Science.gov

Sample records for power cranes draglines

  1. Dust control for draglines

    SciTech Connect

    Grad, P.

    2009-09-15

    Monitoring dust levels inside draglines reveals room for improvement in how filtration systems are used and maintained. The Australian firm BMT conducted a field test program to measure airflow parameters, dust fallout rates and dust concentrations, inside and outside the machine house, on four draglines and one shovel. The study involved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The article describes how the tests were made and gives results. It was not possible to say which of the two main filtration systems currently used on Australian draglines - Dynavane or Floseps - performs better. It would appear that more frequent maintenance and cleaning would increase the overall filtration performance and systems could be susceptible to repeat clogging in a short time. 2 figs., 1 photos.

  2. A dragline-forming mobile robot inspired by spiders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyu; Culha, Utku; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-03-01

    Mobility of wheeled or legged machines can be significantly increased if they are able to move from a solid surface into a three-dimensional space. Although that may be achieved by addition of flying mechanisms, the payload fraction will be the limiting factor in such hybrid mobile machines for many applications. Inspired by spiders producing draglines to assist locomotion, the paper proposes an alternative mobile technology where a robot achieves locomotion from a solid surface into a free space. The technology resembles the dragline production pathway in spiders to a technically feasible degree and enables robots to move with thermoplastic spinning of draglines. As an implementation, a mobile robot has been prototyped with thermoplastic adhesives as source material of the draglines. Experimental results show that a dragline diameter range of 1.17-5.27 mm was achievable by the 185 g mobile robot in descending locomotion from the solid surface of a hanging structure with a power consumption of 4.8 W and an average speed of 5.13 cm min(-1). With an open-loop controller consisting of sequences of discrete events, the robot has demonstrated repeatable dragline formation with a relative deviation within -4% and a length close to the metre scale. PMID:24434546

  3. Dragline noise survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Bauer, Eric R.

    2002-05-01

    It is estimated that 70%-90% of miners have enough noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) to be classified as a disability (NIOSH, Publication No. 76-172, 1976; Franks, NIOSH Internal Report, 1996). In response, NIOSH is conducting a cross-sectional survey of the mining industry in order to determine the sources of mining noise and offer recommendations on how to mitigate high noise levels, and bring mining operations into compliance with the recent mining noise regulation: 30CFR, Part 62. This paper will outline the results from noise surveys of eight draglines which operate in above-ground coal mining operations. The data recorded include noise dosimetry in conjunction with time-at-task studies and 1/3-octave sound level (Leq, Lmin, and Lmax) measurements. The 1/3-octave band readings were used to create noise contour maps which allowed the spatial and frequency information of the noise to be considered. Comparison of Lmin and Lmax levels offer insight into the variability of the noise levels inside the dragline. The potential for administrative controls is limited due to consistently high noise levels throughout the deck. Implementation of engineering controls is also hindered by the size and number of the noise sources and the frequency content of the noise.

  4. Controls and protective devices for d-c constant potential crane power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Boldt, A.E. ); Gomez, H.R. )

    1993-07-01

    Many changes have taken place in the American steel industry in recent years. Improvements in the efficiency of processes and systems are noticeable in all areas. To compete in the world market, older, less efficient mills and processes have been eliminated in favor of the new and more efficient. This drive for improvement has been noticeable in the area of electric overhead traveling cranes. Older, obsolete electrical equipment has been replaced by newer, more efficient systems. Improvements in collector systems and use of festooned systems has changed the characteristics of the typical soft d-c crane power supply. The 230-v or less d-c utilization voltage on cranes has now become 250 v (or higher) in many mills. The one large resistive element (ie, collectors, m-g sets, etc) in crane power distribution systems has all but disappeared. The changes in d-c crane power supplies have resulted in the need for changes in protection and in the design of traditional d-c constant potential controls. Higher fault currents are now available, and the 10 to 15 ms inductive time constant, traditionally used to determine the interrupting rating of protective devices (such as fuses and circuit breaker) may no longer be adequate. In addition, constant potential controls designed for 230 v may experience problems at voltages higher than 250 v d-c. This paper will discuss these problems and possible solutions involving testing of protective devices and changes to the traditional d-c crane control system.

  5. Blast optimization for improved dragline productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.; Baldwin, G.

    1994-12-31

    A project aimed at blast optimization for large open pit coal mines is utilizing blast monitoring and analysis techniques, advanced dragline monitoring equipment, and blast simulation software, to assess the major controlling factors affecting both blast performance and subsequent dragline productivity. This has involved collaborative work between the explosives supplier, mine operator, monitoring equipment manufacturer, and a mining research organization. The results from trial blasts and subsequently monitored dragline production have yielded promising results and continuing studies are being conducted as part of a blast optimization program. It should be stressed that the optimization of blasting practices for improved dragline productivity is a site specific task, achieved through controlled and closely monitored procedures. The benefits achieved at one location can not be simply transferred to another minesite unless similar improvement strategies are first implemented.

  6. Virtual reality for dragline planners

    SciTech Connect

    Cobcroft, T.

    2007-03-15

    3d-Dig as an invaluable mine planning and communication tool, developed by Earth Technology Pty Ltd., that makes it possible to easily communicate a mine plan through the use of animations and other graphics. An Australian company has been using it to plan in-detail pits and strips for up to five years in advance; a US operator is using it to optimise dragline stripping around inside corners and to accurately plan the traverse of ramps. The new system offers a better predication of rehandled volumes, linear coal advance and dig time within a strip. It is useful for optimising waste stripping and timing of uncovered coal to enhance blending and shipping reliability. It presents volumetric, spoil placement and positioning data while generating animations that communicate the plan. 5 figs.

  7. NIOSH alert: Request for assistance in preventing electrocutions of crane operators and crew members working near overhead power lines

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    In this alert, NIOSH warned that crane operators and crew members may be electrocuted when working near overhead power lines. Five cases were described which resulted in six electrocutions. Case 1 involved a 29 year old who pushed the crane cable on a 1 yard cement bucket into a 7,200 volt power line. Case 2 involved a 33 year old well driller who was electrocuted when a metal pipe lifted by a truck mounted crane contacted a 12,000 volt overhead power line. The third case involved a 24 year old forman for a telecommunications company who was electrocuted when he grabbed the door handle of a truck mounted crane whose boom was in contact with a 7,200 volt overhead power line. Case 4 involved a 37 year old construction laborer electrocuted while pulling a wire rope attached to a crane cable toward a load. The fifth case involved a 20 year old male truck driver and his 70 year old male employer who were electrocuted when the boom of a truck mounted crane contacted a 7,200 volt conductor of an overhead power line.

  8. 30 CFR 77.409 - Shovels, draglines, and tractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shovels, draglines, and tractors. 77.409... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.409 Shovels, draglines, and tractors. (a) Shovels, draglines, and tractors shall not be operated in the presence of any person exposed to a hazard from...

  9. Dragline mining returns to western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-05-15

    Armstrong Coal Co. now owns three Page draglines-one now operating at the Midway Surface mine, one due to go into operation at the Equality surface mine and a third that is being rebuilt also for use there. Armstrong is banking on the economics of scale to once again prove that these older machines are still the most efficient way to move large volumes of overburden. 4 photos.

  10. 14. DRAGLINE BEGINNING CONSTRUCTION OF THE BYPASS CHANNEL CONNECTING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DRAGLINE BEGINNING CONSTRUCTION OF THE BY-PASS CHANNEL CONNECTING THE DIVERSION GATE ALONG THE OUTLET CHANNEL WITH THE ORIGINAL CHANNEL OF THE SOURIS RIVER - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  11. 5. Monighan dragline at work in the Salt River at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Monighan dragline at work in the Salt River at Mormon Flat. Photographer unknown, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. Nonhunting mortality in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Records of 170 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) necropsied at the National Wildlife Health Research Center, Wisconsin, from 1976 through 1985 were reviewed as representative samples to determine causes of nonhunting mortality in the mid-continent and Rocky Mountain populations of sandhill cranes. Avian cholera, avian botulism, and ingestion of mycotoxins were leading causes of nonhunting mortality. Hailstorms, lightning, lead poisoning, predation, avian tuberculosis, and collisions with power lines also killed cranes.

  13. Diverse formulas for spider dragline fibers demonstrated by molecular and mechanical characterization of spitting spider silk.

    PubMed

    Correa-Garhwal, Sandra M; Garb, Jessica E

    2014-12-01

    Spider silks have outstanding mechanical properties. Most research has focused on dragline silk proteins (major ampullate spidroins, MaSps) from orb-weaving spiders. Using silk gland expression libraries from the haplogyne spider Scytodes thoracica, we discovered two novel spidroins (S. thoracica fibroin 1 and 2). The amino acid composition of S. thoracica silk glands and dragline fibers suggest that fibroin 1 is the major component of S. thoracica dragline silk. Fibroin 1 is dominated by glycine-alanine motifs, and lacks sequence motifs associated with orb-weaver MaSps. We hypothesize fibroin 2 is a piriform or aciniform silk protein, based on amino acid composition, spigot morphology, and phylogenetic analyses. S. thoracica's dragline silk is less tough than previously reported, but is still comparable to other dragline silks. Our analyses suggest that dragline silk proteins evolved multiple times. This demonstrates that spider dragline silk is more diverse than previously understood, providing alternative high performance silk designs. PMID:25340514

  14. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARD DRAGLINE WHICH IS STRIPPING OVERBURDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARD DRAGLINE WHICH IS STRIPPING OVERBURDEN AND RELOCATING IT TO THE OTHER SIDE OF THE PIT. IN LEDGE BELOW THIS OPERATION A FRONT END LOADER SCOOPS COAL INTO TRUCKS. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

  15. Smart crane ammunition transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Killough, S.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System (SCATS) project is to demonstrate robotic/telerobotic controls technology for a mobile articulated crane for missile/ munitions handling, delivery, and reload. Missile resupply and reload have been manually intensive operations up to this time. Currently, reload missiles are delivered by truck to the site of the launcher. A crew of four to five personnel reloads the missiles from the truck to the launcher using a hydraulic-powered crane. The missiles are handled carefully for the safety of the missiles and personnel. Numerous steps are required in the reload process and the entire reload operation can take over 1 h for some missile systems. Recent U.S. Army directives require the entire operation to be accomplished in a fraction of that time. Current requirements for the development of SCATS are being based primarily on reloading Patriot missiles. The planned development approach will integrate robotic control and sensor technology with a commercially available hydraulic articulated crane. SCATS is being developed with commercially available hardware as much as possible. Development plans include adding a 3-D.F. end effector with a grapple to the articulating crane; closed-loop position control for the crane and end effector; digital microprocessor control of crane functions; simplified operator interface; and operating modes which include rectilinear movement, obstacle avoidance, and partial automated operation. The planned development will include progressive technology demonstrations. Ultimate plans are for this technology to be transferred and utilized in the military fielding process.

  16. Crane hoisting monitoring using smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Jiao, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Shunde; Yu, Yan

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, smart phone develops very fast, and it has been the most popular tool in daily life of the public. Smart phones, with powerful operating systems, data storage and processing function, varieties of high-performance sensors and easily data transmission when connected to network, are the good choice for structures status monitoring in some occasion. One kind of hoisting monitoring method was proposed in this paper based on smartphone and Monitoring App developed. Firstly, one monitoring App was designed and developed, which can monitor the acceleration and inclination information using MEMS sensors embedded in smartphone. Secondly, typical operation status model of crane hoisting was studied. Then one validation test of hoisting was designed and conducted to monitor the acceleration and inclination of different elements during the operation procedure of one crane. The test results show the feasibility of the crane hoisting safety monitoring method using smartphone.

  17. Supercontraction forces in spider dragline silk depend on hydration rate.

    PubMed

    Agnarsson, Ingi; Boutry, Cecilia; Wong, Shing-Chung; Baji, Avinash; Dhinojwala, Ali; Sensenig, Andrew T; Blackledge, Todd A

    2009-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a model biological polymer for biomimetic research due to its many desirable and unusual properties. 'Supercontraction' describes the dramatic shrinking of dragline silk fibers when wetted. In restrained silk fibers, supercontraction generates substantial stresses of 40-50 MPa above a critical humidity of approximately 70% relative humidity (RH). This stress may maintain tension in webs under the weight of rain or dew and could be used in industry for robotics, sensor technology, and other applications. Our own findings indicate that supercontraction can generate stress over a much broader range than previously reported, from 10 to 140 MPa. Here we show that this variation in supercontraction stress depends upon the rate at which the environment reaches the critical level of humidity causing supercontraction. Slow humidity increase, over several minutes, leads to relatively low supercontraction stress, while fast humidity increase, over a few seconds, typically results in higher supercontraction stress. Slowly supercontracted fibers take up less water and differ in thermostability from rapidly supercontracted fibers, as shown by thermogravimetric analysis. This suggests that spider silk achieves different molecular configurations depending upon the speed at which supercontraction occurs. Ultimately, rate-dependent supercontraction may provide a mechanism to tailor the properties of silk or biomimetic fibers for various applications. PMID:19477107

  18. Coccidia of whooping cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forrester, Donald J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Blankinship, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Coccidial oocysts were observed in 6 of 19 fecal samples from free-ranging whooping cranes (Grus americana) and 4 of 16 samples from captive whooping cranes. Eimeria gruis occurred in four free-ranging whooping cranes and E. reichenowi in two free-ranging and two captive whooping cranes. Fecal samples from two captive cranes contained oocysts of Isospora lacazei which was considered a spurious parasite. Oocysts of both species of Eimeria were prevalent in fecal samples collected from three free-ranging Canadian sandhill cranes (G. canadensis rowani) from whooping crane wintering grounds in Texas. These coccidia were prevalent also in fecal samples from 14 sandhill cranes (of 4 subspecies) maintained in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland.

  19. Cryopreservation of crane semen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    The method for the cryopreservation of crane semen at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center is described in detail. Cryopreservation is useful for the long-term storage of crane semen and for specialized propagation needs. A 50% fertility rate from most sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis, inseminated with frozen-thawed semen can be expected. Additional research should improve the fertility rate and determine how applicable the technique is to other crane species.

  20. 46 CFR 107.309 - Crane plans and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... power failure. Note to § 107.309(a)(4): These plans must be submitted to the Coast Guard, if the crane...) One line diagrams of the electrical power circuits of the electric power crane overload protection required in Subpart 111.50 of this chapter. (2) Diagrams of the hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  1. Total X-Ray Scattering of Spider Dragline Silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmore, C. J.; Izdebski, T.; Yarger, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Total x-ray scattering measurements of spider dragline silk fibers from Nephila clavipes, Argiope aurantia, and Latrodectus hesperus all yield similar structure factors, with only small variations between the different species. Wide-angle x-ray scattering from fibers orientated perpendicular to the beam shows a high degree of anisotropy, and differential pair distribution functions obtained by integrating over wedges of the equatorial and meridian planes indicate that, on average, the majority (95%) of the atom-atom correlations do not extend beyond 1 nm. Futhermore, the atom-atom correlations between 1 and 3 nm are not associated with the most intense diffraction peaks at Q=1-2Å-1. Disordered molecular orientations along the fiber axis are consistent with proteins in similar structural arrangements to those in the equatorial plane, which may be associated with the silk’s greater flexibility in this direction.

  2. 4. Overview at top of crane showing crane bridge and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Overview at top of crane showing crane bridge and south truss full length, looking south east. - General Dynamics Corporation Shipyard, XYZ Crane & Towers, 97 East Howard Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  3. Crane and Excavator Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on crane and excavator operation is designed to enable the crane and excavator operator to perform his/her duties more proficiently. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students, a course introduction, and a study guide…

  4. Dragline silk: a fiber assembled with low-molecular-weight cysteine-rich proteins.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thanh; Chuang, Tyler; Lin, Albert; Joo, Hyun; Tsai, Jerry; Crawford, Taylor; Zhao, Liang; Williams, Caroline; Hsia, Yang; Vierra, Craig

    2014-11-10

    Dragline silk has been proposed to contain two main protein constituents, MaSp1 and MaSp2. However, the mechanical properties of synthetic spider silks spun from recombinant MaSp1 and MaSp2 proteins have yet to approach natural fibers, implying the natural spinning dope is missing critical factors. Here we report the discovery of novel molecular constituents within the spinning dope that are extruded into dragline silk. Protein studies of the liquid spinning dope from the major ampullate gland, coupled with the analysis of dragline silk fibers using mass spectrometry, demonstrate the presence of a new family of low-molecular-weight cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) that colocalize with the MA fibroins. Expression of the CRP family members is linked to dragline silk production, specifically MaSp1 and MaSp2 mRNA synthesis. Biochemical data support that CRP molecules are secreted into the spinning dope and assembled into macromolecular complexes via disulfide bond linkages. Sequence analysis supports that CRP molecules share similarities to members that belong to the cystine slipknot superfamily, suggesting that these factors may have evolved to increase fiber toughness by serving as molecular hubs that dissipate large amounts of energy under stress. Collectively, our findings provide molecular details about the components of dragline silk, providing new insight that will advance materials development of synthetic spider silk for industrial applications. PMID:25259849

  5. High-Toughness Silk Produced by a Transgenic Silkworm Expressing Spider (Araneus ventricosus) Dragline Silk Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

    2014-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4–2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

  6. Lunar crane system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In many lunar construction scenarios, mechanical cranes in some form will be indispensible in moving large masses around with various degrees of fine positioning. While thorough experience exists in the use of terrestrial cranes new thinking is required about the design of cranes to be used in extraterrestrial construction. The primary driving force for this new thinking is the need to automate the crane system so that space cranes can be operated as telerobotic machines with a large number of automatic capabilities. This is true because in extraterrestrial construction human resources will need to be critically rationed. The design problems of mechanisms and control systems for a lunar crane must deal with at least two areas of performance. First, the automated crane must be capable of maneuvering a large mass, so that when the mass arrives at the target position there are only small vibrations. Secondly, any residue vibrations must be automatically damped out and a fine positioning must be achieved. For extraterrestrial use there are additional challenges to a crane design - for example, to design a crane system so that it can be transformed for other construction uses. This initial project in crane design does not address such additional issues, although they may be the subject of future CSC research. To date the Center has designed and analyzed many mechanisms. The fundamental problem of trade-offs between passively stabilizing the load and actively controlling the load by actuators was extensively studied. The capability of 3D dynamics modeling now exists for such studies. A scaled model of a lunar crane was set up and it has been most fruitful in providing basic understanding of lunar cranes. Due to an interesting scaling match-up, this scaled model exhibits the load vibration frequencies one would expect in the real lunar case. Using the analytical results achieved to date, a laboratory crane system is now being developed as a test bed for verifying a wide

  7. Characterization of the protein components of Nephila clavipes dragline silk.

    PubMed

    Sponner, Alexander; Schlott, Bernhard; Vollrath, Fritz; Unger, Eberhard; Grosse, Frank; Weisshart, Klaus

    2005-03-29

    Spider silk is predominantly composed of structural proteins called spider fibroins or spidroins. The major ampullate silk that forms the dragline and the cobweb's frame threads of Nephila clavipes is believed to be a composite of two spidroins, designated as Masp 1 and 2. Specific antibodies indeed revealed the presence of Masp 1 and 2 specific epitopes in the spinning dope and solubilized threads. In contrast, sequencing of specific peptides obtained from solubilized threads or gland urea extracts were exclusively homologous to segments of Masp 1, suggesting that this protein is more abundantly expressed in silk than Masp 2. The strength of immunoreactivities corroborated this finding. Polypeptides reactive against both Masp 1 and 2 specific antibodies were found to be expressed in the epithelia of the tail and different gland zones and accumulated in the gland secreted material. Both extracts of gland secretion and solubilized threads showed a ladder of polypeptides in the size range of 260-320 kDa in gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, whereas gel filtration chromatography yielded molecular masses of the proteins of approximately 300-350 kDa. In the absence of a reducing agent, dimeric forms of the spidroins were observed with estimated molecular masses of 420-480 kDa according to gel electrophoresis and 550-650 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography. Depending on the preparation, some silk material readily underwent degradation, and polypeptides down to 20 kDa in size and less were detectable. PMID:15779899

  8. Viscous Friction between Crystalline and Amorphous Phase of Dragline Silk

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sandeep P.; Xiao, Senbo; Gkagkas, Konstantinos; Markert, Bernd; Gräter, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    The hierarchical structure of spider dragline silk is composed of two major constituents, the amorphous phase and crystalline units, and its mechanical response has been attributed to these prime constituents. Silk mechanics, however, might also be influenced by the resistance against sliding of these two phases relative to each other under load. We here used atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to obtain friction forces for the relative sliding of the amorphous phase and crystalline units of Araneus diadematus spider silk. We computed the coefficient of viscosity of this interface to be in the order of 102 Ns/m2 by extrapolating our simulation data to the viscous limit. Interestingly, this value is two orders of magnitude smaller than the coefficient of viscosity within the amorphous phase. This suggests that sliding along a planar and homogeneous surface of straight polyalanine chains is much less hindered than within entangled disordered chains. Finally, in a simple finite element model, which is based on parameters determined from MD simulations including the newly deduced coefficient of viscosity, we assessed the frictional behavior between these two components for the experimental range of relative pulling velocities. We found that a perfectly relative horizontal motion has no significant resistance against sliding, however, slightly inclined loading causes measurable resistance. Our analysis paves the way towards a finite element model of silk fibers in which crystalline units can slide, move and rearrange themselves in the fiber during loading. PMID:25119288

  9. Hybrid carbon nanotube yarn artificial muscle inspired by spider dragline silk.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Hyeong Kim, Shi; Kyoon Shin, Min; Hoon Kwon, Cheong; Park, Jihwang; Tae Kim, Youn; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Lima, Márcio D; Haines, Carter S; Baughman, Ray H; Jeong Kim, Seon

    2014-01-01

    Torsional artificial muscles generating fast, large-angle rotation have been recently demonstrated, which exploit the helical configuration of twist-spun carbon nanotube yarns. These wax-infiltrated, electrothermally powered artificial muscles are torsionally underdamped, thereby experiencing dynamic oscillations that complicate positional control. Here, using the strategy spiders deploy to eliminate uncontrolled spinning at the end of dragline silk, we have developed ultrafast hybrid carbon nanotube yarn muscles that generated a 9,800 r.p.m. rotation without noticeable oscillation. A high-loss viscoelastic material, comprising paraffin wax and polystyrene-poly(ethylene-butylene)-polystyrene copolymer, was used as yarn guest to give an overdamped dynamic response. Using more than 10-fold decrease in mechanical stabilization time, compared with previous nanotube yarn torsional muscles, dynamic mirror positioning that is both fast and accurate is demonstrated. Scalability to provide constant volumetric torsional work capacity is demonstrated over a 10-fold change in yarn cross-sectional area, which is important for upscaled applications. PMID:24557457

  10. Hybrid carbon nanotube yarn artificial muscle inspired by spider dragline silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Hyeong Kim, Shi; Kyoon Shin, Min; Hoon Kwon, Cheong; Park, Jihwang; Tae Kim, Youn; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Lima, Márcio D.; Haines, Carter S.; Baughman, Ray H.; Jeong Kim, Seon

    2014-02-01

    Torsional artificial muscles generating fast, large-angle rotation have been recently demonstrated, which exploit the helical configuration of twist-spun carbon nanotube yarns. These wax-infiltrated, electrothermally powered artificial muscles are torsionally underdamped, thereby experiencing dynamic oscillations that complicate positional control. Here, using the strategy spiders deploy to eliminate uncontrolled spinning at the end of dragline silk, we have developed ultrafast hybrid carbon nanotube yarn muscles that generated a 9,800 r.p.m. rotation without noticeable oscillation. A high-loss viscoelastic material, comprising paraffin wax and polystyrene-poly(ethylene-butylene)-polystyrene copolymer, was used as yarn guest to give an overdamped dynamic response. Using more than 10-fold decrease in mechanical stabilization time, compared with previous nanotube yarn torsional muscles, dynamic mirror positioning that is both fast and accurate is demonstrated. Scalability to provide constant volumetric torsional work capacity is demonstrated over a 10-fold change in yarn cross-sectional area, which is important for upscaled applications.

  11. 46 CFR 108.601 - Crane design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crane design. 108.601 Section 108.601 Shipping COAST... Cranes Cranes § 108.601 Crane design. (a) Each crane and crane foundation on a unit must be designed in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute Specification for Offshore Cranes, API Spec. 2C,...

  12. 46 CFR 108.601 - Crane design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crane design. 108.601 Section 108.601 Shipping COAST... Cranes Cranes § 108.601 Crane design. (a) Each crane and crane foundation on a unit must be designed in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute Specification for Offshore Cranes, API Spec. 2C,...

  13. 46 CFR 108.601 - Crane design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crane design. 108.601 Section 108.601 Shipping COAST... Cranes Cranes § 108.601 Crane design. (a) Each crane and crane foundation on a unit must be designed in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute Specification for Offshore Cranes, API Spec. 2C,...

  14. 46 CFR 108.601 - Crane design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crane design. 108.601 Section 108.601 Shipping COAST... Cranes Cranes § 108.601 Crane design. (a) Each crane and crane foundation on a unit must be designed in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute Specification for Offshore Cranes, API Spec. 2C,...

  15. 46 CFR 108.601 - Crane design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crane design. 108.601 Section 108.601 Shipping COAST... Cranes Cranes § 108.601 Crane design. (a) Each crane and crane foundation on a unit must be designed in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute Specification for Offshore Cranes, API Spec. 2C,...

  16. Complex gene expression in the dragline silk producing glands of the Western black widow (Latrodectus hesperus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Orb-web and cob-web weaving spiders spin dragline silk fibers that are among the strongest materials known. Draglines are primarily composed of MaSp1 and MaSp2, two spidroins (spider fibrous proteins) expressed in the major ampullate (MA) silk glands. Prior genetic studies of dragline silk have focused mostly on determining the sequence of these spidroins, leaving other genetic aspects of silk synthesis largely uncharacterized. Results Here, we used deep sequencing to profile gene expression patterns in the Western black widow, Latrodectus hesperus. We sequenced millions of 3′-anchored “tags” of cDNAs derived either from MA glands or control tissue (cephalothorax) mRNAs, then associated the tags with genes by compiling a reference database from our newly constructed normalized L. hesperus cDNA library and published L. hesperus sequences. We were able to determine transcript abundance and alternative polyadenylation of each of three loci encoding MaSp1. The ratio of MaSp1:MaSp2 transcripts varied between individuals, but on average was similar to the estimated ratio of MaSp1:MaSp2 in dragline fibers. We also identified transcription of TuSp1 in MA glands, another spidroin family member that encodes the primary component of egg-sac silk, synthesized in tubuliform glands. In addition to the spidroin paralogs, we identified 30 genes that are more abundantly represented in MA glands than cephalothoraxes and represent new candidates for involvement in spider silk synthesis. Conclusions Modulating expression rates of MaSp1 variants as well as MaSp2 and TuSp1 could lead to differences in mechanical properties of dragline fibers. Many of the newly identified candidate genes likely encode secreted proteins, suggesting they could be incorporated into dragline fibers or assist in protein processing and fiber assembly. Our results demonstrate previously unrecognized transcript complexity in spider silk glands. PMID:24295234

  17. Fatigueless response of spider draglines in cyclic torsion facilitated by reversible molecular deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, Kamal P.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate that spider draglines exhibit a fatigueless response in extreme cyclic torsion up to its breaking limit. The well defined Raman bands at 1095 and 1245 cm-1 shifted linearly towards lower wavenumbers versus increasing twist in both clockwise and counter-clockwise directions. Under thousands of continuous loading cycles of twist strain approaching its breaking limit, all the Raman bands were preserved and the characteristic Raman peak shifts were found to be reversible. Besides, nanoscale surface profile of the worked silk appeared as good as the pristine silk. This unique fatigueless twist response of draglines, facilitated by reversible deformation of protein molecules, could find applications in durable miniatured devices.

  18. CRANE POSITIONING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Landsiedel, F.W.; Wolff, H.

    1960-06-28

    An apparatus is described for automatically accomplishing the final accurate horizontal positioning of a crane after the latter has been placed to within 1/8 in. of its selected position. For this purpose there is provided a tiltable member on the crane mast for lowering into contact with a stationary probe. Misalignment of the tiltable member, with respect to the probe as the member is lowered, causes tilting of the latter to actuate appropriate switches that energize motors for bringing the mast into proper position. When properly aligned the member is not tilted and a central switch is actuated to indicate the final alignment of the crane.

  19. Rotating shielded crane system

    DOEpatents

    Commander, John C.

    1988-01-01

    A rotating, radiation shielded crane system for use in a high radiation test cell, comprises a radiation shielding wall, a cylindrical ceiling made of radiation shielding material and a rotatable crane disposed above the ceiling. The ceiling rests on an annular ledge intergrally attached to the inner surface of the shielding wall. Removable plugs in the ceiling provide access for the crane from the top of the ceiling into the test cell. A seal is provided at the interface between the inner surface of the shielding wall and the ceiling.

  20. Nanostructure and molecular mechanics of spider dragline silk protein assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Keten, Sinan; Buehler, Markus J.

    2010-01-01

    Spider silk is a self-assembling biopolymer that outperforms most known materials in terms of its mechanical performance, despite its underlying weak chemical bonding based on H-bonds. While experimental studies have shown that the molecular structure of silk proteins has a direct influence on the stiffness, toughness and failure strength of silk, no molecular-level analysis of the nanostructure and associated mechanical properties of silk assemblies have been reported. Here, we report atomic-level structures of MaSp1 and MaSp2 proteins from the Nephila clavipes spider dragline silk sequence, obtained using replica exchange molecular dynamics, and subject these structures to mechanical loading for a detailed nanomechanical analysis. The structural analysis reveals that poly-alanine regions in silk predominantly form distinct and orderly beta-sheet crystal domains, while disorderly regions are formed by glycine-rich repeats that consist of 31-helix type structures and beta-turns. Our structural predictions are validated against experimental data based on dihedral angle pair calculations presented in Ramachandran plots, alpha-carbon atomic distances, as well as secondary structure content. Mechanical shearing simulations on selected structures illustrate that the nanoscale behaviour of silk protein assemblies is controlled by the distinctly different secondary structure content and hydrogen bonding in the crystalline and semi-amorphous regions. Both structural and mechanical characterization results show excellent agreement with available experimental evidence. Our findings set the stage for extensive atomistic investigations of silk, which may contribute towards an improved understanding of the source of the strength and toughness of this biological superfibre. PMID:20519206

  1. Space spider crane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O. (Inventor); Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Pennington, Jack E. (Inventor); Kinkead, Rebecca L. (Inventor); Bryan, Charles F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A space spider crane for the movement, placement, and or assembly of various components on or in the vicinity of a space structure is described. As permanent space structures are utilized by the space program, a means will be required to transport cargo and perform various repair tasks. A space spider crane comprising a small central body with attached manipulators and legs fulfills this requirement. The manipulators may be equipped with constant pressure gripping end effectors or tools to accomplish various repair tasks. The legs are also equipped with constant pressure gripping end effectors to grip the space structure. Control of the space spider crane may be achieved either by computer software or a remotely situated human operator, who maintains visual contact via television cameras mounted on the space spider crane. One possible walking program consists of a parallel motion walking program whereby the small central body alternatively leans forward and backward relative to end effectors.

  2. Dragline roller track improvement. Volume I. Evaluation of low hardness dragline track materials in rolling contact. Final report, September 30, 1976-July 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Dunfee, J.; Leonard, L.; Rumbarger, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Franklin Research Center (FRC), a Division of the Franklin Institute, was contracted by the Bureau of Mines to improve walking dragline roller tracks. The contract was subsequently transferred to the Department of Energy. The period from September 1977 to September 1978 covered laboratory rolling contact rig tests to evaluate typical low hardness dragline track materials. The results of this work are covered by DOE/ET/9121-1 Final Report, Volume I. The period from September 1978 to July 1980 covered field measurements of dragline roller circle loadings. The results of this work are covered by DOE/ET/9121-2 Final Report, Volume II. The laboratory rolling contact rig test results indicate that forged vacuum degassed air melt steel materials are recommended over air-melt cast materials for rollers and tracks. The steels tested exhibited good freedom from sensitivity to stress raisers like brinell marks and small holes or discontinuities (Volume I). The largest unknown in a recommended method for life testing roller tracks is the condition of the upper rotating frame structure and the lower tub supporting structure.

  3. 46. Interior detail of barge crane engine house with machinery. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Interior detail of barge crane engine house with machinery. Lambert Hoisting Engine Company Winder Powered by A Gray Marine Diesel. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  4. Sandhill crane with baby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A Sandhill Crane searches for food with its still-fuzzy fledgling by its side. The two, along with another adult crane, have been seen wandering the grassy areas in the KSC Launch Complex 39 area. Sandhill cranes range from Siberia, Alaska and Arctic islands to Michigan, Minnesota and California; from Florida to Texas. They prefer large freshwater marshes, prairie ponds and marshy tundra. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  5. Lunar crane hook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, John Wilson, III; Cone, Alan E.; Garolera, Frank J.; German, David; Lindabury, David Peter; Luckado, Marshall Cleveland; Murphey, Craig; Rowell, John Bryan; Wilkinson, Brad

    1988-01-01

    The base and ball hook system is an attachment that is designed to be used on the lunar surface as an improved alternative to the common crane hook and eye system. The design proposed uses an omni-directional ball hook and base to overcome the design problems associated with a conventional crane hook. The base and ball hook is not sensitive to cable twist which would render a robotic lunar crane useless since there is little atmospheric resistance to dampen the motion of an oscillating member. The symmetric characteristics of the ball hook and base eliminates manual placement of the ball hook into the base; commonly associated with the typical hook and eye stem. The major advantage of the base and ball hook system is it's ease of couple and uncouple modes that are advantages during unmanned robotic lunar missions.

  6. ANTI-SWING CRANE

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.

    1957-09-17

    A device that reduces or eliminntes the swing of an object being transported by a traveling crane is described. The supporting cable of the crane extends through a guide and follower positioned below the crane by an electric motor and follow-up circuit. The swing or horizontal motion of the cable is detected by the follower, and a signal is generated that will cause the motor to move the follower in opposition to the motion of the swing thus having a dampening effect on the pendulum action of the supported body. This improvement is particularly valuable when the supported load may be so radioactive that a person could not manually stop the swing.

  7. Crane reproductive physiology and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    Some unique features of crane reproduction, management, and conservation are described. Because cranes are sexually monomorphic, sexing is difficult and must be accomplished using behavior, laparoscopy, cloacal examination, genetic techniques, or fecal steroid analysis. Although husbandry techniques for cranes are similar to those used with other nondomestic birds, a number of basic characteristics, such as extreme aggressiveness, imprinting by the crane chick on man, a delayed molt in the immature crane, delayed sexual maturity, and infertility, pose special problems for the propagator. Artificial insemination is a practical solution to crane infertility. Vigorous captive management and propagation efforts must become increasingly important if several endangered crane species are to survive the continuing decline in wild populations. The ultimate goal is the restoration of suitable habitat and sustainable native populations.

  8. Trouble-free hydraulic valve package for crane winches

    SciTech Connect

    DeLamatyr, G.

    1983-12-01

    Baker Marine Corporation has been producing hydraulically powered pedestal type cranes for the offshore industry for approximately three years. The original hydraulic system cranes was of the open loop type with multiple gear pumps driven by a single diesel engine. One pump in the stack serviced the main and auxiliary hook winches, while another worked the boom winch, and a third pump sent oil to the crane swing motor. For reasons of economy and simplicity, it was decided that this scheme would be kept as part of the new design.

  9. Beta transition and stress-induced phase separation in the spinning of spider dragline silk.

    PubMed

    Knight, D P; Knight, M M; Vollrath, F

    2000-06-13

    Spider dragline silk is formed as the result of a remarkable transformation in which an aqueous dope solution is rapidly converted into an insoluble protein filament with outstanding mechanical properties. Microscopy on the spinning duct in Nephila edulis spiders suggests that this transformation involves a stress-induced formation of anti-parallel beta-sheets induced by extensional flow. Measurements of draw stress at different draw rates during silking confirm that a stress-induced phase transition occurs. PMID:10828366

  10. Differential polymerization of the two main protein components of dragline silk during fibre spinning.

    PubMed

    Sponner, Alexander; Unger, Eberhard; Grosse, Frank; Weisshart, Klaus

    2005-10-01

    Spider silks are some of the strongest materials found in nature. Achieving the high tensile strength and elasticity of the dragline of orb-weaving spiders, such as Nephila clavipes, is a principal goal in biomimetics research. The dragline has a composite nature and is predominantly made up by two proteins, the major ampullate spidroins 1 and 2 (refs 3, 6, 7), which can be considered natural block copolymers. On the basis of their molecular structures both spidroins are thought to contribute, in different ways, to the mechanical properties of dragline silk. The spinning process itself is also considered important for determining the observed features by shaping the hierarchical structure of the fibre. Here we study the heterogeneous distribution of proteins along the radial axis of the fibre. This heterogeneity is generated during the conversion of the liquid spinning dope into solid fibre. Whereas spidroin 1 is distributed almost uniformly within the fibre core, spidroin 2 is missing in the periphery and is tightly packed in certain core areas. Our findings suggest that the role of spidroin 2 in the spinning process could be to facilitate the formation of fibrils and contribute directly to the elasticity of the silk. PMID:16184170

  11. Spider dragline silk proteins in transgenic tobacco leaves: accumulation and field production.

    PubMed

    Menassa, Rima; Zhu, Hong; Karatzas, Costas N; Lazaris, Anthoula; Richman, Alex; Brandle, Jim

    2004-09-01

    Spider dragline silk is a unique biomaterial and represents nature's strongest known fibre. As it is almost as strong as many commercial synthetic fibres, it is suitable for use in many industrial and medical applications. The prerequisite for such a widespread use is the cost-effective production in sufficient quantities for commercial fibre manufacturing. Agricultural biotechnology and the production of recombinant dragline silk proteins in transgenic plants offer the potential for low-cost, large-scale production. The purpose of this work was to examine the feasibility of producing the two protein components of dragline silk (MaSp1 and MaSp2) from Nephila clavipes in transgenic tobacco. Two different promoters, the enhanced CaMV 35S promoter (Kay et al., 1987) and a new tobacco cryptic constitutive promoter, tCUP (Foster et al., 1999) were used, in conjunction with a plant secretory signal (PR1b), a translational enhancer (alfalfa mosaic virus, AMV) and an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (KDEL), to express the MaSp1 and MaSp2 genes in the leaves of transgenic plants. Both genes expressed successfully and recombinant protein accumulated in transgenic plants grown in both greenhouse and field trials. PMID:17168889

  12. Blueprint for a High-Performance Biomaterial: Full-Length Spider Dragline Silk Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Nadia A.; Garb, Jessica E.; Tinghitella, Robin M.; Collin, Matthew A.; Hayashi, Cheryl Y.

    2007-01-01

    Spider dragline (major ampullate) silk outperforms virtually all other natural and manmade materials in terms of tensile strength and toughness. For this reason, the mass-production of artificial spider silks through transgenic technologies has been a major goal of biomimetics research. Although all known arthropod silk proteins are extremely large (>200 kiloDaltons), recombinant spider silks have been designed from short and incomplete cDNAs, the only available sequences. Here we describe the first full-length spider silk gene sequences and their flanking regions. These genes encode the MaSp1 and MaSp2 proteins that compose the black widow's high-performance dragline silk. Each gene includes a single enormous exon (>9000 base pairs) that translates into a highly repetitive polypeptide. Patterns of variation among sequence repeats at the amino acid and nucleotide levels indicate that the interaction of selection, intergenic recombination, and intragenic recombination governs the evolution of these highly unusual, modular proteins. Phylogenetic footprinting revealed putative regulatory elements in non-coding flanking sequences. Conservation of both upstream and downstream flanking sequences was especially striking between the two paralogous black widow major ampullate silk genes. Because these genes are co-expressed within the same silk gland, there may have been selection for similarity in regulatory regions. Our new data provide complete templates for synthesis of recombinant silk proteins that significantly improve the degree to which artificial silks mimic natural spider dragline fibers. PMID:17565367

  13. Life history trade-offs imposed by dragline use in two money spiders.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Dries; Verduyn, Lieselot; Braeckman, Bart P

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs among life history traits are central to understanding the limits of adaptations to stress. In animals, virtually all decisions taken during life are expected to have downstream consequences. To what degree rare, but energy-demanding, decisions carry over to individual performance is rarely studied in arthropods. We used spiders as a model system to test how single investments in silk use - for dispersal or predator escape - affect individual performance. Silk produced for safe lines and as threads for ballooning is of the strongest kind and is energetically costly, especially when resources are limited. We induced dragline spinning in two species of money spider at similar quantities to that under natural conditions and tested trade-offs with lifespan and egg sac production under unlimited prey availability and a dietary restriction treatment. We demonstrate strong trade-offs between dragline spinning and survival and fecundity. Survival trade-offs were additive to those imposed by the dietary treatment, but a reduction in eggs produced after silk use was only prevalent under conditions where food was restricted during the spider's life. Because draglines are not recycled after their use for dispersal or predator escape, their spinning incurs substantial fitness costs in dispersal, especially in environments with prey limitation. Rare but energetically costly decisions related to dispersal or predator escape may thus carry over to adult performance and explain phenotypic heterogeneity in natural populations. PMID:26596528

  14. 46 CFR 107.309 - Crane plans and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) One line diagrams of the electrical power circuits of the electric power crane overload protection required in Subpart 111.50 of this chapter. (2) Diagrams of the hydraulic or pneumatic power and control... power failure. Note to § 107.309(a)(4): These plans must be submitted to the Coast Guard, if the...

  15. 46 CFR 107.309 - Crane plans and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) One line diagrams of the electrical power circuits of the electric power crane overload protection required in Subpart 111.50 of this chapter. (2) Diagrams of the hydraulic or pneumatic power and control... power failure. Note to § 107.309(a)(4): These plans must be submitted to the Coast Guard, if the...

  16. 46 CFR 107.309 - Crane plans and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) One line diagrams of the electrical power circuits of the electric power crane overload protection required in Subpart 111.50 of this chapter. (2) Diagrams of the hydraulic or pneumatic power and control... power failure. Note to § 107.309(a)(4): These plans must be submitted to the Coast Guard, if the...

  17. 46 CFR 107.309 - Crane plans and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) One line diagrams of the electrical power circuits of the electric power crane overload protection required in Subpart 111.50 of this chapter. (2) Diagrams of the hydraulic or pneumatic power and control... power failure. Note to § 107.309(a)(4): These plans must be submitted to the Coast Guard, if the...

  18. Ergonomic survey of mobile cranes.

    PubMed

    White, T G

    1973-06-01

    A mobile crane survey was pursued for two years in conjunction with the Construction Industry Training Board. Information was collected on mobile cranes of the wheel and track type. Operational tasks were studied together with interactions which affect the optimum performance of the system in relation to the site organisation in which they form a part. Visits to site were made during working hours, under prevailing weather conditions, and to plant hire companies in the South Wales area. Appendices detail noise exposures in crane cabins and an audiological survey of crane drivers and others. PMID:15677121

  19. Structural hysteresis in dragline spider silks induced by supercontraction: an X-ray fiber micro-diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, Sujatha; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2014-11-27

    Interaction with water causes shrinkage and significant changes in the structure of spider dragline silks, which has been referred to as supercontraction in the literature. Preferred orientation or alignment of protein chains with respect to the fiber axis is extensively changed during this supercontraction process. Synchrotron X-ray micro-fiber diffraction experiments have been performed on Nephila clavipes and Argiope aurantia major and minor ampullate dragline spider fibers in the native dry, contracted (by immersion in water) and restretched (from contracted) states. Changes in the orientation of β-sheet nanocrystallites and the oriented component of the amorphous network have been determined from wide-angle X-ray diffraction patterns. While both the crystalline and amorphous components lose preferred orientation on wetting with water, the nano-crystallites regain their orientation on wet-restretching, whereas the oriented amorphous components only partially regain their orientation. Dragline major ampullate silks in both the species contract more than their minor ampullate silks.

  20. Fatal injuries in the United States construction industry involving cranes 1984-1994.

    PubMed

    Suruda, A; Liu, D; Egger, M; Lillquist, D

    1999-12-01

    There is little published information concerning the epidemiology of injuries in the construction industry involving cranes other than for electrical injury from power line contact. For the 11-year period of 1984 through 1994, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) investigated 502 deaths in 479 incidents involving cranes in the construction industry. Electrocution was the largest category, with 198 deaths (39%) reported. Other major categories were assembly/dismantling (58 deaths, 12%), boom buckling (41 deaths, 8%), crane upset/overturn (37 deaths, 7%), and rigging failure (36 deaths, 7%). The majority of the deaths during assembly/dismantling involved removal of the boom pins from lattice boom cranes. Only 34% of the construction firms employing the fatally injured workers had ever been inspected by OSHA. OSHA cited the employer for safety violations in 436 deaths (83%). Additional worker training, increased OSHA inspections, and crane inspection programs could prevent many crane-related deaths. PMID:10609224

  1. NSWC Crane Aerospace Cell Test History Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harry; Moore, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    The Aerospace Cell Test History Database was developed to provide project engineers and scientists ready access to the data obtained from testing of aerospace cell designs at Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division. The database is intended for use by all aerospace engineers and scientists involved in the design of power systems for satellites. Specifically, the database will provide a tool for project engineers to review the progress of their test at Crane and to have ready access to data for evaluation. Additionally, the database will provide a history of test results that designers can draw upon to answer questions about cell performance under certain test conditions and aid in selection of a cell for a satellite battery. Viewgraphs are included.

  2. Chromosome Mapping of Dragline Silk Genes in the Genomes of Widow Spiders (Araneae, Theridiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yonghui; Ayoub, Nadia A.; Hayashi, Cheryl Y.

    2010-01-01

    With its incredible strength and toughness, spider dragline silk is widely lauded for its impressive material properties. Dragline silk is composed of two structural proteins, MaSp1 and MaSp2, which are encoded by members of the spidroin gene family. While previous studies have characterized the genes that encode the constituent proteins of spider silks, nothing is known about the physical location of these genes. We determined karyotypes and sex chromosome organization for the widow spiders, Latrodectus hesperus and L. geometricus (Araneae, Theridiidae). We then used fluorescence in situ hybridization to map the genomic locations of the genes for the silk proteins that compose the remarkable spider dragline. These genes included three loci for the MaSp1 protein and the single locus for the MaSp2 protein. In addition, we mapped a MaSp1 pseudogene. All the MaSp1 gene copies and pseudogene localized to a single chromosomal region while MaSp2 was located on a different chromosome of L. hesperus. Using probes derived from L. hesperus, we comparatively mapped all three MaSp1 loci to a single region of a L. geometricus chromosome. As with L. hesperus, MaSp2 was found on a separate L. geometricus chromosome, thus again unlinked to the MaSp1 loci. These results indicate orthology of the corresponding chromosomal regions in the two widow genomes. Moreover, the occurrence of multiple MaSp1 loci in a conserved gene cluster across species suggests that MaSp1 proliferated by tandem duplication in a common ancestor of L. geometricus and L. hesperus. Unequal crossover events during recombination could have given rise to the gene copies and could also maintain sequence similarity among gene copies over time. Further comparative mapping with taxa of increasing divergence from Latrodectus will pinpoint when the MaSp1 duplication events occurred and the phylogenetic distribution of silk gene linkage patterns. PMID:20877726

  3. Molecular dynamics of spider dragline silk fiber investigated by 2H MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiangyan; Holland, Gregory P; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2015-03-01

    The molecular dynamics of the proteins that comprise spider dragline silk were investigated with solid-state (2)H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR line shape and spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) analysis. The experiments were performed on (2)H/(13)C/(15)N-enriched N. clavipes dragline silk fibers. The silk protein side-chain and backbone dynamics were probed for Ala-rich regions (β-sheet and 31-helical domains) in both native (dry) and supercontracted (wet) spider silk. In native (dry) silk fibers, the side chains in all Ala containing regions undergo similar fast methyl rotations (>10(9) s(-1)), while the backbone remains essentially static (<10(2) s(-1)). When the silk is wet and supercontracted, the presence of water initiates fast side-chain and backbone motions for a fraction of the β-sheet region and 31-helicies. β-Sheet subregion 1 ascribed to the poly(Ala) core exhibits slower dynamics, while β-sheet subregion 2 present in the interfacial, primarily poly(Gly-Ala) region that links the β-sheets to disordered 31-helical motifs, exhibits faster motions when the silk is supercontracted. Particularly notable is the observation of microsecond backbone motions for β-sheet subregion 2 and 31-helicies. It is proposed that these microsecond backbone motions lead to hydrogen-bond disruption in β-sheet subregion 2 and helps to explain the decrease in silk stiffness when the silk is wet and supercontracted. In addition, water mobilizes and softens 31-helical motifs, contributing to the increased extensibility observed when the silk is in a supercontracted state. The present study provides critical insight into the supercontraction mechanism and corresponding changes in mechanical properties observed for spider dragline silks. PMID:25619304

  4. [Construction, fermentation and purification of high polymer spider dragline silk protein containing RGD peptide].

    PubMed

    Ruan, Chao-Ran; Huang, Jing-Xing; Wei, Mei-Hong; Li, Min

    2007-09-01

    Spider silk is a natural protein fibroin with excellent character as it is light and tenacious. It has a wild potential applications in the biomedical field due to its good biocompatibility and degradation. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) is a highly conserved amino acid sequence of many adhesion protein. Biological materials binding with RGD peptide in the surface can promote cells adhesion, migration and proliferation. Our lab had constructed the 16 muhimers with the introduced RGD peptide codons which involve cell adhesion for the first time. It was found that the mechanical capability of the 16 mulimer protein was very limited because of the big gap in molecular weight with nature spider proteins when it was used to made biomaterial scaffold.In this paper,based on the 16 multimers of the highly, repetitive sequence of spider dragline silk and with RGD peptide condons which has been constructed by our lab forestall, it was used to construct the 32 and 64 multimers sequence of spider dragline silk by the strategy of "head to tail". The 32 and 64 multimers were ligated into prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a, and then the B121 (DE3) pLysS. The fragments were in agreement with the desired through digestion, agarose gel electrophoresis respectively. By registration into the GenBank data-base, the serial numbers of DQ469929 and DQ837297 were gained respectively. The expression of recombinant protein was introduced by the addition of IPTG. SDS-PAGE analysis shows that the molecular weight of products expressed here are 102 kD and 196.6kD in agreement with the desired respectively. It was the first time for the high polymer spider dragline silk protein expressed in prokaryotic biology. Furthermore, a larger quantity of synthetical proteins with high density fermentation were searched after, and a suit of high efficient purification methods for 32 multimers protein were established. PMID:18051865

  5. 46 CFR 109.521 - Cranes: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cranes: General. 109.521 Section 109.521 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Cranes § 109.521 Cranes: General. The master or person in charge shall ensure that each crane is operated...

  6. 46 CFR 109.521 - Cranes: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cranes: General. 109.521 Section 109.521 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Cranes § 109.521 Cranes: General. The master or person in charge shall ensure that each crane is operated...

  7. 46 CFR 126.130 - Cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cranes. 126.130 Section 126.130 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 126.130 Cranes. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, cranes, if installed, must... chapter. (b) The manufacturer of a crane may have tests and inspections conducted in compliance with §...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1435 - Tower cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tower cranes. 1926.1435 Section 1926.1435 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1435 Tower cranes. (a) This section contains supplemental requirements for tower cranes; all sections of...

  9. 46 CFR 126.130 - Cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cranes. 126.130 Section 126.130 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 126.130 Cranes. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, cranes, if installed, must... chapter. (b) The manufacturer of a crane may have tests and inspections conducted in compliance with §...

  10. 46 CFR 126.130 - Cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cranes. 126.130 Section 126.130 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 126.130 Cranes. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, cranes, if installed, must... chapter. (b) The manufacturer of a crane may have tests and inspections conducted in compliance with §...

  11. 46 CFR 109.521 - Cranes: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cranes: General. 109.521 Section 109.521 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Cranes § 109.521 Cranes: General. The master or person in charge shall ensure that each crane is operated...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1435 - Tower cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tower cranes. 1926.1435 Section 1926.1435 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1435 Tower cranes. (a) This section contains supplemental requirements for tower cranes; all sections of...

  13. 46 CFR 109.521 - Cranes: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cranes: General. 109.521 Section 109.521 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Cranes § 109.521 Cranes: General. The master or person in charge shall ensure that each crane is operated...

  14. 46 CFR 126.130 - Cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cranes. 126.130 Section 126.130 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 126.130 Cranes. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, cranes, if installed, must... chapter. (b) The manufacturer of a crane may have tests and inspections conducted in compliance with §...

  15. 46 CFR 109.521 - Cranes: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cranes: General. 109.521 Section 109.521 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Cranes § 109.521 Cranes: General. The master or person in charge shall ensure that each crane is operated...

  16. 46 CFR 126.130 - Cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cranes. 126.130 Section 126.130 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 126.130 Cranes. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, cranes, if installed, must... chapter. (b) The manufacturer of a crane may have tests and inspections conducted in compliance with §...

  17. Dick Crane's California Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrow, Charles H.

    2011-03-01

    Horace Richard Crane (1907-2007) was born and educated in California. His childhood was full of activities that helped him become an outstanding experimental physicist. As a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology (1930-1934), he had the good fortune to work with Charles C. Lauritsen (1892-1968) just as he introduced accelerator-based nuclear physics to Caltech. They shared the euphoric excitement of opening up a new field with simple, ingenious apparatus and experiments. This work prepared Crane for his career at the University of Michigan (1935-1973) where in the 1950s, after making the first measurement of the electron's magnetic moment, he devised the g-2 technique and made the first measurement of the anomaly in the electron's magnetic moment. A man of direct, almost laconic style, he made lasting contributions to the exposition of physics to the general public and to its teaching in high schools, community colleges, four-year colleges, and universities. I tell how he became a physicist and describe some of his early achievements.

  18. Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Overhead Cranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Faith; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This guideline provides standards for overhead crane cabs that can be applied to the design and modification of crane cabs to reduce the potential for human error due to design. This guideline serves as an aid during the development of a specification for purchases of cranes or for an engineering support request for crane design modification. It aids human factors engineers in evaluating existing cranes during accident investigations or safety reviews.

  19. 15. VIEW OF THE ORIGINAL 10TON OVERHEAD NILES TRAVELING CRANE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF THE ORIGINAL 10-TON OVERHEAD NILES TRAVELING CRANE. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  20. Modeling sandhill crane population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of sport hunting on the Central Flyway population of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) has been a subject of controversy for several years. A recent study (Buller 1979) presented new and important information on sandhill crane population dynamics. The present report is intended to incorporate that and other information into a mathematical model for the purpose of assessing the long-range impact of hunting on the population of sandhill cranes.The model is a simple deterministic system that embodies density-dependent rates of survival and recruitment. The model employs four kinds of data: (1) spring population size of sandhill cranes, estimated from aerial surveys to be between 250,000 and 400,000 birds; (2) age composition in fall, estimated for 1974-76 to be 11.3% young; (3) annual harvest of cranes, estimated from a variety of sources to be about 5 to 7% of the spring population; and (4) age composition of harvested cranes, which was difficult to estimate but suggests that immatures were 2 to 4 times as vulnerable to hunting as adults.Because the true nature of sandhill crane population dynamics remains so poorly understood, it was necessary to try numerous (768 in all) combinations of survival and recruitment functions, and focus on the relatively few (37) that yielded population sizes and age structures comparable to those extant in the real population. Hunting was then applied to those simulated populations. In all combinations, hunting resulted in a lower asymptotic crane population, the decline ranging from 5 to 54%. The median decline was 22%, which suggests that a hunted sandhill crane population might be about three-fourths as large as it would be if left unhunted. Results apply to the aggregate of the three subspecies in the Central Flyway; individual subspecies or populations could be affected to a greater or lesser degree.

  1. 29 CFR 1910.179 - Overhead and gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... device used for retarding or stopping motion by friction or power means. (19) A drag brake is a brake which provides retarding force without external control. (20) A holding brake is a brake that automatically prevents motion when power is off. (21) Bridge means that part of a crane consisting of...

  2. Crane Lowers Aeroshell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    January 31, 2003

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, an overhead crane lowers the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) aeroshell toward a rotation stand. Set to launch in 2003, the MER Mission will consist of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards (100 meters) each Martian day. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. The rovers will be identical to each other, but will land at different regions of Mars. The first rover has a launch window opening May 30, and the second rover a window opening June 25, 2003.

  3. Repainting decontaminated canyon cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-23

    The paint on the H-area hot canyon crane is expected to be at least partially removed during the planned decontamination with high pressure Freon/reg sign/ blasting. Tests to evaluate two candidate finishes, DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and DuPont Colar/reg sign/ epoxy were carried out at Quadrex Co., Oak Ridge, TN, March 1984. Three types of 304L stainless steel surface finishes were included in the test (ASTM No. 1, bead blasted ASTM No. 1, and ASTM No. 2B). Two types of contamination were used (diluted dissolver solution, the type of contamination encountered in existing canyons; and raw sludge plus volatiles, the type of contamination expected in DWPF). Some specimens were coated with the type of grease (Mystic JT-6) used on cranes in SRP separations areas. The results of the test indicate that smoother surfaces are easier to decontaminate than rougher surfaces. Statistical analysis of the data from this experiment by R.L. Postles leads to the following conclusions: There is no statistical difference between the decontamination properties of DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and DuPont Colar/reg sign/ epoxy; DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and perhaps Type 304L stainless steel with an ASTM No. 2B surface finish are easier to decontaminate than Type 304L stainless steel with an ASTM No. 1 surface finish; dilute dissolver solution is harder to remove than raw sludge plus volatiles; specimens with grease are easier to decontaminate than specimens with no grease; and, Freon/reg sign/ blasting pressure has no statistically significant effect. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. Floating Crane YD82 general view. Date taken unknown. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floating Crane YD-82 - general view. Date taken unknown. Taken by Pearl Harbor photographer. Crane Division Collection - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Hybrid system modeling, simulation, and visualization: a crane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiniduma Udugama Gamage, Sahan S.; Palmer, Patrick R.

    2003-08-01

    Modeling and visualization of a complex hybrid system with different domains of energy flow and signal flow are described in this paper. It is a crane system situated in a barge complete with the load, electrical power, drive and control systems. A dynamically and functionally accurate model of the crane was developed. The implementation is in the freely available software suit of Virtual Test Bed (VTB) for simulation and Visual Extension Engine (VXE) for visualization. The bidirectional interaction of simulator and visualizer is fully utilized in this application. The further challenges confronted in implementing this particular system and any other complex system are discussed and possible solutions are suggested.

  6. Portal Crane P51, 50ton Crane. Erecting side trusses and ladder. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Portal Crane P-51, 50-ton Crane. Erecting side trusses and ladder. Looking east. Taken April 12, 1920. 14th Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 3207 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Sequential origin in the high performance properties of orb spider dragline silk

    PubMed Central

    Blackledge, Todd A.; Pérez-Rigueiro, José; Plaza, Gustavo R.; Perea, Belén; Navarro, Andrés; Guinea, Gustavo V.; Elices, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Major ampullate (MA) dragline silk supports spider orb webs, combining strength and extensibility in the toughest biomaterial. MA silk evolved ~376 MYA and identifying how evolutionary changes in proteins influenced silk mechanics is crucial for biomimetics, but is hindered by high spinning plasticity. We use supercontraction to remove that variation and characterize MA silk across the spider phylogeny. We show that mechanical performance is conserved within, but divergent among, major lineages, evolving in correlation with discrete changes in proteins. Early MA silk tensile strength improved rapidly with the origin of GGX amino acid motifs and increased repetitiveness. Tensile strength then maximized in basal entelegyne spiders, ~230 MYA. Toughness subsequently improved through increased extensibility within orb spiders, coupled with the origin of a novel protein (MaSp2). Key changes in MA silk proteins therefore correlate with the sequential evolution high performance orb spider silk and could aid design of biomimetic fibers. PMID:23110251

  8. Sequential origin in the high performance properties of orb spider dragline silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackledge, Todd A.; Pérez-Rigueiro, José; Plaza, Gustavo R.; Perea, Belén; Navarro, Andrés; Guinea, Gustavo V.; Elices, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Major ampullate (MA) dragline silk supports spider orb webs, combining strength and extensibility in the toughest biomaterial. MA silk evolved ~376 MYA and identifying how evolutionary changes in proteins influenced silk mechanics is crucial for biomimetics, but is hindered by high spinning plasticity. We use supercontraction to remove that variation and characterize MA silk across the spider phylogeny. We show that mechanical performance is conserved within, but divergent among, major lineages, evolving in correlation with discrete changes in proteins. Early MA silk tensile strength improved rapidly with the origin of GGX amino acid motifs and increased repetitiveness. Tensile strength then maximized in basal entelegyne spiders, ~230 MYA. Toughness subsequently improved through increased extensibility within orb spiders, coupled with the origin of a novel protein (MaSp2). Key changes in MA silk proteins therefore correlate with the sequential evolution high performance orb spider silk and could aid design of biomimetic fibers.

  9. Results of an experiment to lead cranes on migration behind motorized ground vehicles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Clauss, B.; Watanabe, T.; Mykut, R.C.; Kinloch, M.; Ellis, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Ten greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida), trained to enter and ride in a specially equipped truck, were transported at 80? days of age from their rearing site at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent), Maryland, to a reintroduction site located within the species? former breeding range in northern Arizona. After 5 additional weeks of training, these juvenile cranes were led south ca 600 km to a wintering area on the Arizona/Mexico border. Nine of the 10 survived the trek, 495 km of which was flown, although only a few cranes flew every stage of the route. Their longest flight was 77 km. Major problems during the migration were power line collisions (three, one fatal), eagle attacks (none fatal), and overheating (when air temperatures exceeded ca 25?C). All cranes that entered training quickly learned to follow the truck, and their tenacity when following under unfavorable conditions (e.g., poor light, extreme dust, or heat) showed that cranes could consistently be led over long distances. We cannot predict if the cranes will retrace their route unassisted when adults, but 2 cranes returned 130 km to the starting point of the migration after the flock was scattered by an eagle during our migration south. Three other cranes were recovered 55 km from the attack site and on course toward the starting point.

  10. Comparison of the spinning of selachian egg case ply sheets and orb web spider dragline filaments.

    PubMed

    Knight, D P; Vollrath, F

    2001-01-01

    Liquid crystal spinning appears to be widespread in the animal kingdom, utilizing protein dopes to give materials with a range of different secondary structures including beta-pleat, alpha-helix and collagen-fold. Here we seek to identify the essential design features used in natural liquid crystal spinning by comparing the spinning of two very different materials: the egg case wall of Selachians (dogfish, rays, and their allies) and the dragline silk of orb web spiders. The fish extrudes a "sea and island" composite in which the islands consist of flat ribbons of carefully orientated collagen and the sea, small quantities of an amorphous matrix. Dragline silk filaments are largely constructed from spidroin, a beta protein and have a skin and core structure together with two to three coats. The essential design features common to both systems appear to be the following: (i) intracellular co-storage of a hexagonal columnar liquid crystalline component and a peroxidase within the same secretory vesicles; (ii) luminal storage of a highly concentrated liquid crystalline dope; (iii) use of a dope containing immiscible droplets; (iv) hyperbolic extrusion dies; (v) control of pH and water content of the dope; (vi) preorientation of dope molecules before assembly into fibrils; (vii) combination of extrusion die, treatment/coating bath, and solvent recovery plant within a single microminiaturized device; (viii) slow natural spinning rates. The most important difference is that spiders produce a tough material by unfolding and hydrogen-bonding their silk dope molecules while Selachian fish do it by covalently cross-linking the molecules without unfolding them. PMID:11749189

  11. Evidence of Decoupling Protein Structure from Spidroin Expression in Spider Dragline Silks.

    PubMed

    Blamires, Sean J; Kasumovic, Michael M; Tso, I-Min; Martens, Penny J; Hook, James M; Rawal, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    The exceptional strength and extensibility of spider dragline silk have been thought to be facilitated by two spidroins, major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) and major ampullate spidroin 2 (MaSp2), under the assumption that protein secondary structures are coupled with the expressed spidroins. We tested this assumption for the dragline silk of three co-existing Australian spiders, Argiope keyserlingi, Latrodectus hasselti and Nephila plumipes. We found that silk amino acid compositions did not differ among spiders collected in May. We extended these analyses temporally and found the amino acid compositions of A. keyserlingi silks to differ when collected in May compared to November, while those of L. hasselti did not. To ascertain whether their secondary structures were decoupled from spidroin expression, we performed solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis on the silks of all spiders collected in May. We found the distribution of alanine toward β-sheet and 3,10helix/random coil conformations differed between species, as did their relative crystallinities, with A. keyserlingi having the greatest 3,10helix/random coil composition and N. plumipes the greatest crystallinity. The protein secondary structures correlated with the mechanical properties for each of the silks better than the amino acid compositions. Our findings suggested that a differential distribution of alanine during spinning could decouple secondary structures from spidroin expression ensuring that silks of desirable mechanical properties are consistently produced. Alternative explanations include the possibility that other spidroins were incorporated into some silks. PMID:27517909

  12. Evidence of Decoupling Protein Structure from Spidroin Expression in Spider Dragline Silks

    PubMed Central

    Blamires, Sean J.; Kasumovic, Michael M.; Tso, I-Min; Martens, Penny J.; Hook, James M.; Rawal, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    The exceptional strength and extensibility of spider dragline silk have been thought to be facilitated by two spidroins, major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) and major ampullate spidroin 2 (MaSp2), under the assumption that protein secondary structures are coupled with the expressed spidroins. We tested this assumption for the dragline silk of three co-existing Australian spiders, Argiope keyserlingi, Latrodectus hasselti and Nephila plumipes. We found that silk amino acid compositions did not differ among spiders collected in May. We extended these analyses temporally and found the amino acid compositions of A. keyserlingi silks to differ when collected in May compared to November, while those of L. hasselti did not. To ascertain whether their secondary structures were decoupled from spidroin expression, we performed solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis on the silks of all spiders collected in May. We found the distribution of alanine toward β-sheet and 3,10helix/random coil conformations differed between species, as did their relative crystallinities, with A. keyserlingi having the greatest 3,10helix/random coil composition and N. plumipes the greatest crystallinity. The protein secondary structures correlated with the mechanical properties for each of the silks better than the amino acid compositions. Our findings suggested that a differential distribution of alanine during spinning could decouple secondary structures from spidroin expression ensuring that silks of desirable mechanical properties are consistently produced. Alternative explanations include the possibility that other spidroins were incorporated into some silks. PMID:27517909

  13. Dual Thermosensitive Hydrogels Assembled from the Conserved C-Terminal Domain of Spider Dragline Silk.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Ming-Liang; Song, Wen-Wen; Xia, Xiao-Xia

    2015-11-01

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have great potentials in biomedical and biotechnological applications. Due to the advantages of precise control over molecular weight and being biodegradable, protein-based hydrogels and their applications have been extensively studied. However, protein hydrogels with dual thermosensitive properties are rarely reported. Here we present the first report of dual thermosensitive hydrogels assembled from the conserved C-terminal domain of spider dragline silk. First, we found that recombinant C-terminal domain of major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) of the spider Nephila clavipes formed hydrogels when cooled to approximately 2 °C or heated to 65 °C. The conformational changes and self-assembly of the recombinant protein were studied to understand the mechanism of the gelation processes using multiple methods. It was proposed that the gelation in the low-temperature regime was dominated by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between folded protein molecules, whereas the gelation in the high-temperature regime was due to cross-linking of the exposed hydrophobic patches resulting from partial unfolding of the protein upon heating. More interestingly, genetic fusion of the C-terminal domain to a short repetitive region of N. clavipes MaSp1 resulted in a chimeric protein that formed a hydrogel with significantly improved mechanical properties at low temperatures between 2 and 10 °C. Furthermore, the formation of similar hydrogels was observed for the recombinant C-terminal domains of dragline silk of different spider species, thus demonstrating the conserved ability to form dual thermosensitive hydrogels. These findings may be useful in the design and construction of novel protein hydrogels with tunable multiple thermosensitivity for applications in the future. PMID:26457360

  14. 46 CFR 107.258 - Crane certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crane certification. 107.258 Section 107.258 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.258 Crane certification. (a) The Coast Guard may accept current certificates issued by approved organizations as evidence of condition and suitability of cranes. The...

  15. 46 CFR 109.439 - Crane certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crane certificates. 109.439 Section 109.439 Shipping... Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.439 Crane certificates. The master or person in charge shall insure that the following certificates and records for each crane are maintained on the unit:...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1440 - Sideboom cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sideboom cranes. 1926.1440 Section 1926.1440 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1440 Sideboom cranes. (a) The provisions of this standard apply, except § 1926.1402 (Ground conditions), §...

  17. 46 CFR 107.258 - Crane certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crane certification. 107.258 Section 107.258 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.258 Crane certification. (a) The Coast Guard may accept current certificates issued by approved organizations as evidence of condition and suitability of cranes. The...

  18. 46 CFR 107.258 - Crane certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crane certification. 107.258 Section 107.258 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.258 Crane certification. (a) The Coast Guard may accept current certificates issued by approved organizations as evidence of condition and suitability of cranes. The...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1440 - Sideboom cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sideboom cranes. 1926.1440 Section 1926.1440 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1440 Sideboom cranes. (a) The provisions of this standard apply, except § 1926.1402 (Ground conditions), §...

  20. 46 CFR 109.439 - Crane certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crane certificates. 109.439 Section 109.439 Shipping... Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.439 Crane certificates. The master or person in charge shall insure that the following certificates and records for each crane are maintained on the unit:...

  1. 46 CFR 109.439 - Crane certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crane certificates. 109.439 Section 109.439 Shipping... Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.439 Crane certificates. The master or person in charge shall insure that the following certificates and records for each crane are maintained on the unit:...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1440 - Sideboom cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sideboom cranes. 1926.1440 Section 1926.1440 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1440 Sideboom cranes. (a) The provisions of this standard apply, except § 1926.1402 (Ground conditions), §...

  3. 46 CFR 109.439 - Crane certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crane certificates. 109.439 Section 109.439 Shipping... Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.439 Crane certificates. The master or person in charge shall insure that the following certificates and records for each crane are maintained on the unit:...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1440 - Sideboom cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sideboom cranes. 1926.1440 Section 1926.1440 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1440 Sideboom cranes. (a) The provisions of this standard apply, except § 1926.1402 (Ground conditions), §...

  5. 46 CFR 107.258 - Crane certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crane certification. 107.258 Section 107.258 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.258 Crane certification. (a) The Coast Guard may accept current certificates issued by approved organizations as evidence of condition and suitability of cranes. The...

  6. 46 CFR 109.439 - Crane certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crane certificates. 109.439 Section 109.439 Shipping... Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.439 Crane certificates. The master or person in charge shall insure that the following certificates and records for each crane are maintained on the unit:...

  7. 46 CFR 107.258 - Crane certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crane certification. 107.258 Section 107.258 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.258 Crane certification. (a) The Coast Guard may accept current certificates issued by approved organizations as evidence of condition and suitability of cranes. The...

  8. Mortality of Mississippi Sandhill Crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) are a highly endangered species that live in the wild in 1 county in Mississippi. As part of a large effort to restore these endangered cranes, we are conducting a project to look at the causes of mortality in crane chicks on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in Gautier, MS, USA. This includes surgically implanting miniature radio transmitters in crane chicks to gather data on mortality. This article describes some of the practical difficulties in conducting this type of project in a savannah and swamp location along the Gulf Coast of the USA.

  9. Structural hysteresis in dragline spider silks induced by supercontraction: an X-ray fiber micro-diffraction study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sampath, Sujatha; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2014-11-27

    Interaction with water causes shrinkage and significant changes in the structure of spider dragline silks, which has been referred to as supercontraction in the literature. Preferred orientation or alignment of protein chains with respect to the fiber axis is extensively changed during this supercontraction process. Synchrotron X-ray micro-fiber diffraction experiments have been performed on Nephila clavipes and Argiope aurantia major and minor ampullate dragline spider fibers in the native dry, contracted (by immersion in water) and restretched (from contracted) states. Changes in the orientation of β-sheet nanocrystallites and the oriented component of the amorphous network have been determined from wide-anglemore » X-ray diffraction patterns. While both the crystalline and amorphous components lose preferred orientation on wetting with water, the nano-crystallites regain their orientation on wet-restretching, whereas the oriented amorphous components only partially regain their orientation. Dragline major ampullate silks in both the species contract more than their minor ampullate silks.« less

  10. Structural hysteresis in dragline spider silks induced by supercontraction: An x-ray fiber micro-diffraction study

    PubMed Central

    Yarger, Jeffery. L.

    2014-01-01

    Interaction with water causes shrinkage and significant changes in the structure of spider dragline silks, which has been referred to as supercontraction in the literature. Preferred orientation or alignment of protein chains with respect to the fiber axis is extensively changed during this supercontraction process. Synchrotron x-ray micro-fiber diffraction experiments have been performed on Nephila clavipes and Argiope aurantia major and minor ampullate dragline spider fibers in the native dry, contracted (by immersion in water) and restretched (from contracted) states. Changes in the orientation of β-sheet nanocrystallites and the oriented component of the amorphous network have been determined from wide-angle x-ray diffraction patterns. While both the crystalline and amorphous components lose preferred orientation on wetting with water, the nano-crystallites regain their orientation on wet-restretching, whereas the oriented amorphous components only partially regain their orientation. Dragline major ampullate silks in both the species contract more than their minor ampullate silks. PMID:25621168

  11. Allozyme evidence for crane systematics and polymorphisms within populations of Sandhill, Sarus, Siberian and Whooping Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dessauer, H.C.; Gee, G.F.; Rogers, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of proteins yielded evidence on the relationships of species of cranes and on genetic diversity within populations of some species. Diversity within the Greater Sandhill crane and a Florida population of the Florida Sandhill crane was similar to that of most other vertebrates, but diversity was low in the Mississippi Sandhill crane, in the Okefenokee population of the Florida Sandhill crane, and within the Siberian and Sarus cranes. Diversity was surprisingly high among whooping cranes, whose number dropped to less than 25 early in this century. Phylogenetic analysis, using both character state and distance algorithms, yielded highly concordant trees for the 15 species. The African crowned cranes (Balearica) were widely divergent from all other cranes. Species of Anthropoides, Bugeranus, and Grus clustered closely but sorted into two lineages: a Whooper Group consisted of the whooping, common, hooded, black-necked, white-naped, and red-crowned cranes of genus Grus; and a Sandhill Group included the Sandhill, Siberian, Sarus, and Brolga cranes of genus Grus, the wattled crane of genus Bugeranus, and the Demoiselle and blue cranes of genus Anthropoides.

  12. 31. CRANE RUNWAY FOR 5TON PUSH TYPE CRANE, SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. CRANE RUNWAY FOR 5-TON PUSH TYPE CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 3, SEPT. 4, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523856-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. General view of concrete foundation rail for Pintle Crane at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of concrete foundation rail for Pintle Crane at marine railway, completed. 14th Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 4640 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Hammerhead Crane (HH1) general view. Taken Jan 5, 1978. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hammerhead Crane (HH-1) - general view. Taken Jan 5, 1978. Taken by Pearl Harbor photographer - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.; Fayer, R.; Iverson, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp was first recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Because cranes produced at the Center are reintroduced to the wild to augment wild populations, studies involving both experimentally induced and natural infections were initiated to determine the potential or actual occurrence of DVC in wild Gruidae. Nine sandhill cranes dosed orally with eimerian oocysts of wild origin developed lesions characteristic of DVC. Extraintestinal granulomas associated with developing schizonts were found in 6 birds. Similar lesions were observed in wild sandhill cranes throughout parts of midwestern United States, Alaska, and Saskatchewan. These studies revealed the wide geographic distribution and the high frequency of occurrence of DVC in wild cranes.

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1437 - Floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges. 1926.1437 Section 1926.1437 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction...

  17. Use of a helicopter to capture flighted cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Hjertaas, D.; Johns, B.W.; Urbanek, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Using a helicopter, we pursued 12 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and captured 6. In forested habitat, cranes could be forced down, but we were unable to deploy the pursuit team, so cranes could not be captured. In open habitat, every crane we pursued was captured. Target cranes were forced to the ground in 0.3-14 minutes. Adjusting pursuit distance (50-150 m) was essential in promoting fatigue and in preventing escape of target cranes.

  18. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in whooping cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Spraker, T.R.; Novilla, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    Three 13- to 18-day-old whooping cranes (Grus americana) and a 9-year-old whooping crane died in outdoor pens at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The deaths were associated with an overwhelming systemic infection by an intracellular protozoan parasite, which resulted in enteritis, granulomatous bronchopneumonia, hepatitis, splenitis, and myocarditis. The clinical, histopathologic, and electron microscopic findings were similar to those in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Center found to be infected with Eimeria reichenowi and E gruis. Since these eimerian species also parasitize wild whooping cranes, this parasite might be an important pathogenic agent for this species.

  19. Speed-sensing device aids crane operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    So that crane operators can judge payload movements accurately, a friction-driven multilobed cam device energizes a buzzer and indicator lamp in the crane cab. The signal frequency of this speed sensor has a sensitivity to hoist movement of 1/8 inch.

  20. Kinematics of foldable discrete space cranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Exact kinematic description of a NASA proposed prototype foldable-deployable discrete space crane are presented. A computer program is developed which maps the geometry of the crane once controlling parameters are specified. The program uses a building block type approach in which it calculates the local coordinates of each repeating cell and then combines them with respect to a global coordinates system.

  1. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  2. X-ray diffraction study of nanocrystalline and amorphous structure within major and minor ampullate dragline spider silks

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, Sujatha; Isdebski, Thomas; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Ayon, Joel V.; Henning, Robert W.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Antipoa, Olga; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2012-07-25

    Synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction experiments were carried out on Nephila clavipes (NC) and Argiope aurantia (AA) major (MA) and minor ampullate (MiA) fibers that make up dragline spider silk. The diffraction patterns show a semi-crystalline structure with {beta}-poly(L-alanine) nanocrystallites embedded in a partially oriented amorphous matrix. A superlattice reflection 'S' diffraction ring is observed, which corresponds to a crystalline component larger in size and is poorly oriented, when compared to the {beta}-poly(L-alanine) nanocrystallites that are commonly observed in dragline spider silks. Crystallite size, crystallinity and orientation about the fiber axis have been determined from the wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) patterns. In both NC and AA, the MiA silks are found to be more highly crystalline, when compared with the corresponding MA silks. Detailed analysis on the amorphous matrix shows considerable differences in the degree of order of the oriented amorphous component between the different silks studied and may play a crucial role in determining the mechanical properties of the silks.

  3. 46 CFR 109.525 - Cranes: Working loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cranes: Working loads. 109.525 Section 109.525 Shipping... Cranes § 109.525 Cranes: Working loads. The master or person in charge shall ensure that tables... working the crane....

  4. 46 CFR 109.527 - Cranes: Operator designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cranes: Operator designation. 109.527 Section 109.527... OPERATIONS Cranes § 109.527 Cranes: Operator designation. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate, in writing, each crane operator. (b) The master or person in charge shall ensure that only...

  5. 46 CFR 109.527 - Cranes: Operator designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cranes: Operator designation. 109.527 Section 109.527... OPERATIONS Cranes § 109.527 Cranes: Operator designation. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate, in writing, each crane operator. (b) The master or person in charge shall ensure that only...

  6. 46 CFR 109.525 - Cranes: Working loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cranes: Working loads. 109.525 Section 109.525 Shipping... Cranes § 109.525 Cranes: Working loads. The master or person in charge shall ensure that tables... working the crane....

  7. 46 CFR 109.525 - Cranes: Working loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cranes: Working loads. 109.525 Section 109.525 Shipping... Cranes § 109.525 Cranes: Working loads. The master or person in charge shall ensure that tables... working the crane....

  8. 46 CFR 109.525 - Cranes: Working loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cranes: Working loads. 109.525 Section 109.525 Shipping... Cranes § 109.525 Cranes: Working loads. The master or person in charge shall ensure that tables... working the crane....

  9. 46 CFR 109.527 - Cranes: Operator designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cranes: Operator designation. 109.527 Section 109.527... OPERATIONS Cranes § 109.527 Cranes: Operator designation. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate, in writing, each crane operator. (b) The master or person in charge shall ensure that only...

  10. 46 CFR 109.525 - Cranes: Working loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cranes: Working loads. 109.525 Section 109.525 Shipping... Cranes § 109.525 Cranes: Working loads. The master or person in charge shall ensure that tables... working the crane....

  11. 46 CFR 109.527 - Cranes: Operator designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cranes: Operator designation. 109.527 Section 109.527... OPERATIONS Cranes § 109.527 Cranes: Operator designation. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate, in writing, each crane operator. (b) The master or person in charge shall ensure that only...

  12. 46 CFR 109.527 - Cranes: Operator designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cranes: Operator designation. 109.527 Section 109.527... OPERATIONS Cranes § 109.527 Cranes: Operator designation. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate, in writing, each crane operator. (b) The master or person in charge shall ensure that only...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1438 - Overhead & gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., except in 2-3.5.1(b), “29 CFR 1910.147” is substituted for “ANSI Z244.1.” ..., including semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, and others having the same... installed in a facility: Overhead and gantry cranes, overhead/bridge cranes, semigantry, cantilever...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.179 - Overhead and gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operator in a cab located on the bridge or trolley. (4) Cantilever gantry crane means a gantry or... more legs. It may have one or more fixed or hinged cantilever ends. (14) Wall crane means a crane.... This section applies to overhead and gantry cranes, including semigantry, cantilever gantry,...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.179 - Overhead and gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operator in a cab located on the bridge or trolley. (4) Cantilever gantry crane means a gantry or... more legs. It may have one or more fixed or hinged cantilever ends. (14) Wall crane means a crane.... This section applies to overhead and gantry cranes, including semigantry, cantilever gantry,...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.179 - Overhead and gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operator in a cab located on the bridge or trolley. (4) Cantilever gantry crane means a gantry or... more legs. It may have one or more fixed or hinged cantilever ends. (14) Wall crane means a crane.... This section applies to overhead and gantry cranes, including semigantry, cantilever gantry,...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.179 - Overhead and gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operator in a cab located on the bridge or trolley. (4) Cantilever gantry crane means a gantry or... more legs. It may have one or more fixed or hinged cantilever ends. (14) Wall crane means a crane.... This section applies to overhead and gantry cranes, including semigantry, cantilever gantry,...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1438 - Overhead & gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., except in 2-3.5.1(b), “29 CFR 1910.147” is substituted for “ANSI Z244.1.” ..., including semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, and others having the same... installed in a facility: Overhead and gantry cranes, overhead/bridge cranes, semigantry, cantilever...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1438 - Overhead & gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., except in 2-3.5.1(b), “29 CFR 1910.147” is substituted for “ANSI Z244.1.” ..., including semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, and others having the same... installed in a facility: Overhead and gantry cranes, overhead/bridge cranes, semigantry, cantilever...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1438 - Overhead & gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., except in 2-3.5.1(b), “29 CFR 1910.147” is substituted for “ANSI Z244.1.” ..., including semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, and others having the same... installed in a facility: Overhead and gantry cranes, overhead/bridge cranes, semigantry, cantilever...

  1. An articulated-truss space crane concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Thomas R.; Bush, Harold G.; Wallsom, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    An articulated-truss space-crane concept is described, and four articulating-joint (AJ) concepts are evaluated. The space-crane concept uses the same truss structure hardware as Space Station Freedom. The joint concepts are compared according to their actuator stroke ratio, actuator authority, and part count. One AJ concept is selected as a candidate space-crane joint because of its better performance and lower part count. The space-crane reach envelope is determined as a function of the number of AJs and the number of fixed-length booms. A space crane with three booms, three AJs, and one rotary joint provides an adequate reach envelope for an expected work area. The space-crane tip velocity, because of an allowable truss strut compressive load, is limited to approximately 1.0 in./sec for a 300,000-lbm payload. The displacement response is also shown for an emergency stop scenario as a function of the payload mass. The space-crane tip deflection is on the order of 12 in. for a 300,000-lbm payload.

  2. Demonstration of the smart crane ammunition transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Killough, S.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System (SCATS) project is to demonstrate robotic/telerobotic controls technology for a mobile articulated crane for missile/munitions handling, delivery, and reload. Missile resupply and reload have been manually intensive operations up to this time. Currently, reload missiles are delivered by truck to the site of the launcher. A crew of four to five personnel reloads the missiles from the truck to the launcher using a hydraulic-powered crane. The missiles are handled carefully for the safety of the missiles and personnel. Numerous steps are required in the reload process and the entire reload operation can take over an hour for some missile systems. Recent US Army directives require the entire operation to be accomplished in a fraction of that time. Current development of SCATS is being based primarily on reloading Patriot missiles. This paper summarizes the current status of the SCATS project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Additional information on project background and requirements has been described previously (Bradley, et al., 1995).

  3. ASME Nuclear Crane Standards for Enhanced Crane Safety and Increased Profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhurst, Stephen N.

    2000-01-01

    The ASME NOG-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes', covers top running cranes for nuclear facilities; with the ASME NUM-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Cranes, Monorails, and Hoists', covering the single girder, underhung, wall and jib cranes, as well as the monorails and hoists. These two ASME nuclear crane standards provide criteria for designing, inspecting and testing overhead handling equipment with enhanced safety to meet the 'defense-in-depth' approach of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents NUREG 0554 and NUREG 0612. In addition to providing designs for enhanced safety, the ASME nuclear crane standards provide a basis for purchasing overhead handling equipment with standard safety features, based upon accepted engineering principles, and including performance and environmental parameters specific to nuclear facilities. The ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1 standards not only provide enhanced safety for handling a critical load, but also increase profit by minimizing the possibility of load drops, by reducing cumbersome operating restrictions, and by providing the foundation for a sound licensing position. The ASME nuclear crane standards can also increase profit by providing the designs and information to help ensure that the right standard equipment is purchased. Additionally, the ASME nuclear crane standards can increase profit by providing designs and information to help address current issues, such as the qualification of nuclear plant cranes for making 'planned engineered lifts' for steam generator replacement and decommissioning.

  4. Mycotoxin-induced disease in captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Carpenter, J.W.; Gee, G.F.; Thomas, N.J.; Dein, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1987, an epizootic in cranes at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA, caused illness in 80% of 300 captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and death of 15 of these cranes. Gross pathology findings were inconclusive and consisted of dehydration, atrophy of fat, renal insufficiency, and small spleens. Extensive testing resulted in isolation of Fusarium sp. mold from constituents of the grain-based diet. Low levels of two mycotoxins, T2 (1-2 ppm) and deoxynivalenol (0.4 ppm), were isolated from the pelleted feed.

  5. THE LINDA CRANE MEMORIAL LECTUR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    At 90 years of age, the APTA may be facing some of the greatest national and global challenges of its history. Membership has grown from 238 in 1921 to over 70,000 in 2011, but the expansion of the APTA may be restrictive to individual participation. A leadership gap appears imminent in practice and education. Fostering every member to understand the APTA and its great work is essential to ensuring a profession that lives its core values and meets societal needs. The Linda Crane Memorial Lecture in 2011 celebrated a vision of the APTA's 100th birthday with every member serving as a “professional centenarian” who stewards the organization to continued greatness. PMID:21637394

  6. Counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Yang, Li-Farn (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane. The apparatus for hoisting payloads comprises a crane having a lifting means, the lifting means comprising an end effector means and three suspension means or cables. One end of each cable attaches to a different winding means located on the lifting means, and the other end of each cable attaches to a different point on the end effector, such that the three cables have a theoretical point of convergence with this point corresponding to the center of mass of the payload. Three controls command rotation of the winding means to a predetermined position. Accordingly, the crane provides precise and autonomous positioning of the payload without human guidance. The crane further comprises a counter-balancing means. Two controls position the counter-balancing means to offset the overturning moment which arises during the lifting of heavy payloads.

  7. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

  8. E-spun composite fibers of collagen and dragline silk protein: fiber mechanics, biocompatibility, and application in stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bofan; Li, Wen; Lewis, Randolph V; Segre, Carlo U; Wang, Rong

    2015-01-12

    Biocomposite matrices with high mechanical strength, high stability, and the ability to direct matrix-specific stem cell differentiation are essential for the reconstruction of lesioned tissues in tissue engineering and cell therapeutics. Toward this end, we used the electrospinning technique to fabricate well-aligned composite fibers from collagen and spider dragline silk protein, obtained from the milk of transgenic goats, mimicking the native extracellular matrix (ECM) on a similar scale. Collagen and the dragline silk proteins were found to mix homogeneously at all ratios in the electrospun (E-spun) fibers. As a result, the ultimate tensile strength and elasticity of the fibers increased monotonically with silk percentage, whereas the stretchability was slightly reduced. Strikingly, we found that the incorporation of silk proteins to collagen dramatically increased the matrix stability against excessive fiber swelling and shape deformation in cell culture medium. When human decidua parietalis placental stem cells (hdpPSCs) were seeded on the collagen-silk matrices, the matrices were found to support cell proliferation at a similar rate as that of the pure collagen matrix, but they provided cell adhesion with reduced strengths and induced cell polarization at varied levels. Matrices containing 15 and 30 wt % silk in collagen (CS15, CS30) were found to induce a level of neural differentiation comparable to that of pure collagen. In particular, CS15 matrix induced the highest extent of cell polarization and promoted the development of extended 1D neural filaments strictly in-line with the aligned fibers. Taking the increased mechanical strength and fiber stability into consideration, CS15 and CS30 E-spun fibers offer better alternatives to pure collagen fibers as scaffolds that can be potentially utilized in neural tissue repair and the development of future nanobiodevices. PMID:25405355

  9. E-Spun Composite Fibers of Collagen and Dragline Silk Protein: Fiber Mechanics, Biocompatibility, and Application in Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Biocomposite matrices with high mechanical strength, high stability, and the ability to direct matrix-specific stem cell differentiation are essential for the reconstruction of lesioned tissues in tissue engineering and cell therapeutics. Toward this end, we used the electrospinning technique to fabricate well-aligned composite fibers from collagen and spider dragline silk protein, obtained from the milk of transgenic goats, mimicking the native extracellular matrix (ECM) on a similar scale. Collagen and the dragline silk proteins were found to mix homogeneously at all ratios in the electrospun (E-spun) fibers. As a result, the ultimate tensile strength and elasticity of the fibers increased monotonically with silk percentage, whereas the stretchability was slightly reduced. Strikingly, we found that the incorporation of silk proteins to collagen dramatically increased the matrix stability against excessive fiber swelling and shape deformation in cell culture medium. When human decidua parietalis placental stem cells (hdpPSCs) were seeded on the collagen–silk matrices, the matrices were found to support cell proliferation at a similar rate as that of the pure collagen matrix, but they provided cell adhesion with reduced strengths and induced cell polarization at varied levels. Matrices containing 15 and 30 wt % silk in collagen (CS15, CS30) were found to induce a level of neural differentiation comparable to that of pure collagen. In particular, CS15 matrix induced the highest extent of cell polarization and promoted the development of extended 1D neural filaments strictly in-line with the aligned fibers. Taking the increased mechanical strength and fiber stability into consideration, CS15 and CS30 E-spun fibers offer better alternatives to pure collagen fibers as scaffolds that can be potentially utilized in neural tissue repair and the development of future nanobiodevices. PMID:25405355

  10. 45. DETAIL OF OVERHEAD SERVICE CRANE (5TON CRANE MANUFACTURED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. DETAIL OF OVERHEAD SERVICE CRANE (5-TON CRANE MANUFACTURED BY ARMINGTON CARRIAGE; 3-TON HOIST MANUFACTURED BY WRIGHT HOIST COMPANY) IN VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2. VIEW TO EAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  11. Predicting and mapping potential Whooping Crane stopover habitat to guide site selection for wind energy projects.

    PubMed

    Belaire, J Amy; Kreakie, Betty J; Keitt, Timothy; Minor, Emily

    2014-04-01

    Migratory stopover habitats are often not part of planning for conservation or new development projects. We identified potential stopover habitats within an avian migratory flyway and demonstrated how this information can guide the site-selection process for new development. We used the random forests modeling approach to map the distribution of predicted stopover habitat for the Whooping Crane (Grus americana), an endangered species whose migratory flyway overlaps with an area where wind energy development is expected to become increasingly important. We then used this information to identify areas for potential wind power development in a U.S. state within the flyway (Nebraska) that minimize conflicts between Whooping Crane stopover habitat and the development of clean, renewable energy sources. Up to 54% of our study area was predicted to be unsuitable as Whooping Crane stopover habitat and could be considered relatively low risk for conflicts between Whooping Cranes and wind energy development. We suggest that this type of analysis be incorporated into the habitat conservation planning process in areas where incidental take permits are being considered for Whooping Cranes or other species of concern. Field surveys should always be conducted prior to construction to verify model predictions and understand baseline conditions. PMID:24372936

  12. Remote crane control techniques and closed circuit television for the US Deparment of Energy, Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    DaSilva, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) located at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), South Carolina is a nuclear waste facility being built to vitrify and containerize high level radioactive waste product. DWPF has a unique requirement for an unmanned crane system to install and replace equipment in the high humidity, high radiation and harsh chemical environment of permanently inaccessible processing cells. A radio control system is provided to control a 117 ton capacity bridge crane that is equipped with various power tools for remote handling of crane replaceable and maintained equipment. High resolution black and white Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) assemblies mounted on the crane and on the walls of the various processing cells are provided for viewing the equipment during normal operations and maintenance.

  13. Noise exposure profile among heavy equipment operators, associated laborers, and crane operators.

    PubMed

    Legris, M; Poulin, P

    1998-11-01

    This study, conducted in 1987 and 1988, has made it possible to quantify exposure to noise among heavy equipment operators, associated laborers, and crane operators. The average daily noise exposure was 84 to 99 dBA for heavy equipment, 90 dBA for the laborer, and 74 to 97 dBA for the crane operator. The main sources of noise to which heavy equipment operators are exposed are vehicle engines and the muffler exhaust system, usually located near the operator. The presence of insulated cabs such as those found on power shovels, backhoes, wheel loaders, and graders help reduce noise exposure. The type of tasks carried out by the laborers, the sources of noise from heavy equipment around which they work, and the manual equipment they use determine the noise levels to which such workers are exposed. In the case of crane operators, an insulated cab significantly reduces the operator's exposure to engine noise. PMID:9830084

  14. FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING CRANE RAILS, GREY IRON CUPOLA AND EMISSION RECOVERY SYSTEM. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Crane counterweight, view north from operator cab level; note pipe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Crane counterweight, view north from operator cab level; note pipe Coppersmithshop (Haer no. PA-387-T) in background to right. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, 350-Ton Hammerhead Crane, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Detail view southwest of miter gear; note crane jack to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view southwest of miter gear; note crane jack to right - miter and rack and pinion center top with universal joint at left. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, 350-Ton Hammerhead Crane, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING WESTNORTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE, SHOWING CRANE MOTOR AND MALLEABLE CUPOLAS WITH OPEN TOPS AND EMISSION RECOVERY DUCTS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. 5. VIEW NORTHNORTHWEST FROM FLOOR OF DRYDOCK NO. 5; CRANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTH-NORTHWEST FROM FLOOR OF DRYDOCK NO. 5; CRANE LIFTING SHEET METAL SCRAP (JEFF DAVIS-CRANE OPERATOR). - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 2. LOOKING NORTHWEST PAST THE CRANE AT THE WEST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING NORTHWEST PAST THE CRANE AT THE WEST END OF THE PROJECT AREA, TOWARD THE CHANNEL AND MT. TAMALPAIS BEHIND THE CRANES IN THE FAR DISTANCE. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  20. 41. SWITCH BACK IN DAVIS CUTOFF ROAD AT LITTLE CRANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. SWITCH BACK IN DAVIS CUT-OFF ROAD AT LITTLE CRANE CREEK. NOTE STONE CULVERT BRIDGE AT BOTTOM AND CRANE FALLS BRIDGE AT TOP. - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  1. Calibrated water tank facilitates proof- loading of cranes and derricks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppi, R. K.

    1969-01-01

    Calibrated steel water tank provides the weight loads required for proof-testing of cranes and derricks. The use of the water tank provides a safe, fast, economical method of proof-loading cranes and derricks.

  2. 305 Building 2 ton bridge crane and monorail assembly analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Axup, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    The analyses in the appendix of this document evaluate the integrity of the existing bridge crane structure, as depicted on drawing H-3-34292, for a bridge crane and monorail assembly with a load rating of 2 tons. This bridge crane and monorail assembly is a modification of a 1 1/2 ton rated manipulator bridge crane which originally existed in the 305 building.

  3. Locomotive Crane placing concrete on trestle at coal dock (Pier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Locomotive Crane placing concrete on trestle at coal dock (Pier 01) - looking southeast. Taken Jan 4, 1924. 14th Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 4872-B - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 46 CFR 109.437 - Crane record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crane record book. 109.437 Section 109.437 Shipping... Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.437 Crane record book. The master or person in charge shall ensure that the following are maintained in a crane record book: (a) Descriptive information...

  5. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  6. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  7. 46 CFR 107.259 - Crane inspection and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crane inspection and testing. 107.259 Section 107.259... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.259 Crane inspection and testing. (a) Each crane must be inspected and tested in accordance with Section 3 of the American Petroleum Institute...

  8. 46 CFR 107.260 - Rated load test for cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rated load test for cranes. 107.260 Section 107.260... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.260 Rated load test for cranes. (a) To meet the requirements in § 107.231(l), each crane must meet the following rated load test at both...

  9. 46 CFR 109.437 - Crane record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crane record book. 109.437 Section 109.437 Shipping... Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.437 Crane record book. The master or person in charge shall ensure that the following are maintained in a crane record book: (a) Descriptive information...

  10. 46 CFR 107.259 - Crane inspection and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crane inspection and testing. 107.259 Section 107.259... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.259 Crane inspection and testing. (a) Each crane must be inspected and tested in accordance with Section 3 of the American Petroleum Institute...

  11. 46 CFR 107.260 - Rated load test for cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rated load test for cranes. 107.260 Section 107.260... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.260 Rated load test for cranes. (a) To meet the requirements in § 107.231(l), each crane must meet the following rated load test at both...

  12. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in accordance with 46 CFR part 109, subpart F. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must cranes be...

  13. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  14. 46 CFR 109.437 - Crane record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crane record book. 109.437 Section 109.437 Shipping... Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.437 Crane record book. The master or person in charge shall ensure that the following are maintained in a crane record book: (a) Descriptive information...

  15. General view of crane with legs erected temporary erection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of crane with legs erected - temporary erection towers still in place. Taken June 20, 1940. Fourteenth Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 13779 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Bridge Gantry Crane No. 1, Welding slab along Third Street, near intersection with Avenue G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  17. 46 CFR 107.259 - Crane inspection and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crane inspection and testing. 107.259 Section 107.259... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.259 Crane inspection and testing. (a) Each crane must be inspected and tested in accordance with Section 3 of the American Petroleum Institute...

  18. 46 CFR 107.259 - Crane inspection and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crane inspection and testing. 107.259 Section 107.259... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.259 Crane inspection and testing. (a) Each crane must be inspected and tested in accordance with Section 3 of the American Petroleum Institute...

  19. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  20. Overall view of gantry crane and storage yard. Taken June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of gantry crane and storage yard. Taken June 20, 1940. Fourteenth Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 13770 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Bridge Gantry Crane No. 1, Welding slab along Third Street, near intersection with Avenue G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  2. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in accordance with 46 CFR part 109, subpart F. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must cranes be...

  3. 46 CFR 107.260 - Rated load test for cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rated load test for cranes. 107.260 Section 107.260... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.260 Rated load test for cranes. (a) To meet the requirements in § 107.231(l), each crane must meet the following rated load test at both...

  4. Workmen and Crawler Crane pouring roof slab and parapet wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Workmen and Crawler Crane pouring roof slab and parapet wall of building - looking northwest. Taken Nov. 15, 1929. 14th Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 7165 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in accordance with 46 CFR part 109, subpart F. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must cranes be...

  6. 46 CFR 107.260 - Rated load test for cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rated load test for cranes. 107.260 Section 107.260... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.260 Rated load test for cranes. (a) To meet the requirements in § 107.231(l), each crane must meet the following rated load test at both...

  7. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  8. 46 CFR 107.260 - Rated load test for cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rated load test for cranes. 107.260 Section 107.260... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.260 Rated load test for cranes. (a) To meet the requirements in § 107.231(l), each crane must meet the following rated load test at both...

  9. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  10. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in accordance with 46 CFR part 109, subpart F. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must cranes be...

  11. 46 CFR 109.437 - Crane record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crane record book. 109.437 Section 109.437 Shipping... Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.437 Crane record book. The master or person in charge shall ensure that the following are maintained in a crane record book: (a) Descriptive information...

  12. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  13. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  14. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in accordance with 46 CFR part 109, subpart F. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must cranes be...

  15. 46 CFR 109.437 - Crane record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crane record book. 109.437 Section 109.437 Shipping... Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.437 Crane record book. The master or person in charge shall ensure that the following are maintained in a crane record book: (a) Descriptive information...

  16. Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Populations in Sandhill Crane Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sandhill cranes have the potential to be important seasonal sources of waterborne fecal bacteria; however, it is currently not possible to measure the extent of crane fecal pollution in potentially impacted areas as there are no available crane-specific assays. This is in part d...

  17. Techniques for rearing and releasing nonmigratory cranes: Lessons from the Mississippi Sandhill Crane program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Olsen, G.H.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, J.M.; O'Malley, K.E.; Nagendran, M.; Hereford, Scott G.; Range, P.; Harper, W.T.; Ingram, R.P.; Smith, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Captive-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) reared at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent) have been released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (MSCNWR) since 1981. Of 131 birds released through December 1990, 103 were reared by foster parents. The remaining 28 were experimentally hand-reared in 1989 and 1990. After refining release procedures, parent-reared birds have integrated into the wild flock, many have survived, and some have bred. Releases of hand-reared cranes elsewhere in the 1970's were largely unsuccessful, at least in part due to the lack of a lengthy acclimation period. A new hand-rearing protocol holds promise in producing release-worthy birds. The technique employs some features first used in the 1960's (e.g., a costume for the human caretaker and model crane heads used to train chicks to feed). In the mid-1980's, the following features were added: (1) the costumed caretaker was given a visor and feathers, (2) a taxidermic crane head or a hand puppet was held or suspended from the ceiling for use in stimulating chicks to feed, (3) a taxidermic mount of a brooding crane supplied warmth, (4) a full-sized live crane was maintained in an adjacent pen and in visual contact with neonatal young to provide an imprinting model, and (5) a small group of adult (or subadult) cranes was penned adjacent to the outdoor chick pens to provide socialization models. Recent releases of Mississippi sandhill cranes hand-reared according to this protocol and released in Mississippi have had high first-year survival rates. The now-operational technique holds promise for producing large numbers of release-worthy birds.

  18. Sandhill cranes browse for food near VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A family of sandhill cranes searches for food on the grounds near the Vehicle Assembly Building. The cranes have been a constant sight in the Launch Complex 39 area during the month of May. Sandhill cranes range from Siberia, Alaska and Arctic islands to Michigan, Minnesota and California; from Florida to Texas. They prefer large freshwater marshes, prairie ponds and marshy tundra. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  19. Sandhill cranes browse for food near VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    While the sandhill crane parents search for food in front of the Vehicle Assembly Building, their still-featherless baby nearby tests its voice. The cranes have been a constant sight in the Launch Complex 39 area during the month of May. Sandhill cranes range from Siberia, Alaska and Arctic islands to Michigan, Minnesota and California; from Florida to Texas. They prefer large freshwater marshes, prairie ponds and marshy tundra. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  20. Conditioning of sandhill cranes during fall migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    Body mass of adult female and male sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) increased an average of 17 and 20%, respectively, from early September to late October on staging areas in central North Dakota and varied by year. Increases in body mass averaged 550 and 681 g among female and male G. c. canadensis, respectively, and 616 and 836 g among female and male G. c. rowani. Adult and juvenile G. c. rowani were lean at arrival, averaging 177 and 83 g of fat, respectively, and fat reserves increased to 677 and 482 g by mid-October. Fat-free dry mass increased by 12% among juveniles, reflecting substantial growth, but remained constant among adults. The importance of fall staging areas as conditioning sites for sandhill cranes, annual variation in body mass, and vulnerability of cranes to habitat loss underscore the need to monitor status of fall staging habitat in the northern plains region and to take steps to maintain suitable habitat where necessary.

  1. Crane reliability and safety: a certification program

    SciTech Connect

    DelGaizo, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    In 1982, the US Navy undertook a project to upgrade shipboard rigging and load-handling operations by establishing a formal crane certification program. The program, which incorporated several features of the Navy's long successful submarine safety program, involved procedures for crane operation, including operator training and qualification, as well as procedures for maintenance, inspection, and testing of rigging and load-handling equipment. Special provisions were made for handling of critical loads, such as nuclear material. This project is quite relevant to the commercial nuclear industry, in particular, the areas of maintenance, inspection, testing, and certification. Just what impact this program will have on crane-related accident statistics in future years is only a subject of conjecture at this point, since the program has only recently been implemented. Regardless of these statistics, there can be little doubt that the overall effect of such a program on load-handling operations will be a beneficial one.

  2. Quay crane scheduling for an indented berth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Der-Horng; Chen, Jiang Hang; Cao, Jin Xin

    2011-09-01

    This article explores the quay crane scheduling problem at an indented berth. The indented berth is known as an innovative implementation in the container terminals to tackle the challenge from the emergence of more and more mega-containerships. A mixed integer programming model by considering the non-crossing and safety distance constraints is formulated. A Tabu search heuristic is developed to solve the proposed problem. The computational results from this research indicate that the designed Tabu search is an effective method to handle the quay crane scheduling problem at an indented berth.

  3. 29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. All types of winches and cranes shall be provided... winch, or electric cranes shall be equipped so that a failure of the electric power shall stop the... electric winches and cranes during the tests shall be taken from the vessel's circuits. Shore current...

  4. 29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. All types of winches and cranes shall be provided... winch, or electric cranes shall be equipped so that a failure of the electric power shall stop the... electric winches and cranes during the tests shall be taken from the vessel's circuits. Shore current...

  5. 29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. All types of winches and cranes shall be provided... winch, or electric cranes shall be equipped so that a failure of the electric power shall stop the... electric winches and cranes during the tests shall be taken from the vessel's circuits. Shore current...

  6. 29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. All types of winches and cranes shall be provided... winch, or electric cranes shall be equipped so that a failure of the electric power shall stop the... electric winches and cranes during the tests shall be taken from the vessel's circuits. Shore current...

  7. Assessing sandhill crane roosting habitatalong the Platte River, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinzel, P.J.; Nelson, J.M.; Parker, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Each spring approximately 500,000 sandhill cranes and some endangered whooping cranes use the Central Platte River Valley in Nebraska as a staging habitat during their migration north to breeding and nesting grounds in Canada, Alaska, and the Siberian Arctic. Over the last century changes in the flow of the river have altered the river channels and the distribution of roost sites. USGS researchers studied linkages between water flow, sediment supply, channel morphology, and preferred sites for crane roosting. These results are useful for estimating crane populations and for providing resource managers with techniques to understand crane habitats.

  8. Efficacy of eastern encephalitis immunization in whooping cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Turell, M.J.; Pagac, B.B.

    1997-01-01

    An epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC), Laurel, Maryland (USA), in 1989 provided an opportunity to determine if EEE immunization protected whooping cranes (Grus americana). Based on seroconversion of 31 % of sympatric hatch-year sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis, and a previous 35% case fatality rate in whooping cranes, 17 (37%) of the 46 susceptible whooping cranes should have been exposed to virus and six should have died. As there were no deaths in these birds, the EEE vaccination program appeared to be efficacious in this whooping crane population.

  9. A review of crane safety in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, R L; Seixas, N S; Ren, K K

    2001-12-01

    The complex, dynamic, and continually changing nature of construction work has been recognized as an important contributor to the high rates of injuries and fatalities in the industry. Cranes are a central component of many construction operations and are associated with a large fraction of construction deaths; in fact, estimates suggest that cranes are involved in up to one-third of all construction and maintenance fatalities. Safety and health professionals serving the construction industry need adequate training and knowledge regarding available crane safety devices and procedures so that they may insure these techniques are effectively utilized during construction operations. This paper reviews available information on crane-related injuries, currently available safety devices, and commonly used crane safety procedures. Recommendations for improved crane injury prevention and future crane safety research are given. PMID:11783872

  10. Lester Crane: Getting Approvals After the Fact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, Mark F.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a case study for use in business communication classes to help students understand and learn both the context and the strategies for communication with business and management. Discusses planning required to do business (selling speciality construction cranes) in the Middle East. Includes some correspondence and two assignments. (SR)

  11. Aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Duncan, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    An unusual form of pulmonary aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) is described in this report. The major lesion is unique because it closely resembles a lesion referred to as an aspergilloma. An aspergilloma is a single large granulomatous lesion that resembles a tumor and is caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus.

  12. Hydraulic hoist system for offshore cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Doan, T.C.; Featherstone, W.A.

    1982-11-01

    A problem of hydraulic hoist systems for cranes has been the generation of heat within the hydraulic circuit. The generation of heat affects efficiency and performance. This paper describes our approach to obtaining improved efficiency and good performance by reduced heat generation.

  13. The "Crane Problem" in Journalism Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmarelli, Ron

    Attempting to correct and amplify the portrayal of Stephen Crane in journalism history, this paper provides an analysis of relevant works in journalism and other disciplines in order to point out the weaknesses in the journalism historiography and to show how they apparently came about. Evidence is presented from the literature of journalism,…

  14. Flight restraint techniques for captive cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Dein, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditional techniques for preventing escape of captive cranes (i.e., tenotomy, tenectomy, wing clipping, confinement under nets, and amputation) are discussed briefly. Two additional techniques (i.e., brailing and vane trimming) are described in detail. The advantages and limitations of each technique are presented.

  15. Wireless monitoring system using LAN for crane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kyung Jae; Choi, Yeol; Hong, Won-Hwa; Kim, Wha-Jung

    2006-03-01

    Various monitoring sensors have been used for the monitoring and damage prediction of structures. Piezoelectric and optical fiber sensor that are required housing for the field applications are used widely. The voltage change of piezoelectric for the steel girder is used for damage prediction. The inspection and monitoring for safety of crane is not easy because it is located in high level and the operation should be stop for the inspection. The constant input load by moving the crane girder with constant speed was used instead of ambient vibration. In this test, wireless monitoring system using LAN is tried for the long distance measurement. The objective of this paper is to present the dynamic measurement results to identify the potential damage of steel beam using piezoelectric sensor. Cantilever beams, a simply supported beam with bolted splice, and actual crane girder have been chosen for the test. FFT method was used for the damage identification. This output-only dynamic test is likely applied to the top crane to monitor the damage.

  16. Peace Crane Project: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBert, Linda L.; Calais, Jerry; Cuevas, Phyllis; Fruge', Hugh; Gardiner, Judy Carter; Larmon, Marilyn; Rees, Jocelyn

    To model collaboration and to "practice what we teach," a group of faculty members at McNeese State University in Louisiana developed a college-wide theme based on the book, "Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes." This book was selected because of the importance of seeking and achieving peace in a world that is struggling and, seemingly, losing…

  17. Inclusion body disease of cranes: comparison of pathologic findings in cranes with acquired vs. experimentally induced disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuh, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Siegfried, L.M.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1986-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of cranes was the cause of death in 17 immature and mature cranes of 5 different species in Wisconsin. A herpesvirus of unknown origin was the apparent cause. An isolate of this herpesvirus was used to experimentally infect 3 species of cranes. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions associated with naturally acquired and experimentally induced disease were essentially identical. Multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis was found in all cranes evaluated. Necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius also was seen in some of the cranes. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies often were commonly associated with hepatic lesions, sometimes with the splenic lesions, and rarely with the thymic or gastrointestinal tract lesions. The lesions of this inclusion body disease were similar to those reported for cranes in Austria from which a crane herpesvirus was isolated.

  18. Population sizes and group characteristics of Siberian Crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) in Poyang Lake Wetland

    PubMed Central

    SHAO, Ming-Qin; GUO, Hong; JIANG, Jian-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Both the Siberian Crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) have limited population sizes and are considered endangered by domestic Chinese and international agencies. To document the current size of their respective populations and characterize their groups, between October 2012 and April 2013 we undertook fieldwork at four nature reserve areas within the Poyang Lake wetlands. We divided Poyanghu National Nature Reserve (PYH) into the Wucheng (PWC) and Hengfeng areas (PHF), because each are each located in different counties. Our fieldwork showed that the Siberian Crane occurred mainly in PYH (364 in the PHF, 158 in the PWC) and the Nanjishan Wetland National Nature Reserve (NJS, with 200 individuals). The Hooded Crane was mainly distributed in PYH (302 in the PHF and 154 in the PWC). Family groups accounted for more than 50% of the total number of groups among both species, with Hooded Cranes forming more family groups than Siberian Cranes. Typically, these groups were formed of two adults with one offspring (Siberian Crane), and two adults with two offspring (Hooded Crane), with the mean family group size of the Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane being respectively 2.65±0.53 (n=43) and 3.09±0.86 (n=47) individuals per group. The mean collective group size of the Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane included 28.09±24.94 (n=23) and 28.94±27.97 (n=16) individuals per group, respectively, with the proportion of juveniles among Hooded Cranes being more than double that seen among the Siberian Cranes. PMID:25297076

  19. Use of ultralight aircraft for introducing migratory crane populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clegg, K.R.; Lewis, J.C.; Ellis, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives were to determine if captive-reared cranes could be led behind an ultralight aircraft (UL) along a migration route and, if after release on a wintering area, they would integrate with wild cranes and migrate north in spring to their natal area without assistance. Greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were used as the research surrogate for whooping cranes (Grus americana). In 1995, the senior author raised 15 cranes to fledging and trained them to respond to his vocal imitation of a sandhill crane brood call. Chicks learned to follow him as he walked, drove an all-terrain vehicle (ATV), or piloted an UL. The caretakers were not in crane costumes. Cranes were tame but allowed to roam at will without accompanying humans part of the day and were penned at night. Daily excursions provided exposure to habitats, foods, and predators the birds would encounter after release into the wild. In mid-October 1995, 11 radio-tagged cranes were led in migration from Grade, Idaho to Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge (BdANWR), central New Mexico, and released near wild wintering sandhill cranes. The 1,204km migration took 11 days, including 1 day when the aircraft were grounded due to a winter storm. Hazards encountered enroute included mountainous terrain, turbulent air, and attacks by gold eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). On the wintering ground, hazards included crane hunters and coyotes (Canis latrans). Within 2 days after release at the BdANWR wintering site, the research cranes were associating with and imitating the behavior of wild cranes. The 4 surviving birds migrated north in spring 1996 and at the time of this writing 2 were within 53 km of their natal area in Idaho.

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1407 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-assembly and disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1407 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—assembly and disassembly...) Assembly/disassembly below power lines prohibited. No part of a crane/derrick, load line, or load... part of a crane/derrick, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories),...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1407 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-assembly and disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1407 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—assembly and disassembly...) Assembly/disassembly below power lines prohibited. No part of a crane/derrick, load line, or load... part of a crane/derrick, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories),...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1407 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-assembly and disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1407 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—assembly and disassembly...) Assembly/disassembly below power lines prohibited. No part of a crane/derrick, load line, or load... part of a crane/derrick, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories),...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1407 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-assembly and disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1407 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—assembly and disassembly...) Assembly/disassembly below power lines prohibited. No part of a crane/derrick, load line, or load... part of a crane/derrick, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories),...

  4. Vertebral formula in red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) and hooded crane (Grus monacha).

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Takeo; Sakamoto, Haruka; Nishikawa, Sayaka; Muneuchi, Ippei; Ueda, Hiromi; Inoue, Masako; Shimura, Ryoji; Uebayashi, Akiko; Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Momose, Kunikazu; Masatomi, Hiroyuki; Teraoka, Hiroki

    2014-04-01

    Red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) are distributed separately in the east Eurasian Continent (continental population) and in Hokkaido, Japan (island population). The island population is sedentary in eastern Hokkaido and has increased from a very small number of cranes to over 1,300, thus giving rise to the problem of poor genetic diversity. While, Hooded cranes (Grus monacha), which migrate from the east Eurasian Continent and winter mainly in Izumi, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, are about eight-time larger than the island population of Red-crowned cranes. We collected whole bodies of these two species, found dead or moribund in eastern Hokkaido and in Izumi, and observed skeletons with focus on vertebral formula. Numbers of cervical vertebrae (Cs), thoracic vertebrae (Ts), vertebrae composing the synsacrum (Sa) and free coccygeal vertebrae (free Cos) in 22 Red-crowned cranes were 17 or 18, 9-11, 13 or 14 and 7 or 8, respectively. Total number of vertebrae was 47, 48 or 49, and the vertebral formula was divided into three types including 9 sub-types. Numbers of Cs, Ts, vertebrae composing the Sa and free Cos in 25 Hooded cranes were 17 or 18, 9 or 10, 12-14 and 6-8, respectively. Total number of vertebrae was 46, 47, 48 or 49, and the vertebral formula was divided into four types including 14 sub-types. Our findings clearly showed various numerical vertebral patterns in both crane species; however, these variations in the vertebral formula may be unrelated to the genetic diversity. PMID:24334828

  5. Vertebral Formula in Red-Crowned Crane (Grus japonensis) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha)

    PubMed Central

    HIRAGA, Takeo; SAKAMOTO, Haruka; NISHIKAWA, Sayaka; MUNEUCHI, Ippei; UEDA, Hiromi; INOUE, Masako; SHIMURA, Ryoji; UEBAYASHI, Akiko; YASUDA, Nobuhiro; MOMOSE, Kunikazu; MASATOMI, Hiroyuki; TERAOKA, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) are distributed separately in the east Eurasian Continent (continental population) and in Hokkaido, Japan (island population). The island population is sedentary in eastern Hokkaido and has increased from a very small number of cranes to over 1,300, thus giving rise to the problem of poor genetic diversity. While, Hooded cranes (Grus monacha), which migrate from the east Eurasian Continent and winter mainly in Izumi, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, are about eight-time larger than the island population of Red-crowned cranes. We collected whole bodies of these two species, found dead or moribund in eastern Hokkaido and in Izumi, and observed skeletons with focus on vertebral formula. Numbers of cervical vertebrae (Cs), thoracic vertebrae (Ts), vertebrae composing the synsacrum (Sa) and free coccygeal vertebrae (free Cos) in 22 Red-crowned cranes were 17 or 18, 9–11, 13 or 14 and 7 or 8, respectively. Total number of vertebrae was 47, 48 or 49, and the vertebral formula was divided into three types including 9 sub-types. Numbers of Cs, Ts, vertebrae composing the Sa and free Cos in 25 Hooded cranes were 17 or 18, 9 or 10, 12–14 and 6–8, respectively. Total number of vertebrae was 46, 47, 48 or 49, and the vertebral formula was divided into four types including 14 sub-types. Our findings clearly showed various numerical vertebral patterns in both crane species; however, these variations in the vertebral formula may be unrelated to the genetic diversity. PMID:24334828

  6. An input shaping controller enabling cranes to move without sway

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, N.; Singhose, W.; Kriikku, E.

    1997-06-01

    A gantry crane at the Savannah River Technology Center was retrofitted with an Input Shaping controller. The controller intercepts the operator`s pendant commands and modifies them in real time so that the crane is moved without residual sway in the suspended load. Mechanical components on the crane were modified to make the crane suitable for the anti-sway algorithm. This paper will describe the required mechanical modifications to the crane, as well as, a new form of Input Shaping that was developed for use on the crane. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the new process. Several practical considerations will be discussed including a novel (patent pending) approach for making small, accurate moves without residual oscillations.

  7. Avian tuberculosis and salmonellosis in a whooping crane (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Thoen, C.O.; Duncan, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The whooping crane has been the subject of intensive scientific study and management because it is an endangered species and has high public interest. Programs have been developed to identify critical habitat, to increase production through captive breeding, and in recent years, to use sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) as surrogate parents in establishing new populations of wild whooping cranes. Only a few reports describing diseases and parasites in wild whooping cranes appear in the literature because opportunities to secure specimens are limited for this rare, protected bird (for review, see Carpenter and Derrickson, In Proc. International Crane Workshop of 1983, Bharatur, India, in press). Avian tuberculosis and concurrent salmonellosis in a wild whooping crane are described in this case report.

  8. Sandhill cranes hunting food at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A pair of Sandhill Cranes searches for food with their still- fluffy fledgling close by. The trio have been seen wandering the grassy areas in the KSC Launch Complex 39 area. Sandhill cranes range from Siberia, Alaska and Arctic islands to Michigan, Minnesota and California; from Florida to Texas. They prefer large freshwater marshes, prairie ponds and marshy tundra. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  9. Compendium of crane behavior. Part 1: Individual (nonsocial) behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Archibald, G.W.; Swengel, S.R.; Kepler, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides the organizational framework, nomenclature, and abbreviated descriptions for all conspicuous nonsocial behavioral units for all 15 species of crane. We present eight generalized functional classes of behavior. These classes include about 90 discrete motor patterns that constitute the nonsocial repertoire of all cranes. We present this compendium to facilitate information exchanges among students of crane behavior and to encourage interest in future detailed studies of the descriptive ethology of each species.

  10. Golden Eagle predation on experimental Sandhill and Whooping Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Clegg, K.R.; Lewis, J.C.; Spaulding, E.

    1999-01-01

    There are very few published records of Golden Eagles preying upon cranes, especially in North America. During our experiments to lead cranes on migration behind motorized craft in the western United States, we experienced 15 attacks (four fatal) and believe many more attacks would have occurred (and more would have been fatal) without human intervention. We recognize eagle predation as an important risk to cranes especially during migration.

  11. Artificial insemination of cranes with frozen semen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.

  12. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species. PMID:27395675

  13. View northnortheast of drydock no. 2 and its portal cranes. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north-northeast of drydock no. 2 and its portal cranes. Main crane, 50 long tons capacity/maximum height 118 "2", is at left; whip crane, 53 long tons capacity maximum height 173 "8" is at center; auxiliary crane, 15 long tons capacity/maximum height 161 "0" is at right. Building at left is the turret shed. The vessel at the lower right of the photograph is a receiving ship formerly used for processing and temporary housing of naval personnel. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 2, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Tetrameres grusi (Nemotoda: Tetrameridae) from foster-raised whooping cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuggle, B.N.

    1983-01-01

    A juvenile whooping crane (Grus americana) that had been raised by greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) foster parents was attacked and killed by a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) southwest of Rangely, Colorado (Windingstad et al., 1981, Auk 98:393-394). Since 1975, whooping crane eggs have been placed in the nests of sandhill cranes in an effort to increase the population of this endangered species. This bird was hatched at Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho and was attacked while migrating to wintering grounds in New Mexico. The bird was sent to the National Wildlife Health Laboratory for a detailed necropsy.

  15. Analysis and testing of a space crane articulating joint testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Thomas R.; Wu, K. Chauncey

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: space crane concept with mobile base; mechanical versus structural articulating joint; articulating joint test bed and reference truss; static and dynamic characterization completed for space crane reference truss configuration; improved linear actuators reduce articulating joint test bed backlash; 1-DOF space crane slew maneuver; boom 2 tip transient response finite element dynamic model; boom 2 tip transient response shear-corrected component modes torque driver profile; peak root member force vs. slew time torque driver profile; and open loop control of space crane motion.

  16. Complete LQG propagator: Difficulties with the Barrett-Crane vertex

    SciTech Connect

    Alesci, Emanuele; Rovelli, Carlo

    2007-11-15

    Some components of the graviton two-point function have been recently computed in the context of loop quantum gravity, using the spinfoam Barrett-Crane vertex. We complete the calculation of the remaining components. We find that, under our assumptions, the Barrett-Crane vertex does not yield the correct long-distance limit. We argue that the problem is general and can be traced to the intertwiner independence of the Barrett-Crane vertex, and therefore to the well-known mismatch between the Barrett-Crane formalism and the standard canonical spin networks. In another paper we illustrate the asymptotic behavior of a vertex amplitude that can correct this difficulty.

  17. Karyotype and identification of sex in two endangered crane species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodpasture, C.; Seluja, G.; Gee, G.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory procedure for sex identification of monomorphic birds was developed using modern cytological methods of detecting chromosome abnormalities in human amniotic fluid samples. A pin feather is taken from a pre-fledging bird for tissue culture and karyotype analysis. Through this method, the sex was identified and the karyotype described of the whooping crane (Grus americana) and the Mississippi sandhill crane (G. canadensis pulla). Giemsa-stained karyotypes of these species showed an identical chromosome constitution with 2n = 78 + 2. However, differences in the amount of centromeric heterochromatin were observed in the Mississippi sandhill crane when compared to the whooping crane C-banded karyotype.

  18. Reintroduction medicine: whooping cranes in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Keller, Dominique L; Hartup, Barry K

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents veterinary management strategies and diagnostic findings in the reintroduction of the endangered whooping crane (Grus americana). Between 2005 and 2010, 63 (27 male, 36 female) hatchling whooping cranes were assigned to a reintroduction project involving autumn release of costume-reared chicks in Wisconsin. Veterinary care included preventive measures and comprehensive pre-release evaluations to improve fitness and reduce translocation of potential disease agents to native habitats. A total of 44 clinically normal birds were released (70% of assigned individuals). Cases of morbidity were classified according to primary body system affected. Musculoskeletal disorders were described in 57 birds (90%); five birds were removed from the project prior to release (8%), all for abnormalities that prevented normal function. Fourteen birds died or were euthanized prior to release (22%); pre-release mortality was attributed to developmental abnormality, predation, trauma or infectious disease. Chronic respiratory aspergillosis, diagnosed in seven birds (11%), was the most common infectious disease of concern. Predation and trauma were primary causes of post-release mortality; no evidence of infectious disease of captive origin was detected in the study population by the end of 2010. The assessment of data accumulated by this project helped to outline successful health management strategies, as well as identify and mitigate ongoing risks to captive whooping cranes that impede reintroduction efforts and achieving management goals for species recovery. PMID:24027128

  19. Quay crane scheduling with dual cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dandan; Li, Xiaoping

    2015-10-01

    In this article, the dual cycling quay crane scheduling problem (D-QCSP) with hatches is addressed to minimize the operation cycles of quay cranes. The problem is decomposed into two sub-problems: the intra-group stage (sequencing stacks within each hatch) and the inter-group stage (scheduling all hatches). A new stack sequencing method is constructed for stacks of each hatch, which is modelled as a two-machine non-permutation flow shop scheduling problem. By removing inner gaps using left-shifting, the adapted hatch scheduling sub-problem is modelled as a two-machine grouped flow shop scheduling problem, which contains more precise processing times. A composite heuristic is proposed for the D-QCSP. Based on the derived lower bound, the heuristic is compared with the best existing heuristics on a large number of instances. Experimental results illustrate that the proposal outperforms the existing methods on all instances and dual cycling needs many fewer quay crane operating cycles than single cycling.

  20. Model 200 crane, general arrangement & clearances. Colby Steel & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Model 200 crane, general arrangement & clearances. Colby Steel & Engineering Company, Vancouver B.C., Seattle, New York. Two elevations and cab plan. No architect noted, drawn by Gould. Sheet A2, no 6365. Scaled not given. August 10, 1942. Proposal no. 318. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Crane, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  1. A records system for a captive crane flock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Hartman, L.; Hereford, Scott G.; McMillen, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Crane record keeping systems have been evolving at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC) since 1966 and at the International Crane Foundation (ICF) since 1974. The system we present here, a hybrid of the two systems, has been reorganized to promote easy access of information and to limit redundancy.

  2. 29 CFR 1919.72 - Annual examination of cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual examination of cranes. 1919.72 Section 1919.72 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... examination of cranes. (a) In any year in which no quadrennial unit proof test is required, an...

  3. 29 CFR 1919.72 - Annual examination of cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual examination of cranes. 1919.72 Section 1919.72 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... examination of cranes. (a) In any year in which no quadrennial unit proof test is required, an...

  4. 29 CFR 1919.72 - Annual examination of cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual examination of cranes. 1919.72 Section 1919.72 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... examination of cranes. (a) In any year in which no quadrennial unit proof test is required, an...

  5. 29 CFR 1919.72 - Annual examination of cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual examination of cranes. 1919.72 Section 1919.72 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... examination of cranes. (a) In any year in which no quadrennial unit proof test is required, an...

  6. 29 CFR 1919.72 - Annual examination of cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual examination of cranes. 1919.72 Section 1919.72 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... examination of cranes. (a) In any year in which no quadrennial unit proof test is required, an...

  7. STOCK YARD LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING OVERHEAD YARD CRANE RAIL, THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STOCK YARD LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING OVERHEAD YARD CRANE RAIL, THE MALLEABLE CUPOLAS AND EMISSION RECOVERY SYSTEM, OLD SHED ROOF THAT COVERED THE EARLIER MALLEABLE CUPOLA CHARGING CRANE, MALLEABLE FOUNDRY, AND POLLUTION CONTROL BAGHOUSE. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. A space crane concept for performing on-orbit assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: in-space assembly and construction enhances future mission planning flexibility; in-space assembly and construction facility concept; space crane concept with mobile base; fundamental characteristics; space crane research approach; spacecraft component positioning and assembly test-bed; and articulating joint testbed.

  9. 12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  10. Cranes, hoists, and rigging. A safety training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Stinnett, L.

    1986-07-01

    The handling equipment discussed in this manual is the type that lifts, lowers, and locates (positions) heavy material - cranes and hoists. The crane/hoist family of equipment may be as small as a single pulley/rope system handling several pounds, or as large as a marine crane system that recently (1985) hoisted a 5005-metric ton oil drilling rig from a barge and placed it on the seabed of England's North Atlantic offshore oil field. An equivalent ''pick'' would be a 6-ft-high solid pine board, 360 ft long and 160 ft wide (the dimensions of a football field). The capacity of the cranes and hoists at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNLA) fits somewhere within the first 2% of the marine pick or lift described above. SNLA has several mobile cranes and more than 500 other types of cranes and hoists located in more than 100 buildings. The Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL have safety policies and directives that require the operators of heavy equipment to be trained and authorized. The Cranes, Hoists, and Rigging Safety Training Program, sponsored by the SNLA Safety Department, is an effort to fulfill those safety policy requirements. This manual will be used as a safety training aid and will be issued as a reference document for supervisors, operators, inspectors, and service personnel who use cranes or hoists during their regular duties.