These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Population growth, poverty and health.  

PubMed

One of the most popular explanations for the many problems that face Africa is population growth. Africa's population has doubled since 1960. Africa has the highest fertility rate in the world and the rate of population growth is higher than in any other region. At the same time, Africa faces a social and economic situation that is viewed by many as alarming. Among the problems that devastate Africa is that of persistent poor health. Africa has lower life expectancy, higher mortality rates and is affected by more disease and illness conditions than any other region. Focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, this paper examines the relationship between population growth, poverty and poor health. While most analyses have focused on population growth as an original cause of poverty and underdevelopment, this paper argues that while both population growth and poor health play a significant role in exacerbating the problem of poverty, they are themselves primary consequences of poverty rather than its cause. PMID:9225412

Kibirige, J S

1997-07-01

2

Poverty and health sector inequalities.  

PubMed Central

Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities. PMID:11953787

Wagstaff, Adam

2002-01-01

3

Environment, poverty and health linkages in the Wami River basin: A search for sustainable water resource management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wami Rivers basin is an important area due to its diversified use which benefits a multi-diversity of stakeholders. While large scale irrigated sugar production is the main issue of concern upstream, there are other equally important socio-economic activities which include biodiversity and environmental conservation, domestic water supply, livestock water needs, and fishing. A large water supply project has just been completed downstream of the Wami River to provide water for the Chalinze township and surrounding villages. Other important undertakings include irrigated rice farming in Dakawa area, livestock keeping activities, and the establishment of the Sadani National Park (SANAPA) and the Wami-Mbiki Wildlife Management Area (WMA). The Wami River basin forms significant parts of both the Wami-Mbiki WMA and the SANAPA wildlife conservation areas. Regardless of its importance, the basin is increasingly being degraded through deforestation for agricultural expansion, timber, and more important charcoal making. The basin is also being polluted through disposal of excess molasses from the sugar industry, and use of poisonous substances and herbs in fishing. The worsening environmental condition in the basin has become a health threat to both people in the surrounding villages and wildlife. To a large extent, such changes are intensifying poverty levels among the local population. These changes are raising concerns about the long-term environmental sustainability and health implications of the current water use competition and conflicts in the basin. The purpose of this paper is to examine the main water resource use conflicts and how they affect environmental sustainability in the long-run. It also intends to establish linkages between wildlife management, pastoralism, agricultural activities and how such linkages influence poverty alleviation efforts in the basin. An attempt has been made to examine the environmental and health implications of human activities in the basin in relation to poverty indicators, people’s lifestyle, and integrated water resource use in the Wami River basin. In the process of examining linkages and sources of conflicts, key strategies to harmonize the interests of various stakeholders and ensure integrated and sustainable use of the Wami River waters will be identified. As a conclusion to paper, issues related to population pressure, pollution, wildlife, pastoralism and many others will be discussed with the view of harmonizing the needs of various stakeholders and minimizing their effect on the river ecosystem. The discussion shows how poverty levels are linked to resources over-exploitation, hence limiting sustainability in the basin. Under the current poverty levels in almost all villages surrounding the Wami River basin, there is no alternative ways or technology to replace non-sustainable resource exploitation. Many villages depend on charcoal burning and selling as a survival strategy and source of income.

Madulu, Ndalahwa F.

4

Poverty  

PubMed Central

This glossary addresses the complex nature of poverty and raises some conceptual and measurement issues related to poverty in the public health literature, with a focus on poor countries. PMID:15767376

Mowafi, M; Khawaja, M

2005-01-01

5

A Health Plan to Reduce Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the failures of the U.S. health care system are compounding the problems faced by low-income Americans, Alan Weil argues that any strategy to reduce poverty must provide access to health care for all low-income families. Although nearly all children in families with incomes under 200 percent of poverty are eligible for either Medicaid…

Weil, Alan

2007-01-01

6

Poverty, Tobacco, and Health: An Indian Scenario  

PubMed Central

Poverty and health have a two-way relationship. Poverty increases the vulnerability of people to disease, and sickness affects their income leading to poverty. Tobacco has been identified as a major avoidable cause of illness and premature death. In India, more than half of men and one-tenth of women use one or more forms of tobacco. Tobacco-use shows a clear and continual increase with decreasing wealth quintiles. Poor smokers, who are at a greater risk of illness, are also at a greater risk of not being treated or of falling into greater poverty if they seek treatment. Poor people spend money on tobacco that could be spent on food, shelter, education, and healthcare. These decisions can entrench families in an ongoing cycle of poverty and ill-health. The direct and indirect costs of tobacco-use are immense for national economy. This has positioned control of tobacco relevant in India's per suite to achieve the goals of poverty eradication and health for all. PMID:19507746

Gur, A.

2009-01-01

7

Poverty & health: criticality of public financing.  

PubMed

Countries with universal or near universal access to healthcare have health financing mechanisms which are single-payer systems in which either a single autonomous public agency or a few coordinated agencies pool resources to finance healthcare. This contributes to both equity in healthcare as well as to low levels of poverty in these countries. It is only in countries like India and a number of developing countries, which still rely mostly on out-of-pocket payments, where universal access to healthcare is elusive. In such countries those who have the capacity to buy healthcare from the market most often get healthcare without having to pay for it directly because they are either covered by social insurance or buy private insurance. In contrast, a large majority of the population, who suffers a hand-to-mouth existence, is forced to make direct payments, often with a heavy burden of debt, to access healthcare from the market because public provision is grossly inadequate or non existent. Thus, the absence of adequate public health investment not only results in poor health outcomes but it also leads to escalation of poverty. This article critically reviews the linkages of poverty with healthcare financing using evidence from national surveys and concludes that public financing is critical to good access to healthcare for the poor and its inadequacy is closely associated with poverty levels in the country. PMID:18032806

Duggal, Ravi

2007-10-01

8

The effects of school poverty on adolescents’ sexual health knowledge  

PubMed Central

Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to estimate the association of school poverty concentration to the sexual health knowledge of 6,718 adolescents. Controlling for individual socio-economic status, school poverty had modest negative effects on sexual health knowledge. Although not directly associated with sexual health knowledge, after controlling for demographic characteristics, school poverty interactions showed that sexual health knowledge was associated with higher grade point average (GPA) and age. The combination of low GPA and high-levels of school poverty was especially detrimental for students’ sexual health knowledge. There are differences in the sexual health knowledge of adolescents attending low poverty and high poverty schools that can be attributed to the school environment. PMID:22431188

Atkins, Robert; Sulik, Michael J.; Hart, Daniel; Ayres, Cynthia; Read, Nichole

2012-01-01

9

Nexus of Poverty, Energy Balance and Health  

PubMed Central

Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years), 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%), having main occupation of family as business (55.3%), and highest per capita income group (57.1%) with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0%) in SC/ST category and least (65.7%) in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd's Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56), not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56), belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh Classification (AOR 3.73, CI 1.22-11.41), with lowest per capita income (AOR 15.14, CI 2.44-94.14) and in age group >80 years (AOR 5.76, CI 1.03-32.39). Of those in negative energy balance, 70.21% rural adolescent girls and 7 out of 10 geriatric subjects (activity based) were victims of CED. Extent of undernutrition and CED in rural reproductive age group females were more in those caste groups where energy deficit was also of higher magnitude. Energy balance must be visualized giving due consideration to the importance of exercise on human health. The evidence thus generated needs to be translated to the masses based on principles of translational research. PMID:22654278

Mishra, C. P.

2012-01-01

10

Poverty, underdevelopment and infant mental health.  

PubMed

Very great advances have occurred in disciplinary and professional knowledge of infant development and its influence on subsequent development. This expertise includes the ways in which early experiences affect the capacity of mature individuals for social adjustment and productive competence, and promising methods of intervention to promote infant mental health and prevent adverse sequelae of risk conditions. However, very little of this knowledge has been applied in work among infants and children living in conditions of poverty and underdevelopment. This lack of application continues despite the enormous threats to the well-being of infants and young children brought about by the combined effects of poverty and the AIDS pandemic, especially in southern Africa. Protein-energy malnutrition, maternal depression, and institutional care of infants and small children are cited as illustrative of areas in which interventions, and their evaluation, are desperately needed in resource-poor countries. An argument is made for the critical importance of considering and addressing psychological factors in care givers and children in conditions of extreme material need. An example is provided of a simple intervention model based on sound developmental principles that can be implemented by trained non-professionals in conditions of poverty and underdevelopment. PMID:12755927

Richter, L M

2003-01-01

11

Poverty and inequity in adolescent health care.  

PubMed

Although poverty is not a new phenomenon, currently it has peculiar characteristics: globalization, inequity, new features in education, exclusion, gender inequalities, marginalization of native peoples and migrations, difficulties found by different sectors to have access to technology, and unemployment. These characteristics are seen not only in countries considered to be developing nations, but affect the whole world. The present international financial crisis, this time originating in industrialized countries, represents an aggravating factor, the consequences of which are still difficult to estimate. It has a particular impact on adolescents and young people in terms of health as a whole, mortality rates, violence, nutrition, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, mental health, and disabilities, all being aggravated by the difficulties of access to ap propriate health services. Social capital is seriously affected, and this entails a strong and deleterious impact not only on present generations but also on future ones. It is a challenge that cannot be ignored. PMID:20653207

Girard, Gustavo A

2009-12-01

12

Policy and Practice Poverty, equity, human rights and health  

E-print Network

Abstract Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions ’ work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions ’ efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to

Paula Braveman; Sofia Gruskin

13

Poverty, inequality and a political economy of mental health.  

PubMed

The relationship between poverty and mental health is indisputable. However, to have an influence on the next set of sustainable global development goals, we need to understand the causal relationships between social determinants such as poverty, inequality, lack of education and unemployment; thereby clarifying which aspects of poverty are the key drivers of mental illness. Some of the major challenges identified by Lund (2014) in understanding the poverty-mental health relationship are discussed including: the need for appropriate poverty indicators; extending this research agenda to a broader range of mental health outcomes; the need to engage with theoretical concepts such as Amartya Sen's capability framework; and the need to integrate the concept of income/economic inequality into studies of poverty and mental health. Although income inequality is a powerful driver of poor physical and mental health outcomes, it features rarely in research and discourse on social determinants of mental health. This paper interrogates in detail the relationships between poverty, income inequality and mental health, specifically: the role of income inequality as a mediator of the poverty-mental health relationship; the relative utility of commonly used income inequality metrics; and the likely mechanisms underlying the impact of inequality on mental health, including direct stress due to the setting up of social comparisons as well as the erosion of social capital leading to social fragmentation. Finally, we need to interrogate the upstream political, social and economic causes of inequality itself, since these should also become potential targets in efforts to promote sustainable development goals and improve population (mental) health. In particular, neoliberal (market-oriented) political doctrines lead to both increased income inequality and reduced social cohesion. In conclusion, understanding the relationships between politics, poverty, inequality and mental health outcomes requires us to develop a robust, evidence-based 'political economy of mental health.' PMID:25746820

Burns, J K

2015-04-01

14

Does poverty reduce mental health? An instrumental variable analysis.  

PubMed

That poverty and mental health are negatively associated in developing countries is well known among epidemiologists. Whether the relationship is causal or associational, however, remains an open question. This paper aims to estimate the causal effect of poverty on mental health by exploiting a natural experiment induced by weather variability across 440 districts in Indonesia (N = 577,548). Precipitation anomaly in two climatological seasons is used as an instrument for poverty status, which is measured using per capita household consumption expenditure. Results of an instrumental variable estimation suggest that poverty causes poor mental health: halving one's consumption expenditure raises the probability of suffering mental illness by 0.06 point; in terms of elasticity, a 1% decrease in consumption brings about 0.62% more symptoms of common mental disorders. This poverty effect is approximately five times stronger than that obtained prior to instrumenting and is robust to alternative distributional assumption, model specification, sample stratification and estimation technique. An individual's mental health is also negatively correlated with district income inequality, suggesting that income distribution may have a significant influence upon mental health over and above the effect of poverty. The findings imply that mental health can be improved not only by influencing individuals' health knowledge and behaviour but also by implementing a more equitable economic policy. PMID:24836844

Hanandita, Wulung; Tampubolon, Gindo

2014-07-01

15

Beyond Patient Health Escalating populations, expanding urban environments, poverty,  

E-print Network

Beyond Patient Health Escalating populations, expanding urban environments, poverty, pollution fellowships and an endowed Chair in Ecosystem Health · The Department of Biology offers undergraduates a Major health · The Chair also leads the development of the ecosystem health curriculum in the Faculty

Denham, Graham

16

The effects of poverty on children's development and oral health.  

PubMed

According to the US Census Bureau, the poverty rate for children under 18 years of age increased to 22% in 2010. Poverty leads to adverse health outcomes in children and adolescents such as harmful effects on learning, psychosocial development, physical health, productivity and family life. Because the citizens and residents of a country are its most valuable assets, it is unwise to allow housing instability, food insecurity and hunger to continue to exist at its current levels. Reducing poverty is likely to prevent illnesses, decrease hospitalizations, and lead to lower health care costs. There is also a need for intervention strategies to ensure equitable access to healthy foods across the world. Children who are food insecure are more likely to be in poor health and to have poor nutritional outcomes. Poverty may lead to poor dental health due to malnutrition or incorrect diet and it may also have an effect on the child's behavior in the dental office. An understanding of poverty will lessen the anger, frustration and prejudice that pediatric dentists may feel when working with low-income families. This manuscript presents a concise overview of the effects of poverty in children's lives. PMID:22353454

da Fonseca, Marcio A

2012-01-01

17

Poverty and transitions in health in later life.  

PubMed

Using a sample of Europeans aged 50+ from 12 countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we analyse the role of poor material conditions as a determinant of changes in health over a four- to five-year period. We find that poverty defined with respect to relative income has no effect on changes in health. However, broader measures of poor material conditions, such as subjective poverty or low wealth, significantly increase the probability of transition to poor health among the healthy and reduce the chance of recovery from poor health over the time interval analysed. In addition to this, the subjective measure of poverty has a significant effect on mortality, increasing it by 65% among men and by 68% among those aged 50-64. Material conditions affect health among older people. We suggest that if attempts to reduce poverty in later life and corresponding policy targets are to focus on the relevant measures, they should take into account broader definitions of poverty than those based only on relative incomes. PMID:25042393

Adena, Maja; Myck, Michal

2014-09-01

18

Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health.  

PubMed

African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them. PMID:25486153

Snowden, Lonnie R

2014-11-01

19

Articulations of Health and Poverty Among Women on WIC.  

PubMed

With the global financial meltdown, the crisis of poverty has deepened in communities across the United States. This essay reports results from a culture-centered project on fostering spaces for listening to the voices of the poor in CrossRoads County, Indiana. It highlights the intersections of health and poverty as they emerge from the narratives of mothers utilizing the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Depression, humiliation, and inaccessibility to health care and healthy living outline the struggles of women as they negotiate their access to health. The articulations of agency are situated around competing cultural narratives that, on the one hand, draw on the threads of individual responsibility which resonate through mainstream discourses of poverty in the United States and, on the other hand, interrogate the structural erasure of the basic capacities of health. PMID:25412104

Yehya, Nadine A; Dutta, Mohan J

2014-11-20

20

Accounting for trends in health poverty: a decomposition analysis for Britain, 1991-2008.  

PubMed

We use data from the British Household Panel Survey to analyse changes in poverty of self-reported health from 1991 to 2008. We use the indices recently introduced by Bennett and Hatzimasoura (Poverty measurement with ordinal data. Institute for International Economic Policy, IIEP-WP-2011-14, 2011), which can be interpreted as ordinal counterparts of the classical Foster et al. (Econometrica 52(3):761-766, 1984) poverty measures. We decompose changes in self-reported health poverty over time into within-group health poverty changes and population shifts between groups. We also provide statistical inference for the Bennett and Hatzimasoura's (Poverty measurement with ordinal data. Institute for International Economic Policy, IIEP-WP-2011-14, 2011) indices. Results suggest that when "fair" self-reported health status is chosen as a health poverty threshold all of the used indices indicate the growth of health poverty in Britain. However, when the health poverty threshold is lower ("poor" self-reported health status) the increase in health poverty incidence was compensated by decreasing average health poverty depth and improving health inequality among those who are poor with respect to health. The subgroup decompositions suggest that the most important factors accounting for the changes in total health poverty in Britain include a rise of both health poverty and population shares of persons cohabiting and couples with no children as well as an increase of the population of retired persons. PMID:24448758

Brzezinski, Michal

2015-03-01

21

Poverty, health & intellectual property rights with special reference to India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the nexus between poverty and global health with specific focus on IPR protection and attempts to highlight the current global endeavours to overcome barriers to access to medicines for diseases of the poor. The number of very poor people in the world has increased by 10.4 per cent between 1987 and 2001 to 2735 million. India is

K. Satyanarayana; S. Srivastava

2007-01-01

22

Improving animal health for poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods.  

PubMed

Animals are vital to ensuring food security for individuals, families and communities in countries around the world. In this, the latest article in Veterinary Record's series promoting One Health, Andy Stringer, director of veterinary programmes at the Society for the Protection of Animals Abroad, discusses how improving animal health, particularly of poultry and working equids, has the potential to reduce poverty and promote food security and sustainable livelihoods in low-income countries. PMID:25431381

Stringer, Andy

2014-11-29

23

Health and vulnerability to poverty in Ghana: evidence from the Ghana Living Standards Survey Round 5  

PubMed Central

Background An understanding of the complex relationship between health status and welfare is crucial for critical policy interventions. However, the focus of most policies in developing regions has been on current welfare to the neglect of forward-looking welfare analysis. The absence of adequate research in the area of future poverty or vulnerability to poverty has also contributed to the focus on current welfare. The objectives of this study were to estimate vulnerability to poverty among households in Ghana and examine the relationship between health status and vulnerability to poverty. Method The study used cross section data from the Fifth Round of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS 5) with a nationally representative sample of 8,687 households from all administrative regions in Ghana. A three-step Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) estimation procedure was employed to estimate vulnerability to poverty and to model the effect of health status on expected future consumption and variations in future consumption. Vulnerability to poverty estimates were also examined against various household characteristics. Results Using an upper poverty line, the estimates of vulnerability show that about 56% of households in Ghana are vulnerable to poverty in the future and this is higher than the currently observed poverty level of about 29%. Households with ill members were vulnerable to poverty. Moreover, households with poor hygiene conditions were also vulnerable to future poverty. The vulnerability to poverty estimates were, however, sensitive to the poverty line used and varied with household characteristics. Conclusion The results imply that policies directed towards poverty reduction need to take into account the vulnerability of households to future poverty. Also, hygienic conditions and health status of households need not be overlooked in poverty reduction strategies. PMID:22827954

2012-01-01

24

Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity explores the topic of poverty and how income interacts with race/ethnicity and family type in the United States. This activity uses two customized data sets; one made from combining census information from 1970-2000 and one from the 2000 Census. It guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the datasets for the activity, see links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP see instructions here.

Kofi Benefo

25

The Role of Public Health Agencies in Addressing Child and Family Poverty: Public Health Nurses’ Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Poverty rates among child-bearing families in industrialised countries remain unacceptably high and have significant implications for population health. Both today and in the past, public health nurses have observed the impact of poverty on family health and well-being every day in their practice; yet, their perspectives on their role in addressing child and family poverty are currently absent from the literature. This paper presents findings of a qualitative descriptive study that explored perspectives of public health nurses in an urban Canadian setting about the impact of poverty on the well-being of children and families, and the potential roles of health organisations and public health nurses in addressing this issue. A key finding is the large gap between the role that nurses believe they can potentially play, and their current role. Barriers that public health nurses encounter when attempting to address poverty are identified, and implications of the findings for public health policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:21347213

Cohen, Benita E; McKay, Marion

2010-01-01

26

Health Manager.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials for a college course in health management developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, 13 references, evaluation criteria, course objectives, and course competencies. It is followed by…

Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

27

Poverty, health & intellectual property rights with special reference to India.  

PubMed

This paper examines the nexus between poverty and global health with specific focus on IPR protection and attempts to highlight the current global endeavours to overcome barriers to access to medicines for diseases of the poor. The number of very poor people in the world has increased by 10.4 per cent between 1987 and 2001 to 2735 million. India is now home to the largest number of millionaires in the developing countries. But over 800 million Indians who still survive on Rs 20.0 (US$0.5) a day, and rural poverty is on the rise. The link between poverty and health is well established with the underprivileged are more vulnerable to major health risks due to poor nutrition, inadequate access to clean drinking water, sanitation, exposure to indoor smoke, etc. all of which contribute to the huge and growing burden of disease in the poor countries. The global disease burden is not just huge but growing: over 10 million children die of preventable conditions including vaccine-preventable diseases, about 14 million are killed by infectious diseases every year, 90-95 per cent in poor countries. An estimated third of global population has limited or no access to essential medicines. While the number of poor and unhealthy is growing, Government expenditure on health is dwindling. Many of the diseases of the poor require new medicines and none are forthcoming as there is little R&D for these infections. There are several barriers to access to existing and the newly discovered drugs. One major reason is the general lack of interest by the pharma industry to discover new medicines for diseases of the poor due to very limited market in developing countries. In addition, global intellectual property rights (IPR) protection regimes like the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) are considered a major obstacle for the poor access to medicines. There have been some global initiatives on the need to improve affordability and accessibility of medicines. Some strategies to promote R&D on diseases of the poor such as Prize Fund Model, the Medical R&D Treaty and steps to invoke flexibilities in TRIPS read with Doha Declaration are discussed. Health of the poor is a global problem that requires global solutions with global participation and commitment. PMID:18032814

Satyanarayana, K; Srivastava, S

2007-10-01

28

Stakeholder perceptions of mental health stigma and poverty in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: World wide, there is plentiful evidence regarding the role of stigma in mental illness, as well as the association between poverty and mental illness. The experiences of stigma catalyzed by poverty revolve around experiences of devaluation, exclusion, and disadvantage. Although the relationship between poverty, stigma and mental illness has been documented in high income countries, little has been written

Joshua Ssebunnya; Fred Kigozi; Crick Lund; Dorothy Kizza; Elialilia Okello

2009-01-01

29

Health, Education and Poverty Reduction. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 19  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally agreed that spending on education and health is key to poverty reduction, but simply allocating more resources to these sectors does not ensure that poverty actually declines. On the basis of four in-depth case studies (on Indonesia, Madagascar, Peru and Tanzania) and three Technical Papers on malnutrition and primary education in…

Morrisson, Christian

2002-01-01

30

Creating Nurturing Environments: A Science-Based Framework for Promoting Child Health and Development within High-Poverty Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods…

Komro, Kelli A.; Flay, Brian R.; Biglan, Anthony

2011-01-01

31

Multidimensional Poverty in Rural Mozambique: A New Metric for Evaluating Public Health Interventions  

PubMed Central

Background Poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon and unidimensional measurements have proven inadequate to the challenge of assessing its dynamics. Dynamics between poverty and public health intervention is among the most difficult yet important problems faced in development. We sought to demonstrate how multidimensional poverty measures can be utilized in the evaluation of public health interventions; and to create geospatial maps of poverty deprivation to aid implementers in prioritizing program planning. Methods Survey teams interviewed a representative sample of 3,749 female heads of household in 259 enumeration areas across Zambézia in August-September 2010. We estimated a multidimensional poverty index, which can be disaggregated into context-specific indicators. We produced an MPI comprised of 3 dimensions and 11 weighted indicators selected from the survey. Households were identified as “poor” if were deprived in >33% of indicators. Our MPI is an adjusted headcount, calculated by multiplying the proportion identified as poor (headcount) and the poverty gap (average deprivation). Geospatial visualizations of poverty deprivation were created as a contextual baseline for future evaluation. Results In our rural (96%) and urban (4%) interviewees, the 33% deprivation cut-off suggested 58.2% of households were poor (29.3% of urban vs. 59.5% of rural). Among the poor, households experienced an average deprivation of 46%; thus the MPI/adjusted headcount is 0.27 (?=?0.58×0.46). Of households where a local language was the primary language, 58.6% were considered poor versus Portuguese-speaking households where 73.5% were considered non-poor. Living standard is the dominant deprivation, followed by health, and then education. Conclusions Multidimensional poverty measurement can be integrated into program design for public health interventions, and geospatial visualization helps examine the impact of intervention deployment within the context of distinct poverty conditions. Both permit program implementers to focus resources and critically explore linkages between poverty and its social determinants, thus deriving useful findings for evidence-based planning. PMID:25268951

Victor, Bart; Blevins, Meridith; Green, Ann F.; Ndatimana, Elisée; González-Calvo, Lázaro; Fischer, Edward F.; Vergara, Alfredo E.; Vermund, Sten H.; Olupona, Omo; Moon, Troy D.

2014-01-01

32

Health safety nets can break cycles of poverty and disease: a stochastic ecological model  

PubMed Central

The persistence of extreme poverty is increasingly attributed to dynamic interactions between biophysical processes and economics, though there remains a dearth of integrated theoretical frameworks that can inform policy. Here, we present a stochastic model of disease-driven poverty traps. Whereas deterministic models can result in poverty traps that can only be broken by substantial external changes to the initial conditions, in the stochastic model there is always some probability that a population will leave or enter a poverty trap. We show that a ‘safety net’, defined as an externally enforced minimum level of health or economic conditions, can guarantee ultimate escape from a poverty trap, even if the safety net is set within the basin of attraction of the poverty trap, and even if the safety net is only in the form of a public health measure. Whereas the deterministic model implies that small improvements in initial conditions near the poverty-trap equilibrium are futile, the stochastic model suggests that the impact of changes in the location of the safety net on the rate of development may be strongest near the poverty-trap equilibrium. PMID:21593026

Pluci?ski, Mateusz M.; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Bonds, Matthew H.

2011-01-01

33

A Commentary on "Piercing the Bubble": Should Management Education "Confront" Poverty?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary contrasts "Piercing the Bubble" by proposing "pull" (rather than "push") strategies as a way for business schools to more meaningfully engage poverty and social exclusion. By reframing poverty issues in such a manner that they connect with core business student interests of career opportunities, current management practices, and…

Dart, Raymond

2008-01-01

34

The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth: Implications for Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the implications for prevention science of recent advances in research on family poverty and children's mental, emotional, and behavioral health. First, we describe definitions of poverty and the conceptual and empirical challenges to estimating the causal effects of poverty on children's mental, emotional, and behavioral…

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Aber, J. Lawrence; Beardslee, William R.

2012-01-01

35

Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategies in  

E-print Network

.f. Health Disparity in Saskatoon) Income is the single greatest determinant of health among low income determinants of health Poverty is a foremost determinant #12;What is poverty? Poverty is different from and other Canadian provinces, using MBM #12;Poverty and health Poverty is terrible for people's health (c

Peak, Derek

36

Reconnecting with poverty: new challenges of disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – It is clear that poverty can be a key factor to take into consideration at time of potentiating or mitigating the unexpected aftermaths of disasters. In some extent, the degree of vulnerability created by poverty leads scholars to preclude material conditions of life plays a pivotal role in disaster rebuilt. Nonetheless, the present paper aims to explore precisely

Maximiliano E. Korstanje

2011-01-01

37

Mutual influences of health and poverty. Evidence from German panel data.  

PubMed

While a large body of literature is concerned with the interplay of health and poverty in developing countries, comparable studies for developed countries are rare. Using data drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), this paper investigates the relationships between changes in relative income poverty, income changes and health-related quality of life in Germany, i.e. in an environment with nominally equal access to medical care, education and social security. A fundamental five-dimensional health concept is introduced and tested for its empirical performance. The background of the causal analysis is formed by two hypotheses, one regarding low income as a possible cause for poor health (prevention hypothesis) and the other assuming the opposite causal direction (deprivation hypothesis). By means of a descriptive analysis and a structural equations model, the existence of a more complex relational web between health and poverty is demonstrated. PMID:9255919

Thiede, M; Traub, S

1997-09-01

38

Fostering food security in areas of extreme poverty through Integrated Farm Management: the case of Burundi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme poverty in Burundi's rural area and tensions between families with limited access to arable land hinder development towards a more stable and peaceful society. Due to these tensions and a rapid population growth, agricultural land is currently subject to increased degradation and low agricultural productivity. A whole range of other limiting factors contributes to this, such as: poor seed quality, poor nutrient management combined with low soil fertility, inadequate agronomic practices, pests and crop diseases, poorly developed supply chains, health problems, difficult access to credit, and insecurity. Solving one of these problems will not solve the chain that eventually leads to low food production; it will simply move the emphasis to the next constraining factor. An integrated rural development approach is therefore required to break this vicious circle. The project Fanning the Spark, a Public-Private-Partnership between Achmea Foundation, Alterra of Wageningen University and Research Centre, and HealthNet-TPO in Burundi started in September 2013 with an intervention in several rural villages in Gitega. The project's objective is to increase food production at village level, by means of investments in crop production, a family (income) insurance package that protects rural families against the financial consequences of catastrophic events (natural and health) and making micro-credits available. This will enhance farmers' workability and generate income from agricultural activities in order to break the poverty cycle and enhance food security. The insurance package comprises agricultural and health insurances, and will be jointly implemented with the sustainable agriculture component. The latter component focuses on Integrated Farm Management and the use of innovative soil management practices. Farmer-to-farmer training and scaling-up are crucial components, and in the first phase of the project "innovative farmer groups" have a central role in the project. Each innovative farmer formulates and implements an Integrated Farm Management plan. This is a tool for farmers to plan, reflect and learn about sustainable land management, and particularly about the integration of all farm activities and how these contribute together to enhanced food security. Activities considered in these Integrated Farm Management plans are related to agriculture, livestock, infrastructure, agroforestry, soil conservation and training. The first results of the acceptance and impact of the strategy are now available, and in the next phase all innovative farmers will implement their plans and train fellow farmers to start planning their own Integrated Farm Management.

Kessler, Aad; van Duivenbooden, Niek; van Beek, Christy

2014-05-01

39

Relative Deprivation, Poverty, and Subjective Health: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the association between relative deprivation (lacking daily necessities) and subjective health in older Japanese adults, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). The data were obtained from functionally independent residents aged ?65 years from 24 municipalities in Japan (n?=?24,742). Thirteen items in three dimensions were used to evaluate relative deprivation of material conditions. Approximately 28% of older Japanese people indicated that they lacked some daily necessities (non-monetary poverty). A two-level Poisson regression analysis revealed that relative deprivation was associated with poor self-rated health (PR?=?1.3–1.5) and depressive symptoms (PR?=?1.5–1.8) in both men and women, and these relationships were stronger than those observed in people living in relative poverty (monetary poverty). The interaction effect between relative deprivation and relative poverty was not associated with poor health. As a dimension of the social determinants of health, poverty should be evaluated from a multidimensional approach, capturing not only monetary conditions but also material-based, non-monetary conditions. PMID:25350284

Saito, Masashige; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Abe, Aya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kayo

2014-01-01

40

Can Economic Deprivation Protect Health? Paradoxical Multilevel Effects of Poverty on Hispanic Children’s Wheezing  

PubMed Central

Prior research suggests that economic deprivation has a generally negative influence on residents’ health. We employ hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test if economic deprivation presents respiratory health risks or benefits to Hispanic children living in the City of El Paso (Texas, USA) at neighborhood- and individual-levels, and whether individual-level health effects of economic deprivation vary based on neighborhood-level economic deprivation. Data come from the US Census Bureau and a population-based survey of El Paso schoolchildren. The dependent variable is children’s current wheezing, an established respiratory morbidity measure, which is appropriate for use with economically-deprived children with an increased likelihood of not receiving a doctor’s asthma diagnosis. Results reveal that economic deprivation (measured based on poverty status) at both neighborhood- and individual-levels is associated with reduced odds of wheezing for Hispanic children. A sensitivity analysis revealed similar significant effects of individual- and neighborhood-level poverty on the odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Neighborhood-level poverty did not significantly modify the observed association between individual-level poverty and Hispanic children’s wheezing; however, greater neighborhood poverty tends to be more protective for poor (as opposed to non-poor) Hispanic children. These findings support a novel, multilevel understanding of seemingly paradoxical effects of economic deprivation on Hispanic health. PMID:25101769

Collins, Timothy W.; Kim, Young-an; Grineski, Sara E.; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie

2014-01-01

41

Piercing the Bubble: How Management Students Can Confront Poverty in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the current relationship between management education in Colombia and the efforts of the management program at Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB) in Medellin to reduce local poverty. The article uses the metaphor of "the bubble" to illustrate how social class, family socialization, and the current UPB management

Rosenbloom, Al; Cortes, Juan Alejandro

2008-01-01

42

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released in August 2005 by the U.S. Census Bureau, this timely 85-page report examines recent changes within the demographic profile of the real median household income of US residents, along with material on the nation's official poverty rate and those persons without health insurance coverage. The data in the report is based on information from 2003 and 2004, and notes that the nation's official poverty rate rose from 12.5 percent in 2003 to 12.7 percent in 2004. The report also notes that the number of persons without health insurance coverage increased by approximately 800,000 to 45.8 million. The report itself is divided into six chapters, and also includes four appendices which details such crucial research questions as how the Bureau measures income and poverty. For persons with a keen interest in this subject (such as policy makers or scholars) this report will be a valued research tool.

2005-01-01

43

[Poverty and Health: The Living Standard Approach as a Supplementary Concept to Measure Relative Poverty. Results from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP 2011).  

PubMed

Background: A common indicator of the measurement of relative poverty is the disposable income of a household. Current research introduces the living standard approach as an alternative concept for describing and measuring relative poverty. This study compares both approaches with regard to subjective health status of the German population, and provides theoretical implications for the utilisation of the income and living standard approach in health research. Methods: Analyses are based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) from the year 2011 that includes 12?290 private households and 21106 survey members. Self-rated health was based on a subjective assessment of general health status. Income poverty is based on the equalised disposable income and is applied to a threshold of 60% of the median-based average income. A person will be denoted as deprived (inadequate living standard) if 3 or more out of 11 living standard items are lacking due to financial reasons. To calculate the discriminate power of both poverty indicators, descriptive analyses and stepwise logistic regression models were applied separately for men and women adjusted for age, residence, nationality, educational level, occupational status and marital status. Results: The results of the stepwise regression revealed a stronger poverty-health relationship for the living standard indicator. After adjusting for all control variables and the respective poverty indicator, income poverty was statistically not significantly associated with a poor subjective health status among men (OR Men: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00-1.77) and women (OR Women: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.78-1.22). In contrast, the association between deprivation and subjective health status was statistically significant for men (OR Men: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57-2.52) and women (OR Women: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.76-2.64). Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the income and standard of living approach measure different dimensions of poverty. In comparison to the income approach, the living standard approach measures stronger shortages of wealth and is relatively robust towards gender differences. This study expands the current debate about complementary research on the association between poverty and health. PMID:25390878

Pförtner, T-K

2014-11-12

44

Managing and Leveraging Poverty: Implications for Teaching International Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over half of the world's population lives on less than $2 a day, and yet international business education to date has continued to ignore the not so well-off customers. We propose a holistic pedagogical approach to studying this market by considering the historical background of the growth of inequality and poverty in different regions of the…

Roy, Abhijit; Roy, Mousumi

2010-01-01

45

Creating Nurturing Environments: A Science-Based Framework for Promoting Child Health and Development within High-Poverty Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods Research Consortium describes a science-based framework for the promotion of child health and development within distressed high-poverty neighborhoods. We lay out a model of child and adolescent developmental outcomes, and integrate knowledge of potent and malleable influences to define a comprehensive intervention framework to bring about a significant increase in the proportion of young people in high-poverty neighborhoods who will develop successfully. Based on a synthesis of research from diverse fields, we designed the Creating Nurturing Environments framework to guide community-wide efforts to improve child outcomes and reduce health and educational inequalities. PMID:21468644

Komro, Kelli A.; Flay, Brian R.; Biglan, Anthony

2013-01-01

46

Poverty, Education and Health in Indonesia: Who Benefits from Public Spending? Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on two important dimensions of Indonesia's development record: education and health. The paper investigates the extent to which the poor benefit from public and private provisioning of these services. Multiple rounds of annual household surveys document a reversal in the rate of decline in poverty and a slowdown in improvements…

Lanjouw, Peter; Pradhan, Menno; Saadah, Fadia; Sayed, Haneen; Sparrow, Robert

47

School-Based Mental Health Services for Children Living in High Poverty Urban Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the effectiveness of a school-based mental health service model, PALS (Positive Attitudes toward Learning in School), focused on increasing initial and ongoing access to services, and promoting improved classroom and home behavior for children referred for Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD) from three high poverty urban elementary schools. Classrooms were randomly assigned to PALS or referral to a neighborhood mental

Marc S. Atkins; Stacy L. Frazier; Dina Birman; Jaleel Abdul Adil; Maudette Jackson; Patricia A. Graczyk; Elizabeth Talbott; A. David Farmer; Carl C. Bell; Mary M. McKay

2006-01-01

48

Government health insurance for people below poverty line in India: quasi-experimental evaluation of insurance and health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the effects of a government insurance program covering tertiary care for people below the poverty line in Karnataka, India, on out-of-pocket expenditures, hospital use, and mortality. Design Geographic regression discontinuity study. Setting 572 villages in Karnataka, India. Participants 31 476 households (22 796 below poverty line and 8680 above poverty line) in 300 villages where the scheme was implemented and 28 633 households (21 767 below poverty line and 6866 above poverty line) in 272 neighboring matched villages ineligible for the scheme. Intervention A government insurance program (Vajpayee Arogyashree scheme) that provided free tertiary care to households below the poverty line in about half of villages in Karnataka from February 2010 to August 2012. Main outcome measure Out-of-pocket expenditures, hospital use, and mortality. Results Among households below the poverty line, the mortality rate from conditions potentially responsive to services covered by the scheme (mostly cardiac conditions and cancer) was 0.32% in households eligible for the scheme compared with 0.90% among ineligible households just south of the eligibility border (difference of 0.58 percentage points, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.75; P<0.001). We found no difference in mortality rates for households above the poverty line (households above the poverty line were not eligible for the scheme), with a mortality rate from conditions covered by the scheme of 0.56% in eligible villages compared with 0.55% in ineligible villages (difference of 0.01 percentage points, ?0.03 to 0.03; P=0.95). Eligible households had significantly reduced out-of-pocket health expenditures for admissions to hospitals with tertiary care facilities likely to be covered by the scheme (64% reduction, 35% to 97%; P<0.001). There was no significant increase in use of covered services, although the point estimate of a 44.2% increase approached significance (?5.1% to 90.5%; P=0.059). Both reductions in out-of-pocket expenditures and potential increases in use might have contributed to the observed reductions in mortality. Conclusions Insuring poor households for efficacious but costly and underused health services significantly improves population health in India. PMID:25214509

Bendavid, Eran; Mukherji, Arnab; Wagner, Zachary; Nagpal, Somil; Mullen, Patrick

2014-01-01

49

Poverty Grown Up: How Childhood Socioeconomic Status Impacts Adult Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socioeconomic status and health status are directly related across the world. Children with low-socioeconomic status not only experience greater health problems in childhood but also aspects of their socioeconomic status become biologically incorporated through both critical periods of development and cumulative effects, leading to poor health outcomes as adults. We explore 3 main influences related to child's socioeconomic status that

Kathleen Conroy; Megan Sandel; Barry Zuckerman

2010-01-01

50

Multiplatform Airplane Health Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Airplane Health Management (IAHM) program is a Navy research activity led by The Boeing Company with support from the University of Hawaii, Referentia Systems Incorporated, and Impact Technologies, LLC. The program focuses on interoperable multi-platform aircraft health management data handling and analysis methods applicable to military aircraft and commercial air transportation. A primary goal of the program is

Greg J. Clark; John L. Vian; Michael E. West; Vassilis L. Syrmos; William F. Randolph; William J. Hardman

2007-01-01

51

Poverty and Health: Children's Medical Care. Discussion Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data obtained from a National Center for Health Statistics Household Health Survey, a model for children's medical care utilization was tested. The variables included in the model were need, physician supply, family preference, and family disposable income. The first question addressed was the income effect on children's visits to…

Lefcowitz, Myron J.

52

Differences in Housing, Health, and Well-Being among HIV-Positive Women Living in Poverty.  

PubMed

The social context of living in poverty has a direct and indirect impact on a woman's health and well-being. This cross-sectional study investigates the relationship between housing and adherence to treatment, emotional wellness, environmental safety, physical health status, and risk behaviors among HIV-positive women receiving services from an AIDS service organization in the mid-South. Significant differences were found between stably housed and unstably housed women on the dependent outcome variables. Results suggest that housing services for HIV-positive women may be an effective way to increase their health and well-being as well as prevent transmission to others. PMID:25757995

Delavega, Elena; Lennon-Dearing, Robin

2015-01-01

53

Protocol: realist synthesis of the impact of unemployment insurance policies on poverty and health.  

PubMed

Unemployment insurance is an important social protection policy that buffers unemployed workers against poverty and poor health. Most unemployment insurance studies focus on whether increases in unemployment insurance generosity are predictive of poverty and health outcomes. Less work has used theory-driven approaches to understand and explain how and why unemployment insurance works, for whom, and under what circumstances. Given this, we present a realist synthesis protocol that seeks to unpack how contextual influences trigger relevant mechanisms to generate poverty and health outcomes. In this protocol, we conceptualize unemployment insurance as a key social protection policy; provide a supporting rationale on the need for a realist synthesis; and describe our process on identifying context-mechanism-outcome pattern configurations. Six methodological steps are described: initial theory development, search strategy; selection and appraisal of documents; data extraction; analysis and synthesis process; and presentation and dissemination of revised theory. Our forthcoming realist synthesis will be the first to build and test theory on the intended and unintended outcomes of unemployment insurance policies. Anticipated findings will allow policymakers to move beyond 'black box' approaches to consider 'mechanism-based' explanations that explicate the logic on how and why unemployment insurance matters. PMID:25265163

Molnar, Agnes; O'Campo, Patricia; Ng, Edwin; Mitchell, Christiane; Muntaner, Carles; Renahy, Emilie; St John, Alexander; Shankardass, Ketan

2015-02-01

54

Geographic variation in health care and the affluence-poverty nexus.  

PubMed

Almost 50 years ago, John F. Kennedy told Yale's graduating class that "what is needed today is a new, difficult but essential confrontation with reality, for the great enemy of truth is very often not the lie-deliberate, contrived and dishonest-but the myth-persistent, persuasive and unrealistic." Today's myth is the belief that 30% of health care spending is due to supplier-induced demand and that this amount could be saved if high-spending regions could more closely resemble low-spending regions. The reality is that, while quality and efficiency remain important goals, the major factors driving geographic differences are related to income inequality. Yet, following the road map of the Dartmouth Atlas, the Affordable Care Act includes penalties for hospitals with excess preventable readmissions (which are mainly of the poor), incentive payments for providers in counties that have the lowest Medicare expenditures (where there tends to be less poverty), incentives for physicians and hospitals that attain new "efficiency standards" (ie, costs similar to the lowest), and a call for the Institute of Medicine to recommend additional incentive strategies based on geographic variation. This scenario iscoupled with a growing bureaucracy, following the blueprint laid out by Brennan and Berwick in the 1990s, but with no tangible measures to increase physician supply. Meaningful health care reform means accepting the reality that poverty and its cultural extensions are the major cause of geographic variation in health care utilization and a major source of escalating health care spending. And it means acknowledging Bertrand Russell's admonition that a high degree of income inequality is not compatible with political democracy, nor is it compatible with health care that this nation can afford. As solutions are sought both within and outside of the health care system, misunderstandings of how and why health care varies geographically cannot be allowed to deter these efforts, and the pervasive impact of poverty cannot be ignored. PMID:21954679

Cooper, Richard A

2011-01-01

55

Poverty, global health, and infectious disease: lessons from Haiti and Rwanda.  

PubMed

Poverty and infectious diseases interact in complex ways. Casting destitution as intractable, or epidemics that afflict the poor as accidental, erroneously exonerates us from responsibility for caring for those most in need. Adequately addressing communicable diseases requires a biosocial appreciation of the structural forces that shape disease patterns. Most health interventions in resource-poor settings could garner support based on cost/benefit ratios with appropriately lengthy time horizons to capture the return on health investments and an adequate accounting of externalities; however, such a calculus masks the suffering of inaction and risks eroding the most powerful incentive to act: redressing inequality. PMID:21896362

Alsan, Marcella M; Westerhaus, Michael; Herce, Michael; Nakashima, Koji; Farmer, Paul E

2011-09-01

56

Poverty, income inequality, and health care consumption in Thailand.  

PubMed

The Thai economy has grown rapidly during the past three decades of modern industrialization. The structure of the economy has been changing from an agricultural to manufacturing based. Because industrial development policies has been biased toward Bangkok and surrounding provinces, regional income disparities have been widening. Despite the high growth record, Thailand has failed to distribute the benefits of economic growth equitably. This problem of income distribution could have many important consequences of relevance to the health of population. PMID:7667702

Sarntisart, I

1994-12-01

57

The Impact of Relative Poverty on Norwegian Adolescents’ Subjective Health: A Causal Analysis with Propensity Score Matching  

PubMed Central

Studies have revealed that relative poverty is associated with ill health, but the interpretations of this correlation vary. This article asks whether relative poverty among Norwegian adolescents is causally related to poor subjective health, i.e., self-reported somatic and mental symptoms. Data consist of interview responses from a sample of adolescents (N = 510) and their parents, combined with register data on the family’s economic situation. Relatively poor adolescents had significantly worse subjective health than non-poor adolescents. Relatively poor adolescents also experienced many other social disadvantages, such as parental unemployment and parental ill health. Comparisons between the relatively poor and the non-poor adolescents, using propensity score matching, indicated a negative impact of relative poverty on the subjective health among those adolescents who lived in families with relatively few economic resources. The results suggest that there is a causal component in the association between relative poverty and the symptom burden of disadvantaged adolescents. Relative poverty is only one of many determinants of adolescents’ subjective health, but its role should be acknowledged when policies for promoting adolescent health are designed. PMID:23249858

Elstad, Jon Ivar; Pedersen, Axel West

2012-01-01

58

Poverty, Socio-Economic Position, Social Capital and the Health of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities in Britain: A Replication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: When compared with their nonintellectually disabled peers, people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have poorer health and are more likely to be exposed to poverty during childhood. Given that exposure to child poverty has been linked to poorer health outcomes, we attempted to estimate the extent to which the health inequalities…

Emerson, E.; Hatton, C.

2007-01-01

59

[Society and health management].  

PubMed

The Health Management require acting according the social reality. The economic crisis for the unemployments and the State debts could affected to support Health System. The cost per capita: 1,800 euros. At Alma-Ata 1970 WHO improve Primary Care as open door in the Heath System. Some problems are common to all countries (frequency of diseases, demands, danger individual and community, feasibility of action, economic consequences, (PC in our country 15,7%). Should improve the Community development, and the environment. The participation of Primary Health Workers in the Management cover health care and community development and coaching, should be regularly supervised, and to avoid Risk Factor to Health. PMID:24294715

Del Rey Calero, Juan

2012-01-01

60

Paying attention to gender and poverty in health research: content and process issues.  

PubMed Central

Despite the magnitude of the problem of health inequity within and between countries, little systematic research has been done on the social causes of ill-health. Health researchers have overwhelmingly focused on biomedical research at the level of individuals. Investigations into the health of groups and the determinants of health inequities that lie outside the control of the individual have received a much smaller share of research resources. Ignoring factors such as socioeconomic class, race and gender leads to biases in both the content and process of research. We use two such factors--poverty and gender--to illustrate how this occurs. There is a systematic imbalance in medical journals: research into diseases that predominate in the poorest regions of the world is less likely to be published. In addition, the slow recognition of women's health problems, misdirected and partial approaches to understanding women's and men's health, and the dearth of information on how gender interacts with other social determinants continue to limit the content of health research. In the research community these imbalances in content are linked to biases against researchers from poorer regions and women. Researchers from high-income countries benefit from better funding and infrastructure. Their publications dominate journals and citations, and these researchers also dominate advisory boards. The way to move forward is to correct biases against poverty and gender in research content and processes and provide increased funding and better career incentives to support equity-linked research. Journals need to address equity concerns in their published content and in the publishing process. Efforts to broaden access to research information need to be well resourced, publicized and expanded. PMID:15643794

Ostlin, Piroska; Sen, Gita; George, Asha

2004-01-01

61

Social welfare matters: A realist review of when, how, and why unemployment insurance impacts poverty and health.  

PubMed

The recent global recession and concurrent rise in job loss makes unemployment insurance (UI) increasingly important to smooth patterns of consumption and keep households from experiencing extreme material poverty. In this paper, we undertake a realist review to produce a critical understanding of how and why UI policies impact on poverty and health in different welfare state contexts between 2000 and 2013. We relied on literature and expert interviews to generate an initial theory and set of propositions about how UI might alleviate poverty and mental distress. We then systematically located and synthesized peer-review studies to glean supportive or contradictory evidence for our initial propositions. Poverty and psychological distress, among unemployed and even the employed, are impacted by generosity of UI in terms of eligibility, duration and wage replacement levels. Though unemployment benefits are not intended to compensate fully for a loss of earnings, generous UI programs can moderate harmful consequences of unemployment. PMID:25795992

O'Campo, Patricia; Molnar, Agnes; Ng, Edwin; Renahy, Emilie; Mitchell, Christiane; Shankardass, Ketan; St John, Alexander; Bambra, Clare; Muntaner, Carles

2015-05-01

62

Poverty, environment, and health: the role of environmental epidemiology and environmental epidemiologists.  

PubMed

International attention is focusing increasingly on environmental concerns, from global warming and extreme weather to persistent chemical pollutants that affect our food supplies, health and well-being. These environmental exposures disproportionately affect the poor and those residing in developing countries, and may partly explain the persistent social gradients in health that exist within and between nations. We support recent calls for environmental epidemiologists to play a more active role in furthering the global agenda for sustainability, environmental health and equity. We further suggest that the discipline of environmental epidemiology, as well as relevant funding agencies, broaden their focus to include rigorous research on the upstream, larger-scale societal factors that contribute to inequitable patterns of exposure and health outcomes. By widening the scope of our vision and increasing the strength and breadth of the evidence base about how poverty and environment together affect health, we can better participate in efforts to promote social justice and responsible use and protection of the environment, and thus reduce health inequities. That is both a primary mode and rationale for achieving sustainability. PMID:18049181

O'Neill, Marie S; McMichael, Anthony J; Schwartz, Joel; Wartenberg, Daniel

2007-11-01

63

American Health Information Management Association  

MedlinePLUS

... a healthcare organization that demonstrates outstanding health information management across its organization and community. Submit your nomination ... YouTube Copyright © 2014 by The American Health Information Management Association. All Rights Reserved.

64

The Perceptions of Principals and Teachers Regarding Mental Health Providers' Impact on Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the perceptions of principals and teachers regarding mental health provider's impact on student achievement and behavior in high poverty schools using descriptive statistics, t-test, and two-way ANOVA. Respondents in this study shared similar views concerning principal and teacher satisfaction and levels of support for the…

Perry, Teresa

2012-01-01

65

"The walls were so damp and cold" fuel poverty and ill health in Northern Ireland: results from a housing intervention.  

PubMed

This article reports the findings from an evaluation of a fuel poverty programme in the Armagh and Dungannon Health Action Zone in Northern Ireland. Focusing on a rural community, it adds to the debate surrounding the hidden nature of rural fuel poverty. As part of the programme, energy efficiency measures, including some central heating systems, were installed in 54 homes. Surveys were conducted both pre and post intervention and analysed to assess any changes. The programme demonstrated that energy efficiency intervention can lead to improvements in health and well being, increased comfort levels in the home and a reduction in the use of health services, therefore having potential cost savings for the NHS. Some households, however, remain in fuel poverty after having full central heating installed, reflecting the significant contribution of low income on the production of fuel poverty. The article concludes by suggesting that interventions in this area require commitment from multiple sectors of society, including health professionals and local communities. PMID:16343973

Shortt, Niamh; Rugkåsa, Jorun

2007-03-01

66

Paniya Voices: A Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment among a marginalized South Indian tribal population  

PubMed Central

Background In India, indigenous populations, known as Adivasi or Scheduled Tribes (STs), are among the poorest and most marginalized groups. 'Deprived' ST groups tend to display high levels of resignation and to lack the capacity to aspire; consequently their health perceptions often do not adequately correspond to their real health needs. Moreover, similar to indigenous populations elsewhere, STs often have little opportunity to voice perspectives framed within their own cultural worldviews. We undertook a study to gather policy-relevant data on the views, experiences, and priorities of a marginalized and previously enslaved tribal group in South India, the Paniyas, who have little 'voice' or power over their own situation. Methods/design We implemented a Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment (PPHA). We adopted guiding principles and an ethical code that promote respect for Paniya culture and values. The PPHA, informed by a vulnerability framework, addressed five key themes (health and illness, well-being, institutions, education, gender) using participatory approaches and qualitative methods. We implemented the PPHA in five Paniya colonies (clusters of houses in a small geographical area) in a gram panchayat (lowest level decentralized territorial unit) to generate data that can be quickly disseminated to decision-makers through interactive workshops and public forums. Preliminary findings Findings indicated that the Paniyas are caught in multiple 'vulnerability traps', that is, they view their situation as vicious cycles from which it is difficult to break free. Conclusion The PPHA is a potentially useful approach for global health researchers working with marginalized communities to implement research initiatives that will address those communities' health needs in an ethical and culturally appropriate manner. PMID:20307290

2010-01-01

67

Intelligent Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

68

Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

This article is a review of the PhD thesis of Mark Collinson, titled, ‘Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa’. The findings show that in rural South Africa, temporary migration has a major impact on household well-being and health. Remittances from migrants make a significant difference to socioeconomic status (SES) in households left behind by the migrant. For the poorest households the key factors improving SES are government grants and female temporary migration, while for the less poor it is male temporary migration and local employment. Migration is associated with HIV but not in straightforward ways. Migrants that return more frequently may be less exposed to outside partners and therefore less implicated in the HIV epidemic. There are links between migration and mortality patterns, including a higher risk of dying for returnee migrants compared with permanent residents. A mother's migration impacts significantly on child survival for South African and former refugee parents, but there is an additional mortality risk for children of Mozambican former refugees. It is recommended that national censuses and surveys account for temporary migration when collecting information on household membership, because different migration types have different outcomes. Without discriminating between different migration types, the implications for sending and receiving communities will remain lost to policy-makers. PMID:20531981

Collinson, Mark A.

2010-01-01

69

[Health and the green economy: challenges for sustainable development and the eradication of poverty].  

PubMed

In a scenario where ecosystemic services are being eroded and there is high social inequity, a new model of development is necessary, namely one capable of promoting social development with a reduction of its ecological footprint. The 'Green Economy' model is one of the proposed models. This paper seeks to analyze the environmental, social and individual impacts on human health in the context of a 'brown economy', and discusses the contributions of a green economy on the promotion of equity and health. The assumption is that economic development and environmental sustainability are not incompatible and both contribute to the eradication of poverty. The transition to a sustainable economy depends on political decisions, and transcends technological developments. Above all, it should instigate new models of production, consumption and social organization, which promote socio-environmental justice, encouraging social participation and democratic forms of governance to define a solid agenda for the implementation of sustainable development and mechanisms to implement them at all levels. PMID:22699637

Gallo, Edmundo; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Buss, Daniel Forsin; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Buss, Paulo Marchiori

2012-06-01

70

Medical and Health Services Managers  

MedlinePLUS

... managers often work closely with medical staff to plan, direct, and coordinate the delivery of healthcare. Quick ... managers, also called healthcare executives or healthcare administrators, plan, direct, and coordinate medical and health services. They ...

71

Is Violent Radicalisation Associated with Poverty, Migration, Poor Self-Reported Health and Common Mental Disorders?  

PubMed Central

Background Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders), and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. Results 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>£75,000 a year). People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. Conclusions Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors. PMID:24599058

Bhui, Kamaldeep; Warfa, Nasir; Jones, Edgar

2014-01-01

72

Enhancing Schools’ Capacity to Support Children in Poverty: An Ecological Model of School-Based Mental Health Services  

PubMed Central

School based mental health services for children in poverty can capitalize on schools’ inherent capacity to support development and bridge home and neighborhood ecologies. We propose an ecological model informed by public health and organizational theories to refocus school based services in poor communities on the core function of schools to promote learning. We describe how coalescing mental health resources around school goals includes a focus on universal programming, mobilizing indigenous school and community resources, and supporting core teaching technologies. We suggest an iterative research–practice approach to program adaptation and implementation as a means toward advancing science and developing healthy children. PMID:18581225

Frazier, Stacy L.; Atkins, Marc S.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Glisson, Charles

2013-01-01

73

Poverty Increases Type 2 Diabetes Incidence and Inequality of Care Despite Universal Health Coverage  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The discrepancy of diabetes incidence and care between socioeconomic statuses has seldom been studied concurrently in nations with universal health coverage. We aimed to delineate whether income disparity is associated with diabetes incidence and inequality of care under a national health insurance (NHI) program in Asia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS From the Taiwan NHI database in 2000, a representative cohort aged ?20 years and free of diabetes (n = 600,662) were followed up until 2005. We regarded individuals exempt from paying the NHI premium as being poor. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were used to discover any excess risk of diabetes in the poor population. The indicators used to evaluate quality of diabetes care included the proportion of diabetic patients identified through hospitalization, visits to diabetes clinics, and completion of recommended diabetes tests. RESULTS The incidence of type 2 diabetes in the poor population was 20.4 per 1,000 person-years (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3–1.7). Compared with their middle-income counterparts, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the poor population incidentally identified as having diabetes through hospitalization was 2.2 (P < 0.001). Poor persons with diabetes were less likely to visit any diabetes clinic (OR, 0.4; P < 0.001). The ORs for the poor population with diabetes to receive tests for glycated hemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and retinopathy were 0.6 (0.4–0.9), 0.4 (0.2–0.7), 0.5 (0.4–0.8), and 0.4 (0.2–0.9), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Poverty is associated not only with higher diabetes incidence but also with inequality of diabetes care in a northeast Asian population, despite universal health coverage. PMID:22912425

Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Hua; Wahlqvist, Mark L.; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chen, Likwang; Shih, Shu-Fang; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Chen, Ted; Huang, Chi-Ting; Cheng, Jur-Shan

2012-01-01

74

Poverty Matters: The Cost of Child Poverty in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The poverty affecting 14.5 million U.S. children living below the poverty line poses long-term effects, including risks to health, educational achievement, family stability, and employment prospects. This report provides compelling evidence of the substantial costs of poverty among children to our nation's economic well-being, and shows that…

Sherman, Arloc

75

[Demographic changes and health management].  

PubMed

Since our Constitution declaration in 1978 and General Law for Health in 1986, to date, the Spanish society has undergorne marked social changes. Socio-economic and health indicators in Spain have also improved as to an increased life expectancy, important reduction in infant mortality, and favourable changes reported in the national Health Survey. Risk factors influence the main causes of death, thus it is said that "man does not die but it kills himself". Healthy health practices are specified, and there is empirical evidence of greater disability-adjusted life years, a better adherence to Mediterranean diet, no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, enough time of sleeping, weight control, avoiding obsity and overweight, and increased physical activity, all the above practices achieving a healthier life. At a global scale in the world we live, famine has no frontiers, and fighting against this plague can not await longer. Overall, health and poverty are correlated and it must be overcome for reasons of human dignity, universal rights (even in ius gentium), and ethical dimension as normative of new socio-economic structures. Present must be transformed to recover hope in ou global world, still hungry, and in need of justice, enlightenment and solidarity. PMID:17172218

Calero, Juan del Rey

2006-01-01

76

Knowledge Management in Health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

While knowledge management (KM) is becoming an established discipline with many applications and techniques, its adoption in health care has been challenging. Though, the health care sector relies heavily on knowledge and evidenc e based medicine is expected to be implemented in daily health care activities; beside s, delivery of care replies on cooperation of several partners that need to

Christo El Morr; Julien Subercaze

77

Managing the Care of Health  

E-print Network

. Part II of this paper uses this line of argument to reframe four major issues in this system exist to integrate, or coordi- nate, work in organizations.1 These are illustrated in Figure 1 the work. Key words: differentiation, integration, health care management, health care organization, health

Barthelat, Francois

78

Poverty, Violence, and Health: The Impact of Domestic Violence during Pregnancy on Newborn Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two percent of women in the United States suffer from intimate partner violence annually, with poor and minority women disproportionately affected. I provide evidence of an important negative externality associated with domestic violence by estimating a negative and causal relationship between violence during pregnancy and newborn health,…

Aizer, Anna

2011-01-01

79

Causal Relationships between Poverty and Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research suggests why disability may cause poverty, it is not well understood why poverty may cause disability. This article presents the Poverty Disability Model, which includes four groups of factors that increase the risk that poverty will cause disability and chronic health problems. Rehabilitation interventions and counselor…

Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

2007-01-01

80

The 1998 HHS Federal Poverty Guidelines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has recently released the 1998 federal poverty measures. There are two slightly different versions of the federal poverty measure: poverty thresholds and poverty guidelines. Data for both versions are available at this site. Separate data are listed for the 48 states, Alaska, and Hawaii.

1998-01-01

81

Health policy and case management.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to analyze the performance of and support for case management using a policy framework in order to increase case managers' awareness of policy making and facilitate successful planning for future policy initiatives. Feldstein's (1996) theory of opposing legislative outcomes indicates that legislation can be viewed on a continuum, ranging from legislation that meets the needs of the public to legislation considered to be in the self-interest of the participants and legislators. The current health care system requires that case managers working for publicly funded health care organizations balance the need for stewardship of U.S. tax dollars and the health care needs of consumers. It is apparent from the literature that case managers are successfully achieving this balance. However, certain conditions should exist that allow for case manager decision-making that promotes effective and efficient utilization of health care resources. Case managers must work within the context of the health care policy environment. Realizing that it is more likely that the conflicts between stewardship and the provision of health care services will continue, case managers' knowledge and influence regarding policy making becomes imperative in order to ensure that these conflicting goals do not become mutually exclusive. PMID:11398572

Mark, D D

2000-01-01

82

Food insecurity and other poverty indicators among people living with HIV/AIDS: effects on treatment and health outcomes.  

PubMed

Health disparities in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as the demands of long-term medication adherence have meant the full benefits of HIV treatment are often not realized. In particular, food insecurity has emerged as a robust predictor of ART non-adherence. However, research is limited in determining whether food insecurity uniquely impedes HIV treatment or if food insecurity is merely a marker for poverty that interferes more broadly with treatment. This study examined indicators of poverty at multiple levels in a sample of 364 men and 157 women living with HIV recruited through an offering of a free holiday food basket. Results showed that 61 % (N = 321) of participants had experienced at least one indicator of food insecurity in the previous month. Multivariate analyses showed that food insecurity was closely tied to lack of transportation. In addition, food insecurity was associated with lacking access to ART and poor ART adherence after adjusting for neighbourhood poverty, living in an area without a supermarket (food desert), education, stable housing, and reliable transportation. Results therefore affirm previous research that has suggested food insecurity is uniquely associated with poor ART adherence and calls for structural interventions that address basic survival needs among people living with HIV, especially food security. PMID:24705680

Kalichman, Seth C; Hernandez, Dominica; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar

2014-12-01

83

What socio-demographic factors influence poverty and financial health care access among disabled people in Flanders: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Current literature shows that people with a disability have a lower income than people without a disability. Disabled people often experience difficulties with health care access. The objective of this study is to assess the current financial situation and poverty rate amongst disabled people in Flanders. Furthermore we wanted to analyze factors that contribute to the risk of poverty and problems with financial health care access in adult people with a disability in Flanders. Methods An online and paper survey were constructed and made available through two large organizations for people with different types of disability in Flanders. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results In this convenience sample, 20.9% of the 889 respondents live under the poverty threshold. Important contributing factors to the risk of poverty are having children (OR 3.43, 95% CI 2.10-5.59) and a low level of dependence (OR 16.40, 95% CI 6.21-43.28). 25.2% of the respondents did not access health care because of financial shortcomings. A low level of dependence is one important contributing factor (OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.41-6.98) to limited financial health care access. Conclusion This research confirms that disability is associated with a higher risk of poverty and impaired financial health care access. PMID:24521283

2014-01-01

84

Intelligent Integrated System Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems

Figueroa, Fernando

2012-01-01

85

Gamification and geospatial health management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensor and Measurement technologies are rapidly developing for many consumer applications which have the potential to make a major impact on business and society. One of the most important areas for building a sustainable future is in health management. This opportunity arises because of the growing popularity of lifestyle monitoring devices such as the Jawbone UP bracelet, Nike Fuelband and Samsung Galaxy GEAR. These devices measure physical activity and calorie consumption and, when visualised on mobile and portable devices, enable users to take more responsibility for their personal health. This presentation looks at how the process of gamification can be applied to develop important geospatial health management applications that could not only improve the health of nations but also significantly address some of the issues in global health such as the ageing society and obesity.

Wortley, David

2014-06-01

86

Poverty Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has released the November 1997 issue of Poverty Lines, a newsletter that summarizes current research studies on poverty. The latest issue looks at how public works programs can help people who are poor.

87

Outcomes management in women's health.  

PubMed

Outcomes management uses a quality and research approach to reducing costs in health care. Populations may be targeted for high volumes or their potential for cost savings. Outcomes are identified and measured through data collection and analysis. System and care processes that drive these outcomes are analyzed. Tenets related to outcomes management include questioning practice, administrative and physician involvement; recognizing that change is necessary; accepting uncontrollable factors; and valuing the outcomes management process. Resources necessary for managing outcomes include the use of collaborative practice teams, outcomes assessment, information systems, and educational support services. The women's health population can benefit from an outcomes management effort by improving and standardizing care for mothers and infants across the continuum. There is the opportunity to affect the wellness of this population even before the pregnancy occurs. PMID:9170599

Houston, S; Fleschler, R

1997-01-01

88

Poverty, food security and universal access to sexual and reproductive health services: a call for cross-movement advocacy against neoliberal globalisation.  

PubMed

Universal access to sexual and reproductive health services is one of the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development of 1994. The Millennium Development Goals were intended above all to end poverty. Universal access to health and health services are among the goals being considered for the post-2015 agenda, replacing or augmenting the MDGs. Yet we are not only far from reaching any of these goals but also appear to have lost our way somewhere along the line. Poverty and lack of food security have, through their multiple linkages to health and access to health care, deterred progress towards universal access to health services, including for sexual and reproductive health needs. A more insidious influence is neoliberal globalisation. This paper describes neoliberal globalisation and the economic policies it has engendered, the ways in which it influences poverty and food security, and the often unequal impact it has had on women as compared to men. It explores the effects of neoliberal economic policies on health, health systems, and universal access to health care services, and the implications for access to sexual and reproductive health. To be an advocate for universal access to health and health care is to become an advocate against neoliberal globalisation. PMID:24908453

Sundari Ravindran, T K

2014-05-01

89

Implications of the global financial crisis for the response to diseases of poverty within overall health sector development: the case of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The global financial crisis poses a threat to global health, and may exacerbate diseases of poverty, e.g. HIV, malaria and tuberculosis. Exploring the implications of the global financial crisis for the health sector response to tuberculosis is useful to illustrate the practical problems and propose possible solutions. The response to tuberculosis is considered in the context of health sector development. Problems and solutions are considered in five key areas: financing, prioritization, government regulation, integration and decentralization. Securing health gains in global tuberculosis control depends on protecting expenditure by governments of countries badly affected by tuberculosis and by donors, taking measures to increase efficiencies, prioritizing health expenditures and strengthening government regulation. Lessons learned will be valuable for stakeholders involved in the health sector response to tuberculosis and other diseases of poverty. PMID:19891762

Maher, Dermot

2010-01-01

90

Poverty, user fees and ability to pay for health care for children with suspected dengue in rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

User fees were introduced in public health facilities in Cambodia in 1997 in order to inject funds into the health system to enhance the quality of services. Because of inadequate health insurance, a social safety net scheme was introduced to ensure that all people were able to attend the health facilities. However, continuing high rates of hospitalization and mortality from dengue fever among infants and children reflect the difficulties that women continue to face in finding sufficient cash in cases of medical emergency, resulting in delays in diagnosis and treatment. In this article, drawing on in-depth interviews conducted with mothers of children infected with dengue in eastern Cambodia, we illustrate the profound economic consequences for households when a child is ill. The direct costs for health care and medical services, and added indirect costs, deterred poor women from presenting with sick children. Those who eventually sought care often had to finance health spending through out-of-pocket payments and loans, or sold property, goods or labour to meet the costs. Costs were often catastrophic, exacerbating the extreme poverty of those least able to afford it. PMID:18439268

Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

2008-01-01

91

DEAF HEALTH TALKS: Stress Management  

E-print Network

#12;Stress Hormones · Cortisol ­ primary stress hormone · Increases: sugars in blood & brain's useDEAF HEALTH TALKS: Stress Management Student Development Center October 12, 2011 This presentation Research (NCDHR) · Matthew Starr and Michael McKee · Student Life Team #12;So What is Stress? · Normal

Goldman, Steven A.

92

X-33/RLV System Health Management/ Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To reduce operations cost, the RLV must include the following elements: highly reliable, robust subsystems designed for simple repair access with a simplified servicing infrastructure and incorporating expedited decision making about faults and anomalies. A key component for the Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) RLV System used to meet these objectives is System Health Management (SHM). SHM deals with the vehicle component- Vehicle Health Management (VHM), the ground processing associated with the fleet (GVHM) and the Ground Infrastructure Health Management (GIHM). The objective is to provide an automated collection and paperless health decision, maintenance and logistics system. Many critical technologies are necessary to make the SHM (and more specifically VHM) practical, reliable and cost effective. Sanders is leading the design, development and integration of the SHM system for RLV and X-33 SHM (a sub-scale, sub-orbit Advanced Technology Demonstrator). This paper will present the X-33 SHM design which forms the baseline for RLV SHM. This paper will also discuss other applications of these technologies.

Garbos, Raymond J.; Mouyos, William

1998-01-01

93

Support for agriculture during economic transformation: Impacts on poverty and undernutrition  

PubMed Central

This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health risks associated with rising obesity in rural as well as urban areas. Thus, the transition process must be managed better, through targeted support for smallholder agriculture and health interventions, if the negative consequences of obesity and chronic disease are to be mitigated. PMID:21173245

Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

2012-01-01

94

Studienordnung des Masterstudiengangs ,,Health Care Management"  

E-print Network

Studienordnung des Masterstudiengangs ,,Health Care Management" an der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald die fol- gende Studienordnung für den Masterstudiengang ,,Health Care Manage- ment" als Satzung Masterstudiengang (M.Sc.) ,,Health Care Management" an der Ernst-Moritz- Arndt-Universität Greifswald vom 15. März

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

95

Studienordnung des Masterstudiengangs ,,Health Care Management"  

E-print Network

1 Studienordnung des Masterstudiengangs ,,Health Care Management" an der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald die folgende Studienordnung für den Masterstudiengang ,,Health Care Management" als Satzung Master- studiengang (M.Sc.) ,,Health Care Management" an der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

96

Fachprfungsordnung des Masterstudiengangs Health Care Management  

E-print Network

Fachprüfungsordnung des Masterstudiengangs Health Care Management an der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifs- wald die folgende Prüfungsordnung für den Masterstudiengang (M. Sc.) ,,Health Care Management Prüfungsverfahren im Studiengang ,,Health Care Management". Ergänzend gilt die Gemeinsame Prüfungsord- nung für

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

97

How does poverty beget poverty?  

PubMed Central

Although Canadian poverty rates are less than our neighbours to the south, the consequences of growing up poor affects the Canadian economy and its social fabric. As a relatively wealthy nation, Canada is challenged by high rates of single-parent families, the working poor and a budding population of newcomers with fewer resources. Family poverty primarily risks affecting childrens’ achievements and academic attainments. Not performing on a par with their middle-class peer group places these children at greater risk for academic failure and its concomitant behavioural problems. Associated variables such as single-parenthood and ineffective child-rearing account for much of the remaining risk for psychosocial maladjustment. Childhood poverty, especially of the persistent kind, risks charting a developmental course toward low academic attainment, poor health behaviours and attitudes, and adult depression. Such characteristics become more daunting when those who are not resilient become the parents of the next generation. Bien que les taux de pauvreté au Canada soient plus faibles que chez nos voisins du Sud, les conséquences d’une enfance dans la pauvreté influent sur l’économie et le tissu social du Canada. Les taux élevés de monoparentalité et de petits salariés ainsi qu’une population bourgeonnante de nouveau-venus aux ressources plus limitées constituent un défi pour le Canada, une nation relativement prospère. La pauvreté familiale risque surtout de nuire aux réalisations et au rendement scolaire des enfants. Puisque leur rendement n’équivaut pas à celui de leurs camarades des classes moyennes, ces enfants sont plus vulnérables à l’échec scolaire et aux troubles de comportement concomitants. Des variables connexes, comme la monoparentalité et des pratiques éducatives inefficaces, représentent une grande partie du risque résiduel d’inadaptation psychosociale. La pauvreté des enfants, notamment lorsqu’elle persiste, risque d’ouvrir la voie à un développement favorisant un faible rendement scolaire, des comportements et des attitudes néfastes en matière de santé et une dépression à l’âge adulte. Ces caractéristiques deviennent plus décourageantes lorsque les enfants non résilients deviennent les parents de la génération suivante. PMID:19030448

Pagani, Linda S

2007-01-01

98

Agent-based health care management An Agent-based Approach to Health Care Management  

E-print Network

Agent-based health care management 1 An Agent-based Approach to Health Care Management Jun Huang1, London WC2A 3PX, UK. Abbreviated title: Agent-based health care management Complete Mailing Address. London E1 4NS UK #12;Agent-based health care management 2 Abstract The provision of medical care

Mascardi, Viviana

99

Joining together to combat poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around 1.3 billion people live on less than US$1 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries nearly 60% lack access to sanitation, 30%

A. Haines; Zoran Malenica; Judith A. Oulton; Zorayda Leopando; Dan Kaseje

2000-01-01

100

Current challenges of personal health information management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Health care has come to a turning point. Particularly due to aging societies and economic pressure placed on health care system, health is rapidly becoming one's own responsibility. This fundamental paradigm shift does not only affect the way health care services that will be provided in the near future but it also places enormous health information management demands

Janne Lahtiranta

2009-01-01

101

Social risk management--reducing disparities in risk, vulnerability and poverty equitably.  

PubMed

Hurricane Katrina, which struck the Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005 and took 1,000 lives or more, was the third deadliest storm to hit the United States, falling behind only the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 and the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane. It is New Orleans' worst natural disaster in its nearly 300-year history. The storm left hundreds of thousands without access to shelter, food, water, clothing and basic sanitation. The human suffering and health consequences are immeasurable. Dissatisfaction with the federal, national and local governments' planning and response is widespread. Many believe that the system discriminated cruelly by race and class against those in greatest need. The storm revealed serious flaws in disaster relief and preparedness structures, which require major reform. As an alternative, this article proposes a social risk management system to provide both universal risk protection and an efficient, more equitable approach to managing and reducing disparities in vulnerability. While one must realize that incremental rather than comprehensive reform of the system is most likely and most politically feasible, Katrina's horrific consequences and revealed inequities necessitate an alternative model. PMID:18592885

Ruger, Jennifer Prah

2008-03-01

102

States' embrace of managed mental health care.  

PubMed

Historically, state mental health authorities have dominated public mental health services, operating with fixed resources and responsible for a large population. A good public mental health system has many of the attributes of a well-managed private mental health system. Unfortunately, public systems are not flexible enough to contract creatively with multiple providers; they lack many of the tools of modern managed care. As a consequence, state mental health authorities have begun to contract with private managed care firms to assist them in managing their health care reform efforts, particularly reform of Medicaid. This paper examines the forces shaping managed behavioral health care in the public sector and describes strategies for managing care, such as contracting, utilization review, and monitoring. PMID:7498902

Essock, S M; Goldman, H H

1995-01-01

103

Characteristics of effective health care managers.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of traditional and contemporary management theories. Concerns, characteristics, and skills of effective managers are also presented. Further, a self-assessment (survey) of 7 highly effective health care managers in a South Georgia community was conducted to determine their ratings on 6 management indices. The assessment or Scale of Transformational Leadership uses a Likert-type scale to allow for the evaluation of managers. The scale contains 6 management elements for assessment: attention, meaning, trust, self, vision, and feeling. Individual ratings and group summary skills rating are presented. Findings revealed the order of managerial importance of the elements as follows (from highest to lowest): Management of Trust, Management of Attention, Management of Self, Management of Feeling, Management of Meaning, and Management of Risk. As a second tier, the final ratings are corroborated by health care management interns. PMID:15923923

Johnson, Sherryl W

2005-01-01

104

Poverty, Wealth Inequality and Health among Older Adults in Rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Little research exists on health determinants among adults living in economically deprived regions despite the fact that these areas comprise a good part of the world. This paper examines the distribution of wealth then tests associations between wealth inequality and a variety of health outcomes, among older adults, in one of the world's poorest regions – rural Cambodia. Data from the 2004 Survey of the Elderly in Cambodia are employed. Using a disablement framework to conceptualize health, associations between four health components and a wealth inequality measure are tested. The wealth inequality measure is based on an index that operationalizes wealth as ownership of household assets and household structural components. Results confirm difficult economic conditions in rural Cambodia. The lowest wealth quintile lives in households that own nothing, while the next quintiles are only slightly better off. Nevertheless, logistic regressions that adjust for other covariates indicate heterogeneity in health across quintiles that appear qualitatively similar, with the bottom quintiles reporting the most health problems. An exception is disability, which presents a U-shaped association. It is difficult to determine mechanisms behind the relationship using cross-sectional data, but the paper speculates on possible causal directions, both from wealth to health and vice-versa. The analysis suggests the ability to generalize the relationship between wealth inequality and health to extremely poor populations as a very small difference in wealth makes a relatively large difference with respect to health associations among those in meager surroundings. PMID:17913320

Zimmer, Zachary

2007-01-01

105

The employer's case for health management.  

PubMed

Employers' past solutions to rising health benefit costs--adopting managed care strategies, cost shifting to employees and reducing benefits-are no longer effectively controlling costs and are depressing the value of health benefits for employee recruitment and retention. An alternative strategy is to implement health management approaches that improve the health status of employees. These programs reduce medical costs and have a documented positive impact on workers' compensation, disability costs, absenteeism and productivity. Further, this approach is complementary to health care consumerism as a strategy for health improvement and benefit cost reduction and results in improved employee health, outlook and satisfaction. PMID:16792389

Coulter, Christopher H

2006-01-01

106

Health and Nutritional Status of Working and Non-Working Mothers in Poverty Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the health and nutritional status of low-income women in Upstate New York and to identify problems that interfere with their employment. Questionnaires on health and work, complete medical and employment histories, physical examination, laboratory tests, dental examination and diet recalls were obtained for 469…

Roe, Daphne A.; Eickwort, Kathleen R.

107

Poverty, out-of-pocket payments and access to health care: evidence from Tajikistan.  

PubMed

Most countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have either initiated or are contemplating reform of the health sector. With negative real income growth and falling government revenues, a key concern of many governments is to secure additional finance through non-budgetary sources such as hypothecated payroll taxes, voluntary insurance, and increased private finance through patient cost-sharing. However, before such reforms can be considered, information is needed both on the current levels and distribution of household expenditures on health care, and the extent to which increased charges may affect access to health services, especially amongst the poor. This paper uses the Tajikistan Livings Standard Survey to investigate the level and distribution of out-of-pocket payments for health care in Tajikistan and to examine the extent to which such payments act as barriers to health-care access. The data show that there are significant differences in health-care utilisation rates across socio-economic groups and that these differences are related to ability to pay. Official and informal payments are acting both to deter people from seeking medical assistance and once advice has been sought, from receiving the most appropriate treatment. Despite informal exemptions, out-of-pocket payments for health care are exacting a high toll on household welfare with households being forced to sell assets or go into debt to meet the costs of care. Urgent action is needed to ensure equity in access to health care. PMID:14604611

Falkingham, Jane

2004-01-01

108

Education and Health: Evaluating Theories and Evidence. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #06-19  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a well known large and persistent association between education and health. This relationship has been observed in many countries and time periods, and for a wide variety of health measures. The differences between the more and the less educated are significant: in 1999, the age-adjusted mortality rate of high school dropouts ages 25 to…

Cutler, David M.; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

2006-01-01

109

Poverty in Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site from World Bank offers an ongoing look at poverty in Africa and the ways in which World Bank continues to monitor it. The Africa Household Survey Database (AHSD) is featured on the site, and holds, at present, 106 completed surveys from 36 countries. The surveys in the database include Labor Force Surveys, Household Budget Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, Population and Housing Censuses, and more. Poverty in Africa also contains several other sections that support the AHSD, including explanations of the ways in which poverty levels are monitored and measured. Related resources offered at the site include links to Websites from other NGOs and academic sources, as well as information on the World Bank's partners in Africa, such as the African National Statistics Offices.

110

Personal Health Information Management: Consumers' Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal health information management (PHIM) refers to activities that support consumers' access, integration, organization, and use of their personal health information. We investigated PHIM in the health consumer population using a focus group and participatory design. In collaboration with health consumers, we identified PHIM activities and ex- plored the design of new supportive technology. Our findings describe prominent PHIM activities

Andrea Civan; Meredith M. Skeels; Anna Stolyar; Wanda Pratt

111

Emerging trends in health and productivity management.  

PubMed

Many large U.S. employers have generally embraced a Health and Productivity Management (HPM) perspective to guide their multiple employee health management efforts. In looking ahead there are a number of emerging trends that are helping to shape these efforts. As health promotion professionals assess the implications of these trends on their respective role and function within the worksite, it may provide a very useful process for refining strategies for programming and professional development. The identified trends also have a variety of implications for health promotion vendors and the growth of the health management marketplace. PMID:17894264

Goetzel, Ron Z; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Pelletier, Kenneth R; Metz, R Douglas; Chapman, Larry S

2007-01-01

112

Leadership in Health Care Systems: Health Care Organization Management  

E-print Network

Leadership in Health Care Systems: Health Care Organization Management and Leadership Track ­ Program Evaluation in 2007: Our grads told us they needed more leadership, informatics and management, employer interviews, needs assessment The Program #12;Leadership in Heath Care Systems · Three tracks

Goldman, Steven A.

113

HEALTH SERVICES 431: HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND MANAGEMENT SKILLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations are held accountable to multiple stakeholders. New systems to manage the changing face of organizational processes are continually being created necessitating constant change in the way we work together in the healthcare workplace. Today's health care manager requires a clear understanding of the complexity in which health care organizations function and a commensurate stable of knowledge, skills and abilities

Diana W. Hilberman

114

Urban poverty and health in developing countries: Household and neighborhood Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States and other high-income countries, there is intense scholarly and programmatic interest in the effects\\u000a of household and neighborhood living standards on health. Yet few studies of developing-country cities have explored these\\u000a issues. We investigated whether the health of urban women and children in poor countries is influenced by both household and\\u000a neighborhood standards of living. Using

Mark R. Montgomery; Paul C. Hewett

2005-01-01

115

www.abdn.ac.uk/study Global Health  

E-print Network

www.abdn.ac.uk/study Global Health & Management Master of Science/Postgraduate Diploma MSc on Health Systems and Policy, Managing for Health and Global Health. Global Health topics include: · Poverty these intersect with broader structural issues. The aim is to develop multidimensional views of global health

Levi, Ran

116

Multidisciplinary and participatory workshops with stakeholders in a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon: Development of priority concerns and potential health, nutrition and education interventions  

PubMed Central

Background Communities of extreme poverty suffer disproportionately from a wide range of adverse outcomes, but are often neglected or underserved by organized services and research attention. In order to target the first Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty, thereby reducing health inequalities, participatory research in these communities is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the priority problems and respective potential cost-effective interventions in Belen, a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon, using a multidisciplinary and participatory focus. Methods Two multidisciplinary and participatory workshops were conducted with important stakeholders from government, non-government and community organizations, national institutes and academic institutions. In Workshop 1, participants prioritized the main health and health-related problems in the community of Belen. Problem trees were developed to show perceived causes and effects for the top six problems. In Workshop 2, following presentations describing data from recently completed field research in school and household populations of Belen, participants listed potential interventions for the priority problems, including associated barriers, enabling factors, costs and benefits. Results The top ten priority problems in Belen were identified as: 1) infant malnutrition; 2) adolescent pregnancy; 3) diarrhoea; 4) anaemia; 5) parasites; 6) lack of basic sanitation; 7) low level of education; 8) sexually transmitted diseases; 9) domestic violence; and 10) delayed school entry. Causes and effects for the top six problems, proposed interventions, and factors relating to the implementation of interventions were multidisciplinary in nature and included health, nutrition, education, social and environmental issues. Conclusion The two workshops provided valuable insight into the main health and health-related problems facing the community of Belen. The participatory focus of the workshops ensured the active involvement of important stakeholders from Belen. Based on the results of the workshops, effective and essential interventions are now being planned which will contribute to reducing health inequalities in the community. PMID:17623093

Casapia, Martin; Joseph, Serene A; Gyorkos, Theresa W

2007-01-01

117

Poverty and Health Disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native Children: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

This report explores the current state of knowledge regarding inequalities and their effect on American Indian and Alaska Native children, underscoring gaps in our current knowledge and the opportunities for early intervention to begin to address persistent challenges in young American Indian and Alaska Native children’s development. This overview documents demographic, social, health, and health care disparities as they affect American Indian and Alaska Native children, the persistent cultural strengths that must form the basis for any conscientious intervention effort, and the exciting possibilities for early childhood interventions. PMID:18579879

Sarche, Michelle; Spicer, Paul

2008-01-01

118

Effects of anti-poverty programs on electoral behavior : evidence from the Mexican Education, Health, and Nutrition Program  

E-print Network

Ever since Latin American economies collapsed in the 1980s and early 1990s, traditional redistributive programs began to coexist with new anti-poverty programs that usually took the form of conditional cash transfers (CCT). ...

De La O Torres, Ana Lorena

2007-01-01

119

When being alone might be better: neighborhood poverty, social capital, and child mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health researchers have provided a growing body of evidence on the salutary effects of social capital for individual well being. The importance of these findings for social epidemiology, however, may have precluded so far a full examination of the complex association between neighborhood social processes and the well being of individual residents, including the often acknowledged potential “downside” of

Margaret O’Brien Caughy; Patricia J O’Campo; Carles Muntaner

2003-01-01

120

The poverty of theory: class configurations in the discourse of Physical Education and Health (PEH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: At the heart of this polemic1 lies the view that contemporary research in PE and Health (PEH) has largely overlooked one of the key determinants of social behaviour, social class and its expression in and outside schools; an omission that has quite serious consequences for how we (researchers and teachers) think about and conceptualise the purposes of PE in

John Evans; Brian Davies

2008-01-01

121

Health conditions and residential concentration of poverty: a study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVESTo establish the geographical relation of health conditions to socioeconomic status in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.DESIGNAll reported deaths in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, from 1987 to 1995, obtained from the Mortality Information System, were considered in the study. The 24 “administrative regions” that compose the city were used as the geographical units. A geographical

Célia L Szwarcwald; Francisco Inácio Bastos; Christovam Barcellos; Maria de Fátima Pina; Maria Angela Pires Esteves

2000-01-01

122

75 FR 3734 - 2009 HHS Poverty Guidelines Extended Until March 1, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SERVICES Office of the Secretary 2009 HHS Poverty Guidelines Extended Until March 1, 2010...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines will remain in effect until updated 2010 poverty guidelines are published, which...

2010-01-22

123

75 FR 45628 - Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Secretary Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of 2010 AGENCY...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines for the remainder of 2010, and until the 2011 poverty guidelines are published, which is...

2010-08-03

124

Poverty, socio-economic position, social capital and the health of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities in Britain: a replication.  

PubMed

Background When compared with their nonintellectually disabled peers, people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have poorer health and are more likely to be exposed to poverty during childhood. Given that exposure to child poverty has been linked to poorer health outcomes, we attempted to estimate the extent to which the health inequalities faced by children and adolescents with IDs may be accounted for by their more disadvantaged socio-economic position. Methods Secondary analysis of data on a nationally representative sample of 12 160 British children aged under 17 years extracted from the Department of Work and Pensions' Families and Children Study. Results After controlling for age and sex, children with IDs were significantly more likely (corrected odds ratio = 2.49) to be reported to have less than good health than their nonintellectually disabled peers. However, 31% of the elevated risk for poorer health was accounted for by between-group differences in socio-economic position and social capital. Conclusions A socially and statistically significant proportion of the increased risk of poorer health among children and adolescents with IDs may be attributed to their increased risk of socio-economic disadvantage. PMID:17910538

Emerson, E; Hatton, C

2007-11-01

125

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2013-2014  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis 3 Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial Accounting ACCT 206 Introduction to Managerial Accounting HLTHST 330 Health Information Management I with lab

Barrash, Warren

126

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2014-2015  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis 3 Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial Accounting ACCT 206 Introduction to Managerial Accounting HLTHST 330 Health Information Management I with lab

Barrash, Warren

127

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2012-2013  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial Accounting ACCT 206 Introduction to Managerial Accounting HLTHST 330 Health Information Management I with lab HLTHST

Barrash, Warren

128

Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums  

PubMed Central

This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

2009-01-01

129

Knowledge Management for the Urban Health Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter explains why contemporary and innovative ­knowledge-based concepts can be of benefit to the urban health environment.\\u000a The notion of “knowledge gaps” is often cited as a major impediment to effective management in the urban health context (examples\\u000a of which are included throughout this book). The tools, technologies and strategies of Knowledge Management are particularly\\u000a applicable to urban health.

M. Chris Gibbons; Rajeev K. Bali; Nilmini Wickramasinghe

130

Nurse managed occupational health centers: an overview.  

PubMed

1. Nurse managed centers provide clients with direct access to professional nursing care. 2. Lillian Wald, Mary Breckenridge, and Margaret Sanger established nurse managed centers at the beginning of this century. 3. Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs and services are based on the mission, outcomes, staffing, and financing of the occupational health center. 4. Essential parameters for comprehensively evaluating an occupational health nurse managed center include, client outcomes, client satisfaction, and cost-benefit. PMID:9384001

Wachs, J E

1997-10-01

131

Rural Poverty Report 2001: The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Fund for Agricultural Development's 2001 report on rural poverty argues that to reduce poverty, international efforts must focus on "legally secure entitlements to assets (especially land and water); technology (above all for increasing the output and yield of food staples); access to markets; opportunities to participate in decentralized resource management; and access to microfinance." The extensive document is posted in .pdf format with the above address linking to its table of contents.

2001-01-01

132

Poetry as a health care management tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overlooked, or certainly infrequently seen form of management communique is the poem. Health care management provides a set of examples—demonstrating psychotherapeutic value to the variety of groups living and working in such a setting. Poetry is shown to be an artful partner not only as a therapeutic tool, but also to have purposeful value in management practice.

Ralph K. Allen

1993-01-01

133

Janet Craig Occupational Health Manager  

E-print Network

Black review of sickness absence - Working for a Healthier Tomorrow · Health, work and wellbeing of Occupational Safety and Health Emerging trends - Government strategy for Health and Work Service Dame Carol programme ­ a cross-departmental government programme to improve the health and well-being of people

Schnaufer, Achim

134

Joining together to combat poverty.  

PubMed

The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around 1.3 billion people live on less than US$1 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries nearly 60% lack access to sanitation, 30% do not have clean water, 20% have no health care, and 20% do not have enough dietary energy and protein. Even among rich nations there are gross socioeconomic inequalities. Many children are robbed of their physical and mental potential through poverty. Expressed in constant 1963 US dollars, an average Croatian family needed the annual income of US$894 to meet the poverty line in 1960 and US$9,027 in 1995. Accordingly, 9-25% of Croatian households were below the poverty line between 1960 and 1995. The increase in the poverty rate after 1991 was compounded by the war that destroyed almost a third of industrial capacity and infrastructure. Dissipation of the communist economy and inadequate privatization have contributed to the increase in unemployment rate, corruption, and other social ills. IPHN invited Croatian Medical Journal to publish this editorial to help push the issue of poverty up political and medical agendas on a global level. We argue that a factor contributing to the failure of most large-scale programs against poverty to date is the excessive emphasis on material and infrastructure assistance at the expense of spiritual, moral, and intellectual development. PMID:10810165

Heath, I; Haines, A; Malenica, Z; Oulton, J A; Leopando, Z; Kaseje, D; Addington, W W; Giscard D'Estaing, O; Tumwine, J K; Koivusalo, M; Biscoe, G; Nickson, P; Marusi?, M; Vuk Pavlovi?, S

2000-03-01

135

Do CCTs Reduce Poverty?  

E-print Network

in Latin America, are often identified as a new generation of antipoverty policies. They feature targeted transfers to poor households based on the condition that beneficiaries protect and build their human capabilities—e.g., children attend school or family members regularly visit health clinics. Graph 2 Share of CCTs in total income per capita, Mexico, 2004 Evaluations confirm that such transfers do reach the poor. They also help increase school attendance (including progression from primary to secondary school), promote more intensive use of basic health services and improve nutrition. Despite some initial concerns, CCTs also do not generally undermine the willingness to work except for the desirable reduction, in some cases, of child labour. In this note, we concentrate on their impact on income poverty. 1 Certainly, CCTs are affordable: their budgets account usually for no more than 1-2 % of GDP. In 2004, in the midst of expansion, Brazil’s Bolsa Familia (including Bolsa Escola) and Mexico’s Oportunidades reached 8 and 5 million households. These programmes do not suffer from much leakage to the non-poor. However, one major criticism is that CCTs appear to produce only a small reduction in poverty— even in countries with wide coverage such as Brazil and Mexico. While this criticism might be valid, it is misleading. Graph 1 shows total income per capita (smoothed) for the poorest 25 % of the population in Mexico before and after Oportunidades transfers. Assuming that 20 % of the population is poor, these transfers reduce the incidence of poverty to about 19%. Similarly modest reductions in poverty result if lower incidences of poverty are assumed.

Eduardo Zepeda

2006-01-01

136

77 FR 4034 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of Health...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar...for that program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the...

2012-01-26

137

76 FR 3637 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of Health...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar...for that program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the...

2011-01-20

138

78 FR 5182 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of Health...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar...for that program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the...

2013-01-24

139

Future developments in health care performance management  

PubMed Central

This paper highlights the challenges of performance management in health care, wherein multiple different objectives have to be pursued. The literature suggests starting with quality performance, following the sand cone theory, but considering a multidimensional concept of health care quality. Moreover, new managerial approaches coming from an industrial context and adapted to health care, such as lean management and risk management, can contribute to improving quality performance. Therefore, the opportunity to analyze them arises from studying their overlaps and links in order to identify possible synergies and to investigate the opportunity to develop an integrated methodology enabling improved performance. PMID:24255600

Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

2013-01-01

140

Concept Development for Software Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the work performed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) under NASA contract NNL06AA08B, delivery order NNL07AB06T. The Concept Development for Software Health Management (CDSHM) program was a NASA funded effort sponsored by the Integrated Vehicle Health Management Project, one of the four pillars of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. The CD-SHM program focused on defining a structured approach to software health management (SHM) through the development of a comprehensive failure taxonomy that is used to characterize the fundamental failure modes of safety-critical software.

Riecks, Jung; Storm, Walter; Hollingsworth, Mark

2011-01-01

141

Contribution of the GAVI Alliance to improving health and reducing poverty  

PubMed Central

The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), now 10 years old, was established as a successful and innovative public–private partnership to deal with a fundamental inequity. The poorest children in the poorest parts of the world were being denied access to life-saving vaccines simply on the basis of cost. GAVI has been successful in mobilizing significant funding from donors and through innovative financing instruments, immunizing large numbers of children. GAVI has been less successful, at least in the time frames first envisaged, at quickly reducing the prices of new and under-used vaccines to levels affordable by the poorest countries. Vaccines remain some of the most cost effective of public health interventions. As GAVI seeks to introduce a new set of vaccines to tackle major killers such as pneumonia and diarrhoea, and emerging threats such as cervical cancer, it needs to raise significant additional funds. There is no single solution. Multiple and new instruments will be required to raise finance both globally and at the country level, and also to incentivize industry and others to provide vaccines at affordable prices to the poorest countries. PMID:21893535

Lob-Levyt, Julian

2011-01-01

142

Operationalizing knowledge management in health care.  

PubMed

Being able to leverage the collective clinical knowledge that a health system acquires on a daily basis and then apply that knowledge to elevate productivity and maintain clinical quality would be nirvana for health system executives. Although it is difficult to bring knowledge management to health care, it is not impossible. Architects of knowledge management solutions in health care will need to balance what an organization hopes to achieve in its market (business strategy); how they hope to achieve it (operating strategy); and where information technology is needed to enable what they hope to achieve and how they hope to achieve it (information strategy). PMID:11234728

Zazzara, P

2001-02-01

143

From Personal Health Informatics to Health Self-management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research team is developing Salud!, an open and free infrastructure for developing and deploying personal health informatics applications. In addition, we are investigating and designing interaction techniques that support individuals engaged in health self- management. These interaction techniques make use of personal informatics applications' potential to guide

Yevgeniy Medynskiy; Elizabeth D. Mynatt

2010-01-01

144

A guide to performance management for the Health Information Manager.  

PubMed

This paper provides a summary of human resource management practices that have been identified as being associated with better outcomes in performance management. In general, essential practices include transformational leadership and a coherent program of goal setting, performance monitoring and feedback. Some Health Information Managers may feel they require training assistance to develop the necessary skills in the establishment of meaningful work performance goals for staff and the provision of useful and timely feedback. This paper provides useful information to assist Health Information Managers enhance the performance of their staff. PMID:19875850

Leggat, Sandra G

2009-01-01

145

Rotorcraft Health Management Issues and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of health management issues and challenges that are specific to rotorcraft. Rotorcraft form a unique subset of air vehicles in that their propulsion system is used not only for propulsion, but also serves as the primary source of lift and maneuvering of the vehicle. No other air vehicle relies on the propulsion system to provide these functions through a transmission system with single critical load paths without duplication or redundancy. As such, health management of the power train is a critical and unique part of any rotorcraft health management system. This paper focuses specifically on the issues and challenges related to the dynamic mechanical components in the main power train. This includes the transmission and main rotor mechanisms. This paper will review standard practices used for rotorcraft health management, lessons learned from fielded trials, and future challenges.

Zakrajsek, James J.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Huff, Edward M.; Augustin, Michael; Safa-Bakhsh, Robab; Ephraim, Piet; Grabil, Paul; Decker, Harry J.

2006-01-01

146

Applying business management models in health care.  

PubMed

Most health care management training programmes and textbooks focus on only one or two models or conceptual frameworks, but the increasing complexity of health care organizations and their environments worldwide means that a broader perspective is needed. This paper reviews five management models developed for business organizations and analyses issues related to their application in health care. Three older, more 'traditional' models are first presented. These include the functional areas model, the tasks model and the roles model. Each is shown to provide a valuable perspective, but to have limitations if used in isolation. Two newer, more 'innovative' models are next discussed. These include total quality management (TQM) and reengineering. They have shown potential for enabling dramatic improvements in quality and cost, but have also been found to be more difficult to implement. A series of 'lessons learned' are presented to illustrate key success factors for applying them in health care organizations. In sum, each of the five models is shown to provide a useful perspective for health care management. Health care managers should gain experience and training with a broader set of business management models. PMID:12476639

Trisolini, Michael G

2002-01-01

147

Quality management in Malaysian public health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The main aim of the study is to provide an empirical analysis of quality management practice among Malaysian Ministry of Health hospital employees, ranging from medical specialists to health attendants. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Self-administered questionnaires collected data and cluster sampling used to select hospitals, while stratified random sampling selected employee respondents. The research was limited to peninsular Malaysian public

Noor Hazilah Abd. Manaf

2005-01-01

148

Financial management in leading health care systems.  

PubMed

To understand better the financial management practices and strategies of modern health care organizations, we conducted interviews with chief financial officers (CFOs) of several leading health care systems. In this introduction, we present an overview of the project and summary responses on corporate financial structures and strategic challenges facing CFOs. PMID:10845383

Smith, D G; Wheeler, J R; Rivenson, H L; Reiter, K L

2000-01-01

149

Integrated System Health Management Development Toolkit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software toolkit is designed to model complex systems for the implementation of embedded Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) capability, which focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex system (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, and predict future anomalies), and to provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) to control systems for safe and effective operation.

Figueroa, Jorge; Smith, Harvey; Morris, Jon

2009-01-01

150

Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India  

PubMed Central

Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

Mohanty, Sanjay K.

2011-01-01

151

The Learning, Physical and Emotional Environment of the Home in the Context of Poverty: The Infant Health and Development Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the impact of individual environmental and biological risks on the home environment of three-year olds in a sample of low birth weight, premature infants. Suggests that compared to nonpoor families, poor families experienced more multiple risk factors. Poverty clearly had a negative effect on the provision of learning experiences,…

Brooks-Gun, Jeanne; And Others

1995-01-01

152

Assessment of time management attitudes among health managers.  

PubMed

These days, working people are finding it difficult to manage their time, get more done at work, and find some balance in their work and personal lives. Successful time management is often suggested to be a product of organizing skills, however, what works for one person may not work for others. Context current competence assessment formats for physicians, health professionals, and managers during their training years reliably test core knowledge and basic skills. However, they may underemphasize some important domains of professional medical practice. Thus, in addition to assessments of basic skills, new formats that assess clinical reasoning, expert judgment, management of ambiguity, professionalism, time management, learning strategies, and teamwork to promise a multidimensional assessment while maintaining adequate reliability and validity in classic health education and health care institutional settings are needed to be worked on. It should be kept in mind that institutional support, reflection, and mentoring must accompany the development of assessment programs. This study was designed to describe the main factors that consume time, effective hours of work, time management opportunities, and attitudes and behaviors of health professionals and managers on time management concept through assessment by the assessment tool Time Management Inquiry Form (TMIQ-F). The study was conducted at the State Hospital, Social Security Hospital, and University Hospital at Kirikkale, Turkey between October 1999 and January 2000, including 143 subjects defined as medical managers and medical specialists. According to the results, a manager should give priority to the concept of planning, which may be counted among the efficient time management techniques, and educate him/herself on time management. PMID:16131933

Sarp, Nilgun; Yarpuzlu, Aysegul Akbay; Mostame, Fariba

2005-01-01

153

Structural health management for aging aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective structural health management (SHM) system can be a useful tool for making aircraft fleet management decisions ranging from individual aircraft maintenance scheduling and usage restrictions to fleet rotation strategies. This paper discusses the end-user requirements for the elements and architecture of an effective SHM system for application to both military and commercial aging aircraft fleets. The elements discussed

Roy Ikegami; Eric D. Haugse

2001-01-01

154

Legacy for ChildrenTM: a pair of randomized controlled trials of a public health model to improve developmental outcomes among children in poverty  

PubMed Central

Background One in five Americans under age 18 lives in a family below the Federal poverty threshold. These more than 15 million children are at increased risk of a wide variety of adverse long-term health and developmental outcomes. The early years of life are critical to short- and long-term health and well-being. The Legacy for ChildrenTM model was developed in response to this need and marries the perspectives of epidemiology and public health to developmental psychology theory in order to better address the needs of children at environmental risk for poor developmental outcomes. Methods/design The Legacy for ChildrenTM group-based parenting intervention model was evaluated as a pair of randomized controlled trials among low-income families in Miami and Los Angeles. The study was designed to allow for site-stratified analysis in order to evaluate each model implementation separately. Evaluation domains include comprehensive assessments of family, maternal, and child characteristics, process outcomes, and prospective programmatic cost. Data collection began prenatally or at birth and continues into school-age. Discussion The societal costs of poor developmental outcomes are substantial. A concerted effort from multiple sectors and disciplines, including public health, is necessary to address these societal concerns. Legacy uses a public health model to engage parents and promote overall child well-being in families in poverty through rigorous evaluation methodologies and evidence-based intervention strategies. This study collects rich and modular information on maternal and child outcomes, process, and cost that will enable a detailed understanding of how Legacy works, how it can be refined and improved, and how it can be translated and disseminated. Taken together, these results will inform public policy and help to address issues of health disparities among at-risk populations. Trial registration NCT00164697 PMID:22917446

2012-01-01

155

Simulation modeling for the health care manager.  

PubMed

This article addresses the use of simulation software to solve administrative problems faced by health care managers. Spreadsheet add-ins, process simulation software, and discrete event simulation software are available at a range of costs and complexity. All use the Monte Carlo method to realistically integrate probability distributions into models of the health care environment. Problems typically addressed by health care simulation modeling are facility planning, resource allocation, staffing, patient flow and wait time, routing and transportation, supply chain management, and process improvement. PMID:19668066

Kennedy, Michael H

2009-01-01

156

Improving the management of environmental health.  

PubMed Central

Environmental health regulation has been developed on the premise that both problems and solutions are obvious, requiring only attention and commitment. The result has been impossible legislative goals and frenetic, unfocused agency efforts to deal with too many issues. Preventing all environmental health problems is impossible and not the best approach; instead, attention ought to be shifted toward reacting quickly to problems before irreversible, severe health damage has occurred. Rather than having regulatory agencies attempt to manage all problems, they should be focused on exemplifying goals and productive approaches, and on handling a few major issues. Regulatory agencies should be managing the nonregulatory institutions to ensure that they are effective in dealing with the myriad issues that the agencies will never be able to handle. The inherent limitations of federal regulatory agencies must be recognized to restructure environmental health management to be more effective in lowering risks while being efficient, administratively simple, and more equitable. PMID:4085439

Lave, L B

1985-01-01

157

Management academy for public health: creating entrepreneurial managers.  

PubMed

The Management Academy for Public Health develops public health managers' management skills. Ultimately, the program aims to develop civic entrepreneurs who can improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of their organizations. With help from a coach, teams write public health business plans to meet needs in their communities. An external evaluation found that 119 teams trained during the first 3 years of the program generated more than $6 million in enhanced revenue-including grants, contracts, and fees through their business plans--from $2 million in program funding. Approximately 38% of the teams expected to generate revenue from an academy business plan or a spin-off plan. Action-learning methods can help midcareer managers transfer their training to the workplace and build entrepreneurial skills. PMID:17329658

Orton, Stephen; Umble, Karl; Zelt, Sue; Porter, Janet; Johnson, Jim

2007-04-01

158

Managing the quality of health care.  

PubMed

This article reviews quality of health care initiatives beginning with the quality assessment/quality assurance movement of the 1970s. Conceptually, modern quality of care management is rooted in the intellectual work of Avedis Donabedian who defined quality of care as a combination of structure, process, and outcome. Donabedian's model is presented and some limitations are pointed out. In the late 1980s and 1990s. the health care industry adopted total quality management (TQM). More recently, the pursuit of health care quality has led to substantial performance measurement initiatives such as ORYX by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations and MEDIS by the National Commission of Quality Assurance. The importance of CONQUEST, a freely available performance measurement database developed at the Harvard School of Public Health, is noted and discussed. The article concludes with a list of challenges facing public and private parties interests in health care quality improvement. PMID:15188996

Larson, James S; Muller, Andreas

2002-01-01

159

The Role of Childhood Neglect and Childhood Poverty in Predicting Mental Health, Academic Achievement and Crime in Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the roles of childhood neglect and childhood poverty (family and neighborhood) in predicting Posttraumatic\\u000a Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), academic achievement, and crime in young adulthood. Using existing\\u000a data from a prospective cohort design study, 1,005 children with documented histories of neglect (N = 507) and matched controls\\u000a (N = 497) were interviewed in young adulthood (mean age 29).

Valentina NikulinaCathy; Cathy Spatz Widom; Sally Czaja

160

IRRIGATION AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION: REVIEW OF THE EMPIRICAL EVIDENCEy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to clarify the linkages between irrigation and poverty by offering an objective review of recent research on the subject. The key questions addressed herein are: (1) what is the role of irrigation development and management in poverty alleviation? (2) what are the linkages and pathways through which irrigation contributes to poverty alleviation? (3) what

INTIZAR HUSSAIN; MUNIR A. HANJRA

161

ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND GLOBAL HEALTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy and energy technologies have a central role in social and economic development at all scales, from household and community to regional and national. Among its welfare effects, energy is closely linked with public health both positively and negatively, the latter through environmental pollution and degradation. We review the current research on how energy use and energy technologies influence public

Majid Ezzati; Robert Bailis; Daniel M. Kammen; Tracey Holloway; Lynn Price; Luis A. Cifuentes; Brendon Barnes; Akanksha Chaureyy; Kiran N. Dhanapala

2004-01-01

162

Hope out of Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "A Framework of Poverty," Ruby Payne (1998) itemizes the things that characterize poverty-stricken people. She talks about how hard it is for a person to move out of poverty. To not pass poverty on to another generation, one must have a vision. One must have a desire to achieve a better life or a strong support system. Schools must become the…

Davenport, Roy F.; Tolbert, Marsha; Myers-Oliver, Donna; Brissett, Julia M.; Roland, Annissa J.

2007-01-01

163

Medicaid managed care and public health data.  

PubMed

In summary, there are a number of ways in which state public health data can be of value in the design of Medicaid managed care plans. At the level of the purchaser, such as a state Medicaid agency, public health data can assist in decision-making around pricing policy and can be useful in prioritizing interventions for those conditions that most severely affect the covered population. Quality assurance standards such as the HEDIS clinical performance measures can be used to define a baseline of prevention-oriented services or, by adding additional customized data points, to emphasize a particular service. From the standpoint of the managed care plan, public health data can be useful in understanding the needs of a community it serves or would like to serve and in estimating the prevalence of various conditions in that community that will influence the premium it will charge. Thus, there are multiple routes through which public health goals and priorities can be incorporated into managed care and can leverage the power of managed care to improve the public's health. PMID:10476991

Rutherford, G W; Backer, H D

1999-01-01

164

Second discipline in Health Management and Policy HMP 401, US Health Care Systems  

E-print Network

Research I [Health Management track], or HMP 702, Quantitative Methods in Epidemiology [Public Health track problems using epidemiological reasoning, methods, and analyses. Lab. HMP 721 - Managing Health Care, Epidemiology and Community Medicine HMP 721, Managing Health Care Organizations Either HMP 711, Health Systems

New Hampshire, University of

165

Insights in public health: Is the gap growing? Patterns in poverty-related disparities in nutrition and physical activity in Hawai'i.  

PubMed

A recent Harvard study on national dietary trends found that the gap in healthy dietary behaviors between low-income and middle/upper-income Americans widened between 2000 and 2010. Hawai'i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2001-2009 on differences in obesity-related behaviors between moderate-high income, low-income, and poverty-level Hawai'i residents were examined to explore whether Hawai'i data on obesity-related behaviors reflected this national trend. While most differences between groups were not statistically significant, a consistent pattern was seen across all measures that suggested a growing gap between low-income and moderate/high income Hawai'i residents. Data from community studies on pedestrian injury, park use, transportation, and healthy food access were examined. This data suggests that individuals residing in low-income neighborhoods in Hawai'i experience higher barriers to the adoption of healthier behaviors. Further data is needed to document poverty-related gaps in the adoption of health behaviors among youth and within Hawai'i's ethnic groups, communities and geographic areas. PMID:25337452

Buchthal, Vanessa

2014-10-01

166

Strategic service quality management for health care.  

PubMed

Quality management has become one of the most important and most debated topics within the service sector. This is especially true for health care, as the controversy rages on how the existing American system should be restructured. Health care reform aimed at reducing costs and ensuring access to all Americans cannot be allowed to jeopardize the quality of care. As such, total quality management (TQM) has become a vital ingredient to strategic planning within the health care domain. At the heart of any such quality improvement effort is the issue of measurement. TQM cannot be effectively utilized as a competitive weapon unless quality can be accurately defined, measured, evaluated, and monitored over time. Through such analysis a hospital can elect how to expend its limited resources toward those quality improvement projects which will impact customer perceptions of service quality the most. Thus, the purpose of this report is to establish a framework by which to approach the issue of quality measurement, delineate the various components of quality that exist in health care, and explore how these elements affect one another. We propose that the issue of quality measurement in health care be approached as an integration of service quality attributes common to other service organizations and technical quality attributes unique to health care. We hope that this research will serve as a first step toward the synthesis of the various quality attributes inherent in the health care domain and encourage other researchers to address the interactions of the various quality attributes. PMID:8763215

Anderson, E A; Zwelling, L A

1996-01-01

167

CHAPTER 13: ENERGY AND POVERTY  

E-print Network

services do not per se guarantee poverty alleviation. · Renewable energy technologies such as solar, wind other things, clean water, adequate sanitation and health services, a good education system transport fuels. Modern energy services enhance the life of the poor in countless ways.1 Electric light

Kammen, Daniel M.

168

Income inequality, residential poverty clustering and infant mortality: a study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an approach to investigate the hypothesis that the residential concentration of poverty affects health status more deeply than when poverty is randomly scattered in a given geographical area. To characterize the geographic pattern of poverty in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an index that measures the heterogeneity of poverty concentration among sub-areas was

Célia Landmann Szwarcwald; Carla Lourenço Tavares de Andrade; Francisco Inácio Bastos

2002-01-01

169

Managing County Employee Health Care Costs The Problem  

E-print Network

.pdf Health Fair Planning Guide http://fcs.tamu.edu/health/health_fair_ planning_guide/index.php HealthManaging County Employee Health Care Costs The Problem If food costs increased at same rate as health care, one dozen eggs would cost $80.20! 87.5% of health-care claims are due to employees

170

A Arts |CS Community Services | D Disabilities | ED Education | EL Elderly | ENV Environment | F Family H Health | L Literacy | P Poverty, Housing, Hunger | S Science and Technology | Y Youth  

E-print Network

as employment opportunities. Assist with Wednesday evening mixers, art and horticulture therapy programsA Arts |CS Community Services | D Disabilities | ED Education | EL Elderly | ENV Environment | F Family H Health | L Literacy | P Poverty, Housing, Hunger | S Science and Technology | Y Youth Wittenberg

Bogaerts, Steven

171

Poverty nutrition linkages.  

PubMed

At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per cent and about half the children are undernourished. While poverty and mortality rates came down by 50 per cent, fertility rate by 40 per cent, the reduction in undernutrition in children is only 20 per cent. National surveys indicate that a third of the children from high income group who have not experienced any deprivations are undernourished. The high undernutrition rates among children appears to be mainly due to high low birthweight rates, poor infant and young child feeding and caring practices. At the other end of the spectrum, surveys in school children from high income groups indicate that between 10-20 per cent are overnourished; the major factor responsible appears to be reduction in physical activity. Some aspects of the rapidly changing, complex relationship between economic status, poverty, dietary intake, nutritional and health status are explored in this review. PMID:18032800

Ramachandran, Prema

2007-10-01

172

Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over

Geoffrey A. Codd; Louise F. Morrison; James S. Metcalf

2005-01-01

173

Risk contracts in managed mental health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prologue: The term risk contracting has become a familiar part of the vocabulary and the landscape of managed care. Risk contracting refers to an arrangement whereby the cost or claims risk for an insured population is borne by the entity that is desig- nated to bear risk: a prepaid plan or, as is increasingly the case for mental health care,

Richard G. Frank; Thomas G. McGuire; Joseph P. Newhouse

1995-01-01

174

Towards Open Information Management in Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of information technology as tool in health care is increasing. The main benefits stem from the fact that information in electronic form can be transferred to different locations rapidly and from the possibility to auto- mate certain information management tasks. The current technological approach for this automation relies on structured, formally coded representation of information. We discuss the

J. Yli-Hietanen; S. Niiranen

2008-01-01

175

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

2011-01-01

176

Software Health Management with Bayesian Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most modern aircraft as well as other complex machinery is equipped with diagnostics systems for its major subsystems. During operation, sensors provide important information about the subsystem (e.g., the engine) and that information is used to detect and diagnose faults. Most of these systems focus on the monitoring of a mechanical, hydraulic, or electromechanical subsystem of the vehicle or machinery. Only recently, health management systems that monitor software have been developed. In this paper, we will discuss our approach of using Bayesian networks for Software Health Management (SWHM). We will discuss SWHM requirements, which make advanced reasoning capabilities for the detection and diagnosis important. Then we will present our approach to using Bayesian networks for the construction of health models that dynamically monitor a software system and is capable of detecting and diagnosing faults.

Mengshoel, Ole; Schumann, JOhann

2011-01-01

177

The Implications of Death for Health: A Terror Management Health Model for Behavioral Health Promotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a terror management health model (TMHM). The model integrates disparate health and social psychology literatures to elucidate how the conscious and nonconscious awareness of death can influence the motivational orientation that is most operative in the context of health decisions. Three formal propositions are presented.…

Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie

2008-01-01

178

Up close and personal: poverty and human development  

PubMed Central

Poverty and health are inextricably linked: poverty diminishes access to health care (whether through reduced ability to pay, a lack of knowledge about when to seek health care or a lack of adequate services within reach), increases exposure to disease and other illness (for example, through exposure to dangerous workplaces), and is related to reduced access to clean water, housing and sanitation. PMID:21673943

Murray, Sally; Brophy, James; Kendall, Claire; Palepu, Anita

2007-01-01

179

‘More health for the money’: an analytical framework for access to health care through microfinance and savings groups  

PubMed Central

The main contributors to inequities in health relates to widespread poverty. Health cannot be achieved without addressing the social determinants of health, and the answer does not lie in the health sector alone. One of the potential pathways to address vulnerabilities linked to poverty, social exclusion, and empowerment of women is aligning health programmes with empowerment interventions linked to access to capital through microfinance and self-help groups. This paper presents a framework to analyse combined health and financial interventions through microfinance programmes in reducing barriers to access health care. If properly designed and ethically managed such integrated programmes can provide more health for the money spent on health care. PMID:25364028

Saha, Somen

2014-01-01

180

UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND RISK MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND RISK MANAGEMENT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES SECTION through the proper management of asbestos containing material (ACM) throughout campus buildings. II. SCOPE

Azevedo, Ricardo

181

Best practices for health technology management.  

PubMed

In 2006, ECRI's Health Devices Group instituted the Health Devices Achievement Award to honor excellence in health technology management. The application process for this award yielded descriptions of many unique and effective technology management initiatives. This Guidance Article presents some of the best practices gleaned from the top award submissions. The following topics are discussed: The role of human factors testing in the technology management process. We describe one facility's approach to solving a particularly vexing problem: slow telemetry-alarm response times. The use of performance-based service contracting to improve inspection and preventive maintenance (IPM) completion rates. The advantages associated with one health system's process for grouping ventilator-dependent patients who are being cared for outside the intensive care unit. The ability of a technology assessment committee to bring a disciplined approach to the adoption of new technologies. The importance of customer satisfaction to a clinical engineering department. We describe how meeting the caregivers' needs contributes to building a patient-safe environment. The successful implementation of a new patient care technology: local anesthetic pumps. PMID:17300103

2006-12-01

182

Conflict management styles in the health professions.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine prevalent conflict management styles chosen by students in nursing and to contrast these styles with those chosen by students in allied health professions. The associations among the level of professional health care education and the style chosen were also determined. A convenience sample of 126 students in a comprehensive university completed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), which requires respondents to choose behaviors most characteristic of their response to conflict and classifies these behaviors as one of five styles. There was no significant difference between the prevalent conflict management styles chosen by graduate and undergraduate nursing students and those in allied health. Some of the students were already licensed in their discipline; others had not yet taken a licensing exam. Licensure and educational level were not associated with choice of styles. Women and men had similar preferences. The prevalent style for nursing students was compromise, followed by avoidance. In contrast, avoidance, followed by compromise and accommodation, was the prevalent style for allied health students. When compared to the TKI norms, slightly more than one half of all participants chose two or more conflict management styles, commonly avoidance and accommodation at the 75th percentile or above. Only 9.8% of the participants chose collaboration at that level. Implications for nurse educators, researchers, and administrators are discussed. PMID:17540319

Sportsman, Susan; Hamilton, Patti

2007-01-01

183

Using rangeland health assessment to inform successional management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rangeland health assessment provides qualitative information on ecosystem attributes. Successional management is a conceptual framework that allows managers to link information gathered in rangeland health assessment to ecological processes that need to be repaired to allow vegetation to change in ...

184

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series August, 2006  

E-print Network

, and psycho-emotional health and literacy and academic competence -- may be fruitfully combined within National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #0630 August, 2006 Developmental Health;Human Development Policies 1 Developmental Health Effects of Human Development Policies Daniel P

Shyy, Wei

185

Entrepreneurship management in health services: an integrative model.  

PubMed

This research develops an integrated systems model of entrepreneurship management as a method for achieving health care organizational survival and growth. Specifically, it analyzes current health care environment challenges, identifies roles of managers and discusses organizational theories that are relevant to the health care environment, outlines the role of entrepreneurship in health care, and describes the entrepreneurial manager in the entrepreneurial management process to produce desirable organizational outcomes. The study concludes that as current health care environment continues to show intense competition, entrepreneurial managers are responsible for creating innovations, managing change, investing in resources, and recognizing opportunities in the environment to increase organizational viability. PMID:16583849

Guo, Kristina L

2006-01-01

186

Poverty, user fees and ability to pay for health care for children with suspected dengue in rural Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

User fees were introduced in public health facilities in Cambodia in 1997 in order to inject funds into the health system to enhance the quality of services. Because of inadequate health insurance, a social safety net scheme was introduced to ensure that all people were able to attend the health facilities. However, continuing high rates of hospitalization and mortality from

Sokrin Khun; Lenore Manderson

2008-01-01

187

ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation presents status and results of research on Software Health Management done within the NRA "ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management." Topics include: Ingredients of a Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (GN and C); Selected GN and C Testbed example; Health Management of major ingredients; ISWHM testbed architecture; and Conclusions and next Steps.

Schumann, Johann; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Darwiche, Adnan

2010-01-01

188

College of Health Sciences CLM Clinical Leadership and Management  

E-print Network

College of Health Sciences CLM Clinical Leadership and Management KEY: # = new course * = course of government will be examined. The power and influence that politics, money, the media, and special interest MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH CARE INSTITUTIONS. (3) A review of financial management practices in health care

MacAdam, Keith

189

Studienordnung fr den Masterstudiengang (M.Sc.) ,,Health Care Management"  

E-print Network

Studienordnung für den Masterstudiengang (M.Sc.) ,,Health Care Management" an der Ernst- Moritz den Masterstudiengang (M.Sc.) ,,Health Care Management" als Sat- zung: Inhaltsverzeichnis § 1.Sc.) ,,Health Care Management" an der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald vom 18.07.2006 das Studium

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

190

Studienordnung fr den Masterstudiengang (M.Sc.) ,,Health Care Management"  

E-print Network

Studienordnung für den Masterstudiengang (M.Sc.) ,,Health Care Management" an der Ernst- Moritz den Masterstudiengang (M.Sc.) ,,Health Care Management" als Satzung: Inhaltsverzeichnis § 1.Sc.) ,,Health Care Management" an der Ernst-Moritz- Arndt-Universität Greifswald vom 18.07.2006 das Studium

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

191

Health Management and Informatics Alumni Organization An Affiliate of  

E-print Network

BYLAWS of the Health Management and Informatics Alumni Organization An Affiliate of The University The name of the organization shall be the Health Management and Informatics Organization hereinafter referred to as the Organization. ARTICLE II: PURPOSE The Health Management and Informatics Organization

Missouri-Columbia, University of

192

Health Plans' Disease Management Programs: Extending across the Medical and Behavioral Health Spectrum?  

PubMed Central

While the disease management industry has expanded rapidly, there is little nationally representative data regarding medical and behavioral health disease management programs at the health plan level. National estimates from a survey of private health plans indicate that 90% of health plan products offered disease management for general medical conditions such as diabetes, but only 37% had depression programs. The frequency of specific depression disease management activities varied widely. Program adoption was significantly related to product type and behavioral health contracting. In health plans, disease management has penetrated more slowly into behavioral health, and depression program characteristics are highly variable. PMID:18806594

Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Horgan, Constance M.; Garnick, Deborah W.; Hodgkin, Dominic; Morley, Melissa

2015-01-01

193

FAILSAFE Health Management for Embedded Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FAILSAFE project is developing concepts and prototype implementations for software health management in mission- critical, real-time embedded systems. The project unites features of the industry-standard ARINC 653 Avionics Application Software Standard Interface and JPL s Mission Data System (MDS) technology (see figure). The ARINC 653 standard establishes requirements for the services provided by partitioned, real-time operating systems. The MDS technology provides a state analysis method, canonical architecture, and software framework that facilitates the design and implementation of software-intensive complex systems. The MDS technology has been used to provide the health management function for an ARINC 653 application implementation. In particular, the focus is on showing how this combination enables reasoning about, and recovering from, application software problems.

Horvath, Gregory A.; Wagner, David A.; Wen, Hui Ying; Barry, Matthew

2010-01-01

194

Data Management for Meeting Global Health Challenges Tapan S. Parikh  

E-print Network

Data Management for Meeting Global Health Challenges Tapan S. Parikh UC Berkeley School global health challenges are becoming increasingly data driven. Governments and donors are demanding activities, and responding to remote outbreaks of disease. Data challenges in global health intersect

Parikh, Tapan S.

195

Making Technology Ready: Integrated Systems Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper identifies work needed by developers to make integrated system health management (ISHM) technology ready and by programs to make mission infrastructure ready for this technology. This paper examines perceptions of ISHM technologies and experience in legacy programs. Study methods included literature review and interviews with representatives of stakeholder groups. Recommendations address 1) development of ISHM technology, 2) development of ISHM engineering processes and methods, and 3) program organization and infrastructure for ISHM technology evolution, infusion and migration.

Malin, Jane T.; Oliver, Patrick J.

2007-01-01

196

Health management of breast cancer survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is defined as a chronic disease. Increasing amounts of attention have been paid to the health management of\\u000a breast cancer survivors. An important issue is how to find the most appropriate method of follow-up in order to detect long-term\\u000a complications of treatment, local recurrence and distant metastasis and to administer appropriate treatment to the survivors\\u000a with recurrence in

Min Li; Juan Chen; Zhendong Chen

2009-01-01

197

Evidence-based health care management: what is the research evidence available for health care managers?  

PubMed

In light of increasing interest in evidence-based management, we conducted a scoping review of systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) to determine the availability and accessibility of evidence for health care managers; 14 MAs and 61 SRs met the inclusion criteria. Most reviews appeared in medical journals (53%), originated in the United States (29%) or United Kingdom (22%), were hospital-based (55%), and targeted clinical providers (55%). Topics included health services organization (34%), quality/patient safety (17%), information technology (15%), organization/workplace management (13%), and health care workforce (12%). Most reviews addressed clinical topics of relevance to managers; management-related interventions were rare. The management issues were mostly classified as operational (65%). Surprisingly, 96.5% of search results were not on target. A better classification within PubMed is needed to increase the accessibility of meaningful resources and facilitate evidence retrieval. Health care journals should take initiatives encouraging the publication of reviews in relevant management areas. PMID:24296471

Jaana, Mirou; Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M

2014-09-01

198

Structural health management for aging aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective structural health management (SHM) system can be a useful tool for making aircraft fleet management decisions ranging from individual aircraft maintenance scheduling and usage restrictions to fleet rotation strategies. This paper discusses the end-user requirements for the elements and architecture of an effective SHM system for application to both military and commercial aging aircraft fleets. The elements discussed include the sensor systems for monitoring and characterizing the health of the structure, data processing methods for interpreting sensor data and converting it into useable information, and automated methods for erroneous data detection, data archiving and information dissemination. Current and past SHM technology development/maturation efforts in these areas at the Boeing Company will be described. An evolutionary technology development strategy is developed in which the technologies needed will be matured, integrated into a vehicle health management system, and benefits established without requiring extensive changes to the end-user's existing operation and maintenance infrastructure. Issues regarding the end-user customer acceptance of SHM systems are discussed and summarized.

Ikegami, Roy; Haugse, Eric D.

2001-06-01

199

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation. ISHM is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this chapter, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an ISHM capability relevant to intelligent systems. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system, emphasizing an advance toward an on-board, autonomous capability. Both ground-based and on-board ISHM capabilities are addressed. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

2011-01-01

200

The neurology of poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intellectual deficit is known to exist in populations where extreme poverty is rife and is thus seen extensively in the lower socio-economic strata of underdeveloped nations. Poverty is a complex entity whose sociological and economic indicators often bear little relevance to the biological agents which can affect the central nervous system. An attempt is made to express poverty in

Gonzalo Alvarez

1982-01-01

201

Adolescents and Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More youth live in poverty and poor youth comprise a larger share of the youth population than was the case a decade ago. This article first provides a descriptive analysis of children in poverty; examining the incidence of poverty among children by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics with a particular focus on…

Wight, Vanessa R.

2011-01-01

202

Poverty: Moving Forward with  

E-print Network

· Focuses on outcomes ­ link actions with measurable and tangible results · Sets principles to guide actions · Policy shifts to work towards in design and delivery 15 #12;Poverty Reduction Poverty Reduction Strategy, and choices necessary for the enjoyment of an adequate standard of life. Income-Based Poverty Measures Low

Saskatchewan, University of

203

[Population trends and poverty].  

PubMed

Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs. PMID:12178231

Olmedo, C

1998-04-01

204

Vaccines against poverty  

PubMed Central

With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

2014-01-01

205

Vaccines against poverty.  

PubMed

With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan

2014-08-26

206

Health leadership and management competencies: a systemic approach.  

PubMed

The achievement of national and international health goals requires better-performing health systems. Strengthening leadership and management of health systems thus becomes essential for achieving greater efficiency and responsiveness, ultimately improving health outcomes. Building a global framework of core competencies for leadership and management needs to be approached with systems thinking and methodologies akin to complexity science that takes into account all components and levels of the health system and the possible interactions between them that influence outcomes. The results will have important policy implications for national health authorities seeking to strengthen management capacity and building transformational leadership in health systems. PMID:23342754

Holder, Reynaldo; Ramagem, Caroline

2012-01-01

207

Multidimensional Poverty in China: Findings Based on the CHNS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates multidimensional poverty in China by applying the Alkire-Foster methodology to the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2000-2009 data. Five dimensions are included: income, living standard, education, health and social security. Results suggest that rapid economic growth has resulted not only in a reduction in income poverty but…

Yu, Jiantuo

2013-01-01

208

Total quality management strategies in mental health systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the concept of total quality management (TQM) to top managers of mental health systems. While TQM is\\u000a a philosophy of management at the cutting edge of U.S. business, it has only recently entered the vocabulary of health care\\u000a managers. To our knowledge, TQM has yet to be systematically applied to the state mental health service delivery system.

William V. Rago; William H. Reid

1991-01-01

209

[Health economic evaluation of disease management programs].  

PubMed

Disease management has become an important element in the improvement of care for people with chronic illnesses and has become embedded in the discussion on health policy in recent years. The approach has been introduced very differently to the health systems worldwide. Since 1 January 2003 accredited disease management programs (DMPs) have been a part of the risk structure compensation scheme of the German statutory health insurance. This is seen as the first step to a morbidity orientation of the risk structure compensation. DMPs have to be evaluated according the German Social Law, especially whether the objectives of the programs and the criteria for inclusion of the patients have been met and the quality of care for the patients is insured. The criteria for evaluation are threefold: medical issues, economic issues and subjective quality of life of the patients. Due to the immense amounts of data which can be expected the evaluation of the German DMPs is a huge logistical challenge. Until now not very much is known about the data quality. The evaluation is focused on the perspective of the sickness funds as e.g. information about indirect cost is not collected. In the article the methods for evaluation are described and critically discussed. PMID:16320012

Greiner, W

2006-01-01

210

A Distributed Prognostic Health Management Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper introduces a generic distributed prognostic health management (PHM) architecture with specific application to the electrical power systems domain. Current state-of-the-art PHM systems are mostly centralized in nature, where all the processing is reliant on a single processor. This can lead to loss of functionality in case of a crash of the central processor or monitor. Furthermore, with increases in the volume of sensor data as well as the complexity of algorithms, traditional centralized systems become unsuitable for successful deployment, and efficient distributed architectures are required. A distributed architecture though, is not effective unless there is an algorithmic framework to take advantage of its unique abilities. The health management paradigm envisaged here incorporates a heterogeneous set of system components monitored by a varied suite of sensors and a particle filtering (PF) framework that has the power and the flexibility to adapt to the different diagnostic and prognostic needs. Both the diagnostic and prognostic tasks are formulated as a particle filtering problem in order to explicitly represent and manage uncertainties; however, typically the complexity of the prognostic routine is higher than the computational power of one computational element ( CE). Individual CEs run diagnostic routines until the system variable being monitored crosses beyond a nominal threshold, upon which it coordinates with other networked CEs to run the prognostic routine in a distributed fashion. Implementation results from a network of distributed embedded devices monitoring a prototypical aircraft electrical power system are presented, where the CEs are Sun Microsystems Small Programmable Object Technology (SPOT) devices.

Bhaskar, Saha; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

2009-01-01

211

Integrated electronic health records management system.  

PubMed

Computer systems and communication technologies are making a strong and influential presence in the different fields of medicine. The cornerstone of a functional medical information system represents the electronic health records management system. Due to a very sensitive nature of medical information, such systems are faced with a number of stringent requirements, like security and confidentiality of patients' related data, different media type's management, diversity of medical data that need to be processed etc. At present most clinical software systems are closed with little or no operability between them, and the medical information are locked in a variety of different incompatible databases. As the result of these facts, it is very hard for the developers to provide the solution for an integrated health computing environment, which would considerably improve the quality of medical care in general. This paper presents the framework for a functional EHR management system that meets these demands, but also follows the initiative taken by the Next Generation Network (NGN) approach, which includes user mobility, service transparency and common communication platform for transferring and serving different types of information, services and media. PMID:17095822

Di Giacomo, P; Ricci, Fabrizio L; Bocchi, Leonardo

2006-01-01

212

Overcoming Human Poverty: UNDP Poverty Report 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year's annual Poverty Report from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the world's largest aid agency, breaks new ground in the way it directly indicates poor governance as a leading cause of continued poverty in many nations. The question of government and poverty has been a matter of some contention within the UN and between aid agencies and countries seeking assistance. This report identifies effective governance as "the 'missing link' between national anti-poverty efforts and poverty reduction," and concludes that "for many countries it is in improving governance that external assistance is needed." The authors call for a new and more sharply focused global strategy to combat poverty, one that emphasizes good government, the integration of poverty programs on the national and international level, and empowering people. The full text of the report is available by chapter at the site, along with an executive summary, country profiles, and a PowerPoint slide show. The text and summary are also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, and Spanish.

213

Creating new career pathways to reduce poverty, illiteracy and health risks, while transforming and empowering Cambodian women's lives.  

PubMed

Community health psychology provides a framework for local citizens themselves to systematically affect change in health and social inequalities, particularly through Participatory Action Research (PAR). The Cambodian NGO SiRCHESI launched a 24-month Hotel Apprenticeship Program (HAP) in 2006 to provide literacy, English, social skills, health education, hotel skills-training, work experience and a living wage to women formerly selling beer in restaurants; there they had faced workplace risks including HIV/AIDS, alcohol overuse, violence and sexual coercion. Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate changes in health-related knowledge, behaviour, self-image and empowerment, as HAP trainees were monitored and evaluated within their new career trajectories. PMID:20616182

Lee, Helen; Pollock, Gabe; Lubek, Ian; Niemi, Stacy; O'Brien, Katie; Green, Michelle; Bashir, Sabina; Braun, Ellyn; Kros, Sarath; Huot, Virakboth; Ma, Vanna; Griffiths, Neela; Dickson, Brett; Pring, Noeun; Sohkurt Huon-Ribeil, Kris; Lim, Natalie; Turner, Jasmin; Winkler, Chris; Wong, Mee Lian; Van Merode, Tiny; Dy, Bun Cheem; Prem, Sophiap; Idema, Roel

2010-10-01

214

The social costs of the International Monetary Fund's adjustment programs for poverty: the case of health care development in Ghana.  

PubMed

A primary health care (PHC) strategy was adopted in Ghana in 1978, but the civilian government at the time failed to implement the program designed to achieve health for all Ghanaians. In 1982, the revolutionary military government under Rawlings indicated its commitment to the full implementation of the PHC program. In this article, the author seeks to examine the extent to which the Economic Recovery Program initiated by the Rawlings' regime, its policy of decentralization and mobilization of the masses, and its promise to institute some fundamental organizational and structural changes in the health care delivery system, are contributing to the process of achieving "health for all" Ghanaians. PMID:2753581

Anyinam, C A

1989-01-01

215

Aid allocation and poverty reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper derives a poverty-efficient allocation of aid and compares it with actual aid allocations. The allocation of aid that has the maximum effect on poverty depends on the level of poverty and the quality of policies. Using the headcount, poverty-gap, and squared poverty gap measures of poverty, alternatively, all yield similar poverty-efficient allocations. Finally, we find that the actual

Paul Collier; David Dollar

2002-01-01

216

Sensor Systems for Prognostics and Health Management  

PubMed Central

Prognostics and health management (PHM) is an enabling discipline consisting of technologies and methods to assess the reliability of a product in its actual life cycle conditions to determine the advent of failure and mitigate system risk. Sensor systems are needed for PHM to monitor environmental, operational, and performance-related characteristics. The gathered data can be analyzed to assess product health and predict remaining life. In this paper, the considerations for sensor system selection for PHM applications, including the parameters to be measured, the performance needs, the electrical and physical attributes, reliability, and cost of the sensor system, are discussed. The state-of-the-art sensor systems for PHM and the emerging trends in technologies of sensor systems for PHM are presented. PMID:22219686

Cheng, Shunfeng; Azarian, Michael H.; Pecht, Michael G.

2010-01-01

217

Outage management and health physics issue, 2006  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A design with experience for the U.S., by Michael J. Wallace, Constellation Generation Group; Hope to be among the first, by Randy Hutchinson, Entergy Nuclear; Plans to file COLs in 2008, by Garry Miller, Progress Energy; Evolution of ICRP's recommendations, by Lars-Erik Holm, ICRP; European network on education and training in radiological protection, by Michele Coeck, SCK-CEN, Belgium; Outage managment: an important tool for improving nuclear power plant performance, by Thomas Mazour and Jiri Mandula, IAEA, Austria; and Plant profile: Exploring new paths to excellence, by Anne Thomas, Exelon Nuclear.

Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

2006-05-15

218

Trauma, poverty and mental health among Somali and Rwandese refugees living in an African refugee settlement – an epidemiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among Rwandese and Somali refugees resident in a Ugandan refugee settlement, as a measure of the mental health consequences of armed conflict, as well as to inform a subsequent mental health outreach program. The study population comprised a sample from 14400 (n

Lamaro P Onyut; Frank Neuner; Verena Ertl; Elisabeth Schauer; Michael Odenwald; Thomas Elbert

2009-01-01

219

Health management performance : A review of measures and indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bewildering variety of performance measures and indicators in health management is evident in the literature and in practice. Reviews measures useful for health management performance accountability, and expands on the traditional notion of health performance measures to incorporate nominal and ordinal measures. The research is performed in the interest of stimulating discussion in the public domain and with the

K. A. Van Peursem; M. J. Prat; S. R. Lawrence

1995-01-01

220

Strategies for effective management participation in community health partnerships.  

PubMed

This article develops guidelines for effective health services management participation in community health partnerships. Drawing on our study of Community Care Network (CCN) Demonstration, the strategic alliance literature, and other research, we describe six challenges that health services managers are likely to face as partnership participants and discuss the strategies that they might use to deal with them. PMID:10937337

Weiner, B J; Alexander, J A; Zuckerman, H S

2000-01-01

221

Prfungsordnung fr den Masterstudiengang (M.Sc.) ,,Health Care Management "  

E-print Network

Prüfungsordnung für den Masterstudiengang (M.Sc.) ,,Health Care Management " an der Ernst ,,Health Care Management" (HCM) als Satzung: Inhaltsverzeichnis § 1 Regelungsgegenstand § 2* Regelungsgegenstand (1) Diese Prüfungsordnung regelt das Prüfungsverfahren im Masterstudiengang ,,Health Care

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

222

Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model  

PubMed Central

Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:24620040

Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

2014-01-01

223

Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model.  

PubMed

Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:24620040

Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

2014-04-01

224

Occupational Health & Safety: The Management Challenge of the Nineties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the major developments related to occupational health and safety in Australia over the last 20 years are reviewed As part of this review reasons are cited why Occupational Health and Safety has not developed more rapidly as an integral part of effective managment in Australia. An approach to safety management as it relates to quality management is

Robert Hetzel

1990-01-01

225

Health Advisor An Online Game for Managing Healthcare Delivery  

E-print Network

to "serious" games. Our research paradigm is premised on the notion that a large number of people addressingHealth Advisor An Online Game for Managing Healthcare Delivery Tennenbaum Institute Georgia, an online game for managing healthcare delivery ­ Health Advisor. Each player manages a set of clients

226

‘My health is not a job’: a qualitative exploration of personal health management and imperatives of the ‘new public health  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing push in Western healthcare for people to ‘manage’ their health, a key aspect of what has been called the ‘new public health’. It has been argued that this ‘personal health management’ – informal work done to monitor, inform, or influence one’s health – may be a burden, with potential to contribute to poor health outcomes. However, there is little research actually examining perceptions of personal health management and the ‘burden’ of these activities, particularly for generally healthy individuals. Methods We conducted exploratory qualitative interviews with 30 generally healthy men and women about their perceptions and experiences of personal health management. Questions focused on health behaviours (e.g., information seeking), as well as feelings about these behaviours and perceptions of the time dedicated to health. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively using NVivo 10. Where appropriate, quantitative codes were applied and descriptive statistics are reported alongside qualitative findings. Results Participants were generally satisfied with the amount of time spent on their health and few perceived personal health management as a burden. Many participants took issue with the concept of ‘work’ being associated with health and stressed the importance of taking personal responsibility for health. Conclusions Our findings suggest that generally healthy people have internalised the notion of the ‘new public health’ and accepted the imperative of personal health responsibility. On the one hand, this bodes well for healthy individuals; their positive attitude may lead to better health outcomes, and the manageable amount of time spent suggests personal health management is unlikely to cause negative health consequences associated with stress. On the other hand, our findings may indicate that other factors, such as social determinants of health, are ignored in health promotion efforts and that those who cannot manage their own health may fall further behind. Future research should continue to explore the time people spend ‘working’ for their health, and how they perceive and respond to ‘new public health’ imperatives. PMID:25030501

2014-01-01

227

Trauma, poverty and mental health among Somali and Rwandese refugees living in an African refugee settlement – an epidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among Rwandese and Somali refugees resident in a Ugandan refugee settlement, as a measure of the mental health consequences of armed conflict, as well as to inform a subsequent mental health outreach program. The study population comprised a sample from 14400 (n = 519 Somali and n = 906 Rwandese) refugees resident in Nakivale refugee settlement in South Western Uganda during the year 2003. Methods The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 were used to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Results Thirty two percent of the Rwandese and 48.1% of the Somali refugees were found to suffer from PTSD. The Somalis refugees had a mean of 11.95 (SD = 6.17) separate traumatic event types while the Rwandese had 8.86 (SD = 5.05). The Somalis scored a mean sum score of 21.17 (SD = 16.19) on the PDS while the Rwandese had a mean sum score of 10.05 (SD = 9.7). Conclusion Mental health consequences of conflict remain long after the events are over, and therefore mental health intervention is as urgent for post-conflict migrant populations as physical health and other emergency interventions. A mental health outreach program was initiated based on this study. PMID:19470171

Onyut, Lamaro P; Neuner, Frank; Ertl, Verena; Schauer, Elisabeth; Odenwald, Michael; Elbert, Thomas

2009-01-01

228

The Affordable Care Act, health care reform, prescription drug formularies and utilization management tools.  

PubMed

The U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hence, Affordable Care Act, or ACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010. Goals of the ACA include decreasing the number of uninsured people, controlling cost and spending on health care, increasing the quality of care provided, and increasing insurance coverage benefits. This manuscript focuses on how the ACA affects pharmacy benefit managers and consumers when they have prescriptions dispensed. PBMs use formularies and utilization control tools to steer drug usage toward cost-effective and efficacious agents. A logic model was developed to explain the effects of the new legislation. The model draws from peer-reviewed and gray literature commentary about current and future U.S. healthcare reform. Outcomes were identified as desired and undesired effects, and expected unintended consequences. The ACA extends health insurance benefits to almost 32 million people and provides financial assistance to those up to 400% of the poverty level. Increased access to care leads to a similar increase in overall health care demand and usage. This short-term increase is projected to decrease downstream spending on disease treatment and stunt the continued growth of health care costs, but may unintentionally exacerbate the current primary care physician shortage. The ACA eliminates limitations on insurance and increases the scope of benefits. Online health care insurance exchanges give patients a central location with multiple insurance options. Problems with prescription drug affordability and control utilization tools used by PBMs were not addressed by the ACA. Improving communication within the U.S. healthcare system either by innovative health care delivery models or increased usage of health information technology will help alleviate problems of health care spending and affordability. PMID:25217142

Ung, Brian L; Mullins, C Daniel

2014-08-12

229

Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health

Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

2013-01-01

230

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY Risk Management Services, University of Alberta  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY Risk Management Services, University of Alberta www, monitoring and inspection of facilities and equipment Compliance assurance Consultation in facility Provide technical expertise and service to departments in aspects of hazardous waste management, re

Machel, Hans

231

75 FR 54804 - Safety and Health Management Programs for Mines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

... The American National Standards Institute's (ANSI's) and American Industrial Hygiene Association's (AIHA's) ANSI/AIHA's Z10- 2005, Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems; The International Standards...

2010-09-09

232

Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery.\\u000a However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides\\u000a a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care\\u000a delivery, (ii) identifies and

Regina Gyampoh-Vidogah; Robert Moreton; David Sallah

2010-01-01

233

Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health. PMID:21897489

2011-01-01

234

Can I risk using public services? Perceived consequences of seeking help and health care among households living in poverty: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To improve understanding of how families living in adverse conditions perceive their encounters with public services and how past experiences influence current and future attempts to seek help. Design Qualitative interviews with adult members of households living in poverty in deprived areas, plus observations conducted in the surrounding neighbourhoods and service settings. Participants Purposive sample of 25 adults living in a deprived area, on welfare benefits. Setting Eight sites in disadvantaged areas in Merseyside, North Wales, London and Greater Manchester in 2004/05. Results Participants generally perceived public services as a source of distrust and a potential risk to well?being. Encounters with a range of services were perceived as risky in terms of losing resources, being misunderstood or harshly judged, and carrying the ultimate threat of losing custody of their children. Participants perceived that they were subjected to increasing levels of surveillance, with fear of “being told on” by neighbours, in addition to service providers, adding to anxiety. Adverse consequences included avoiding child health and social services, anxiety and self?imposed isolation. Conclusions Approaching services was perceived as akin to taking a gamble that might or might not result in their needs being met. Faced with this “choice”, participants employed strategies to minimise the risks that on the surface may appear risky to health. If public services are to succeed in providing support to disadvantaged families, greater efforts are needed to build trust and demonstrate understanding for the strategies these families use to maintain their well?being against formidable odds. PMID:17933957

Canvin, Krysia; Jones, Chris; Marttila, Anneli; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

2007-01-01

235

The learning, physical, and emotional environment of the home in the context of poverty: The infant health and development program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of individual environmental and biological risks and the number of risks on the home environment of 3-year-olds is examined in a sample of low birth weight, premature infants enrolled in the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP). The IHDP is a large clinical trial designed to test the efficacy of early intervention services. The effects of 13 risk

Jeanne Brooks-Gunn; Pamela Kato Klebanov; Fong-ruey Liaw

1995-01-01

236

The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children’s health, mental health and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care  

PubMed Central

This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (CHAMP – Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively-designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health and mental health needs of poverty-impacted, African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or who are perinatally-infected and at high risk for re-infection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multi-level contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include: the Triadic Theory of Influence (TTI) (Bell, Flay, & Paikoff, 2002), Social Action Theory (SAT) (Ewart, 1991) and Ecological Developmental Perspectives (Paikoff, Traube, & McKay, 2006). CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers. PMID:24787707

McKay, Mary McKernan; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R.B.; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Ann Mellins, Claude

2014-01-01

237

The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children's health, mental health, and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care.  

PubMed

This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007 ) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health, and mental health needs of poverty-impacted African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or perinatally infected and at high risk for reinfection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multilevel contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include the triadic theory of influence, social action theory, and ecological developmental perspectives. CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence, and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers. PMID:24787707

McKernan McKay, Mary; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R B; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Mellins, Claude Ann

2014-01-01

238

World Health Organization's Management of Substance Abuse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the larger World Health Organization's (WHO) site this section on the management of substance abuse has a variety of useful information for students, teachers and those practicing in the field. Some of the most useful are several resources related to terminology and classifications including the WHO lexicon of alcohol and drug terms. The lexicon, developed in 1994, supplies clinicians, researchers and other users with a set of definitions of terms related to tobacco, alcohol and other drugs. Also available is a Facts and Figures section which provides users with basic information about the use and misuse of alcohol and other drugs worldwide. The Activities pages allow users to get a glimpse into the research that WHO is currently undertaking that is related to substance abuse. Sections on publications, research tools, and other links round out this very useful site.

239

Managed Care Rebound? Recent Changes in Health Plans' Cost Containment Strategies. Health Affairs Web Exclusive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large increases in health care costs combined with an economic slowdown have created pressures for health plans and employers to reconsider cost containment strategies that were scaled back after the managed care backlash. This paper examines how plans’ approaches to cost containment and care management have evolved since 2001. Plans reintroduced and refocused some utilization management techniques during 2002 and

Glen P. Mays; Gary Claxton; Justin White

2004-01-01

240

Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

Uckun, Serdar

2005-01-01

241

Health Management Applications for International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow for the ISS Electrical Power System and can predict power balance for nominal and off-nominal conditions. SimStation uses realtime telemetry data to keep detailed computational physics models synchronized with actual ISS power system state. In the event of failure, the application can then rapidly diagnose root cause, predict future resource levels and even correlate technical documents relevant to the specific failure. These advanced computational models will allow better insight and more precise control of ISS subsystems, increasing safety margins by speeding up anomaly resolution and reducing,engineering team effort and cost. This technology will make operating ISS more efficient and is directly applicable to next-generation exploration missions and Crew Exploration Vehicles.

Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

2005-01-01

242

The economic costs of childhood poverty in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to estimate the aggregate annual costs of child poverty to the US economy. It begins with a review of rigorous research studies that estimate the statistical association between children growing up in poverty and their earnings, propensity to commit crime, and quality of health later in life. We also review estimates of the costs that crime and

Harry J. Holzer; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach; Greg J. Duncan; Jens Ludwig

2008-01-01

243

Poverty, food insecurity, and nutritional outcomes in children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examine the relationship between nutritional status, poverty, and food insecurity for household members of various ages. Our most striking result is that, while poverty is predictive of poor nutrition among preschool children, food insecurity does not provide any additional predictive power for this age group. Among school age children,

Jayanta Bhattacharya; Janet Currie; Steven Haider

2004-01-01

244

Relationships between Poverty and Psychopathology. Data Trends #97  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" asks: Does the stress and adversity associated with poverty cause mental illness or is poverty the result of downward social mobility of persons with mental illness? This is the…

Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

2004-01-01

245

Workplace health promotion: the role and responsibility of health care managers.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization's (WHO) Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion in 1986 provided the catalyst from which the Health Promoting Workplace movement emerged. Here, an extensive review of the available workplace-related health literature provides the basis for critical discussion and recommendations for health care managers. The findings suggest that health care managers, who practice in all health service settings, should be aiming to initiate and promote radical health promotion reform as set out in the WHO settings-based movement. Developing and implementing sustainable health promotion-orientated and organization-wide healthy workplace policy initiatives represent the most effective way for health care managers to directly benefit from the desirable outcomes that come from creating and maintaining a healthy workforce. PMID:16359447

Whitehead, Dean

2006-01-01

246

Health care managers as a crucial component of health care workforce in Serbia.  

PubMed

The aim of the paper was to describe and analyse health services management in Serbia, commencing with present status and projecting, as accurately as possible, future changes over the next years, skills and required competencies of the health management workforce. The study was done as a part of Ministry of Health/EU funded Project "Preparation for Health Management Training Programme in Serbia" by a desk review of current and draft legislation, related projects in the health sector and relevant local and international literature; semi-structured interviews with key local and international stakeholders and a structural analysis of the health management sector. The results of the study have shown that there was a big gap in knowledge and skills regarding Health Management in Serbia and a true need for such type of education. PMID:21086769

Vasic, Milena; Markovic, Roberta; Korac, Vesna; Krstic, Maja

2010-01-01

247

Poverty and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a mutual dependence between poverty and academic achievement, creative pedagogies for low-income pupils, school models that "beat the odds", and the resiliency of low-income families dedicated to the academic success of their children. This book examines the connection between poverty and literacy, looking at the potential roles and…

Wamba, Nathalis, Ed.

2011-01-01

248

Poverty And Civic Activism  

E-print Network

This paper hypothesizes that country poverty is negatively associated with the civic activism of its citizens. It employs cross country regression analysis to test the proposition. In general, the findings of the paper lend support to the contention that greater civic activism leads to reduced poverty. Poverty is a worldwide problem. One of the possible ways that pressure can be brought to bear to change a country’s policies, institutions, attitudes, and beliefs is through civic activism and protest. Without expressed discontent, the status quo tends to prevail. A large part of the civil rights legislation enacted in the U.S. is the product of the intense civic engagement. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate whether civic activism is consequential for poverty. Specifically, it is posited that poverty is inversely related to civic activism, with greater civic activism leading to reduced poverty. The paper is divided into five sections. The first section of the paper consists of a small literature review that highlights some of the recent findings regarding variables that might explain poverty. The second section provides a little model that focuses on civic activism as a potential determinant of poverty. The third section discusses the variables that are used in the empirical section, assigns variable names to these variables, and identifies their

unknown authors

249

Managing Evaluation in a Federal Public Health Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, a federal manager who leads development and maintenance of evaluation for specific public health programs at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, tells the story of developing an evaluation unit in the Office on Smoking and Health. Lessons about managing evaluation, including his practices and related principles, are…

Schooley, Michael W.

2009-01-01

250

Managed care in the public mental health system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement towards managed care in the public mental health system has surpassed efforts to develop a systematic literature concerning its theory, practice, and outcome. In particular little has been written about potential challenges and difficulties in translating managed care systems from their origins in the private sector to the delivery of public sector mental health services. This paper provides

Brian J. Cuffel; Lonnie Snowden; Mary Masland; Giorgio Piccagli

1996-01-01

251

Approach for measuring health-related quality management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop an approach to measuring health-related quality management based on earlier research on the connection between quality management and employee health. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was developed and a research study was carried out at a manufacturing company. The constructs were tested for internal reliability using Cronbach's alpha tests. The dimensions’

Yvonne Lagrosen; Ingela Bäckström; Håkan Wiklund

2012-01-01

252

Health management and controls for earth to orbit propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault detection and isolation for advanced rocket engine controllers are discussed focusing on advanced sensing systems and software which significantly improve component failure detection for engine safety and health management. Aerojet's Space Transportation Main Engine controller for the National Launch System is the state of the art in fault tolerant engine avionics. Health management systems provide high levels of automated

R. L. Bickford

1992-01-01

253

Needs Assessment for Health Care Management Education in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: For more than 70 years, health care management in the Soviet Union reflected a centralized directive style familiar to the Soviet political system. Market-oriented reform in post-Soviet Russia is pushing practicing physicians and physician-executives to acquire new information and skills regarding health care management. To assist…

Rekhter, Natalia; Togunov, Igor A.

2006-01-01

254

State substance abuse and mental health managed care evaluation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The articles in this special section of the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research (30:1) present results from evaluations of publicly funded managed care initiatives for substance abuse and mental health treatment in Arizona, Iowa, Maryland, and Nebraska. This overview outlines the four managed care programs and summarizes the results from the studies. The evaluations used administrative data and

Dennis McCarty; Joan Dilonardo; Milton Argeriou

2003-01-01

255

Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

2011-01-01

256

Head Start Income Guidelines Are Out of Touch with Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children whose family income is below the official poverty line determined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) are eligible for enrollment into Head Start. The official poverty line is currently $13,400 per year. In a 1990 report, the Head Start Silver Ribbon Panel noted that: (1) Head Start eligibility requirements are more stringent…

National Head Start Association, Alexandria, VA.

257

Health care managers as educational evaluators and accreditation support personnel.  

PubMed

Although health care managers and administrators are often heralded as the foundational support for multifaceted health care institutions, few have been duly credited for their role in evaluating students that they train and precept in the clinical arena. Likewise, the uses and magnitude of the evaluations are often underestimated. This article presents an overview of the traditional role of health care managers, along with their expanded role as evaluators of students in clinical settings. This article also highlights the use of the evaluations from 35 health care managers in the professional development of students and as accreditation support for a university's business college. PMID:20686398

Johnson, Sherryl W

2010-01-01

258

Simulation: A Complementary Method for Teaching Health Services Strategic Management  

PubMed Central

Rapid change in the health care environment mandates a more comprehensive approach to the education of future health administrators. The area of consideration in this study is that of health care strategic management. A comprehensive literature review suggests microcomputer-based simulation as an appropriate vehicle for addressing the needs of both educators and students. Seven strategic management software packages are reviewed and rated with an instrument adapted from the Infoworld review format. The author concludes that a primary concern is the paucity of health care specific strategic management simulations.

Reddick, W. T.

1990-01-01

259

Poverty Action Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many laboratories focus their attention on topics like Alzheimer's research, but this laboratory at MIT focuses on poverty. The objective of their work at the Poverty Action Lab is "to improve the effectiveness of poverty programs by providing policy makers with clear scientific results that help shape successful polices to combat poverty." The Lab was started in June 2003 by a group of professors at MIT and their collaborators. Visitors to the site will note that the materials here are divided into sections that include "Research", "People", "News", and "Courses". The "Research" section is a great place to start as policy makers and others can look over their completed projects (such as "Discrimination in the Job Market") and their publications. Moving on, visitors can click on the "People" section to learn more about their staff and directors. Finally, those who are curious about the reach of the Poverty Lab's work will want to look at their media features in the "News" section.

260

Institutions and poverty.  

PubMed

This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution. PMID:20645460

Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

2010-01-01

261

Health Project Management. A Manual of Procedures for Formulating and Implementing Health Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual presents 16 main steps for health project management, from project formulation through termination. The manual defines a health project as a temporary intensive effort to set up and put into operation a new or revised service that will result in the reduction of specific health or health-related problems. (Typical examples include the…

Bainbridge, J.; Sapirie, S.

262

Health Shocks and Natural Resource Management: Evidence from Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Poverty and altered planning horizons brought on by the HIV/AIDS epidemic can change individual discount rates, altering incentives to conserve natural resources. Using longitudinal household survey data from western Kenya, we estimate the effects of health status on investments in soil quality, as indicated by households’ agricultural land fallowing decisions. We first show that this effect is theoretically ambiguous: while health improvements lower discount rates and thus increase incentives to conserve natural resources, they also increase labor productivity and make it more likely that households can engage in labor-intensive resource extraction activities. We find that household size and composition are predictors of whether the effect of health improvements on discount rates dominates the productivity effect, or vice-versa. Since households with more and younger members are better able to reallocate labor to cope with productivity shocks, the discount rate effect dominates for these households and health improvements lead to greater levels of conservation. In smaller families with less substitutable labor, the productivity effect dominates and health improvements lead to greater environmental degradation PMID:25558117

Damon, Maria; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Thirumurthy, Harsha

2014-01-01

263

Building Resilience for Sustainable Development of the Sundarbans through Estuary Management, Poverty Reduction, and Biodiversity Conservation: A Non-Lending  

E-print Network

Building Resilience for Sustainable Development of the Sundarbans through Estuary Management Adaptation, Biodiversity Conservation, and Sustainable Socioeconomic Development of the Sundarbans Region ....................................................................... 16 3. The Sundarbans: A Region of Particular Vulnerability

Webster, Peter J.

264

Managing Home Health Care (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

Intensive Health Care at Home Kids can need intensive health care at home after they have been in the hospital ... dolls to help you practice different procedures. Home Health Care Assistance The hospital social worker can help families ...

265

Decentralisation of general management within the New Zealand health system.  

PubMed

The radical organisation changes implemented in the New Zealand health system in recent years are discussed and analysed in this study which is based upon a review of documents and interviews with general managers of area health boards. Service management, which involves the decentralisation of general management to programme or product groupings (medicine, child health etc) has been widely implemented in almost all boards completely replacing the traditional disciplinary hierarchies. It is also leading to a population-rather than an institutional-based system of management. General managers report positively on the achievements of service management including greater accountability and commitment of clinical staff, innovation and team building, improved performance and service quality, the integration of hospital and community-based care and a customer rather than an occupational orientation. There is an increasing trend towards the recognition of primary health care as a key service entity. PMID:10138683

Malcolm, L; Alp, B; Bryson, J

1994-11-01

266

Pathways to breaking the poverty trap in Ethiopia: Investments in agricultural water, education, and markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investments in agricultural water management should complement or strengthen the livelihood and coping systems of the rural poor, and should thus be instrumental for breaking the poverty trap in Ethiopia. Underdeveloped water resources constrain progress towards poverty reduction. We examine linkages and complementarities between agricultural water, education, markets and rural poverty through an empirical study using household level data from

Munir A. Hanjra; Tadele Ferede; Debel Gemechu Gutta

2009-01-01

267

Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

268

Environmental Management of Pediatric Asthma: Guidelines for Health Care Providers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These guidelines are the product of a new Pediatric Asthma Initiative aimed at integrating environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This document outlines competencies in environmental health relevant to pediatric asthma that should be mastered by primary health care providers, and outlines the environmental interventions…

Roberts, James R.; McCurdy, Leyla Erk

2005-01-01

269

Geograpical Management of Cancer Health Disparities Program (GMaP)  

Cancer.gov

The Geographical Management of Cancer Health Disparities Program (GMaP), developed with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) administrative supplements, is a systematic and comprehensive approach to facilitating collaboration, cooperation, information- and resource-sharing, and capacity-building among cancer health disparities researchers, trainees, outreach workers, and organizations, with the key goal of advancing cancer health disparities (CHD) research and training.

270

Supporting cancer patients' unanchored health information management with mobile technology  

E-print Network

, Seattle, WA Abstract Cancer patients often need to manage care-related information when they are away from that HealthWeaver Mobile can help patients to access care-related information from anywhere, to capture. The enhanced ability to manage information, in turn, helps patients to manage their care and to feel more

Anderson, Richard

271

Faith and health self-management of rural older adults.  

PubMed

This analysis uses in-depth interview data collected from 145 African American, European American and Native American men and women aged 70 and older who reside in two rural North Carolina counties to understand the role of religious faith and prayer in the health self-management of these older adults. The analysis addresses three specific questions: how do these older adults use religion to help them manage their health; are there ethnic and gender differences in the use of religion; and are differences in health status related to differences in the use of religion? The integral role of religion in the lives of these older rural adults is an overarching theme present in the interview texts. Six major themes link religion and health self-management: (1) prayer and faith in health self-management, (2) reading the Bible, (3) church services, (4) mental and spiritual health, (5) stories of physical healing, and (6) ambivalence. Faith and religious activities provide an anchor in the lives of these older adults. There is little variation in the use of religion for health self-management by gender, ethnicity or health status. These results suggest that the strength of religion in rural culture may limit the effectiveness of general religiosity scales to discern the relationship of religion to health and health behavior in rural populations. PMID:14618010

Arcury, T A; Quandt, S A; McDonald, J; Bell, R A

2000-01-01

272

[Managing diversity in Swiss Health care].  

PubMed

The development of Migrant Friendly Hospitals is an important first step towards eliminating health care disparities in Switzerland and an important reminder to health policy makers and practitioners across the health care system of their responsibility to provide non-discriminatory quality health care to all patients. PMID:25603570

Bodenmann, P; Bossart, R; Di Bernardo, N; Dominice Dao, M; Durieux, S; Faucherre, F; Hudelson, P; Keller, M; Schuster, S; Zellweger, E; Houmard, S

2014-11-19

273

Recent research in public health surveillance and health management  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the challenges of the next pandemic outbreak are overwhelming, either from swine flu, other infectious disease, bioterrorism, timely detection of disease outbreaks is most important for public health surveillance and society safety and stability. In public health surveillance, the objective is to systematically collect, analyze, and interpret public health data (chronic or infectious diseases) in order to understand trends,

K. L. Tsui; D. Goldsman; W. Jiang; S. Y. Wong

2010-01-01

274

UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT HEALTH CENTER CORRECTIONAL MANAGED HEALTH CARE  

E-print Network

with fluid retention due to heart failure, renal failure, or hepatic failure. 4. Mechanically Soft Diet concepts related to preventive health maintenance, including health education services and training in self-care skills as a part of inmate health service. Printed education materials shall be made available to all

Oliver, Douglas L.

275

UNIVERSITY OF CONNECICUT HEALTH CENTER CORRECTIONAL MANAGED HEALTH CARE  

E-print Network

include, but is not limited to, emergency health care, sick call, access to medication, dental and mental may sign up for medical, dental, and mental health care, using one form for each request. All services MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES DENTAL SERVICES A completed inmate request form, placed in the "Medical" box

Oliver, Douglas L.

276

Health care reform in Oregon: the impact of the Oregon Health Plan on utilization of mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In 1994, Oregon implemented the Oregon Health Plan (OHP), extending health care coverage under a system of capitated managed care to uninsured citizens living below the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). We conducted a study to measure receipt of clinical preventive services among women newly enrolled in the OHP.Methods: Six hundred and sixty six women aged 52–64, and living below

Julia A. Schillinger; Craig Mosbaek; Don Austin; Leonard Jack; Michael Heumann; Jane Moore; John Bussman; Judith Van Osdal; David W. Fleming

2000-01-01

277

Health and safety management systems: liability or asset?  

PubMed

Health and safety management systems have a background in theory and in various interests among employers and workplace health and safety professionals. These have resulted in a number of national systems emanating from national standard-writing centres and from employers' organizations. In some cases these systems have been recognized as national standards. The contenders for an international standard have been the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO). The quality and environmental management systems of ISO indicate what an ISO health and safety management standard would look like. The ILO Guidelines on Safety and Health Management Systems, by contrast, are stringent, specific and potentially effective in improving health and safety performance in the workplace. PMID:12108116

Bennett, David

2002-01-01

278

Exploring Appalachian Poverty in Ohio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in this sociology class will role play as members of the governor's office to inform the Governor of many of the problems facing children in the United States and the State of Ohio. Data analysis pertaining to hunger, poverty, crime, health, and education are included as multiple resources for data, in addition to KidsCount, are used. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on KidsCount. KidsCount is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data.

Kathy Rowell

279

No health for all without better trained management.  

PubMed

This article notes that existing health professionals and managers constitute the first 'generation' working in a world where Health for All is a practical possibility because, if founded on community-based public and primary health care with hospitals in support and good intersectoral help, we now have the appropriate technology, access to finance and adequate numbers of health workers. What we still lack are sufficient health professionals, at all levels, with the managerial skills and experience to apply the technology, generate the funding and motivate the staff; making full use of community involvement, the co-operation of other sectors and good relationships with local and central government. Management can be learned both at the workplace and in the training room, and from the managers a few of them will emerge as leaders, with the vision to secure the willing support of others in reaching worthwhile health goals. A very useful publication is the Training Manual on Management of Human Resources for Health, WHO/EDUC/93.201 from World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland. The paper closes with examples illustrating four principles for health management development: finding key points of entry; reaching large numbers; accelerating national self-sufficiency; and international. PMID:10169451

White, D K

1997-01-01

280

Poverty, Human Development, and Basic Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking a slight departure from our normal fare, PLoS Biology features two articles with a special focus on poverty and human development: one explores the biological mechanisms of health inequalities; the second discusses the value of including local communities in biodiversity conservation.

Liza Gross

2007-01-01

281

Evaluating Soil Health Summary: Soil health can be measured, monitored and managed to increase sustainability and  

E-print Network

to assess the effect of management or evaluate problem areas. Chemical soil characteristics, including pH, soil organic matter, nutrient levels and cation exchange capacity are often part of routine soilEvaluating Soil Health Summary: Soil health can be measured, monitored and managed to increase

Lawrence, Rick L.

282

Health Technologies for the Improvement of Chronic Disease Management  

PubMed Central

Background As part of ongoing efforts to improve the Ontario health care system, a mega-analysis examining the optimization of chronic disease management in the community was conducted by Evidence Development and Standards, Health Quality Ontario (previously known as the Medical Advisory Secretariat [MAS]). Objective The purpose of this report was to identify health technologies previously evaluated by MAS that may be leveraged in efforts to optimize chronic disease management in the community. Data Sources The Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series and field evaluations conducted by MAS and its partners between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. Review Methods Technologies related to at least 1 of 7 disease areas of interest (type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, and chronic wounds) or that may greatly impact health services utilization were reviewed. Only technologies with a moderate to high quality of evidence and associated with a clinically or statistically significant improvement in disease management were included. Technologies related to other topics in the mega-analysis on chronic disease management were excluded. Evidence-based analyses were reviewed, and outcomes of interest were extracted. Outcomes of interest included hospital utilization, mortality, health-related quality of life, disease-specific measures, and economic analysis measures. Results Eleven analyses were included and summarized. Technologies fell into 3 categories: those with evidence for the cure of chronic disease, those with evidence for the prevention of chronic disease, and those with evidence for the management of chronic disease. Conclusions The impact on patient outcomes and hospitalization rates of new health technologies in chronic disease management is often overlooked. This analysis demonstrates that health technologies can reduce the burden of illness; improve patient outcomes; reduce resource utilization intensity; be cost-effective; and be a viable contributing factor to chronic disease management in the community. Plain Language Summary People with chronic diseases rely on the health care system to help manage their illness. Hospital use can be costly, so community-based alternatives are often preferred. Research published in the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series between 2006 and 2011 was reviewed to identify health technologies that have been effective or cost-effective in helping to manage chronic disease in the community. All technologies identified led to better patient outcomes and less use of health services. Most were also cost-effective. Two technologies that can cure chronic disease and 1 that can prevent chronic disease were found. Eight technologies that can help manage chronic disease were also found. Health technologies should be considered an important part of chronic disease management in the community. PMID:24228075

Nikitovic, M; Brener, S

2013-01-01

283

Sensor Technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Management of Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is focusing considerable efforts on technology development for Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems. The research in this area is targeted toward increasing aerospace vehicle safety and reliability, while reducing vehicle operating and maintenance costs. Onboard, real-time sensing technologies that can provide detailed information on structural integrity are central to such a health management system. This paper describes a number of sensor technologies currently under development for integrated vehicle health management. The capabilities, current limitations, and future research needs of these technologies are addressed.

Prosser, W. H.; Brown, T. L.; Woodard, S. E.; Fleming, G. A.; Cooper, E. G.

2002-01-01

284

Negotiating the new health system: purchasing publicly accountable managed care.  

PubMed

The transformation to managed care is one of the most important and complex changes ever to take place in the American health system. One key aspect of this transformation is its implications for public health policy and practice. Both public and private buyers purchase managed care; increasingly, public programs that used to act as their own insurers (i.e., Medicare, Medicaid and CHAMPUS) are purchasing large quantities of managed care insurance from private companies. The transformation to managed care is altering the manner in which public health policy makers conceive of and carry out public health activities (particularly activities that involve the provision of personal health services). The degree to which managed care changes public health and in turn is altered by public health will depend in great measure on the extent to which public and private policy makers understand the implications of their choices for various aspects of public health and take steps to address them. Because both publicly and privately managed care arrangements are relatively deregulated, much of the dialogue between public health and managed care purchasers can be expected to take place within the context of the large service agreements that are negotiated between buyers and sellers of managed care products. This is particularly true for Medicaid because of the importance of Medicaid coverage, payment and access policies to public health policy makers, and because of the public nature of the Medicaid contracting process. A nationwide study of Medicaid managed care contracts offers the first detailed analysis of the content and structure of managed care service agreements and the public health issues they raise. Four major findings emerge from a review of the contracts. First, most of the agreements fail to address key issues regarding which Medicaid-covered services and benefits are the contractor's responsibility and which remain the residual responsibility of the state agency. Second, most contracts fail to address the legal and structural issues arising from the relationship between the managed care service system and the public health system, including such key matters as access to care for communicable diseases and contractors' relationship to state public health laboratories. Third, many contracts are silent on health agencies' access to data for surveillance and community health measurement purposes. Finally, many contracts may be developed with only a limited understanding of the key public health-related issues facing the community from which the members will be drawn. The CDC and state and local public health agencies must expand their activities in the area of managed care contract specifications. For several years the CDC has been involved in an ongoing effort to develop quality of care measures to be collected from all companies through the HEDIS process. As important as this effort is, it represents only an attempt to measure what managed care does rather than an a priori effort to shape the underlying policy and organizational structure of managed care itself. Integrating managed care with public health policy will require this type of affirmative effort with both Medicaid agencies as well as other managed care purchasers. PMID:9566940

Rosenbaum, S

1998-04-01

285

West Coast Poverty Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Washington, the West Coast Poverty Center "serves as a hub for research, education, and policy analysis leading to greater understanding of the causes and consequences of poverty and effective approaches to reducing it in the west coast states." The Center was created in the fall of 2005, and it represents a collaborative venture between the UW School of Social Work, the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, and the College of Arts and Sciences. Scholars and others will find the site quite useful, and they may wish to start at the "Poverty Basics" section. This area includes helpful overviews like "How Many People Are Poor in the United States?" and interactive maps and charts that document the state of poverty levels on the West Coast. Moving on, the "Research" area contains links to papers, research briefs, and information about upcoming events sponsored by the Center.

286

Global Distribution of Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For policymakers and academics alike, having access to information about the global distribution of poverty is crucial. Based at the Earth Institute at Columbia University, The Poverty Mapping Project at The Center for International Earth Science Information Network is a very fine resource for anyone interested in this subject. Understandably, the site provides access to dozens of maps which document the geographic and biophysical conditions of where the poor live. Visitors can look over 300 poverty maps offered at a number of spatial scales. Persons looking for data for their own research will want to consider downloading the subnational and national poverty data sets that are made available here. Overall, it's a well-designed site and one which can be used in a variety of settings.

2008-01-01

287

Stop Child Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of international organizations are committed to helping end child poverty, and one of the best known of their number is the Global Volunteer Network. Through their advocacy work and the Stop Child Poverty campaign, they are dedicated to the proposition that child poverty can be completed eradicated. Through sections titled "Learn It", "Live It", and "Pass it On", visitors to this site will learn about the "big picture" of child poverty and how they can become directly involved in any number of volunteer projects. The "Pass It On" area is quite fine in this regard, as visitors can look over a message board where they can discuss the campaign, and then use a zip-code search engine to find volunteer opportunities in their area.

288

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA 348 Undergraduate Catalog 2014-2015 Health Informatics and Information Management -  

E-print Network

hrs) HIM 3006 Foundations of Health Information Management (HIM) 3 hrs HIM 4508C Quality Management 3 and Information Management - Minor College of Health and Public Affairs Department of Health Management hrs HIM 4656C Health Information Management Systems 3 hrs HSC 3537 Medical Terminology 3 hrs HIM 4226C

Wu, Shin-Tson

289

[Training of the modern clinical physician and public health managers].  

PubMed

Arguments of Russian and foreign specialists that the activities of a modern physician are based on knowledge, habits and skills of a clinician and experience, habits and skills of a manager are discussed. The author proves that managing skills acquired by physician as an element in his/her professional activity through experience should be supplemented by knowledge of modern theory and practice of management. In the twenty-first century modern theory and practice of management should become a universal basis and element of professional cooperation of clinical physicians, physicians working in administration of public health organs and institutions, and public health economists. PMID:11593819

Mitronin, V K

2001-01-01

290

Case management in the social health maintenance organization demonstrations  

PubMed Central

In this article, case management departments and roles during the early years of the social health maintenance organization (S/HMO) demonstrations are compared. These organizations provide acute and chronic care services under a prepaid plan for the elderly. Eligibility criteria for case management and chronic care services at each site are compared, followed by a description of the resultant case mix of members receiving chronic care benefits. Case managers principal activities are described, and a preliminary assessment is made about the strength of the linkages that have been developed between the case management component of these plans and the larger health care system. PMID:10312977

Yordi, Cathleen L.

1988-01-01

291

Aircraft health management network: A user interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network management is one of the most discussed topics in the networking fraternity. The efficiency of the network management suit is measured by the number of parameters\\/components handled by the application while making decisions. In the case of Internet-enabled aircrafts, along with network security, even aircraft safety needs to be considered as a factor while designing the network management suit.

N. Thanthry; R. Pendse

2009-01-01

292

School nurse case management: achieving health and educational outcomes.  

PubMed

Educators and health care professionals alike understand that healthy students are likely to be successful learners. The goal of school nurse case management is to support students so that they are ready to learn. This article describes the outcomes of a 4-year process improvement project designed to show the impact of school nurse case management on attendance, behavior, academic performance, quality of life, and health compliance in a large southeastern urban school district. Recognizing a need for standardized practice, the School Health Leadership Team created a case management policy, procedures, forms, a data collection process, and ongoing education and mentoring. The policy enabled school nurses to select students with health and learning needs, target specific outcomes, implement interventions, and document the gains made. In the 4 years of this project, 84% of the students case managed improved in 1 or more of the 5 target areas. PMID:17676967

Bonaiuto, Maria M

2007-08-01

293

Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -Part 1  

E-print Network

Cir 120 Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems - Part 1, Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory, Ruskin FL 33570, Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, School Cooperating. Nick T. Place , Dean Introduction Recirculating aquaculture systems, also known as water reuse

Watson, Craig A.

294

Active Social Media Management: The Case of Health Care  

E-print Network

Given the demand for authentic personal interactions over social media, it is unclear how much firms should actively manage their social media presence. We study this question empirically in a health care setting. We show ...

Miller, Amalia R.

295

Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.  

PubMed

A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision-Making Framework for Identifying, Assessing and Managing Health Risks (Health Canada, 2000). 4. Canadian Environmental Protection Act: Human Health Risk Assessment of Priority Substances(Health Canada, 1994). 5. CSA-Q8550 Risk Management: Guidelines for Decision-Makers (Canada Standards Association, 1997). 6. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process (US National Research Council, 1983). 7. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society (US National Research Council, 1996). 8. Environmental Health Risk Assessment (enHealth Council of Australia, 2002). 9. A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment (CCME, 1996). 10. Ecological Risk Assessments of Priority Substances Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (Environment Canada, 1996).11. Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment (US EPA, 1998b). 12. Proposed Model for Occupational Health Risk Assessment and Management (Rampal & Sadhra, 1999). Based on the extensive review of these frameworks, seven key elements that should be included in a comprehensive framework for human health, ecological, and occupational risk assessment and management were identified: 1. Problem formulation stage. 2. Stakeholder involvement. 3. Communication. 4. Quantitative risk assessment components. 5. Iteration and evaluation. 6. Informed decision making. 7. Flexibility. On the basis of this overarching approach to risk management, the following "checklist" to ensure a good risk management decision is proposed: - Make sure you're solving the right problem. - Consider the problem and the risk within the full context of the situation, using a broad perspective. - Acknowledge, incorporate, and balance the multiple dimensions of risk. - Ensure the highest degree of reliability for all components of the risk management process. - Involve interested and effected parties from the outset of the process. - Commit to honest and open communication between all parties. - Employ continuous evaluation throughout the process (formative, process, and outcome evaluation), and be prepared t

Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

2003-01-01

296

The poverty-reducing effect of Medicaid.  

PubMed

Medicaid provides health insurance for 54 million Americans. Using the Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure (which subtracts out-of-pocket medical expenses from family resources), we estimated the impact of eliminating Medicaid. In our counterfactual, Medicaid beneficiaries would become uninsured or gain other insurance. Counterfactual medical expenditures were drawn stochastically from propensity-score-matched individuals without Medicaid. While this method captures the importance of risk protection, it likely underestimates Medicaid's impact due to unobserved differences between Medicaid and non-Medicaid individuals. Nonetheless, we find that Medicaid reduces out-of-pocket medical spending from $871 to $376 per beneficiary, and decreases poverty rates by 1.0% among children, 2.2% among disabled adults, and 0.7% among elderly individuals. When factoring in institutionalized populations, an additional 500,000 people were kept out of poverty. Overall, Medicaid kept at least 2.6 million-and as many as 3.4 million-out of poverty in 2010, making it the U.S.'s third largest anti-poverty program. PMID:23835200

Sommers, Benjamin D; Oellerich, Donald

2013-09-01

297

Urban poverty and infant mortality rate disparities.  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = 40% of the families had incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Bivariate models showed that high poverty was a significant predictor of IMR for each group; however, multivariate analyses demonstrate that maternal health and regional factors explained most of the variance in the group-specific models of IMR. Additional analysis revealed that high poverty was significantly associated with minority-white IMR disparities, and country of origin is an important consideration for ethnic birth outcomes. Findings from this study provide a glimpse into the complexity associated with infant mortality in metropolitan areas because they suggest that the factors associated with infant mortality in urban areas vary by race and ethnicity. PMID:17444423

Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L.; Bruce, Marino A.

2007-01-01

298

Dual-Use Aspects of System Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System Health Management functionality is an essential part of any space launch system. Health management functionality is an integral part of mission reliability, since it is needed to verify the reliability before the mission starts. Health Management is also a key factor in life cycle cost reduction and in increasing system availability. The degree of coverage needed by the system and the degree of coverage made available at a reasonable cost are critical parameters of a successful design. These problems are not unique to the launch vehicle world. In particular, the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System, commercial aircraft systems, train systems, and many types of industrial production facilities require various degrees of system health management. In all of these applications, too, the designers must balance the benefits and costs of health management in order to optimize costs. The importance of an integrated system is emphasized. That is, we present the case for considering health management as an integral part of system design, rather than functionality to be added on at the end of the design process. The importance of maintaining the system viewpoint is discussed in making hardware and software tradeoffs and in arriving at design decisions. We describe an approach to determine the parameters to be monitored in any system health management application. This approach is based on Design of Experiments (DOE), prototyping, failure modes and effects analyses, cost modeling and discrete event simulation. The various computer-based tools that facilitate the approach are discussed. The approach described originally was used to develop a fault tolerant avionics architecture for launch vehicles that incorporated health management as an integral part of the system. Finally, we discuss generalizing the technique to apply it to other domains. Several illustrations are presented.

Owens, P. R.; Jambor, B. J.; Eger, G. W.; Clark, W. A.

1994-01-01

299

Corporate social responsibility and the future health care manager.  

PubMed

The decisions and actions of health care managers are oftentimes heavily scrutinized by the public. Given the current economic climate, managers may feel intense pressure to produce higher results with fewer resources. This could inadvertently test their moral fortitude and their social consciousness. A study was conducted to determine what corporate social responsibility orientation and viewpoint future health care managers may hold. The results of the study indicate that future health care managers may hold patient care in high regard as opposed to profit maximization. However, the results of the study also show that future managers within the industry may continue to need rules, laws, regulations, and legal sanctions to guide their actions and behavior. PMID:21045586

Collins, Sandra K

2010-01-01

300

Toward a Conceptual Knowledge Management Framework in Health  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a conceptual organizing scheme for managing knowledge within the health setting. First, a brief review of the notions of knowledge and knowledge management is provided. This is followed by a detailed depiction of our proposed knowledge management framework, which focuses on the concepts of production, use, and refinement of three specific knowledge sources-policy, evidence, and experience. These concepts are operationalized through a set of knowledge management methods and tools tailored for the health setting. We include two case studies around knowledge translation on parent-child relations and virtual networks in community health research to illustrate how this knowledge management framework can be operationalized within specific contexts and the issues involved. We conclude with the lessons learned and implications. PMID:18066388

Lau, Francis

2004-01-01

301

College of Health Sciences HSM Health Services Management  

E-print Network

, medical/moral problems, malpractice, tax laws, contracts, labor law, regulation and institutional of instructor. HSM 354 HEALTH LAW. (3) Introduction to concepts of administrative and tort law applicable

MacAdam, Keith

302

Application of Customer Relationship Management in Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care sectors of many nations are now opting for Customer Relationship Management (CRM) for building a bridge of trust between hospital and customer. The CRM system enables health care sectors to get essential customer information and use it as efficiently as possible. CRM orchestrates a number of methodologies in a synchronized approach to delivering healthcare. As one of the

Wan Yina

2010-01-01

303

Managed Care: What Mental Health Counselors Need To Know.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys leaders from various roles in the managed-care and mental-health professions to identify current and future marketplace trends affecting the clinical practice of mental-health counseling. Identifies training and continuing education needs based upon these interviews. (Author/GCP)

Lawless, Linda L.; Ginter, Earl J.; Kelly, Kevin R.

1999-01-01

304

An Examination of Health Information Management by the Deaf  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about how Deaf people perceive, access, and utilize interpersonal and media sources for health information. In light of the scarcity of research on health information management among this group, a two-phase study was conducted that included eight focus groups (N=39) and survey data (N=366) with Deaf participants to determine the…

Karras, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

305

Fraud in mental health practice: A risk management perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health practitioners sometimes face the dilemma of being ethical and honest and thus not meeting client needs, or of committing fraud to meet those needs. This paper presents some precipitants for fraud in mental health. Some costs of fraud are reviewed for administration, policy, and planning, for ethical and legal issues, and in research. Risk management implications are also

William A. Maesen

1991-01-01

306

HELICOPTER HEALTH MONITORING AND FAILURE PREVENTION THROUGH VIBRATION MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

1 HELICOPTER HEALTH MONITORING AND FAILURE PREVENTION THROUGH VIBRATION MANAGEMENT ENHANCEMENT-58D) helicopters. The instrumented aircraft are at the SCARNG-AASF at McEntire Air National Guard, and the development of long-term helicopter health monitoring and failure prevention methodology based on in

Giurgiutiu, Victor

307

Total quality management in health care: taking stock.  

PubMed

Total quality management (TQM) is gaining momentum in health care. The experiences of pioneering organizations provide insights into the hurdles that many organizations face in implementing TQM. Based on their observations of these pioneers, the authors conclude that there are six key success factors for TQM in health care. This article reviews the success factors, considers the common obstacles to achieving them, and looks at some of the future directions for TQM in health care. PMID:10131012

Melum, M M; Sinioris, M E

1993-01-01

308

Predictors of nurse managers' health in Canadian restructured healthcare settings.  

PubMed

Although nursing leadership roles have been greatly transformed as a result of dramatic changes within healthcare over the past decade, there is little research on the nature of nurse manager work life in current work environments. The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model derived from Kanter's theory of organizational empowerment: linking nurse managers' perceptions of structural and psychological empowerment to burnout, job satisfaction and physical and mental health. A descriptive, correlational design was used in a sample of 286 first-line (n=202) and middle-level (n=84) hospital-based nurse managers obtained from a provincial registry. Ironically, managers reported high levels of burnout, but good mental and physical health. Middle managers were more empowered and satisfied with their jobs than first-line managers. In both groups, approximately 45% of the variance in job satisfaction and 18-52% of the variance in physical and mental health was explained by empowerment and burnout. Empowered work environments were associated with lower nurse manager burnout and better physical and mental health. The results suggest that creating work environments that provide access to empowerment structures may be a fruitful strategy for creating healthy work environments for nurse managers. PMID:15656251

Laschinger, Heather K Spence; Almost, Joan; Purdy, Nancy; Kim, Julia

2004-11-01

309

School Nurse Case Management: Achieving Health and Educational Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators and health care professionals alike understand that healthy students are likely to be successful learners. The goal of school nurse case management is to support students so that they are ready to learn. This article describes the outcomes of a 4-year process improvement project designed to show the impact of school nurse case management

Bonaiuto, Maria M.

2007-01-01

310

Job satisfaction and subjective health among sales managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this study is to examine gender and age correlates of job satisfaction and to test the relationship between job satisfaction and subjective mental and physical health in a sample of sales managers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey of 200 employees holding the managers' positions (105 men and 95 women) in sales' organizations across the biggest Lithuania's cities

Loreta Gustainien?; Auks? Endriulaitien?

2009-01-01

311

Modelling of risk management in health care facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To evaluate the use of neural networks in healthcare facilities risk management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The data used to develop the input to the national health service facilities risk exposure system (NHSFRES) was solicited from 60 healthcare managers. Risk exposure system has been developed using the risk knowledge that was articulated from experienced healthcare operators through postal questionnaires and

M. I. Okoroh; B. D. Ilozor; P. P. Gombera

2006-01-01

312

Examining the Efficacy of Management for Pennsylvania School Health Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Pennsylvania, certified school nurses were governed by the same educational rules and administrative directives as teachers. School nurses were supervised and evaluated by non-nurse managers who had no knowledge of the scope of school nurse practice. A focus of the study was to examine the efficacy of management for school health programs. The…

Jacobi, Wendy J.

2010-01-01

313

Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poverty is not properly described solely in terms of economics. Certainly the billion people living on less than a dollar a day are the extreme poor and the two billion people who are living today on two dollars a day or less are poor also. One third of all humans live in poverty today. But poverty concerns deprivation - of good health, adequate nutrition, adequate education, properly paid employment, clean water, adequate housing and good sanitation. It is a fundamental denial of opportunity and a violation of basic human rights. Despite its prevalence and persistence of poverty and the attention given it by many scholars, the causes of poverty are not well understood and hence interventions to bring poor societies out of their condition often fail. One commonly missed component in the search for solutions to poverty is the fundamental co-dependence between the state of the Earth and the state of human well-being. These relationships, are compelling but often indirect and non-linear and sometimes deeply nuanced. They are also largely empirical in nature, lacking theory or models that describe the nature of the relationships. So while it is quite apparent that the poorest people are much more vulnerable than the rich to the Earths excesses and even to relatively small natural variations in places where the base conditions are poor, we do not presently know whether the recognized vulnerability is both an outcome of poverty and a contributing cause. Are societies poor, or held from development out of poverty because of their particular relationship to Earth's natural systems? Does how we live depend on where we live? Providing answers to these questions is one of the most fundamental research challenges of our time. That research lies in a domain squarely at the boundary between the natural and social sciences and cannot be answered by studies in either domain alone. What is clear even now, is that an understanding of the Earth gained from the natural sciences is essential and could hold the key to making gains toward alleviating the burden of global poverty.

Mutter, J. C.

2004-12-01

314

Identity crisis: financial management in health.  

PubMed

Financial management is something quite different from the "bean-counting" image of the traditional "finance man". It is proactive and is closely tied to the broader range of organizational strategy and environmental constraints. What are the interrelationships that must be recognized in order to make the transition to the central role of financial decision making and management? PMID:10241316

Silvers, J B

1976-01-01

315

Occupational health nurses--the solution to absence management?  

PubMed

Business and industry are currently focused on increasing employee productivity, reducing employee injuries and lost work time, and minimizing costs. Absence from work due to either injury or health-related leave negatively affects both direct and indirect costs. Absenteeism, regardless of reason, negatively impacts company profit. To decrease the multiple costs of unplanned absences, the occupational health nurse can collaborate with Human Resources professionals and management to create cost-saving short- and long-term disability programs, manage Family and Medical Leave Act programs, and case manage the care of all employees with workers' compensation claims. PMID:19338262

Wallace, Myra A

2009-03-01

316

What health care managers do: applying Mintzberg's structured observation method.  

PubMed

Aim The aim of the present study was to explore and describe what characterizes first- and second-line health care managers' use of time. Background Many Swedish health care managers experience difficulties managing their time. Methods Structured and unstructured observations were used. Ten first- and second-line managers in different health care settings were studied in detail from 3.5 and 4 days each. Duration and frequency of different types of work activities were analysed. Results The individual variation was considerable. The managers' days consisted to a large degree of short activities (<9 minutes). On average, nearly half of the managers' time was spent in meetings. Most of the managers' time was spent with subordinates and <1% was spent alone with their superiors. Sixteen per cent of their time was spent on administration and only a small fraction on explicit strategic work. Conclusions The individual variations in time use patterns suggest the possibility of interventions to support changes in time use patterns. Implications for nursing management A reliable description of what managers do paves the way for analyses of what they should do to be effective. PMID:19694915

Arman, Rebecka; Dellve, Lotta; Wikström, Ewa; Törnström, Linda

2009-09-01

317

Windows on Urban Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The spatial dimension and geographic variation of poverty has been the subject of great scholarly debate among policy-makers and academics for numerous decades. Some have commented that dense concentrations of underclass persons create a "culture of poverty," while others lay the blame on architects, urban planners, and a host of others. This engaging and useful site is a product of the Bruton Center at the University of Texas at Dallas under the direction of Professor Paul Jargowsky. The Windows on Urban Poverty project Web site contains a research paper on the changes in the concentration of poverty between 1990 and 2000 (also released as a publication through the Brookings Institution) and a mapping tool that lets visitors view the relative concentrations of poverty in cities around the United States. There is a small section that introduces users to the process of using the mapping tool, which will be quite helpful to those unfamiliar with utilizing maps in this fashion (Users should note that the interactive mapping tool on the site is only supported by Internet Explorer).

Jargowsky, Paul A.

318

Practices of excellent companies in the managed health care industry.  

PubMed

The health care profession in the USA has traditionally attracted some of the best talent the country has to offer, with medical practitioners enjoying high incomes due to employer-paid medical indemnity insurance plans. There was no oversight process or quality standards governing the health care delivery process and no motivating factors to contain costs. Prior to the introduction of the Knox-Keene Act in the 1970s requiring employers to offer managed care as an alternative indemnity coverage, the only known managed care company was the Kaiser Permanente Medical Plan. Until just over a decade ago, the concept of managed care was stereotyped as a low quality method of health care delivery. Criticisms from providers themselves suggested managed care systems meant withholding medical care for the sake of profit; "production line" medicine, and compromise in the delivery of quality health care. In order to refute that notion and grow as an industry, managed health care companies were required to take steps to prove their integrity, high quality of care, and cost-effective methods. Today the industry is fast growing, setting management practices that are becoming benchmark standards for other industries too. PMID:10177369

Wade, J; Kleiner, B H

1998-01-01

319

[CESAMES, French-speaking international scheme for health managers].  

PubMed

A "Programme de création du Cycle d'Etudes Supérieures Africain en Management des Etablissements Sanitaires" (CESAMES, Plan for African hospital management senior course) was officially launched during the VIth International Hospital Events, organised in Libreville (Gabon) from November 21-23rd 2000. In the context of health systems reforms in African countries, priority is given to adapting and upgrading the qualifications of health care managers. Creating CESAMES is a major element within a general strategy aiming at supporting health systems and present reforms. The aim is to develop, from an African teaching body, a French-speaking pool of skills in order to increase the managers' expertise and to address the problem of critical mass of professionals for training within each country. Creating an international training pool will produce a human resources development and expansion tool in the area of health institutions management. This programme should ensure the transfer of know-how and capitalization between training centres. Beyond the training system, creating CESAMES should expand the documentation resources and ensure the creation of a French-speaking professional network of health institution managers. PMID:11372252

Montserrat, X

2001-01-01

320

Data Base Management System for Tracking Occupational Health  

PubMed Central

There is growing interest in the field of occupational medicine concerning employee health. This interest has been prompted by responsible corporate management as well as to the passage of Federal Legislation. An Occupational Health Information System (OHIS) has been developed to perform data base management functions for tracking employee health. OHIS is comprised of 3 modules which contain personnel, medical, and industrial hygiene/toxicology information. Each module contains information which is integrated into one data base. A dictionary system defining all possible data elements provides powerful analysis and reporting of selected data keys. The present system not only enhances health care delivery by virtue of its reporting and data management capabilities, but provides powerful data analysis capabilities which are otherwise impossible by manual recordkeeping systems.

Soto, R. J.; Kalan, D. A.; Tordoff, R.; Falbo, L. L.; Galatowitsch, J.; Smith, L. W.

1980-01-01

321

Linking poverty, HIV\\/AIDS and climate change to human and ecosystem vulnerability in southern Africa: consequences for livelihoods and sustainable ecosystem management  

Microsoft Academic Search

People in southern Africa are facing escalating levels of risk, uncertainty and consequently vulnerability as a result of multiple interacting stressors, including HIV\\/AIDS, poverty, food insecurity, weak governance, climate change and land degradation, to name but a few. Vulnerability or livelihood insecurity emerges when poor people as individuals or social units have to face harmful threats or shocks with inadequate

Sheona E. Shackleton; Charlie M. Shackleton

2012-01-01

322

Linking poverty, HIV\\/AIDS and climate change to human and ecosystem vulnerability in southern Africa: consequences for livelihoods and sustainable ecosystem management  

Microsoft Academic Search

People in southern Africa are facing escalating levels of risk, uncertainty and consequently vulnerability as a result of multiple interacting stressors, including HIV\\/AIDS, poverty, food insecurity, weak governance, climate change and land degradation, to name but a few. Vulnerability or livelihood insecurity emerges when poor people as individuals or social units have to face harmful threats or shocks with inadequate

Sheona E. Shackleton; Charlie M. Shackleton

2011-01-01

323

[Organization of health services and tuberculosis care management].  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to analyze the discourse of managers regarding the relationship between the organization of the health services and tuberculosis care management in a city in the metropolitan region of João Pessoa, State of Pernambuco. Using qualitative research in the analytical field of the French line of Discourse Analysis, 16 health workers who worked as members of the management teams took part in the study. The transcribed testimonials were organized using Atlas.ti version 6.0 software. After detailed reading of the empirical material, an attempt was made to identify the paraphrasic, polyssemic and metaphoric processes in the discourses, which enabled identification of the following discourse formation: Organization of the health services and the relation with TB care management: theory and practice. In the discourse of the managers the fragmentation of the actions of control of tuberculosis, the lack of articulation between the services and sectors, the compliance of the specific activities for TB, as well as the lack of strategic planning for management of care of the disease are clearly revealed. In this respect, for the organization of the health services to be effective, it is necessary that tuberculosis be considered a priority and acknowledged as a social problem in the management agenda. PMID:22872350

Barrêto, Anne Jaquelyne Roque; de Sá, Lenilde Duarte; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; Pinheiro, Patrícia Geórgia de Oliveira Diniz; de Farias, Nilma Maria Porto; Rodrigues, Débora Cezar de Souza; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

2012-07-01

324

Governance in managing public health resources in Brazilian municipalities.  

PubMed

This study contributes to the health governance discussion by presenting a new data set that allows for comparisons of the management of health resources among Brazilian municipalities. Research on Brazil is particularly important as the provision of health services was decentralized in 1988 and since then municipalities have been given greater responsibilities for the management of fiscal resources for public health service provision. Based on detailed information on corruption practices (such as over-invoicing, illegal procurement and fake receipts) from audit reports of health programmes in 980 randomly selected Brazilian municipalities, this study deepens understanding of the relationship between health governance institutions and the incidence of corruption at the local level by exploring the extent to which horizontal and vertical accountabilities contribute to reducing the propensity of municipal government officials to divert public health resources for private gain. The results of our multiple regression analysis suggest that the experience of health municipal councils is correlated with reductions in the incidence of corruption in public health programmes. This impact is significant over time, with each additional year of health council experience reducing corruption incidence levels by 2.1% from baseline values. The findings reported in this study do not rely on the subjectivity of corruption measures which usually conflate the actual incidence of corruption with its perception by informants. Based on our results, we provide recommendations that can assist policy makers to reduce corruption. PMID:23411119

Avelino, George; Barberia, Lorena G; Biderman, Ciro

2014-09-01

325

[Health alert management and emerging risk].  

PubMed

Following health crisis that have occurred in the nineties (contaminated blood, mad cow, asbestos, etc.) and more recently those generated by the heat wave in 2003 or by emerging infectious pathogens (SARS, West Nile, Chikungunya, H5N1, H1N1…), a real health vigilance system has been progressively developed in France. After a brief historical overview of the health alert system, this article will give the guiding principles of its current organization in France and will present two examples of recent health alerts (Chikungunya in the Reunion Island in 2005-2006 and hepatitis A outbreak in the Côtes-d'Armor in August 2007), that have needed the implementation of preventive measures regarding the blood donor selection. These two examples have shown that the position of the alert in the French health vigilance system needs to be very close to the event. In that case, health alert is a very useful tool for decision making especially when measures have to be taken to prevent transfusion-transmitted pathogens. PMID:21051258

Pillonel, J

2010-12-01

326

Engineers Against Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engineers Against Poverty (EAP) is a non-governmental organization that works in the field of engineering and international development. EAP works to harness members' combined skills to alleviate poverty throughout the world and work on the challenges involved with sustainable development along the way. The materials on the site are divided into five sections, including Major Initiatives, Key Issues, Publications, and EAP's Programme. A good place to start is the Major Initiatives area. Here users can learn about some of the key issues and challenges in the domain of engineering, poverty reduction, and more. The EAP's Programme area has information and working papers on the organization's work in transforming extractive industries and infrastructure projects. Finally, the Publications area contains works like "Employment Intensive Road Construction" and "Climate Compatible Development in the Infrastructure Sector Overview."

2009-01-01

327

PRUS notes Child Poverty  

E-print Network

children are crucial for the economic, social and political development of all of our countries. Yet child poverty is a serious problem in many, developed and developing countries. Transmission of poverty from parents to children is also common and may have effects that go beyond childhood and early adulthood. A child born into a poor family, or one that becomes poor is more likely to be poor when he or she reaches adulthood. Some dimensions of child poverty cannot be easily reversed, if at all: low education attainment as a child often results in poorer opportunities in adulthood; malnutrition in childhood can lead to stunting in later life. These factors, combined with their dependency on adults for providing their

unknown authors

328

New Global Poverty Counts  

E-print Network

The main objective of this paper is to compute an international poverty threshold based on the food requirement that ensures adequate calorie intake for the world’s poorest. The study proposes a new methodology based on consumer theory to provide a caloric-based international poverty threshold. Using this methodology, the international poverty line is estimated to be equal to $1.22 in 1993 purchasing power parity exchange rates. According to this new yardstick, almost 1.37 billion people were poor around the world in 2001. The study also provides global estimates of hunger, according to which 13.28 percent of the world population—equivalent to 687 million people— suffered from hunger in 2001. I.

Nanak Kakwani

329

BNF Applications for Poverty Alleviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes of poverty worldwide are very complex, but solutions to poverty can be found. Although it is possible to easily\\u000a identify many roles for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in poverty alleviation, it can be difficult for subsistence farmers\\u000a to achieve sustainable change incorporating new developments that involve BNF. Moderate and extreme poverty occur in many\\u000a countries located predominantly in

G. W. O’Hara; J. G. Howieson; R. J. Yates; D. Real; C. Revell

330

Evaluating poverty–environment dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing indicators to more effectively evaluate poverty–environment dynamics and inform policy is an urgent research priority. It is critical that these indicators are used in ways that accurately represent the relationship they are meant to inform. This article evaluates the theory and use of poverty–environment indicators, a relatively new tool developed to aid in the design and evaluation of poverty

E. R. Carr; N. P. Kettle; A. Hoskins

2009-01-01

331

World Bank PovertyNet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PovertyNet, an important resource center for researchers and activists working to understand and alleviate poverty, contains several other, though more general, topic sections; a library of research papers and reports; occasional special features; datasets; a newsletter; and a Web Guide on Poverty.

332

Forests and Poverty Reduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Close to 1.6 billion people - more than 25% of the world's population - rely on forest resources for their livelihoods and most of them (1.2 billion) use trees on farms to generate food and cash." Despite these figures, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations explains that data on these vital forest resources is "sketchy or not available." On the left hand side of the page visitors will find several interesting links including the FAO website which addresses the topic of forests and poverty reduction, the FAO forestry site which includes recent events and news topics, "Publications", information on "Workshops", and "Forestry and Poverty Reduction Strategies".

333

Model Formulation: Health@HomeThe Work of Health Information Management in the Household (HIMH): Implications for Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) Innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveContemporary health care places enormous health information management demands on laypeople. Insights into their skills and habits complements current developments in consumer health innovations, including personal health records. Using a five-element human factors model of work, health information management in the household (HIMH) is characterized by the tasks completed by individuals within household organizations, using certain tools and technologies in

Anne Moen; Patricia Flatley Brennan

2005-01-01

334

Post-Soviet transition: improving health services delivery and management.  

PubMed

During the post-Soviet transition of the last 2 decades, ex-Communist countries of the Eastern Bloc, including eastern and central Europe, the Soviet Union, and its satellite and aligned states, have undergone major health system reforms. Many health systems of those countries--previously adopting a Soviet-type Semashko model--are currently called "in transition," as reform agendas, such as shifting to a Bismarck, Beveridge, or mixed financing scheme or adopting new health delivery management policies, are still in development. In this article, we first review common characteristics of Semashko health systems (the predominant health system of Communist countries during the Soviet era) and then discuss the "new public management" principles that ex-Communist countries have recently started to adopt with various degrees of success. We then illustrate experiences with these principles using 2 case studies, from Russia and Albania, and propose health policy options for both cases. Based on a review of the literature and on the our work experience in Russia and Albania, we found that the 2 ex-Semashko systems have not fully capitalized on expected positive outcomes of new public management principles due to low local healthcare financing levels, depreciated healthcare infrastructure and operational capacities, overlapping and contradicting ideology and policies of the former and newer health systems, and finally, lack of leadership that has successful experience with these principles. In the case of pharmaceutical pricing, reimbursement, and access in Russia, we show how a well-intentioned but suboptimally designed and managed pharmaceutical coverage scheme has suffered moral hazard and adverse selection and has adversely impacted the new public management promise of efficient medicine coverage. In the case of Albania, the delayed investment in human resource reform within a depreciated and underfinanced delivery system has adversely affected the implementation of new public management principles. PMID:21598269

Antoun, Joseph; Phillips, Frank; Johnson, Tricia

2011-01-01

335

Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and intermediate institutionalism. The regional interagency committee’s managerial routine needs to incorporate more democratic devices for connecting with educational institutions, devices that are more permeable to social demands relating to regional policy making. PMID:25210821

dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

2014-01-01

336

Impacts of Poverty on Quality of Life in Families of Children with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the impact of poverty on the quality of life in families of children with disabilities. A literature review found a variety of effects of poverty on the five dimensions of family, including health (e.g., hunger, limited health care access), productivity, physical environment, emotional well-being, and family interaction.…

Park, JiYeon; Turnbull, Ann P.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III

2002-01-01

337

Diabetes in pregnancy: health risks and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes in pregnancy is increasing and therefore it is important to raise awareness of the associated health risks to the mother, the growing fetus, and the future child. Perinatal mortality and morbidity is increased in diabetic pregnancies through increased stillbirths and congenital malformation rates. These are mainly the result of early fetal exposure to maternal hyperglycaemia. In the mother, pregnancy

Sarah Ali; Anne Dornhorst

2011-01-01

338

Web Application for Managing Electronic Health Records  

Cancer.gov

Technology to empower clinical staff in requesting and designing order sets can be transformative for hospitals and other health care organizations. This software is proving itself vital in building greater order set development efficiencies and in communication among key stakeholders responsible for certain aspects of an order set within an organization.

339

The leadership role of health services managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an overview of the home care sector’s evolution in Canada, including current models and delivery structures, funding, eligibility criteria, and services provided. Cost escalations of the traditional healthcare system and a reduction in federal funding has driven health reform in Canada. This has been accompanied by a major but sporadic expansion of the home care sector across the

Sister Elizabeth Davis

1997-01-01

340

An Intelligent Content Discovery Technique for Health Portal Content Management  

PubMed Central

Background Continuous content management of health information portals is a feature vital for its sustainability and widespread acceptance. Knowledge and experience of a domain expert is essential for content management in the health domain. The rate of generation of online health resources is exponential and thereby manual examination for relevance to a specific topic and audience is a formidable challenge for domain experts. Intelligent content discovery for effective content management is a less researched topic. An existing expert-endorsed content repository can provide the necessary leverage to automatically identify relevant resources and evaluate qualitative metrics. Objective This paper reports on the design research towards an intelligent technique for automated content discovery and ranking for health information portals. The proposed technique aims to improve efficiency of the current mostly manual process of portal content management by utilising an existing expert-endorsed content repository as a supporting base and a benchmark to evaluate the suitability of new content Methods A model for content management was established based on a field study of potential users. The proposed technique is integral to this content management model and executes in several phases (ie, query construction, content search, text analytics and fuzzy multi-criteria ranking). The construction of multi-dimensional search queries with input from Wordnet, the use of multi-word and single-word terms as representative semantics for text analytics and the use of fuzzy multi-criteria ranking for subjective evaluation of quality metrics are original contributions reported in this paper. Results The feasibility of the proposed technique was examined with experiments conducted on an actual health information portal, the BCKOnline portal. Both intermediary and final results generated by the technique are presented in the paper and these help to establish benefits of the technique and its contribution towards effective content management. Conclusions The prevalence of large numbers of online health resources is a key obstacle for domain experts involved in content management of health information portals and websites. The proposed technique has proven successful at search and identification of resources and the measurement of their relevance. It can be used to support the domain expert in content management and thereby ensure the health portal is up-to-date and current. PMID:25654440

2014-01-01

341

Community Health Needs Assessments: Filling Data Gaps for Population Health Research and Management  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Community health needs assessments (CHNA) are completed to meet varied regulatory and statutory requirements for local public health departments, tax-exempt 501(c)(3) hospitals, and Federally Qualified Health Centers. Although compliance is a motivating factor, these entities are committed to understanding the communities they serve and to developing strategies to address health needs and inequities in health and health care. Filling Data Gaps: CHNAs have the potential to improve the health of communities and populations by giving crucial qualitative and quantitative context to hospital and patient data, thereby enhancing opportunities for health services and clinical outcomes researchers. Filling in these data gaps can help to improve population health by highlighting community-and social determinant-related dynamics relevant to the improved health of the community. CHNAs and EHRs for Population Health: Successful models exist that that have used CHNAs and the resulting data to improve population health management and reduce inequities, as do health systems that have used the EHR and community-based performance measurement data to achieve population health goals.

Alberti, Philip

2014-01-01

342

Poverty Where People Live: What Do National Poverty Lines Tell us About Global Poverty?  

E-print Network

Debate about national and international poverty measurement continued to evolve (see for example Abu-Ismail et al., 2012). The international poverty lines of US$1.25 and US$2/day are, respectively, the average of the national poverty lines for the poorest 15 countries and the average for all developing countries. While those lines allow us to compare countries in monetary terms, at national level, all countries define poverty, using various approaches. So what difference does it make if, instead, we look at how many poor people there are in the world, based on how poverty is defined in the countries where those people live (rather than by international poverty lines)? Difference Between National and International Poverty Rates, Selected Countries (percentage points) To answer this, we added up all the country-level poverty data based on national poverty definitions to produce a new and different perspective on global poverty, based on national poverty measures in 160 countries (see Gentilini and Sumner, 2012). Three major findings emerge. First, there are 1.5 billion people living in nationally defined poverty, 1 billion of

Ugo Gentilini; Andy Sumner Ids

2012-01-01

343

Infant feeding, poverty and human development  

PubMed Central

The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children. PMID:17953747

Beasley, Annette; Amir, Lisa H

2007-01-01

344

Fundamental Technology Development for Gas-Turbine Engine Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated vehicle health management technologies promise to dramatically improve the safety of commercial aircraft by reducing system and component failures as causal and contributing factors in aircraft accidents. To realize this promise, fundamental technology development is needed to produce reliable health management components. These components include diagnostic and prognostic algorithms, physics-based and data-driven lifing and failure models, sensors, and a sensor infrastructure including wireless communications, power scavenging, and electronics. In addition, system assessment methods are needed to effectively prioritize development efforts. Development work is needed throughout the vehicle, but particular challenges are presented by the hot, rotating environment of the propulsion system. This presentation describes current work in the field of health management technologies for propulsion systems for commercial aviation.

Mercer, Carolyn R.; Simon, Donald L.; Hunter, Gary W.; Arnold, Steven M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Anderson, Lynn M.

2007-01-01

345

The ethical imperative in health services governance and management.  

PubMed

Increasingly, administrative and biomedical ethical issues affect decision making in health services organizations. Although the ethics of biomedical decision making affect governance and management, this article is limited to administrative ethics: fiduciary duty, conflicts of interest, confidential information, resource allocation, and consent. Those who govern and manage health services organizations face an ethical imperative: They are moral agents with an independent duty to protect patients and further their interests. This duty is separate from any existing between care givers--such as physicians--and patients. It may complement other relationships, but it is always present. This imperative will become more difficult to attain. The potential conflict between economic and patient interests lies close to the surface in the patient care relationship, and maintaining it undoubtedly will be exacerbated by competitive pressures. The ethical implications of this conflict for those who govern and manage health services organizations are enormous. PMID:10275565

Darr, K; Longest, B B; Rakich, J S

1986-01-01

346

Poverty in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to a quantitative analysis that involves univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis, this module reinforces research terms introduced in Intro to Sociology (independent, dependent and control variables and includes the opportunity to discuss sample vs. population (in the comparison of national poverty data vs. the poverty rate in the sample) and value vs. variable (poverty as a value and a variable and the recoding of the values in the household data). The module also uses the Census website to define the concept "poverty threshold" and look at trends in poverty.

Joan Spade, SUNY- Brockport

347

Factors affecting usage of a personal health record (PHR) to manage health.  

PubMed

As the health care industry shifts into the digital age, patients are increasingly being provided with access to electronic personal health records (PHRs) that are tethered to their provider-maintained electronic health records. This unprecedented access to personal health information can enable patients to more effectively manage their health, but little is actually known about patients' ability to successfully use a PHR to perform health management tasks or the individual factors that influence task performance. This study evaluated the ability of 56 middle-aged adults (40-59 years) and 51 older adults (60-85 years) to use a simulated PHR to perform 15 common health management tasks encompassing medication management, review/interpretation of lab/test results, and health maintenance activities. Results indicated that participants in both age groups experienced significant difficulties in using the PHR to complete routine health management tasks. Data also showed that older adults, particularly those with lower numeracy and technology experience, encountered greater problems using the system. Furthermore, data revealed that the cognitive abilities predicting one's task performance varied according to the complexity of the task. Results from this study identify important factors to consider in the design of PHRs so that they meet the needs of middle-aged and older adults. As deployment of PHRs is on the rise, knowledge of the individual factors that impact effective PHR use is critical to preventing an increase in health care disparities between those who are able to use a PHR and those who are not. PMID:24364414

Taha, Jessica; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph; Morrow, Daniel G

2013-12-01

348

Evaluation of computerized health management information system for primary health care in rural India  

PubMed Central

Background The Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Ballabgarh, run by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi has a computerized Health Management Information System (HMIS) since 1988. The HMIS at Ballabgarh has undergone evolution and is currently in its third version which uses generic and open source software. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerized Health Management Information System in rural health system in India. Methods The data for evaluation were collected by in-depth interviews of the stakeholders i.e. program managers (authors) and health workers. Health Workers from AIIMS and Non-AIIMS Primary Health Centers were interviewed to compare the manual with computerized HMIS. A cost comparison between the two methods was carried out based on market costs. The resource utilization for both manual and computerized HMIS was identified based on workers' interviews. Results There have been no major hardware problems in use of computerized HMIS. More than 95% of data was found to be accurate. Health workers acknowledge the usefulness of HMIS in service delivery, data storage, generation of workplans and reports. For program managers, it provides a better tool for monitoring and supervision and data management. The initial cost incurred in computerization of two Primary Health Centers was estimated to be Indian National Rupee (INR) 1674,217 (USD 35,622). Equivalent annual incremental cost of capital items was estimated as INR 198,017 (USD 4213). The annual savings is around INR 894,283 (USD 11,924). Conclusion The major advantage of computerization has been in saving of time of health workers in record keeping and report generation. The initial capital costs of computerization can be recovered within two years of implementation if the system is fully operational. Computerization has enabled implementation of a good system for service delivery, monitoring and supervision. PMID:21078203

2010-01-01

349

Poverty, Propinquity and Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no necessary connection between pov erty and income distribution. When poverty is defined by relative measures, the proportion of impoverished families is the same as it was in 1950. As a result, the urban problems of the United States have been exacerbated. What people spend on house paint, how they travel to work, how long they send their

Eugene Smolensky

1973-01-01

350

Quality of management in the health care system.  

PubMed

Quality of management is a necessary, yet not sufficient, prerequisite in quality of care. There are two main approaches to improved quality. One is the individualist approach, where the role of the manager is emphasized. The other is the contextual approach. Focus is on managerial prerequisites such as organizational structure, culture, participation in decision making, and use of management time. Individualist as well as contextualist approaches are presented. Each decade during the 20th century has had its own "pet theory" regarding what problems the manager should allocate time on. A study of 41 Nordic public health researchers illustrates that cost-benefit analysis is the best known of ten theories. Management ethics, with the manager as ideologist, is seen as particularly demanding on managerial creativity. PMID:1983249

Borgenhammar, E

1990-01-01

351

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Toolkit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A framework of software components has been implemented to facilitate the development of ISHM systems according to a methodology based on Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). This framework is collectively referred to as the Toolkit and was developed using General Atomics' Health MAP (TM) technology. The toolkit is intended to provide assistance to software developers of mission-critical system health monitoring applications in the specification, implementation, configuration, and deployment of such applications. In addition to software tools designed to facilitate these objectives, the toolkit also provides direction to software developers in accordance with an ISHM specification and development methodology. The development tools are based on an RCM approach for the development of ISHM systems. This approach focuses on defining, detecting, and predicting the likelihood of system functional failures and their undesirable consequences.

Venkatesh, Meera; Kapadia, Ravi; Walker, Mark; Wilkins, Kim

2013-01-01

352

A Hierarchical Model-based approach to Systems Health Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) provides the ability to maintain system health and performance over the life of a system. For safety-critical systems, ISHM must maintain safe operations while increasing availability by preserving functionality and minimizing downtime. This paper discusses a model-based approach to ISHM that combines fault detection, isolation and identification, fault-adaptive control, and prognosis into a common framework.

Gautam Biswas; Sankaran Mahadevan

2007-01-01

353

Managing stress in health social work roles today.  

PubMed

Stress on social workers in health settings is of increasing professional interest and concern. This article suggests individual and system sources of such stress and outlines pathways for nurture of the authentic and creative self in health careers. Replenishing measures include empowerment through teamwork, stress management techniques, consciousness raising to alter self defeating cognitions, and activities within and outside the setting to enrich definition and use of self. PMID:2237717

Dillon, C

1990-01-01

354

Perspectives on HealthCare Resource Management Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Research devoted to health-care applications has grown increasingly within operations research over the past 30 years, with\\u000a over 200 presentations at the 2008 INFORMS conference. Resource management is of particular importance within healthcare because\\u000a of the system’s unique objectives and challenges. We provide a perspective of the current health-care literature, focusing\\u000a on recent papers in planning and scheduling and reviewing

Jonathan Turner; Sanjay Mehrotra; Mark S. Daskin

355

Health management and controls for earth to orbit propulsion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault detection and isolation for advanced rocket engine controllers are discussed focusing on advanced sensing systems and software which significantly improve component failure detection for engine safety and health management. Aerojet's Space Transportation Main Engine controller for the National Launch System is the state of the art in fault tolerant engine avionics. Health management systems provide high levels of automated fault coverage and significantly improve vehicle delivered reliability and lower preflight operations costs. Key technologies, including the sensor data validation algorithms and flight capable spectrometers, have been demonstrated in ground applications and are found to be suitable for bridging programs into flight applications.

Bickford, R. L.

1992-08-01

356

Health Management Technology as a General Solution Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Health maintenance and improvement of humans, artifacts, and nature are pressing requirements considering the problems human beings have faced. In this article, the health management technology is proposed by centering cause-effect structure. The important aspect of the technology is evolvement through human-machine collaboration in response to changes of target systems. One of the reasons why the cause-effect structure is centered in the technology is its feature of transparency to humans by instinct point of view. The notion has been spreaded over wide application areas such as quality control, energy management, and healthcare. Some experiments were conducted to prove effectiveness of the technology in the article.

Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Yoshifumi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Iwami, Taro; Tsuchiya, Naoki

357

Your Money or Your Life: Managing Health, Managing Money  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this paper examines the relationship between non-collateralized debt (NCD) and health\\u000a behaviors. The results reveal that households whose members tend to lead less healthy lifestyles are more likely to hold NCD.\\u000a There are three possible underlying hypotheses that may explain these relationships: (a) common factors, such as preferences,\\u000a shaping both debt and poorer

Irina B. Grafova

2007-01-01

358

Faith and health self-management of rural older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis uses in-depth interview data collected from 145 AfricanAmerican, European American and Native American men and women aged 70and older who reside in two rural North Carolina counties to understand therole of religious faith and prayer in the health self-management of theseolder adults. The analysis addresses three specific questions: how do theseolder adults use religion to help them manage

Thomas A. Arcury; Sara A. Quandt; Juliana McDonald; Ronny A. Bell

2000-01-01

359

Petroleum and Health Care: Evaluating and Managing Health Care's Vulnerability to Petroleum Supply Shifts  

PubMed Central

Petroleum is used widely in health care—primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies—and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473

Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

2011-01-01

360

MSc/PgDip Global Health and Management Student Information booklet  

E-print Network

MSc/PgDip Global Health and Management Student Information booklet Work based placements Providing opportunities for MSc Global Health & Management students to engage with organisations to undertake meaningful projects www.abdn.ac.uk/msc/global-health #12;Contents About the MSc Global Health & Management Programme 3

Levi, Ran

361

Continuous Case Management of a German Statutory Health Insurance  

PubMed Central

To support insured patients, especially those with chronic illnesses or disabilities, the German statutory health insurance Techniker Krankenkasse (TK) offers continuous case management (CCM) under a rehabilitation advisory program serving more than 150,000 insurees each year. Rehabilitation advisors provide individual counseling, generally by telephone. They inform patients about treatment and rehabilitation options, about health care providers, and about other TK services. In a key feature, the model coordinates care across different health care sectors. Through the CCM approach, TK not only assures the best possible care for its insurees, but also safeguards its long-term financial sustainability PMID:17288078

Hecke, Torsten L.; Erzberger, Melanie

2005-01-01

362

School Health Connection Goes Electronic: Developing a Health Information Management System for New Orleans' School-Based Health Centers. Program Results Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From February 2008 through April 2011, School Health Connection, a program of the Louisiana Public Health Institute, developed an electronic health information management system for newly established school-based health centers in Greater New Orleans. School Health Connection was established as part of a broader effort to restore community health

Rastorfer, Darl

2011-01-01

363

Poverty rates in Venezuela: getting the numbers right.  

PubMed

This article looks at household and individual poverty rates in Venezuela over the past seven years. For more than a year, the statement that poverty in Venezuela has increased under the government of President Hugo Chávez has appeared in scores of major newspapers, on major television and radio programs, and even in publications devoted to foreign policy. There are no data to support such statements, and in fact the available data show a decline in poverty for both individuals and households over the seven-year period: the percentage of people in poverty declined from 50 percent in the first quarter of 1999 to 43.7 percent in 2005. Further, there is no evidence to suggest any change in the methodology for measuring poverty during this period, as has been alleged in a number of reports. The article also examines briefly the impact of significant changes in non-cash benefits such as free health care, which are not taken into account in the measured poverty rate, on poor people in Venezuela. Finally, the authors look at how the mistakes in reporting on Venezuela's poverty rate were made; an appendix gives examples of mistakes in major media and foreign policy publications. PMID:17175848

Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis; Rosnick, David

2006-01-01

364

Towards a Framework for Requirement Change Management in HealthCare Software Applications  

E-print Network

Towards a Framework for Requirement Change Management in HealthCare Software Applications Arash Management, Design, Standardization. Keywords Software Requirement; Change management; Ontology; Agent 1. 1). This framework helps to capture, track, represent and manage the changes in a formal

Haarslev, Volker

365

Health insurance in India: need for managed care expertise.  

PubMed

Health insurers in India currently face many challenges, including poor consumer awareness, strict regulations, and inefficient business practices. They operate under a combination of stifling administrative costs and high medical expense ratios which have ensured that insurers operate under steep losses. External factors (eg, onerous regulations, lack of standards, high claims payouts) and internal factors (eg, high administrative costs, dependence on indemnity models that cover inpatient treatment costs only) have forced the health insurance industry into a regressive spiral. To overcome these challenges, health insurers need to innovate in their product offerings and tighten their existing processes and cost structures. But as a long-term strategy, it is imperative that health insurers deploy managed care concepts, which will go a long way toward addressing the systemic issues in the current operational models of health plans. PMID:21473657

Thomas, Thomas K

2011-02-01

366

The impact of an integrated population health enhancement and disease management program on employee health risk, health conditions, and productivity.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the impact of an integrated population health enhancement program on employee health risks, health conditions, and productivity. Specifically, we analyzed changes in these measures among a cohort of 543 employees who completed a health risk assessment in both 2003 and 2005. We compared these findings with 2 different sets of employees who were not offered health enhancement programming. We found that the DIRECTV cohort showed a significant reduction in health risks after exposure to the program. Relative to a matched comparison group, the proportion of low-risk employees at DIRECTV in 2005 was 8.2 percentage points higher; the proportion of medium-risk employees was 7.1 percentage points lower; and the proportion of high-risk employees was 1.1 percentage points lower (p < 0.001). The most noticeable changes in health risk were a reduction in the proportion of employees with high cholesterol; an improvement in diet; a reduction of heavy drinking; management of high blood pressure; improved stress management; increased exercise; fewer smokers; and a drop in obesity rates. We also found that a majority of employees who improved their risk levels from 2003 to 2005 maintained their gains in 2006. Employees who improved their risks levels also demonstrated relative improvement in absenteeism. Overall, this study provides additional evidence that integrated population health enhancement positively impacts employees' health risk and productivity; it also reinforces the view that "good health is good business." PMID:19108644

Loeppke, Ron; Nicholson, Sean; Taitel, Michael; Sweeney, Matthew; Haufle, Vince; Kessler, Ronald C

2008-12-01

367

Health and wellness: the shift from managing illness to promoting health.  

PubMed

Despite an acknowledged lack of evidence of investment payoff, health plan initiatives to promote health and wellness are now commonplace, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2007 site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities. Much of the impetus has come from employers--primarily large employers--that are incorporating health and wellness activities into benefit designs that place more responsibility on employees for health care decisions and costs. Health plans now offer a range of health and wellness activities, including traditional worksite health fairs, screenings and educational seminars; access to behavior modification programs, such as weight management and smoking cessation; and online tools, including health risk assessments. Engaging enrollees in these activities, however, is challenging because participation typically is voluntary. Another barrier is employee privacy concerns. More health plans and employers are turning to financial incentives to secure greater participation. Ultimately, however, the credibility of health and wellness activities as mechanisms to improve health and contain costs is dependent on evidence demonstrating their clinical and financial effectiveness, as well as consumers' acceptance and validation of their legitimacy. PMID:18536150

Draper, Debra A; Tynan, Ann; Christianson, Jon B

2008-06-01

368

Can action research strengthen district health management and improve health workforce performance? A research protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction The single biggest barrier for countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to scale up the necessary health services for addressing the three health-related Millennium Development Goals and achieving Universal Health Coverage is the lack of an adequate and well-performing health workforce. This deficit needs to be addressed both by training more new health personnel and by improving the performance of the existing and future health workforce. However, efforts have mostly been focused on training new staff and less on improving the performance of the existing health workforce. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the protocol for the PERFORM project and reflect on the key challenges encountered during the development of this methodology and how they are being overcome. Methods The overall aim of the PERFORM project is to identify ways of strengthening district management in order to address health workforce inadequacies by improving health workforce performance in SSA. The study will take place in three districts each in Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda using an action research approach. With the support of the country research teams, the district health management teams (DHMTs) will lead on planning, implementation, observation, reflection and redefinition of the activities in the study. Taking into account the national and local human resource (HR) and health systems (HS) policies and practices already in place, ‘bundles’ of HR/HS strategies that are feasible within the context and affordable within the districts’ budget will be developed by the DHMTs to strengthen priority areas of health workforce performance. A comparative analysis of the findings from the three districts in each country will add new knowledge on the effects of these HR/HS bundles on DHMT management and workforce performance and the impact of an action research approach on improving the effectiveness of the DHMTs in implementing these interventions. Discussion Different challenges were faced during the development of the methodology. These include the changing context in the study districts, competing with other projects and duties for the time of district managers, complexity of the study design, maintaining the anonymity and confidentiality of study participants as well as how to record the processes during the study. We also discuss how these challenges are being addressed. The dissemination of this research protocol is intended to generate interest in the PERFORM project and also stimulate discussion on the use of action research in complex studies such as this on strengthening district health management to improve health workforce performance. PMID:23996825

Mshelia, C; Huss, R; Mirzoev, T; Elsey, H; Baine, S O; Aikins, M; Kamuzora, P; Bosch-Capblanch, X; Raven, J; Wyss, K; Green, A; Martineau, T

2013-01-01

369

Training evaluation: a case study of training Iranian health managers  

PubMed Central

Background The Ministry of Health and Medical Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran has undertaken a reform of its health system, in which-lower level managers are given new roles and responsibilities in a decentralized system. To support these efforts, a United Kingdom-based university was contracted by the World Health Organization to design a series of courses for health managers and trainers. This process was also intended to develop the capacity of the National Public Health Management Centre in Tabriz, Iran, to enable it to organize relevant short courses in health management on a continuing basis. A total of seven short training courses were implemented, three in the United Kingdom and four in Tabriz, with 35 participants. A detailed evaluation of the courses was undertaken to guide future development of the training programmes. Methods The Kirkpatrick framework for evaluation of training was used to measure participants' reactions, learning, application to the job, and to a lesser extent, organizational impact. Particular emphasis was put on application of learning to the participants' job. A structured questionnaire was administered to 23 participants, out of 35, between one and 13 months after they had attended the courses. Respondents, like the training course participants, were predominantly from provincial universities, with both health system and academic responsibilities. Interviews with key informants and ex-trainees provided supplemental information, especially on organizational impact. Results Participants' preferred interactive methods for learning about health planning and management. They found the course content to be relevant, but with an overemphasis on theory compared to practical, locally-specific information. In terms of application of learning to their jobs, participants found specific information and skills to be most useful, such as health systems research and group work/problem solving. The least useful areas were those that dealt with training and leadership. Participants reported little difficulty in applying learning deemed "useful", and had applied it often. In general, a learning area was used less when it was found difficult to apply, with a few exceptions, such as problem-solving. Four fifths of respondents claimed they could perform their jobs better because of new skills and more in-depth understanding of health systems, and one third had been asked to train their colleagues, indicating a potential for impact on their organization. Interviews with key informants indicated that job performance of trainees had improved. Conclusion The health management training programmes in Iran, and the external university involved in capacity building, benefited from following basic principles of good training practice, which incorporated needs assessment, selection of participants and definition of appropriate learning outcomes, course content and methods, along with focused evaluation. Contracts for external assistance should include specific mention of capacity building, and allow for the collaborative development of courses and of evaluation plans, in order to build capacity of local partners throughout the training cycle. This would also help to develop training content that uses material from local health management situations to demonstrate key theories and develop locally required skills. Training evaluations should as a minimum assess participants' reactions and learning for every course. Communication of evaluation results should be designed to ensure that data informs training activities, as well as the health and human resources managers who are investing in the development of their staff. PMID:19265528

Omar, Maye; Gerein, Nancy; Tarin, Ehsanullah; Butcher, Christopher; Pearson, Stephen; Heidari, Gholamreza

2009-01-01

370

Occupational health and safety management in polish enterprises implementing total quality management systems.  

PubMed

Total Quality Management (TQM) is defined as the management approach of the organization aimed at long-term success through client satisfaction, and which benefits all members of the organization and society (ISO 8402; International Organization for Standardization, 1994a). The objective of the study was to evaluate management methods applied to improve working conditions in Polish enterprises implementing TQM. The investigation was conducted in the form of interviews, which covered relevant connections between the TQM concept and occupational health and safety (OHS) systematic management rules. The results revealed that the criteria adopted in investigated enterprises for OHS management systems, as well as the implemented management methods and tools, can be evaluated positively. However, many require significant improvement in order to ensure better compliance with the existing law provisions. Elements of OHS management systems also require better integration with the overall management system of the enterprise. PMID:10828155

Podgórski, D

2000-01-01

371

Oceans and Human Health: Linking Ocean, Organism, and Human Health for Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that sustainable coastal communities depend on healthy and resilient economies, ecosystems, and people, and that the condition or "health" of the coastal ocean and humans are intimately and inextricably connected. A wealth of ecosystem services provided by ocean and coastal environments are crucial for human survival and well being. Nonetheless, the health of coastal communities, their economies, connected ecosystems and ecosystem services, and people are under increasing threats from health risks associated with environmental degradation, climate change, and unwise land use practices, all of which contribute to growing burdens of naturally-occurring and introduced pathogens, noxious algae, and chemical contaminants. The occurrence, frequency, intensity, geographic range, and number and kinds of ocean health threats are increasing, with concomitant health and economic effects and eroding public confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of coastal environments and resources. Concerns in the research and public health communities, many summarized in the seminal 1999 NRC Report, From Monsoons to Microbes and the 2004 final report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, resulted in establishment of a new "meta-discipline" known as Oceans and Human Health (OHH). OHH brings together practitioners in oceanography, marine biology, ecology, biomedical science, medicine, economics and other social sciences, epidemiology, environmental management, and public health to focus on water- and food-borne causes of human and animal illnesses associated with ocean and coastal systems and on health benefits of seafood and other marine products. It integrates information across multiple disciplines to increase knowledge of ocean health risks and benefits and communicate such information to enhance public safety. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive approach to ocean health threats and benefits, Congress passed the Oceans and Human Health Act of 2004. Major outcomes of the OHH Act of 2004 include: --A national focus on ocean health and its relation to human health and well-being; --Enhanced interagency coordination and cooperation in research, development, and education; --Emphasis on development of a new, interdisciplinary community of practice; --Increased understanding of linkages between marine animal health and human health and the dangers of transmission of zoonotic diseases from the marine environment; --A richer understanding of factors affecting the occurrence and impacts of ocean health threats; --An enhanced ability of the ocean science and public health communities to respond to health-related emergencies; --A strong focus on development of ecological forecasts that are providing early warning of ocean health threats and impacts, thus improving the effectiveness of protection and mitigation actions. Taken together, these outcomes contribute significantly to more sustainable management of coastal resources and communities.

Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.

2012-12-01

372

Managing mechanistic and organic structure in health care organizations.  

PubMed

Managers at all levels in a health care organization must organize work to achieve the organization's mission and goals. This requires managers to decide the organization structure, which involves dividing the work among jobs and departments and then coordinating them all toward the common purpose. Organization structure, which is reflected in an organization chart, may range on a continuum from very mechanistic to very organic. Managers must decide how mechanistic versus how organic to make the entire organization and each of its departments. To do this, managers should carefully consider 5 factors for the organization and for each individual department: external environment, goals, work production, size, and culture. Some factors may push toward more mechanistic structure, whereas others may push in the opposite direction toward more organic structure. Practical advice can help managers at all levels design appropriate structure for their departments and organization. PMID:23111488

Olden, Peter C

2012-01-01

373

Multi Source Data Integration for Aircraft Health Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern aircraft are capable of generating and collecting massive quantities of data from flight recorders, maintenance reports, logistics, and mission-readiness reporting systems. Current aircraft system health management schemes are developed based on data sources consisting of the aircraft's system operational conditions or maintenance and repair actions; however, crucial information regarding flight condition and situational parameters are often disregarded or used

Estefan M. Ortiz; G. J. Clark; A. Babbar; J. L. Vian; V. L. Syrmos; M. M. Arita

2008-01-01

374

IMPROVING METHODS FOR MANAGING HEALTH AND EXPOSURE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The project in Colorado is evaluating the use of GIS as a tool for studying the potential impacts of exposure to DBPs from different disinfection treatments on reproductive health in populations in Colorado. GIS is a data management and visualization tool that is assisting in stu...

375

Snapshots of health care managers: a measure of leadership.  

PubMed

Based on a global survey of leaders, this article examines the challenges facing health care managers today and uncovers best practices to develop and select leaders, especially those on the frontline. Highlights include hiring processes that identify motivated, potential leaders who have the knowledge, experience, competencies, and attributes to get the job done. PMID:17314629

Burns, Janice

2007-01-01

376

Managing Mental Health Crises of Foreign College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that student services professionals manage a number of mental health crises as part of their job responsibilities. Examines some issues that arise from assisting foreign college students experiencing such crises, with special focus on psychiatric committal, withdrawal from school, and return to the home country. (Author)

Oropeza, Barbara A. Clark; And Others

1991-01-01

377

Executive Education Graduate Certificate in Health Care Management  

E-print Network

identify key benefits that affect care and satisfaction issues for different patient segments. They also advantage and growth in their organizations. Strategic Marketing and Patient Management Participants critical hospital-based health care processes, while improving efficiency and maintaining patient safety

378

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Health Center's Community Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the case of the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Health Center's unique community management system in which neighborhood workers have been developed to assume managerial responsibilities and are directing the Center. The Martin Luther King Center experience is instructive because the Center was able to achieve significant community control by focusing primarily on the internal dimension of

Noel M. Tichy; June Irmiger Taylor

1976-01-01

379

Lifestyle Management Program: Promoting Cardiovascular Health: in Community College Campuses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lifestyle Management Project is a health promotion project and research study conducted in the spring of 1984 at five Los Angeles junior college campuses. Its goal was to increase knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CHD) risk factors among 400 to 2000 junior college students in each campus. This was done via five risk factor activities: blood…

Castro, Felipe G.; Jichaku, Patrick

380

Leadership Succession Management in a University Health Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a succession planning pilot project in an Australian university health faculty. The programme aimed to enhance organisational stability and develop leadership capacity in middle level academics. Six monthly sessions addressed university and general leadership topics, communication, decision-making, working with change, self-management

McMurray, Anne M.; Henly, Debra; Chaboyer, Wendy; Clapton, Jayne; Lizzio, Alf; Teml, Martin

2012-01-01

381

Veterinary dairy herd health management in Europe Constraints and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of veterinary work in dairy health management in Europe has changed over the past years and will change even more dramatically in the near future. The consumers and the media show increasing concern about animal welfare, safety of products of animal origin and traceability of animal products. Farmers in Europe have to produce under strict, often expensive and

J. Cannas da Silva; J. P. T. M. Noordhuizen; M. Vagneur; R. Bexiga; C. C. Gelfert; W. Baumgartner

2006-01-01

382

Outcomes Assessment in Accredited Health Information Management Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the use and perceived usefulness of outcomes assessment methods in health information management programs. Additional characteristics of the outcomes assessment practices were recognized. The findings were evaluated for significant differences in results based on age of the program, type of institution,…

Bennett, Dorine

2010-01-01

383

[Financial incentives in workers' health management].  

PubMed

In the countries of the European Union, several million workers meet with an accident every year. In the national economy, the costs of accidents at work and occupational diseases are born by different institutions in different proportions, and they are estimated at several percent of the gross domestic product of each of these countries. The issue concerning economic consequences of occupational diseases and accidents at work has been emphasized in the section on health and safety at work of the Community Strategy for 2007-2012. Bearing this in mind, the need have arose to strengthen the efficiency of legal instruments and economic stimuli to motivate actions aimed at improving work conditions. Economic stimuli and legal instruments complement each other in the process of motivating various institutions. The following kinds of economic stimuli have been distinguished: subsidies, grants and financial assistance of the state and stimuli incorporated into tax and insurance systems. Economic evaluation at the information, allocation and educational levels, being an economic tool, may support policymakers who can use this tool to asses economic efficiency of decisions made in the area of health and safety of workers as well as to asses economic consequences of the functioning of legal instruments. The aim of the project, implemented under the Seventh Framework Program by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, is to promote the system of economic stimuli understood as an incentive to undertake actions for the improvement of work conditions. Owing to this project the discussion forum, addressed to relevant and interested social partners, will be established, and experts in the field will assist in determining directions of further actions aimed at advancing motivation systems. PMID:19227888

Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

2008-01-01

384

Sex Differences in Poverty, 1950-1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the following questions: (1) women's risk of poverty relative to men's; (2) the sources of sex differences in poverty; and (3) the correlation between changes in the sex/poverty ratio and changes in family structure. Confirms the feminization of poverty over time and suggests measures to reduce poverty for women and their children.…

McLanahan, Sara S.; And Others

1989-01-01

385

[Operational units for health risk management (patient safety)].  

PubMed

In 1995 INSALUD began to develop performance measures in the field of risk management, and following transfer of powers to the regions, these led to the development of operational units in individual healthcare centres. These units, which consist of a group of health professionals, including managers, aim to identify, evaluate, analyse and deal with health risks, to enhance patient safety. Their organisational structure can vary in accordance with the needs, resources and philosophy of each individual organisation. This paper presents the experience of the risk management units developed in four Spanish regions: Madrid, the Basque Country, Galicia and INGESA (Ceuta and Melilla). It also includes reflections on assessment of their impact and on their future role in improving safety in healthcare services. PMID:19572456

Pardo Hernández, A; Claveria Fontán, A; García Urbaneja, M; López Barba, J

2008-12-01

386

Solid health care waste management status at health care centers in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory  

SciTech Connect

Health care waste is considered a major public health hazard. The objective of this study was to assess health care waste management (HCWM) practices currently employed at health care centers (HCCs) in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory. Survey data on solid health care waste (SHCW) were analyzed for generated quantities, collection, separation, treatment, transportation, and final disposal. Estimated 4720.7 m{sup 3} (288.1 tons) of SHCW are generated monthly by the HCCs in the West Bank. This study concluded that: (i) current HCWM practices do not meet HCWM standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) or adapted by developed countries, and (ii) immediate attention should be directed towards improvement of HCWM facilities and development of effective legislation. To improve the HCWM in the West Bank, a national policy should be implemented, comprising a comprehensive plan of action and providing environmentally sound and reliable technological measures.

Al-Khatib, Issam A. [Institute of Environmental and Water Studies, Birzeit University, P.O. Box 14, Birzeit, Ramallah, West Bank (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)], E-mail: ikhatib@birzeit.edu; Sato, Chikashi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho (United States)

2009-08-15

387

Confronting Suburban Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Brookings Institution doesn't shy away from the tough topics, in fact, they often embrace them. This recent book by two of their distinguished scholars, Elizabeth Kneebone and Alan Berube, looks at the growing problem of suburban poverty. As they note, "suburbia is now home to more poor residents than central cities." This site, created to promote the book, has great resources for policy analysts, scholars, journalists, and the interested public. The accompanying blog is a great way for visitors to read thoughtful commentaries on the metropolitan geography of low wage work or an anti-poverty policy that works for working families. The Communities section is another great feature, providing background information on the seven areas profiled in the book, including south Cook County, Illinois and Tukwila outside of Seattle.

2014-01-01

388

Poverty and Language Development: Roles of Parenting and Stress  

PubMed Central

Socioeconomic status affects a variety of mental and physical health outcomes, such as language development. Indeed, with poverty, disparities in the development of language processing are arguably among the most consistently found— with decreases in vocabulary, phonological awareness, and syntax at many different developmental stages. In this review, after considering basic brain systems affected by low socioeconomic status that are important for language development and related peripartum issues, we focus on two theoretical models that link poverty with the brain systems affected in language problems. The family stress model connects poverty with parental emotional distress that affects parenting, whereas the parental investment model involves a focus on basic needs that affects children’s language. Understanding the mechanisms through which poverty affects the brain, parenting behaviors and language development may have implications for identification and treatment of individuals as well as social policy. PMID:23696954

Perkins, Suzanne C.; Finegood, Eric D.

2013-01-01

389

Poverty Reduction Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A German Technical Cooperation (GTZ: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit) initiative, the Poverty Reduction Project aims to bring the needs of poor people to the forefront of economic development agendas worldwide through an Internet forum. The site describes current projects with financial intermediaries in El Salvador and food security in China and is home to a library of full-text papers, project reports, and country profiles (in German and English).

390

Investigating Children in Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, created by Kathy Rowell of Sinclair Community College, provides an activity were students will attempt to explain how each of the following variables is related to child poverty within the United States: race, age, family type, family size, and immigrant status. The resource is a solid lesson plan for a statistics classroom. It focuses on many things such as hypotheses testing, distribution theory, independent and dependent variables.

Rowell, Kathy

391

Financial impact of population health management programs: reevaluating the literature.  

PubMed

Although many employers offer some components of worksite-based population health management (PHM), most do not yet invest in comprehensive programs. This hesitation to invest in comprehensive programs may be attributed to numerous factors, such as other more pressing business priorities, reluctance to intervene in the personal health choices of employees, or insufficient funds for employee health. Many decision makers also remain skeptical about whether investment in comprehensive programs will produce a financial return on investment (ROI). Most peer-reviewed studies assessing the financial impact of PHM were published before 2000 and include a broad array of program and study designs. Many of these studies have also included indirect productivity savings in their assessment of financial outcomes. In contrast, this review includes only peer-reviewed studies of the direct health care cost impact of comprehensive PHM programs that meet rigorous methodological criteria. A systematic search of health sciences databases identified only 5 studies with program designs and study methods meeting these selection criteria published after 2007. This focused review found that comprehensive PHM programs can yield a positive ROI based on their impact on direct health care costs, but the level of ROI achieved was lower than that reported by literature reviews with less focused and restrictive qualifying criteria. To yield substantial short-term health care cost savings, the longer term financial return that can credibly be associated with a comprehensive, prevention-oriented population health program must be augmented by other financial impact strategies. PMID:22313443

Grossmeier, Jessica; Terry, Paul E; Anderson, David R; Wright, Steven

2012-06-01

392

Attitudes toward Poverty of Upper Midwestern Baccalaureate Nursing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poverty is widespread and its consequence of poorer health increases the likelihood that nurses will provide care for poor clients and their families in many health care settings. Although the importance of understanding attitudes toward the poor is recognized, there have been few studies of attitudes of nursing students. The purpose of this…

Randall, Rebecca

2009-01-01

393

Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

2010-01-01

394

Organizing and managing care in a changing health system.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine ways in which the management and organization of medical care is changing in response to the shifting incentives created by managed care. DATA SOURCES: Site visits conducted in 12 randomly selected communities in 1996/ 1997. STUDY DESIGN: Approximately 35-60 interviews were conducted per site with key informants in healthcare and community organizations; about half were with providers. DATA COLLECTION: A standardized interview protocol was implemented across all sites, enabling cross-site comparisons. Multiple respondents were interviewed on each issue. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A great deal of experimentation and apparent duplication exist in efforts to develop programs to influence physician practice patterns. Responsibility for managing care is being contested by health plans, medical groups and hospitals, as each seeks to accrue the savings that can result from the more efficient delivery of care. To manage the financial and clinical risk, providers are aggressively consolidating and reorganizing. Most significant was the rapid formation of intermediary organizations, such as independent practice arrangements (IPAs), physician-hospital organizations (PHOs), or management services organizations (MSOs), for contracting with managed care organizations. CONCLUSIONS: Managed care appears to have only a modest effect on how healthcare organizations deliver medical care, despite the profound effect that managed care has on how providers are organized. Rather than improving the efficiency of healthcare organizations, provider efforts to build large systems and become indispensable to health plans are exacerbating problems of excess capacity. It is not clear if new organizational arrangements will help providers manage the changing incentives they face, or if their intent is to blunt the effects of the incentives by forming larger organizations to improve their bargaining power and resist change. PMID:10778823

Kohn, L T

2000-01-01

395

Graduate Research Assistant Position in Health Informatics One Graduate Research Assistant position is available at Department of Health Management and  

E-print Network

of Health Management and Informatics University of Missouri School of Medicine CE728 Clinical Support Graduate Research Assistant Position in Health Informatics One Graduate Research Assistant position is available at Department of Health Management and Informatics (HMI) for full time resident

Noble, James S.

396

Reverse quality management: developing evidence-based best practices in health emergency management.  

PubMed

The British Columbia Ministry of Health's Framework for Core Functions in Public Health was the catalyst that inspired this review of best practices in health emergency management. The fieldwork was conducted in the fall of 2005 between hurricane Katrina and the South Asia earthquake. These tragedies, shown on 24/7 television news channels, provided an eyewitness account of disaster management, or lack of it, in our global village world. It is not enough to just have best practices in place. There has to be a governance structure that can be held accountable. This review of best practices lists actions in support of an emergency preparedness culture at the management, executive, and corporate/governance levels of the organization. The methodology adopted a future quality management approach of the emergency management process to identify the corresponding performance indictors that correlated with practices or sets of practices. Identifying best practice performance indictors needed to conduct a future quality management audit is described as reverse quality management. Best practices cannot be assessed as stand-alone criteria; they are influenced by organizational culture. The defining of best practices was influenced by doubt about defining a practice it is hoped will never be performed, medical staff involvement, leadership, and an appreciation of the resources required and how they need to be managed. Best practice benchmarks are seen as being related more to "measures" of performance defined locally and agreed on by 2 or more parties rather than to achieving industrial standards. Relating practices to performance indicators and then to benchmarks resulted in the development of a Health Emergency Management Best Practices Matrix that lists specific practice in the different phases of emergency management. PMID:16622359

Lynch, Tim; Cox, Paul

2006-01-01

397

European Anti Poverty Network (EAPN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

European Anti Poverty Network was created in 1989 "to put the fight against poverty and social exclusion on the political agenda of the European Union." The Network consists of 25 European organizations that work to alleviate poverty and 15 national networks that fight poverty specifically inside the EU. EAPN offers a nice collection of position papers and reports analyzing the ongoings of the European Union, its member countries and their policies, as well as news releases and news flashes. The site gives general information about the EAPN including its mission, members, and activities, as well as providing a tightly organized set of links.

398

BERNARDO RAMIREZ, M.D., M.B.A. Department of Health Management and Informatics  

E-print Network

; Managerial Epidemiology; Issues and Trends for the Health Professions; The U.S.A. Healthcare System). Courses Developed: International Healthcare Systems; Strategic Management; Health Ethics, Managed Care; Managerial Epidemiology; Interdisciplinary Study Abroad in Costa Rica; The Costa Rican Healthcare System

Wu, Shin-Tson

399

24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597.103 Housing...DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance...

2010-04-01

400

Environment, poverty and health linkages in the Wami River basin: A search for sustainable water resource management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wami Rivers basin is an important area due to its diversified use which benefits a multi-diversity of stakeholders. While large scale irrigated sugar production is the main issue of concern upstream, there are other equally important socio-economic activities which include biodiversity and environmental conservation, domestic water supply, livestock water needs, and fishing. A large water supply project has just

Ndalahwa F. Madulu

2005-01-01

401

Risk management assessment of Health Maintenance Organisations participating in the National Health Insurance Scheme  

PubMed Central

Background: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), operated majorly in Nigeria by health maintenance organisations (HMOs), took off formally in June 2005. In view of the inherent risks in the operation of any social health insurance, it is necessary to efficiently manage these risks for sustainability of the scheme. Consequently the risk-management strategies deployed by HMOs need regular assessment. This study assessed the risk management in the Nigeria social health insurance scheme among HMOs. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 33 HMOs participating in the NHIS. Results: Utilisation of standard risk-management strategies by the HMOs was 11 (52.6%). The other risk-management strategies not utilised in the NHIS 10 (47.4%) were risk equalisation and reinsurance. As high as 11 (52.4%) of participating HMOs had a weak enrollee base (less than 30,000 and poor monthly premium and these impacted negatively on the HMOs such that a large percentage 12 (54.1%) were unable to meet up with their financial obligations. Most of the HMOs 15 (71.4%) participated in the Millennium development goal (MDG) maternal and child health insurance programme. Conclusions: Weak enrollee base and poor monthly premium predisposed the HMOs to financial risk which impacted negatively on the overall performance in service delivery in the NHIS, further worsened by the non-utilisation of risk equalisation and reinsurance as risk-management strategies in the NHIS. There is need to make the scheme compulsory and introduce risk equalisation and reinsurance. PMID:25298605

Campbell, Princess Christina; Korie, Patrick Chukwuemeka; Nnaji, Feziechukwu Collins

2014-01-01

402

Managed competition in health care and the unfinished agenda  

PubMed Central

A market made up of health care financing and delivery plans and individual consumers, without a carefully drawn set of rules to mitigate market failures, and without mediation by collective action on the demand side, cannot produce efficiency and equity. The concept of competition that can achieve these goals, at least to a satisfactory approximation, is managed competition, with intelligent active agents on the demand side, called sponsors, that contract with the competing health care plans and continuously structure and adjust the market to overcome its tendencies to failure. A great deal remains to be done to achieve the goals envisioned by the “procompetition reformers.” PMID:10311922

Enthoven, Alain C.

1986-01-01

403

Errors as allies: error management training in health professions education.  

PubMed

This paper adopts methods from the organisational team training literature to outline how health professions education can improve patient safety. We argue that health educators can improve training quality by intentionally encouraging errors during simulation-based team training. Preventable medical errors are inevitable, but encouraging errors in low-risk settings like simulation can allow teams to have better emotional control and foresight to manage the situation if it occurs again with live patients. Our paper outlines an innovative approach for delivering team training. PMID:23293120

King, Aimee; Holder, Michael G; Ahmed, Rami A

2013-06-01

404

"Sleep disparity" in the population: poor sleep quality is strongly associated with poverty and ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the social determinants of sleep attainment. This study examines the relationship of race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and other factors upon sleep quality. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 9,714 randomly selected subjects was used to explore sleep quality obtained by self-report, in relation to socioeconomic factors including poverty, employment status, and education level. The primary outcome was poor sleep quality. Data were collected by the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation. Results Significant differences were observed in the outcome for race/ethnicity (African-American and Latino versus White: unadjusted OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.24-2.05 and OR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.37-1.98, respectively) and income (below poverty threshold, unadjusted OR = 2.84, 95%CI 2.41-3.35). In multivariable modeling, health indicators significantly influenced sleep quality most prominently in poor individuals. After adjusting for socioeconomic factors (education, employment) and health indicators, the association of income and poor sleep quality diminished, but still persisted in poor Whites while it was no longer significant in poor African-Americans (adjusted OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.47-2.58 versus OR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.87-1.54, respectively). Post-college education (adjusted OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.31-0.71) protected against poor sleep. Conclusions A "sleep disparity" exists in the study population: poor sleep quality is strongly associated with poverty and race. Factors such as employment, education and health status, amongst others, significantly mediated this effect only in poor subjects, suggesting a differential vulnerability to these factors in poor relative to non-poor individuals in the context of sleep quality. Consideration of this could help optimize targeted interventions in certain groups and subsequently reduce the adverse societal effects of poor sleep. PMID:20701789

2010-01-01

405

An Agile Enterprise Regulation Architecture for Health Information Security Management  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information security management for healthcare enterprises is complex as well as mission critical. Information technology requests from clinical users are of such urgency that the information office should do its best to achieve as many user requests as possible at a high service level using swift security policies. This research proposes the Agile Enterprise Regulation Architecture (AERA) of information security management for healthcare enterprises to implement as part of the electronic health record process. Survey outcomes and evidential experiences from a sample of medical center users proved that AERA encourages the information officials and enterprise administrators to overcome the challenges faced within an electronically equipped hospital. PMID:20815748

Chen, Ying-Pei; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Chien, Tsan-Nan; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Luh, Jer-Junn; Lai, Jin-Shin; Lai, Feipei; Chen, Sao-Jie

2010-01-01

406

An agile enterprise regulation architecture for health information security management.  

PubMed

Information security management for healthcare enterprises is complex as well as mission critical. Information technology requests from clinical users are of such urgency that the information office should do its best to achieve as many user requests as possible at a high service level using swift security policies. This research proposes the Agile Enterprise Regulation Architecture (AERA) of information security management for healthcare enterprises to implement as part of the electronic health record process. Survey outcomes and evidential experiences from a sample of medical center users proved that AERA encourages the information officials and enterprise administrators to overcome the challenges faced within an electronically equipped hospital. PMID:20815748

Chen, Ying-Pei; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Chien, Tsan-Nan; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Luh, Jer-Junn; Lai, Jin-Shin; Lai, Feipei; Chen, Sao-Jie

2010-09-01

407

The Literature of Poverty, the Poverty of Literature Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author focuses on the possibilities--and the limits--of undergraduate courses on the literature of poverty. He describes an undergraduate course he has taught on U.S. literature about poverty, but he also expresses doubt that such courses can help produce major social change. He argues that something about the literature of…

Marsh, John

2011-01-01

408

‘Housing Poverty’ and Income Poverty in England and The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether the distributional consequences of contrasting welfare systems are enhanced, replicated or countered by housing systems in England and the Netherlands. It adopts the monetised concepts of ‘net housing income’ and ‘net housing resources’, which are commensurable with disposable income and income-based measures of poverty. It was found that both housing systems exert a poverty-reducing impact compared

Mark Stephens; Guido van Steen

2011-01-01

409

227Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty AND HUMAN  

E-print Network

227Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty AND HUMAN CAPABILIty StUDIeS (Pov) Core FACULty and Human Capability offers a cur- ricularandcocurricularprogramofstudythatenrichesany major. Sustained and establishing a decent minimum of human development for all people. Students completing desig- nated

Dresden, Gregory

410

237Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty and Human  

E-print Network

237Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty and Human CaPability StudieS (Pov) Core Fa and Human Capability offers a cur- ricular and cocurricular program of study that enriches any major to establish a decent minimum of human development for all people. Students complet- ing designated

Dresden, Gregory

411

Poverty Among Working Families: Findings From Experimental Poverty Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the US Census Bureau explores poverty among working families. The report uses experimental measures based on recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences Panel of Poverty and Family Assistance, including the following elements: noncash government benefits, job-related expenses, child care costs, social security taxes, and out-of-pocket medical expenses.

412

At the Crossroads: Managed Mental Health Care, the Ethics Code, and Ethnic Minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health clinicians are facing an increasing number of ethical problems related to the delivery of managed mental health care services to ethnic minorities. The authors argue that (a) economic pressures have led to the development of the managed health care movement; (b) the combination of such economic pressures and the development of that managed care movement have influenced the

Martin J. La Roche; Castellano Turner

2002-01-01

413

Zweite Satzung zur nderung der Studienordnung des Masterstudiengangs ,,Health Care Management" an der  

E-print Network

1 Zweite Satzung zur �nderung der Studienordnung des Masterstudiengangs ,,Health Care Management die folgende �nderungssatzung der Studienordnung für den Masterstudiengang ,,Health Care Management" (HCM) als Satzung: Artikel 1 Die Studienordnung für den Masterstudiengang ,,Health Care Management" (M

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

414

Dritte Satzung zur nderung der Studienordnung fr den Masterstudiengang ,,Health Care Management"  

E-print Network

Dritte Satzung zur �nderung der Studienordnung für den Masterstudiengang ,,Health Care Management-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald die folgende Satzung zur �nderung der Studienordnung für den Masterstudiengang ,,Health Care Management" (HCM): Artikel 1 Die Studienordnung für den Masterstudiengang ,,Health Care Management" (M

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

415

Erste Satzung zur nderung der Studienordnung des Masterstudiengangs ,,Health Care Management" an der  

E-print Network

1 Erste Satzung zur �nderung der Studienordnung des Masterstudiengangs ,,Health Care Management �nderungssatzung der Studienordnung für den Masterstudiengang ,,Health Care Management" (HCM) als Satzung: Artikel 1 Die Studienordnung für den Masterstudiengang ,,Health Care Management" (M.Sc.) vom 18. Juli 2006

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

416

Nichtamtliche Lesefassung der Fachprfungsordnung M.Sc. Health Care Management Fachprfungsordnung  

E-print Network

Nichtamtliche Lesefassung der Fachprüfungsordnung M.Sc. Health Care Management Fachprüfungsordnung des Masterstudiengangs Health Care Management an der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald vom 15-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifs- wald die folgende Prüfungsordnung für den Masterstudiengang (M. Sc.) ,,Health Care Management

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

417

Submitted to the International Journal of Health Planning and Management, June 2011 Mental Health in France, Policies and Actors  

E-print Network

1 Submitted to the International Journal of Health Planning and Management, June 2011 Mental Health) ; Nicolas Daumerie (CCOMS, Lille) ; Jean-Luc Roelandt (CCOMS, Lille) SUMMARY : The new mental health care the 2000s: the emphasis is shifting from psychiatry to mental health care. This shift focuses mainly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

418

Opportunities for Launch Site Integrated System Health Engineering and Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launch site processing flow involves operations such as functional verification, preflight servicing and launch. These operations often include hazards that must be controlled to protect human life and critical space hardware assets. Existing command and control capabilities are limited to simple limit checking durig automated monitoring. Contingency actions are highly dependent on human recognition, decision making, and execution. Many opportunities for Integrated System Health Engineering and Management (ISHEM) exist throughout the processing flow. This paper will present the current human-centered approach to health management as performed today for the shuttle and space station programs. In addition, it will address some of the more critical ISHEM needs, and provide recommendations for future implementation of ISHEM at the launch site.

Waterman, Robert D.; Langwost, Patricia E.; Waterman, Susan J.

2005-01-01

419

Poverty, Inequality, and Discrimination as Sources of Depression among U.S. Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poverty, inequality, and discrimination endanger women's well-being. Poverty is a consistent predictor of depression in women. Economic inequalities relate to reduced life expectancy and various negative physical health consequences. Discrimination maintains inequalities, lessens economic security, and exposes women to unmerited contempt.…

Belle, Deborah; Doucet, Joanne

2003-01-01

420

Health Insurance Coverage: Early Release of Estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, January -- June 2013  

MedlinePLUS

... Institute. 2009. 3. DeNavas-Walt C, Proctor BD, Smith JC. Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in ... Office. 2008. 4. DeNavas-Walt C, Proctor BD, Smith JC. Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in ...

421

District health managers’ perceptions of supervision in Malawi and Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Mid-level cadres are being used to address human resource shortages in many African contexts, but insufficient and ineffective human resource management is compromising their performance. Supervision plays a key role in performance and motivation, but is frequently characterised by periodic inspection and control, rather than support and feedback to improve performance. This paper explores the perceptions of district health management teams in Tanzania and Malawi on their role as supervisors and on the challenges to effective supervision at the district level. Methods This qualitative study took place as part of a broader project, “Health Systems Strengthening for Equity: The Power and Potential of Mid-Level Providers”. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 district health management team personnel in Malawi and 37 council health team members in Tanzania. The interviews covered a range of human resource management issues, including supervision and performance assessment, staff job descriptions and roles, motivation and working conditions. Results Participants displayed varying attitudes to the nature and purpose of the supervision process. Much of the discourse in Malawi centred on inspection and control, while interviewees in Tanzania were more likely to articulate a paradigm characterised by support and improvement. In both countries, facility level performance metrics dominated. The lack of competency-based indicators or clear standards to assess individual health worker performance were considered problematic. Shortages of staff, at both district and facility level, were described as a major impediment to carrying out regular supervisory visits. Other challenges included conflicting and multiple responsibilities of district health team staff and financial constraints. Conclusion Supervision is a central component of effective human resource management. Policy level attention is crucial to ensure a systematic, structured process that is based on common understandings of the role and purpose of supervision. This is particularly important in a context where the majority of staff are mid-level cadres for whom regulation and guidelines may not be as formalised or well-developed as for traditional cadres, such as registered nurses and medical doctors. Supervision needs to be adequately resourced and supported in order to improve performance and retention at the district level. PMID:24007354

2013-01-01

422

Computer-based cognitive and socio-emotional training in personal health information management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal information management (PIM) pervades every aspect of our lives, including health care. As users of the health care system, we rely on our ability to manage information to combat illness and stay healthy. When seeking help for a health-related problem or question, we navigate a complex system where health services are distributed across multiple clinicians in a variety of

Rudolf Volner; Dasa Ticha; Hedvika Palasthy

2011-01-01

423

A multidimensional approach to measure poverty in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Poverty is increasingly being understood as a multidimensional phenomenon. Other than income-consumption, which has been extensively studied in the past, health, education, shelter, and social involvement are among the most important dimensions of poverty. The present study attempts to develop a simple tool to measure poverty in its multidimensionality where it views poverty as an inadequate fulfillment of basic needs, such as food, clothing, shelter, health, education, and social involvement. The scale score ranges between 72 and 24 and is constructed in such a way that the score increases with increasing level of poverty. Using various techniques, the study evaluates the poverty-measurement tool and provides evidence for its reliability and validity by administering it in various areas of rural Bangladesh. The reliability coefficients, such as test-retest coefficient (0.85) and Cronbach's alpha (0.80) of the tool, were satisfactorily high. Based on the socioeconomic status defined by the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) exercise, the level of poverty identified by the scale was 33% in Chakaria, 26% in Matlab, and 32% in other rural areas of the country. The validity of these results was tested against some traditional methods of identifying the poor, and the association of the scores with that of the traditional indicators, such as ownership of land and occupation, asset index (r=0.72), and the wealth ranking obtained from the PRA exercise, was consistent. A statistically significant inverse relationship of the poverty scores with the socioeconomic status was observed in all cases. The scale also allowed the absolute level of poverty to be measured, and in the present study, the highest percentage of absolute poor was found in terms of health (44.2% in Chakaria, 36.4% in Matlab, and 39.1% in other rural areas), followed by social exclusion (35.7% in Chakaria, 28.5% in Matlab, and 22.3% in other rural areas), clothing (6.2% in Chakaria, 8.3% in Matlab, and 20% in other rural areas), education (14.7% in Chakaria, 8% in Matlab, and 16.8% in other rural areas), food (7.8% in Chakaria, 2.9% in Matlab and 3% in other rural areas), and shelter (0.8% in Chakaria, 1.4% in Matlab, and 3.7% in other rural areas). This instrument will also prove itself invaluable in assessing the individual effects of poverty-alleviation programmes or policies on all these different dimensions. PMID:17985815

Bhuiya, Abbas; Mahmood, Shehrin Shaila; Rana, A K M Masud; Wahed, Tania; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R

2007-06-01

424

A Multidimensional Approach to Measure Poverty in Rural Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Poverty is increasingly being understood as a multidimensional phenomenon. Other than income-consumption, which has been extensively studied in the past, health, education, shelter, and social involvement are among the most important dimensions of poverty. The present study attempts to develop a simple tool to measure poverty in its multidimensionality where it views poverty as an inadequate fulfillment of basic needs, such as food, clothing, shelter, health, education, and social involvement. The scale score ranges between 72 and 24 and is constructed in such a way that the score increases with increasing level of poverty. Using various techniques, the study evaluates the poverty-measurement tool and provides evidence for its reliability and validity by administering it in various areas of rural Bangladesh. The reliability coefficients, such as test-retest coefficient (0.85) and Cronbach's alpha (0.80) of the tool, were satisfactorily high. Based on the socioeconomic status defined by the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) exercise, the level of poverty identified by the scale was 33% in Chakaria, 26% in Matlab, and 32% in other rural areas of the country. The validity of these results was tested against some traditional methods of identifying the poor, and the association of the scores with that of the traditional indicators, such as ownership of land and occupation, asset index (r=0.72), and the wealth ranking obtained from the PRA exercise, was consistent. A statistically significant inverse relationship of the poverty scores with the socioeconomic status was observed in all cases. The scale also allowed the absolute level of poverty to be measured, and in the present study, the highest percentage of absolute poor was found in terms of health (44.2% in Chakaria, 36.4% in Matlab, and 39.1% in other rural areas), followed by social exclusion (35.7% in Chakaria, 28.5% in Matlab, and 22.3% in other rural areas), clothing (6.2% in Chakaria, 8.3% in Matlab, and 20% in other rural areas), education (14.7% in Chakaria, 8% in Matlab, and 16.8% in other rural areas), food (7.8% in Chakaria, 2.9% in Matlab and 3% in other rural areas), and shelter (0.8% in Chakaria, 1.4% in Matlab, and 3.7% in other rural areas). This instrument will also prove itself invaluable in assessing the individual effects of poverty-alleviation programmes or policies on all these different dimensions. PMID:17985815

Bhuiya, Abbas; Shaila Mahmood, Shehrin; Rana, A.K.M. Masud; Wahed, Tania; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Chowdhury, A. Mushtaque R.

2007-01-01

425

[Management nurses's attitudes in the family health program: view of the family health group].  

PubMed

This article was a part of a research called Management Competences required from the nurse in the Family Health Program (FHP) and has as aim to identify the management attitudes required from the nurse to the manager of the nurse assistance in the Family Health Units (FHU) of a city of the "catarinense" seashore under a perception from these professionals. It was a descrptive-exploratory study based on a semi-structured questionary for data colection. The population was constituted by 72 participants that scored from 01 and 05 to each item of the questionary. The study pointed to the emphasis in the development of new competences by the nurses that lead the reach of the performances and consequently the quality of the assistance and to the community satisfaction. PMID:17684910

Benito, Gladys Amélia Vélez; Becker, Luciana Corrêa

2007-01-01

426

Poverty reduction in Africa  

PubMed Central

Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid. PMID:17942702

Collier, Paul

2007-01-01

427

Investigating Children in Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in this sociology class will evaluate and analyze if age, race, and/or family size affect children in poverty in the United States. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 1990 Census and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Kathy Rowell

428

Factors influencing students to enroll in health information management programs.  

PubMed

This nonexperimental quantitative descriptive-correlative research study was performed to describe the sources with the greatest influence on the participants' decision to enroll in a postsecondary educational program with the intent of working toward a career in health information management. Participants were asked, "Which sources have the greatest influence on an individual's decision to enroll in a postsecondary educational program with the intent of working toward a career in health information management (HIM)?" The study population was composed of matriculated students enrolled in accredited postsecondary schools offering an undergraduate medical billing and coding program at a brick-and-mortar campus in a two-county area of a South Atlantic state. The study found that an environmental source, specifically career job opportunities, was statistically significant as the greatest source of influence for these participants. This research aims to support efforts to provide the health information management subsector of the healthcare industry with a sufficient number of trained professionals to fill the identified need for trained HIM professionals, particularly medical coding specialists. PMID:22783152

Safian, Shelley C

2012-01-01

429

IVHM Framework for Intelligent Integration for Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, this framework integrates technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear that IIVM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives. These systems include the following: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle Mission Planning, Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations.

Paris, Deidre; Trevino, Luis C.; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

430

The skills gap in hospital management in the South African public health sector.  

PubMed

A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to the transformation and reconceptualization of the public sector in South Africa into a more effective, efficient, and responsive system of health delivery. As part of the overall management development process, this research aimed to identify the skills important for public sector health management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in the South African public health sector. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Self-assessment of levels of competency showed that managers felt most competent in strategic planning, people management, and self-management, and relatively less competent in the task-related skills and their ability to deliver healthcare. People management, self-management, and task-related skills were rated as being most important, followed by strategic management and health delivery skills, respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating were for people management skills, task-related and self-management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the needs of health managers and will be useful in the conceptualization, design, and delivery of health management programs aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the public health sector in South Africa. PMID:18708881

Pillay, Rubin

2008-01-01

431

Rethinking Gendered Poverty and Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper argues for an approach to labour in gender and poverty analyses which attends to the content and character of work as fundamental to the experience of well- being by gendered persons, and to the formulation of development policies and research for poverty reduction and gender equity. A framework of ideas is proposed for consideration of working bodies

Cecile Jackson; Richard Palmer-Jones

1999-01-01

432

CHRONIC POVERTY AND SOCIAL PROTECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent perspectives on social protection focus on risk and vulnerability to poverty and attempt to integrate a wide range of interventions to prevent risk, reduce vulnerability, and ameliorate the impact of risk realisations. Risk and vulnerability contribute to poverty directly, e.g. through the depletion of productive assets from bad weather, but also through the response of poor households to risk:

Armando Barrientos; Andrew Shepherd

433

Topics at a Glance: Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of polls on public opinion regarding poverty and appropriate responses. Shows a (perhaps naive) confidence that hard work will lead to prosperity, as well as somewhat ambiguous views on appropriate government responses to poverty (for instance increased aid to the poor enjoys overwhelming support while increased "welfare" is widely opposed.

Roper Center at the University of Connecticut

434

Neighborhood Poverty and Adolescent Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted over the past decade on the effects of neighborhood and poverty on adolescent normative and nonnormative development. Our review includes a summary of studies examining the associations between neighborhood poverty and adolescent identity development followed by a review of studies…

McBride Murry, Velma; Berkel, Cady; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Nation, Maury

2011-01-01

435

POVERTY REDUCTION BY TROPICAL FORESTS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Development Index as a national poverty measure is regressed with relative forest area as a dependent variable, and with population density, and six other independent variables in 64 tropical countries. They cover 84 % of the total tropical forest area. It was found that the adopted poverty variable was strongly correlated with the relative forest area. It was assumed

Matti Palo; Erkki Lehto

436

China's (uneven) progress against poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the incidence of extreme poverty fell dramatically in China over 1980–2001, progress was uneven over time and across provinces. Rural areas accounted for the bulk of the gains to the poor, though migration to urban areas helped. Rural economic growth was far more important to national poverty reduction than urban economic growth; agriculture played a far more important role

Martin Ravallion; Shaohua Chen

2007-01-01

437

Role of Ayurveda in management of oral health  

PubMed Central

Oral diseases continue to be a major health problem world-wide. Oral health is integral to general well-being and relates to the quality-of-life that extends beyond the functions of the craniofacial complex. The standard Western medicine has had only limited success in the prevention of periodontal disease and in the treatment of a variety of oral diseases. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional medicine are considered to be good alternatives to synthetic chemicals. The botanicals in the Ayurvedic material medica have been proven to be safe and effective, through several hundred to several thousand years of use. The exploration of botanicals used in traditional medicine may lead to the development of novel preventive or therapeutic strategies for oral health. The present scientific evidence based review is focused on the possible role of Ayurveda in the management of various orofacial disorders. PMID:24600192

Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Hongal, Sudhir; Goel, Pankaj; Chandrashekar, B. R.

2014-01-01

438

[Managed care--a possibility for German Health Insurance?].  

PubMed

Health services systems in nearly all developed countries face similar problems. This fact raises the question whether concepts used in different countries can be changed without affecting the historically grown foundations of national health services as have been accepted by majority. A group of experts of the German Medical Services of the Statutory Health Insurance were asked to analyse whether the managed care approach could play a substantial role in reforming the German "Bismarck model", given that the advisory responsibility of the social medical service for the sick funds is respected in such a consideration and that basic essentials of the system are maintained. The group concludes, in brief, that managed care and the "German model" are contradictory in respect of preconditions, aims and assumed results. Furthermore, the experts share the view that the "German model" incorporates sufficient to cope with its problems without changing the nature of health services, based on principles of solidarity in Germany. The system needs structural reforms rather than changes in monetary mechanisms. PMID:10535216

Gaertner, T; von Mittelstaedt, G; Jelastopulu, E; Schwoerer, P; Niehoff, J U; Voltz, G; Krell, H; Finger, C; Knigge, W; Sambale, M; Strippel, H

1999-01-01

439

Emergency planning and management in health care: priority research topics  

PubMed Central

Many major incidents have significant impacts on people's health, placing additional demands on health-care organisations. The main aim of this paper is to suggest a prioritised agenda for organisational and management research on emergency planning and management relevant to U.K. health care, based on a scoping study. A secondary aim is to enhance knowledge and understanding of health-care emergency planning among the wider research community, by highlighting key issues and perspectives on the subject and presenting a conceptual model. The study findings have much in common with those of previous U.S.-focused scoping reviews, and with a recent U.K.-based review, confirming the relative paucity of U.K.-based research. No individual research topic scored highly on all of the key measures identified, with communities and organisations appearing to differ about which topics are the most important. Four broad research priorities are suggested: the affected public; inter- and intra-organisational collaboration; preparing responders and their organisations; and prioritisation and decision making. PMID:25013721

Boyd, Alan; Chambers, Naomi; French, Simon; Shaw, Duncan; King, Russell; Whitehead, Alison

2014-01-01

440

Poverty Measurement in the U.S., Europe, and Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In December of 2009, many within the American community of analysts, policymakers, and program managers are looking expectantly at the possibility of change in the basic measure used to gauge poverty in the United States. A broad consensus has emerged that the current official measure of poverty in the United States is deeply flawed, in the income…

Couch, Kenneth A.; Pirog, Maureen A.

2010-01-01

441

An innovative national health care waste management system in Kyrgyzstan.  

PubMed

A novel low-cost health care waste management system was implemented in all rural hospitals in Kyrgyzstan. The components of the Kyrgyz model include mechanical needle removers, segregation using autoclavable containers, safe transport and storage, autoclave treatment, documentation, recycling of sterilized plastic and metal parts, cement pits for anatomical waste, composting of garden wastes, training, equipment maintenance, and management by safety and quality committees. The gravity-displacement autoclaves were fitted with filters to remove pathogens from the air exhaust. Operating parameters for the autoclaves were determined by thermal and biological tests. A hospital survey showed an average 33% annual cost savings compared to previous costs for waste management. All general hospitals with >25 beds except in the capital Bishkek use the new system, corresponding to 67.3% of all hospital beds. The investment amounted to US$0.61 per capita covered. Acceptance of the new system by the staff, cost savings, revenues from recycled materials, documented improvements in occupational safety, capacity building, and institutionalization enhance the sustainability of the Kyrgyz health care waste management system. PMID:25649402

Toktobaev, Nurjan; Emmanuel, Jorge; Djumalieva, Gulmira; Kravtsov, Alexei; Schüth, Tobias

2015-02-01

442

Policy Management Standards Enabling Trustworthy pHealth.  

PubMed

Current paradigm changes for improving safety, quality and efficiency of care processes under massive deployment of information and communication technologies (ICT) place high requirements on privacy and security. These mainly focus on privilege management and access control harmonized in international standards and their further evolution. NIST and ISO, but especially HL7 play a prominent role in this context. Starting with classic role-based access control (RBAC) foundations to new specifications for security and privacy labeling of segmented health information, HL7 security is presented as a scalable intermediate solution on the way to comprehensive privilege management and access control by explicit, ontology-based, formal and therefore machine-processable policies. The successfully balloted HL7 labeling specification supports context-sensitive communication and cooperation between different stakeholders and processes with different purposes of use, based on meta-data of information, actors and processes involved. Basics of policy management and practical solutions are discussed. PMID:24851957

Blobel, Bernd; Davis, Mike; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

2014-01-01

443

Implications of managed care for health systems, clinicians, and patients.  

PubMed Central

The rhetoric and realities of managed care are easily confused. The rapid growth of managed care in the United States has had many implications for patients, doctors, employers, state and federal programmes, the health insurance industry, major medical institutions, medical research, and vulnerable patient populations. It has restricted patients' choice of doctors and limited access to specialists, reduced the professional autonomy and earnings of doctors, shifted power from the non-profit to the for-profit sectors and from hospitals and doctors to private corporations. It has also raised issues about the future structuring and financing of medical education and research and about practice ethics. However, managed care has also accorded greater prominence to the assessment of patient satisfaction, profiling and monitoring of doctors' work, the use of clinical guidelines and quality assurance procedures and indicated the potential to improve the integration and outcome of care. PMID:9224138

Fairfield, G.; Hunter, D. J.; Mechanic, D.; Rosleff, F.

1997-01-01

444

Poverty in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to a quantitative analysis that involves univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis, this module reinforces research terms introduced in Intro to Sociology (independent, dependent and control variables and includes the opportunity to discuss sample vs. population (in the comparison of national poverty data vs. the poverty rate in the sample) and value vs. variable (poverty as a value and a variable and the recoding of the values in the household data). The module also uses the Census website to define the concept "poverty threshold" and look at trends in poverty. Together this reinforces basic components of social science research and analysis in preparation for upper-level classes, including research methods and statistics.

Spade, Joan

445

What do we mean by 'major illness'? The need for new approaches to research on the impact of ill- health on poverty1  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely recognised that ill-health is one of the most serious challenges that many individuals, households and families have to face. But there is limited knowledge of the complex processes involved in suffering from and coping with multiple and diverse health-related challenges. Provision of support to those suffering ill-health has focused on acute illnesses which are often implicitly assumed

Henry Lucas; Shijun Ding; Gerald Bloom

2008-01-01

446

Combating infectious diseases of poverty: a year on  

PubMed Central

The Infectious Diseases of Poverty journal, launched a year ago, is a platform to engage outside the traditional disciplinary boundaries, and disseminate high quality science towards the improvement of health. This paper reviews the milestone achievements during its first year of operation. The journal has filled an important niche, addressing some of the main priorities in the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty. Highlights include the publication of three thematic issues on health systems, surveillance and response systems, as well as co-infection and syndemics. The thematic issues have foregrounded the importance and innovation that can be achieved through transdisciplinary research. The journal has been indexed by PubMed since April 2013, with the publication of a total of 38 articles. Finally, the journal is delivering to wider range readers both in developing and developed countries with sustained efforts with a focus on relevant and strategic information towards elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. PMID:24246007

2013-01-01

447

Rethinking health: ICT-enabled services to empower people to manage their health.  

PubMed

Lifestyle is a key determinant in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. If we would exercise regularly, eat healthy, control our weight, sleep enough, manage stress, not smoke and use alcohol only moderately, 90% of type II diabetes, 80% of coronary heart disease, and 70% of stroke could be prevented. Health statistics show that lifestyle related diseases are increasing at an alarming rate. Public health promotion campaigns and healthcare together are not effective enough to stop this "tsunami". The solution that is offered is to empower people to manage their health with the assistance of ICT-enabled services. A lot of R&D and engineering effort is being invested in Personal Health Systems. Although some progress has been made, the market for such systems has not yet emerged. The aim of this critical review is to identify the barriers which are holding back the growth of the market. It looks into the theoretical foundations of behavior change support, the maturity of the technologies for behavior change support, and the business context in which behavior change support systems are used. PMID:22273795

Honka, Anita; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Hietala, Henri; Saranummi, Niilo

2011-01-01

448

Managing Costs, Managing Benefits: Employer Decisions in Local Health Care Markets  

PubMed Central

Objectives To better understand employer health benefit decision making, how employer health benefits strategies evolve over time, and the impact of employer decisions on local health care systems. Data Sources/Study Setting. Data were collected as part of the Community Tracking Study (CTS), a longitudinal analysis of health system change in 12 randomly selected communities. Study Design This is an observational study with data collection over a six-year period. Data Collection/Extraction Methods The study used semistructured interviews with local respondents, combined with monitoring of local media, to track changes in health care systems over time and their impact on community residents. Interviewing began in 1996 and was carried out at two-year intervals, with a total of approximately 2,200 interviews. The interviews provided a variety of perspectives on employer decision making concerning health benefits; these perspectives were triangulated to reach conclusions. Principal Findings The tight labor market during the study period was the dominant consideration in employer decision making regarding health benefits. Employers, in managing employee compensation, made independent decisions in pursuit of individual goals, but these decisions were shaped by similar labor market conditions. As a result, within and across our study sites, employer decisions in aggregate had an important impact on local health care systems, although employers' more highly visible public efforts to bring about health system change often met with disappointing results. Conclusions General economic conditions in the 1990s had an important impact on the configuration of local health systems through their effect on employer decision making regarding health benefits offered to employees, and the responses of health plans and providers to those decisions. PMID:12650371

Christianson, Jon B; Trude, Sally

2003-01-01

449

An Assessment of Integrated Health Management (IHM) Frameworks  

SciTech Connect

In order to meet the ever increasing demand for energy, the United States nuclear industry is turning to life extension of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs). Economically ensuring the safe, secure, and reliable operation of aging nuclear power plants presents many challenges. The 2009 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop identified online monitoring of active and structural components as essential to the better understanding and management of the challenges posed by aging nuclear power plants. Additionally, there is increasing adoption of condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components in NPPs. These techniques provide a foundation upon which a variety of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic, and prognostic techniques can be deployed to continuously monitor and assess the health of NPP systems and components. The next step in the development of advanced online monitoring is to move beyond CBM to estimating the remaining useful life of active components using prognostic tools. Deployment of prognostic health management (PHM) on the scale of a NPP requires the use of an integrated health management (IHM) framework - a software product (or suite of products) used to manage the necessary elements needed for a complete implementation of online monitoring and prognostics. This paper provides a thoughtful look at the desirable functions and features of IHM architectures. A full PHM system involves several modules, including data acquisition, system modeling, fault detection, fault diagnostics, system prognostics, and advisory generation (operations and maintenance planning). The standards applicable to PHM applications are indentified and summarized. A list of evaluation criteria for PHM software products, developed to ensure scalability of the toolset to an environment with the complexity of a NPP, is presented. Fourteen commercially available PHM software products are identified and classified into four groups: research tools, PHM system development tools, deployable architectures, and peripheral tools.

N. Lybeck; M. Tawfik; L. Bond; J. Coble

2012-05-01

450

Health economics of weight management: evidence and cost.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization estimates that around one billion people throughout the world are overweight and that over 300 million of these are obese and if current trends continue, the number of overweight persons will increase to 1.5 billion by 2015. The number of obese adults in Australia is estimated to have risen from 2.0 million in 1992/93 to 3.1 million in 2005. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing due to a convergence of factors--the rise of TV viewing, our preference for takeaway and pre-prepared foods, the trend towards more computer-bound sedentary jobs, and fewer opportunities for sport and physical exercise. Obesity is not only linked to lack of self esteem, social and work discrimination, but also to illnesses such as the metabolic syndrome and hyperinsulinaemia (which increases the risk of developing heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, fatty liver), cancer, asthma, dementia, arthritis and kidney disease. It has been estimated that the cost of obesity in Australia in 2005 was $1,721 million. Of this amount, $1,084 million were direct health costs, and $637 million indirect health costs (due to lost work productivity, absenteeism and unemployment). The prevalence cost per year for each obese adult has been estimated at $554 and the value of an obesity cure is about $6,903 per obese person. Government efforts at reducing the burden remain inadequate and a more radical approach is needed. The Australian government, for example, has made changes to Medicare so that GPs can refer people with chronic illness due to obesity to an exercise physiologist and dietitian and receive a Medicare rebate, but so far these measures are having no perceptible effect on obesity levels. There is a growing recognition that both Public Health and Clinical approaches, and Private and Public resources, need to be brought to this growing problem. Australian health economist, Paul Gross, from the Institute of Health Economics and Technology Assessment claims there is too much reliance on health workers to treat the problem, especially doctors, who have not been given additional resources to manage obesity outside a typical doctor's consultation. Gross has recommended that further changes should be made to Medicare, private health insurance, and workplace and tax legislation to give people financial incentives to change their behaviour because obesity should not just be treated by governments as a public health problem but also as a barrier to productivity and a drain on resources. A Special Report of the WMCACA (Weight Management Code Administration Council of Australia) (www.weightcouncil.org) on the "Health Economics of Weight Management" has been published in the Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition in September 2006. This report explores the cost benefit analysis of weight management in greater detail. PMID:17392129

Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Wahlqvist, Mark L

2007-01-01

451

Agricultural Pesticide Management in Thailand: Situation and Population Health Risk  

PubMed Central

As an agricultural country and one of the world’s major food exporters, Thailand relies heavily on the use of pesticides to protect crops and increase yields. During the past decade, the Kingdom of Thailand has experienced an approximate four-fold increase in pesticide use. This increase presents a challenge for the Royal Thai Government in effectively managing and controlling pesticide use based upon the current policies and legal infrastructure. We have reviewed several key components for managing agricultural pesticides in Thailand. One of the main obstacles to effective pesticide regulation in Thailand is the lack of a consolidated, uniform system designed specifically for pesticide management. This deficit has weakened the enforcement of existing regulations, resulting in misuse/overuse of pesticides, and consequently, increased environmental contamination and human exposure. This article provides a systematic review of how agricultural pesticides are regulated in Thailand. In addition, we provide our perspectives on the current state of pesticide management, the potential health effects of widespread, largely uncontrolled use of pesticides on the Thai people and ways to improve pesticide management in Thailand. PMID:22308095

Panuwet, Parinya; Siriwong, Wattasit; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Ryan, P. Barry; Fiedler, Nancy; Robson, Mark G.; Barr, Dana Boyd

2012-01-01

452

News from the Health Services Administration Alumni Chapter Fall 2008 Department of Health Management and Informatics College of Health and Public Affairs  

E-print Network

Management and Informatics · College of Health and Public Affairs in the College of Health and Public Affairs for health services administration graduate students. Scholarships of development and alumni relations for the College of Health and Public Affairs, at (407) 823-1600 or kkorkosz

Wu, Shin-Tson

453

From a traditional behavioral management program to an m-health app: Lessons learned in developing m-health apps for existing health care programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

M-health applications provide a unique new way to deliver healthcare. Developing m-health applications involves new challenges different from those encountered when developing traditional healthcare programs and e-health applications. This paper describes the development of an m-health application for behavioral migraine management, and presents lessons learned during the development process from software engineers' perspective.

Qing Zhu; Chang Liu; Kenneth A. Holroyd

2012-01-01

454

Managed Mental Health Care: A History of the Federal Policy Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Act of 1973, which sought to balance quality health care against cost-containment efforts, gave rise to the rapid growth of managed health care systems, especially HMOs. This article traces the legislative history of HMOs, the inclusion of mental health care benefits, the recognition of psychologists under Medicare law as autonomous health care providers, and other

Patrick H. DeLeon; Gary R. VandenBos; Elizabeth Q. Bulatao

1991-01-01

455

Master's Degree in Agriculture Plant Health Management Option Option Title: Master of Science (MS) in Agriculture: Plant Health  

E-print Network

Master's Degree in Agriculture ­ Plant Health Management Option Option Title: Master of Science (MS) in Agriculture: Plant Health Management Department(s) or Program(s): Supported of Agricultural, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences (CAHNRS) Contact Name: Dr. Kim Kidwell, Director MS