying software industry best practices is leading to a positive outcome 3

Anderson, Richard

113

Managing Software Development for Global Health  

E-print Network

Managing Software Development for Global Health Richard Anderson #12;Outline · PATH · The Cold · Managing a software product · Lessons learned 3/10/2010 CSE Software Engineering Research Group 2 #12;Today and was in serious trouble · Applying software industry best practices is leading to a positive outcome 3/10/2010 CSE

Anderson, Richard

114

78 FR 5182 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of Health...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar...for that program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the...

2013-01-24

115

77 FR 4034 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of Health...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar...for that program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the...

2012-01-26

116

76 FR 3637 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of Health...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar...for that program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the...

2011-01-20

117

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series June, 2006  

E-print Network

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #0619 June, 2006 Education and Health University This paper is available online at the National Poverty Center Working Paper reflect the view of the National Poverty Center or any sponsoring agency. #12;Education and Health

Shyy, Wei

118

Health management of ewes during pregnancy.  

PubMed

The objectives of health management of ewes during pregnancy are as follows: (i) successful completion of pregnancy at term, (ii) birth of healthy and viable lambs, with optimal birth and potential weaning bodyweight, (iii) optimum milk production during the subsequent lactation and (iv) improved management in relation to drug residues in animal products. Knowledge of the physiological background of pregnancy in ewes: changes, mechanisms and interactions, during pregnancy is important for the overall health management of ewes during pregnancy. Health management of pregnant ewes includes diagnosis of pregnancy and evaluation of the number of foetuses borne, which will support strategies for subsequent management of the flock. Nutritional management of ewes depends upon the stage of lactation and specifically aims to (i) prevention of pregnancy toxaemia and other metabolic diseases during the peri-partum period, (ii) formation of colostrum in appropriate quantity and quality, (iii) production of lambs with normal future birth bodyweight and (iv) support of increased milk yield during the subsequent lactation. At the end of lactation, udder management of pregnant ewes includes its clinical examination, culling of ewes considered unsuitable for lactation and, possibly, the intramammary administration of antibiotics; objectives of that procedure are (i) to cure infections which have occurred during the previous lactation and (ii) to prevent development of new mammary infection during the dry period. Management of abortions includes the correct and timely diagnosis of the causative agent of the disorder, as well as the strategic administrations of chemotherapeutic agents, aiming to prevent abortions in flocks with confirmed infection with an abortifacient agent, especially if no appropriate vaccinations had been carried out before the mating season. During the final stage of pregnancy, health management of ewes includes administration of appropriate anthelmintic drugs, aiming to eliminate gastrointestinal helminthes (thus, increasing production output of ewes) and preventing the built-up of parasitic burdens in the environment (thus, reducing infection of lambs during their neonatal period). Vaccinations of pregnant ewes aim to protect these animals, as well as their offspring, especially against diseases which are a frequent cause of neonatal mortality (e.g., clostridial infections). Health management also aims to prevent the main metabolic disorders of pregnant ewes (i.e., pregnancy toxaemia and hypocalcaemia), as well as to monitor flocks for development of these disorders. Health management of pregnant ewes is completed with application of husbandry practices before the start of the lambing season. Finally, in some cases, health management may include induction and synchronisation of lambings, which is a management or therapeutic procedure. PMID:22356932

Fthenakis, G C; Arsenos, G; Brozos, C; Fragkou, I A; Giadinis, N D; Giannenas, I; Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Valasi, I

2012-02-01

119

Poverty and disabled households in the People’s Republic of China: experiences with a new rural health insurance scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses what in international literature has commonly been termed the ‘vicious circle’ of poverty and disability. Our aim is to shed light on recent policies that attempt to break the vicious circle in rural areas in the People’s Republic of China. Drawing on data produced from fieldwork conducted in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China,

Gry Sagli; Jinming Zhang; Benedicte Ingstad; Heidi E. Fjeld

2012-01-01

120

China's poverty statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's official poverty statistics show a dramatic reduction in poverty from 31% of the rural population in 1978 to 3% in 2000. We evaluate possible sources of bias in these estimates and conclude that the official statistics underestimate rural poverty and overstate the speed of poverty reduction. Direct measures of nutritional outcomes support the contention that poverty is more widespread

Albert PARKa

121

China's poverty statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's official poverty statistics show a dramatic reduction in poverty from 31% of the rural population in 1978 to 3% in 2000. We evaluate possible sources of bias in these estimates and conclude that the official statistics underestimate rural poverty and overstate the speed of poverty reduction. Direct measures of nutritional outcomes support the contention that poverty is more widespread

Albert Park; Sangui Wang

2001-01-01

122

Poverty: Moving Forward with  

E-print Network

Reducing Poverty: Moving Forward with Alberta's Social Policy Framework 1 Heather Collier Director Implementing the Framework Alberta's Poverty Reduction Strategy What Does Poverty in Alberta Look Like · Policy shifts to work towards in design and delivery 15 #12;Poverty Reduction Poverty Reduction Strategy

Saskatchewan, University of

123

Poverty in Shenzhen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment and alleviation of poverty remains an urgent question throughout the globe. Urban poverty, in particular is becoming more prevalent in China due to immense migration in recent years. To what extent is migration related to poverty, and do the factors that drag households into poverty differ between migrants and non-migrants? Do migrants face income discrimination resulting in poverty?

Stefan Gravemeyer; Thomas Gries; Jinjun Xue

2010-01-01

124

Adolescents as health agents and consumers: results of a pilot study of the health and health-related behaviors of adolescents living in a high-poverty urban neighborhood.  

PubMed

Although there is a considerable literature on how adolescents make decisions which lead to risky behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, drug use) and adversely affect the health and well-being of youth, little is known about the routine behaviors youth engage in which influence their health (e.g., having permanent teeth extracted, discontinuing antibiotics prematurely, delaying or going without treatment of subacute illnesses and minor injuries) and concomitantly the factors which influence these behaviors. In an effort to begin to fill this gap, we have undertaken a study of routine health behaviors and the factors which bear on them in adolescents from a high-poverty urban neighborhood. In this article, we present the results of the pilot phase of the study in which we documented the behavior of 10 adolescents from Camden, New Jersey, the fifth poorest city in the United States, and explored with them their perceptions of the decisions they made and the factors that gave rise to them. We found that participants had an insufficient understanding of their health problems and consequences of their health actions, problems in understanding and being understood by health care professionals, and reluctance to involve parents in routine health care decisions. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to improving the health of vulnerable youth. PMID:20816561

Atkins, Robert; Bluebond-Langner, Myra; Read, Nichole; Pittsley, Jerri; Hart, Daniel

2010-10-01

125

Descriptive Model of Indicators for Environment, Health and Safety Management  

E-print Network

Descriptive Model of Indicators for Environment, Health and Safety Management Chabane Mazri developed in all areas of management (financial, economic, logistics), Environment Health and Safety (EHS an updated description of the system, indicators allow managers to refresh their system's representation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

Managing the Care of Health  

E-print Network

, and Director, Health Network, Canadian Policy Research Networks, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Henry Mintzberg, Ph to the many thoughtful people in the English system, including those of the King's Fund, who participated group in the Netherlands, Richard Higgins, Richard James, Anton Obholzer and members of the TMP Learning

Barthelat, Francois

127

Can managed health care help manage health care-associated infections?  

PubMed Central

Managed-care organizations have a unique opportunity, still largely unrealized, to collaborate with health-care providers and epidemiologists to prevent health care-associated infections. Several attributes make these organizations logical collaborators for infection control programs: they have responsibility for defined populations of enrollees and for their overall health, including preventive care; they possess unique data resources about their members and their care; and they are able to make systemwide changes in care. Health care-associated infections merit the attention and effort of managed-care organizations because these infections are common, incur substantial illness and costs, and can be effectively prevented by using methods that are unevenly applied in different health-care settings. Both national and local discussions will be required to enable the most effective and efficient collaborations between managed care organizations and health-care epidemiologists. It will be important to articulate clear goals and standards that can be readily understood and widely adopted. PMID:11294740

Platt, R.; Caldwell, B.

2001-01-01

128

Prognostic health management for avionic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintenance of aircraft electronic systems has traditionally been performed in reaction to reported failures or through periodic system replacements. Recent changes in weapons platform acquisition and support requirements have spurred interest in application of prognostic health management (PHM) concepts developed for mechanical systems to electronic systems. The approach, development, and validation of prognostics for two types of electronic equipment are

Rolf F. Orsagh; Douglas W. Brown; Patrick W. Kalgren; Carl S. Byington; Andrew J. Hess; Thomas Dabney

2006-01-01

129

ICTs for poverty reduction in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is believed that the main causes of poverty in Thailand are the lack of knowledge and management skills. This belief is confirmed by the UN's Millennium Development Goals in which Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) are identified as suitable instruments for poverty reduction. If people and communities are empowered with ICT to access information and knowledge, they can use

Thaweesak Koanantakool

2004-01-01

130

Managing interoperability and complexity in health systems.  

PubMed

In recent years, we have witnessed substantial progress in the use of clinical informatics systems to support clinicians during episodes of care, manage specialised domain knowledge, perform complex clinical data analysis and improve the management of health organisations' resources. However, the vision of fully integrated health information eco-systems, which provide relevant information and useful knowledge at the point-of-care, remains elusive. This journal Focus Theme reviews some of the enduring challenges of interoperability and complexity in clinical informatics systems. Furthermore, a range of approaches are proposed in order to address, harness and resolve some of the many remaining issues towards a greater integration of health information systems and extraction of useful or new knowledge from heterogeneous electronic data repositories. PMID:25579862

Bouamrane, M-M; Tao, C; Sarkar, I N

2015-01-12

131

Software Health Management with Bayesian Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most modern aircraft as well as other complex machinery is equipped with diagnostics systems for its major subsystems. During operation, sensors provide important information about the subsystem (e.g., the engine) and that information is used to detect and diagnose faults. Most of these systems focus on the monitoring of a mechanical, hydraulic, or electromechanical subsystem of the vehicle or machinery. Only recently, health management systems that monitor software have been developed. In this paper, we will discuss our approach of using Bayesian networks for Software Health Management (SWHM). We will discuss SWHM requirements, which make advanced reasoning capabilities for the detection and diagnosis important. Then we will present our approach to using Bayesian networks for the construction of health models that dynamically monitor a software system and is capable of detecting and diagnosing faults.

Mengshoel, Ole; Schumann, JOhann

2011-01-01

132

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

2011-01-01

133

The Implications of Death for Health: A Terror Management Health Model for Behavioral Health Promotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a terror management health model (TMHM). The model integrates disparate health and social psychology literatures to elucidate how the conscious and nonconscious awareness of death can influence the motivational orientation that is most operative in the context of health decisions. Three formal propositions are presented.…

Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie

2008-01-01

134

Health Literacy: The Road to Improved Health Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although millions of Americans are able to navigate city streets, bus routes, and malls, many do not have the skills to manage their health and negotiate our healthcare system. Low formal education levels, older age, ethnic and racial minorities, rural location, and poverty are some factors associated with increased rates of limited health literacy. Limited literacy impacts health behaviors, decisions,

Laurie Anne Ferguson; Roberta Pawlak

2011-01-01

135

Conceptualizing Chronic Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a meaning for the term chronic poverty “in a nutshell” and explores the concepts of poverty, vulnerability and poverty dynamics that underpin this meaning. Subsequently, it reviews “who” is chronically poor, “why” they stay poor and what is known about policies to reduce chronic poverty. Despite the limited knowledge available it is clear that hundreds of millions

Andrew Shepherd

2003-01-01

136

IRRIGATION AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION: REVIEW OF THE EMPIRICAL EVIDENCEy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to clarify the linkages between irrigation and poverty by offering an objective review of recent research on the subject. The key questions addressed herein are: (1) what is the role of irrigation development and management in poverty alleviation? (2) what are the linkages and pathways through which irrigation contributes to poverty alleviation? (3) what

INTIZAR HUSSAIN; MUNIR A. HANJRA

137

Managing American Health Network Outpatient Testing Records Franciscan St. Francis Health  

E-print Network

Managing American Health Network Outpatient Testing Records Franciscan St. Francis Health Kristan Farmer Problem: Franciscan St. Francis Health now manages the medical records for four American Health information about the overall management of the records. Objectives: · Ensure that registries are received

Zhou, Yaoqi

138

Poverty nutrition linkages.  

PubMed

At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per cent and about half the children are undernourished. While poverty and mortality rates came down by 50 per cent, fertility rate by 40 per cent, the reduction in undernutrition in children is only 20 per cent. National surveys indicate that a third of the children from high income group who have not experienced any deprivations are undernourished. The high undernutrition rates among children appears to be mainly due to high low birthweight rates, poor infant and young child feeding and caring practices. At the other end of the spectrum, surveys in school children from high income groups indicate that between 10-20 per cent are overnourished; the major factor responsible appears to be reduction in physical activity. Some aspects of the rapidly changing, complex relationship between economic status, poverty, dietary intake, nutritional and health status are explored in this review. PMID:18032800

Ramachandran, Prema

2007-10-01

139

ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation presents status and results of research on Software Health Management done within the NRA "ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management." Topics include: Ingredients of a Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (GN and C); Selected GN and C Testbed example; Health Management of major ingredients; ISWHM testbed architecture; and Conclusions and next Steps.

Schumann, Johann; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Darwiche, Adnan

2010-01-01

140

GARS Directorate Environment, Safety, & Health Records/Documents Management  

E-print Network

. Occupational Health & Safety (OHSAS 18001) Management System Description (Manual) The written OSH programGARS Directorate Environment, Safety, & Health Records/Documents Management Rev. 6 4/24/13 Topic Office Files B179B. 2. Environment, Safety & Health (OHSAS 18001/ISO14001) Management Plans Annual list

Ohta, Shigemi

141

Data Management for Meeting Global Health Challenges Tapan S. Parikh  

E-print Network

Data Management for Meeting Global Health Challenges Tapan S. Parikh UC Berkeley School global health challenges are becoming increasingly data driven. Governments and donors are demanding activities, and responding to remote outbreaks of disease. Data challenges in global health intersect

Parikh, Tapan S.

142

76 FR 64110 - Safety and Health Management Programs for Mines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration RIN 1219-AB71 Safety and Health Management Programs for Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of public...

2011-10-17

143

Outage management and health physics issue, 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles\\/reports in this issue include: India: a potential commercial opportunity, a U.S. Department of Commerce Report, by Joe Neuhoff and Justin Rathke; The changing climate for nuclear energy, by Skip Bowman, Nuclear Energy Insitute; Selecting protective clothing, by J. Mark Price, Southern California Edison; and Succssful

Agnihotri; Newal

2007-01-01

144

Making Technology Ready: Integrated Systems Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper identifies work needed by developers to make integrated system health management (ISHM) technology ready and by programs to make mission infrastructure ready for this technology. This paper examines perceptions of ISHM technologies and experience in legacy programs. Study methods included literature review and interviews with representatives of stakeholder groups. Recommendations address 1) development of ISHM technology, 2) development of ISHM engineering processes and methods, and 3) program organization and infrastructure for ISHM technology evolution, infusion and migration.

Malin, Jane T.; Oliver, Patrick J.

2007-01-01

145

Towards reframing health service delivery in Uganda: the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of Non-Communicable Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is accelerating. Given that the capacity of health systems in LMICs is already strained by the weight of communicable diseases, these countries find themselves facing a double burden of disease. NCDs contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality, thereby playing a major role in the cycle of poverty, and impeding development. Methods Integrated approaches to health service delivery and healthcare worker (HCW) training will be necessary in order to successfully combat the great challenge posed by NCDs. Results In 2013, we formed the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of NCDs (UINCD), a multidisciplinary research collaboration that aims to present a systems approach to integrated management of chronic disease prevention, care, and the training of HCWs. Discussion Through broad-based stakeholder engagement, catalytic partnerships, and a collective vision, UINCD is working to reframe integrated health service delivery in Uganda. PMID:25563451

Schwartz, Jeremy I.; Dunkle, Ashley; Akiteng, Ann R.; Birabwa-Male, Doreen; Kagimu, Richard; Mondo, Charles K.; Mutungi, Gerald; Rabin, Tracy L.; Skonieczny, Michael; Sykes, Jamila; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet

2015-01-01

146

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation. ISHM is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this chapter, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an ISHM capability relevant to intelligent systems. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system, emphasizing an advance toward an on-board, autonomous capability. Both ground-based and on-board ISHM capabilities are addressed. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

2011-01-01

147

‘More health for the money’: an analytical framework for access to health care through microfinance and savings groups  

PubMed Central

The main contributors to inequities in health relates to widespread poverty. Health cannot be achieved without addressing the social determinants of health, and the answer does not lie in the health sector alone. One of the potential pathways to address vulnerabilities linked to poverty, social exclusion, and empowerment of women is aligning health programmes with empowerment interventions linked to access to capital through microfinance and self-help groups. This paper presents a framework to analyse combined health and financial interventions through microfinance programmes in reducing barriers to access health care. If properly designed and ethically managed such integrated programmes can provide more health for the money spent on health care. PMID:25364028

Saha, Somen

2014-01-01

148

'More health for the money': an analytical framework for access to health care through microfinance and savings groups.  

PubMed

The main contributors to inequities in health relates to widespread poverty. Health cannot be achieved without addressing the social determinants of health, and the answer does not lie in the health sector alone. One of the potential pathways to address vulnerabilities linked to poverty, social exclusion, and empowerment of women is aligning health programmes with empowerment interventions linked to access to capital through microfinance and self-help groups. This paper presents a framework to analyse combined health and financial interventions through microfinance programmes in reducing barriers to access health care. If properly designed and ethically managed such integrated programmes can provide more health for the money spent on health care. PMID:25364028

Saha, Somen

2014-10-01

149

How Do Poverty And Disability Interrelate? The Structural And Cultural Explanations In Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 50 percent of the Peruvian population is living in poverty today. Poverty can lead to serious health problems, such as malnutrition, diarrhea, and poor physical and cognitive development. Because so many Peruvians are living in poverty, a large portion of the population suffers from poverty-related illnesses and impairments. Furthermore, research finds that 82 percent of people with disabilities are

Catherine Quinn

2010-01-01

150

Building Resilience for Sustainable Development of the Sundarbans through Estuary Management, Poverty Reduction, and Biodiversity Conservation: A Non-Lending  

E-print Network

...................... 19 4.2 Bangladesh: Disaster Management.................................................................................. 20 4.3 India: Disaster Management ............................................................................................ 23 4.4 Sri Lanka: Disaster Management

Webster, Peter J.

151

The Effects of Poverty Simulation, an Experiential Learning Modality, on Students' Understanding of Life in Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the impact of the Poverty Simulation Project, an experiential learning modality, on students' understanding of life in poverty. A total of 101 students representing 5 undergraduate majors in the College of Health and Human Services completed measures of critical thinking, understanding of others, and the active learning…

Vandsburger, Etty; Duncan-Daston, Rana; Akerson, Emily; Dillon, Tom

2010-01-01

152

Poverty in the Midst of Plenty: Unmet Needs and Distribution of Health Care Resources in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Background The unmet needs for health care have been used as an alternative measurement to monitor equity in health services. We sought to examine contextual influences on unmet needs for health care whereas precedent studies have been focused on individual characteristics on them. Methods and Findings The current study conducted multilevel logistic regression analysis to assess the effects of individual- and contextual-level predictors in meeting individual health care needs in South Korea. We sampled 7,200 individuals over the age of 19 in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009. Included in the regression model were individual predictors such as demographic variables, socio-economic status, and self-rated health; the density of beds and physicians in public and private sectors within different regions were used as contextual-level predictors. This study showed the inverse association between unmet needs and regional resources in private sectors after controlling for the effects of individual-level predictors. Conclusion Our findings suggest that increasing regional resources in private sectors might produce inefficiency in the health care system and inequity in access to health services, particularly where the competition in private health care sectors was highly stimulated under the fee-for-service reimbursement scheme. Policies for the reallocation of health care resources and for reduction of individual health care costs are needed in Korea. PMID:23226447

Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juwhan; Kim, Jukyung; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Jin-seok; Kwon, Soonman; Subramanian, S. V.; Kawachi, Ichiro

2012-01-01

153

Investigation of Integrated Vehicle Health Management Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is to present the work that was performed during the summer in the Advance Computing Application office. The NFFP (NASA Faculty Fellow Program) had ten summer faculty members working on IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) technologies. The objective of this project was two-fold: 1) to become familiar with IVHM concepts and key demonstrated IVHM technologies; and 2) to integrate the research that has been performed by IVHM faculty members into the MASTLAB (Marshall Avionic Software Test Lab). IVHM is a NASA-wide effort to coordinate, integrate and apply advanced software, sensors and design technologies to increase the level of intelligence, autonomy, and health state of future vehicles. IVHM is an important concept because it is consistent with the current plan for NASA to go to the moon, mars, and beyond. In order for NASA to become more involved in deep exploration, avionic systems will need to be highly adaptable and autonomous.

Paris, Deidre

2005-01-01

154

[Quality management in a public health agency].  

PubMed

This article describes the introduction of quality improvement actions in a public health organization. After ISO 17025 accreditation, which was legally mandated, was granted to the official control laboratory, the management decided to expand a quality policy in 2003, through a series of actions based on process analysis and proposals for improvement, further definition of standard operating procedures, exploration of users' opinions, the creation of improvement groups, and external audits or certification. The organizational response to these initiatives was diverse. External audit or certification of services seems to be the most powerful tool for change. Costing studies showed that up to 75% of the total expenditure of the agency in 2010 was spent on public health services subject to external audit or certification. PMID:22425456

Villalbí, Joan R; Ballestín, Manuela; Casas, Conrad; Subirana, Teresa

2012-01-01

155

Sensor Systems for Prognostics and Health Management  

PubMed Central

Prognostics and health management (PHM) is an enabling discipline consisting of technologies and methods to assess the reliability of a product in its actual life cycle conditions to determine the advent of failure and mitigate system risk. Sensor systems are needed for PHM to monitor environmental, operational, and performance-related characteristics. The gathered data can be analyzed to assess product health and predict remaining life. In this paper, the considerations for sensor system selection for PHM applications, including the parameters to be measured, the performance needs, the electrical and physical attributes, reliability, and cost of the sensor system, are discussed. The state-of-the-art sensor systems for PHM and the emerging trends in technologies of sensor systems for PHM are presented. PMID:22219686

Cheng, Shunfeng; Azarian, Michael H.; Pecht, Michael G.

2010-01-01

156

[Population trends and poverty].  

PubMed

Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs. PMID:12178231

Olmedo, C

1998-04-01

157

Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model  

PubMed Central

Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:24620040

Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

2014-01-01

158

Correctional Managed Health Care Contract for Student Experience  

E-print Network

1 Correctional Managed Health Care Contract for Student Experience Academic Year 2011-2012 This agreement made the _______ day of ________________________, by and between University of Connecticut Health Center (UCHC), Correctional Managed Health Care (CMHC), having its place of business at 263 Farmington

Oliver, Douglas L.

159

Rural Poverty in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book consists of 13 essays discussing rural poverty in the United States, including historical and current conditions of rural poverty, underlying the social, economic, and political factors, and policy implications. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 consists of four essays that provide a comprehensive description of the poverty

Duncan, Cynthia M., Ed.

160

Adolescents and Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More youth live in poverty and poor youth comprise a larger share of the youth population than was the case a decade ago. This article first provides a descriptive analysis of children in poverty; examining the incidence of poverty among children by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics with a particular focus on…

Wight, Vanessa R.

2011-01-01

161

Poverty Profile USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second edition of "Poverty Profile", published by the Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle as part of their Campaign for Human Development, updates the data examined in the earlier (1972) edition and examines some of the current social welfare programs designed to alleviate the affects of poverty. The extent to which poverty affects…

Procopio, Mariellen; Perella, Frederick J., Jr.

162

The Aggregated Influences of Poverty Impacting Dental Care Access and Oral Health among Migrant Farmworkers in Tampa, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is an important aspect of overall health, but many vulnerable\\u000apopulations such as migrant farmworkers are without access to oral healthcare. Although\\u000asome non-government organizations such as faith-based organizations have attempted to\\u000afill gaps left by government and private sectors, a lack of a dental safety net creates\\u000alimited access to oral health services for migrant farmworkers. Access

Nolan Kline

2010-01-01

163

Vaccines against poverty  

PubMed Central

With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

2014-01-01

164

Vaccines against poverty.  

PubMed

With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan

2014-08-26

165

Understanding Risk Management through an Environmental Health and Safety Template  

E-print Network

URMIA Understanding Risk Management through an Environmental Health and Safety Template 2008 URMIA system in the United States, made the transition from an institution whose risk management functions were chose to model its risk manage- ment function and methods after its environmental health and safety

Rosen, Jay

166

‘My health is not a job’: a qualitative exploration of personal health management and imperatives of the ‘new public health  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing push in Western healthcare for people to ‘manage’ their health, a key aspect of what has been called the ‘new public health’. It has been argued that this ‘personal health management’ – informal work done to monitor, inform, or influence one’s health – may be a burden, with potential to contribute to poor health outcomes. However, there is little research actually examining perceptions of personal health management and the ‘burden’ of these activities, particularly for generally healthy individuals. Methods We conducted exploratory qualitative interviews with 30 generally healthy men and women about their perceptions and experiences of personal health management. Questions focused on health behaviours (e.g., information seeking), as well as feelings about these behaviours and perceptions of the time dedicated to health. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively using NVivo 10. Where appropriate, quantitative codes were applied and descriptive statistics are reported alongside qualitative findings. Results Participants were generally satisfied with the amount of time spent on their health and few perceived personal health management as a burden. Many participants took issue with the concept of ‘work’ being associated with health and stressed the importance of taking personal responsibility for health. Conclusions Our findings suggest that generally healthy people have internalised the notion of the ‘new public health’ and accepted the imperative of personal health responsibility. On the one hand, this bodes well for healthy individuals; their positive attitude may lead to better health outcomes, and the manageable amount of time spent suggests personal health management is unlikely to cause negative health consequences associated with stress. On the other hand, our findings may indicate that other factors, such as social determinants of health, are ignored in health promotion efforts and that those who cannot manage their own health may fall further behind. Future research should continue to explore the time people spend ‘working’ for their health, and how they perceive and respond to ‘new public health’ imperatives. PMID:25030501

2014-01-01

167

Multidimensional Poverty in China: Findings Based on the CHNS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates multidimensional poverty in China by applying the Alkire-Foster methodology to the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2000-2009 data. Five dimensions are included: income, living standard, education, health and social security. Results suggest that rapid economic growth has resulted not only in a reduction in income poverty but…

Yu, Jiantuo

2013-01-01

168

Have agricultural economists neglected poverty issues?  

PubMed

Agricultural economists concerned with development issues devote effort to researching agriculture's inputs to produce a surplus and transfer it to nonagriculture, to provide markets for urban-based industry, to maintain a labor reservoir, to assist in capital formation, and to accumulate foreign exchange. Little attention is focused on broader and more sweeping economic problems. Discussion is directed toward answering some questions about why agricultural economists neglect rural poverty. Also, attention is given to why the extent of rural poverty imperils development, in what location should poverty be addressed, what are the issues in the agricultural growth and inequality debate as it affects rural poverty, and whether there are any new or promising ways to combat rural poverty. The extent of poverty is measured by the World Bank as 20% of world population, or 1 billion people, Rural poverty accounts for 60% of the hungry poor in Latin America, 80% in Asia, and 90% in Africa. 11 items are used to define the rural poor, such as a heterogeneous population of primarily small-scale farmers, the landless, nomads, pastoralists, and fisherfolk. 5 reasons are given why economists avoid rural poverty, including the difficulty in modeling the complex problems of rural poverty and the political considerations of free market vs. socialist economies. Other reasons involve land reform which reduces labor needs and a commitment to commercial farming rather than small-scale, labor-intensive farming; the rural agricultural poor's contributions to development are underrated. East Asian countries have been successful in linking growth, distribution, and amelioration of poverty among the peasantry. Environmental degradation may be encouraged by inequalities and unequal access to resources. The example is given of Brazil which has promoted migration to cities due to commercialization of rural agriculture and created urban poverty instead of dealing directly with rural poverty by bringing employment to rural areas. 5 ways are suggested for treating rural poverty in situ: increasing productivity of those with land, group peasants with land in settlements or agrarian reforms, increase health and skill levels, increase employment options, and direct government spending to the rural poor. Egalitarianism with rapid economic growth is assured to reduce poverty. A new way is the introduction of grass roots efforts of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) which can mobilize and maximize economic activity. Examples are given of NGO Programs of merit. PMID:12285366

Thiesenhusen, W C

1991-01-01

169

Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles.

Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S

2005-03-15

170

Overcoming Human Poverty: UNDP Poverty Report 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year's annual Poverty Report from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the world's largest aid agency, breaks new ground in the way it directly indicates poor governance as a leading cause of continued poverty in many nations. The question of government and poverty has been a matter of some contention within the UN and between aid agencies and countries seeking assistance. This report identifies effective governance as "the 'missing link' between national anti-poverty efforts and poverty reduction," and concludes that "for many countries it is in improving governance that external assistance is needed." The authors call for a new and more sharply focused global strategy to combat poverty, one that emphasizes good government, the integration of poverty programs on the national and international level, and empowering people. The full text of the report is available by chapter at the site, along with an executive summary, country profiles, and a PowerPoint slide show. The text and summary are also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, and Spanish.

171

Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health

Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

2013-01-01

172

Building Poverty Reduction Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This World Bank site considers a new framework for reducing poverty worldwide. The three steps of this outline are highlighted. "Understanding the nature and locus of poverty" considers the demographics of the world's poor. The second step, "Choosing public actions that have the highest poverty impact," examines the factors necessary for choosing public actions that will merit the highest impact on poverty. Finally, the provisions for monitoring the chosen poverty outcome indicators are explained in "Selecting and tracking outcome indicators." This site's rich resources include information and data on poverty such as regional and social indicators, household surveys, and country data sets, and an extensive list of related links. An online library holds reports, working papers, speeches, and other materials from the World Bank as well as from other resources. Interested users may also subscribe to PovertyNet, a bimonthly e-newsletter.

173

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY Risk Management Services, University of Alberta  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY Risk Management Services, University of Alberta www investigation Interpret legislation Lab close-out Education and training Maintain reference library of codes Provide technical expertise and service to departments in aspects of hazardous waste management, re

Machel, Hans

174

Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery.\\u000a However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides\\u000a a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care\\u000a delivery, (ii) identifies and

Regina Gyampoh-Vidogah; Robert Moreton; David Sallah

2010-01-01

175

Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health. PMID:21897489

2011-01-01

176

Aid allocation and poverty reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper derives a poverty-efficient allocation of aid and compares it with actual aid allocations. The allocation of aid that has the maximum effect on poverty depends on the level of poverty and the quality of policies. Using the headcount, poverty-gap, and squared poverty gap measures of poverty, alternatively, all yield similar poverty-efficient allocations. Finally, we find that the actual

Paul Collier; David Dollar

2002-01-01

177

POSTING 14-24 Manager of Health Services  

E-print Network

and Champlain Regional College. The Manager is also responsible for providing direct nursing care to the patients of the clinic. As a member of the Student Services Leadership Team the Manager of Health Services of the Student Services Leadership Team, the Manager contributes to the overall management of Student Services

178

The Affordable Care Act, health care reform, prescription drug formularies and utilization management tools.  

PubMed

The U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hence, Affordable Care Act, or ACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010. Goals of the ACA include decreasing the number of uninsured people, controlling cost and spending on health care, increasing the quality of care provided, and increasing insurance coverage benefits. This manuscript focuses on how the ACA affects pharmacy benefit managers and consumers when they have prescriptions dispensed. PBMs use formularies and utilization control tools to steer drug usage toward cost-effective and efficacious agents. A logic model was developed to explain the effects of the new legislation. The model draws from peer-reviewed and gray literature commentary about current and future U.S. healthcare reform. Outcomes were identified as desired and undesired effects, and expected unintended consequences. The ACA extends health insurance benefits to almost 32 million people and provides financial assistance to those up to 400% of the poverty level. Increased access to care leads to a similar increase in overall health care demand and usage. This short-term increase is projected to decrease downstream spending on disease treatment and stunt the continued growth of health care costs, but may unintentionally exacerbate the current primary care physician shortage. The ACA eliminates limitations on insurance and increases the scope of benefits. Online health care insurance exchanges give patients a central location with multiple insurance options. Problems with prescription drug affordability and control utilization tools used by PBMs were not addressed by the ACA. Improving communication within the U.S. healthcare system either by innovative health care delivery models or increased usage of health information technology will help alleviate problems of health care spending and affordability. PMID:25217142

Ung, Brian L; Mullins, C Daniel

2014-08-12

179

Outage management and health physics issue, 2007  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: India: a potential commercial opportunity, a U.S. Department of Commerce Report, by Joe Neuhoff and Justin Rathke; The changing climate for nuclear energy, by Skip Bowman, Nuclear Energy Insitute; Selecting protective clothing, by J. Mark Price, Southern California Edison; and Succssful refurbishment outage, by Sudesh K. Gambhir, Omaha Public Power District. Industry innovation articles in this issue are: Containment radiation monitoring spiking, by Michael W. Lantz and Robert Routolo, Arizona Public Service Company; Improved outage performance, by Michael Powell and Troy Wilfong, Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station; Stop repacking valves and achieve leak-free performance, by Kenneth Hart, PPL Susquehanna LLC; and Head assembly upgrade package, by Timothy Petit, Dominion Nuclear.

Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

2007-05-15

180

World Health Organization's Management of Substance Abuse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the larger World Health Organization's (WHO) site this section on the management of substance abuse has a variety of useful information for students, teachers and those practicing in the field. Some of the most useful are several resources related to terminology and classifications including the WHO lexicon of alcohol and drug terms. The lexicon, developed in 1994, supplies clinicians, researchers and other users with a set of definitions of terms related to tobacco, alcohol and other drugs. Also available is a Facts and Figures section which provides users with basic information about the use and misuse of alcohol and other drugs worldwide. The Activities pages allow users to get a glimpse into the research that WHO is currently undertaking that is related to substance abuse. Sections on publications, research tools, and other links round out this very useful site.

181

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2014-2015  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis and Humanities 3-4 DLS Social Sciences course in a first field 3 DLS Social Sciences course in a second field 3 3 Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial

Barrash, Warren

182

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2013-2014  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis and Humanities 3-4 DLS Social Sciences course in a first field 3 DLS Social Sciences course in a second field 3 3 Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial

Barrash, Warren

183

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2012-2013  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis and Humanities 3-4 DLS Social Sciences course in a first field 3 DLS Social Sciences course in a second field 3 Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial Accounting ACCT

Barrash, Warren

184

Health follow-up of children in poverty situation: between the routine and eventuality of daily care.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify how child care is delivered to children under two in their daily routine. Based on a qualitative approach, the study addresses the care site in the child care, through non-structured interviews with mothers and professionals from two health units in peripheral areas of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Results point aspects of how professionals view the mothers and their families, how the child's health, the routine and eventuality of care are followed. Adherence is important in the child's follow up, the longitudinality of care and, mainly, the concern with the mothers' and families' values. Child care in primary health care has a contingency character; it must deal with eventuality, uncertainty and events linked to experiences, integrating practical and technical knowledge. PMID:17934591

de Mello, Débora Falleiros; Garcia de Lima, Regina Aparecida; Silvan Scochi, Carmen Gracinda

2007-01-01

185

Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

Uckun, Serdar

2005-01-01

186

Strengthening health management: experience of district teams in The Gambia.  

PubMed

The lack of basic management skills of district-level health teams is often described as a major constraint to implementation of primary health care in developing countries. To improve district-level management in The Gambia, a 'management strengthening' project was implemented in two out of the three health regions. Against a background of health sector decentralization policy the project had two main objectives: to improve health team management skills and to improve resources management under specially-trained administrators. The project used a problem-solving and participatory strategy for planning and implementing activities. The project resulted in some improvements in the management of district-level health services, particularly in the quality of team planning and coordination, and the management of the limited available resources. However, the project demonstrated that though health teams had better management skills and systems, their effectiveness was often limited by the policy and practice of the national level government and donor agencies. In particular, they were limited by the degree to which decision making was centralized on issues of staffing, budgeting, and planning, and by the extent to which national level managers have lacked skills and motivation for management change. They were also limited by the extent to which donor-supported programmes were still based on standardized models which did not allow for varying and complex environments at district level. These are common problems despite growing advocacy for more devolution of decision making to the local level. PMID:10155879

Conn, C P; Jenkins, P; Touray, S O

1996-03-01

187

Health Management Applications for International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow for the ISS Electrical Power System and can predict power balance for nominal and off-nominal conditions. SimStation uses realtime telemetry data to keep detailed computational physics models synchronized with actual ISS power system state. In the event of failure, the application can then rapidly diagnose root cause, predict future resource levels and even correlate technical documents relevant to the specific failure. These advanced computational models will allow better insight and more precise control of ISS subsystems, increasing safety margins by speeding up anomaly resolution and reducing,engineering team effort and cost. This technology will make operating ISS more efficient and is directly applicable to next-generation exploration missions and Crew Exploration Vehicles.

Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

2005-01-01

188

College of Health Sciences HSM Health Services Management  

E-print Network

to health care settings. Topics to be considered include governance, patient rights, informed consent setting) or consent of instructor. (Same as CLM 351.) HSM 353 HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, PLANNING.C.D.A.,andqualityassessmentsystems.Prereq:Professionalprogramstatus(whichincludesanearnedAssociateDegree in a health care discipline and one year of post-degree work in a health care setting) or consent

MacAdam, Keith

189

Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and

Douglas F. Barnes; Shahidur R. Khandker; Hussain A. Samad

2011-01-01

190

Sustainable waste management in the UK: the public health role.  

PubMed

This paper discusses waste management in the UK and its relationship with health. It aims to outline the role of health professionals in the promotion of waste management, and argues for a change in their role in waste management regulation to help make the process more sustainable. The most common definition of sustainable development is that by the Brundtland commission, i.e. "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Managing waste sites in a manner that minimises toxic impacts on the current and future generations is obviously a crucial part of this. Although the management of waste facilities is extremely complex, the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control regime, which requires the input of public health professionals on the regulation of such sites, means that all waste management installations should now be operating in a fashion that minimises any toxicological risks to human health. However, the impacts upon climate change, resource use and health inequalities, as well as the effects of waste transportation, are currently not considered to be part of public health professionals' responsibilities when dealing with these sites. There is also no requirement for public health professionals to become involved in waste management planning issues. The fact that public health professionals are not involved in any of these issues makes it unlikely that the potential impacts upon health are being considered fully, and even more unlikely that waste management will become more sustainable. This paper aims to show that by only considering direct toxicological impacts, public health professionals are not fully addressing all the health issues and are not contributing towards sustainability. There is a need for a change in the way that health professionals deal with waste management issues. PMID:16962620

Mohan, R; Spiby, J; Leonardi, G S; Robins, A; Jefferis, S

2006-10-01

191

Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

2011-01-01

192

Supplier Relationship Management in Health Care Practice - A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural changes and increasing market dynamics in the health care sector intensify the hospitals' need for cost-savings and process optimization. One source to generate not only short-term savings but also sustainable benefits is the active and sophisticated management of the relationship with different suppliers, also known as supplier relationship management (SRM). As in the health care sector material cost continuously

Tobias Mettler; Peter Rohner

2008-01-01

193

Needs Assessment for Health Care Management Education in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: For more than 70 years, health care management in the Soviet Union reflected a centralized directive style familiar to the Soviet political system. Market-oriented reform in post-Soviet Russia is pushing practicing physicians and physician-executives to acquire new information and skills regarding health care management. To assist…

Rekhter, Natalia; Togunov, Igor A.

2006-01-01

194

An Airplane Health Management approach for civil aviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

om Abstract-In order to improve the safety and economy of civil aviation, based on the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) System, an Airplane Health Management (AHM) technology is presented in this paper. Although the PHM system contains the abilities of fault detection, fault isolation, fault prognosis and prognosis of the remaining life, extending the time of an aircraft in the

Li Shu-ming; Dan Min; Yang Lu

2011-01-01

195

The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children's health, mental health, and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care.  

PubMed

This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007 ) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health, and mental health needs of poverty-impacted African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or perinatally infected and at high risk for reinfection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multilevel contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include the triadic theory of influence, social action theory, and ecological developmental perspectives. CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence, and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers. PMID:24787707

McKernan McKay, Mary; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R B; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Mellins, Claude Ann

2014-01-01

196

Multidimentional Poverty in Bhutan: Estimates and Policy Implications  

E-print Network

MDG, which is to Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger. For the income cutoff, the official Bhutanese poverty line was used, which is calculated in Nu 1,096.94 per capita per month. During 2007, this was equivalent approximately to US$25... that the 4 The eight goals are: Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education, Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women, Goal 4: Reduce child mortality, Goal 5: Improve maternal health, Goal 6: Combat...

Santos, Maria Emma; Ura, Karma

2008-01-01

197

Managing Home Health Care (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

Intensive Health Care at Home Kids can need intensive health care at home after they have been in the hospital ... dolls to help you practice different procedures. Home Health Care Assistance The hospital social worker can help families ...

198

Health Project Management. A Manual of Procedures for Formulating and Implementing Health Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual presents 16 main steps for health project management, from project formulation through termination. The manual defines a health project as a temporary intensive effort to set up and put into operation a new or revised service that will result in the reduction of specific health or health-related problems. (Typical examples include the…

Bainbridge, J.; Sapirie, S.

199

Official Master's of Public Health Health Policy & Management Program of Study Form  

E-print Network

Official Master's of Public Health ­ Health Policy & Management Program of Study Form Student enrollment is restricted to graduate students. REQUIRED PUBLIC HEALTH CORE COURSES ­ 18 credits Dept Course # Course Title Cr Hrs Sem/Yr Taken Grade PUBH 5520G INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC HEALTH 2

Hutcheon, James M.

200

[Essential competences for the management of health care networks].  

PubMed

We suggest that in order to fulfill the health needs of the majority of the Chilean population, which is beneficiary of the public health system, essential organizational skills should be developed for network administration among Self-administered Hospitals, Network Manager and Primary Health Care facilities. Self-administered Hospitals should be competent in managing service options according to their strategy for development, reference and counter-reference mechanisms and waiting lists, to optimize queuing. The Network Manager should be competent in demand management that is regulated, investments management that determines future development in terms of population needs and stakeholders' management, which is a political viability type of management. Finally, the Primary Health Care manager should be competent in demand management as a strategic partner of the Network Manager, community participation and management of interlinked areas, articulating social networks and sanitary impact management. At each level and within levels, there are crossroads that promote synergies. Based on the development of essential skills, a practice with strategic intentions, organization managers will develop team work skills. PMID:23677235

Vergara, Marcos; Bisama, Ligia; Moncada, Patricio

2012-12-01

201

Poverty, Material Hardship and Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective Mental health disorders are of great social, economic, and policy concern. A higher incidence of major depressive disorder has been reported among those living in or near poverty. Our study examines the extent to which the relationship between income and depression is mediated by measures of material hardship. Methods We use measures of depression at two points in time from the longitudinal Fragile Families Survey to better discern the causal direction of the relationship between income poverty, hardship, and depression. More specifically, we use conditional logistic fixed-effect models that control for time-invariant unmeasured heterogeneity in the sample. Results We found a strong relationship between hardships and depression. The most prominent hardships were problems paying bills and phone turned off. We also found that hardship helped mediate much, though not all, of the link between poverty and depression in the conditional fixed effect logistic regression models. Conclusion Our policy simulations suggest that public health efforts to reduce depression may be enhanced from efforts that focus on specific forms of material hardship.

Heflin, Colleen M.; Iceland, John

2014-01-01

202

Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

203

Health Services Management Centre All in this together? Making  

E-print Network

on The case for social care reform ­ the wider economic and social benefits (for the Department of HealthHealth Services Management Centre All in this together? Making best use of health and social care improvement and public and patient engagement. This reputation has also started to extend to adult social care

Birmingham, University of

204

Geograpical Management of Cancer Health Disparities Program (GMaP)  

Cancer.gov

The Geographical Management of Cancer Health Disparities Program (GMaP), developed with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) administrative supplements, is a systematic and comprehensive approach to facilitating collaboration, cooperation, information- and resource-sharing, and capacity-building among cancer health disparities researchers, trainees, outreach workers, and organizations, with the key goal of advancing cancer health disparities (CHD) research and training.

205

Climate Change and the Health Implications of Managed Relocation  

E-print Network

91 Climate Change and the Health Implications of Managed Relocation Jessica Fields '14 and Tram Bui `14 Other modules in the Climate Change and Health unit that best complement the one presented here include The Science of Climate Change, Climate Change and Health: Lessons from the Past

Smith, Kate

206

Children and Managed Health Care. Analysis and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the changes managed health care has brought to the delivery and use of medical services and recommends specific steps that will make the existing system more responsive to the needs of children. Systemwide health care reforms must give children stable medical care that emphasizes preventive health and developmental services. (SLD)

Deal, Lisa W.; Shiono, Patricia H.; Behrman, Richard E.

1998-01-01

207

Environmental Management of Pediatric Asthma: Guidelines for Health Care Providers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These guidelines are the product of a new Pediatric Asthma Initiative aimed at integrating environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This document outlines competencies in environmental health relevant to pediatric asthma that should be mastered by primary health care providers, and outlines the environmental interventions…

Roberts, James R.; McCurdy, Leyla Erk

2005-01-01

208

Health services management manpower and education: outlook for the future.  

PubMed

There is much concern about administrative costs in health care. But little has been written on the market for health managers. This article discusses Bureau of Labor Statistics data estimating a total of 362,500 health managers in the United States in 1990 and projections showing an increase to 517,800 in 2005. The article further discusses the composition of health care employment in terms of settings and functions, and evaluates the implications of a rapidly changing market for health administrators. The authors conclude that sufficient demand exists for AUPHA programs to produce more graduates, but that curriculum should be revised and should place greater emphasis on efficient production of health services. This will provide qualitative differentiation and give health management training a competitive advantage over business and other educational backgrounds. PMID:10129821

Hilsenrath, P E; Levey, S; Weil, T P; Ludke, R

1993-01-01

209

Health Shocks and Natural Resource Management: Evidence from Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Poverty and altered planning horizons brought on by the HIV/AIDS epidemic can change individual discount rates, altering incentives to conserve natural resources. Using longitudinal household survey data from western Kenya, we estimate the effects of health status on investments in soil quality, as indicated by households’ agricultural land fallowing decisions. We first show that this effect is theoretically ambiguous: while health improvements lower discount rates and thus increase incentives to conserve natural resources, they also increase labor productivity and make it more likely that households can engage in labor-intensive resource extraction activities. We find that household size and composition are predictors of whether the effect of health improvements on discount rates dominates the productivity effect, or vice-versa. Since households with more and younger members are better able to reallocate labor to cope with productivity shocks, the discount rate effect dominates for these households and health improvements lead to greater levels of conservation. In smaller families with less substitutable labor, the productivity effect dominates and health improvements lead to greater environmental degradation

Damon, Maria; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Thirumurthy, Harsha

2014-01-01

210

Qualitative evaluation of a health management education partnership.  

PubMed

Results of ongoing cooperation of four educational institutions in the field of Health Management Education in Slovakia are reviewed. The specific benefit of multilateral collaboration for the situation in central Europe is discussed in the context of a Health Management Education Partnership (HMEP). The project is based on a grant from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) with assistance from the American International Health Alliance (AIHA). The U.S. partner is the University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania. Three organizations are involved in the partnership from the Slovak Republic: Trnava University, University of Matej Bel in Banska Bystrica and the Health Management School (HMS) in Bratislava, each having specific priority and focus in health management education. The HMEP program is designed to reach about 30 teachers of health administration as well as 200 undergraduates, senior and middle managers from health service organizations every year. The collaborative endeavor stimulates the communication and creation of personal and human relations, not only on an individual and institutional level, but on a community as well as national and international level. The project supports the development of knowledge and skills, professional identity and educational processes in health management. The emphasis is on increasing the quality of education and training in Slovakia through multilateral collaboration, curricula development, professional development, symposia, support of consultancies and accreditation. Specific areas of content are designed to address health policy, law, ethics, insurance and quality improvement. PMID:10387235

Rusnakova, V; West, D J; Hlavacka, S; Krcmery, V; Murgas, M

1998-01-01

211

Supporting cancer patients' unanchored health information management with mobile technology  

E-print Network

, Seattle, WA Abstract Cancer patients often need to manage care-related information when they are away from that HealthWeaver Mobile can help patients to access care-related information from anywhere, to capture. The enhanced ability to manage information, in turn, helps patients to manage their care and to feel more

Anderson, Richard

212

Health and Safety Management System Audit Reliability Pilot Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study assessed occupational health and safety (OHS) management system audit finding reliability using a modified test–retest method. Two industrial hygienists with similar training and education conducted four, 1-day management system audits in four dissimilar organizational environments. The researchers examined four auditable sections (employee participation, training, controls, and communications) contained in a publicly available OHS management system assessment instrument.

D. T. Dyjack; C. F. Redinger; R. S. Ridge

2003-01-01

213

Integrating Change Management into Clinical Health Information Technology Project Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of change within a clinical health information technology (HIT) project traditionally focuses on cost, schedule and scope, considered ldquohardrdquo change management (CM). Despite massive funding, clinical HIT projects continue to fail suggesting that the management of risk associated with hard change elements alone, is not effective. The cause of clinical HIT failure is usually attributed to user resistance

Margaret Leyland; Danielle Hunter; James Dietrich

2009-01-01

214

Poverty and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a mutual dependence between poverty and academic achievement, creative pedagogies for low-income pupils, school models that "beat the odds", and the resiliency of low-income families dedicated to the academic success of their children. This book examines the connection between poverty and literacy, looking at the potential roles and…

Wamba, Nathalis, Ed.

2011-01-01

215

Chapter 5 Poverty Traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey reviews models of self-reinforcing mechanisms that cause poverty to persist. Some of them examine market failure in environments where the neoclassical assumptions on markets and technology break down. Other mechanisms include institutional failure which can, by itself, perpetuate self-reinforcing poverty. A common thread in all these mechanisms is their adverse impact on the acquisition of physical or human

John Stachurski

2005-01-01

216

Pride and Poverty: A Report on San Antonio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication offers a portrait of poverty in San Antonio (Texas) based on an analysis of available statistical data and focusing on health, education, employment, housing, and human services. Five chapters each contain statistics regarding poverty in the United States, Texas, and San Antonio. Each chapter also begins with true stories about…

Partnership for Hope, Inc., San Antonio, TX.

217

Relationships between Poverty and Psychopathology. Data Trends #97  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" asks: Does the stress and adversity associated with poverty cause mental illness or is poverty the result of downward social mobility of persons with mental illness? This is the…

Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

2004-01-01

218

The Effects of Measuring Poverty Indicators of the World Bank  

E-print Network

fields such as education, the labor market, equality, migration, health, or gender. One goal of the SFBThe Effects of Measuring Poverty ­ Indicators of the World Bank SFB 882 Working Paper Series No of Measuring Poverty ­ Indicators of the World Bank SFB 882 Working Paper Series, No. 27 DFG Research Center

Moeller, Ralf

219

Jeffrey D. Sachs To address the global challenges of poverty,  

E-print Network

by Bjørn Lomborg, to identifyprioritiesforglobalactionregarding poverty, health, hunger and the environJeffrey D. Sachs To address the global challenges of poverty, climate and disease, it is essential.03% of annual donor-country income to address the planet's greatest challenges -- hunger, disease, environmental

220

The economic costs of childhood poverty in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to estimate the aggregate annual costs of child poverty to the US economy. It begins with a review of rigorous research studies that estimate the statistical association between children growing up in poverty and their earnings, propensity to commit crime, and quality of health later in life. We also review estimates of the costs that crime and

Harry J. Holzer; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach; Greg J. Duncan; Jens Ludwig

2008-01-01

221

Marital Transitions, Poverty, and Gender Differences in Mortality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used health production model and microlevel data from Panel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate sex-specific proportional hazard rate models of death as function of recent marital transitions and poverty status. Found that spells of poverty increased hazard of dying for both sexes, whereas recent marital status transitions altered hazard of dying…

Zick, Cathleen D.; Smith, Ken R.

1991-01-01

222

Poverty Action Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many laboratories focus their attention on topics like Alzheimer's research, but this laboratory at MIT focuses on poverty. The objective of their work at the Poverty Action Lab is "to improve the effectiveness of poverty programs by providing policy makers with clear scientific results that help shape successful polices to combat poverty." The Lab was started in June 2003 by a group of professors at MIT and their collaborators. Visitors to the site will note that the materials here are divided into sections that include "Research", "People", "News", and "Courses". The "Research" section is a great place to start as policy makers and others can look over their completed projects (such as "Discrimination in the Job Market") and their publications. Moving on, visitors can click on the "People" section to learn more about their staff and directors. Finally, those who are curious about the reach of the Poverty Lab's work will want to look at their media features in the "News" section.

223

Human resources development and poverty alleviation: a study of 23 poor counties in China.  

PubMed

"In recent years, poverty has become a serious issue in the socioeconomic development of China. One of the most important features of poverty is 'poor population quality', a factor that also causes poverty. Human resources development (HRD) strategies have been used as a weapon against poverty in many developing countries; some have proven to be quite effective. This article, which researches the relationship between HRD indicators and poverty status, finds that enhancement of education levels, improvement of health status, the gaining of skills and experience, increasing time away from home and choosing suitable occupations, all can contribute greatly to the reduction and alleviation of poverty." PMID:12319089

Li, W

1994-09-01

224

The Health Management Information System in Primary Health Care: The Palestinian Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management capabilities and performance of primary health care (PHC) can be improved by strengthening the information system. This study focuses on the Palestinian Health Management Information System (HMIS), used in PHC and reports on the achievements and shortcomings. A retrospective review and content analysis of the HMIS documentation was carried out and a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT)

Tayser Abu Mourad; Mohammed A. Afifi; Suzanne Shashaa; Dimitris Kounalakis; Christos Lionis; Anastas Philalithis

225

Sensor Technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Management of Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is focusing considerable efforts on technology development for Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems. The research in this area is targeted toward increasing aerospace vehicle safety and reliability, while reducing vehicle operating and maintenance costs. Onboard, real-time sensing technologies that can provide detailed information on structural integrity are central to such a health management system. This paper describes a number of sensor technologies currently under development for integrated vehicle health management. The capabilities, current limitations, and future research needs of these technologies are addressed.

Prosser, W. H.; Brown, T. L.; Woodard, S. E.; Fleming, G. A.; Cooper, E. G.

2002-01-01

226

Financial coping strategies of mental health consumers: managing social benefits.  

PubMed

Mental health consumers depend on social benefits in the forms of supplemental security income and social security disability insurance for their livelihood. Although these programs pay meager benefits, little research has been undertaken into how this population makes ends meet. Using a qualitative approach, this study asks what are the financial coping strategies of mental health consumers? Seven approaches were identified: subsidies, cost-effective shopping, budgeting, prioritizing, technology, debt management, and saving money. Results illustrate the resourcefulness of mental health consumers in managing meager social benefits and highlight the need to strengthen community mental health efforts with financial capabilities education. PMID:24346222

Caplan, Mary Ager

2014-05-01

227

Childhood nutrition and poverty.  

PubMed

One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the health of children. PMID:10946800

Nelson, M

2000-05-01

228

Climate Change, Agriculture and Poverty Vulnerabilityand Poverty Vulnerability  

E-print Network

Climate Change, Agriculture and Poverty Vulnerabilityand Poverty Vulnerability Presentation by-Medium-High productivity ­ Implications for agricultural production, trade and poverty · The issue of climate volatility ­ Impact of extreme climate events on poverty #12;Climate Science Debate Detection: - Little doubt about

229

237Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty and Human  

E-print Network

237Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty and Human CaPability StudieS (Pov) Core FaCulty: PROFESSORS beCKley*, GOLDSMITH, MARGAND The Shepherd Program for the interdisciplinary Study of Poverty and graduate studies can prepare them as futureprofessionalsandcitizenstoaddresstheproblems of poverty and how

Dresden, Gregory

230

227Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty AND HUMAN  

E-print Network

227Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty AND HUMAN CAPABILIty StUDIeS (Pov) Core FACULty: PROFESSORS BeCKLey*, GOLDSMITH, MARGAND The Shepherd Program for the Interdisciplinary Study of Poverty studies can prepare them as future professionals and citizens to address the problems of poverty

Dresden, Gregory

231

MLK Educational Panel Title of Event: From Poverty to Empowerment, From Education to Action  

E-print Network

. Duncan, "Social Change and Social Policy," from Worlds Apart: Why Rural Poverty Persists in America (NewMLK Educational Panel Title of Event: From Poverty to Empowerment, From Education to Action Date Minority Health Coalition Description of Program: What do poverty and empowerment look like today, and how

New Hampshire, University of

232

Does violent conflict make chronic poverty more likely? the Mindanao experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates whether provinces with violent conflict are more likely to experience higher rates of chronic poverty. Following the findings that education and health outcomes are key determinants of chronic poverty, the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Quality of Life Index (QLI) are used as proxy variables for chronic poverty. T-tests of means for HDI and QLI are

Hazel Jean L. Malapit; Tina S. Clemente; Cristina Yunzal

2003-01-01

233

The effects of healthcare provisions on the 4X poverty population In the United States  

E-print Network

1 The effects of healthcare provisions on the 4X poverty population In the United States Kathleen M contained in this document are those of the authors. #12;2 Keywords: 4x poverty, health care, taxpayers #12 to households at or below 400 percent of the federal poverty threshold. To be eligible to receive

Sadeh, Norman M.

234

Empirical Study on the Relationship between Farmers’ Human Capital Investment and Rural Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literatures about the relationship between human capital investment and rural poverty are reviewed. According to the time-series data from 1990 to 2007, VAR model and variance research are used to study the relationship between household human capital investment and rural poverty. Results shows that there is long-run equilibrium relationship between household capital investment and rural poverty. Educational investment and health

Cuijin Li

2010-01-01

235

Aircraft health management network: A user interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network management is one of the most discussed topics in the networking fraternity. The efficiency of the network management suit is measured by the number of parameters\\/components handled by the application while making decisions. In the case of Internet-enabled aircrafts, along with network security, even aircraft safety needs to be considered as a factor while designing the network management suit.

N. Thanthry; R. Pendse

2009-01-01

236

Evaluating Soil Health Summary: Soil health can be measured, monitored and managed to increase sustainability and  

E-print Network

Evaluating Soil Health Summary: Soil health can be measured, monitored and managed to increaseResourcesNonmedia, Producers, Web. From Sara Adlington, (406) 994-4602 Filename: Eval Soil Health PR2014 Web: Ag, Extension with Montana State University and MSU Extension have recommendations for growers on evaluating soil quality

Lawrence, Rick L.

237

American Health Information Management Association Code of Ethics  

E-print Network

1 American Health Information Management Association Code of Ethics Preamble The ethical should be disclosed. Ethical obligations are central to the professional's responsibility, regardless and the inherent ethical responsibilities for AHIMA members and credentialed HIM professionals include providing

Zhou, Yaoqi

238

Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -Part 1  

E-print Network

Cir 120 Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems - Part 1, Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory, Ruskin FL 33570, Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, School Cooperating. Nick T. Place , Dean Introduction Recirculating aquaculture systems, also known as water reuse

Watson, Craig A.

239

Clinical and Management Requirements for Computerized Mental Health Information Systems  

PubMed Central

Information requirements of mental health providers are sufficiently different from those of other health care managers to warrant a different approach to the development of management information systems (MIS). Advances in computer technology and increased demands for fiscal accountability have led to developing integrated mental health information systems (MHIS) that support clinical and management requirements. In a study made to define a set of generic information requirements of mental health providers that can be supported by an MHIS, it was found that basic data needs can be defined and classified in functional terms: clinical, management, and consultation/education requirements. A basic set of data to support these needs was defined: demographic, financial, clinical, programmatic, and service delivery data.

Levinton, Paula H.; Dunning, Tessa F.E.

1980-01-01

240

U of L Wellness and Recognition Managing Mental Health in the Workplace -Homewood Health Registered Psychologist (employee  

E-print Network

U of L Wellness and Recognition Managing Mental Health in the Workplace - Homewood Health:30 PM in AH100 - Nov 27 from 12:00 PM ­ 4:00 PM in AH100 Registration http://www.uleth.ca/hr/wellness/managing-mental-health managers and supervisors with information to understand mental illness, recognize common mental health

Hossain, Shahadat

241

American Health Information Management Association. Position statement. Issue: managing health information in facility mergers and acquisitions.  

PubMed

Healthcare facility mergers and acquisitions are becoming more common as the industry consolidates. Many critical issues must be considered in mergers and acquisitions, including the management of patient health information. In addition to operational issues, licensure, regulatory, and accreditation requirements must be addressed. To ensure availability of health information to all legitimate users, patient records should be consolidated or linked in the master patient index. A record retention policy should be developed and implemented to meet user needs and assure compliance with legal, regulatory, and accreditation requirements. If health information from closed facilities will be stored for a period of time, its integrity and confidentiality must be preserved, and it must be readily accessible for patient care. The compatibility and functionality of existing information systems should be assessed, and a plan should be formulated for integration of the systems to the extent possible. Such integration may be essential for the organization to successfully meet the demands of integrated delivery systems. Existing databases should be maintained in an accessible form to meet anticipated future needs. PMID:10133022

1994-04-01

242

Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategies in  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategies in Canada: Policy or Window Dressing? Charles Plante, Upstream: Institute for a Healthy Society #12;Overview What is poverty? Current state of poverty in Saskatchewan What is a Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategy (CPRS)? Are CPRS effective at reducing

Peak, Derek

243

On the Measurement of Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines three basic issues in the measurement of poverty: the choice of poverty line, the index of poverty, and the relation between poverty and inequality. The general theme is that th ere is a diversity of judgments which enter the measurement of povert y and it is necessary to recognize these explicitly in the procedures adopted. It is

A. B. Atkinson

1987-01-01

244

Chronic poverty and entitlement theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines chronic poverty in the developing country context within the entitlement theory approach. The dialogue on entitlement theory originally introduced by Sen is extended here to explore poverty and its persistence, or chronic poverty. A conceptual framework is presented, in which poverty and its persistence are explained within the context of the individual's economic and non-economic situation and

Meera Tiwari

2007-01-01

245

Dual-Use Aspects of System Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System Health Management functionality is an essential part of any space launch system. Health management functionality is an integral part of mission reliability, since it is needed to verify the reliability before the mission starts. Health Management is also a key factor in life cycle cost reduction and in increasing system availability. The degree of coverage needed by the system and the degree of coverage made available at a reasonable cost are critical parameters of a successful design. These problems are not unique to the launch vehicle world. In particular, the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System, commercial aircraft systems, train systems, and many types of industrial production facilities require various degrees of system health management. In all of these applications, too, the designers must balance the benefits and costs of health management in order to optimize costs. The importance of an integrated system is emphasized. That is, we present the case for considering health management as an integral part of system design, rather than functionality to be added on at the end of the design process. The importance of maintaining the system viewpoint is discussed in making hardware and software tradeoffs and in arriving at design decisions. We describe an approach to determine the parameters to be monitored in any system health management application. This approach is based on Design of Experiments (DOE), prototyping, failure modes and effects analyses, cost modeling and discrete event simulation. The various computer-based tools that facilitate the approach are discussed. The approach described originally was used to develop a fault tolerant avionics architecture for launch vehicles that incorporated health management as an integral part of the system. Finally, we discuss generalizing the technique to apply it to other domains. Several illustrations are presented.

Owens, P. R.; Jambor, B. J.; Eger, G. W.; Clark, W. A.

1994-01-01

246

Corporate social responsibility and the future health care manager.  

PubMed

The decisions and actions of health care managers are oftentimes heavily scrutinized by the public. Given the current economic climate, managers may feel intense pressure to produce higher results with fewer resources. This could inadvertently test their moral fortitude and their social consciousness. A study was conducted to determine what corporate social responsibility orientation and viewpoint future health care managers may hold. The results of the study indicate that future health care managers may hold patient care in high regard as opposed to profit maximization. However, the results of the study also show that future managers within the industry may continue to need rules, laws, regulations, and legal sanctions to guide their actions and behavior. PMID:21045586

Collins, Sandra K

2010-01-01

247

Exploring Appalachian Poverty in Ohio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in this sociology class will role play as members of the governor's office to inform the Governor of many of the problems facing children in the United States and the State of Ohio. Data analysis pertaining to hunger, poverty, crime, health, and education are included as multiple resources for data, in addition to KidsCount, are used. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on KidsCount. KidsCount is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data.

Kathy Rowell

248

An Examination of Health Information Management by the Deaf  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about how Deaf people perceive, access, and utilize interpersonal and media sources for health information. In light of the scarcity of research on health information management among this group, a two-phase study was conducted that included eight focus groups (N=39) and survey data (N=366) with Deaf participants to determine the…

Karras, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

249

Evaluation of two communication strategies to improve udder health management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, programs to improve udder health are implemented using communication tools and methods that inform and persuade dairy farmers. This study evaluated 2 communication strategies used in a mastitis control program in the Netherlands. To improve farmers’ udder health management, tools such as instruction cards, treatment plans, checklists and software were developed following an argument-based comprehensive “central route.” These tools

J. Jansen; R. J. Renes; T. J. G. M. Lam

2010-01-01

250

Department of Environmental Health & Safety Risk Management Services  

E-print Network

receive health & safety training specific to the hazards present in the lab. Where a laboratory or coreDepartment of Environmental Health & Safety Risk Management Services November 2009 Version 1 January 2012 Version 2 Occupational Hygiene & Chemical Safety 780 492 6888 1 LABORATORY SPECIFIC SAFETY

Machel, Hans

251

Minority Women's Health: HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... AIDS more than women of other races include: Poverty — One in 4 African-American women lives in poverty, which is strongly linked to HIV risk. People living in poverty also get lower-quality health care in general, ...

252

University of Connecticut Health Center Space Management Policy  

E-print Network

University of Connecticut Health Center Space Management Policy I. Preamble University that contributes most toward fulfilling the University's mission and priorities. Space is allocated on the basis if those needs or priorities change. This policy sets forth space management responsibilities, describes

Kim, Duck O.

253

Leadership and management quality: key factors in effective health systems.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of health care systems in the developing world is related to the quality of their leadership and management, yet that factor has been neglected by academics and funders. Based on replicable existing models, the article proposes an approach to strengthening local management training institutions. PMID:23342756

Pfeffermann, Guy

2012-01-01

254

Examining the Efficacy of Management for Pennsylvania School Health Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Pennsylvania, certified school nurses were governed by the same educational rules and administrative directives as teachers. School nurses were supervised and evaluated by non-nurse managers who had no knowledge of the scope of school nurse practice. A focus of the study was to examine the efficacy of management for school health programs. The…

Jacobi, Wendy J.

2010-01-01

255

Talking to health managers about change: heroes, villains and simplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents contextual and empirical analyses of the pressures on senior health managers in the NHS through an examination of the documents produced by the NHS National Co-ordinating Centre for Service Delivery and Organisation on “Managing change”. The result is a discussion and advocacy of the means through which “knowledge” with “knowing” might be brought together in the NHS

Ian Greener

2004-01-01

256

Stress Management Training in Health Psychology Practice: Critical Clinical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress management training interventions have become one of the most popular treatment programs in health psychology practice. Although numerous clinical approaches are available, limited attention is given to the matching of intervention with the clinical needs of individuals. As a result, stress management programs are more frequently marketed in clinical and community settings as palliative techniques without sufficient exploration of

J. Bruce Hillenberg; Thomas M. DiLorenzo

1987-01-01

257

Stop Child Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of international organizations are committed to helping end child poverty, and one of the best known of their number is the Global Volunteer Network. Through their advocacy work and the Stop Child Poverty campaign, they are dedicated to the proposition that child poverty can be completed eradicated. Through sections titled "Learn It", "Live It", and "Pass it On", visitors to this site will learn about the "big picture" of child poverty and how they can become directly involved in any number of volunteer projects. The "Pass It On" area is quite fine in this regard, as visitors can look over a message board where they can discuss the campaign, and then use a zip-code search engine to find volunteer opportunities in their area.

258

West Coast Poverty Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Washington, the West Coast Poverty Center "serves as a hub for research, education, and policy analysis leading to greater understanding of the causes and consequences of poverty and effective approaches to reducing it in the west coast states." The Center was created in the fall of 2005, and it represents a collaborative venture between the UW School of Social Work, the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, and the College of Arts and Sciences. Scholars and others will find the site quite useful, and they may wish to start at the "Poverty Basics" section. This area includes helpful overviews like "How Many People Are Poor in the United States?" and interactive maps and charts that document the state of poverty levels on the West Coast. Moving on, the "Research" area contains links to papers, research briefs, and information about upcoming events sponsored by the Center.

259

Global Distribution of Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For policymakers and academics alike, having access to information about the global distribution of poverty is crucial. Based at the Earth Institute at Columbia University, The Poverty Mapping Project at The Center for International Earth Science Information Network is a very fine resource for anyone interested in this subject. Understandably, the site provides access to dozens of maps which document the geographic and biophysical conditions of where the poor live. Visitors can look over 300 poverty maps offered at a number of spatial scales. Persons looking for data for their own research will want to consider downloading the subnational and national poverty data sets that are made available here. Overall, it's a well-designed site and one which can be used in a variety of settings.

2008-01-01

260

Population growth, poverty and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most popular explanations for the many problems that face Africa is population growth. Africa's population has doubled since 1960. Africa has the highest fertility rate in the world and the rate of population growth is higher than in any other region. At the same time, Africa faces a social and economic situation that is viewed by many

Joachim S. Kibirige

1997-01-01

261

Trade, Growth, and Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

(June 2001)The evidence from individual cases and from cross-country analysis supports the view that globalization leads to faster growth and poverty reduction in poor countries.To determine the effect of globalization on growth, poverty, and inequality, Dollar and Kraay first identify a group of developing countries that are participating more in globalization. China, India, and several other large countries are part

David Dollar; Aart Kraay

2001-01-01

262

Measuring adverse selection in managed health care.  

PubMed

Health plans paid by capitation have an incentive to distort the quality of services they offer to attract profitable and to deter unprofitable enrollees. We characterize plans' rationing as a "shadow price" on access to various areas of care and show how the profit maximizing shadow price depends on the dispersion in health costs, individuals' forecasts of their health costs, the correlation between use in different illness categories, and the risk adjustment system used for payment. These factors are combined in an empirically implementable index that can be used to identify the services that will be most distorted by selection incentives. PMID:11186848

Frank, R G; Glazer, J; McGuire, T G

2000-11-01

263

[The nursing worker's health under the view of the management].  

PubMed

This is a qualitative study with the objective to analyze the managemental actions developed by the nurses, implied in the health-desease process of the nursing workers. It was carried through in a university hospital and the citizens had been managers nurses of the Hospital. The results had shown that the nursing worker's health is determined by the form as the processes of work are organized in the Hospital. The transformation possibilities are organized in new forms to organize the work, privileging the development of the four dimensions of the management, with the adoption of management process and the investment in continued education that privileges the emancipation of the citizens. PMID:15603485

de Rocha, Adelaide Mattia; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andrés

2004-01-01

264

Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach.  

PubMed

During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems. PMID:16987573

Collins-Dogrul, Julie

2006-12-01

265

The poverty-reducing effect of Medicaid.  

PubMed

Medicaid provides health insurance for 54 million Americans. Using the Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure (which subtracts out-of-pocket medical expenses from family resources), we estimated the impact of eliminating Medicaid. In our counterfactual, Medicaid beneficiaries would become uninsured or gain other insurance. Counterfactual medical expenditures were drawn stochastically from propensity-score-matched individuals without Medicaid. While this method captures the importance of risk protection, it likely underestimates Medicaid's impact due to unobserved differences between Medicaid and non-Medicaid individuals. Nonetheless, we find that Medicaid reduces out-of-pocket medical spending from $871 to $376 per beneficiary, and decreases poverty rates by 1.0% among children, 2.2% among disabled adults, and 0.7% among elderly individuals. When factoring in institutionalized populations, an additional 500,000 people were kept out of poverty. Overall, Medicaid kept at least 2.6 million-and as many as 3.4 million-out of poverty in 2010, making it the U.S.'s third largest anti-poverty program. PMID:23835200

Sommers, Benjamin D; Oellerich, Donald

2013-09-01

266

Reusable Rocket Engine Turbopump Health Management System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A health monitoring expert system software architecture has been developed to support condition-based health monitoring of rocket engines. Its first application is in the diagnosis decisions relating to the health of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The post test diagnostic system runs off-line, using as input the data recorded from hundreds of sensors, each running typically at rates of 25, 50, or .1 Hz. The system is invoked after a test has been completed, and produces an analysis and an organized graphical presentation of the data with important effects highlighted. The overall expert system architecture has been developed and documented so that expert modules analyzing other line replaceable units may easily be added. The architecture emphasizes modularity, reusability, and open system interfaces so that it may be used to analyze other engines as well.

Surko, Pamela

1994-01-01

267

Reusable rocket engine turbopump health management system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A health monitoring expert system software architecture has been developed to support condition-based health monitoring of rocket engines. Its first application is in the diagnosis decisions relating to the health of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The post test diagnostic system runs off-line, using as input the data recorded from hundreds of sensors, each running typically at rates of 25, 50, or .1 Hz. The system is invoked after a test has been completed, and produces an analysis and an organized graphical presentation of the data with important effects highlighted. The overall expert system architecture has been developed and documented so that expert modules analyzing other line replaceable units may easily be added. The architecture emphasizes modularity, reusability, and open system interfaces so that it may be used to analyze other engines as well.

Surko, Pamela

1994-10-01

268

How Poverty Lost Its Meaning  

E-print Network

this gradually and only after his primary proposal for solving the problem of poverty had been put into effect, which was to educate the poor. Once they realized that the cause of their poverty was their own profligate reproduction, most 200 I-low POvERTY LOST...: An Overview A brief sketch of poverty’s history will throw its present form into sharper relief The fundamental question about poverty has always been who or what causes it. Western thinking on this question has oscillated between placing the responsibility...

Hanson, F. Allan

1997-01-01

269

The Internet in managed health care.  

PubMed

Blue Shield of California recognized it could realize business gains by implementing solutions that would streamline health care administration. It began looking for opportunities to apply the Internet to the core business and defining which of those services would benefit quickly from implementation. It selected Internet technology from Healtheon Corp., a Silicon Valley startup in Palo Alto, California. PMID:10177285

Kennedy, C

1998-01-01

270

Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and intermediate institutionalism. The regional interagency committee’s managerial routine needs to incorporate more democratic devices for connecting with educational institutions, devices that are more permeable to social demands relating to regional policy making. PMID:25210821

dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

2014-01-01

271

Supplier Relationship Management in Health Care: A Case Study in the Context of Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplier Relationship Management (SRM) plays an important role in the reduction of costs and the optimization of performance in industrial enterprises. Despite enormous investments in innovation, the health care sector has not experienced fundamental change yet. However, increased market dynamics and the implementation of economic principles will force health service providers to optimize cost structures as well as effectiveness and

T. Mettler; P. Rohner

2009-01-01

272

An Intelligent Content Discovery Technique for Health Portal Content Management  

PubMed Central

Background Continuous content management of health information portals is a feature vital for its sustainability and widespread acceptance. Knowledge and experience of a domain expert is essential for content management in the health domain. The rate of generation of online health resources is exponential and thereby manual examination for relevance to a specific topic and audience is a formidable challenge for domain experts. Intelligent content discovery for effective content management is a less researched topic. An existing expert-endorsed content repository can provide the necessary leverage to automatically identify relevant resources and evaluate qualitative metrics. Objective This paper reports on the design research towards an intelligent technique for automated content discovery and ranking for health information portals. The proposed technique aims to improve efficiency of the current mostly manual process of portal content management by utilising an existing expert-endorsed content repository as a supporting base and a benchmark to evaluate the suitability of new content Methods A model for content management was established based on a field study of potential users. The proposed technique is integral to this content management model and executes in several phases (ie, query construction, content search, text analytics and fuzzy multi-criteria ranking). The construction of multi-dimensional search queries with input from Wordnet, the use of multi-word and single-word terms as representative semantics for text analytics and the use of fuzzy multi-criteria ranking for subjective evaluation of quality metrics are original contributions reported in this paper. Results The feasibility of the proposed technique was examined with experiments conducted on an actual health information portal, the BCKOnline portal. Both intermediary and final results generated by the technique are presented in the paper and these help to establish benefits of the technique and its contribution towards effective content management. Conclusions The prevalence of large numbers of online health resources is a key obstacle for domain experts involved in content management of health information portals and websites. The proposed technique has proven successful at search and identification of resources and the measurement of their relevance. It can be used to support the domain expert in content management and thereby ensure the health portal is up-to-date and current. PMID:25654440

2014-01-01

273

Health improvement through dietary management of type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Diabetes is found to be one of the fastest growing chronic diseases with a high incidence among older people, and in residential care homes the prevalence of diabetes can be as high as 25% percent. A range of complications can develop following the onset of the disease. The prevention of these complications is in line with the emphasis that is being placed on health promotion and the prevention of ill health in current health strategies. This article will discuss a district nurse's approach to health improvement through dietary management of diabetes for elderly residents with type 2 diabetes living in a care home. The PRECEDE-PROCEED health promotion model chosen to assess the learning needs of the residents and to structure the implementation and evaluation of the health promotion project was good guidance and will form the structure for this article. PMID:18856019

De Kleijn, Antoinette

2008-08-01

274

Managing Converging Technologies Requires System Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Technology Companies often struggle with the effective integration of systems and processes and effective convergence of diverse technologies. By utilizing a management model which is analogous to the functioning of an organism at cellular and tissue level, diverse organizational processes, technologies and system functions can be integrated successfully. For a human body the following holds: All cells, processes and

D. H. Winzker; L. Pretorius

2007-01-01

275

Pharmacy Management and Health Economics Outcomes  

PubMed Central

The following summaries highlight some of the key posters presented at the 26th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP), April 1–4, 2014, in Tampa, FL, focusing on areas of interest for payers, employers, drug manufacturers, providers, and other healthcare stakeholders. PMID:25126375

O'Rourke, Kate

2014-01-01

276

HIV, poverty and women.  

PubMed

This review examines the interactions of financial status and HIV and its implications for women. MEDLINE and Google scholar were searched using the keywords 'women', 'poverty' and 'HIV' in any field of the article. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years. The first section of the article tries to establish whether poverty or wealth is a risk factor for HIV. There is credible evidence for both arguments. While wealth shows an increased risk for both sexes, poverty places women at a special disadvantage. The second section explains how the financial status interacts with other 'non biological' factors to put women at increased risk. While discrimination based on these factors disadvantage women, there are some paradoxical observations that do not fit with the traditional line of explanation (e.g. paradoxical impact of wealth and education on HIV). The final section assesses the impact of HIV in driving poverty and the role of women in interventional programmes. The specific impact of poverty on females in families living with HIV is less explored. Though microfinance initiatives to empower women are a good idea in theory, the actual outcome of such a programme is less convincing. PMID:24037044

Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

2010-03-01

277

Windows on Urban Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The spatial dimension and geographic variation of poverty has been the subject of great scholarly debate among policy-makers and academics for numerous decades. Some have commented that dense concentrations of underclass persons create a "culture of poverty," while others lay the blame on architects, urban planners, and a host of others. This engaging and useful site is a product of the Bruton Center at the University of Texas at Dallas under the direction of Professor Paul Jargowsky. The Windows on Urban Poverty project Web site contains a research paper on the changes in the concentration of poverty between 1990 and 2000 (also released as a publication through the Brookings Institution) and a mapping tool that lets visitors view the relative concentrations of poverty in cities around the United States. There is a small section that introduces users to the process of using the mapping tool, which will be quite helpful to those unfamiliar with utilizing maps in this fashion (Users should note that the interactive mapping tool on the site is only supported by Internet Explorer).

Jargowsky, Paul A.

278

Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poverty is not properly described solely in terms of economics. Certainly the billion people living on less than a dollar a day are the extreme poor and the two billion people who are living today on two dollars a day or less are poor also. One third of all humans live in poverty today. But poverty concerns deprivation - of good health, adequate nutrition, adequate education, properly paid employment, clean water, adequate housing and good sanitation. It is a fundamental denial of opportunity and a violation of basic human rights. Despite its prevalence and persistence of poverty and the attention given it by many scholars, the causes of poverty are not well understood and hence interventions to bring poor societies out of their condition often fail. One commonly missed component in the search for solutions to poverty is the fundamental co-dependence between the state of the Earth and the state of human well-being. These relationships, are compelling but often indirect and non-linear and sometimes deeply nuanced. They are also largely empirical in nature, lacking theory or models that describe the nature of the relationships. So while it is quite apparent that the poorest people are much more vulnerable than the rich to the Earths excesses and even to relatively small natural variations in places where the base conditions are poor, we do not presently know whether the recognized vulnerability is both an outcome of poverty and a contributing cause. Are societies poor, or held from development out of poverty because of their particular relationship to Earth's natural systems? Does how we live depend on where we live? Providing answers to these questions is one of the most fundamental research challenges of our time. That research lies in a domain squarely at the boundary between the natural and social sciences and cannot be answered by studies in either domain alone. What is clear even now, is that an understanding of the Earth gained from the natural sciences is essential and could hold the key to making gains toward alleviating the burden of global poverty.

Mutter, J. C.

2004-12-01

279

Evaluation of computerized health management information system for primary health care in rural India  

PubMed Central

Background The Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Ballabgarh, run by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi has a computerized Health Management Information System (HMIS) since 1988. The HMIS at Ballabgarh has undergone evolution and is currently in its third version which uses generic and open source software. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerized Health Management Information System in rural health system in India. Methods The data for evaluation were collected by in-depth interviews of the stakeholders i.e. program managers (authors) and health workers. Health Workers from AIIMS and Non-AIIMS Primary Health Centers were interviewed to compare the manual with computerized HMIS. A cost comparison between the two methods was carried out based on market costs. The resource utilization for both manual and computerized HMIS was identified based on workers' interviews. Results There have been no major hardware problems in use of computerized HMIS. More than 95% of data was found to be accurate. Health workers acknowledge the usefulness of HMIS in service delivery, data storage, generation of workplans and reports. For program managers, it provides a better tool for monitoring and supervision and data management. The initial cost incurred in computerization of two Primary Health Centers was estimated to be Indian National Rupee (INR) 1674,217 (USD 35,622). Equivalent annual incremental cost of capital items was estimated as INR 198,017 (USD 4213). The annual savings is around INR 894,283 (USD 11,924). Conclusion The major advantage of computerization has been in saving of time of health workers in record keeping and report generation. The initial capital costs of computerization can be recovered within two years of implementation if the system is fully operational. Computerization has enabled implementation of a good system for service delivery, monitoring and supervision. PMID:21078203

2010-01-01

280

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Toolkit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A framework of software components has been implemented to facilitate the development of ISHM systems according to a methodology based on Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). This framework is collectively referred to as the Toolkit and was developed using General Atomics' Health MAP (TM) technology. The toolkit is intended to provide assistance to software developers of mission-critical system health monitoring applications in the specification, implementation, configuration, and deployment of such applications. In addition to software tools designed to facilitate these objectives, the toolkit also provides direction to software developers in accordance with an ISHM specification and development methodology. The development tools are based on an RCM approach for the development of ISHM systems. This approach focuses on defining, detecting, and predicting the likelihood of system functional failures and their undesirable consequences.

Venkatesh, Meera; Kapadia, Ravi; Walker, Mark; Wilkins, Kim

2013-01-01

281

Poverty Persistence and Design of Anti-poverty Policies 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

by economists. 3 Conspicuous by its absence is a coherent analysis of what causes poverty in the rst place, its implications for the functioning of the economy and the persistence of poverty into the future. The key questions seem to never be posed. What are the mechanisms by which people get trapped into chronic, long term poverty? What kinds of

Dilip Mookherjee

282

Health management and controls for earth to orbit propulsion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault detection and isolation for advanced rocket engine controllers are discussed focusing on advanced sensing systems and software which significantly improve component failure detection for engine safety and health management. Aerojet's Space Transportation Main Engine controller for the National Launch System is the state of the art in fault tolerant engine avionics. Health management systems provide high levels of automated fault coverage and significantly improve vehicle delivered reliability and lower preflight operations costs. Key technologies, including the sensor data validation algorithms and flight capable spectrometers, have been demonstrated in ground applications and are found to be suitable for bridging programs into flight applications.

Bickford, R. L.

1992-08-01

283

Transforming information: data management support of health care reorganization.  

PubMed Central

Health care delivery systems and organizations around the world are undergoing reorganization and reengineering. Rational decision making about such activities must be based on information. Much of the presently available data is inadequate for this task, and therefore needs to be transformed. One such experience in the province of Alberta, Canada, is discussed. The development of a comprehensive information strategy, the need to apply information management principles, the organizational implications of information management, and a conceptual model for achieving added value from health data are described. PMID:7614115

Hannah, K J

1995-01-01

284

Chronic Poverty Research Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC) is an international organization made up of partnerships with universities and research organizations all working to "stimulate national and international debate; deepen understanding of the causes of chronic poverty; and provide research, analysis and policy guidance." The CPRC's website has more than 400 publications that visitors can download. There are "Working Papers Series" for India, Bangladesh and West Africa, which address everything from child laborers, spatial inequality in social progress, and technological change in food production. There are also "Policy Briefs" and "Journal Articles" visitors can download. The "Toolbox" is an excellent and unique resource for researchers, donor agencies, and students to learn how to use a mix of methodological approaches to better reflect the multi-dimensionality and complexity of poverty. Visitors will find such areas of guidance as "Designing Research," "Collecting Data," "Dissemination," and "Impact Assessment" that can aid in producing relevant and rigorous research.

285

Engineers Against Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engineers Against Poverty (EAP) is a non-governmental organization that works in the field of engineering and international development. EAP works to harness members' combined skills to alleviate poverty throughout the world and work on the challenges involved with sustainable development along the way. The materials on the site are divided into five sections, including Major Initiatives, Key Issues, Publications, and EAP's Programme. A good place to start is the Major Initiatives area. Here users can learn about some of the key issues and challenges in the domain of engineering, poverty reduction, and more. The EAP's Programme area has information and working papers on the organization's work in transforming extractive industries and infrastructure projects. Finally, the Publications area contains works like "Employment Intensive Road Construction" and "Climate Compatible Development in the Infrastructure Sector Overview."

2009-01-01

286

Global Poverty Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to this report stemming from the July 2000 Okinawa Summit, 1.2 billion people are estimated to live on less than $1 per day, and nearly 3 billion people, worldwide, live on less than $2 a day. This 23-page report examines the roles which the World Bank, IMF, and Multilateral Development Banks play "at the country level, where they provide policy advice, and financial and technical support for long-term country-driven programs, as well as support to deal with shocks." The first chapter of the report considers global poverty issues and trends, while the second chapter looks at poverty on a regional scale. Finally, the third chapter reports on possible ways these organizations can work together to combat poverty.

287

Embedding Health Management into Mission Tasking for UAV Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coordinated multi-vehicle autonomous systems can provide incredible functionality, but off-nominal conditions and degraded system components can render this capability ineffective. This paper presents techniques to improve mission-level functional reliability through better system self-awareness and adaptive mission planning. In particular, we extend the traditional definition of health management, which has historically referred to the process of actively monitoring and managing vehicle

Mario Valenti; Brett Bethke; Daniela Pucci de Farias; John Vian

2007-01-01

288

The effect of integrated health management model on the health of older adults with diabetes in a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrated health management model on the health of older adults with diabetes. The 100 older adults with diabetes who gave informed consent were randomly allocated 1:1 into management and control groups. The integrated health management model was applied in the former while the latter was only given usual care. This model included the following components: health record establishment, health evaluation and health management (such as: diet advice, psychological aspects of health, education/skills training on health self-management, regular blood glucose monitoring, long-term diabetes drug monitoring, etc.). After 18 months, differences in three categories of variables (subjective grading items, objective measurement health indices and health service utilization) between the two groups before and after the intervention were assessed with t-test, ?(2)-test and mixed model analysis. The management group demonstrated improvement on the following variables: health knowledge score, self-evaluated psychological conditions, overall self-evaluated health conditions, diet score, physical activity duration per week, regular blood sugar monitoring, waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, the days of hospital admissions in the preceding 6 months. Mixed model analysis showed that gender, age, self-evaluated health status, self-evaluated psychological status, education level and resident status were important factors affecting health indices. This study demonstrated that integrated health management model was effectiveness in improving the health of older adults with diabetes. PMID:25456892

Chao, Jianqian; Yang, Liang; Xu, Hui; Yu, Qing; Jiang, Lili; Zong, Mengmeng

2015-01-01

289

Petroleum and Health Care: Evaluating and Managing Health Care's Vulnerability to Petroleum Supply Shifts  

PubMed Central

Petroleum is used widely in health care—primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies—and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473

Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

2011-01-01

290

Evaluating the impact of the Management Academy for Public Health: developing entrepreneurial managers and organizations.  

PubMed

The Management Academy for Public Health is a management development program with the goals of helping public health managers learn to manage people, data, and finance, to think and plan like entrepreneurs, and to strengthen public health organizations. Managers enroll as teams and develop business plans in the Academy's extensive project-based learning component. Extensive internal and external evaluation shows that the program improves managers' knowledge, skills, and confidence in key curriculum areas; that participants apply many of the skills in their jobs; that many of the business plans receive funding, resulting in new public health programs; that the training experience helped agencies respond and plan after September 11, 2001; and that many participants report beginning to think more like entrepreneurs through activities like teaming, partnering, innovating, negotiating, finding funds, and generating revenue. The program demonstrates that robust training including extensive work-based project work with coaching can help public health managers gain many skills needed for the drive to "reinvent" government. PMID:16912605

Umble, Karl E; Orton, Stephen; Rosen, Benson; Ottoson, Judith

2006-01-01

291

Forests and Poverty Reduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Close to 1.6 billion people - more than 25% of the world's population - rely on forest resources for their livelihoods and most of them (1.2 billion) use trees on farms to generate food and cash." Despite these figures, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations explains that data on these vital forest resources is "sketchy or not available." On the left hand side of the page visitors will find several interesting links including the FAO website which addresses the topic of forests and poverty reduction, the FAO forestry site which includes recent events and news topics, "Publications", information on "Workshops", and "Forestry and Poverty Reduction Strategies".

292

Continuity in health care: lessons from supply chain management.  

PubMed

In health care, multidisciplinary collaboration is both indispensable and complicated. We discuss organizational problems that occur in situations where multiple health care providers are required to cooperate for patients with complex needs. Four problem categories, labelled as communication, patient safety, waiting times and integration are distinguished. Then we develop a supply chain perspective on these problems in the sense of discussing remedies according to supply chain management (SCM) literature. This perspective implies a business focus on inter-organizational conditions and requirements necessary for delivering health care and cure across organizational borders. We conclude by presenting some strategic and policy recommendations. PMID:21069770

Meijboom, Bert R; Bakx, Saskia J W G C; Westert, Gert P

2010-01-01

293

School Health Connection Goes Electronic: Developing a Health Information Management System for New Orleans' School-Based Health Centers. Program Results Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From February 2008 through April 2011, School Health Connection, a program of the Louisiana Public Health Institute, developed an electronic health information management system for newly established school-based health centers in Greater New Orleans. School Health Connection was established as part of a broader effort to restore community health

Rastorfer, Darl

2011-01-01

294

MSc/PgDip Global Health and Management Student Information booklet  

E-print Network

MSc/PgDip Global Health and Management Student Information booklet Work based placements Providing opportunities for MSc Global Health & Management students to engage with organisations to undertake meaningful projects www.abdn.ac.uk/msc/global-health #12;Contents About the MSc Global Health & Management Programme 3

Levi, Ran

295

Technology Helps Increase Poverty Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of developing curricular initiatives that educate students on the major facts and issues associated with poverty in America. Provides key poverty statistics and highlights useful Internet resources that offer resource lists, success stories, relevant press releases, and curriculum guides. For example, the PovertyUSA Web…

Samaras, Anastasia P.

2002-01-01

296

Does Drug Use Cause Poverty?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, I examine the effect of drug use on poverty. The main objective of the paper is to provide descriptive empirical information about the relationship between drug use and poverty, and to explore, in a preliminary fashion, the question of whether drug use causes poverty. Toward this end, I present the results of both descriptive and multivariate analyses

Robert Kaestner

1998-01-01

297

CHAPTER 13: ENERGY AND POVERTY  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 13: ENERGY AND POVERTY This chapter analyses the relationship between energy use and poverty in developing countries. It describes current patterns of energy use, including rates and to make electricity more affordable for poor people. Chapter 13 - Energy and Poverty HIGHLIGHTS · Some 1

Kammen, Daniel M.

298

World Bank PovertyNet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PovertyNet, an important resource center for researchers and activists working to understand and alleviate poverty, contains several other, though more general, topic sections; a library of research papers and reports; occasional special features; datasets; a newsletter; and a Web Guide on Poverty.

299

Informal Export Barriers and Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porto investigates the poverty impacts of informal export barriers like transport costs, cumbersome customs practices, costly regulations, and bribes. He models these informal barriers as export taxes that distort the efficient allocation of resources. In low-income agricultural economies, this distortion lowers wages and household agricultural income, thereby leading to higher poverty. The author investigates the poverty impacts of improving export

Guido G. Porto

2004-01-01

300

[Decision-making process and health management councils: theoretical approaches].  

PubMed

With the institutionalization of participation in health, through conferences and management councils at national, state, municipal and local levels, a process of democratization is initiated in the health area. However, in relation to the health councils in particular, there is still much to be done, including improving the quality of the decision-making process. This work aims to place the decision-making process in its theoretical context in terms of participatory democracy, elements which make up, factors which influence its development, and finally, to explore some possibilities of this theoretical basis to analyze the practices of the health councils in the area of health. It is hoped that it will make a theoretical contribution to the analyses carried out in this area, in order to provide a decision-making process that is more inclusive in terms of participation. PMID:18041561

Wendhausen, Agueda; Cardoso, Sandra de Mello

2007-01-01

301

Creating the Management Academy for Public Health: relationships are primary.  

PubMed

True collaboration among large federal agencies is rare, as is that among large and influential national foundations. The collaboration between two major government health agencies (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Health Resources and Services Administration) and three major health foundations (the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the CDC Foundation) to create the Management Academy for Public Health is unprecedented in public health over the past quarter century. We attribute this success to the unique combination of a strong foundation of relationships between the partners and a commitment to generative dialogue throughout the design and implementation of the program. The success and sustainability of the Academy derive directly from these critical success factors, serving as an exemplary model for future collaborative endeavors. PMID:16912603

Baker, Edward L; Fox, Claude Earl; Hassmiller, Susan B; Sabol, Barbara J; Stokes, C Charles

2006-01-01

302

IMPROVING METHODS FOR MANAGING HEALTH AND EXPOSURE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The project in Colorado is evaluating the use of GIS as a tool for studying the potential impacts of exposure to DBPs from different disinfection treatments on reproductive health in populations in Colorado. GIS is a data management and visualization tool that is assisting in stu...

303

Concepts for integrated electronic health records management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer systems and communication technologies are making a strong and influential presence in the different fields of medicine. The cornerstone of a functional medical information system represents the electronic health records management system. Due to a very sensitive nature of medical information, such systems are faced with a number of stringent requirements, like security and confidentiality of patients' related data,

Miroslav Kon

304

Leadership Succession Management in a University Health Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a succession planning pilot project in an Australian university health faculty. The programme aimed to enhance organisational stability and develop leadership capacity in middle level academics. Six monthly sessions addressed university and general leadership topics, communication, decision-making, working with change, self-management

McMurray, Anne M.; Henly, Debra; Chaboyer, Wendy; Clapton, Jayne; Lizzio, Alf; Teml, Martin

2012-01-01

305

Prognostic and health management for aircraft electrical power supply system  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the electrical power supply system analysis, a system of prognostic and health management (PHM) for the electrical power supply system is presented. The PHM system can accomplish the condition assessment of the key characteristics and device in the electrical power supply system without additional test equipment. The condition of rotating rectifier, contact resistance and so on can be

Haiyang Pan; Ensheng Dong; Yilin Jiang; Ping Zhang

2012-01-01

306

Phar 6232: Health System Pharmacy Management Meeting Time and Place  

E-print Network

Phar 6232: Health System Pharmacy Management Meeting Time and Place: Tuesdays 1325-1520 Moos 1 Christene Jolowsky, MS, RPh, FASHP Director of Pharmacy Executive Director, Applied and University of Minnesota Medical Center Experiential Education Pharmacy Services, Mayo Building C-265A University

Thomas, David D.

307

ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND MINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serious problems of contaminants and environment impacts produced by human action in the subsurface (air, groundwater and rock in interaction with human activities), particularly in underground mines, require an integrated approach in terms of specific rules, laws and management systems in the domain of Occupational Safety and Health. As the ISO 14001 standard is mostly directed for the prevention

Navarro Torres; Dinis Da Gama

308

Health Advisor An Online Game for Managing Healthcare Delivery  

E-print Network

Health Advisor An Online Game for Managing Healthcare Delivery Tennenbaum Institute Georgia Institute of Technology The healthcare system in the U.S. is clearly complex with many stakeholders changes are difficult to implement and evaluate. Healthcare innovations may succeed or fail based

309

Children with serious emotional disturbance: the impact of poverty and receipt of public assistance on behavior, functioning, and service use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the associations between poverty status, receipt of public assistance, service use, and children's mental health. Using a sample of children with serious emotional disturbances, findings from logistic regressions indicated that although no significant associations were found between poverty status and emotional or behavioral problems, families living below the poverty threshold were more likely to receive fewer

Phyllis Gyamfi

2004-01-01

310

Poverty and Household Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widely held view that larger families tend to be poorer in developing countries has influenced research and policy. The scope for size economies in consumption cautions against this view. We find that the correlation between poverty and size vanishes in Pakistan when the size elasticity of the cost of living is about 0-6. This turns out to be the

Peter Lanjouw; Martin Ravallion

1995-01-01

311

Trade, Growth, and Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:A key issue today is the effect of globalizationon inequality and poverty. We first identify a group of developing countries that are participating more in globalization. Since China, India, and several other large countries are part of this group, well over half of the population of the developing world lives in these globalizing economies. The post-1980 globalizers have seen large

D. Dollar; A. Kraay

1993-01-01

312

Poverty in School Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are acute poverty challenges for culturally disadvantaged school communities across the United States? How do practicing teacher-researchers, pursuing advanced degrees, view this issue and the 21st century skills and dispositions classroom teachers need to foster change? Curious about this topic from the viewpoints of teachers who are…

Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.

2013-01-01

313

Poverty. Opposing Viewpoints Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The varied opinions in each collection explore aspects of a social, cultural, or political issue. A great deal of money has been spent in this country to eradicate poverty, but the problem remains. Some…

Leone, Bruno, Ed.

314

Botswana: Poverty amid plenty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botswana has been one of the most rapidly growing economies in the world over the past three decades, and has avoided most of the economic problems faced by African countries. However, poverty continues to be a major economic and social issue. Data from national surveys carried out in 1985\\/86 and 1993\\/94 show that although there was a major reduction in

K. R. Jefferis; T. F. Kelly

1999-01-01

315

Poverty and Methamphetamine Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty and substance abuse increase the likelihood that individuals will engage in behaviors that transmit the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The author presents descriptive data from 75 women respondents with substance abuse histories from rural northern California. Respondents were mostly poor and white (75%), nearly half had less than a high school diploma, and a large majority were unemployed and

Laurie Wermuth

1999-01-01

316

Malnutrition and poverty alleviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present paper is to understand the relationship between malnutrition and poverty, and how to generate ideas and concepts for developing studies leading to policy and programme implementation in the context of establishing collaborating networks among South-East Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) centres. Malnutrition is found at all stages of life, from the fetus to older

Dwi Susilowati; Darwin Karyadi

2002-01-01

317

Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

Schwartz, Richard H.

1983-01-01

318

The politics of poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 The issue re-emerged in 2003, when the South African Human Rights Commission released a report critical of government's performance regarding socio-economic rights, following the publication of a number of studies which concluded that poverty levels in South Africa had remained constant or worsened since the advent of democracy. Opposition parties took up the refrain: 'Life is no better now

David Everatt

2005-01-01

319

Poverty in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to a quantitative analysis that involves univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis, this module reinforces research terms introduced in Intro to Sociology (independent, dependent and control variables and includes the opportunity to discuss sample vs. population (in the comparison of national poverty data vs. the poverty rate in the sample) and value vs. variable (poverty as a value and a variable and the recoding of the values in the household data). The module also uses the Census website to define the concept "poverty threshold" and look at trends in poverty.

Joan Spade, SUNY- Brockport

320

Application of the microcomputer to occupational health data management.  

PubMed

The use of the microcomputer offers a simple, inexpensive solution to the numerous problems associated with data management in an occupational health program. A system has been developed which uses commercially available data management software supplemented by optional programs tailored to the specific application. The system is capable of maintaining files of personal and area monitoring data, material toxicity and safety information, noise level data, audiograms, OSHA forms 101 and 200, and employee information relevant to the industrial hygienist's needs. The cost is less than $4000.00, which is well below that of most alternative systems. Its flexibility and economy should make this innovative use of the microcomputer an attractive method of occupational health data management. PMID:6687976

Rawls, G M; Dwiggins, G A; Feigley, C E

1983-04-01

321

Time and Money: A New Look at Poverty and the Barriers to Physical Activity in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between time, money, and regular participation in physical activities, especially at the intensities and durations required to improve one's health, is an important public health and social policy issue. The objective of this research is to develop a better understanding of the extent to which income poverty and time poverty act…

Spinney, Jamie; Millward, Hugh

2010-01-01

322

Impacts of Poverty on Quality of Life in Families of Children with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the impact of poverty on the quality of life in families of children with disabilities. A literature review found a variety of effects of poverty on the five dimensions of family, including health (e.g., hunger, limited health care access), productivity, physical environment, emotional well-being, and family interaction.…

Park, JiYeon; Turnbull, Ann P.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III

2002-01-01

323

A knowledge management tool for public health: health-evidence.ca  

PubMed Central

Background The ultimate goal of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) activities is to facilitate incorporation of research knowledge into program and policy development decision making. Evidence-informed decision making involves translation of the best available evidence from a systematically collected, appraised, and analyzed body of knowledge. Knowledge management (KM) is emerging as a key factor contributing to the realization of evidence-informed public health decision making. The goal of health-evidence.ca is to promote evidence-informed public health decision making through facilitation of decision maker access to, retrieval, and use of the best available synthesized research evidence evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Methods The systematic reviews that populate health evidence.ca are identified through an extensive search (1985-present) of 7 electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, BIOSIS, and SportDiscus; handsearching of over 20 journals; and reference list searches of all relevant reviews. Reviews are assessed for relevance and quality by two independent reviewers. Commonly-used public health terms are used to assign key words to each review, and project staff members compose short summaries highlighting results and implications for policy and practice. Results As of June 2010, there are 1913 reviews in the health-evidence.ca registry in 21 public health and health promotion topic areas. Of these, 78% have been assessed as being of strong or moderate methodological quality. Health-evidence.ca receives approximately 35,000 visits per year, 20,596 of which are unique visitors, representing approximately 100 visits per day. Just under half of all visitors return to the site, with the average user spending six minutes and visiting seven pages per visit. Public health nurses, program managers, health promotion workers, researchers, and program coordinators are among the largest groups of registered users, followed by librarians, dieticians, medical officers of health, and nutritionists. The majority of users (67%) access the website from direct traffic (e.g., have the health-evidence.ca webpage bookmarked, or type it directly into their browser). Conclusions Consistent use of health-evidence.ca and particularly the searching for reviews that correspond with current public health priorities illustrates that health-evidence.ca may be playing an important role in achieving evidence-informed public health decision making. PMID:20718970

2010-01-01

324

Reverse quality management: developing evidence-based best practices in health emergency management.  

PubMed

The British Columbia Ministry of Health's Framework for Core Functions in Public Health was the catalyst that inspired this review of best practices in health emergency management. The fieldwork was conducted in the fall of 2005 between hurricane Katrina and the South Asia earthquake. These tragedies, shown on 24/7 television news channels, provided an eyewitness account of disaster management, or lack of it, in our global village world. It is not enough to just have best practices in place. There has to be a governance structure that can be held accountable. This review of best practices lists actions in support of an emergency preparedness culture at the management, executive, and corporate/governance levels of the organization. The methodology adopted a future quality management approach of the emergency management process to identify the corresponding performance indictors that correlated with practices or sets of practices. Identifying best practice performance indictors needed to conduct a future quality management audit is described as reverse quality management. Best practices cannot be assessed as stand-alone criteria; they are influenced by organizational culture. The defining of best practices was influenced by doubt about defining a practice it is hoped will never be performed, medical staff involvement, leadership, and an appreciation of the resources required and how they need to be managed. Best practice benchmarks are seen as being related more to "measures" of performance defined locally and agreed on by 2 or more parties rather than to achieving industrial standards. Relating practices to performance indicators and then to benchmarks resulted in the development of a Health Emergency Management Best Practices Matrix that lists specific practice in the different phases of emergency management. PMID:16622359

Lynch, Tim; Cox, Paul

2006-01-01

325

Case-Mix Adjustment of Consumer Reports about Managed Behavioral Health Care and Health Plans  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop a model for adjusting patients' reports of behavioral health care experiences on the Experience of Care and Health Outcomes (ECHO™) survey to allow for fair comparisons across health plans. Data Source Survey responses from 4,068 individuals enrolled in 21 managed behavioral health plans who received behavioral health care within the previous year (response rate=48 percent). Study Design Potential case-mix adjustors were evaluated by combining information about their predictive power and the amount of within- and between-plan variability. Changes in plan scores and rankings due to case-mix adjustment were quantified. Principal Findings The final case-mix adjustment model included self-reported mental health status, self-reported general health status, alcohol/drug treatment, age, education, and race/ethnicity. The impact of adjustment on plan report scores was modest, but large enough to change some plan rankings. Conclusions Adjusting plan report scores on the ECHO survey for differences in patient characteristics had modest effects, but still may be important to maintain the credibility of patient reports as a quality metric. Differences between those with self-reported fair/poor health compared with those in excellent/very good health varied by plan, suggesting quality differences associated with health status and underscoring the importance of collecting quality information. PMID:18783456

Eselius, Laura L; Cleary, Paul D; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Huskamp, Haiden A; Busch, Susan H

2008-01-01

326

Managing human resources in a changing health-care environment.  

PubMed

Managing human resources in this era of precipitous change poses one of the most difficult challenges and opportunities for leaders in the clinical laboratory. Shifts in health systems integration, cost control, patient-focused managed care, and provider changes have led to trends which fundamentally alter the way in which clinical laboratory services are organized, provided, and funded. To be successful change agents, laboratory managers must understand the cycle of human resource development and how people adopt change. They must embrace a systems thinking perspective and develop strategic leadership skills to share a vision of what the laboratory of the future will be. These new, advanced human resource management skills can be acquired through a variety of formal and informal learning experience. PMID:10175168

Snyder, J R; Best, M

1997-01-01

327

Health crises and media relations: relationship management-by-fire.  

PubMed

Media relations is an important function in the operation of any health organization, yet it is often relegated as a simple task function. Such an orientation can be problematic, particularly in times of crisis. This article provides an overview of some of the inherent internal conflicts within health organizations that may mitigate against the best media relations practices in times of crises. The article surveys some of the predominant theoretical models used for crisis management, and suggests directions for the further development of media relations and crisis communication theory and practice. PMID:19042529

Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver-Lariscy, Ruthann

2007-01-01

328

Low level communication management for e-health systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneity of e-health systems encourages the use of standards such as Health Level 7 (HL7v3) to ensure interoperability. Many actual implementations address this problem by unoptimized high level programming of top-range portable computing platforms. However, this approach could pose excessive demands on battery-powered mid-range terminals. In this work, we propose low-level support for portable HL7v3-compatible embedded systems in order to better exploit their limited processing and communications capabilities. In particular, we present our experience in mobile communication management through two different approaches, which proves the feasibility of this proposal.

Riva, Guillermo; Zerbini, Carlos; Voos, Javier; Centeno, Carlos; González, Eduardo

2011-12-01

329

Medication management and practices in prison for people with mental health problems: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Common mental health problems are prevalent in prison and the quality of prison health care provision for prisoners with mental health problems has been a focus of critical scrutiny. Currently, health policy aims to align and integrate prison health services and practices with those of the National Health Service (NHS). Medication management is a key aspect of treatment for

Robert A Bowen; Anne Rogers; Jennifer Shaw

2009-01-01

330

An Agile Enterprise Regulation Architecture for Health Information Security Management  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information security management for healthcare enterprises is complex as well as mission critical. Information technology requests from clinical users are of such urgency that the information office should do its best to achieve as many user requests as possible at a high service level using swift security policies. This research proposes the Agile Enterprise Regulation Architecture (AERA) of information security management for healthcare enterprises to implement as part of the electronic health record process. Survey outcomes and evidential experiences from a sample of medical center users proved that AERA encourages the information officials and enterprise administrators to overcome the challenges faced within an electronically equipped hospital. PMID:20815748

Chen, Ying-Pei; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Chien, Tsan-Nan; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Luh, Jer-Junn; Lai, Jin-Shin; Lai, Feipei; Chen, Sao-Jie

2010-01-01

331

An agile enterprise regulation architecture for health information security management.  

PubMed

Information security management for healthcare enterprises is complex as well as mission critical. Information technology requests from clinical users are of such urgency that the information office should do its best to achieve as many user requests as possible at a high service level using swift security policies. This research proposes the Agile Enterprise Regulation Architecture (AERA) of information security management for healthcare enterprises to implement as part of the electronic health record process. Survey outcomes and evidential experiences from a sample of medical center users proved that AERA encourages the information officials and enterprise administrators to overcome the challenges faced within an electronically equipped hospital. PMID:20815748

Chen, Ying-Pei; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Chien, Tsan-Nan; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Luh, Jer-Junn; Lai, Jin-Shin; Lai, Feipei; Chen, Sao-Jie

2010-09-01

332

Confronting Suburban Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Brookings Institution doesn't shy away from the tough topics, in fact, they often embrace them. This recent book by two of their distinguished scholars, Elizabeth Kneebone and Alan Berube, looks at the growing problem of suburban poverty. As they note, "suburbia is now home to more poor residents than central cities." This site, created to promote the book, has great resources for policy analysts, scholars, journalists, and the interested public. The accompanying blog is a great way for visitors to read thoughtful commentaries on the metropolitan geography of low wage work or an anti-poverty policy that works for working families. The Communities section is another great feature, providing background information on the seven areas profiled in the book, including south Cook County, Illinois and Tukwila outside of Seattle.

2014-01-01

333

Study Protocol for the Fukushima Health Management Survey  

PubMed Central

Background The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. Conclusions The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long-term large-scale epidemiologic study is expected to provide valuable data in the investigation of the health effects of low-dose radiation and disaster-related stress. PMID:22955043

Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

2012-01-01

334

Hispanic Poverty and Inequality Grant Competition Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality  

E-print Network

Hispanic Poverty and Inequality Grant Competition Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality Request for Proposals The Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality (CPI), a National Poverty Research Center funded by the Office

Li, Fei-Fei

335

Poverty Reduction Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A German Technical Cooperation (GTZ: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit) initiative, the Poverty Reduction Project aims to bring the needs of poor people to the forefront of economic development agendas worldwide through an Internet forum. The site describes current projects with financial intermediaries in El Salvador and food security in China and is home to a library of full-text papers, project reports, and country profiles (in German and English).

336

Investigating Children in Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, created by Kathy Rowell of Sinclair Community College, provides an activity were students will attempt to explain how each of the following variables is related to child poverty within the United States: race, age, family type, family size, and immigrant status. The resource is a solid lesson plan for a statistics classroom. It focuses on many things such as hypotheses testing, distribution theory, independent and dependent variables.

Rowell, Kathy

337

Environment, poverty and health linkages in the Wami River basin: A search for sustainable water resource management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wami Rivers basin is an important area due to its diversified use which benefits a multi-diversity of stakeholders. While large scale irrigated sugar production is the main issue of concern upstream, there are other equally important socio-economic activities which include biodiversity and environmental conservation, domestic water supply, livestock water needs, and fishing. A large water supply project has just

Ndalahwa F. Madulu

2005-01-01

338

Submitted to the International Journal of Health Planning and Management, June 2011 Mental Health in France, Policies and Actors  

E-print Network

1 Submitted to the International Journal of Health Planning and Management, June 2011 Mental Health) ; Nicolas Daumerie (CCOMS, Lille) ; Jean-Luc Roelandt (CCOMS, Lille) SUMMARY : The new mental health care the 2000s: the emphasis is shifting from psychiatry to mental health care. This shift focuses mainly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

339

Health care waste management in Cameroon: A case study from the Southwestern Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthcare waste streams are persistent waste streams and which are consistently increasing in volume and complexity in developed and developing countries. When poorly managed, through inappropriate health care waste management systems, they can cause adverse effects to human health and the environment.This paper presents an evaluation of health care waste management systems in Cameroon, based on a survey of five

Veronica E. Manga; Osric Tening Forton; Linus A. Mofor; Ryan Woodard

2011-01-01

340

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : A METHOD FOR RANKING IMPACTS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM  

E-print Network

99-57 HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : A METHOD FOR RANKING IMPACTS IN SMALL : safety management System, ranking, health, safety, environment ABSTRACT ELF ATOCHEM and INERIS have worked together on a management System conceming at the same time health, safety and environment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

341

Opportunities for Launch Site Integrated System Health Engineering and Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launch site processing flow involves operations such as functional verification, preflight servicing and launch. These operations often include hazards that must be controlled to protect human life and critical space hardware assets. Existing command and control capabilities are limited to simple limit checking durig automated monitoring. Contingency actions are highly dependent on human recognition, decision making, and execution. Many opportunities for Integrated System Health Engineering and Management (ISHEM) exist throughout the processing flow. This paper will present the current human-centered approach to health management as performed today for the shuttle and space station programs. In addition, it will address some of the more critical ISHEM needs, and provide recommendations for future implementation of ISHEM at the launch site.

Waterman, Robert D.; Langwost, Patricia E.; Waterman, Susan J.

2005-01-01

342

RLV vehicle health management system modeling and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, is leading the development and integration of the Vehicle Health Management (VHM) system for Lockheed Martin's VentureStar Reusable Launch Vehicle. The primary objective of this effort is to provide an automated health status and decision-making system for the vehicle. A detailed simulation of the VHM system on RLV is currently being developed using the Foresight Design and Modeling Tool. The simulation will consists of models of key components of the RLV VHM system. An effective detailed system simulation will allow for system and design engineering, as well as program management teams, to accurately and efficiently system designs, analyze the behavior of current systems, and predict the feasibility of making smooth and cost-efficient transitions form older technologies to newer ones. This methodology will reduce program costs, decrease total program life-cycle time, and ultimately increase mission success.

Wangu, Srimal

1999-02-01

343

Chronic Poverty in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method of measuring chronic and transitory poverty using an axiomatically sound, additively decomposable index of aggregate poverty. Our approach is contrasted with alternative methods of measuring poverty persistence. We use our method to measure chronic and transitory poverty in the United States during the 1980s and late 1970s and find that chronic poverty is a more

Joan R. Rodgers; John L. Rodgers

1993-01-01

344

IVHM Framework for Intelligent Integration for Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, this framework integrates technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear that IIVM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives. These systems include the following: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle Mission Planning, Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations.

Paris, Deidre; Trevino, Luis C.; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

345

Attitudes toward Poverty of Upper Midwestern Baccalaureate Nursing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poverty is widespread and its consequence of poorer health increases the likelihood that nurses will provide care for poor clients and their families in many health care settings. Although the importance of understanding attitudes toward the poor is recognized, there have been few studies of attitudes of nursing students. The purpose of this…

Randall, Rebecca

2009-01-01

346

Racism, Poverty and HIV\\/AIDS Among African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Substantive evidence links racism and poverty to a host of chronic health ­conditions, adverse mental health outcomes and\\u000a excess mortality, particularly among African Americans (Brondolo, ver Halen, Pencille, Beatty, & Contrada, 2009; Harrell, Hall, & Taliaferro, 2003; Jones, 2000, 2003; Krieger, 2000, 2005; Krieger, Rowley, Hermann, Avery, & Phillips, 1993; Kwate, Valdimarsdottir, Guevarra, & Vovbjerg, 2003; Mays, Cochran, & Barnes,

Kim M. Williams; Cynthia M. Prather

347

Role of Ayurveda in management of oral health  

PubMed Central

Oral diseases continue to be a major health problem world-wide. Oral health is integral to general well-being and relates to the quality-of-life that extends beyond the functions of the craniofacial complex. The standard Western medicine has had only limited success in the prevention of periodontal disease and in the treatment of a variety of oral diseases. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional medicine are considered to be good alternatives to synthetic chemicals. The botanicals in the Ayurvedic material medica have been proven to be safe and effective, through several hundred to several thousand years of use. The exploration of botanicals used in traditional medicine may lead to the development of novel preventive or therapeutic strategies for oral health. The present scientific evidence based review is focused on the possible role of Ayurveda in the management of various orofacial disorders. PMID:24600192

Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Hongal, Sudhir; Goel, Pankaj; Chandrashekar, B. R.

2014-01-01

348

Examining the Role of Anxiety and Apathy in Health Consumers' Intentions to Use Patient Health Portals for Personal Health Information Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated college students' attitudes toward and intentions to use personal health portals (PHPs) for managing their personal health information using a survey method. The study also aimed to examine the roles electronic Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) anxiety and apathy play in influencing students' attitudes toward…

Torres, Carlos A.

2011-01-01

349

Montserrat. Managing health care in a volcanic crisis.  

PubMed

The volcano on Montserrat, after being dormant for over 400 years, has been active for the past two years, last erupting on 27 June, 1997. With the capital, Plymouth, in the unsafe zone, major dislocation of people, facilities and services has occurred. The Health Department is splintered over five sites across an eight mile span and the temporary 30 bed hospital, sited at a primary school, is separated from its Casualty and Out-patient Department and Operating Theatre by 0.25 mile. In order to maintain continuity of care for communities, efforts have been made to keep evacuated clients and their community health workers as close together as possible. The mass emigration has depleted the health services, creating severe stress for those remaining. Elderly relatives have frequently been left behind, necessitating the establishment of special geriatric care facilities to cater to their needs. Increased and continuous health surveillance and mass media education have been integral to the prevention of major disease outbreak--particularly with added challenges to food safety, and management of liquid and solid waste disposal. Cooperation from neighbouring states, particularly Antigua, Barbados and Guadeloupe, as well as from the United Kingdom, has been critical in the management of the continuing crisis. PMID:10368618

Cooper, R; Tuitt, J

1998-12-01

350

Emergency planning and management in health care: priority research topics  

PubMed Central

Many major incidents have significant impacts on people's health, placing additional demands on health-care organisations. The main aim of this paper is to suggest a prioritised agenda for organisational and management research on emergency planning and management relevant to U.K. health care, based on a scoping study. A secondary aim is to enhance knowledge and understanding of health-care emergency planning among the wider research community, by highlighting key issues and perspectives on the subject and presenting a conceptual model. The study findings have much in common with those of previous U.S.-focused scoping reviews, and with a recent U.K.-based review, confirming the relative paucity of U.K.-based research. No individual research topic scored highly on all of the key measures identified, with communities and organisations appearing to differ about which topics are the most important. Four broad research priorities are suggested: the affected public; inter- and intra-organisational collaboration; preparing responders and their organisations; and prioritisation and decision making. PMID:25013721

Boyd, Alan; Chambers, Naomi; French, Simon; Shaw, Duncan; King, Russell; Whitehead, Alison

2014-01-01

351

ELEMENTARY LEVEL -LESSON PLAN AND ACTIVITIES A New Face on Poverty--Lesson Plan on Poverty  

E-print Network

POVERTY ELEMENTARY LEVEL - LESSON PLAN AND ACTIVITIES A New Face on Poverty--Lesson Plan on Poverty Handout/worksheet G1: Effects of Poverty Handout/worksheet G2: Poverty Statistics Handout/worksheet G3: The Beauty of Smiles in the Face of Despair Handout/worksheet G4: Surviving Poverty, Surviving War Handout

352

SECONDARY LEVEL -LESSON PLAN AND ACTIVITIES A New Face on Poverty--Lesson Plan on Poverty  

E-print Network

POVERTY SECONDARY LEVEL - LESSON PLAN AND ACTIVITIES A New Face on Poverty--Lesson Plan on Poverty Handout/worksheet G1: Effects of Poverty Handout/worksheet G2: Poverty Statistics Handout/worksheet G3: The Beauty of Smiles in the Face of Despair Handout/worksheet G4: Surviving Poverty, Surviving War Handout

353

An innovative national health care waste management system in Kyrgyzstan.  

PubMed

A novel low-cost health care waste management system was implemented in all rural hospitals in Kyrgyzstan. The components of the Kyrgyz model include mechanical needle removers, segregation using autoclavable containers, safe transport and storage, autoclave treatment, documentation, recycling of sterilized plastic and metal parts, cement pits for anatomical waste, composting of garden wastes, training, equipment maintenance, and management by safety and quality committees. The gravity-displacement autoclaves were fitted with filters to remove pathogens from the air exhaust. Operating parameters for the autoclaves were determined by thermal and biological tests. A hospital survey showed an average 33% annual cost savings compared to previous costs for waste management. All general hospitals with >25 beds except in the capital Bishkek use the new system, corresponding to 67.3% of all hospital beds. The investment amounted to US$0.61 per capita covered. Acceptance of the new system by the staff, cost savings, revenues from recycled materials, documented improvements in occupational safety, capacity building, and institutionalization enhance the sustainability of the Kyrgyz health care waste management system. PMID:25649402

Toktobaev, Nurjan; Emmanuel, Jorge; Djumalieva, Gulmira; Kravtsov, Alexei; Schüth, Tobias

2015-02-01

354

Principles of plant health management for ornamental plants.  

PubMed

Economic, environmental, and technological influences complicate the task of achieving disease-free products in the ornamentals industry. Integrated pest management (IPM) is a cornerstone of floriculture and nursery crop production: strategies include sanitation, clean stock, host resistance, and control through biological, cultural, environmental, chemical, and regulatory means. Sanitation measures and cultural controls must keep pace with new production technologies. Clean stock programs are used for many crops that are propagated vegetatively. Breeding, selection, and biotechnology provide crops resistant to pathogens. Offshore production for economic competitiveness can introduce pathogens that make regulatory programs necessary. New biocontrol and chemical products continue to improve control while meeting the requirement for minimal environmental impact. Continual introduction of new crops and new production technologies creates new opportunities for pathogens to exploit, such that new disease management tactics must be discovered and old ones rediscovered to achieve optimum health management for ornamentals. PMID:16078880

Daughtrey, Margery L; Benson, D Michael

2005-01-01

355

Policy Management Standards Enabling Trustworthy pHealth.  

PubMed

Current paradigm changes for improving safety, quality and efficiency of care processes under massive deployment of information and communication technologies (ICT) place high requirements on privacy and security. These mainly focus on privilege management and access control harmonized in international standards and their further evolution. NIST and ISO, but especially HL7 play a prominent role in this context. Starting with classic role-based access control (RBAC) foundations to new specifications for security and privacy labeling of segmented health information, HL7 security is presented as a scalable intermediate solution on the way to comprehensive privilege management and access control by explicit, ontology-based, formal and therefore machine-processable policies. The successfully balloted HL7 labeling specification supports context-sensitive communication and cooperation between different stakeholders and processes with different purposes of use, based on meta-data of information, actors and processes involved. Basics of policy management and practical solutions are discussed. PMID:24851957

Blobel, Bernd; Davis, Mike; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

2014-01-01

356

Managing corporate governance risks in a nonprofit health care organization.  

PubMed

Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves. PMID:20200865

Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J

2005-01-01

357

Implications of managed care for health systems, clinicians, and patients.  

PubMed Central

The rhetoric and realities of managed care are easily confused. The rapid growth of managed care in the United States has had many implications for patients, doctors, employers, state and federal programmes, the health insurance industry, major medical institutions, medical research, and vulnerable patient populations. It has restricted patients' choice of doctors and limited access to specialists, reduced the professional autonomy and earnings of doctors, shifted power from the non-profit to the for-profit sectors and from hospitals and doctors to private corporations. It has also raised issues about the future structuring and financing of medical education and research and about practice ethics. However, managed care has also accorded greater prominence to the assessment of patient satisfaction, profiling and monitoring of doctors' work, the use of clinical guidelines and quality assurance procedures and indicated the potential to improve the integration and outcome of care. PMID:9224138

Fairfield, G.; Hunter, D. J.; Mechanic, D.; Rosleff, F.

1997-01-01

358

European Anti Poverty Network (EAPN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

European Anti Poverty Network was created in 1989 "to put the fight against poverty and social exclusion on the political agenda of the European Union." The Network consists of 25 European organizations that work to alleviate poverty and 15 national networks that fight poverty specifically inside the EU. EAPN offers a nice collection of position papers and reports analyzing the ongoings of the European Union, its member countries and their policies, as well as news releases and news flashes. The site gives general information about the EAPN including its mission, members, and activities, as well as providing a tightly organized set of links.

359

Health information management using optical storage technology: case studies.  

PubMed

All the health care facilities examined in the case studies addressed several important organizational issues before and during the installation of their systems. All the facilities examined employee commitment. The prudent managers considered how easily their employees adapt to changes in their jobs and work environment. They considered how enthusiastic cooperation can be fostered in the creation of a liberated and reengineered office. This was determined not only by each individual's reaction to change, but also by the health care facility's track record with other system installations. For example, document image, diagnostic image, and coded data processing systems allow the integration of divergent health care information systems within complex institutions. Unfortunately, many institutions are currently struggling with how to create an information management architecture that will integrate their mature systems, such as their patient care and financial systems. Information managers must realize that if optical storage technology-based systems are used in a strategic and planned fashion, these systems can act as focal points for systems integration, not as promises to further confuse the issue. Another issue that needed attention in all the examples was the work environment. The managers considered how the work environment was going to affect the ability to integrate optical image and data systems into the institution. For example, many of these medical centers have created alliances with clinics, HMOs, and large corporate users of medical services. This created a demand for all or part of the health information outside the confines of the original institution. Since the work environment is composed of a handful of factors such as merged medical services, as many work environment factors as possible were addressed before application of the optical storage technology solution in the institutions. And finally, the third critical issue was the organization of work. "Organizations that understand their business processes are having no trouble whatsoever justifying the cost of optical storage-based information management systems," said Thornton May, director of imaging research at Nolan Norton Institute. "It is only confusing to organizations that do not have a feel for what is happening in the flow of work in the company. If an organization has on-line performance measurements with regard to time, cost, quality, error rates, and customer service, the move to optical image and data management technology is a no-brainer."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:10119028

Kohn, D

1992-05-01

360

The making of expert patients: The role of online health communities in arthritis self-management.  

PubMed

Chronic disease is an epidemic, one that requires patients to play an active role in managing symptoms and disease affect. This study used ethnomethodology (N = 8231) to understand how patients with arthritis use online health communities to exchange disease-related information to better manage their chronic disease. The findings show that online health communities facilitate self-management behaviors through the exchange of health information and disease experience. These online health communities act as self-management programs led by peers with the same chronic disease through the exchange of health information based on experience, working to improve members' health literacy related to arthritis. PMID:23988679

Willis, Erin

2014-12-01

361

Management development for primary health care: a framework for analysis.  

PubMed

Strengthening management has been widely promoted as a critical component of any strategy concerned with improving the implementation of primary health care (PHC). Management development programmes are, however, subject to conflicting demands and differing expectations. The situation is confounded by the wide diversity of strategies subsumed under the heading of management development, and the confusing nature of much of the terminology currently in use. This article presents a simple conceptual framework that can guide analysis and help programme planners review the options, opportunities and limitations of management development programmes. The framework presented examines management development from three different perspectives: the approach adopted; the outcomes expected; and the process of expansion, extension and adaptation. Our analysis of management development strategies allows us to reach some conclusions in areas where there is a degree of consensus. In countries where there is a mismatch between the strategies of PHC and the organizational structures through which they are to be implemented, management development has a role to play in effecting change. Its potential to do so is limited by powerful social, political, economic and organizational forces. Therefore, the capacity to critically analyse the context in which change is planned, emerges as a key element in programme design. We argue that there is no one best approach to management development, and the design of strategies will be contingent on a variety of factors. We do, however, reaffirm the view that where organizational structures and conditions do not support the implementation of PHC strategies, intervention through training alone is almost certain to be inadequate. To be effective, a more comprehensive programme will be required. Finally, the article points to a number of unresolved issues in areas where there is either controversy, lack of clarity or limited experience. PMID:10112478

Cassels, A; Janovsky, K

1991-01-01

362

24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597.103 Housing...DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance...

2010-04-01

363

24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597.103 Housing...DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance...

2011-04-01

364

Educational Poverty in a Comparative Perspective  

E-print Network

Educational Poverty in a Comparative Perspective: Theoretical and Empirical Implications SFB 882 Ferger Educational Poverty in a Comparative Perspective: Theoretical and Empirical Implications SFB 882 and Education: An International Comparison of Educational Poverty" This project studies the determinants

Moeller, Ralf

365

24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.  

...3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597.103 Housing...DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance...

2014-04-01

366

24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597.103 Housing...DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance...

2012-04-01

367

24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597.103 Housing...DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance...

2013-04-01

368

Managing Costs, Managing Benefits: Employer Decisions in Local Health Care Markets  

PubMed Central

Objectives To better understand employer health benefit decision making, how employer health benefits strategies evolve over time, and the impact of employer decisions on local health care systems. Data Sources/Study Setting. Data were collected as part of the Community Tracking Study (CTS), a longitudinal analysis of health system change in 12 randomly selected communities. Study Design This is an observational study with data collection over a six-year period. Data Collection/Extraction Methods The study used semistructured interviews with local respondents, combined with monitoring of local media, to track changes in health care systems over time and their impact on community residents. Interviewing began in 1996 and was carried out at two-year intervals, with a total of approximately 2,200 interviews. The interviews provided a variety of perspectives on employer decision making concerning health benefits; these perspectives were triangulated to reach conclusions. Principal Findings The tight labor market during the study period was the dominant consideration in employer decision making regarding health benefits. Employers, in managing employee compensation, made independent decisions in pursuit of individual goals, but these decisions were shaped by similar labor market conditions. As a result, within and across our study sites, employer decisions in aggregate had an important impact on local health care systems, although employers' more highly visible public efforts to bring about health system change often met with disappointing results. Conclusions General economic conditions in the 1990s had an important impact on the configuration of local health systems through their effect on employer decision making regarding health benefits offered to employees, and the responses of health plans and providers to those decisions. PMID:12650371

Christianson, Jon B; Trude, Sally

2003-01-01

369

An evaluation of the well at dell health management program: health risk change and financial return on investment.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . To investigate the effectiveness of the Well at Dell comprehensive health management program in delivering health care and productivity cost savings relative to program investment (i.e., return on investment). Design . A quasi-experimental design was used to quantify the financial impact of the program and nonexperimental pre-post design to evaluate change in health risks. Setting . Ongoing worksite health management program implemented across multiple U.S. locations. Subjects . Subjects were 24,651 employees with continuous medical enrollment in 2010-2011 who were eligible for 2011 health management programming. Intervention . Incentive-driven, outcomes-based multicomponent corporate health management program including health risk appraisal (HRA)/wellness, lifestyle management, and disease management coaching programs. Measures . Medical, pharmacy, and short-term disability pre/post expenditure trends adjusted for demographics, health status, and baseline costs. Self-reported health risks from repeat HRA completers. Analysis . Propensity score-weighted and multivariate regression-adjusted comparison of baseline to post trends in health care expenditures and productivity costs for program participants and nonparticipants (i.e., difference in difference) relative to programmatic investment. Results . The Well at Dell program achieved an overall return on investment of 2.48 in 2011. Most of the savings were realized from the HRA/wellness component of the program. Cost savings were supported with high participation and significant health risk improvement. Conclusion . An incentive-driven, well-managed comprehensive corporate health management program can continue to achieve significant health improvement while promoting health care and productivity cost savings in an employee population. PMID:25559251

Musich, Shirley; McCalister, Tre'; Wang, Sara; Hawkins, Kevin

2015-01-01

370

An Assessment of Integrated Health Management (IHM) Frameworks  

SciTech Connect

In order to meet the ever increasing demand for energy, the United States nuclear industry is turning to life extension of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs). Economically ensuring the safe, secure, and reliable operation of aging nuclear power plants presents many challenges. The 2009 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop identified online monitoring of active and structural components as essential to the better understanding and management of the challenges posed by aging nuclear power plants. Additionally, there is increasing adoption of condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components in NPPs. These techniques provide a foundation upon which a variety of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic, and prognostic techniques can be deployed to continuously monitor and assess the health of NPP systems and components. The next step in the development of advanced online monitoring is to move beyond CBM to estimating the remaining useful life of active components using prognostic tools. Deployment of prognostic health management (PHM) on the scale of a NPP requires the use of an integrated health management (IHM) framework - a software product (or suite of products) used to manage the necessary elements needed for a complete implementation of online monitoring and prognostics. This paper provides a thoughtful look at the desirable functions and features of IHM architectures. A full PHM system involves several modules, including data acquisition, system modeling, fault detection, fault diagnostics, system prognostics, and advisory generation (operations and maintenance planning). The standards applicable to PHM applications are indentified and summarized. A list of evaluation criteria for PHM software products, developed to ensure scalability of the toolset to an environment with the complexity of a NPP, is presented. Fourteen commercially available PHM software products are identified and classified into four groups: research tools, PHM system development tools, deployable architectures, and peripheral tools.

N. Lybeck; M. Tawfik; L. Bond; J. Coble

2012-05-01

371

Health economics of weight management: evidence and cost.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization estimates that around one billion people throughout the world are overweight and that over 300 million of these are obese and if current trends continue, the number of overweight persons will increase to 1.5 billion by 2015. The number of obese adults in Australia is estimated to have risen from 2.0 million in 1992/93 to 3.1 million in 2005. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing due to a convergence of factors--the rise of TV viewing, our preference for takeaway and pre-prepared foods, the trend towards more computer-bound sedentary jobs, and fewer opportunities for sport and physical exercise. Obesity is not only linked to lack of self esteem, social and work discrimination, but also to illnesses such as the metabolic syndrome and hyperinsulinaemia (which increases the risk of developing heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, fatty liver), cancer, asthma, dementia, arthritis and kidney disease. It has been estimated that the cost of obesity in Australia in 2005 was $1,721 million. Of this amount, $1,084 million were direct health costs, and $637 million indirect health costs (due to lost work productivity, absenteeism and unemployment). The prevalence cost per year for each obese adult has been estimated at $554 and the value of an obesity cure is about $6,903 per obese person. Government efforts at reducing the burden remain inadequate and a more radical approach is needed. The Australian government, for example, has made changes to Medicare so that GPs can refer people with chronic illness due to obesity to an exercise physiologist and dietitian and receive a Medicare rebate, but so far these measures are having no perceptible effect on obesity levels. There is a growing recognition that both Public Health and Clinical approaches, and Private and Public resources, need to be brought to this growing problem. Australian health economist, Paul Gross, from the Institute of Health Economics and Technology Assessment claims there is too much reliance on health workers to treat the problem, especially doctors, who have not been given additional resources to manage obesity outside a typical doctor's consultation. Gross has recommended that further changes should be made to Medicare, private health insurance, and workplace and tax legislation to give people financial incentives to change their behaviour because obesity should not just be treated by governments as a public health problem but also as a barrier to productivity and a drain on resources. A Special Report of the WMCACA (Weight Management Code Administration Council of Australia) (www.weightcouncil.org) on the "Health Economics of Weight Management" has been published in the Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition in September 2006. This report explores the cost benefit analysis of weight management in greater detail. PMID:17392129

Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Wahlqvist, Mark L

2007-01-01

372

Poverty Among Working Families: Findings From Experimental Poverty Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the US Census Bureau explores poverty among working families. The report uses experimental measures based on recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences Panel of Poverty and Family Assistance, including the following elements: noncash government benefits, job-related expenses, child care costs, social security taxes, and out-of-pocket medical expenses.

373

The Literature of Poverty, the Poverty of Literature Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author focuses on the possibilities--and the limits--of undergraduate courses on the literature of poverty. He describes an undergraduate course he has taught on U.S. literature about poverty, but he also expresses doubt that such courses can help produce major social change. He argues that something about the literature of…

Marsh, John

2011-01-01

374

Agricultural Pesticide Management in Thailand: Situation and Population Health Risk  

PubMed Central

As an agricultural country and one of the world’s major food exporters, Thailand relies heavily on the use of pesticides to protect crops and increase yields. During the past decade, the Kingdom of Thailand has experienced an approximate four-fold increase in pesticide use. This increase presents a challenge for the Royal Thai Government in effectively managing and controlling pesticide use based upon the current policies and legal infrastructure. We have reviewed several key components for managing agricultural pesticides in Thailand. One of the main obstacles to effective pesticide regulation in Thailand is the lack of a consolidated, uniform system designed specifically for pesticide management. This deficit has weakened the enforcement of existing regulations, resulting in misuse/overuse of pesticides, and consequently, increased environmental contamination and human exposure. This article provides a systematic review of how agricultural pesticides are regulated in Thailand. In addition, we provide our perspectives on the current state of pesticide management, the potential health effects of widespread, largely uncontrolled use of pesticides on the Thai people and ways to improve pesticide management in Thailand. PMID:22308095

Panuwet, Parinya; Siriwong, Wattasit; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Ryan, P. Barry; Fiedler, Nancy; Robson, Mark G.; Barr, Dana Boyd

2012-01-01

375

Evolution from safety management system (SMS) to HSE MS: Incorporating health aspects into the HSE management system  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing recognition within the E&P industry that protection and promotion of the health of people at work is more than taking care of individual health. It is an organizational issue which can be managed using the same principles as for safety and environment. The synergy`s with safety and environmental management provide the link with the management system. However line managers need to under the critical Health issues: what are they are they relevant? How do we manage them? what are the standards? What are the management tools to be used? How do we monitor performance? What is the role of the line? What is the role of the health advisers? What training and competencies are needed for health management? What are the benefits? These questions have to be clarified before acceptance can be achieved for full integration of Health aspects into the HSE Management System. Health Risk Assessment was developed as a tool for systematic identification and assessment of health hazards and risks. It specifies the need for and type of controls and recovery measures, which can subsequently be incorporated in HSE Management System and HSE Cases. Our experience to date indicates that Health can successfully be integrated in HSE Management Systems and HSE Cases by using the same principles as developed for Safety Management Systems and Safety Cases. There are still many problems which need to be addressed but the methodology used appears to be sound and will eventually enhance line management understanding of the health management aspects relevant to the E&P Industry.

Jong, G. de

1996-12-31

376

Investigating Children in Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in this sociology class will evaluate and analyze if age, race, and/or family size affect children in poverty in the United States. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 1990 Census and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Kathy Rowell

377

Poverty and Young Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise was developed for use in a general sociology course. Students will hypothesize about relationships between race, education, geographic area, and poverty and analyze data sets to determine draw conclusions about variable relationships. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 1990 Census and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Joan Morris

378

Internet Use for Health Information  

MedlinePLUS

... household incomes of 400 percent or more of poverty had used the Internet for health information in ... one-third of those with incomes below the poverty level (66.3 versus 29.2 percent, respectively). ...

379

Graduate Research Assistant Position in Health Informatics One Graduate Research Assistant position is available at Department of Health Management and  

E-print Network

position is available at Department of Health Management and Informatics (HMI) for full time resident assessment utilizing diverse quantitative and qualitative research methods. Applicants must have strong of Health Management and Informatics University of Missouri School of Medicine CE728 Clinical Support

Noble, James S.

380

Master's Degree in Agriculture Plant Health Management Option Option Title: Master of Science (MS) in Agriculture: Plant Health  

E-print Network

Master's Degree in Agriculture ­ Plant Health Management Option Option Title: Master of Science (MS) in Agriculture: Plant Health Management Department(s) or Program(s): Supported of Agricultural, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences (CAHNRS) Contact Name: Dr. Kim Kidwell, Director MS

Collins, Gary S.

381

Managing the physics of the economics of integrated health care.  

PubMed

The physics metaphor, as applied to the economics (and financial performance) of the integrated health system, seems appropriate when considered together with the nine principles of management framework provided. The nature of the integrated design enhances leaders' management potential as they consider organizational operations and strategy in the markets ahead. One question begged by this argument for the integrated design is the durability, efficiency and ultimate long-term survivability of the more "traditional" community health care delivery models, which, by design, are fragmented, internally competitive and less capital efficient. They also cannot exploit the leverage of teams, optimal access management or the pursuit of revenues made available in many forms. For those who wish to move from the traditional to the more integrated community health system designs (especially those who have not yet started the journey), the path requires: * Sufficient balance sheet capacity to fund the integration process-especially as the model requires physician practice acquisitions and electronic health record implementations * A well-prepared board13, 14 * A functional, durable and sustainable physician services enterprise design * A redesigned organizational and governance structure * Favorable internal financial incentives alignment design * Effective accountable physician leadership * Awareness that the system is not solely a funding strategy for acquired physicians, rather a fully -.. committed clinical and business model, one in which patient-centered integrated care is the core service (and not acute care hospital-based services) A willingness to create and exploit the implied and inherent potential of an integrated design and unified brand Last, it's important to remember that an integrated health system is a tool that creates a "new potential" (a physics metaphor reference, one last time). The design doesn't operate itself. Application of the management principles presented here are necessary as a complete recipe. Leaders of health systems moving toward integration are cautioned to apply the recipe in full. This article ends with two questions. First, if not an integrated model of health care, what's the alternative? Since it seems clear that many of the existing community-based models are excessively fragmented and inefficient, especially in a reforming U.S. health care marketplace, is there a new model that is superior to the integrated models and, if so, what is it and what are its functional principles? The second question: Is there more than one functional form of integration? This article argues for the most integrated form. Others would argue that clinical integration is sufficient,'s and full integration isn't required. The stability, durability and adaptability of the fully integrated models have, arguably, been tested. The lesser integrated models remain to be proven in an unstable health care marketplace seeking higher levels of economic efficiency. PMID:23888674

Zismer, Daniel K; Werner, Mark J

2012-01-01

382

Managing the health effects of the explosive remnants of war.  

PubMed

Many civilian deaths and injuries across the globe are a consequence of 'explosive remnants of war' (ERW). These ERW include mines, unexploded ordnance (UXO) and cluster bombs. The numbers of deaths, injuries and resulting disabilities from ERW are expected to increase as armed conflicts proliferate. This will have a substantial effect on all aspects of health. This article first describes the mechanisms of these ERW and the nature of the injuries they can cause. It then briefly outlines the immediate medical management such injuries require; the long-term outcomes and sequelae, and what can be done to manage them. It highlights how research and medical interventions must take into account cultural, social and economic factors in addition to utilising safe and appropriate techniques and practices. The article concludes by noting that medical personnel are well placed not only to intervene and manage the direct health effects of ERW, but also indirectly by advocating on behalf of those affected by adding their voices to campaigns against their proliferation. PMID:15602994

Kett, Maria E; Mannion, Steve J

2004-11-01

383

Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery chemistries have been studied in detail in literature, an accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm has eluded us. Current reliability-based techniques are insufficient to manage the use of such batteries when they are an active power source with frequently varying loads in uncertain environments. The amount of usable charge of a battery for a given discharge profile is not only dependent on the starting state-of-charge (SOC), but also other factors like battery health and the discharge or load profile imposed. This paper presents a Particle Filter (PF) based BHM framework with plug-and-play modules for battery models and uncertainty management. The batteries are modeled at three different levels of granularity with associated uncertainty distributions, encoding the basic electrochemical processes of a Lithium-polymer battery. The effects of different choices in the model design space are explored in the context of prediction performance in an electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application with emulated flight profiles.

Saha, Bhaskar; Quach, Cuong Chi; Goebel, Kai Frank

2011-01-01

384

Caries management pathways preserve dental tissues and promote oral health.  

PubMed

In May 2012, cariologists, dentists, representatives of dental organizations, manufacturers, and third party payers from several countries, met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to define a common mission; goals and strategic approaches for caries management in the 21th century. The workshop started with an address by Mr. Stanley Bergman, CEO of Henry Schein Inc. which focused on the imperative for change in academia, clinical practice, and public health. For decades, new scientific evidence on caries and how it should be managed have been discussed among experts in the field. However, there has been some limited change, except in some Scandinavian countries, in the models of caries management and reimbursement which have been heavily skewed toward 'drilling and filling'. There is no overall agreement on a caries' case definition or on when to surgically intervene. The participants in the workshop defined a new mission for all caries management approaches, both conventional and new. The mission of each system should be to preserve the tooth structure, and restore only when necessary. This mission marks a pivotal line for judging when to surgically intervene and when to arrest or remineralize early noncavitated lesions. Even when restorative care is necessary, the removal of hard tissues should be lesion-focused and aim to preserve, as much as possible, sound tooth structure. Continuing management of the etiological factors of caries and the use of science-based preventive regimens also will be required to prevent recurrence and re-restoration. These changes have been debated for over a decade. The Caries Management Pathways includes all systems and philosophies, conventional and new, of caries management that can be used or modified to achieve the new mission. The choice of which system to use to achieve the mission of caries management is left to the users and should be based on the science supporting each approach or philosophy, experience, utility, and ease of use. This document also presents a new 'Caries Management Cycle' that should be followed regardless of which approach is adopted for caries prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment. To aid success in the adoption of the new mission, a new reimbursement system that third party payers may utilize is proposed (for use by countries other than Scandinavian countries or other countries where such systems already exist). The new reimbursement/incentive model focuses on the mission of preservation of tooth structure and outcomes of caries management. Also described, is a research agenda to revitalize research on the most important and prevalent world-wide human disease. The alliance of major dental organizations and experts that started in Philadelphia will hopefully propel over the next months and years, a change in how caries is managed by dentists all over the world. A new mission has been defined and it is time for all oral health professionals to focus on the promotion of oral health and preservation of sound teeth rather than counting the number of surgical restorative procedures provided. PMID:24916676

Ismail, Amid I; Tellez, Marisol; Pitts, Nigel B; Ekstrand, Kim R; Ricketts, David; Longbottom, Christopher; Eggertsson, Hafsteinn; Deery, Christopher; Fisher, Julian; Young, Douglas A; Featherstone, John D B; Evans, Wendell; Zeller, Gregory G; Zero, Domenick; Martignon, Stefania; Fontana, Margherita; Zandona, Andrea

2013-02-01

385

From family planning to HIV/AIDS prevention to poverty alleviation: a conversation with Mechai Viravaidya. Interview by Glenn A. Melnick.  

PubMed

In this interview, Mechai Viravaidya shares how he harnessed the media and various other distribution channels in Thailand to launch nationwide programs aimed at changing attitudes, beliefs, and health behavior in very controversial and difficult areas, such as sexual behavior in the context of population control and HIV/AIDS. He provides insight into the leadership skills required to change cultural beliefs in order to achieve public health objectives. And finally, he describes how his thinking has evolved and broadened to include poverty alleviation and improved management and sustainability models for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as the most effective way to improve health status in the long run. PMID:17895259

Viravaidya, Mechai

2007-01-01

386

The crucible of public health practice: major trends shaping the design of the Management Academy for Public Health.  

PubMed

Public health leaders and managers need new leadership and management skills as well as greater entrepreneurial acumen to respond effectively to broad demographic, socioeconomic, and political trends reshaping public health. This article asserts that the need for such training and skills was the impetus for the conceptualization, design, and launch of the Management Academy for Public Health--an innovative executive education program jointly offered by the schools of business and public health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. PMID:16912602

Johnson, James H; Sabol, Barbara J; Baker, Edward L

2006-01-01

387

Poverty in the Nonmetropolitan South.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The unknowns about nonmetropolitan Southern poverty are systematically addressed by this monograph. The methodology employed isolates and gives equal treatment to 5 causal explanations. The 5 are genetic, culture of poverty, opportunity, maldistribution, and scarce resource explanations. Comprehensive materials are then organized around these…

Thomas, George; Stewart, Merrilee

388

Rural poverty in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

While rural poverty in Latin America has declined over the last three decades, success has been uneven across countries and rural poverty remains huge. Reduction in the number of rural relative to urban poor has been mainly the outcome of migration, not of successful rural development. We show that rural incomes are explained by the asset position of households and

Alain de Janvry; Elisabeth Sadoulet

2000-01-01

389

Poverty Indices and Policy Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim in this paper is to show how recent developments in the theory and methods of poverty measurement can be applied to provide more accurate descriptions of poverty trends to the typical consumers of these statistics--policy analysts, policy-makers and their critics. Since Amartya Sen's (1976) classic critique of the \\

John Myles; Garnett Picot

2000-01-01

390

Topics at a Glance: Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of polls on public opinion regarding poverty and appropriate responses. Shows a (perhaps naive) confidence that hard work will lead to prosperity, as well as somewhat ambiguous views on appropriate government responses to poverty (for instance increased aid to the poor enjoys overwhelming support while increased "welfare" is widely opposed.

Roper Center at the University of Connecticut

391

China's (uneven) progress against poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the incidence of extreme poverty fell dramatically in China over 1980–2001, progress was uneven over time and across provinces. Rural areas accounted for the bulk of the gains to the poor, though migration to urban areas helped. Rural economic growth was far more important to national poverty reduction than urban economic growth; agriculture played a far more important role

Martin Ravallion; Shaohua Chen

2007-01-01

392

The Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many authors have insisted on the necessity of defining poverty as a multidimensional concept rather than relying on income or consumption expenditures per capita. Yet, not much has actually been done to include the various dimensions of deprivation into the practical definition and measurement of poverty. Existing attempts along that direction consist of aggregating various attributes into a single index

François Bourguignon; SATYA R. CHAKRAVARTY

2003-01-01

393

WHITE AMERICANS IN RURAL POVERTY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

POOR RURAL WHITES ARE A MAJOR AND PERSISTENT POVERTY PROBLEM, AND HAVE RECEIVED INSUFFICIENT ATTENTION. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT--(1) WHITES IN POVERTY TEND TO BE SEPARATED FROM MAJOR NATIONAL MARKETS AND THE GENERALLY ACCEPTED AMERICAN WAYS OF LIFE, (2) EMERGENCE OF MANY SPECIAL PROGRAMS TO CATER TO "TARGET GROUPS" ON THE BASIS OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL…

BIRD, ALAN R.; MCCOY, JOHN L.

394

Neighborhood Poverty and Adolescent Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted over the past decade on the effects of neighborhood and poverty on adolescent normative and nonnormative development. Our review includes a summary of studies examining the associations between neighborhood poverty and adolescent identity development followed by a review of studies…

McBride Murry, Velma; Berkel, Cady; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Nation, Maury

2011-01-01

395

The Poverty Macroeconomic Policy Nexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper utilises a short-run theoretical macroeconomic model of a small open economy to look at the impact of macroeconomic policies and financial deepening upon poverty through sectoral changes. This is because an expansion in certain sectors may cause greater poverty reduction. The model involves a non-traded and a traded sector on the formal side of the economy. The

George Mavrotas; S. Mansoob Murshed

2005-01-01

396

The Dynamics of Childhood Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews child poverty in the United States. Child poverty rates have been high since the 1970s, and it is expected that one-third of all children will be poor at some time. African American and Latino children and children in mother-only families are disproportionately poor. Both family structure and the labor market are implicated in child…

Corcoran, Mary E.; Chaudry, Ajay

1997-01-01

397

Dynamics of Poverty in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses issues related to the dynamics of income poverty using unique household panel data for urban and rural areas of Ethiopia covering the period 1994-97. The percentage of households that remained in poverty was twice as large in urban areas as in rural areas. This suggests that income variability is a serious problem in rural areas, while the

Arne Bigsten; Abebe Shimeles

2004-01-01

398

Child poverty: a multidimensional measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to evaluate poverty among children using a multidimensional concept of child poverty. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In light of this conceptualization, the paper applies methodological framework that uses fuzzy set theory to evaluate deprivation intensity among children. It also investigates the socio-demographic and economic characteristics that most affect deprivation risk by estimating a discrete

Amélia Bastos; Carla Machado

2009-01-01

399

The contributions of managed care plans to public health practice: evidence from the nation's largest local health departments.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors examine the extent and nature of managed care plans participating in local public health activities. METHODS: In 1998, the authors surveyed the directors of all US local health departments serving jurisdictions of at least 100,000 residents to collect information about public health activities performed in their jurisdictions and about organizations participating in the activities. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to examine organizational and market characteristics associated with managed care plan participation in public health activities. RESULTS: Managed care plans were reported to participate in public health activities in 164 (46%) of the jurisdictions surveyed, and to contribute to 13% of the public health activities performed in the average jurisdiction. Plans appeared most likely to participate in public health activities involving the delivery or management of personal health services and the exchange of health-related information. Managed care participation was more likely to occur in jurisdictions with higher HMO penetration, fewer competing plans, and larger proportions of plans enrolling Medicaid recipients. Participation was positively associated with the overall scope and perceived effectiveness of local public health activities. CONCLUSIONS: Although plans participate in a narrow range of activities, these contributions may complement the work of public health agencies. PMID:11889275

Mays, G. P.; Halverson, P. K.; Stevens, R.

2001-01-01

400

A multidimensional approach to measure poverty in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Poverty is increasingly being understood as a multidimensional phenomenon. Other than income-consumption, which has been extensively studied in the past, health, education, shelter, and social involvement are among the most important dimensions of poverty. The present study attempts to develop a simple tool to measure poverty in its multidimensionality where it views poverty as an inadequate fulfillment of basic needs, such as food, clothing, shelter, health, education, and social involvement. The scale score ranges between 72 and 24 and is constructed in such a way that the score increases with increasing level of poverty. Using various techniques, the study evaluates the poverty-measurement tool and provides evidence for its reliability and validity by administering it in various areas of rural Bangladesh. The reliability coefficients, such as test-retest coefficient (0.85) and Cronbach's alpha (0.80) of the tool, were satisfactorily high. Based on the socioeconomic status defined by the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) exercise, the level of poverty identified by the scale was 33% in Chakaria, 26% in Matlab, and 32% in other rural areas of the country. The validity of these results was tested against some traditional methods of identifying the poor, and the association of the scores with that of the traditional indicators, such as ownership of land and occupation, asset index (r=0.72), and the wealth ranking obtained from the PRA exercise, was consistent. A statistically significant inverse relationship of the poverty scores with the socioeconomic status was observed in all cases. The scale also allowed the absolute level of poverty to be measured, and in the present study, the highest percentage of absolute poor was found in terms of health (44.2% in Chakaria, 36.4% in Matlab, and 39.1% in other rural areas), followed by social exclusion (35.7% in Chakaria, 28.5% in Matlab, and 22.3% in other rural areas), clothing (6.2% in Chakaria, 8.3% in Matlab, and 20% in other rural areas), education (14.7% in Chakaria, 8% in Matlab, and 16.8% in other rural areas), food (7.8% in Chakaria, 2.9% in Matlab and 3% in other rural areas), and shelter (0.8% in Chakaria, 1.4% in Matlab, and 3.7% in other rural areas). This instrument will also prove itself invaluable in assessing the individual effects of poverty-alleviation programmes or policies on all these different dimensions. PMID:17985815

Bhuiya, Abbas; Mahmood, Shehrin Shaila; Rana, A K M Masud; Wahed, Tania; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R

2007-06-01

401

Health Insurance Coverage: Early Release of Estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, January -- June 2013  

MedlinePLUS

... Institute. 2009. 3. DeNavas-Walt C, Proctor BD, Smith JC. Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in ... Office. 2008. 4. DeNavas-Walt C, Proctor BD, Smith JC. Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in ...

402

Poverty and Social Developments in Peru, 1994-1997. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1994 to 1997, social welfare improved in Peru. Areas of improvement included decreased poverty and severe poverty rates, increased school attendance and literacy, and a healthier population. Most important among health improvements was reduced malnutrition among young children. Social improvements stemmed from the favorable overall economic…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

403

MASS-ORGANIZATIONS AS ACTIVE PARTICIPANTS IN POVERTY REDUCTION IN VIETNAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

1990s1. This new task, having largely been influenced by international debate on poverty reduction, allowed the policy makers in Vietnam to take not only a targeted approach to poor households, but also a holistic approach in order to tackle the various causes of poverty such as poor health and low level of primary education attainment. Such an approach to the

SHOZO SAKATA

404

Escaping Information Poverty through Internet Newsgroups Laura Hasler and Ian Ruthven  

E-print Network

are often crucial to the individual and relate to health, identity and social issues. The Internet providesEscaping Information Poverty through Internet Newsgroups Laura Hasler and Ian Ruthven University to escape situations of information poverty. We consider posts from a variety of newsgroups which indicate

Strathclyde, University of

405

Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intelligent autonomous control capability has been developed and is currently being validated in ground cryogenic fluid management operations. The capability embodies a physical architecture consistent with typical launch infrastructure and control systems, augmented by a higher level autonomous control (AC) system enabled to make knowledge-based decisions. The AC system is supported by an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability that detects anomalies, diagnoses causes, determines effects, and could predict future anomalies. AC is implemented using the concept of programmed sequences that could be considered to be building blocks of more generic mission plans. A sequence is a series of steps, and each executes actions once conditions for the step are met (e.g. desired temperatures or fluid state are achieved). For autonomous capability, conditions must consider also health management outcomes, as they will determine whether or not an action is executed, or how an action may be executed, or if an alternative action is executed instead. Aside from health, higher level objectives can also drive how a mission is carried out. The capability was developed using the G2 software environment (www.gensym.com) augmented by a NASA Toolkit that significantly shortens time to deployment. G2 is a commercial product to develop intelligent applications. It is fully object oriented. The core of the capability is a Domain Model of the system where all elements of the system are represented as objects (sensors, instruments, components, pipes, etc.). Reasoning and decision making can be done with all elements in the domain model. The toolkit also enables implementation of failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), which are represented as root cause trees. FMEA's are programmed graphically, they are reusable, as they address generic FMEA referring to classes of subsystems or objects and their functional relationships. User interfaces for integrated awareness by operators have been created.

Figueroa, Fernando; Walker, Mark; Wilkins, Kim; Johnson, Robert; Sass, Jared; Youney, Justin

2014-01-01

406

Poverty in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to a quantitative analysis that involves univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis, this module reinforces research terms introduced in Intro to Sociology (independent, dependent and control variables and includes the opportunity to discuss sample vs. population (in the comparison of national poverty data vs. the poverty rate in the sample) and value vs. variable (poverty as a value and a variable and the recoding of the values in the household data). The module also uses the Census website to define the concept "poverty threshold" and look at trends in poverty. Together this reinforces basic components of social science research and analysis in preparation for upper-level classes, including research methods and statistics.

Spade, Joan

407

Hazardous and toxic wastes: technology, management and health effects  

SciTech Connect

One of three volumes on waste material, this book deals with the hazardous and toxic wastes of an industrial society. Part one considers waste types and treatment and disposal methods, covering industrial waste incineration, the destruction of toxic chemical wastes, and the management of hazardous waste. Part two discusses the distribution, selection, and geological aspects of siting hazardous and toxic wastes. Part three covers transportation, emergency response, and preparations needed in a toxic spill emergency. Part four includes chapters on management regulations, and economic considerations. The final section deals with the environmental and health effects of hazardous wastes. Information on the national priorities list appears in the appendix. 363 references, 61 figures, 68 tables.

Majumdar, S.K.; Miller, E.W. (eds.)

1984-01-01

408

Vehicle health management for guidance, navigation and control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the program was to architect a vehicle health management (VHM) system for space systems avionics that assures system readiness for launch vehicles and for space-based dormant vehicles. The platforms which were studied and considered for application of VHM for guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) included the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS), the Horizontal Landing-20/Personnel Launch System (HL-20/PLS), the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) and the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO). This set was selected because dormancy and/or availability requirements are driving the designs of these future systems.

Radke, Kathleen; Frazzini, Ron; Bursch, Paul; Wald, Jerry; Brown, Don

1993-01-01

409

Health information networks: enabling care management in IDSs.  

PubMed

To be successful, IDSs require streamlined, information integration across the continuum of care. Having this capability enables IDSs to manage care and costs efficiently, provide physicians with enterprisewide access to eligibility information, and respond to the communication and quality demands of patients. For most IDSs, the quickest and most cost-effective way to achieve overall information-system integration is to implement a health information network (HIN) based on Internet technologies. A HIN enables IDS providers and staff to access requisite administrative and clinical information from throughout the enterprise using a Web browser. PMID:10847912

McNamara, T M

2000-03-01

410

Leader-Member Exchange Relationships in Health Information Management  

PubMed Central

This article seeks to raise awareness of the leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership and its potential benefit to the health information management (HIM) profession. A literature review that was conducted identified a leadership challenge for HIM practitioners. The review also provides examples of leadership definitions, and potential benefits of LMX to HIM professionals in leading people and influencing leaders in their organizations. The LMX concept may be an avenue to investigate in preparing future and current HIM professionals for leadership. PMID:24808805

Hunt, T.J.

2014-01-01

411

A computer science approach to managing security in health care.  

PubMed

The security of electronic medical information is very important for health care organisations, which have to ensure confidentiality, integrity and availability of the information provided. This paper will briefly outline the legal measures adopted by the European Community, Italy and the United States to regulate the use and disclosure of medical records. It will then go on to highlight how information technology can help to address these issues with special reference to the management of organisation policies. To this end, we will present a modelling example for the security policy of a radiological department. PMID:12471368

Asirelli, P; Braccini, G; Caramella, D; Coco, A; Fabbrini, F

2002-09-01

412

Leader-member exchange relationships in health information management.  

PubMed

This article seeks to raise awareness of the leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership and its potential benefit to the health information management (HIM) profession. A literature review that was conducted identified a leadership challenge for HIM practitioners. The review also provides examples of leadership definitions, and potential benefits of LMX to HIM professionals in leading people and influencing leaders in their organizations. The LMX concept may be an avenue to investigate in preparing future and current HIM professionals for leadership. PMID:24808805

Hunt, T J

2014-01-01

413

Animal health surveillance applications: The interaction of science and management.  

PubMed

Animal health surveillance is an ever-evolving activity, since health- and risk-related policy and management decisions need to be backed by the best available scientific evidence and methodology. International organizations, trade partners, politicians, media and the public expect fast, understandable, up-to-date presentation and valid interpretation of animal disease data to support and document proper animal health management - in crises as well as in routine control applications. The delivery and application of surveillance information need to be further developed and optimized, and epidemiologists, risk managers, administrators and policy makers need to work together in order to secure progress. Promising new developments in areas such as risk-based surveillance, spatial presentation and analysis, and genomic epidemiology will be mentioned. Limitations and areas in need of further progress will be underlined, such as the general lack of a wide and open exchange of international animal disease surveillance data. During my more than 30 year career as a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology I had the good fortune of working in challenging environments with different eminent colleagues in different countries on a variety of animal health surveillance issues. My career change from professor to Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) - "from science to application" - was caused by my desire to see for myself if and how well epidemiology would actually work to solve real-life problems as I had been telling my students for years that it would. Fortunately it worked for me! The job of a CVO is not that different from that of a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology; the underlying professional principles are the same. Every day I had to work from science, and base decisions and discussions on documented evidence - although sometimes the evidence was incomplete or data were simply lacking. A basic understanding of surveillance methodology is very useful for a CVO, since it provides a sound working platform not only for dealing with immediate questions when new or emerging disease situations arise, but also for more long-term activities, such as policy development, contingency planning and trade negotiations. Animal health issues, which emerged during my eight years as a CVO in Denmark from 1999 to 2007, will be used as examples, including BSE, FMD, HPAI and Trichinella testing. Emphasis will be placed on how science-based surveillance methodology and tools were developed, applied and documented. PMID:22305878

Willeberg, Preben

2012-08-01

414

Health numeracy: Perspectives about using numbers in health management from African American patients receiving dialysis.  

PubMed

Health numeracy is linked to important clinical outcomes. Kidney disease management relies heavily on patient numeracy skills across the continuum of kidney disease care. Little data are available eliciting stakeholder perspectives from patients receiving dialysis about the construct of health numeracy. Using focus groups, we asked patients receiving hemodialysis open-ended questions to identify facilitators and barriers to their understanding, interpretation, and application of numeric information in kidney care. Transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Twelve patients participated with a mean (standard deviation) age of 56 (12) years. All were African American, 50% were women, and 83% had an annual income <$20,000/year. Although patients felt numbers were critical to every aspect in life, they noted several barriers to understanding, interpreting and applying quantitative information specifically to manage their health. Low patient self-efficacy related to health numeracy and limited patient-provider communication about quantitatively based feedback, were emphasized as key barriers. Through focus groups of key patient stakeholders we identified important modifiable barriers to effective kidney care. Additional research is needed to develop tools that support numeracy-sensitive education and communication interventions in dialysis. PMID:25358522

Wright Nunes, Julie A; Osborn, Chandra Y; Ikizler, T Alp; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

2014-10-30

415

Advanced Health Management of a Brushless Direct Current Motor/Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort demonstrates that health management can be taken to the component level for electromechanical systems. The same techniques can be applied to take any health management system to the component level, based on the practicality of the implementation for that particular system. This effort allows various logic schemes to be implemented for the identification and management of failures. By taking health management to the component level, integrated vehicle health management systems can be enhanced by protecting box-level avionics from being shut down in order to isolate a failed computer.

Pickett, R. D.

2003-01-01

416

Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) Site-Specific Health and Safety Plan, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) policy is to provide a safe and healthy workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The implementation of this policy requires that operations of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF), located one-half mile west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex, be guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to environment, safety and health (ES&H) issues. The BJC governing document for worker safety and health, BJC/OR-1745, 'Worker Safety and Health Program', describes the key elements of the BJC Safety and Industrial Hygiene (IH) programs, which includes the requirement for development and implementation of a site-specific Health and Safety Plan (HASP) where required by regulation (refer also to BJC-EH-1012, 'Development and Approval of Safety and Health Plans'). BJC/OR-1745, 'Worker Safety and Health Program', implements the requirements for worker protection contained in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 851. The EMWMF site-specific HASP requirements identifies safe operating procedures, work controls, personal protective equipment, roles and responsibilities, potential site hazards and control measures, site access requirements, frequency and types of monitoring, site work areas, decontamination procedures, and outlines emergency response actions. This HASP will be available on site for use by all workers, management and supervisors, oversight personnel and visitors. All EMWMF assigned personnel will be briefed on the contents of this HASP and will be required to follow the procedures and protocols as specified. The policies and procedures referenced in this HASP apply to all EMWMF operations activities. In addition the HASP establishes ES&H criteria for the day-to-day activities to prevent or minimize any adverse effect on the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable waste management practices. The HASP is written to make use of past experience and best management practices to eliminate or minimize hazards to workers or the environment from events such as fires, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release to the environment.

Flynn, N.C. Bechtel Jacobs

2008-04-21

417

What would it take? Stakeholders' views and preferences for implementing a health care manager program in community mental health clinics under health care reform.  

PubMed

Health care manager interventions can improve the physical health of people with serious mental illness (SMI). In this study, we used concepts from the theory of diffusion of innovations, the consolidated framework for implementation research and a taxonomy of implementation strategies to examine stakeholders' recommendations for implementing a health care manager intervention in public mental health clinics serving Hispanics with SMI. A purposive sample of 20 stakeholders was recruited from mental health agencies, primary care clinics, and consumer advocacy organizations. We presented participants a vignette describing a health care manager intervention and used semistructured qualitative interviews to examine their views and recommendations for implementing this program. Interviews were recorded, professionally transcribed, and content analyzed. We found that a blend of implementation strategies that demonstrates local relative advantage, addresses cost concerns, and enhances compatibility to organizations and the client population is critical for moving health care manager interventions into practice. PMID:25542194

Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Gomes, Arminda P; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

2015-02-01

418

BioHealth--the need for security and identity management standards in eHealth.  

PubMed

The experience gained in these last years and the several lesson learned have clearly shown that eHealth is more than just a simple change from paper records to electronic records. It necessitates a change of paradigms, on the one hand and the use of new technologies and introduction of new procedures on the other. Interoperability becomes a crucial issue. Security and confidentiality are vital for the acceptance of the new approaches and for the support of eHealth. Shared care and across-border interactions require a reliable and stable normative framework based on the application of standardized solutions, which are often not yet sufficiently known, diffused and implemented. Feeling this gap, a group of international experts in the medical area proposed to the EC the BioHealth project whose main aim is to create awareness about standardization in eHealth and to facilitate its practical implementation. The project will address all the stakeholders concerning their respective domain. It will evaluate the socio-economic and cultural aspects concerning eHealth with particular reference to the growing introduction of emerging technologies such as health cards, biometrics, RFID (radio-frequency identification) and NFC (Near field communication) tags. By providing information and expert advice on standardization and best practices it will raise the acceptance on standardization. Furthermore, the project will deeply approach the ethical and accessibility issues connected to identity management in eHealth, which -together with privacy- represent probably the most significant obstacles for the wide diffusion of eHealth procedures. PMID:17095831

Hildebrand, Claudia; Pharow, Peter; Engelbrecht, Rolf; Blobel, Bernd; Savastano, Mario; Hovsto, Asbjorn

2006-01-01

419

Assessing cost and utilization in managed mental health care in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health cost containment in the United States has evolved from fragmented utilization review and discounted pricing programs in the 1980s to comprehensive mental health managed care programs in the 1990s, in which the network managing the care takes on financial risks associated with price and utilization for all mental health services provided to an enrolled population. While the earlier

Barbara Dickey

1997-01-01

420

Assurance of Learning Assessment Matrix -MS Health Care Management Learning Goals Learning Objectives Assessment/Assignment  

E-print Network

Assurance of Learning Assessment Matrix - MS Health Care Management Learning Goals Learning Objectives Assessment/Assignment Understand and master core concepts and methods in the health care concepts and tools in the health care management discipline to develop integrated and innovative strategies

Niebur, Ernst

421

Poverty Measurement in the U.S., Europe, and Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In December of 2009, many within the American community of analysts, policymakers, and program managers are looking expectantly at the possibility of change in the basic measure used to gauge poverty in the United States. A broad consensus has emerged that the current official measure of poverty in the United States is deeply flawed, in the income…

Couch, Kenneth A.; Pirog, Maureen A.

2010-01-01

422

Secure Knowledge Management for Health Care Organizations Authors: D.Mundy, D.W.Chadwick  

E-print Network

Secure Knowledge Management for Health Care Organizations Authors: D.Mundy, D.W.Chadwick Abstract As the health care industry enters the era of knowledge management it must place security at the foundation of the transition. Risks are pervasive to every aspect of information and knowledge management. Without secure

Kent, University of

423

Combating infectious diseases of poverty: a year on  

PubMed Central

The Infectious Diseases of Poverty journal, launched a year ago, is a platform to engage outside the traditional disciplinary boundaries, and disseminate high quality science towards the improvement of health. This paper reviews the milestone achievements during its first year of operation. The journal has filled an important niche, addressing some of the main priorities in the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty. Highlights include the publication of three thematic issues on health systems, surveillance and response systems, as well as co-infection and syndemics. The thematic issues have foregrounded the importance and innovation that can be achieved through transdisciplinary research. The journal has been indexed by PubMed since April 2013, with the publication of a total of 38 articles. Finally, the journal is delivering to wider range readers both in developing and developed countries with sustained efforts with a focus on relevant and strategic information towards elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. PMID:24246007

2013-01-01

424

Rocket Engine Health Management: Early Definition of Critical Flight Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA led Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program has established key requirements related to safety, reliability, launch availability and operations cost to be met by the next generation of reusable launch vehicles. Key to meeting these requirements will be an integrated vehicle health management ( M) system that includes sensors, harnesses, software, memory, and processors. Such a system must be integrated across all the vehicle subsystems and meet component, subsystem, and system requirements relative to fault detection, fault isolation, and false alarm rate. The purpose of this activity is to evolve techniques for defining critical flight engine system measurements-early within the definition of an engine health management system (EHMS). Two approaches, performance-based and failure mode-based, are integrated to provide a proposed set of measurements to be collected. This integrated approach is applied to MSFC s MC-1 engine. Early identification of measurements supports early identification of candidate sensor systems whose design and impacts to the engine components must be considered in engine design.

Christenson, Rick L.; Nelson, Michael A.; Butas, John P.

2003-01-01

425

77 FR 41986 - Division of Nursing, Public Health Nursing Community Based Model of PHN Case Management Services  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Division of Nursing, Public Health Nursing Community Based Model of PHN Case Management Services...OCPS), Community Based Model of Public Health Nursing Case Management Services. This program is...

2012-07-17

426

29 CFR 1420.1 - Functions of the Service in health care industry bargaining under the Labor-Management Relations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the Service in health care industry bargaining under the Labor-Management Relations...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...SERVICE-ASSISTANCE IN THE HEALTH CARE INDUSTRY...the Service in health care industry bargaining under the Labor-Management...

2011-07-01

427

29 CFR 1420.1 - Functions of the Service in health care industry bargaining under the Labor-Management Relations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Service in health care industry bargaining under the Labor-Management Relations...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...SERVICE-ASSISTANCE IN THE HEALTH CARE INDUSTRY...the Service in health care industry bargaining under the Labor-Management...

2010-07-01

428

Assessing the implementation of performance management of health care workers in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background The performance management concept is relatively new to the Ugandan health sector. Uganda has been implementing health sector reforms for nearly two decades. The reforms included the introduction of the results-oriented management in the public sector and the decentralisation of the management of health care workers from central to local governments. This study examined the implementation of performance management of health care workers in order to propose strategies for improvement. Methods The study was a descriptive survey carried out in the Kumi, Mbale, Sironko and Tororo districts and utilising mixed research methodology. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from the health care workers. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect qualitative data from the health service managers. The sample for the quantitative method was selected using stratified random sampling. Purposive sampling was used to select health service managers. Quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 18.0). Qualitative data were categorised according to the themes and analysed manually. Results The findings show that to some extent performance management is implemented in the health sector; however, there were loopholes in its implementation. There were inadequacies in setting performance targets and performance management planning was hardly done. Although many health care workers had job descriptions, the performance indicators and standards were not clearly defined and known to all workers and managers. Additionally the schedules for performance assessments were not always adhered to. There were limited prospects for career progression, inadequate performance feedback and poor rewarding mechanisms. Conclusions Performance management of health care workers is inadequately done in the districts. Performance management is a key component of attempts to improve health sector outcomes. As a result of this study, suggestions to enhance health sector performance management in the districts have been put forward. The authors are optimistic that if these suggestions are implemented, the performance of health care workers is likely to improve. PMID:24044774

2013-01-01

429

A ride in the time machine: information management capabilities health departments will need.  

PubMed

We have proposed needed information management capabilities for future US health departments predicated on trends in health care reform and health information technology. Regardless of whether health departments provide direct clinical services (and many will), they will manage unprecedented quantities of sensitive information for the public health core functions of assurance and assessment, including population-level health surveillance and metrics. Absent improved capabilities, health departments risk vestigial status, with consequences for vulnerable populations. Developments in electronic health records, interoperability and information exchange, public information sharing, decision support, and cloud technologies can support information management if health departments have appropriate capabilities. The need for national engagement in and consensus on these capabilities and their importance to health department sustainability make them appropriate for consideration in the context of accreditation. PMID:25033122

Foldy, Seth; Grannis, Shaun; Ross, David; Smith, Torney

2014-09-01

430

Lessons learned in public health emergency management: personal reflections.  

PubMed

Multiple environmental, ecological, and socio-political forces are converging to increase the occurrence of both natural and technological disasters. Ten forces are of most concern in this regard. These are: 1) global warming, with its consequent weather extremes and climate changes; 2) continued rapid human population growth and concomitant increased urbanization; 3) decreased bio-diversity and consequent ecological fragility; 4) deforestation and loss of natural habitat for animal species, with resultant greater overlap of human and animal habitats, human exposure to animal pathogens, and other ecological perturbations; 5) increased technological development throughout the world (especially in developing countries with their typically immature safety programs); 6) globalization and increased population mobility; 7) sub-national religious and ethnic conflicts, and their potential for conflict escalation and large scale displacement of populations; 8) the collapse of several major countries and consequent unraveling of national identity and social order; 9) the rise of terrorism; and 10) dramatic advances in the science and technology of computing, communications, biotechnology, and genomics. This paper describes 10 lessons learned relative to the public health aspects of emergency management, especially as they pertain to disasters. 1) Planning pays; 2) A bad situation can be made worse by inappropriate responses; 3) Most life saving interventions will occur before the disaster happens and immediately afterwards by local action; 4) Public health emergency management is not a democratic process; 5) Psychological impacts are usually greater than anticipated; 6) Communications and information management are vital, but often are the weak link in the response chain; 7) Collaboration and partnerships are essential; 8) Unsolicited volunteers and aid are inevitable and must be planned for and managed; 9) Never assume anything, and always expect the unexpected; and 10) Post-event evaluation is important, and must be coordinated. The paramount lesson learned from past emergencies is that the untoward impact of these events can be anticipated and significantly ameliorated by appropriate planning and preparation. On the other hand, preparation for emergency events has deteriorated because of health-care financial constraints, and resources to support planning and needed infrastructure have diminished. Given these realities, the major unresolved challenge is how to ensure that planning for the common good is supported and, in fact, gets done. PMID:11227611

Kizer, K W

2000-01-01

431

The importance of human resources management in health care: a global context  

PubMed Central

Background This paper addresses the health care system from a global perspective and the importance of human resources management (HRM) in improving overall patient health outcomes and delivery of health care services. Methods We explored the published literature and collected data through secondary sources. Results Various key success factors emerge that clearly affect health care practices and human resources management. This paper will reveal how human resources management is essential to any health care system and how it can improve health care models. Challenges in the health care systems in Canada, the United States of America and various developing countries are examined, with suggestions for ways to overcome these problems through the proper implementation of human resources management practices. Comparing and contrasting selected countries allowed a deeper understanding of the practical and crucial role of human resources management in health care. Conclusion Proper management of human resources is critical in providing a high quality of health care. A refocus on human resources management in health care and more research are needed to develop new policies. Effective human resources management strategies are greatly needed to achieve better outcomes from and access to health care around the world. PMID:16872531

Kabene, Stefane M; Orchard, Carole; Howard, John M; Soriano, Mark A; Leduc, Raymond

2006-01-01

432

POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMS IN INDIA: A STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is a haven to 22% of the world’s poor. Such a high incidence of poverty is a matter of apprehension, in view of the fact that poverty eradication has been one of the major objectives of the development process. Really, poverty is a global dialog. Poverty eradication is considered integral to humanity’s mission for sustainable development. Thus, reduction of

Srinivasulu Bayineni

2006-01-01

433

Spatial inequality and poverty among American children  

Microsoft Academic Search

National-level statistics often mask extreme spatial differentiation in child poverty. Using county-level data from the 1990 US decennial census summary tape file, we show that child poverty is distributed unevenly over geographic space. Child poverty is concentrated in counties in Appalachia, the Mississippi Delta, and the southern ‘black belt’. Child poverty rates are strongly influenced by the local industrial composition

Samantha Friedman; Daniel T. Lichter

1998-01-01

434

Poverty in America: Trends and Explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite robust growth in real per capita GDP over the last three decades, the U.S. poverty rate has changed very little. In an effort to better understand this disconnect, we document and quantify the relationship between poverty and four different factors that may affect poverty and its evolution over time: labor market opportunities, family structure, anti-poverty programs, and immigration. We

Hilary Hoynes; Marianne Page; Ann Huff Stevens

2005-01-01

435

A Question of Prosperity Poverty in Saskatchewan  

E-print Network

JUNE 2008 A Question of Prosperity Poverty in Saskatchewan Garson Hunter and Fiona Douglas with Sarah Pedersen #12;A Question of Prosperity: Poverty in Saskatchewan June 2008 Hunter, G. F. Douglas & S. Pedersen. "A Question of Prosperity: Poverty in Saskatchewan." Poverty Profiles 1, 2008. Regina

Argerami, Martin

436

How Robust Is a Poverty Profile?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of poverty, such as where or when poverty is greatest, typically matter far more for policy choices than do aggregate measures of poverty, such as how many people are deemed poor. We examine alternative methods for constructing poverty profiles, focusing on their internal consistency and appropriateness for guiding policy. None is perfect, but some methods appear to be preferable

Martin Ravallion; Benu Bidani

1994-01-01

437

THE GENERALIZED POVERTY INDEX GANE SAMB LO  

E-print Network

THE GENERALIZED POVERTY INDEX GANE SAMB LO Abstract. We introduce the General Poverty Index (GPI), which summarizes most of the known and availbale poverty indices, in the form GPI = ( A(Q, N, Z) NB(Q, N (·) are given measurable functions, Q is the number of the poor in the population P of size N, Z is the poverty

438

November 2011 Poverty in Canada and Saskatchewan  

E-print Network

November 2011 Poverty in Canada and Saskatchewan in 2011: No Closer to the Truth Copyright © Garson or downloaded at no charge from the SPR website at www.uregina.ca/spr/publi.html Poverty Papers Poverty papers of Regina. The papers describe and analyze aspects of poverty in our society and offers perspectives

Argerami, Martin

439

Prosperity, Poverty and Inequality in London  

E-print Network

ASE Prosperity, Poverty and Inequality in London 2000/01-2010/11 Ruth Lupton, Polly Vizard, Amanda of wealth, poverty, income inequality and spatial difference. The full programme of analysis will include. The Changing Spatial Distribution of Poverty 2001 to 2011...................33 The Geography of Poverty

Banaji,. Murad

440

Poverty and Democracy: Peru Colleen Flaherty  

E-print Network

Poverty and Democracy: Peru Revisted Colleen Flaherty #12;Can democracy help alleviate poverty · With the reinstatement of democracy in Peru, there has been a decrease in poverty. #12;Democracy in Peru · Volatile · Underemployment still an issue · Poverty rates dropping #12;Formal Market · Access to formal market ­ Steps

New Hampshire, University of

441

Early Childhood Poverty: A Statistical Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that young children in poverty face a greater likelihood of impaired development because of their increased exposure to a number of risk factors associated with poverty, this report presents statistical information on the incidence of poverty during early childhood. The report notes that the poverty rate for U.S. children under age 3…

Song, Younghwan; Lu, Hsien-Hen

442

Using Feature Films to Teach Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students, who often have little experience with persons living below the poverty line, can ignore or misunderstand the experience of poverty. Feature film is one way to illustrate poverty in educational settings. Through identifying with a character, students may gain insights into the daily issues related to poverty. This article presents a review of the literature of using film

Lisen Roberts

2003-01-01

443

Conceptual and Measurement Issues in Poverty Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to review a number of issues related to poverty, while taking stock of the ongoing research. Most of the remaining unresolved issues in poverty analysis are related directly or indirectly to the dynamics of poverty. Before the development community can become more successful in designing and implementing poverty-alleviation strategies, within the context of growth,

Erik Thorbecke

2004-01-01

444

Wisconsin Poverty Report: Jobs Recover to Help Reduce Poverty in 2012  

E-print Network

Wisconsin Poverty Report: Jobs Recover to Help Reduce Poverty in 2012 The Sixth Annual Report of the Wisconsin Poverty Project Timothy M. Smeeding Julia B. Isaacs Katherine A. Thornton Institute for Research on Poverty University of Wisconsin­Madison May 2014 #12;ABOUT THE WISCONSIN POVERTY PROJECT The Wisconsin

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

445

Part of the Wisconsin Poverty Project's Fourth Annual Report Series Wisconsin Poverty Report  

E-print Network

Part of the Wisconsin Poverty Project's Fourth Annual Report Series Wisconsin Poverty Report, and Katherine A. Thornton Institute for Research on Poverty University of Wisconsin­Madison May 2012 #12;ABOUT THE WISCONSIN POVERTY PROJECT The Wisconsin Poverty Project came into being in late 2008, when a group

Sheridan, Jennifer

446

Targeting poverty : lessons from monitoring Ireland's National Anti-Poverty Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997 the Irish government adopted the National Anti-Poverty Strategy (NAPS), a global target for the reduction of poverty which illuminates a range of issues relating to official poverty targets. The Irish target is framed in terms of a relative poverty measure incorporating both relative income and direct measures of deprivation based on data on the extent of poverty from

Richard Layte; Brian Nolan; Christopher T. Whelan

2000-01-01

447

Globalization, the International Poverty Trap and Chronic Poverty in the Least Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The argument of this paper is founded on an analytical perspective that can be summarized through three basic propositions. Firstly, the phenomenon of chronic poverty is best analysed through examination of the nature of poverty traps. A poverty trap is defined here as a situation in which poverty has effects which act as causes of poverty. There are thus vicious

Charles Gore

448

Management Knowledge and Skills Required in the Health Care System of the Federation Bosnia and Herzegovina  

PubMed Central

Extremely complex health care organizations, by their structure and organization, operate in a constantly changing business environment, and such situation implies and requires complex and demanding health management. Therefore, in order to manage health organizations in a competent manner, health managers must possess various managerial skills and be familiar with problems in health care. Research, identification, analysis, and assessment of health management education and training needs are basic preconditions for the development and implementation of adequate programs to meet those needs. Along with other specific activities, this research helped to determine the nature, profile, and level of top-priority needs for education. The need for knowledge of certain areas in health management, as well as the need for mastering concrete managerial competencies has been recognized as top-priorities requiring additional improvement and upgrading. PMID:23922519

Slipicevic, Osman; Masic, Izet

2012-01-01

449

Management of senescent gynecomastia in the Veterans Health Administration.  

PubMed

Senescent gynecomastia is common in Veterans Health Administration patients because of clinical characteristics in the population, mainly obesity and the use of numerous etiologic drugs. To assess management of the disease, we studied patients treated between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2007, in the Veterans Affairs-Tennessee Valley Healthcare System. Four hundred and fifty-four cases of senescent gynecomastia were retrieved from 670 charts addressing breast complaints (positive predictive value = 68%). Average patient age was 68.5 years. Mean body mass index was 29.7. Ninety-two percent of patients were using multiple medications associated with gynecomastia. Medications were considered at least partially etiologic in 79.3% of cases. Medical conditions caused gynecomastia in 13.7%. Over 50% of patients underwent diagnostic imaging studies. One-fifth of patients were tested for etiologic endocrine tumors. Yield on this testing was 1.1% (1/93). Ninety-four percent of patients were managed nonoperatively. Case management in the Tennessee Valley Healthcare System was generally correct, though there was excessive use of imaging, invasive diagnostic procedures, and endocrine assessment. Senescent gynecomastia, a benign disease, can usually be diagnosed by history and physical examination, requires little diagnostic testing, and should be treated nonoperatively. PMID:21410583

Ikard, Robert W; Vavra, Daniela; Forbes, Rachel C; Richman, Jill C; Roumie, Christianne L

2011-01-01

450

The role of private-for-profit managed behavioral health in the public sector.  

PubMed

Managed behavioral health, once largely confined to private sector employees, has been growing rapidly in the public sector. Throughout the country, behavioral health services, particularly for Medicaid enrollees, are coming under the management of private-for-profit firms. The authors discuss these developments, and the controversies that have come about as a result. Several public/private models of managed behavioral health services are identified. PMID:9239942

Feldman, S; Baler, S; Penner, S

1997-05-01

451

Children of Poverty: Research, Health, and Policy Issues. Reference Books on Family Issues (Vol. 23). Garland Reference Library of Social Science (Vol. 968).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 13 papers resulting from roundtable discussions at the 1993 Society for Research in Child Development Meeting. The overall intent of the papers is to plan the course for child health care, public policy, and developmental research into the next century. The book is divided into three parts, each covering one topic. Research…

Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.; And Others

452

Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

2012-01-01

453

Intelligent Integrated Health Management for a System of Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intelligent integrated health management system (IIHMS) incorporates major improvements over prior such systems. The particular IIHMS is implemented for any system defined as a hierarchical distributed network of intelligent elements (HDNIE), comprising primarily: (1) an architecture (Figure 1), (2) intelligent elements, (3) a conceptual framework and taxonomy (Figure 2), and (4) and ontology that defines standards and protocols. Some definitions of terms are prerequisite to a further brief description of this innovation: A system-of-systems (SoS) is an engineering system that comprises multiple subsystems (e.g., a system of multiple possibly interacting flow subsystems that include pumps, valves, tanks, ducts, sensors, and the like); 'Intelligent' is used here in the sense of artificial intelligence. An intelligent element may be physical or virtual, it is network enabled, and it is able to manage data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) focused on determining its condition in the context of the entire SoS; As used here, 'health' signifies the functionality and/or structural integrity of an engineering system, subsystem, or process (leading to determination of the health of components); 'Process' can signify either a physical process in the usual sense of the word or an element into which functionally related sensors are grouped; 'Element' can signify a component (e.g., an actuator, a valve), a process, a controller, an actuator, a subsystem, or a system; The term Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is used to describe a capability that focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex system (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, prognosis of future anomalies), and provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) not just data to control systems for safe and effective operation. A major novel aspect of the present development is the concept of intelligent integration. The purpose of intelligent integration, as defined and implemented in the present IIHMS, is to enable automated analysis of physical phenomena in imitation of human reasoning, including the use of qualitative methods. Intelligent integration is said to occur in a system in which all elements are intelligent and can acquire, maintain, and share knowledge and information. In the HDNIE of the present IIHMS, an SoS is represented as being operationally organized in a hierarchical-distributed format. The elements of the SoS are considered to be intelligent in that they determine their own conditions within an integrated scheme that involves consideration of data, information, knowledge bases, and methods that reside in all elements of the system. The conceptual framework of the HDNIE and the methodologies of implementing it enable the flow of information and knowledge among the elements so as to make possible the determination of the condition of each element. The necessary information and knowledge is made available to each affected element at the desired time, satisfying a need to prevent information overload while providing context-sensitive information at the proper level of detail. Provision of high-quality data is a central goal in designing this or any IIHMS. In pursuit of this goal, functionally related sensors are logically assigned to groups denoted processes. An aggregate of processes is considered to form a system. Alternatively or in addition to what has been said thus far, the HDNIE of this IIHMS can be regarded as consisting of a framework containing object models that encapsulate all elements of the system, their individual and relational knowledge bases, generic methods and procedures based on models of the applicable physics, and communication processes (Figure 2). The framework enables implementation of a paradigm inspired by how expert operators monitor the health of systems with the help of (1) DIaK from various sources, (2) software tools that assist in rapid visualization of the condition of the system, (3) analical software tools that assist in reasoning about the condition, (4) sharing of information via

Smith, Harvey; Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Fernando

2008-01-01

454

Integrating complementary and alternative medicine into mainstream healthcare services: the perspectives of health service managers  

PubMed Central

Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly included within mainstream integrative healthcare (IHC) services. Health service managers are key stakeholders central to ensuring effective integrative health care services. Yet, little research has specifically investigated the role or perspective of health service managers with regards to integrative health care services under their management. In response, this paper reports findings from an exploratory study focusing exclusively on the perspectives of health service managers of integrative health care services in Australia regarding the role of CAM within their service and the health service managers rational for incorporating CAM into clinical care. Methods Health service managers from seven services were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the health service managers. The services addressed trauma and chronic conditions and comprised: five community-based programs including drug and alcohol rehabilitation, refugee mental health and women’s health; and two hospital-based specialist services. The CAM practices included in the services investigated included acupuncture, naturopathy, Western herbal medicine and massage. Results Findings reveal that the health service managers in this study understand CAM to enhance the holistic capacity of their service by: filling therapeutic gaps in existing healthcare practices; by treating the whole person; and by increasing healthcare choices. Health service managers also identified CAM as addressing therapeutic gaps through the provision of a mind-body approach in psychological trauma and in chronic disease management treatment. Health service managers describe the addition of CAM in their service as enabling patients who would otherwise not be able to afford CAM to gain access to these treatments thereby increasing healthcare choices. Some health service managers expressly align the notion of treating the whole person within a health promotion model and focus on the relevance of diet and lifestyle factors as central to a CAM approach. Conclusions From the perspectives of the health service managers, these findings contribute to our understanding around the rationale to include CAM within mainstream health services that deal with psychological trauma and chronic disease. The broader implications of this study can help assist in the development of health service policy on CAM integration in mainstream healthcare services. PMID:24885066

2014-01-01

455

Poverty Comparisons Over Time and Across Countries in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to compare “poverty” at two or more points in time within and between African countries. Our welfare measure is an index resulting from a factor analysis of various household characteristics, durables, and household heads’ education. An advantage of this measure is that for intertemporal and intraregional comparisons, we need not rely on suspect

David E. Sahn; David C. Stifel

2000-01-01

456

Poverty and Stroke in India A Time to Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developed countries, the predominant health problems are those lifestyle-related illnesses associated with increased wealth. In contrast, diseases occurring in developing countries can largely be attributed to poverty, poor healthcare infrastructure, and limited access to care. However, many developing countries such as India have undergone economic and demographic growth in recent years resulting in a transition from diseases caused by

Jeyaraj D. Pandian; Velandai Srikanth; Stephen J. Read; Amanda G. Thrift

2010-01-01

457

Distributed Prognostics and Health Management with a Wireless Network Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heterogeneous set of system components monitored by a varied suite of sensors and a particle-filtering (PF) framework, with the power and the flexibility to adapt to the different diagnostic and prognostic needs, has been developed. Both the diagnostic and prognostic tasks are formulated as a particle-filtering problem in order to explicitly represent and manage uncertainties in state estimation and remaining life estimation. Current state-of-the-art prognostic health management (PHM) systems are mostly centralized in nature, where all the processing is reliant on a single processor. This can lead to a loss in functionality in case of a crash of the central processor or monitor. Furthermore, with increases in the volume of sensor data as well as the complexity of algorithms, traditional centralized systems become for a number of reasons somewhat ungainly for successful deployment, and efficient distributed architectures can be more beneficial. The distributed health management architecture is comprised of a network of smart sensor devices. These devices monitor the health of various subsystems or modules. They perform diagnostics operations and trigger prognostics operations based on user-defined thresholds and rules. The sensor devices, called computing elements (CEs), consist of a sensor, or set of sensors, and a communication device (i.e., a wireless transceiver beside an embedded processing element). The CE runs in either a diagnostic or prognostic operating mode. The diagnostic mode is the default mode where a CE monitors a given subsystem or component through a low-weight diagnostic algorithm. If a CE detects a critical condition during monitoring, it raises a flag. Depending on availability of resources, a networked local cluster of CEs is formed that then carries out prognostics and fault mitigation by efficient distribution of the tasks. It should be noted that the CEs are expected not to suspend their previous tasks in the prognostic mode. When the prognostics task is over, and after appropriate actions have been taken, all CEs return to their original default configuration. Wireless technology-based implementation would ensure more flexibility in terms of sensor placement. It would also allow more sensors to be deployed because the overhead related to weights of wired systems is not present. Distributed architectures are furthermore generally robust with regard to recovery from node failures.

Goebel, Kai; Saha, Sankalita; Sha, Bhaskar

2013-01-01

458

Participation, governance of community based- organization and poverty reduction: problems and lessons of fifteen years of participatory management of protected areas in Benin (West-Africa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In line with the Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCED 1992), which emphasised the need for every country to take responsibility for conserving its own biodiversity, Benin, a non forestry country in West Africa, have experimented the co-management of protected forests fro m 1993. Several Community Based Forest Management Projects in the savannah zone of north and central Benin organised neighbouring

A. K Natta; L. Idrissou

2009-01-01

459

Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to \\

Greg J. Duncan; Jens. Ludwig; Katherine A. Magnuson

2007-01-01

460

Challenging Hydrological Panaceas: Water poverty governance accounting for spatial scale in the Niger River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water poverty in the Niger River Basin is a function of physical constraints affecting access and supply, and institutional arrangements affecting the ability to utilise the water resource. This distinction reflects the complexity of water poverty and points to the need to look beyond technical and financial means alone to reduce its prevalence and severity. Policy decisions affecting water resources are generally made at a state or national level. Hydrological and socio-economic evaluations at these levels, or at the basin level, cannot be presumed to be concordant with the differentiation of poverty or livelihood vulnerability at more local levels. We focus on three objectives: first, the initial mapping of observed poverty, using two health metrics and a household assets metric; second, the estimation of factors which potentially influence the observed poverty patterns; and third, a consideration of spatial non-stationarity, which identifies spatial correlates of poverty in the places where their effects appear most severe. We quantify the extent to which different levels of analysis influence these results. Comparative analysis of correlates of poverty at basin, national and local levels shows limited congruence. Variation in water quantity, and the presence of irrigation and dams had either limited or no significant correlation with observed variation in poverty measures across levels. Education and access to improved water quality were the only variables consistently significant and spatially stable across the entire basin. At all levels, education is the most consistent non-water correlate of poverty while access to protected water sources is the strongest water related correlate. The analysis indicates that landscape and scale matter for understanding water-poverty linkages and for devising policy concerned with alleviating water poverty. Interactions between environmental, social and institutional factors are complex and consequently a comprehensive understanding of poverty and its causes requires analysis at multiple spatial resolutions.

Ward, John; Kaczan, David

2014-11-01

461

Escaping the poverty trap: modeling the interplay between economic growth and the ecology of infectious disease  

E-print Network

The dynamics of economies and infectious disease are inexorably linked: economic well-being influences health (sanitation, nutrition, treatment capacity, etc.) and health influences economic well-being (labor productivity lost to sickness and disease). Often societies are locked into ``poverty traps'' of poor health and poor economy. Here, using a simplified coupled disease-economic model with endogenous capital growth we demonstrate the formation of poverty traps, as well as ways to escape them. We suggest two possible mechanisms of escape both motivated by empirical data: one, through an influx of capital (development aid), and another through changing the percentage of GDP spent on healthcare. We find that a large influx of capital is successful in escaping the poverty trap, but increasing health spending alone is not. Our results demonstrate that escape from a poverty trap may be possible, and carry important policy implications in the world-wide distribution of aid and within-country healthcare spending.

Goerg, Georg M; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Althouse, Benjamin M

2013-01-01

462

Oral health management of a patient with 47,XYY syndrome.  

PubMed

The 47,XYY syndrome is an aneuploidy (abnormal number) of sex chromosomes, where a human male receives an extra Y chromosome, making 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. Individuals with 47,XYY are usually physically normal and tend to be tall and thin. They are not at increased risk of mental retardation and cardiovascular diseases. They may have speech delay, hyperactivity and normal/decreased IQ level. Behavioural problems are not common in 47,XYY individuals. There have been reports that suggest the tooth-size increase in 47,XYY males is due to a direct genetic effect. The patient presented with multiple over-retained deciduous, unerupted permanent teeth and increased incidence of carious lesions may be attributed to decreased oral hygiene maintenance. The present article describes the medical and dental history along with the clinical management of oral health issues in an 18-year-old male patient with 47,XYY syndrome having normal physical structure and development. PMID:24311410

Shah, Altaf Hussain; Manjunatha, B S; Bindayel, Naif A; Khounganian, Rita

2013-01-01

463

Managing Free Text for Secondary Use of Health Data  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives To summarize the best papers in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM). Methods A comprehensive review of medical informatics literature was performed to select some of the most interesting papers of KRM and natural language processing (NLP) published in 2013. Results Four articles were selected, one focuses on Electronic Health Record (EHR) interoperability for clinical pathway personalization based on structured data. The other three focus on NLP (corpus creation, de-identification, and co-reference resolution) and highlight the increase in NLP tools performances. Conclusions NLP tools are close to being seriously concurrent to humans in some annotation tasks. Their use could increase drastically the amount of data usable for meaningful use of EHR. PMID:25123738

2014-01-01

464

Obesity, periodontal and general health: Relationship and management  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a multifaceted subject. It has increased at an alarming rate in recent years. Being overweight increases the likelihood of a patient having associated health and social problems which may affect dental services and dental management. A review of the literature on obesity and periodontal disease suggested that they both confound each other and obesity itself has been recognized as a major risk factor for periodontal disease. It has been found that adverse effects of obesity on the periodontium may be mediated through pro-inflammatory cytokines and various other bioactive substances. This article tries to focus on the possible role of obesity and obesity-related diseases like diabetes and coronary heart diseases (CHD), as a potential contributor to periodontal disease and vice versa. The meanings of these associations can be useful for various diagnostic and treatment planning purposes. PMID:22276257

Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Gupta, Rajan

2012-01-01

465

Poverty Induced Forest Degradation in JFM Regime: Evidence from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around 28% of the total forest area in India has been brought under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and rest 72% remains virtually open access to local communities. In such a scenario, communities actively participating in JFM are also engaged in degrading de facto open access forests to meet their basic livelihood necessities. This reveals that, the poverty induced forest degradation

Amarendra Das

2007-01-01

466

Poverty Alleviation Through Power-Sharing in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uneven distribution of poverty within Multi-ethnic postcolonial states is a common phenomenon. This unevenness is according to many a legacy of colonial rule that amalgamated diverse societies under a centralised apparatus of governance and adopted preferential policies towards certain groups. In the post war era, wave of decolonisation resulted in various multi-ethnic states that remained unable to manage these

Muhammad Mushtaq; Syed Khawaja Alqama

467

Poverty and the Multiple Stakeholder Challenge for Global Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents a case study in which business leaders deal with challenging problems related to poverty, involving multiple stakeholders. This emphasizes the importance of training prospective global leaders to manage stakeholder relationships and engage in stakeholder dialogue. The authors highlight the stakeholder role played by…

Reade, Carol; Todd, Anne Marie; Osland, Asbjorn; Osland, Joyce

2008-01-01

468

Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boeing-Canoga Park (BCP) and NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) are developing an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) for use on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will improve Shuttle safety by reducing the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the powered ascent phase of a Shuttle mission. This is a phased approach that consists of an upgrade to the current Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) to add turbomachinery synchronous vibration protection and addition of a separate Health Management Computer (HMC) that will utilize advanced algorithms to detect and mitigate predefined engine anomalies. The purpose of the Shuttle AHMS is twofold; one is to increase the probability of successfully placing the Orbiter into the intended orbit, and the other is to increase the probability of being able to safely execute an abort of a Space Transportation System (STS) launch. Both objectives are achieved by increasing the useful work envelope of a Space Shuttle Main Engine after it has developed anomalous performance during launch and the ascent phase of the mission. This increase in work envelope will be the result of two new anomaly mitigation options, in addition to existing engine shutdown, that were previously unavailable. The added anomaly mitigation options include engine throttle-down and performance correction (adjustment of engine oxidizer to fuel ratio), as well as enhanced sensor disqualification capability. The HMC is intended to provide the computing power necessary to diagnose selected anomalous engine behaviors and for making recommendations to the engine controller for anomaly mitigation. Independent auditors have assessed the reduction in Shuttle ascent risk to be on the order of 40% with the combined system and a three times improvement in mission success.

Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John

2004-01-01

469

Perceptions of Health Information Management Educational and Practice Experiences  

PubMed Central

Introduction Undergraduate students’ progress toward achievement of learning outcomes and entry-level competencies is an essential ingredient in efforts to meet the needs of the evolving national healthcare information infrastructure. Therefore, studies to evaluate variance in outcome assessment methods and perceived adequacy of educational curricula used by health information management (HIM) programs are vital. This study examined perceptions of HIM students, faculty, and individuals employed in healthcare regarding educational experiences and career preparation. Methods A convenience sample of attendees from the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) national conference in Atlanta, Georgia, was obtained. A survey was developed on the basis of a review of current literature related to the assessment of HIM educational programming. The authors used a prepared script to describe the study purpose and survey when approaching potential respondents. Completion of the survey was voluntary. Results Of the 100 surveys distributed, 58 were returned. Twenty-six respondents were employed in healthcare, 25 were students, and 7 were HIM faculty members; no respondents were HIM program directors. Ninety-six percent of the student respondents indicated that the programs’ HIM curriculum prepared them for an entry-level position, while 86 percent of the faculty respondents and 70 percent of the respondents employed in healthcare agreed with this statement. More than half (56 percent) of the respondents who were employed in healthcare indicated that they needed additional training when they entered their first entry-level position. The majority of the respondents indicated that they were not matched with a mentor during their educational experience. Conclusions This research supports the complementary roles that educational coursework and practical experiences provide individuals within the HIM field. However, additional research is needed to assess the potential impact of varied practical experiences and mentoring relationships on the students’ successful transition into the workforce. PMID:25214821

Bates, Mari; Black, Clarence; Blair, Franchesica; Davis, Laquanda; Ingram, Steven; Lane, DaQuandra; McElderry, Alicia; Peagler, Bianca; Pickett, Jamie; Plettenberg, Cheryl; Hart-Hester, Susan

2014-01-01

470

Population, poverty and social transformation: an alternative paradigm.  

PubMed

"In this paper I have proposed a new alternative paradigm on the interrelations between population, poverty and the related concerns [in India]. Its central thesis is that the population problem has also the concomitant social problems [of] unemployment, ill health, [and] crime, [with] (1) poverty as their 'immediate' determinant, (2) such evils as inequality, consumerism, military expenditure, defective planning...as their 'intermediate' determinants, and (3) out-moded non-egalitarian social structures, vicious human psyche and spiritual degradation as their 'ultimate' determinants. This new paradigm has implications for policy and programme logistics that are fundamentally different from official policy." PMID:12286105

Pethe, V P

1992-06-01

471

Data Fusion for Enhanced Aircraft Engine Prognostics and Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft gas-turbine engine data is available from a variety of sources, including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources for the achievement of improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/ information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This report describes a basic PHM data fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C-17 PHM Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion, as it applies to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This report will provide a chronology and summary of the work accomplished under this research contract.

Volponi, Al

2005-01-01

472

Prognostics Health Management for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security is a key national energy priority. Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMR), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts