Science.gov

Sample records for power introduction experiences

  1. Introduction to Dark Matter Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnee, Richard W.

    2011-03-01

    I provide an introduction to experiments designed to detect WIMP dark matter directly, focussing on building intuitive understanding of the characteristics of potential WIMP signals and the experimental techniques. After deriving the characteristics of potential signals in direct-detection experiments for standard WIMP models, I summarize the general experimental methods shared by most direct-detection experiments and review the advantages, challenges, and status of such searches. Experiments are already probing SUSY models, with best limits on the spin-independent coupling below 10-7 pb. Combined information from direct and indirect detection, along with detection at colliders, promises to teach us much about fundamental particle physics, cosmology, and astrophysics.

  2. Introduction to the CDEX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ke-Jun; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Li, Jin; Li, Yuan-Jing; Yue, Qian; Bai, Yang; Bi, Yong; Chang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Nan; Chen, Ning; Chen, Qing-Hao; Chen, Yun-Hua; Chuang, Yo-Chun; Deng, Zhi; Du, Qiang; Gong, Hui; Hao, Xi-Qing; He, Hong-Jian; He, Qing-Ju; Hu, Xin-Hui; Huang, Han-Xiong; Huang, Teng-Rui; Jiang, Hao; Li, Hau-Bin; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Jun; Li, Xia; Li, Xin-Ying; Li, Xue-Qian; Li, Yu-Lan; Liao, Heng-Ye; Lin, Fong-Kay; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, Shu-Kui; Liu, Ya-Bin; Lü, Lan-Chun; Ma, Hao; Mao, Shao-Ji; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Ren, Jie; Ren, Jing; Ruan, Xi-Chao; Shen, Man-Bin; Shen, Man-Bin; Simgh, Lakhwinder; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Soma, Arun Kumar; Su, Jian; Tang, Chang-Jian; Tseng, Chao-Hsiung; Wang, Ji-Min; Wang, Li; Wang, Qing; Wong, Tsz-King Henry; Wang, Xu-Feng; Wu, Shi-Yong; Wu, Wei; Wu, Yu-Cheng; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; Xing, Hao-Yang; Xu, Xun-Jie; Xu, Yin; Xue, Tao; Yang, Li-Tao; Yang, Song-Wei; Yi, Nan; Yu, Chun-Xu; Yu, Hao; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Xiong-Hui; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Yun-Hua; Zhao, Ming-Gang; Zhao, Wei; Zhong, Su-Ning; Zhou, Jin; Zhou, Zu-Ying; Zhu, Jing-Jun; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Zhu, Xue-Zhou; Zhu, Zhong-Hua

    2013-08-01

    It is believed that weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are candidates for dark matter (DM) in our universe which come from outer space and might interact with the standard model (SM) matter of our detectors on the earth. Many collaborations in the world are carrying out various experiments to directly detect DM particles. China Jinping underground Laboratory (CJPL) is the deepest underground laboratory in the world and provides a very promising environment for DM search. China Dark matter EXperiment (CDEX) is going to directly detect the WIMP flux with high sensitivity in the low WIMP-mass region. Both CJPL and CDEX have achieved a remarkable progress in recent three years. CDEX employs a point-contact germanium (PCGe) semi-conductor detector whose energy threshold is less than 300 eV. In this report we present the measurement results of muon flux, monitoring of radioactivity and radon concentration carried out in CJPL, as well describing the structure and performance of the 1 kg-PCGe detector in CDEX-1 and 10 kg-PCGe detector array in CDEX-10 including the detectors, electronics, shielding and cooling systems. Finally we discuss the physics goals of CDEX-1, CDEX-10 and the future CDEX-1T experiments.

  3. Three countries' experience with Norplant introduction.

    PubMed

    Hardee, K; Balogh, S; Villinski, M T

    1997-09-01

    Despite international efforts to plan for Norplant introduction, the method has drawn the attention of critics of family planning programmes, and has raised several issues for debate since it was introduced into family planning programmes. The experiences of three countries with the introduction of Norplant highlight some of the unique features of the method that have affected its introduction. Indonesia, Bangladesh and the United States represent diverse cultural settings and systems of family planning provision. Experience in each country has highlighted the need to focus on quality of care for clients, most notably the need for good counselling and attention to removal as well as insertion. The cost of Norplant also has influenced its introduction in each country. Another issue includes the need to work with women's health advocacy groups, which is illustrated particularly in Bangladesh. Finally, the role of litigation in the United States, and its potential role in influencing Norplant introduction in other countries, is discussed. These three countries' experience illustrate the importance of understanding the programmatic context of contraceptive introduction. PMID:10173401

  4. Experience gained at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant with development and introduction of a unified automated system for accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulka, S. K.; Rosnovskii, S. V.

    2014-02-01

    A unified automated system for accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes was developed at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant. The system consists of several interconnected subsystems, which can be developed and put in operation in a stage-wise manner. As of the first quarter of 2013, the subsystems for accounting liquid and solid radioactive wastes, very low-active wastes, and tracers have been developed. The experience gained from the development and putting in use of these systems showed that this is an efficient, timely, and much needed software product.

  5. 'Single molecule': theory and experiments, an introduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    At scales below micrometers, Brownian motion dictates most of the behaviors. The simple observation of a colloid is striking: a permanent and random motion is seen, whereas inertial forces play a negligible role. This Physics, where velocity is proportional to force, has opened new horizons in biology. The random feature is challenged in living systems where some proteins - molecular motors - have a directed motion whereas their passive behaviors of colloid should lead to a Brownian motion. Individual proteins, polymers of living matter such as DNA, RNA, actin or microtubules, molecular motors, all these objects can be viewed as chains of colloids. They are submitted to shocks from molecules of the solvent. Shapes taken by these biopolymers or dynamics imposed by motors can be measured and modeled from single molecules to their collective effects. Thanks to the development of experimental methods such as optical tweezers, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), micropipettes, and quantitative fluorescence (such as Förster Resonance Energy Transfer, FRET), it is possible to manipulate these individual biomolecules in an unprecedented manner: experiments allow to probe the validity of models; and a new Physics has thereby emerged with original biological insights. Theories based on statistical mechanics are needed to explain behaviors of these systems. When force-extension curves of these molecules are extracted, the curves need to be fitted with models that predict the deformation of free objects or submitted to a force. When velocity of motors is altered, a quantitative analysis is required to explain the motions of individual molecules under external forces. This lecture will give some elements of introduction to the lectures of the session 'Nanophysics for Molecular Biology'. PMID:24565227

  6. Switched power workshop: Introduction and summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, R. B.

    This paper discusses the design of a switched power electron gun. Particular topics discussed are: vacuum photodiode switch; laser switched solid state diodes; gun performance; charging supply; and laser requirements.

  7. Handbook of photovoltaic power generating design for introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to survey the ways to introduce photovoltaic power generation with specifying a certain region of introduction by international cooperation. Various cases of load requirements and load patterns are taken up for more efficient designing of equipment. When actually introducing photovoltaic power generating facilities, more detailed analyses of the situation would be necessary, but this handbook is effective in investigating and comparing basic designs and possible regions of introduction. Presented are illustrated overall designing procedures of photovoltaic power generating facilities and examples in cases of DC load and AC load. This handbook includes assumed load formats, calculation of storage battery capacity, required capacity of photovoltaic cell, selection of photovoltaic cell module, selection of storage battery, selection of inverter, selection of charge controller, list of possible regions, and amounts and durations of insolation in the selected regions, as data for designing photovoltaic power generation for introduction.

  8. Neuroscience, power and culture: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Vrecko, Scott

    2010-01-01

    In line with their vast expansion over the last few decades, the brain sciences -- including neurobiology, psychopharmacology, biological psychiatry, and brain imaging -- are becoming increasingly prominent in a variety of cultural formations, from self-help guides and the arts to advertising and public health programmes. This article, which introduces the special issue of "History of the Human Science" on "Neuroscience, Power and Culture," considers the ways that social and historical research can, through empirical investigations grounded in the observation of what is actually happening and has already happened in the sciences of mind and brain, complement speculative discussions of the possible social implications of neuroscience that now appear regularly in the media and in philosophical bioethics. It suggests that the neurosciences are best understood in terms of their lineage within the "psy"-disciplines, and that, accordingly, our analyses of them will be strengthened by drawing on existing literatures on the history and politics of psychology -- particularly those that analyze formations of knowledge, power and subjectivity associated with the discipline and its practical applications. Additionally, it argues against taking today's neuroscientific facts and brain-targetting technologies as starting points for analysis, and for greater recognition of the ways that these are shaped by historical, cultural and political-economic forces. PMID:20514752

  9. The introduction of space technology power systems into developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Allen F.; Ratajczak, Anthony F.

    1989-01-01

    Between 1978 and 1984, NASA-Lewis was responsible for the design, fabrication, installation and operational support of 57 photovoltaic power systems in 27 countries. These systems were installed in locations not served by a central power system and ranged in size from 40 W for powering street lights to 29 kW for providing power to a complete village. Several of the system projects had socio/economic studies components that provided for an assessment of how the introduction of both electricity and a novel high technology power system affected the users and their society.

  10. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  11. Power and environmental assessment: Introduction to the special issue

    SciTech Connect

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim

    2013-02-15

    The significance of politics and power dynamics has long been recognised in environmental assessment (EA) research, but there has not been sustained attention to power, either theoretically or empirically. The aim of this special issue is to encourage the EA community to engage more consistently with the issue of power. The introduction represents a ground-clearing exercise intended to clarify the terms of the debate about power in the EA field, and to contribute to the development of a research agenda. Research trends in the field are outlined, and potential analytic and normative lines of inquiry are identified. The contributions to this special issue represent contrasting conceptual and methodological approaches that navigate the analytical and normative terrain of power dynamics in EA. Together, they demonstrate that power cannot be removed from EA policy or practices, and is a necessary research focus for the development of the field. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introduces the themed section on power Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides an overview of the papers in the themed section Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identifies research trends and directions for future research.

  12. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carotenuto, Luigi

    This chapter introduces the context, objectives and structure of the book. This book aims both to contribute to disseminate the knowledge about the scientific research conducted in space and to promote new exploitation of existing data in this field. While space experiments are characterised by a long time for preparation, high costs and few opportunities, significant scientific value is expected from the resulting data for almost scientific disciplines. In this context, ISS is a unique experimental environment for research. As part of its Seventh Framework Programme, the European Commission intends to support further exploitation and valorisation of space experimental data. This book was realised as part of the ULISSE project, co-funded by the European Union. The book intends to provide an introduction to space research with a focus on the experiments performed on the ISS and related disciplines. The book also intends to be a useful guide, not only for scientists but also for teachers, students and newcomers to space research activities.

  13. Introduction to Classical Density Functional Theory by a Computational Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We propose an in silico experiment to introduce the classical density functional theory (cDFT). Density functional theories, whether quantum or classical, rely on abstract concepts that are nonintuitive; however, they are at the heart of powerful tools and active fields of research in both physics and chemistry. They led to the 1998 Nobel Prize in…

  14. Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to a special issue of the journal General and Comparative Endocrinology dedicated to Insect Endocrinology. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequences ...

  15. Introduction to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Kaune, W T

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the reader to electric and magnetic fields, particularly those fields produced by electric power systems and other sources using frequencies in the power-frequency range. Electric fields are produced by electric charges; a magnetic field also is produced if these charges are in motion. Electric fields exert forces on other charges; if in motion, these charges will experience magnetic forces. Power-frequency electric and magnetic fields induce electric currents in conducting bodies such as living organisms. The current density vector is used to describe the distribution of current within a body. The surface of the human body is an excellent shield for power-frequency electric fields, but power-frequency magnetic fields penetrate without significant attenuation; the electric fields induced inside the body by either exposure are comparable in magnitude. Electric fields induced inside a human by most environmental electric and magnetic fields appear to be small in magnitude compared to levels naturally occurring in living tissues. Detection of such fields thus would seem to require the existence of unknown biological mechanisms. Complete characterization of a power-frequency field requires measurement of the magnitudes and electrical phases of the fundamental and harmonic amplitudes of its three vector components. Most available instrumentation measures only a small subset, or some weighted average, of these quantities. Hand-held survey meters have been used widely to measure power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Automated data-acquisition systems have come into use more recently to make electric- and magnetic-field recordings, covering periods of hours to days, in residences and other environments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8206045

  16. Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction to the second edition of the Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases contains a general description of genus and species of commercial importance, some general information about growth and fruiting habits as well as recent production statistics. A general description of major scion c...

  17. Introduction

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video provides a quick overview of high-power rocketry as well as a preview for the rest of the High-Power Rocketry video series. The video describes the two recognized rocketry organizations ...

  18. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belrose, John S.

    1993-05-01

    An introduction and welcome to the Specialists' Meeting on 'ELF/VLF/LF Radio Propagation and System Aspects' given at the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Panel Symposium, held at the Quartier Reine Elisabeth, Brussels, Belgium, 28 Sep. - 2 Oct. 1992, is presented. The following topics are discussed: the early history of radio communications, NATO interest in ELF/VLF/LF, propagation mode, effect of the finite conductivity of the ground, and VLF antennas.

  19. Introduction and overall description of nuclear power plant. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume include content and purpose of booklets; how to study; producing electricity; the fossil fuel power plant; the nuclear power plant; the nuclear reactor; generating steam in a nuclear power plant; using the steam in a nuclear power plant; nuclear power station facilities; and special features of nuclear power plants.

  20. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Ken; Briggs*, Richard J.

    The motivation for the initial development of linear induction accelerators starting in the early 1960s came mainly from applications requiring intense electron pulses with beam currents and a charge per pulse above the range accessible to RF accelerators, and with particle energies beyond the capabilities of single stage pulsed-power diodes. The linear induction accelerators developed to meet these needs utilize a series of induction cells containing magnetic cores (torroidal geometry) driven directly by pulse modulators (pulsed power sources). This multistage "one-to-one transformer" configuration with non-resonant, low impedance induction cells accelerates kilo-Ampere-scale electron beam current pulses in induction linacs.

  1. Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jinah; Hao, Ming; Wong, Pak C.; Chen, Chaomei

    2011-01-23

    Welcome to the Conference on Visualization and Data Analysis (VDA) 2011. The scope of VDA covers all topics and areas of data visualization and visual analytics. Since the first VDA conference in 1994, the annual event has grown steadily into a major venue for visualization researchers and practitioners from around the world to present their work and share their experiences.

  2. Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Taussig, Karen-Sue; Gibbon, Sahra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    We introduce this special issue of Medial Anthropology Quarterly on public health genomics by exploring both the unique contribution of ethnographic sensibility that medical anthropologists bring to the study of genomics and some of the key insights offered by the essays in this collection. As anthropologists, we are concerned with the power dynamics and larger cultural commitments embedded in practices associated with public health. We seek to understand, first, the broad significance of genomics as a cultural object and, second, the social action set into motion as researchers seek to translate genomic knowledge and technology into public health benefits. PMID:24214906

  3. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, Rob

    In 2003 we started a new research programme at the Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies (CELSTEC) that was aiming to help people to further develop their professional competences by using the innovative powers of new media, mobile devices, and modern Internet services. The idea behind the programme was to contribute to one of the bigger challenges in our society: how to deal with the growing complexity, the growing quantity and the permanent changes in knowledge and technologies. For companies this question relates to the core of their business: how to become innovative and stay competitive. For the employees, the ‘professionals’, this question relates directly to their jobs: how to become and stay employable. In this book we will concentrate on the last group, the professionals and their question how to stay employable, how to keep up-to-date and how to develop professional competence during their careers. The professionals represent the human capital, the knowledge, the innovative power in our economy.

  4. Introduction:

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    summary Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study. PMID:26521666

  5. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Sidney

    The way a scientist looks at the materials world is changing dramatically. Advances in the synthesis of nanostructures and in high-resolution microscopy are allowing us to create and probe assemblies of atoms and molecules at a level that was unimagined only a short time ago — the prospect of manipulating materials for device applications, one atom at a time, is no longer a fantasy. Being able to see and touch the materials up close means that we are more interested than ever in understanding their properties and behavior at the atomic level. Another factor which contributes to the present state of affairs is the advent of large-scale computation, once a rare and highly sophisticated resource accessible only to a few privileged scientists. In the past few years materials modeling, in the broad sense of theory and simulation in integration with experiments, has emerged as a field of research with unique capabilities, most notably the ability to analyze and predict a very wide range of physical structures and phenomena. Some would now say the modeling approach is becoming an equal partner to theory and experiment, the traditional methods of scientific inquiry.

  6. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingshirn, C.

    The purpose of this introduction is - after a few general words on ZnO - to inform the reader about the history of ZnO research, the contents of this book and the intentions of the authors. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a IIb-VI compound semiconductor. This group comprises the binary compounds of Zn, Cd and Hg with O, S, Se, Te and their ternary and quaternary alloys. The band gaps of these compounds cover the whole band gap range from E g ≈ 3. 94 eV for hexagonal ZnS down to semimetals (i.e., E g = 0 eV) for most of the mercury compounds. ZnO itself is also a wide gap semiconductor with E g ≈ 3. 436 eV at T = 0 K and (3. 37 ± 0. 01) eV at room temperature. For more details on the band structure, see Chaps. 4 and 6 or for a recent collection of data on ZnO, for example, [Rössler et al. (eds) Landolt-Börnstein, New Series, Group III, Vols. 17 B, 22, and 41B, 1999]. Like most of the compounds of groups IV, III-V, IIb-VI and Ib-VII, ZnO shows a tetrahedral coordination. In contrast to several other IIb-VI compounds, which occur both in the hexagonal wurtzite and the cubic zinc blende type structure such as ZnS, which gave the name to these two modifications, ZnO occurs almost exclusively in the wurtzite type structure. It has a relatively strong ionic binding (see Chap. 2). The exciton binding energy in ZnO is 60 meV [Thomas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 15:86, 1960], the largest among the IIb-VI compounds, but by far not the largest for all semiconductors since, for example, CuCl and CuO have exciton binding energies around 190 and 150 meV, respectively. See, for example, [Rössler et al. (eds) Landolt-Börnstein, New Series, Group III, Vols. 17B, 22, and 41B, 1999; Thomas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 15:86, 1960; Klingshirn and Haug, Phy. Rep. 70:315, 1981; Hönerlage et al., Phys. Rep. 124:161, 1985] and references therein. More details on excitons will be given in Chap. 6. ZnO has a density of about 5. 6 g / cm3 corresponding to 4. 2 × 1022 ZnO molecules per cm3 [Hallwig and

  7. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging and Overhauser imaging are magnetic resonance techniques for detecting paramagnetic substances (i.e. molecules which have one or more unpaired electron(s) in their outer orbitals). The main impetus for developing these techniques is the intriguing possibility of detecting and imaging the distribution of free radicals in the body. Naturally occurring free radicals are widely believed to be involved in the early development of many diseases, so the ability to localize and quantify them in vivo would have profound implications for many areas of biomedical research. Stable free radicals can also be used as `contrast agents', and following their fate in the body can give useful insights into organ function. Some free radicals and paramagnetic solids have the ability to probe the chemical and physical nature of their surroundings, also offering a wide variety of potential applications, in particular the measurement of oxygen concentrations in tissues. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was first demonstrated in 1945, the same year that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments were first carried out. EPR and NMR are very closely related at the fundamental level, differing mainly in the fact that EPR involves a magnetic resonance experiment on unpaired electrons in the sample, while NMR uses atomic nuclei with non-zero spin. On a practical level, the techniques are also closely related, despite the fact that most EPR experiments are continuous-wave, while virtually all NMR is carried out using pulsed, Fourier-transform methods. Overhauser-based techniques combine both flavours of magnetic resonance in EPR/NMR double-resonance experiments. While NMR has found a valuable place in clinical practice, in the form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biomedical EPR is still in its relative infancy, with about twenty research groups world-wide having the capability to use EPR spectroscopy or imaging to study small animals in vivo. It

  8. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The history of the science of consciousness is difficult to trace because it involves an ongoing debate over the aims involved in the study of consciousness that historically engaged people working in a variety of different, often overlapping, philosophical projects. At least three main aims of these different projects can be identified: (1) providing an ultimate foundation for natural science; (2) providing an empirical study of experience; and (3) promoting human well-being by relieving suffering and encouraging human flourishing. Each of these aims has its own problems and its own methods for solving them that endorse different epistemic virtues characteristic of science in different historical periods through a variety of "styles of science". PMID:21033193

  9. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Felix; Pimentel, Andy D.; Derose, Luiz; Ha, Soonhoi; Kielmann, Thilo; Morajko, Anna

    The spread of systems that provide parallelism either “in-the-large” (grid infrastructures, clusters) or “in-the-small” (multi-core chips) creates new opportunities for exploiting parallelism in a wider spectrum of application domains. However, the increasing complexity of parallel and distributed platforms renders the programming, the use, and the management of these systems a costly endeavor that requires advanced expertise and skills. There is therefore an increasing need for powerful support tools and environments that will help end users, application programmers, software engineers and system administrators to manage the increasing complexity of parallel and distributed platforms. This topic aims at bringing together tool designers, developers, and users in order to share novel ideas, concepts, and products covering a wide range of platforms, including homogeneous and heterogeneous multicore architectures. The Program Committee sought high-quality contributions with solid foundations and experimental validations on real systems, and encouraged the submission of new ideas on intelligent monitoring and diagnosis tools and environments which can exploit behavior knowledge to detect programming bugs or performance bottlenecks and help ensure correct and efficient parallel program execution.

  10. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graauw, T.

    2010-01-01

    First of all, I would like to wish all of you an happy New Year, which I sincerely hope will bring you success, happiness and interesting new opportunities. For us in ALMA, the end of 2009 and the beginning of 2010 have been very exciting and this is once more a special moment in the development of our observatory. After transporting our third antenna to the high altitude Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 meters above sea level, our team successfully combined the outputs of these antennas using "phase closure", a standard method in interferometry. This achievement marks one more milestone along the way to the beginning of Commissioning and Science Verification, CSV, which, once completed, will mark the beginning of Early Science for ALMA. There was an official announcement about this milestone at the AAS meeting early January and we also wanted to share this good news with you through this newsletter, which contains the content of the announcement. In another area, this newsletter contains the progress on site and a presentation of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA). This is the second part of a two part series on antennas, a continuation of the article in the last newsletter. The ACA plays a crucial part in the imaging of extended sources with ALMA. Without the ACA, the ability to produce accurate images would be very restricted. Finally, as you know, we like to show the human face of this great endeavour we are building and this time, we decided to highlight the Department of Technical Services, another fundamental piece working actively to make ALMA the most powerful radio observatory ever built.

  11. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.

    In the history of modern physics and engineering, the electron quantum mechanical effect and its utilization in electronics have attracted much attention. With increase in demand for ultrahigh sensitivity of signal sensing, ultrahigh speed of data processing, ultralow power dissipation of computer components and so on, quantum effect electronics has become more and more promising. Since the middle of the twentieth century most of vacuum electronics have been replaced by the solid state electronics, where the electron dynamics are well described by the band-diagram description. Solid state electronics itself and band-diagram description were originally in the category of quantum mechanics. However, the treatment of carriers based on the band-diagram inside semiconductors used the classical model where the electron wave concept has been missing. One should perceive it to be also true even for semiconductor superlattices. In the late twentieth century, along with the extremely miniaturized scale of semiconductor devices, mesoscopic physics and mesoscopic electronics have boomed. In this research area, one attempts to manipulate directly the coherent electron wave instead of the electron particle. In ordinary semiconductors, however, only the nanoscale dimension allowed us to handle electron wave interference, interaction and so on to some extent. Besides, success was obtained only at cryogenic temperatures. Collisions between electrons or between electron and lattice (or impurity) was recognized again as a forcible enemy of electron wave engineering. It was a time when both researchers and engineers in the field were urged forward to search for better physical and engineering stages where no electron collisions take place thereby maintaining electron wave coherency over very long distances in the appropriate temperature range.

  12. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

    Spin is an entirely non-classical property of (elementary) particles [1], p. 198. A reference which deals with many aspects of spin (although the—in my mind—seminal Stern-Gerlach experiment (for details see Sect. 8.1 ) is never even mentioned) is "The Story of Spin" by Tomonaga [2] from which we cite: "It is a mysterious beast, and yet its practical effect prevails over the whole of science. The existence of spin, and the statistics associated with it, is the most subtle and ingenious design of Nature—without it the whole universe would collapse" (from the translator's (T. Oka) preface, p. vii). In nuclear physics, the nuclear, nucleon, and even quark spins enter in many ways. Examples are: hyperfine interaction, spin-orbit interaction, tensor force, spin-spin nucleon-nucleon interaction, the relation between spin and statistics which is not only the basis of the periodic table, but markedly influences the scattering of identical particles (e.g.{^{12}C} on {^{12}C} vs.{^{13}C} on ^{13}C,) etc.

  13. 78 FR 4477 - Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction AGENCY: Nuclear... subsection to NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power..., Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants:...

  14. Low power laser therapy — an introduction and a review of some biological effects

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Haymo

    1986-01-01

    This report gives a brief introduction to the characteristics of therapeutic low power laser devices. Absorption, tissue penetration and physiological mechanisms of laser irradiation are discussed. The biological effects of low power laser light are reviewed in the areas of collagen metabolism, woundhealing, inflammation and pain control. Contraindications, precautions and side effects of low power laser irradiation are discussed.

  15. Introduction*

    PubMed Central

    Peay, Wayne J.; Rockoff, Maxine L.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This paper introduces the special supplement to the Journal of the Medical Library Association (JMLA) that documents the proceedings of the “Symposium on Community-based Health Information Outreach” held on December 2 and 3, 2004, at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The goal of the symposium was to explore new models of health information outreach that are emerging as technology dramatically changes the abilities of medical and health services libraries to provide resources and services beyond their traditional institutional boundaries, with particular concern for consumer health information outreach through community-based organizations. The symposium's primary objectives were to learn about successful and promising work that had already been done as well as to develop a vision for the future that could inform the NLM's next National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) contract. Another objective was to review and assess the NLM's Strategic Plan to Reduce Health Disparities with special emphasis on Native Americans. Method: The paper describes the background events and rationale that led to the NLM's decision to convene the symposium and summarizes the supplement's ten other papers, some of which were presented at the symposium and some of which were written afterward to capture the symposium's working sessions. Results: The symposium convened approximately 150 invited participants with a wide variety of perspectives and experience. Sessions were held to present exemplary outreach projects, to review the NLM's Strategic Plan to Reduce Health Disparities, to summarize the research underpinnings for evaluating outreach projects, and to provide a futurist's perspective. A panel of community representatives gave voice to the participants in outreach projects, and sixteen posters describing outreach projects were available, many of them with community representatives on hand to explain the work. Implications: This JMLA supplement provides a

  16. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The formation of life remains a mystery. In our three-day scientific event, we will hear talks and see posters concerning what astrochemistry and astrobiology can currently tell us about this mystery. The first subject to be explored by our speakers will be astrochemistry, and what has been learned about the formation of complex molecules in star- and planet-forming regions of the interstellar medium. This topic will be sub-divided into three subjects: astronomical observations, laboratory experiments, and simulations of the chemistry leading to large molecules, both in the gas and on the surfaces of interstellar dust particles. Some introductory remarks will be given about these subjects. We will next learn about the roles of comets and exoplanets. We will hear how comets can produce water and complex molecules, and possibly deliver them to nascent planets such as the early earth, and we will learn what current space probes such as Rosetta can tell us about the chemical make-up of comets. Regarding exoplanets, speakers will explore their likely atmospheres, and what complex molecules can be simulated in them. The last part of the event will be divided into various fields of astrobiology, including synthetic approaches to primitive life, paths to observations of life on other worlds, simulations of the origin of life, and the particular role of hydrothermal environments. In summary, we will learn about significant progress in astrochemistry and astrobiology, and yet we will also learn about how much more must be known before we can solve in its entirety the basic problem of how life arose.

  17. Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Southern, Sarka O.; Mentzer, Mark A.; Rodriquez-Chavez, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 SPIE Sensing Technologies for Global Health, Military Medicine and Environmental Monitoring conference embraced a wealth of state-of-the-art information in basic and applied science. This event covered the latest developments in the following areas: Non-invasive Disease Diagnostics for Global Health- This opening series of two consecutive sessions focused on oral biospecimen based rapid assays and point-of-care devices for the detection of pathogens causing infectious diseases, biomarkers for cancer, and analytes for noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes. They also covered presentations on the human proteasome and microbiome with linkage to human diseases and diagnostic approaches. The sessions were built on the past experience and expertise of the National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Military Medicine I: Traumatic Brain Injury and PTSD-This assembly covered oral-biomarker based diagnostics for brain damage and TBI as well as prevention and rehabilitation technologies. Neurorehabilitation and noninvasive neuromodulation were also discussed as critical approaches for effective functioning. Military Medicine II: Physiology and Medicine of Extreme Environments and Spaceflight-This scientific segment showcased physiological, pharmacological and diagnostic sensing methodologies during spaceflight per the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as well as military-relevant toxicans and future sensing trends per the Department of Defense. It also included latest technologies to determine hydration status in warfighters, eye surgery using the latest laser technologies, and sensing tools for blood analysis. ? Sensing Technologies for Disease Diagnostics and Environmental Monitoring-This closing series of two consecutive sessions provided the venues to learn and discuss more results on the next generation of diagnostic tools and field technologies for diseases, including biomarker detection by digital

  18. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, Cees; Develder, Chris; Jukan, Admela; Mambretti, Joe

    throughput. The second session groups 3 papers presenting methods, protocols and architectures that enhance capacities in the Networks. The paper titled: “NIC-assisted Cache-Efficient Receive Stack for Message Passing over Ethernet” presents the addition of multiqueue support in the Open-MX receive stack so that all incoming packets for the same process are treated on the same core. It then introduces the idea of binding the target end process near its dedicated receive queue. In general this multiqueue receive stack performs better than the original single queue stack, especially on large communication patterns where multiple processes are involved and manual binding is difficult. The authors of: “A Multipath Fault-Tolerant Routing Method for High-Speed Interconnection Networks” focus on the problem of fault tolerance for high-speed interconnection networks by designing a fault tolerant routing method. The goal was to solve a certain number of link and node failures, considering its impact, and occurrence probability. Their experiments show that their method allows applications to successfully finalize their execution in the presence of several faults, with an average performance value of 97% with respect to the fault-free scenarios. The paper: “Hardware implementation study of the Self-Clocked Fair Queuing Credit Aware (SCFQ-CA) and Deficit Round Robin Credit Aware (DRR-CA) scheduling algorithms” proposes specific implementations of the two schedulers taking into account the characteristics of current high-performance networks. A comparison is presented on the complexity of these two algorithms in terms of silicon area and computation delay. Finally we selected one paper for the special paper session: “A Case Study of Communication Optimizations on 3D Mesh Interconnects”. In this paper the authors present topology aware mapping as a technique to optimize communication on 3-dimensional mesh interconnects and hence improve performance. Results are presented

  19. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, Cees; Develder, Chris; Jukan, Admela; Mambretti, Joe

    throughput. The second session groups 3 papers presenting methods, protocols and architectures that enhance capacities in the Networks. The paper titled: “NIC-assisted Cache-Efficient Receive Stack for Message Passing over Ethernet” presents the addition of multiqueue support in the Open-MX receive stack so that all incoming packets for the same process are treated on the same core. It then introduces the idea of binding the target end process near its dedicated receive queue. In general this multiqueue receive stack performs better than the original single queue stack, especially on large communication patterns where multiple processes are involved and manual binding is difficult. The authors of: “A Multipath Fault-Tolerant Routing Method for High-Speed Interconnection Networks” focus on the problem of fault tolerance for high-speed interconnection networks by designing a fault tolerant routing method. The goal was to solve a certain number of link and node failures, considering its impact, and occurrence probability. Their experiments show that their method allows applications to successfully finalize their execution in the presence of several faults, with an average performance value of 97% with respect to the fault-free scenarios. The paper: “Hardware implementation study of the Self-Clocked Fair Queuing Credit Aware (SCFQ-CA) and Deficit Round Robin Credit Aware (DRR-CA) scheduling algorithms” proposes specific implementations of the two schedulers taking into account the characteristics of current high-performance networks. A comparison is presented on the complexity of these two algorithms in terms of silicon area and computation delay. Finally we selected one paper for the special paper session: “A Case Study of Communication Optimizations on 3D Mesh Interconnects”. In this paper the authors present topology aware mapping as a technique to optimize communication on 3-dimensional mesh interconnects and hence improve performance. Results are presented

  20. Power and replication - designing powerful experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological research is expensive, with monetary costs to granting agencies and emotional costs to researchers. As such, biological researchers should always follow the mantra, "failure is not an option." A failed experimental design is generally manifested as an experiment with high P-values, leavin...

  1. WISPER: Wirless Space Power Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 Advanced Design Project at the University of Alaska Fairbanks was to design a spacecraft as a technology demonstration of wireless power transmission (WPT). With cost effectiveness as a design constraint, a micro-satellite in low earth orbit (LEO) was chosen for the mission. Existing and near term technologies were analyzed and selected for the project. In addition to the conceptual design of the payload, support systems, and structure, the analysis included attention to safety, environmental impact, cost, and schedule for construction and operation. Wireless power beaming is not a new concept. Experimental demonstrations and study efforts have continued since the early 1960's. With the latest progress in transmitter and receiver technology, the next natural step is to beam power from earth to space. This proposed flight demonstration will advance the science of power beaming and prove the viability of various applications of WPT in space. Two methods of power beaming will be examined during the two separate phases of the spacecraft life. The first phase will demonstrate the technology and examine the theory of microwave power transmission at a high frequency. Special aspects of the first phase will include a highly accurate attitude control system and a 14 m inflatable parabolic antenna. The second phase will investigate the utilization of high intensity laser power using modified photovoltaic arrays. Special instrumentation on the spacecraft will measure the conversion efficiency from the received microwave or laser power to direct current power.

  2. Introduction to Voigt's wind power plant. [energy conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkin, J.

    1973-01-01

    The design and operation of a 100 kilowatt wind driven generator are reported. Its high speed three-bladed turbine operates at a height of 50 meters. Blades are rigidly connected to the hub and turbine revolutions change linearly with wind velocity, maintaining a constant speed ratio of blade tip velocity to wind velocity over the full predetermined wind range. Three generators installed in the gondola generate either dc or ac current. Based on local wind conditions, the device has a maximum output of 720 kilowatts at a wind velocity of 16 meters per second. Total electrical capacity is 750 kilowatts, and power output per year is 2,135,000 kilowatt/hours.

  3. Nova pulse power design and operational experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitham, K.; Larson, D.; Merritt, B.; Christie, D.

    1987-01-01

    Nova is a 100 TW Nd++ solid state laser designed for experiments with laser fusion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The pulsed power for Nova includes a 58 MJ capacitor bank driving 5336 flashlamps with millisecond pulses and subnanosecond high voltages for electro optics. This paper summarizes the pulsed power designs and the operational experience to date.

  4. Independent mobility after early introduction of a power wheelchair in spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Dunaway, Sally; Montes, Jacqueline; O'Hagen, Jessica; Sproule, Douglas M; Vivo, Darryl C De; Kaufmann, Petra

    2013-05-01

    Weakness resulting from spinal muscular atrophy causes severe limitations in functional mobility. The early introduction of power mobility has potential to enhance development and mitigate disability. These outcomes are achieved by simulating normal skill acquisition and by promoting motor learning, visuospatial system development, self-exploration, cognition, and social development. There are few reports on early power mobility in spinal muscular atrophy, and it is typically not prescribed until school age. The authors evaluated 6 children under age 2 years with neuromuscular disease (5 spinal muscular atrophy, 1 congenital muscular dystrophy) for power mobility. Parents recorded the practice hours necessary to achieve independence using the Power Mobility Skills Checklist. Four children achieved independence in all items on the checklist by 7.9 months (range: 73-458 days). Introduction of early power mobility is feasible in spinal muscular atrophy patients under age 2 years and should be introduced in late infancy when children typically acquire locomotor skills. PMID:22772161

  5. Georgians Experience Astronomy Research in Schools: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Zodiac T.; Aguilar, J. C.; Higdon, S. J. U.

    2010-01-01

    Georgia Department of Education and its partners at Columbus State and Georgia Southern Universities are engaged in creating a comprehensive program to institutionalize high quality astronomy in its high schools. The goal of the Georgians Experience Astronomy Research in Schools (GEARS) project is to transform the way high-school Astronomy is taught in 100% of GA's public schools by 2012. GEARS will be an innovative and rigorous, NASA research-infused Astronomy curriculum, which will reach thousands of students in rural, urban, and suburban areas and will be taught by highly trained teachers. GEARS project leaders have two objectives: 1) Develop and implement an online high-school Astronomy course for inclusion in the GA Virtual School portal. The GEARS course will be a progression through inquiry-based research experiences culminating in authentic data analysis and data mining activities selected from the NASA archives. The GEARS framework and units will meet the new Georgia Performance Standards in Astronomy and will be incorporated into teacher workshops. 2) Ensure the sustainability and utilization of GEARS both online and in a blended classroom approach by providing teacher professional development, integrating it into Space Science for Teachers graduate courses, and by developing a network of Georgia Astronomy Resource Teachers who will teach GEARS astronomy and mentor other teachers in their local areas. This poster will provide an overview of the workshop and course curricular framework, design philosophy and sample units. Partnerships with interested parties, especially those with NASA data, are sought. The project website is http://cheller.phy.georgiasouthern.edu/ shigdon/GEARS/GEARS.html. This project is funded by NASA Grant NNX09AH83A through the GADOE, supported by CSU and GSU.

  6. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  7. Economic and technological aspects of the market introduction of renewable power technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worlen, Christine M.

    Renewable energy, if developed and delivered with appropriate technologies, is cleaner, more evenly distributed, and safer than conventional energy systems. Many countries and several states in the United States promote the development and introduction of technologies for "green" electricity production. This dissertation investigates economic and technological aspects of this process for wind energy. In liberalized electricity markets, policy makers use economic incentives to encourage the adoption of renewables. Choosing from a large range of possible policies and instruments is a multi-criteria decision process. This dissertation evaluates the criteria used and the trade-offs among the criteria, and develops a hierarchical flow scheme that policy makers can use to choose the most appropriate policy for a given situation. Economic incentives and market transformation programs seek to reduce costs through mass deployment in order to make renewable technologies competitive. Cost reduction is measured in "experience curves" that posit negative exponential relationships between cumulative deployment and production cost. This analysis reveals the weaknesses in conventional experience curve analyses for wind turbines, and concludes that the concept is limited by data availability, a weak conceptual foundation, and inappropriate statistical estimation. A revised model specifies a more complete set of economic and technological forces that determine the cost of wind power. Econometric results indicate that experience and upscaling of turbine sizes accounted for the observed cost reduction in wind turbines in the United States, Denmark and Germany between 1983 and 2001. These trends are likely to continue. In addition, future cost reductions will result from economies of scale in production. Observed differences in the performance of theoretically equivalent policy instruments could arise from economic uncertainty. To test this hypothesis, a methodology for the

  8. Nova power systems: status and operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Whitham, K.; Merritt, B.T.; Gritton, D.G.; Smart, A.J.; Holloway, R.W.; Oicles, J.A.

    1983-11-28

    This paper describes the pulse power systems that are used in these lasers; the status and the operating experiences. The pulsed power system for the Nova Laser is comprised of several distinct technology areas. The large capacitor banks for driving flashlamps that excite the laser glass is one area, the fast pulsers that drive pockels cell shutters is another area, and the contol system for the pulsed power is a third. This paper discusses the capacitor banks and control systems.

  9. Neutrino horn power supply operational experience

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, P.; Sandberg, J.; Carroll, A.S.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Pearson, C.; Pendzich, A.; Ryan, G.; Sims, W.P.; Smith, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The operational experiences required to run the 300 kA pulsed power supply at Brookhaven National Laboratory are given. Various interlocks and monitoring circuits are described and the impact on system reliability are discussed. The initial conditioning process of the power supply during startup is described.

  10. Loads for pulsed power cylindrical implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.E.; Armijo, E.V.; Barthell, B.L.; Bartos, J.J.; Bush, H.; Foreman, L.R.; Garcia, F.P.; Gobby, P.L.; Gomez, V.M.; Gurule, V.A.

    1994-07-01

    Pulse power can be used to generate high energy density conditions in convergent hollow cylindrical geometry through the use of appropriate electrode configuration and cylindrical loads. Cylindrically symmetric experiments are conducted with the Pegasus-H inductive store, capacitor energized pulse power facility at Los Alamos using both precision machined cylindrical liner loads and low mass vapor deposited cylindrical foil loads. The liner experiments investigate solid density hydrodynamic topics. Foil loads vaporize from Joule heating to generate an imploding cylindrical plasma which can be used to simulate some fluxes associated with fusion energy processes. Similar experiments are conducted with {open_quotes}Procyon{close_quotes} inductive store pulse power assemblies energized by explosively driven magnetic flux compression.

  11. Satellite Power System (SPS) public outreach experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneal, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    An outreach experiment was conducted to improve the results of the satellite power system (SPS) concept development and evaluation program. The objectives of the outreach were to: (1) determine the areas of major concern relative to the SPS concept and (2) gain experience with an outreach process for use in future public involvement. The response to the outreach effort was positive, suggesting that the effort extended by the SPS project division to encourage an information exchange with the public was well received. The responses were analyzed and from them some questions and answers about the satellite power system are presented.

  12. Photovoltaic array space power plus diagnostics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to summarize the five years of hardware development and fabrication represented by the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) Instrument. The original PASP Experiment requirements and background is presented along with the modifications which were requested to transform the PASP Experiment into the PASP Plus Instrument. The PASP Plus hardware and software is described. Test results for components and subsystems are given as well as final system tests. Also included are appendices which describe the major subsystems and present supporting documentation such as block diagrams, schematics, circuit board artwork, drawings, test procedures and test reports.

  13. Microwave power transmission system studies. Volume 2: Introduction, organization, environmental and spaceborne systems analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Haley, J. T.; Meltz, G.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    Introduction, organization, analyses, conclusions, and recommendations for each of the spaceborne subsystems are presented. Environmental effects - propagation analyses are presented with appendices covering radio wave diffraction by random ionospheric irregularities, self-focusing plasma instabilities and ohmic heating of the D-region. Analyses of dc to rf conversion subsystems and system considerations for both the amplitron and the klystron are included with appendices for the klystron covering cavity circuit calculations, output power of the solenoid-focused klystron, thermal control system, and confined flow focusing of a relativistic beam. The photovoltaic power source characteristics are discussed as they apply to interfacing with the power distribution flow paths, magnetic field interaction, dc to rf converter protection, power distribution including estimates for the power budget, weights, and costs. Analyses for the transmitting antenna consider the aperture illumination and size, with associated efficiencies and ground power distributions. Analyses of subarray types and dimensions, attitude error, flatness, phase error, subarray layout, frequency tolerance, attenuation, waveguide dimensional tolerances, mechanical including thermal considerations are included. Implications associated with transportation, assembly and packaging, attitude control and alignment are discussed. The phase front control subsystem, including both ground based pilot signal driven adaptive and ground command approaches with their associated phase errors, are analyzed.

  14. Average power laser experiment (APLE) design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazzoli, C. G.; Rodenburg, R. E.; Dowell, D. H.; Greegor, R. B.; Kennedy, R. C.; Romero, J. B.; Siciliano, J. A.; Tong, K.-O.; Vetter, A. M.; Adamski, J. L.; Pistoresi, D. J.; Shoffstall, D. R.; Quimby, D. C.

    1992-07-01

    We describe the details and the design requirements for the 100 kW CW radio frequency free electron laser at 10 μm to be built at Boeing Aerospace and Electronics Division in Seattle with the collaboration of Los Alamos National Laboratory. APLE is a single-accelerator master-oscillator and power-amplifier (SAMOPA) device. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate a fully operational RF-FEL at 10 μm with an average power of 100 kW. The approach and wavelength were chosen on the basis of maximum cost effectiveness, including utilization of existing hardware and reasonable risk, and potential for future applications. Current plans call for an initial oscillator power demonstration in the fall of 1994 and full SAMOPA operation by December 1995.

  15. Apollo experience report: Power generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D., III; Plauche, F. M.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the design philosophy and experience of the Apollo electrical power generation system is presented. The review of the system covers a period of 8 years, from conception through the Apollo 12 lunar-landing mission. The program progressed from the definition phase to hardware design, system development and qualification, and, ultimately, to the flight phase. Several problems were encountered; however, a technology evolved that enabled resolution of the problems and resulted in a fully manrated power generation system. These problems are defined and examined, and the corrective action taken is discussed. Several recommendations are made to preclude similar occurrences and to provide a more reliable fuel-cell power system.

  16. Fuel supply of nuclear power industry with the introduction of fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraviev, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    The results of studies conducted for the validation of the updated development strategy for nuclear power industry in Russia in the 21st century are presented. Scenarios with different options for the reprocessing of spent fuel of thermal reactors and large-scale growth of nuclear power industry based on fast reactors of inherent safety with a breeding ratio of ˜1 in a closed nuclear fuel cycle are considered. The possibility of enhanced fuel breeding in fast reactors is also taken into account in the analysis. The potential to establish a large-scale nuclear power industry that covers 100% of the increase in electric power requirements in Russia is demonstrated. This power industry may be built by the end of the century through the introduction of fast reactors (replacing thermal ones) with a gross uranium consumption of up to ˜1 million t and the termination of uranium mining even if the reprocessing of spent fuel of thermal reactors is stopped or suffers a long-term delay.

  17. Pulse Detonation Rocket Magnetohydrodynamic Power Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.; Jones, J. E.; Dobson, C. C.; Cole, J. W.; Thompson, B. R.; Plemmons, D. H.; Turner, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    The production of onboard electrical power by pulse detonation engines is problematic in that they generate no shaft power; however, pulse detonation driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation represents one intriguing possibility for attaining self-sustained engine operation and generating large quantities of burst power for onboard electrical systems. To examine this possibility further, a simple heat-sink apparatus was developed for experimentally investigating pulse detonation driven MHD generator concepts. The hydrogen oxygen fired driver was a 90 cm long stainless steel tube having a 4.5 cm square internal cross section and a short Schelkin spiral near the head end to promote rapid formation of a detonation wave. The tube was intermittently filled to atmospheric pressure and seeded with a CsOH/methanol prior to ignition by electrical spark. The driver exhausted through an aluminum nozzle having an area contraction ratio of A*/A(sub zeta) = 1/10 and an area expansion ratio of A(sub zeta)/A* = 3.2 (as limited by available magnet bore size). The nozzle exhausted through a 24-electrode segmented Faraday channel (30.5 cm active length), which was inserted into a 0.6 T permanent magnet assembly. Initial experiments verified proper drive operation with and without the nozzle attachment, and head end pressure and time resolved thrust measurements were acquired. The exhaust jet from the nozzle was interrogated using a polychromatic microwave interferometer yielding an electron number density on the order of 10(exp 12)/cm at the generator entrance. In this case, MHD power generation experiments suffered from severe near-electrode voltage drops and low MHD interaction; i.e., low flow velocity, due to an inherent physical constraint on expansion with the available magnet. Increased scaling, improved seeding techniques, higher magnetic fields, and higher expansion ratios are expected to greatly improve performance.

  18. Satellite power system (SPS) public outreach experiment

    SciTech Connect

    McNeal, S.R.

    1980-12-01

    To improve the results of the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation Program, an outreach experiment was conducted. Three public interest groups participated: the L-5 Society (L-5), Citizen's Energy Project (CEP), and the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST). Each group disseminated summary information about SPS to approximately 3000 constituents with a request for feedback on the SPS concept. The objectives of the outreach were to (1) determine the areas of major concern relative to the SPS concept, and (2) gain experience with an outreach process for use in future public involvement. Due to the combined efforts of all three groups, 9200 individuals/organizations received information about the SPS concept. Over 1500 receipients of this information provided feedback. The response to the outreach effort was positive for all three groups, suggesting that the effort extended by the SPS Project Division to encourage an information exchange with the public was well received. The general response to the SPS differed with each group. The L-5 position is very much in favor of SPS; CEP is very much opposed and FASST is relatively neutral. The responses are analyzed, and from the responses some questions and answers about the satellite power system are presented in the appendix. (WHK)

  19. Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Factual Introduction toExperience from the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.; Namovicz, C.; Gielecki, M.; Smith, R.

    2007-05-09

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have--since the late 1990s--proliferated at the state level in the United States. What began as a policy idea minted in California and first described in detail in the pages of the 'Electricity Journal' FPT has emerged as an important driver for renewable energy capacity additions in the United States. Over the years, articles in the 'Electricity Journal' have explored the RPS in more detail, identifying both its strengths and weaknesses. The present article provides an introduction to the history, concept, and design of the RPS, reviews early experience with the policy as applied at the state level, and provides a brief overview of Federal RPS proposals to date and the possible relationship between Federal and state RPS policies. Our purpose is to offer a factual introduction to the RPS, as applied and considered in the U.S. Though elements of state RPS design are summarized here, other publications provide a more thorough review of design lessons that emerge from that experience. In addition, the present article does not describe the results of economic analyses of Federal RPS proposals, though we do cite many of the analyses conducted by the U.S. DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  20. Pulsed power accelerator for material physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Stygar, W. A.; Austin, K. N.; Waisman, E. M.; Hickman, R. J.; Davis, J.-P.; Haill, T. A.; Knudson, M. D.; Seagle, C. T.; Brown, J. L.; Goerz, D. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Goldlust, J. A.; Cravey, W. R.

    2015-09-01

    We have developed the design of Thor: a pulsed power accelerator that delivers a precisely shaped current pulse with a peak value as high as 7 MA to a strip-line load. The peak magnetic pressure achieved within a 1-cm-wide load is as high as 100 GPa. Thor is powered by as many as 288 decoupled and transit-time isolated bricks. Each brick consists of a single switch and two capacitors connected electrically in series. The bricks can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of current pulse tailoring. Because the accelerator is impedance matched throughout, capacitor energy is delivered to the strip-line load with an efficiency as high as 50%. We used an iterative finite element method (FEM), circuit, and magnetohydrodynamic simulations to develop an optimized accelerator design. When powered by 96 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 4.1 MA to a load, and achieves peak magnetic pressures as high as 65 GPa. When powered by 288 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 6.9 MA to a load, and achieves magnetic pressures as high as 170 GPa. We have developed an algebraic calculational procedure that uses the single brick basis function to determine the brick-triggering sequence necessary to generate a highly tailored current pulse time history for shockless loading of samples. Thor will drive a wide variety of magnetically driven shockless ramp compression, shockless flyer plate, shock-ramp, equation of state, material strength, phase transition, and other advanced material physics experiments.

  1. High-power pulse propagation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, R.A.

    1986-12-01

    One of the questions that must be answered in assessing the potential of pulsed microwave beams as directed energy weapons is, ''What is the maximum pulse energy (and/or peak power) that can be delivered from a source to a target.'' Atmospheric breakdown caused by the electromagnetic fields of the pulse sets one limit on energy propagation, and the breakdown threshold was the subject of fairly extensive investigation a number of years ago. The evolution of microwave source technology has extended the parameter range over which propagation needs to be understood, and additional issues that have not previously been investigated experimentally have assumed a new importance. A new generation of experiments is underway, planned, or proposed to investigate these issues. 13 refs.

  2. The justificatory power of moral experience.

    PubMed

    van Thiel, G J M W; van Delden, J J M

    2009-04-01

    A recurrent issue in the vast amount of literature on reasoning models in ethics is the role and nature of moral intuitions. In this paper, we start from the view that people who work and live in a certain moral practice usually possess specific moral wisdom. If we manage to incorporate their moral intuitions in ethical reasoning, we can arrive at judgements and (modest) theories that grasp a moral experience that generally cannot be found outside the practice. Reflective equilibrium (RE) provides a framework for balancing moral intuitions, ethical principles and general theories. Nevertheless, persisting problems associated with the use of intuitions need to be addressed. One is the objection that moral intuitions lack the credibility necessary to guide moral reasoning. Ethicists have tried to solve this problem by formulating criteria to separate the "bad" intuitions from the "good" ones at the beginning of the reasoning process. We call this the credible input-justified outcome strategy. An example is the appeal to the common morality by Beauchamp and Childress. We think this approach is unsuccessful. As an alternative, we outline the good reasoning-justified outcome strategy. It connects to a variant of RE in which intuitions from different sources are incorporated. We argue that the elements of RE have different levels of justificatory power at the start of reasoning. In our strategy, each element can gain or lose justificatory power when it is tested in a reasoning process that meets several criteria. PMID:19332580

  3. Power Measurements of Spark Discharge Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-González, Rafael; Romero, Alfredo; Honda, Yasuhiro

    1998-04-01

    An accurate and precise knowledge of the amount of energy introduced into prebiotic discharge experiments is important to understand the relative roles of different energy sources in the synthesis of organic compounds in the primitive Earth's atmosphere and other planetary atmospheres. Two methods widely used to determine the power of spark discharges were evaluated, namely calorimetric and oscilloscopic, using a chemically inert gas. The power dissipated by the spark in argon at 500 Torr was determined to be 2.4 (^+12%/_-17%) J s^-1 by calorimetry and 5.3 +/- 15%) J s^-1 by the oscilloscope. The difference between the two methods was attributed to (1) an incomplete conversion of the electric energy into heat, and (2) heat loss from the spark channel to the connecting cables through the electrodes. The latter contribution leads to an unwanted effect in the spark channel by lowering the spark product yields as the spark channel cools by mixing with surrounding air and by losing heat to the electrodes. Once the concentrations of the spark products have frozen at the freeze-out temperature, any additional loss of heat from the spark channel to the electrodes has no consequence in product yields. Therefore, neither methods accurately determines the net energy transferred to the system. With a lack of a quantitative knowledge of the amount of heat loss from the spark channel during the interval from ignition of the spark to when the freeze-out temperature is reached, it is recommended to derive the energy yields of the spark products from the mean value of the two methods with the uncertainty being their standard deviation. For the case of argon at 500 Torr, this would be 3.8 (+/-50%) J s^-1.

  4. Development and introduction of information technologies for supporting the management of maintenance and repairs at nuclear power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurinovich, V. D.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

    2011-05-01

    The results obtained from introduction of information technologies for supporting the management of maintenance and repairs at nuclear power stations operated by the Rosenergoatom Concern are analyzed. It is shown that the list of promising lines in which information support can be implemented for maintenance and repairs and for managing the main assets of nuclear power stations taking their technical state into account includes introduction of an information system of the EAM class, the reliability-centered maintenance methodology, and other approaches for optimizing the strategies of repair activities, the technology of 3D simulation of elements, and use of 3D models for optimizing repair costs, including the development of interactive technological manuals and teaching systems, as well as integration with the automated process control system and introduction of the project management methodology.

  5. Pulse Detonation Rocket MHD Power Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    magnet assembly were then installed on Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) rectangular channel pulse detonation research engine. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power extraction experiments were carried out for a range of load impedances in which cesium hydroxide seed (dissolved in methanol) was sprayed into the gaseous oxygen/hydrogen propellants. Positive power extraction was obtained, but preliminary analysis of the data indicated that the plasma electrical conductivity is lower than anticipated and the near-electrode voltage drop is not negligible. It is believed that the electrical conductivity is reduced due to a large population of negative OH ions. This occurs because OH has a strong affinity for capturing free electrons. The effect of near-electrode voltage drop is associated with the high surface-to-volume ratio of the channel (1-inch by 1-inch cross-section) where surface effects play a dominant role. As usual for MHD devices, higher performance will require larger scale devices. Overall, the gathered data is extremely valuable from the standpoint of understanding plasma behavior and for developing empirical scaling laws.

  6. Children's Elementary School Social Experience and Executive Functions Development: Introduction to a Special Section.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Pol A C; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2016-01-01

    Children's executive functions, encompassing inhibitory control, working memory and attention are vital for their self-regulation. With the transition to formal schooling, children need to learn to manage their emotions and behavior in a new and complex social environment that with age increases in the intensity of social interactions with peers and teachers. Stronger executive functions skills facilitate children's social development. In addition, new experiences in the social environments of school also may influence executive function development. The focus of this special section is on this potential impact of elementary school social experiences with peers and teacher on the development of children's executive functions. The collection of papers encompass various aspects of peer and teacher social environments, and cover broad as well as specific facets and measures of executive functions including neural responses. The collection of papers sample developmental periods that span preschool through mid-adolescence. In this introduction, we summarize and highlight the main findings of each of the papers, organized around social interactions with peers and interactions with teachers. We conclude our synopsis with implications for future research, and a specific focus on prevention and intervention. PMID:26687502

  7. Introduction of water chemistry conditions of the secondary coolant circuit with metering organic amines at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkov, V. F.; Erpyleva, S. F.; Bykova, V. V.

    2009-05-01

    Results from introduction of new water chemistry conditions involving metering of organic amines (morpholine and ethanolamine) at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors are presented.

  8. Electric power management for the International Space Station experiment racks

    SciTech Connect

    Burcham, M.; Darty, M.A.; Thibodeau, P.E.; Coe, R.; Dunn, M.

    1995-12-31

    An intelligent, all solid state, electric power management system for International Space Station experiment racks is described. This power system is implemented via redundant internal microcomputers, controlling hybridized solid state power controllers in response to 1553B data bus commands. The solid state power controllers are programmable for current trip level and for normally-open or normally-closed operation.

  9. Experiences with Teaching Basic Statistics in an Introduction to Civil Engineering Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craddock, James N.

    Following a widespread national trend, in 1996, a new two-credit hour course titled "Introduction to Civil Engineering" was introduced at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). The class has a one-hour lecture per week, and a two-hour lab or small group session. One reason for the introduction of this class was to provide earlier…

  10. Starting to Experiment with Wave Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Jonathan; McCallie, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Outlined is a simple design for a working wave-powered electrical generator based on one made on the BBC "Rough Science" TV series. The design has been kept deliberately simple to facilitate rapid pupil/student involvement and most importantly so that there is much scope for their own ingenuity and ideas. The generator works on the principle of…

  11. Advance Power Technology Experiment for the Starshine 3 Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David; Wilt, David; Raffaelle, Ryne; Button, Robert; Smith, Mark; Kerslake, Thomas; Miller, Thomas; Bailey, Sheila (Technical Monitor); Hepp, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Starshine 3 satellite will carry several power technology demonstrations. Since Starshine 3 is primarily a passive experiment and does not need electrical power to successfully complete its mission, the requirement for a highly reliable power system is greatly reduced. This creates an excellent opportunity to test new power technologies. Several government and commercial interests have teamed up to provide Starshine 3 with a small power system using state-of-the-art components. Starshine 3 will also fly novel integrated microelectronic power supplies (IWS) for evaluation.

  12. MSG Power Subsystem Flight Return Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacometti, G.; Canard, JP.; Perron, O.

    2011-10-01

    The Meteosat programme has been running for more than twenty years under ESA leadership. Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) is a series of 4 geostationary satellites developed and procured by the European Space Agency (ESA) on behalf of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). Eumetsat is still operating two of the first generation satellites models named MOP3 and MTP1 which are pointed towards the Indian ocean. The European meteorological service is now enhanced by two spacecrafts of the Second Generation (MSG-1 and MSG-2). They have been launched by Ariane 5 in August 2002 and December 2005 respectively. Thales Alenia Space, Prime Contractor of the program, has developed the MSG spacecraft based on a spin-axis stabilized technology. The Electrical Power Subsystem was subcontracted to Astrium GmbH. The Solar Array is composed of 8 body mounted panels, based on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Panel substrate. The Solar network utilizes 7854 Silicon High Eta cells delivering a beginning of life power of 740W. The 28 volts mainbus is regulated using a series shunt regulating concept (S3R type). Two identical SAFT batteries, built from NiCd cells and offering a 29Ah nameplate capacity are connected to the mainbus through battery discharge and charge regulators. Both Solar Array and batteries have been designed to provide power and energy for a nominal 7 years lifetime. These equipments are continuously monitored and are still operating in excellent condition after more than eight and five years in orbit. This paper will present the major electrical design aspects of the power chain and will describe the main parameters performances, which are analysed during the in-orbit operations. Batteries ageing is detailed thanks to reconditioning processed telemetry while the solar array performances over lifetime use dedicated solar array telemetry.

  13. Green Power Marketing Abroad: Recent Experience and Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Wustenhagen, R.; Aabakken, J.

    2002-04-01

    Green power marketing--the act of differentially selling electricity generated wholly or in part from renewable sources--has emerged in more than a dozen countries around the world. This report reviews green power marketing activity abroad to gain additional perspective on consumer demand and to discern key factors or policies that affect the development of green power markets. The objective is to draw lessons from experience in other countries that could be applicable to the U.S. market.

  14. Experiments on H2-O2MHD power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic power generation experiments utilizing a cesium-seeded H2-O2 working fluid were carried out using a diverging area Hall duct having an entrance Mach number of 2. The experiments were conducted in a high-field strength cryomagnet facility at field strengths up to 5 tesla. The effects of power takeoff location, axial duct location within the magnetic field, generator loading, B-field strength, and electrode breakdown voltage were investigated. For the operating conditions of these experiments, it is found that the power output increases with the square of the B-field and can be limited by choking of the channel or interelectrode voltage breakdown which occurs at Hall fields greater than 50 volts/insulator. Peak power densities of greater than 100 MW/cu M were achieved.

  15. Experimental Design and Power Calculation for RNA-seq Experiments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijin; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Power calculation is a critical component of RNA-seq experimental design. The flexibility of RNA-seq experiment and the wide dynamic range of transcription it measures make it an attractive technology for whole transcriptome analysis. These features, in addition to the high dimensionality of RNA-seq data, bring complexity in experimental design, making an analytical power calculation no longer realistic. In this chapter we review the major factors that influence the statistical power of detecting differential expression, and give examples of power assessment using the R package PROPER. PMID:27008024

  16. The M8 Power Calibration Experiment (M8CAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W. R.; Bauer, T. H.

    1994-05-01

    The M8 calibration experiment was a series of 23 irradiations in TREAT performed to determine the relationship between the fission power generated in the TREAT core and the fission power generated in experiment fuel located in an in-core experiment vehicle and irradiated by core neutrons. The experiment was planned to provide the essential calibration information specifically needed for planning and analysis of the M8 test (and subsequent tests similar in geometry to M8) to be performed in the post-upgrade TREAT core. Irradiations were performed in TREAT cores loaded with a full-slotted (to optimize hodoscope performance) and with a half-slotted (to maximize energy deposition). Tests included a few selected low-power irradiations of fresh IFR-type U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr fuel pins supplemented by multiple irradiations of uranium-zirconium monitor wires ranging from low steady-state power to high-power maximal transients. This report describes the M8CAL test hardware, measurements, analysis assumptions, and methods used to deduce power coupling between the reactor and experiment fuel--including both absolute magnitudes and axial distributions. Power coupling results are reported for fresh IF fuel pins under high-power transient test conditions appropriate to the planned M8 transient test. In line with previous calibration data, measured dependence of power coupling on the specifics of each irradiation is also shown to correlate well with the in-core axial locations of the TREAT control rods. Estimates are made for maximal test fuel energy deposition capabilty in controlled transients.

  17. Introduction to the Design and Optimization of Experiments Using Response Surface Methodology. A Gas Chromatography Experiment for the Instrumentation Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Patricia L.; Miller, Benjamin I.; Nowak, Abigail Tuttle

    2006-01-01

    The study describes how to design and optimize an experiment with multiple factors and multiple responses. The experiment uses fractional factorial analysis as a screening experiment only to identify important instrumental factors and does not use response surface methodology to find the optimal set of conditions.

  18. Fuel Cells for Portable Power: 1. Introduction to DMFCs; 2. Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenay, Piotr

    2012-07-16

    Thanks to generally less stringent cost constraints, portable power fuel cells, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) in particular, promise earlier market penetration than higher power polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) for the automotive and stationary applications. However, a large-scale commercialization of DMFC-based power systems beyond niche applications already targeted by developers will depend on improvements to fuel cell performance and performance durability as well as on the reduction in cost, especially of the portable systems on the higher end of the power spectrum (100-250 W). In this part of the webinar, we will focus on the development of advanced materials (catalysts, membranes, electrode structures, and membrane electrode assemblies) and fuel cell operating concepts capable of fulfilling two key targets for portable power systems: the system cost of $5/W and overall fuel conversion efficiency of 2.0-2.5 kWh/L. Presented research will concentrate on the development of new methanol oxidation catalysts, hydrocarbon membranes with reduced methanol crossover, and improvements to component durability. Time permitted, we will also present a few highlights from the development of electrocatalysts for the oxidation of two alternative fuels for the direct-feed fuel cells: ethanol and dimethyl ether.

  19. Smallholder experiences with dairy cattle crossbreeding in the tropics: from introduction to impact.

    PubMed

    Roschinsky, R; Kluszczynska, M; Sölkner, J; Puskur, R; Wurzinger, M

    2015-01-01

    Crossbreeding of indigenous tropical and improved western dairy cattle breeds as tool to improve dairy cattle performance on smallholder farms has been widely advocated, criticised and yet applied. The government of Ethiopia supported this technology for decades but adoption rate is low. Constraints are documented but there is little information about farm level introduction and development of crossbreeding. A total 122 smallholders with mixed crop livestock farms and at least 8 years of successful crossbreeding were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire in two contexts in Amhara Regional state in north-western Ethiopia. Crossbreeding initiator was either uncoordinated government extension or a coordinated development project, also implemented with governmental support. Qualitative and quantitative data on farmers' motivations, crossbreeding introduction, initiator support, breeding adaptation and impacts at farm level were analysed. Results show that even though motives vary between contexts the underlying reason to introduce crossbreeding was economic profit. To be able to introduce crossbreeding support of initiators (e.g. extension) and other farmers was essential. The crossbreeding introduction context had some influence. Governmental actors were the main source of support and supplier of exotic genetics but the farmer network acted as safety net filling gaps of government support. Breeding strategies focused on performance increase. A lack of basic understanding of crossbreeding has been identified. A surprising, probably biased, result was general satisfaction with initiator support and with breeding services. It was challenged by the high proportion of farmers unable to follow a breeding strategy due to insufficient bull and/or semen supply. Crossbreeding changed the smallholder production system to a high input - high output system. Except for crossbred adaptation problems, challenges were ranked context specific and influenced by the initiator

  20. Experiments on H2-O2 MHD power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1980-06-01

    MHD power generation experiments utilizing a cesium-seeded H2-O2 working fluid have been carried out using a diverging area Hall duct having an entrance Mach number of 2. The experiments are conducted in a high-field strength cryomagnet facility at field strengths up to 5 tesla. The effects of power takeoff location, axial duct location within the magnetic field, generator loading, B-field strength, and electrode breakdown voltage were investigated. For the operating conditions of these experiments it is found that the power output increases with the square of the B-field and can be limited by choking of the channel or interelectrode voltage breakdown which occurs at Hall fields greater than 50 volts/insulator.

  1. Introduction to Nuclear Fusion Power and the Design of Fusion Reactors. An Issue-Oriented Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillo, J. A.

    This three-part module focuses on the principles of nuclear fusion and on the likely nature and components of a controlled-fusion power reactor. The physical conditions for a net energy release from fusion and two approaches (magnetic and inertial confinement) which are being developed to achieve this goal are described. Safety issues associated…

  2. Feasibility study on introduction of the bio-fuel power generation in tropical regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    Study is made on feasibility of introducing the bio-fuel power generation in tropical regions, especially in South East Asia including Okinawa and South America. Biomass promising as bio-fuel is bagasse and palm oil mill dregs; and bagasse is found to be advantageous to the use for large-scaled power generation. Prospective uses of bagasse are a combined use of gasification process and gas turbine power generation, an effective use of gas turbine exhaust heat at sugar cane factories, and a use of the system to be developed which totalizes these two. As to how to carry out the R and D project, since the gasification power generation process itself is a high technology and has partially unknown fields, it is desirable that research and development are conducted in such technologically developed countries as Japan (Okinawa). A developmental plan, therefore, is worked out as such that a pilot plant of approximately 3000kW is to be constructed in Okinawa because the period for bagasse production is at least 3 months there, and a commercial-scale plant is to be constructed and operated in such big bagasse-producing countries as Brazil.

  3. Power-Stepped HF Cross Modulation Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, S.; Moore, R. C.; Langston, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    High frequency (HF) cross modulation experiments are a well established means for probing the HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere. In this paper, we apply experimental observations of HF cross-modulation to the related problem of ELF/VLF wave generation. HF cross-modulation measurements are used to evaluate the efficiency of ionospheric conductivity modulation during power-stepped modulated HF heating experiments. The results are compared to previously published dependencies of ELF/VLF wave amplitude on HF peak power. The experiments were performed during the March 2013 campaign at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Observatory. HAARP was operated in a dual-beam transmission format: the first beam heated the ionosphere using sinusoidal amplitude modulation while the second beam broadcast a series of low-power probe pulses. The peak power of the modulating beam was incremented in 1-dB steps. We compare the minimum and maximum cross-modulation effect and the amplitude of the resulting cross-modulation waveform to the expected power-law dependence of ELF/VLF wave amplitude on HF power.

  4. Modeling of high power ICRF heating experiments on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R.; Ramsey, A.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Skinner, C.; Stevens, J.E.; Taylor, G.; Wong, K.L.; Khudaleev, A.; Petrov, M.P.; Murakami, M.

    1993-04-01

    Over the past two years, ICRF heating experiments have been performed on TFTR in the hydrogen minority heating regime with power levels reaching 11.2 MW in helium-4 majority plasmas and 8.4 MW in deuterium majority plasmas. For these power levels, the minority hydrogen ions, which comprise typically less than 10% of the total electron density, evolve into la very energetic, anisotropic non-Maxwellian distribution. Indeed, the excess perpendicular stored energy in these plasmas associated with the energetic minority tail ions is often as high as 25% of the total stored energy, as inferred from magnetic measurements. Enhanced losses of 0.5 MeV protons consistent with the presence of an energetic hydrogen component have also been observed. In ICRF heating experiments on JET at comparable and higher power levels and with similar parameters, it has been suggested that finite banana width effects have a noticeable effect on the ICRF power deposition. In particular, models indicate that finite orbit width effects lead to a reduction in the total stored energy and of the tail energy in the center of the plasma, relative to that predicted by the zero banana width models. In this paper, detailed comparisons between the calculated ICRF power deposition profiles and experimentally measured quantities will be presented which indicate that significant deviations from the zero banana width models occur even for modest power levels (P{sub rf} {approximately} 6 MW) in the TFTR experiments.

  5. Modeling of high power ICRF heating experiments on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R.; Ramsey, A.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Skinner, C.; Stevens, J.E.; Taylor, G.; Wong, K.L. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Khudaleev, A.; Petrov, M.P. ); Murakami, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Over the past two years, ICRF heating experiments have been performed on TFTR in the hydrogen minority heating regime with power levels reaching 11.2 MW in helium-4 majority plasmas and 8.4 MW in deuterium majority plasmas. For these power levels, the minority hydrogen ions, which comprise typically less than 10% of the total electron density, evolve into la very energetic, anisotropic non-Maxwellian distribution. Indeed, the excess perpendicular stored energy in these plasmas associated with the energetic minority tail ions is often as high as 25% of the total stored energy, as inferred from magnetic measurements. Enhanced losses of 0.5 MeV protons consistent with the presence of an energetic hydrogen component have also been observed. In ICRF heating experiments on JET at comparable and higher power levels and with similar parameters, it has been suggested that finite banana width effects have a noticeable effect on the ICRF power deposition. In particular, models indicate that finite orbit width effects lead to a reduction in the total stored energy and of the tail energy in the center of the plasma, relative to that predicted by the zero banana width models. In this paper, detailed comparisons between the calculated ICRF power deposition profiles and experimentally measured quantities will be presented which indicate that significant deviations from the zero banana width models occur even for modest power levels (P[sub rf] [approximately] 6 MW) in the TFTR experiments.

  6. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy--case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Ming; Fukushima, Yasuhiro

    2009-03-01

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study. PMID:19320274

  7. Experiments with very-high-power RF pulses at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, H.A.; Loew, G.A.; Price, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    Experiments in which the powers of two SLAC klystrons were combined and fed into a resonant cavity pulse-compression system (SLED) are described. Pulse powers up to 65 MW into SLED were reached. The corresponding instantaneous peak power out of SLED was 390 MW. After normal initial aging, no persistent RF breakdown problems were encountered. X-radiation at the SLED cavities was generally less than 400 mR/h after aging. The theoretical relationship between x-radiation intensity and RF electric field strength is discussed.

  8. Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) power supply design and development

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C.; Bronner, G.; Lu, E.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1995-04-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is an advanced tokamak project aimed at the production of quasi-steady state plasmas with advanced shape, heating, and particle control. TPX is to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) using many of the facilities from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). TPX will be the first tokamak to utilize superconducting (SC) magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. This new feature requires a departure from the traditional tokamak power supply schemes. This paper describes the plan for the adaptation of the PPPL/FTR power system facilities to supply TPX. Five major areas are addressed, namely the AC power system, the TF, PF and Fast Plasma Position Control (FPPC) power supplies, and quench protection for the TF and PF systems. Special emphasis is placed on the development of new power supply and protection schemes.

  9. 77 FR 12086 - Final Staff Guidance, Revision 4 to Standard Review Plan; Section 8.1 on Electric Power-Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    .... Disposition: On May 31, 2011 (76 FR 31381), the NRC published for public comment the proposed Revision 4 on... COMMISSION Final Staff Guidance, Revision 4 to Standard Review Plan; Section 8.1 on Electric Power... ``Electric Power--Introduction,'' (Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS) Accession...

  10. Introduction of a cultural training experience into interdisciplinary health science education program.

    PubMed

    Sasnett, Bonita; Royal, Patricia D; Ross, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In the 21st century the U.S. will have an increasingly diverse population, challenging healthcare communities to deliver culturally sensitive services. Healthcare professionals must be culturally competent to address the needs of this changing population. While education can assist health professional students to attain progressively higher levels of cultural competence, delivering this education must rely heavily on field experiences or engagement to help students simultaneously learn and apply culturally sensitive skills. The implementation of a cultural sensitivity training experience in an interdisciplinary curriculum and the use of the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence are discussed in the assessment of the case study write-up for cultural sensitivity and awareness. Overall, students gained a greater understanding of patient's cultural background and a willingness to incorporate cultural issues into their health assessments as a result of the cultural experience. PMID:20539922

  11. Bioscience experiments in the German Spacelab mission D-1: Introduction and summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Greger, G.; Sahm, P. R.

    The German Spacelab mission D-1 was performed from 30 October through 6 November 1985. Payload operation in orbit was managed by DFVLR for the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology. The scientific program of the mission placed emphasis on microgravity research. In bioscience, the role of gravity in vital functions of biological systems was investigated, such as intracellular and intercellular interactions, developmental processes as well as regulation and adaptation in highly organized systems including human beings. In addition, the biological significance of cosmic radiation or altered zeitgeber within the complex matrix of all relevant spaceflight components were studied. Most of the experiments were accommodated in the following three payload elements: The Bioscience Experiment Package, and the ESA facilities Vestibular Sled and BIORACK. The information gained from the individual experiments will be compiled to help answer pending questions of space bioscience.

  12. Myopia Glasses and Optical Power Estimation: An Easy Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-01-01

    Human eye optics is a common high school physics topic and students usually show a great interest during our presentation of this theme. In this article, we present an easy way to estimate a diverging lens' optical power from a simple experiment involving myopia eyeglasses and a smartphone flashlight.

  13. HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher; Williams, Gwyn

    2012-07-01

    Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

  14. Myopia Glasses and Optical Power Estimation: An Easy Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-02-01

    Human eye optics is a common high school physics topic and students usually show a great interest during our presentation of this theme. In this article, we present an easy way to estimate a diverging lens' optical power from a simple experiment involving myopia eyeglasses and a smartphone flashlight.

  15. Postanalysis of the CNPS (Compact Nuclear Power Source) critical experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, R. G.

    The Compact Nuclear Power Source (CNPS) was designed to produce electric power for remote sites where fuel logistics and costs would justify a remotely sited nuclear power plant. Since the reactor was of novel design with no appropriate benchmarks, a series of critical experiments was carried out at LANL. This paper describes the methodology and reports the results of the postanalysis that was performed on the critical experiments, which included several distinct critical configurations, the measurement of the isothermal temperature coefficient of reactivity and various material worths. Comparisons with measurements indicate that current methods and cross sections are adequate for calculating at least the beginning of life conditions in low enriched U-235-graphite cores.

  16. Postanalysis of the CNPS (Compact Nuclear Power Source) critical experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The Compact Nuclear Power Source (CNPS) was designed to produce electric power for remote sites where fuel logistics and costs would justify a remotely sited nuclear power plant. Since the reactor was of novel design with no appropriate benchmarks, a series of critical experiments was carried out at LANL. This paper describes the methodology and reports the results of the postanalysis that was performed on the critical experiments, which included several distinct critical configurations, the measurement of the isothermal temperature coefficient of reactivity and various material worths. Comparisons with measurements indicate that current methods and cross sections are adequate for calculating at least the beginning of life conditions in low enriched /sup 235/U-graphite cores. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Inquiry-Based Experiments for Large-Scale Introduction to PCR and Restriction Enzyme Digests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Kelly E.; Watt, Terry J.

    2015-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease digest are important techniques that should be included in all Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory curriculums. These techniques are frequently taught at an advanced level, requiring many hours of student and faculty time. Here we present two inquiry-based experiments that are…

  18. Balancing Treatment and Control Groups in Quasi-Experiments: An Introduction to Propensity Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Brian S.; Sackett, Paul R.; Waters, Shonna D.

    2013-01-01

    Organizational and applied sciences have long struggled with improving causal inference in quasi-experiments. We introduce organizational researchers to propensity scoring, a statistical technique that has become popular in other applied sciences as a means for improving internal validity. Propensity scoring statistically models how individuals in…

  19. The Tuskegee Experiment: An Introduction in Ethics for Pre-Healthcare Professional Students†

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Daniel; Sanchez, David Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Over the past years, professional students have had extensive exposure to clinical cases during basic science classes. With this in mind, we have taken this clinical case exposure moment to be an opportune time to introduce the ethics of working with patients during biomedical research. Our goal is to present a straightforward assignment that allows for active student research into the facts of the Tuskegee Experiment of the 1900s. The assignment provides the necessary background to allow for a student-centered discussion on the ethical issues of the events and ramifications of what happened. Thus, in educating a class on the event’s happenings, one concomitantly creates a platform for meaningful discussion on the principles and ethics of patient care. We have found that an ethics-infused event such as the Tuskegee Experiment is an excellent way to introduce students to these topics. PMID:25574286

  20. Inquiry-based experiments for large-scale introduction to PCR and restriction enzyme digests.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Kelly E; Watt, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease digest are important techniques that should be included in all Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory curriculums. These techniques are frequently taught at an advanced level, requiring many hours of student and faculty time. Here we present two inquiry-based experiments that are designed for introductory laboratory courses and combine both techniques. In both approaches, students must determine the identity of an unknown DNA sequence, either a gene sequence or a primer sequence, based on a combination of PCR product size and restriction digest pattern. The experimental design is flexible, and can be adapted based on available instructor preparation time and resources, and both approaches can accommodate large numbers of students. We implemented these experiments in our courses with a combined total of 584 students and have an 85% success rate. Overall, students demonstrated an increase in their understanding of the experimental topics, ability to interpret the resulting data, and proficiency in general laboratory skills. PMID:26503481

  1. An introduction of mountain-based GPS radio occultation experiments in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Wu, X. C.; Gong, X. Y.; Xiao, C. Y.; Zhang, X. X.; Fu, Y.; Du, X. Y.; Li, H.; Fang, Z. Y.; Xia, Q.; Yang, G. L.; Mao, J. T.

    2008-11-01

    The mountain-based GPS radio occultation is a novel approach to lower atmospheric profiling. The experiments of the mountain-based GPS radio occultation were conducted on the top of Mt. Yaogu (29.38°N, 113.68°E, ˜1240 m) on December 17, 2003, and on the top of Mt. Jiugong (29.39°N, 114.65°E, ˜1550 m) on July 24, 2004. Based on these observation data, the scientific data processing software has been developed and is used to retrieve successfully the atmospheric refractivity profiles. The validation experiment was performed on the top of Mt. Wuling (40.60°N, 117.48°E, ˜2118 m) during August 1-29, 2005. Collocated automatic weather station and the radiosondes nearby were operated simultaneously for the comparison campaign. Results show that the radio occultation technique obtained about 40 profiles every day with the receiver antenna pointing to the south. Comparisons show that the refractivity measured by occultation agree well with those by the radiosondes, but not well with those by the automatic weather station due to their much different geographic locations of measurements. Results of these experiments suggest that the mountain-based GPS radio occultation is an economic reliable novel technique monitoring temporal and spatial variations of local lower atmospheric environments.

  2. Introduction to the project DUNE, a DUst experiment in a low Nutrient, low chlorophyll Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guieu, C.; Dulac, F.; Ridame, C.; Pondaven, P.

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of the project DUNE was to estimate the impact of atmospheric deposition on an oligotrophic ecosystem based on mesocosm experiments simulating strong atmospheric inputs of Aeolian dust. Atmospheric deposition is now recognized as a significant source of macro- and micro-nutrients for the surface ocean, but the quantification of its role on the biological carbon pump is still poorly determined. We proposed in DUNE to investigate the role of atmospheric inputs on the functioning of an oligotrophic system particularly well adapted to this kind of study: the Mediterranean Sea. The Mediterranean Sea - etymologically, sea surrounded by land - is submitted to atmospheric inputs that are very variable both in frequency and intensity. During the thermal stratification period, only atmospheric deposition is prone to fertilize Mediterranean surface waters which has become very oligotrophic due to the nutrient depletion (after the spring bloom). This paper describes the objectives of DUNE and the implementation plan of a series of mesocosms experiments during which either wet or dry and a succession of two wet deposition fluxes of 10 g m-2 of Saharan dust have been simulated. After the presentation of the main biogeochemical initial conditions of the site at the time of each experiment, a general overview of the papers published in this special issue is presented, including laboratory results on the solubility of trace elements in erodible soils in addition to results from the mesocosm experiments. Our mesocosm experiments aimed at being representative of real atmospheric deposition events onto the surface of oligotrophic marine waters and were an original attempt to consider the vertical dimension in the study of the fate of atmospheric deposition within surface waters. Results obtained can be more easily extrapolated to quantify budgets and parameterize processes such as particle migration through a "captured water column". The strong simulated dust deposition

  3. Prognostics of Power Electronics, Methods and Validation Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose R.; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Failure of electronic devices is a concern for future electric aircrafts that will see an increase of electronics to drive and control safety-critical equipment throughout the aircraft. As a result, investigation of precursors to failure in electronics and prediction of remaining life of electronic components is of key importance. DC-DC power converters are power electronics systems employed typically as sourcing elements for avionics equipment. Current research efforts in prognostics for these power systems focuses on the identification of failure mechanisms and the development of accelerated aging methodologies and systems to accelerate the aging process of test devices, while continuously measuring key electrical and thermal parameters. Preliminary model-based prognostics algorithms have been developed making use of empirical degradation models and physics-inspired degradation model with focus on key components like electrolytic capacitors and power MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistor). This paper presents current results on the development of validation methods for prognostics algorithms of power electrolytic capacitors. Particularly, in the use of accelerated aging systems for algorithm validation. Validation of prognostics algorithms present difficulties in practice due to the lack of run-to-failure experiments in deployed systems. By using accelerated experiments, we circumvent this problem in order to define initial validation activities.

  4. Introduction to project DUNE, a DUst experiment in a low Nutrient, low chlorophyll Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guieu, C.; Dulac, F.; Ridame, C.; Pondaven, P.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of project DUNE was to estimate the impact of atmospheric deposition on an oligotrophic ecosystem based on mesocosm experiments simulating strong atmospheric inputs of eolian mineral dust. Our mesocosm experiments aimed at being representative of real atmospheric deposition events onto the surface of oligotrophic marine waters and were an original attempt to consider the vertical dimension after atmospheric deposition at the sea surface. This introductory paper describes the objectives of DUNE and the implementation plan of a series of mesocosm experiments conducted in the Mediterranean Sea in 2008 and 2010 during which either wet or dry and a succession of two wet deposition fluxes of 10 g m-2 of Saharan dust have been simulated based on the production of dust analogs from erodible soils of a source region. After the presentation of the main biogeochemical initial conditions of the site at the time of each experiment, a general overview of the papers published in this special issue is presented. From laboratory results on the solubility of trace elements in dust to biogeochemical results from the mesocosm experiments and associated modeling, these papers describe how the strong simulated dust deposition events impacted the marine biogeochemistry. Those multidisciplinary results are bringing new insights into the role of atmospheric deposition on oligotrophic ecosystems and its impact on the carbon budget. The dissolved trace metals with crustal origin - Mn, Al and Fe - showed different behaviors as a function of time after the seeding. The increase in dissolved Mn and Al concentrations was attributed to dissolution processes. The observed decrease in dissolved Fe was due to scavenging on sinking dust particles and aggregates. When a second dust seeding followed, a dissolution of Fe from the dust particles was then observed due to the excess Fe binding ligand concentrations present at that time. Calcium nitrate and sulfate were formed in the dust

  5. An overview of U.S. decommissioning experience -- A basic introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.

    1998-03-09

    This paper presents an overview of the US experiences in the decommissioning technical area. Sections included are: (1) an overview of the magnitude of the problem, (2) a review of the US decommissioning process, (3) regulation of decommissioning, (4) regulatory and funding requirements for decommissioning, and (5) a general overview of all on-going and completed decommissioning projects to date in the US. The final section presents a review of some issues in the decommissioning area currently being debated in the technical specialists community.

  6. Experience with organic Rankine cycles in heat recovery power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bronicki, L.Y.; Elovic, A.; Rettger, P.

    1996-11-01

    Over the last 30 years, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) have been increasingly employed to produce power from various heat sources when other alternatives were either technically not feasible or economical. These power plants have logged a total of over 100 million turbine hours of experience demonstrating the maturity and field proven technology of the ORC cycle. The cycle is well adapted to low to moderate temperature heat sources such as waste heat from industrial plants and is widely used to recover energy from geothermal resources. The above cycle technology is well established and applicable to heat recovery of medium size gas turbines and offers significant advantages over conventional steam bottoming cycles.

  7. Scanning beam switch experiment for intense rf power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, Stanley, Jr.; Babcock, Steven R.; Wilson, J. M.; Adler, Richard J.

    1991-04-01

    1407_57The SBS_1 experiment at Sandia National Laboratories is designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the Scanning Beam Switch for high-power rf generation. The primary application is to pulsed rf linacs and high-frequency induction accelerators. It is expected that the apparatus will generate rf output power exceeding 100 MW at 50 MHz over a 5 microsecond(s) pulse. The device can operate as an oscillator or high gain amplifier. To achieve the capability for long-macropulse and high-duty-cycle operation, SBS_1 uses a large dispenser cathode and vacuum triode input driver.

  8. The Hawthorne experiments and the introduction of Jean Piaget in American industrial psychology, 1929-1932.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Yeh

    2002-05-01

    The Hawthorne interview program between 1929 and 1932 was one of the most significant industrial studies in the United States. The Hawthorne researchers applied Jean Piaget's clinical method in their extensive interviews with tens of thousands of workers. Chiefly responsible for the program's methodology was Elton Mayo, an Australian who saw interviewing as a means to promote social cooperation. Previous discussions of the Hawthorne experiments have ignored the influence of Piaget in the social sciences. This article provides an account of Mayo's and the Hawthorne researchers' efforts to fuse Piaget's innovation with burgeoning American industrial psychology. The endeavor was not an isolated event but rather drew on the theories and practice of Janet-Piaget psychology, on the support of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation, and on the discourse among social scientists about Piaget's work. PMID:12096759

  9. Introduction to project DUNE, a DUst experiment in a low Nutrient, low chlorophyll Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guieu, C.; Dulac, F.; Ridame, C.; Pondaven, P.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of project DUNE was to estimate the impact of atmospheric deposition on an oligotrophic ecosystem based on mesocosm experiments simulating strong atmospheric inputs of eolian mineral dust. Our mesocosm experiments aimed at being representative of real atmospheric deposition events onto the surface of oligotrophic marine waters and were an original attempt to consider the vertical dimension after atmospheric deposition at the sea surface. This introductory paper describes the objectives of DUNE and the implementation plan of a series of mesocosm experiments conducted in the Mediterranean Sea in 2008 and 2010 during which either wet or dry and a succession of two wet deposition fluxes of 10 g m-2 of Saharan dust have been simulated based on the production of dust analogs from erodible soils of a source region. After the presentation of the main biogeochemical initial conditions of the site at the time of each experiment, a general overview of the papers published in this special issue is presented. From laboratory results on the solubility of trace elements in dust to biogeochemical results from the mesocosm experiments and associated modeling, these papers describe how the strong simulated dust deposition events impacted the marine biogeochemistry. Those multidisciplinary results are bringing new insights into the role of atmospheric deposition on oligotrophic ecosystems and its impact on the carbon budget. The dissolved trace metals with crustal origin - Mn, Al and Fe - showed different behaviors as a function of time after the seeding. The increase in dissolved Mn and Al concentrations was attributed to dissolution processes. The observed decrease in dissolved Fe was due to scavenging on sinking dust particles and aggregates. When a second dust seeding followed, a dissolution of Fe from the dust particles was then observed due to the excess Fe binding ligand concentrations present at that time. Calcium nitrate and sulfate were formed in the dust

  10. Application of power-factor correction in the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade magnet power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Corvin, W.C.

    1981-08-14

    The magnet power supply for the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX Upgrade) contains 24 groups of dc rectifiers that feed the water-cooled magnets. Each group consists of five or less rectifiers, connected in series. All 24 are current-regulating, using phase-controlled bilateral thyristors in the rectifier transformer primaries. The electric utility system must furnish reactive power to these phase-controlled thyristors as well as to the cmmutating diodes in the rectifier bridges.

  11. An in situ iron-enrichment experiment in the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS): Introduction and summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Shigenobu; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2005-02-01

    To test the iron hypothesis in the subarctic Pacific Ocean, an in situ iron-enrichment experiment (SEEDS) was performed in the western subarctic gyre in July-August 2001. About 350 kg of iron (as acidic iron sulfate) and 0.48 mol of the inert chemical tracer sulfur hexafluoride were introduced into a 10-m deep surface mixed layer over an 80 km 2 area. This single iron infusion raised dissolved iron levels to ∼2.9 nM initially. Dissolved iron concentrations rapidly decreased after the infusion, but levels remained close to 0.15 nM even at the end of the 14-day experimental period. During SEEDS there were iron-mediated increases in chlorophyll a concentrations (up to 20 μg l -1), primary production rates, biomass and photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency relative to waters outside the iron-enriched patch. The rapid and very high accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in response to the iron addition appeared to be partly attributable to shallow mixed-layer depth and moderate water temperature in the western subarctic Pacific. However, the main reason was a floristic shift to fast-growing centric diatom Chaetoceros debilis, unlike the previous iron-enrichment experiments in the equatorial Pacific and the Southern Ocean, in both of which iron stimulated the growth of pennate diatoms. The iron-mediated blooming of diatoms resulted in a marked consumption of macronutrients and drawdown of pCO 2. Biological and physiological measurements indicate that phytoplankton growth in the patch became both light- and iron-limited, making phytoplankton biomass relatively constant after day 9. The increase in microzooplankton grazing rate after day 9 also influenced the net growth rate of phytoplankton. There was no significant increase in the export flux of carbon to depth during the 14-day occupation of the experimental site. The export flux between day 4 and day 13 was estimated to be only 13% of the integrated primary production in the iron-enriched patch. The major part

  12. The SPi chip as an integrated power management device for serial powering of future HEP experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Trimpl, M.; Deptuch, G.; Gingu, C.; Yarema, R.; Holt, R.; Weber, M.; Kierstead, J.; Lynn, D.; /Brookhaven

    2009-01-01

    Serial powering is one viable and very efficient way to distribute power to future high energy physics (HEP) experiments. One promising way to realize serial powering is to have a power management device on the module level that provides the necessary voltage levels and features monitoring functionality. The SPi (Serial Powering Interface) chip is such a power manager and is designed to meet the requirements imposed by current SLHC upgrade plans. It incorporates a programmable shunt regulator, two linear regulators, current mode ADCs to monitor the current distribution on the module, over-current detection, and also provides module power-down capabilities. Compared to serially powered setups that use discrete components, the SPi offers a higher level of functionality in much less real estate and is designed to be radiation tolerant. Bump bonding techniques are used for chip on board assembly providing the most reliable connection at lowest impedance. This paper gives an overview of the SPi and outlines the main building blocks of the chip. First stand alone tests are presented showing that the chip is ready for operation in serially powered setups.

  13. Midcourse space experiment: Introduction to the spacecraft, instruments, and scientific objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mill, John D.; O'Neil, Robert R.; Price, Stephan; Romick, Gerald J.; Uy, O. Manuel; Gaposchkin, E. M.; Light, Glenn C.; Moore, W. Walding, Jr.; Murdock, Thomas L.; Stair, A. T., Jr.

    1994-09-01

    A suite of state-of-the-art sensors, including a cryogenic infrared scanning radiometer and Fourier-transform spectrometer, several visible and ultraviolet imagers and spectrographic imagers, and a set of contamination instruments, are at present being integrated with a highly capable spacecraft for a planned 1994 launch into a polar orbit. The optical sensors cover the spectrum from the far ultraviolet through the longwave infrared (110 nm to 28 micron). The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite, funded and managed by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, will be a long-duration, observatory-style measurement platform that will collect several terabytes of high-quality data on earth, earthlimb, and celestial backgrounds, ICBM-style targets, and resident space objects. While the principal focus of MSX is to collect phenomenology data in support of ballistic missile defense objectives, it will also be capable of collecting well-calibrated data in support of a variety of civilian science objectives in earth and atmospheric remote sensing and astronomy. This paper reviews the mission objectives, describes the spacecraft and the instrumentation, and discusses the planned observations. It also outlines an innovative approach to reducing, analyzing, and archiving the large database that will result from several years of data collection supporting a variety of scientific objectives.

  14. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  15. Power supplies and quench protection for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is an advanced tokamak project aimed at the production of quasi-steady state plasmas with advanced shape, heating, and particle control. TPX is to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) using many of the facilities from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). First plasma is scheduled for the year 2000. TPX will be the first tokamak to utilize superconducting (SC) magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. This is a new feature which requires not only a departure from the traditional tokamak power supply schemes but also that ultra-reliable quench protection devices be used to rapidly discharge the stored energy from the magnets in the event of a quench. This paper describes the plan and basis for the adaptation and augmentation of the PPPL/TFTR power system facilities to supply TPX. Following a description of the basic operational requirements, four major areas are addressed, namely the AC power system, the TF power supply, the PF power supply, and quench protection for the TF and PF systems.

  16. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy - case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Yu-Ming Kuo; Yasuhiro Fukushima

    2009-03-15

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study. 15 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Hydrodynamics and Material Properties Experiments Using Pulsed Power Techniques*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinovsky, Robert; Trainor, R. James

    1999-06-01

    Within the last few years a new approach for exploring dynamic material properties and advanced hydrodynamics at extreme conditions has joined the traditional techniques of high velocity guns,and explosives. The principle tool is the high precision, magnetically imploded, near-solid density liner. The most attractive pulse power system for driving such experiments is an ultra-highcurrent, low impedance, microsecond time-scale source that is economical both the build and operate. Liner specifications vary but in general share requirements for a high degree of symmetry and uniformity after implosion. When imploded in free flight to velocities 10-30 km/sec and kinetic energies of from one to 25 MJ/cm of height, liners are attractive impactors for producing strong (>10 Mbar) shocks in the target. Simple geometries can, in principle, produce multi-shock environments to reach off-hugoniot states. When filled with a compressible material, liners can deliver almost adiabatic compression to the target. When the liner surrounds a (small)nearly incompressible target material, for example a condensed noble gas, a liner can deliver enormous pressure to the target almost isentropically. When the compressible material is a magnetic field, flux compression can results in compressed fields above 1000 tesla in macroscopic volumes for materials studies.In this paper we will review basic scaling argumentsthat set the scale of environments available. We will mention the pulse power technology under development at Los Alamos and provide a summary of results from experiments testing solid metal liners under magnetic drive and a few examples of experiments performed withinterim systems. Other papers in this conference will provide specific proposals for pulse power driven shock-wave experiments.

  18. Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keckler, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment is proposed that will perform the tasks associated with the control and energy storage/power generation functions attendant to space operations. It was shown in past studies that the integration of these functions into one system can result in significant weight, volume, and cost savings. The Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) concept is discussed. During orbit day, power is derived from the solar cell arrays and, after appropriate conditioning, is used to operate the spacecraft subsystems, including the control system. In conventional approaches, a part of the collected solar energy is stored in a bank of batteries to permit operation of the vehicle's systems during orbit night. In the IPACS concept, the solar energy is stored in the spinning flywheels of the control system in the form of kinetic energy. During orbit night, the wheels are despun and, through the use of a wheel-shaft mounted generator, power is generated for the onboard subsystems. Operating these flywheels over a 50-percent speed variation permits the extraction of 75 percent of the stored energy while at the same time preserving 50 percent of the momentum capacity for control of the vehicle. Batteries can therefore be eliminated and significant weight and volume savings realized.

  19. Space station experiment definition: Advanced power system test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, H. E.; Neff, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual design for an advanced photovoltaic power system test bed was provided and the requirements for advanced photovoltaic power system experiments better defined. Results of this study will be used in the design efforts conducted in phase B and phase C/D of the space station program so that the test bed capabilities will be responsive to user needs. Critical PV and energy storage technologies were identified and inputs were received from the idustry (government and commercial, U.S. and international) which identified experimental requirements. These inputs were used to develop a number of different conceptual designs. Pros and cons of each were discussed and a strawman candidate identified. A preliminary evolutionary plan, which included necessary precursor activities, was established and cost estimates presented which would allow for a successful implementation to the space station in the 1994 time frame.

  20. Duke Power experience with RCCA and guide card management

    SciTech Connect

    Boshers, A.

    1995-12-31

    The vibrational wear of rod control cluster assemblies (RCCAs) has been a concern for Westinghouse nuclear plants since the mid 1980s. In 1988, Duke Power Company (DPC) began an effort to understand and manage this phenomenon. While the early efforts dealt primarily with fretting wear, the issues of axial tip cracking and guide card wear were eventually included to develop what is now a comprehensive RCCA/guide tube assembly (GTA) wear program. This paper discusses the development of that program as well as DPC`s experience with fretting wear studies, wear resistant coatings, and axial tip cracks.

  1. Rocket experiment on microwave power transmission with Furoshiki deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Nobuyuki; Iwashita, Masashi; Tanaka, Kohei; Nakasuka, Shinichi; Summerer, Leopold

    2009-07-01

    Huge antennas has many useful applications in space as well as on the ground, for example, Solar Power Satellite to provide electricity to the ground, telecommunication for cellular phones, radars for remote sensing, navigation and observation, and so on. The S-310-36 sounding rocket was successfully launched on 22 January 2006 to verify our newly proposed scheme to construct huge antennas under microgravity condition in space. The rocket experiment has three main objectives, the first objective of which is to verify the Furoshiki deployment system [S. Nakasuka, R. Funase, K. Nakada, N. Kaya, J. Mankins, Large membrane "FUROSHIKI Satellite" applied to phased array antenna and its sounding rocket experiment, in: Proceedings of the 54th International Astronautical Congress, 2003. [1

  2. Experiments of High Power 35GHz Gyro-Klystron Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin; McCurdy, A.; Wood, F.; Kyser, R.; Danly, B.; Levush, B.; Calame, J.; Parker, R.

    1997-11-01

    Experiments on a two-cavity gyroklystron amplifier operating at 35GHz were successfully carried out. The amplifier produced a saturated radiation power of 210kW which corresponds to an efficiency of 37% and a gain of 23.6dB. The experimental results are in good agreement with predicted performance from non-linear gyroklystron codes, MAGYKL and MAGY. Experiments on a staggered tuned three-cavity gyroklystron amplifier is currently underway to demonstrate a high gain and wideband rf amplification. Simulations on the three-cavity gyroklystron circuit predict an instantaneous bandwidth of 0.9% and a gain of 35dB. Experimental results of the amplifiers will be presented.

  3. Results of railgun experiments powered by magnetic flux compression generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, R.S.; Brooks, A.L.; Deadrick, F.J.; Scudder, J.K.; Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Peterson, D.R.

    1980-10-24

    Researchers from LLNL and LANSL initiated a joint railgun research and development program to explore the potential of electromagnetic railguns to accelerate projectiles to hypervelocities. The effort was intended to determine experimentally the limits of railgun operation, to verify calculations of railgun performance, and to establish a data base at megampere currents. The program has led to the selection of a particular magnetic flux compression generator (MFCG) design for a set of initial experiments and to the design of small- and large-square bore railguns to match the expected MFCG power profile. The bore sizes are 12.7 and 50 mm, respectively. The design of the railguns and the diagnostic and data reduction techniques, followed by the results of eight experiments with the two railgun types are presented.

  4. Results of railgun experiments powered by magnetic flux compression generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, R.S.; Brooks, A.L.; Deadrick, J.; Scudder, J.K.; Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Peterson, D.R.

    1981-03-16

    Researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated a joint railgun research and development program to explore the potential of electromagnetic railguns to accelerate projectiles to hypervelocities. The effort was intended to (1) determine experimentally the limits of railgun operation; (2) verify calculations of railgun performance; and (3) establish a data base at megampere currents. The program has led to the selection of a particular magnetic flux compression generator (MFCG) design for a set of initial experiments and the design of small- and large-square-bore railguns to match the expected MFCG power profile. The bore sizes are 12.7 and 50 mm, respectively. In this paper, the design of the railguns and the diagnostic and data reduction techniques, followed by the results of eight experiments with the two railgun types, are presented.

  5. Experience of Pseudospark Switch Operation in Pulse Power Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitenko, N. V.; Yudin, A. S.; Kuznetsova, N. S.; Bochkov, V. D.

    2015-11-01

    The paper demonstrates the results of TDIl-200k/25SN-P pseudospark switch (PSS) developed by Russian company "Pulsed Technologies Ltd" application. PSS was used in pulsed power unit intended for electric-discharge fracture of rocks and concrete blocks and splitting off from monolith. The pulsed power unit has a pulse current generator with the capacity of 560 μF, stored energy of up to 63 kJ, operating voltage of up to15 kV, current pulse amplitude of up to 200 kA and pulse duration more than 200 μsec. The study also shows the current waveforms determined in the short-circuit experiment of the pulse current generator and in the experiments of the electric-discharge fragmentation of concrete at the charging voltage of 13 kV. PSS was operated in ringing single-pulse mode with the exceedance of more than two maximum permissible parameters: current pulse amplitude, current pulse duration and maximum pulse energy. Internal electrode erosion of PSS is shown and possible reasons of asymmetric current feed are discussed.

  6. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CONVERGING SHOCKS IN PULSED POWER DRIVEN EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. KANZLEITER; W. ATCHISON; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    The final shot of the current Near Term Liner Experiment (NTLX) series occurred on September 29, 2000. Utilization of a pulsed power source with a standardized liner/target ''cartridge'' produced a uniform implosion to drive hydrodynamic experiments. Diagnostics showed that high quality data of shock propagation can be obtained from pulsed power liner drivers as in the current NTLX series. Very good agreement in calculating shock locations was obtained between the codes used to model the NTLX series, RAGE and RAVEN. RAVEN also accurately predicts liner/target impact as measured by B-Dot probes. Large differences are observed between the calculated and measured positions of converging shock waves even in simple geometrical configurations. Liner/target impact is accurately calculated and similar results are produced for shock velocities in Lucite. RAGE and RAVEN use different hydrodynamic algorithms, yet agree, this focuses current efforts on EOS issues within the outer tin target to resolve discrepancies. Further diagnostics covering shock breakout from the outer tin target and shock propagation shortly thereafter would be highly beneficial.

  7. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    PubMed

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination. PMID:22853775

  8. Polarization Issues with High Power Injection and Low Power Emission in Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, T. P.; Felici, F.; Udintsev, V. S.

    2009-11-26

    All tokamak experiments using ECCD require setting of the beam elliptical polarization for proper coupling to the plasma. This is done either in the matching optics unit (MOU) at the output of the gyrotron, or in a couple of miter bends of the transmission line. Similarly, oblique ECE receivers require selection of the correct elliptical polarization to provide localized measurements. For the TCV tokamak at the CRPP, gyrotron and oblique-ECE polarizers are characterized during either high- or low- power testing of equipment: for the gyrotrons the behaviour is determined at a single frequency, but for the oblique-ECE the broadband response is needed. These characteristics are included in the calibration database and used during subsequent analysis of the power coupling to, or from, the sources (gyrotron, plasma, or low power transmitting antenna). A more detailed characterization has been carried out (at low power) with the MOU for the EU, 170 GHz, 2 MW, gyrotron prototype for ITER. This paper discusses the methodology and results of these measurements, as well as a review of nearly a decade's worth of experimental data from the 6 gyrotron, 3 MW, 82.6 GHz TCV system. In particular, the consistency between the calibrations and the subsequent data from tokamak experiments is analysed.

  9. Calculations and experiments concerning lifting force and power in TEMPUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zong, J. H.; Szekely, J.; Lohofer, G.

    1993-01-01

    A critical comparison is reported between the theoretically predicted and experimentally measured values for the electromagnetic lifting force and the heating rates which may be achieved, under simulated microgravity conditions, using the TEMPUS electromagnetic levitation device. The experiments involved the suspending of a metallic sample from one arm of a recording balance, such that it was carefully positioned between the heating and the positioning coils of the levitation device. The net force exerted by the sample was measured as a function of position, the coil currents, and the nature of the sample. Some calculations are also reported regarding the power absorption by the sample. The theoretical predictions, based on the numerical solution of Maxwell's equations using the volume integral technique, were found to be in excellent agreement with the measurements. For the idealized case of a spherical sample, analytical solutions describing the lifting force were also found to agree very well with the computed results.

  10. Photovoltaic Array Space Power flight experiment plus diagnostics (PASP+) modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, William T.; Adams, Steven F.; Reinhardt, Kitt C.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics flight experiment (PASP+) subsumes twelve solar array modules which represent the state of the art in the space photovoltaic array industry. Each of the twelve modules individually feature specific photovoltaic technologies such as advanced semiconductor materials, multi-bandgap structures, lightweight array designs, advanced interconnect technologies, or concentrator array designs. This paper will describe each module in detail including the configuration, components, materials, anticipated on orbit performance, and some of the aspects of each array technology. The layout of each module and the photovoltaic cells or array cross section will be presented graphically. A discussion on the environmental constraints and materials selection will be included as well as a delineation of the differences between the modules and the baseline array configuration in its intended application.

  11. [Gender power, poverty and contraception: multiparous women's experiences].

    PubMed

    Prates, Cibeli de Souza; Abib, Gilda Maria de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Dora Lúcia Leidens Correa

    2008-12-01

    Multiparity among poor women is associated to vulnerability as a generating or strengthening factor. This is a qualitative and exploratory research that aims at analyzing experiences of contraception among poor multiparae women, considering the influence of gender on their autonomy in choosing the number of children, the moment of getting pregnant, and the contraception strategies. It also aims at analyzing the mechanisms of resistance used by these women in the search for such autonomy. The data were gathered through focus groups. The content analysis suggests that the high number of children these women give birth to is explained by a reduced autonomy in their use of contraception, arising from poverty and gender inequalities. These women face these difficulties using resistance strategies that result in male power disruptions. This research has brought new elements for understanding the multiparity phenomenon in the context of poverty, and it also contributes towards a critical analysis of actions focused on promoting family planning. PMID:19320348

  12. Research Group Introduction : Power Electronics Laboratory, Dept. of Electrical, Electronics and Information Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    伊東, 淳一

    Our research focuses on power conversion and its control especially matrix converter, multi-level converter, DC-DC converter. Furthermore AC motor drives, wireless power transfer system, high frequency power circuit and new device technology.

  13. Flight experience with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Philip J.; Murray, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) have conducted two flight research programs with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems built around commercial data loggers. One program quantified the performance of a radio-controlled model airplane. The other program was a laminar boundary-layer transition experiment on a manned sailplane. NASA-Dryden personnel's flight experience with the miniaturized instrumentation systems used on these two programs is reported. The data loggers, the sensors, and the hardware and software developed to complete the systems are described. How the systems were used is described and the challenges encountered to make them work are covered. Examples of raw data and derived results are shown as well. Finally, future plans for these systems are discussed. For some flight research applications where miniaturized instrumentation is a requirement, the authors conclude that commercially available data loggers and sensors are viable alternatives. In fact, the data loggers and sensors make it possible to gather research-quality data in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  14. Subliminal unconscious conflict alpha power inhibits supraliminal conscious symptom experience

    PubMed Central

    Shevrin, Howard; Snodgrass, Michael; Brakel, Linda A. W.; Kushwaha, Ramesh; Kalaida, Natalia L.; Bazan, Ariane

    2013-01-01

    Our approach is based on a tri-partite method of integrating psychodynamic hypotheses, cognitive subliminal processes, and psychophysiological alpha power measures. We present ten social phobic subjects with three individually selected groups of words representing unconscious conflict, conscious symptom experience, and Osgood Semantic negative valence words used as a control word group. The unconscious conflict and conscious symptom words, presented subliminally and supraliminally, act as primes preceding the conscious symptom and control words presented as supraliminal targets. With alpha power as a marker of inhibitory brain activity, we show that unconscious conflict primes, only when presented subliminally, have a unique inhibitory effect on conscious symptom targets. This effect is absent when the unconscious conflict primes are presented supraliminally, or when the target is the control words. Unconscious conflict prime effects were found to correlate with a measure of repressiveness in a similar previous study (Shevrin et al., 1992, 1996). Conscious symptom primes have no inhibitory effect when presented subliminally. Inhibitory effects with conscious symptom primes are present, but only when the primes are supraliminal, and they did not correlate with repressiveness in a previous study (Shevrin et al., 1992, 1996). We conclude that while the inhibition following supraliminal conscious symptom primes is due to conscious threat bias, the inhibition following subliminal unconscious conflict primes provides a neurological blueprint for dynamic repression: it is only activated subliminally by an individual's unconscious conflict and has an inhibitory effect specific only to the conscious symptom. These novel findings constitute neuroscientific evidence for the psychoanalytic concepts of unconscious conflict and repression, while extending neuroscience theory and methods into the realm of personal, psychological meaning. PMID:24046743

  15. An original experiment to determine impact of catch crop introduction in a crop rotation on N2O production fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallec, Tiphaine; Le Dantec, Valérie; Zawilski, Bartosz; Brut, Aurore; Boussac, Marion; Ferlicoq, Morgan; Ceschia, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The raise in N2O concentration from the preindustrial era (280 ppb) to nowadays (324 ppb) is estimated to account for approximately 6% of the predicted global warming (IPCC 2014). Worldwide, soils are considered to be the dominant source of N2O, releasing an estimated 9.5 Tg N2O-N y-1 (65% of global N2O emissions), of which 36.8% are estimated to originate from agricultural soils (IPCC 2001). Most N2O originating from agricultural soils is a by- or end-product of nitrification or denitrification. The fate of N2O produced by microbiological processes in the subsoil is controlled by biotic (crop species, occurring soil organic matter, human pressure via mineral and organic nitrogen fertilisation) and abiotic (environmental conditions such as temperature, soil moisture, pH, etc.) factors. In cropland, contrary to forest and grassland, long bare soil periods can occurred between winter and summer crops with a high level of mineral (fertilizer) and organic (residues) nitrogen remaining in the soil, causing important emissions of carbon and nitrogen induced by microbial activities. Introduction of catch crop has been identified as an important mitigation option to reduce environmental impact of crops mainly thanks to their ability to increase CO2 fixation, to decrease mineral nitrogen lixiviation and also reduce the potential fate of N2O production. Uncertainty also remains about the impact of released mineral nitrogen coming from crushed catch crop on N2O production if summer crop seedling and mineral nitrogen release are not well synchronized. To verify those assumptions, a unique paired-plot experiment was carried in the south-west of France from September 2013 to august 2014 to test impact of management change on N2O budget and production dynamic. A crop plot was divided into two subplots, one receiving a catch crop (mustard), the other one remaining conventionally managed (bare-soil during winter). This set-up allowed avoiding climate effect. Each subplot was

  16. Introduction of water chemistry regimes with ethanolamine metering at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER-type reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutikov, A. V.; Ivanov, V. N.; Tyapkov, V. F.; Yerpylyova, S. F.; Bykova, V. V.

    2008-05-01

    The results of introduction of water chemistry with ethanolamine metering in the feedwater at unit No. 2 of the Balakovo NPP are presented. Along with the data obtained in the course of operational monitoring of the working medium of the secondary coolant circuit, the results of studying of contamination of the tube system of steam generators are presented and analyzed.

  17. The joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment extreme ultraviolet spectrometer: resolving power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendse, F. B.; Cruddace, R. G.; Kowalski, M. P.; Yentis, D. J.; Hunter, W. R.; Fritz, G. G.; Siegmund, O.; Heidemann, K.; Lenke, R.; Seifert, A.; Barbee, T. W., Jr.

    2006-06-01

    The Joint astrophysical Plasmadynamic EXperiment (J-PEX) is a high-resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer (220-245 Å) used for the study of white dwarf atmospheres. Significant improvements have been achieved in both the normal-incidence gratings and the focal-plane detector since its first successful sounding rocket flight in 2001. The spherical laminar gratings have been replaced by paraboloidal gratings. The substrates of the new gratings have measured slope errors less than 0.35 arcsec. The gratings were recorded holographically and the rulings transferred into the silica substrates by ion etching. This procedure was followed by polymer overcoat to reduce the blaze angle of the groove profile. The detector uses microchannel plates with 6 μm pores and a cross-strip anode, providing 17.9 μm resolution in the dispersion direction. The detector employs a KBr photocathode with a projected efficiency of 0.24 at 256 Å. Using ray tracing simulations, we predict the resolving power expected from the spectrometer during upcoming EUV calibrations with a He II discharge source.

  18. High power heating of magnetic reconnection in merging tokamak experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Y.; Tanabe, H.; Gi, K.; Watanabe, T.; Ii, T.; Yamada, T.; Gryaznevich, M.; Scannell, R.; Conway, N.; Crowley, B.; Michael, C.

    2015-05-15

    Significant ion/electron heating of magnetic reconnection up to 1.2 keV was documented in two spherical tokamak plasma merging experiment on MAST with the significantly large Reynolds number R∼10{sup 5}. Measured 1D/2D contours of ion and electron temperatures reveal clearly energy-conversion mechanisms of magnetic reconnection: huge outflow heating of ions in the downstream and localized heating of electrons at the X-point. Ions are accelerated up to the order of poloidal Alfven speed in the reconnection outflow region and are thermalized by fast shock-like density pileups formed in the downstreams, in agreement with recent solar satellite observations and PIC simulation results. The magnetic reconnection efficiently converts the reconnecting (poloidal) magnetic energy mostly into ion thermal energy through the outflow, causing the reconnection heating energy proportional to square of the reconnecting (poloidal) magnetic field B{sub rec}{sup 2}  ∼  B{sub p}{sup 2}. The guide toroidal field B{sub t} does not affect the bulk heating of ions and electrons, probably because the reconnection/outflow speeds are determined mostly by the external driven inflow by the help of another fast reconnection mechanism: intermittent sheet ejection. The localized electron heating at the X-point increases sharply with the guide toroidal field B{sub t}, probably because the toroidal field increases electron confinement and acceleration length along the X-line. 2D measurements of magnetic field and temperatures in the TS-3 tokamak merging experiment also reveal the detailed reconnection heating mechanisms mentioned above. The high-power heating of tokamak merging is useful not only for laboratory study of reconnection but also for economical startup and heating of tokamak plasmas. The MAST/TS-3 tokamak merging with B{sub p} > 0.4 T will enables us to heat the plasma to the alpha heating regime: T{sub i} > 5 keV without using any additional heating facility.

  19. Automation of power unit boiler equipment during the introduction of full-scale automated control systems. Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryashchenko, I. L.; Sukhorukov, I. A.

    2009-06-01

    We describe the fundamental ways for solving problems relating to the design of devices for constructing automated boiler control systems that are used at the Yekaterinburg Branch of ZAO KVARTS Engineering Co. in developing full-scale automated process control systems for the power units of thermal power stations built around the Kosmotronika computerized automation system.

  20. Photovoltaic-powered refrigerator experiment at Isle Royale National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratajczak, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    The use of a photovoltaic power system to operate an electric refrigerator at a trail construction camp at Isle Royale, Michigan is investigated. The use of P/V power for refrigeration in a remote installation is demonstrated. System design as well as predicted and measured system performance are presented.

  1. Using a Balun Transformer Combiner for High Power Microwave Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, Michael C; Pesavento, Philip V

    2011-01-01

    A novel coaxial power combiner design has been duplicated that has distinct advantages over other combiner geometries that can handle high power. This design is being applied to combine four 3 kW power supplies to obtain a 10 kW, 5 MHz system for an ICRF antenna on HSX. In the past, Wilkinson type combiners have had limited application to high power systems because of the lack of non-inductive, high power, 100 Omega balance loads. With this new design, standard 50 Omega dummy loads can be used instead for the balance load. The cost is considerably lower than lumped element combiner designs which are dominated by capacitor costs. At such a relatively low frequency, a 3-dB quarter-wave coupled-line coupler becomes impractically long, and a conventional branch-line hybrid requires 35 Omega-line, which is commercially unavailable. The balun combiner uses less transmission line than a ring hybrid and has good bandwidth characteristics even away from its best line impedance. Theoretical calculations and modeling were performed for line impedances from 65 Omega to 75 Omega. Measurements from a low-power test device show excellent agreement with theory, and construction of the high power system is underway.

  2. Using a Balun Transformer Combiner for High Power RF Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, M. C.; Pesavento, P. V.

    2011-10-01

    A novel coaxial power combiner design has been duplicated that has distinct advantages over other combiner geometries that can handle high power. This design is being applied to combine four 3 kW power supplies to obtain a 12 kW, 5 MHz system for an ICRF antenna on HSX. In the past, Wilkinson type combiners have had limited application to high power systems because of the lack of non-inductive, high power, 100 Ω balance loads. With this new design, standard 50 Ω dummy loads can be used instead for the balance load. The cost is considerably lower than lumped element combiner designs which are dominated by capacitor costs. At such a relatively low frequency, a 3-dB quarter-wave coupled-line coupler becomes impractically long, and a conventional branch-line hybrid requires 35 Ω-line, which is commercially unavailable. The balun combiner uses less transmission line than a ring hybrid and has good bandwidth characteristics even away from its best line impedance. Theoretical calculations and modeling were performed for line impedances from 65 Ω to 75 Ω. Measurements from a low-power test device show excellent agreement with theory, and construction of the high power system is underway. Work supported by US DOE under Contract No DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  3. The Photovoltaic Array Space Power plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Curtis, Henry B.; Guidice, Donald A.; Severance, Paul S.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) flight experiment is presented in outline and graphic form. The goal of the experiment is to test a variety of photovoltaic cell and array technologies under various space environmental conditions. Experiment objectives, flight hardware, experiment control and diagnostic instrumentation, and illuminated thermal vacuum testing are addressed.

  4. Experimenting with microbial fuel cells for powering implanted biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Roxby, Daniel N; Nham Tran; Pak-Lam Yu; Nguyen, Hung T

    2015-08-01

    Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) technology has the ability to directly convert sugar into electricity by using bacteria. Such a technology could be useful for powering implanted biomedical devices that require a surgery to replace their batteries every couple of years. In steps towards this, parameters such as electrode configuration, inoculation size, stirring of the MFC and single versus dual chamber reactor configuration were tested for their effect on MFC power output. Results indicate that a Top-Bottom electrode configuration, stirring and larger amounts of bacteria in single chamber MFCs, and smaller amounts of bacteria in dual chamber MFCs give increased power outputs. Finally, overall dual chamber MFCs give several fold larger MFC power outputs. PMID:26736845

  5. KiloPower Project - KRUSTY Experiment Nuclear Design

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David Irvin; Godfroy, Thomas; Mcclure, Patrick Ray; Sanchez, Rene Gerardo

    2015-07-20

    This PowerPoint presentation covers the following topics: Reference Kilopower configuration; Reference KRUSTY configuration; KRUSTY design sensitivities; KRUSTY reactivity coefficients; KRUSTY criticality safety and control; KRUSTY core activation/dose; and KRUSTY shielding, room activation/dose.

  6. Apollo experience report: Lunar module electrical power subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campos, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    The design and development of the electrical power subsystem for the lunar module are discussed. The initial requirements, the concepts used to design the subsystem, and the testing program are explained. Specific problems and the modifications or compromises (or both) imposed for resolution are detailed. The flight performance of the subsystem is described, and recommendations pertaining to power specifications for future space applications are made.

  7. Opportunities for and Barriers to Powerful and Transformative Learning Experiences in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Benjamin B.; Rowland, Gordon; Reuning-Hummel, Carrie; Codner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Powerful and transformative learning experiences display characteristics in common with each other. Emerging communication technologies may increase opportunities for powerful and transformative learning experiences. To explore this question, there are four sections to this article. First, it is observed that there are many interesting synergies…

  8. Total x-ray power improvement on recent wire array experiments on the Z machine.

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Savage, Mark Edward; Rochau, Gregory Alan; Lopez, Mike R.; Jones, Brent Manley; Jones, Michael C.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments on the refurbished Z-machine were conducted using large diameter stainless steel arrays which produced x-ray powers of 260 TW. Follow-up experiments were then conducted utilizing tungsten wires with approximately the same total mass with the hypothesis that the total x-ray power would increase. On the large diameter tungsten experiments, the x-ray power averaged over 300 TW and the total x-ray energy was greater than 2MJ. Different analysis techniques for inferring the x-ray power will be described in detail.

  9. Assessment of Zero Power Critical Experiments and Needs for a Fission Surface Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Jim R Parry; John Darrell bess; Brad T. Rearden; Gary A. Harms

    2009-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is providing funding to the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess, develop, and test nuclear technologies that could provide surface power to a lunar outpost. Sufficient testing of this fission surface power (FSP) system will need to be completed to enable a decision by NASA for flight development. The near-term goal for the FSP work is to conduct the minimum amount of testing needed to validate the system performance within an acceptable risk. This report attempts to assess the current modeling capabilities and quantify any bias associated with the modeling methods for designing the nuclear reactor. The baseline FSP system is a sodium-potassium (NaK) cooled, fast spectrum reactor with 93% 235U enriched HEU-O2 fuel, SS316 cladding, and beryllium reflectors with B4C control drums. The FSP is to produce approximately 40 kWe net power with a lifetime of at least 8 years at full power. A flight-ready FSP is to be ready for launch and deployment by 2020. Existing benchmarks from the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Program (ICSBEP) were reviewed and modeled in MCNP. An average bias of less than 0.6% was determined using the ENDF/B-VII cross-section libraries except in the case of subcritical experiments, which exhibited an average bias of approximately 1.5%. The bias increases with increasing reflector worth of the beryllium. The uncertainties and sensitivities in cross section data for the FSP model and ZPPR-20 configurations were assessed using TSUNAMI-3D. The cross-section covariance uncertainty in the FSP model was calculated as 2.09%, which was dominated by the uncertainty in the 235U(n,?) reactions. Global integral indices were generated in TSUNAMI-IP using pre-release SCALE 6 cross-section covariance data. The ZPPR-20 benchmark models exhibit strong similarity with the FSP model. A penalty assessment was performed to determine the degree of which the FSP model could not be characterized

  10. Practical experiences with worm gearing for spacecraft power transmission applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdy, William; Mccown, William

    1989-01-01

    Experiences of several organizations using worm gearing for spacecraft are discussed. Practical aspects and subtleties of using worm gearing for design and operation is included. Knowledge gained from these applications is analyzed, and guidelines for usage are proposed.

  11. High-power ICRF and LHCD experiments on Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Saoutic, B.; Beaumont, B.; Becoulet, A.; Bizarro, J.P.; Fraboulet, D.; Garbet, X.; Goniche, M.; Guiziou, L.; Hoang, G.T.; Hutter, T.; Joffrin, E.; Kuus, H.; Litaudon, X.; Mollard, P.; Moreau, D.; Nguyen, F.; Pecquet, A.L.; Peysson, Y.; Rey, G.; van Houtte, D.; Zabiego, M. )

    1994-10-15

    For a given ICRF power, the sawtooth-free period duration increases with plama density. This trend, correlated with an increasing soft X-ray inversion radius, clearly shows a better stabilization by hot ions at higher density. A tentative explanation is given through a full modeling of the hot ion anisotropy using a Fokker Planck code coupled with a 1/2 D power balance code simulating experimental data. A linear stability analysis of the kink/tearing m=1 mode, in terms of a MHD kinetic functional, shows that the anisotropy of the distribution function may amplify the effect of the hot ion pressure gradient. A two-fold lengthening of the sawtooth-free period is obtained when applying LHCD to ICRF heated plasmas. Analysis of polarimetric data shows that, instead of the continuous decrease of the central safety factor observed when using ICRF alone, the q value freezes'' when LHCD power exceeds 3 MW. This demonstrates a current profile control effect opening the way towards steady-state stabilization. Working with both ICRH and LHCD on the same target plasma allows thorough comparisons of transport with different power deposition profiles and coupling mechanisms. The energy stored in electrons is the same although the electronic temperature gradients are quite different. Nevertheless, due to better ion heating, the energy life time (discarding hot ions contribution) is always higher with ICRH. Local transport analyses allow comparisons between both heating schemes for different confinement situations.

  12. Flight experiment of thermal energy storage. [for spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, David

    1989-01-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) enables a solar dynamic system to deliver constant electric power through periods of sun and shade. Brayton and Stirling power systems under current considerations for missions in the near future require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1300+ K range. TES materials that meet these requirements fall into the fluoride family of salts. Salts shrink as they solidify, a change reaching 30 percent for some salts. Hot spots can develop in the TES container or the container can become distorted if the melting salt cannot expand elsewhere. Analysis of the transient, two-phase phenomenon is being incorporated into a three-dimensional computer code. The objective of the flight program is to verify the predictions of the code, particularly of the void location and its effect on containment temperature. The four experimental packages comprising the program will be the first tests of melting and freezing conducted under microgravity.

  13. High power operational experience with the LANSCE Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Rybarcyk, Lawrence J

    2008-01-01

    The heart of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a pulsed linear accelerator that is used to simultaneously provide H+ and H- beams to several user facilities. This accelerator contains two Cockcroft-Walton style injectors, a 100-MeV drift tube linac and an 800-MeV coupled cavity linac. This presentation will touch on various aspects of the high power operation including performance, tune-up strategy, beam losses and machine protection.

  14. First high power experiments with the Dutch free electron maser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, A. G. A.; Bongers, W. A.; Bratman, V. L.; Caplan, M.; Denisov, G. G.; van Dijk, G.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Manintveld, P.; Poelman, A. J.; Pluygers, J.; Shmelyov, M. Yu.; Smeets, P. H. M.; Sterk, A. B.; Urbanus, W. H.

    1998-05-01

    A free electron maser (FEM) has been built as a mm-wave source for applications on future fusion research devices such as ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor [M. A. Makowski, F. Elio, and D. Loeser, April 97, Proc. 10th Workshop on ECE and ECRH, EC10, 549-559. World Scientific (1998)]. A unique feature of the Dutch fusion-FEM is the possibility to tune the frequency over the entire range from 130 to 260 GHz at an output power exceeding 1 MW. In the first phase of the project, a so-called inverse setup is used. The electron gun is mounted inside the high-voltage terminal. The entire beam line was tested successfully with extremely low loss current, lower than 0.05%. This included the accelerating structure up to 2 MV level and the transport through the undulator. First generation of mm-waves was achieved in October 1997. With an electron beam current around 8 A and an accelerator voltage of 1.76 MV the mm-wave pulse starts after 3 μs and lasts for 3 μs, reaching a maximum saturated peak power level of more than 500 kW at a frequency of 200 GHz. Output power, start-up time, and frequency correspond well with simulation results.

  15. Potential of proposed open-cycle OTEC experiments to achieve net power

    SciTech Connect

    Link, H F; Parsons, B K

    1986-06-01

    Researchers at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) conducted systems analysis studies to determine the potential of various experiments to produce net power using the Claude open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system. The proposed experiment test site is to be the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii at Keahole Point. We found that net power is unlikely to be produced in experiment sizes that use less than about 195 kg/s (3000 gpm) of cold water, and that flow rates of 420 kg/s (6500 gpm) are necessary to achieve a net-power production of at least one-half the gross-power output of the experiment.

  16. ESADA Plutonium Program Critical Experiments: Power Distribution Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, H.

    2001-06-12

    In 1967, a series of critical experiments were conducted at the Westinghouse Reactor Evaluation Center (WREC) using mixed-oxide (MOX) PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} and/or UO{sub 2} fuels in various lattices and configurations. These experiments were performed under the joint sponsorship of Empire State Atomic Development Associates (ESADA) plutonium program and Westinghouse. The purpose of these experiments was to develop experimental data useful in validating analytical methods used in the design of plutonium-bearing replacement fuel for water reactors. Three different fuel types were used during the experimental program: two MOX fuels and a low-enriched UO{sub 2} fuel. The MOX fuels were distinguished by their {sup 240}Pu content: 8 wt % {sup 240}Pu and 24 wt % {sup 240}Pu. Both MOX fuels contained 2.0 wt % PuO{sub 2} in natural UO{sub 2}. The UO{sub 2} fuel with 2.72 wt % enrichment was used for comparison with the plutonium data and for use in multiregion experiments.

  17. The Physical Environment: A Powerful Regulator of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth

    1994-01-01

    Discusses five environmental dimensions (hardness/softness, open/closed, simple/complex, intrusion/seclusion, and high mobility/low mobility) that affect the experiences of children in day-care centers, demonstrating how to consider these dimensions in solving typical problems in child care settings. (MDM)

  18. A high-power target experiment at the CERN PS

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, H.G.; Park, H.J.; Tsang, T.; Fabich, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Haug, F.; Lettry, J.; Palm, M.; Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.; Carroll, A.; /Oak Ridge /Princeton U. /Rutherford

    2007-06-01

    We test a target concept devised for the purpose of producing copious secondary pions and capturing the muon decay products. This experiment is designed to test the target system for a neutrino factory or muon collider and consists of a free flowing mercury stream embedded in a high-field solenoid. Key components are described.

  19. An introduction to the design, commissioning and operation of nuclear air cleaning systems for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Xinliang Chen; Jiangang Qu; Minqi Shi

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the design evolution, system schemes and design and construction of main nuclear air cleaning components such as HEPA filter, charcoal adsorber and concrete housing etc. for Qinshan 300MW PWR Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP), the first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant in China. The field test results and in-service test results, since the air cleaning systems were put into operation 18 months ago, are presented and evaluated. These results demonstrate that the design and construction of the air cleaning systems and equipment manufacturing for QNPP are successful and the American codes and standards invoked in design, construction and testing of nuclear air cleaning systems for QNPP are applicable in China. The paper explains that the leakage rate of concrete air cleaning housings can also be assured if sealing measures are taken properly and embedded parts are designed carefully in the penetration areas of the housing and that the uniformity of the airflow distribution upstream the HEPA filters can be achieved generally no matter how inlet and outlet ducts of air cleaning unit are arranged.

  20. Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power Systems (MCNSPS) conceptual design and evaluation report. Volume 1: Objectives, summary results and introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetch, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to determine which reactor, conversion, and radiator technologies would best fulfill future Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power System Requirements. Specifically, the requirement was 10 megawatts for 5 years of full power operation and 10 years systems life on orbit. A variety of liquid metal and gas cooled reactors, static and dynamic conversion systems, and passive and dynamic radiators were considered. Four concepts were selected for more detailed study. The concepts are: a gas cooled reactor with closed cycle Brayton turbine-alternator conversion with heat pipe and pumped tube-fin heat rejection; a lithium cooled reactor with a free piston Stirling engine-linear alternator and a pumped tube-fin radiator; a lithium cooled reactor with potassium Rankine turbine-alternator and heat pipe radiator; and a lithium cooled incore thermionic static conversion reactor with a heat pipe radiator. The systems recommended for further development to meet a 10 megawatt long life requirement are the lithium cooled reactor with the K-Rankine conversion and heat pipe radiator, and the lithium cooled incore thermionic reactor with heat pipe radiator.

  1. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) power system results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Smith E.; Sullivan, David

    1991-01-01

    An overview of a self contained Direct Energy Transfer (DET) Power System which was developed to provide power to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) Experiment. A brief synopsis of the flight characteristics of the power system are presented to illustrate the system's capability to function successfully in a low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment. The successful space flight operations of the battery, solar arrays, and power system electronics during the flight period of almost six years (approximately 32,000 LEO cycles) are discussed.

  2. Introduction to Homogenous Catalysis with Ruthenium-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols: An Experiment for Undergraduate Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Caradonna, John P.; Foley, Kathleen M.; Kwiecien, Daniel J.; Lisi, George P.; Martinez, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    A three-week laboratory experiment, which introduces students in an advanced inorganic chemistry course to air-sensitive chemistry and catalysis, is described. During the first week, the students synthesize RuCl[subscript 2](PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 3]. During the second and third weeks, the students characterize the formed coordination…

  3. Characterizing Student Experiences in Physics Competitions: The Power of Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Rachel F.; Nashon, S.; Anderson, D.

    2006-12-01

    Low enrolment and motivation are key issues in physics education and recently the affective dimension of learning is being studied for evidence of its influence on student attitudes towards physics. Physics Olympics competitions are a novel context for stimulating intense emotional experiences. In this study, one team of students and their teacher were interviewed and observed prior to and during the event to characterize their emotions and determine the connections between their experiences and learning and attitudes/motivation towards physics. Results showed that certain types of events stimulated strong emotions of frustration and ownership, and that students’ attitudes were that physics is fun, diverse and relevant. Analysis of these themes indicated that the nature of emotions generated was connected to their attitudes towards physics. This finding points to the potential and value of informal and novel contexts in creating strong positive emotions, which have a strong influence on student attitudes towards physics.

  4. A Free-Form Power Experiment to Enhance Student Creativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fons, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory sessions offer students an opportunity to develop creative problem-solving skills and to better understand the nature of the scientific process through hands-on learning. Unfortunately, traditional procedures are often written in such detail, they require students to do little more than follow step-by-step directions. Under those circumstances, students do not have the opportunity for creative and critical thinking and often lose appreciation for the laboratory setting. To encourage student creativity in the lab, I assign a free-form exercise that requires students to measure their power output when performing an activity of their choosing. Students develop their own experimental procedure and analysis restricted only by equipment availability and safety. The short handout I provide for my students contains no formal procedure or guidelines; it simply lists the requirements for their reports.

  5. Testing experience of photovoltaic modules for a multimegawatt power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Iliceto, A.; Previ, A.; Fleres, S.; Scuto, M.

    1994-12-31

    The planning of the 3,3 MWp photovoltaic power station of Serre (Salerno) required that ENEL performed a complete set of tests, both on the module types proposed by five pv module manufacturers (type test), and during the test sessions at manufacturer`s site on the batches of modules to be shipped to Serre (acceptance tests), and at the assembly line at Serre on the pv panels (on field tests). Type tests on modules were performed by JRC and CONPHOEBUS, module acceptance tests were performed by CONPHOEBUS and CISE, on field tests were performed by CONPHOEBUS. A list of the tests performed, and the most frequent defects encountered during the testing sessions will be shown in this paper. It is important to note that the aim of these notes is not to give a mark to any PV supplier, but only to put in evidence the actual state of the art of photovoltaic industry.

  6. SNS Ring Operational Experience and Power Ramp Up Status

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    The SNS Ring has now been operating for about 3.5 years, and our march continues to increase the beam power to the full design value of 1.4 MW. The Ring is a loss-limited machine, and in general the radioactivation levels are good, but there are some unanticipated hot spots that we are working to improve. High intensity collective effects such as space-charge and beam instability have had minimal impact on beam operations to date. The cross plane coupling issue in the ring to target beam transport line has been solved. We will also discuss the status of equipment upgrades in the high-energy beam transport beam line, the injection-dump beam transport line, the ring, and the ring-to-target beam transport line.

  7. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part 1, Introduction, integration, and summary: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.S.; Abrahmson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ``other``. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk.

  8. Testing the Waters. Duke Power State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhinehart, William C.; Beazley, Lea J.

    This learning packet, one in a group of eight, was developed by the Duke Power State Park in North Carolina for Grades 4-6 to learn to identify macroinvertebrates found in Lake Norman. Loose-leaf pages are presented in nine sections that contain: (1) introductions to the North Carolina State Park System, the Duke Power State Park, the park's…

  9. Experiences in the Application of Project-Based Learning in a Switching-Mode Power Supplies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamar, D. G.; Miaja, P. F.; Arias, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Rodriguez, M.; Vazquez, A.; Hernando, M. M.; Sebastian, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the introduction of problem-based learning (PBL) in a power electronics course at the University of Oviedo, Gijon, Spain, by means of two practical projects: the design and construction of a switching-mode power supply (SMPS) prototype and the static study of a dc-dc converter topology. The goal of this innovation was for…

  10. Optical design and performance of the amplifier stage for the average power laser experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quimby, D. C.; Parazzoli, C. G.; Pistoresi, D. J.

    1992-07-01

    Boeing, in collaboration with Los Alamos and STI Optronics, is embarking on a program to build and operate the Average Power Laser Experiment (APLE) to demonstrate the high power capability of free-electron lasers at a wavelength of 10 μm. The experiment utilizes the single-accelerator, master-oscillator, power-amplifier (SAMOPA) approach. The performance of the power amplifier stage, as calculated by the time-dependent 3D FELEX code, is presented. The SAMOPA concept has important advantages in terms of excellent electron trapping fraction and remarkable insensitivity to slippage, input optical power, and detuning from resonance, but key requirements are placed on the e-beam peak current and emittance and on the allowable induced energy spread in the oscillator stage. Optical design tradeoffs between strong guiding and power extraction are described and a complete evaluation of the performance sensitivity to various error sources and misalignments is presented.

  11. Experience report on coating concrete containment structures in a maintenance environment in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Poncio, S.; Hall, D.

    1997-12-01

    Work experiences for coatings and lining applications in power plants are used to provide guidelines and recommendations for future projects. It should be emphasized that some of the work experiences are applicable to other industries, but the scope of this paper is primarily for maintenance concrete coating for immersion service in power plants. Also the importance of preplanning and scheduling of the concrete coating project is discussed.

  12. Cooling System for the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, F.; Pereira, H.; Silva, P.; Pezzetti, M.; Pavlov, O.; Pirotte, O.; Metselaar, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Lettry, J.; Kirk, H. G.; McDonald, K. T.; Titus, P.; Bennett, J. R. J.

    2010-04-01

    MERIT is a proof-of-principle experiment of a target station suitable as source for future muon colliders or neutrino factories. When installed at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) PS (Proton Synchrotron) complex fast-extracted high-intensity proton beams intercepted a free mercury jet inside a normal-conducting, pulsed 15-T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid nitrogen. Up to 25 MJ of Joule heat was dissipated in the magnet during a pulse. The fully automated, remotely controlled cryogenic system of novel design permitted the transfer of nitrogen by the sole means of differential pressures inside the vessels. This fast cycling system permitted several hundred tests in less than three weeks during the 2007 data taking campaign.

  13. Atlas Pulsed Power Facility for High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Barr, G.W.; Bowman, D.W.; Chochrane, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Elizondo, J.M.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.R.; Hicks, R.D.; Hinckley, W.B.; Hosack, K.W.; Nielsen, K.E.; Parker, J.V.; Parsons, M.O.; Rickets, R.L.; Salazar, H.R.; Sanchez, P.G.; Scudder, D.W.; Shapiro, C.; Thompson, M.C.; Trainor, R.J.; Valdez, G.A.; Vigil, B.N.; Watt, R.G.; Wysock, F.J.

    1999-06-07

    The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. It is intended to be an international user facility, providing opportunities for researchers from national laboratories and academic institutions around the world. Emphasizing institutions around the world. Emphasizing hydrodynamic experiments, Atlas will provide the capability for achieving steady shock pressures exceeding 10-Mbar in a volume of several cubic centimeters. In addition, the kinetic energy associated with solid liner implosion velocities exceeding 12 km/s is sufficient to drive dense, hydrodynamic targets into the ionized regime, permitting the study of complex issues associated with strongly-coupled plasmas. The primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently-removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-{micro}s risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line components has been completed. A complete maintenance module and its associated transmission line (the First Article) are now under construction and testing. The current Atlas schedule calls for construction of the machine to be complete by August, 2000. Acceptance testing is scheduled to begin in November, 2000, leading to initial operations in January, 2001.

  14. Ejecta experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, D.S.; Carpenter, B.; King, N.S.P.

    1997-08-01

    When a shock wave interacts at the surface of a metal target, target material can be emitted from the surface called ejecta. The mass, size, shape, and velocity of ejecta varies depending on the initial shock conditions, and target material properties. In order to understand this phenomena, diagnostics have been developed and implemented at the Pegasus Pulsed Power facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The facility provides both radial and axial access for making measurements. There exist optical, laser, and x-ray paths for performing measurements on the target assembly located near the center of the machine. The facility can provide many mega amps of current which is transported to a 5.0 cm diameter, 2.0 cm high aluminum cylinder. The current and associated magnetic field set up forces which implode the aluminum cylinder radially inward. As the aluminum cylinder reaches the appropriate velocity it impacts a target cylinder. Due to this impact, a shock wave is set up in the target and eventually interacts at the inner surface of the target cylinder where ejecta are produced. A 1.5 cm diameter collimator cylinder located inside the target cylinder is used to control the number of ejecta particles that arrive at the center region where ejecta measurements are made. Diagnostics have been developed including in-line Fraunhofer holography and visible shadowgraph. Details of these diagnostics are described.

  15. A high voltage power supply for the AE-C and D low energy electron experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the electrical and mechanical design and operation of high voltage power supplies for space flight use. The supply was used to generate the spiraltron high voltage for low energy electron experiment on AE-C and D. Two versions of the supply were designed and built; one design is referred to as the low power version (AE-C) and the other as the high power version (AE-D). Performance is discussed under all operating conditions.

  16. Power and Flow Experience in Time-Intensive Business Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiili, Kristian; Lainema, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Power is an influential component of social interaction and there are reasons for thinking that it may have important effects both on decision-making and psychological and interpersonal processes. The aim of this paper was to study the relations between the feeling of power, decision-making and flow experience in a collaborative business…

  17. 14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category rating. 61.163 Section 61.163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Transport Pilots § 61.163 Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. (a) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

  18. 14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... category rating. 61.163 Section 61.163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Transport Pilots § 61.163 Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. (a) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

  19. 14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... category rating. 61.163 Section 61.163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Transport Pilots § 61.163 Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. (a) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

  20. 14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... category rating. 61.163 Section 61.163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Transport Pilots § 61.163 Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. (a) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

  1. Power Soccer: Experiences of Students Using Power Wheelchairs in a Collegiate Athletic Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Roger D.; Wentz, Joel; Markle, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletics provides an opportunity for improving the societal perceptions and overall quality of life of physically disabled persons. Athletic opportunities in the collegiate atmosphere allow such students to be socially, psychologically, and physically engaged. This study focused on how involvement in a Power Soccer collegiate…

  2. Introduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) - multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research and capacity-building initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, M.; Lappalainen, H. K.; Petäjä, T.; Kurten, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Viisanen, Y.; Hari, P.; Sorvari, S.; Bäck, J.; Bondur, V.; Kasimov, N.; Kotlyakov, V.; Matvienko, G.; Baklanov, A.; Guo, H. D.; Ding, A.; Hansson, H.-C.; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2015-11-01

    The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research, research infrastructure and capacity-building program. PEEX has originated from a bottom-up approach by the science communities and is aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in Earth system science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic and boreal pan-Eurasian regions, as well as China. The vision of PEEX is to solve interlinked, global grand challenges influencing human well-being and societies in northern Eurasia and China. Such challenges include climate change; air quality; biodiversity loss; urbanization; chemicalization; food and freshwater availability; energy production; and use of natural resources by mining, industry, energy production and transport sectors. Our approach is integrative and supra-disciplinary, recognizing the important role of the Arctic and boreal ecosystems in the Earth system. The PEEX vision includes establishing and maintaining long-term, coherent and coordinated research activities as well as continuous, comprehensive research and educational infrastructure and related capacity-building across the PEEX domain. In this paper we present the PEEX structure and summarize its motivation, objectives and future outlook.

  3. Benchmark Evaluation of the Medium-Power Reactor Experiment Program Critical Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2013-02-01

    A series of small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were performed in 1962-1965 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for the Medium-Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) program. The MPRE was a stainless-steel clad, highly enriched uranium (HEU)-O2 fuelled, BeO reflected reactor design to provide electrical power to space vehicles. Cooling and heat transfer were to be achieved by boiling potassium in the reactor core and passing vapor directly through a turbine. Graphite- and beryllium-reflected assemblies were constructed at ORCEF to verify the critical mass, power distribution, and other reactor physics measurements needed to validate reactor calculations and reactor physics methods. The experimental series was broken into three parts, with the third portion of the experiments representing the beryllium-reflected measurements. The latter experiments are of interest for validating current reactor design efforts for a fission surface power reactor. The entire series has been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments and submitted for publication in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.

  4. The MERIT High-Power Target Experiment at the CERN PS

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, H.G.; Tsang, T.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Haug, F.; Lettry, J.; Palm, M.; Pereira, H.; Mohkov, N.; Striganov, S.; Carroll, A.J. /Oak Ridge /Princeton U. /Rutherford /SUNY, Stony Brook

    2008-06-01

    The MERIT experiment was designed as a proof-of-principle test of a target system based on a free mercury jet inside a 15-T solenoid that is capable of sustaining proton beam powers of up to 4 MW. The experiment was run at CERN in the fall of 2007. We describe the results of the tests and their implications.

  5. The MERIT High-Power Target Experiment at the CERN PS

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.T.; Kirk, H.G.; Park, H.; Tsang, T.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Haug, F.; Lettry, J.; Palm, M.; Pereira, H.; Mokhov, N.; /Fermilab /Oak Ridge /Rutherford

    2009-05-01

    The MERIT experiment was designed as a proof-of-principle test of a target system based on a free mercury jet inside a 15-T solenoid that is capable of sustaining proton beam powers of up to 4 MW. The experiment was run at CERN in the fall of 2007. We describe the results of the tests and their implications.

  6. High power laser diodes for the NASA direct detection laser transceiver experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seery, Bernard D.; Holcomb, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    High-power semiconductor laser diodes selected for use in the NASA space laser communications experiments are discussed. The diode selection rationale is reviewed, and the laser structure is shown. The theory and design of the third mirror lasers used in the experiments are addressed.

  7. Early utility experience with wind power generation. Volume 3: Bonneville Power Administration Goodnoe Hills Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, T.; Henry, G.; Tennis, M.; Goldenblatt, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report is one of three presenting the results of EPRI Research Project 1590-1, Evaluation of Electric Utility Experience with Wind Power Generation. The objective of this project was to develop an improved understanding of wind power generation, in particular the process a utility must undergo to initiate and carry out a wind turbine project. The primary tasks of RP1590-1 were to document and evaluate the experience of two utilities with megawatt-scale wind turbine installations from project inception to the wind turbine's first rotation. This technical report presents the experiences of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as the participating utility in the MOD-2 cluster field test program. Under this program the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as management agent for the US Department of Energy, has installed three MOD-2 wind turbines at Bonneville's Goodnoe Hills site. All documents and reports pertaining to BPA's experience with wind energy at Goodnoe Hills were reviewed and excerpts made of the highlights. Gaps in the documentation were filled by talking with the appropriate people. Site visits were conducted to monitor current activity. The information obtained was evaluated for its generic relevance and benefit to other utilities. The chronology of the steps taken in implementing the wind turbine project and some of the lessons learned are included in the report. In each section, important activities, critical assumptions, and interesting insights which might benefit other utility wind programs are identified.

  8. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature heat pipe experiment package power system results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Smith E.; Sullivan, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of a self-contained Direct Energy Transfer Power System which was developed to provide power to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Low-Temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package is presented. The power system operated successfully for the entire mission. Data recorded by the onboard recorder shows that the system operated within design specifications. Other than unanticipated overcharging of the battery, the power system operated as expected for nearly 32,000 low earth orbit cycles, and was still operational when tested after the LDEF recovery. Some physical damage was sustained by the solar array panels due to micrometeoroid hits, but there were not electrical failures.

  9. Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, W.F.; Aubert, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.

  10. Measure of the impact of future dark energy experiments based on discriminating power among quintessence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Michael; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Bozek, Brandon; Yashar, Mark

    2008-08-01

    We evaluate the ability of future data sets to discriminate among different quintessence dark energy models. This approach gives an alternative (and complementary) measure for assessing the impact of future experiments, as compared with the large body of literature that compares experiments in abstract parameter spaces (such as the well-known w0-wa parameters) and more recent work that evaluates the constraining power of experiments on individual parameter spaces of specific quintessence models. We use the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) models of future data sets and compare the discriminative power of experiments designated by the DETF as stages 2, 3, and 4 (denoting increasing capabilities). Our work reveals a minimal increase in discriminating power when comparing stage 3 to stage 2, but a very striking increase in discriminating power when going to stage 4 (including the possibility of completely eliminating some quintessence models). We also see evidence that even modest improvements over DETF stage 4 (which many believe are realistic) could result in even more dramatic discriminating power among quintessence dark energy models. We develop and demonstrate the technique of using the independently measured modes of the equation of state (derived from principle component analysis) as a common parameter space in which to compare the different quintessence models, and we argue that this technique is a powerful one. We use the PNGB, Exponential, Albrecht-Skordis, and Inverse Tracker (or inverse power law) quintessence models for this work. One of our main results is that the goal of discriminating among these models sets a concrete measure on the capabilities of future dark energy experiments. Experiments have to be somewhat better than DETF stage 4 simulated experiments to fully meet this goal.

  11. Surface Experiments on a Jupiter Trojan Asteroid in the Solar Powered Sail Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Tatsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: A new mission to a Jupiter Trojan asteroid is under study us-ing a solar-powered sail (SPS), and a science lander is being investigated in the joint study between Japan and Europe [1]. We present here the key sci-entific objectives and the strawman payloads of science experiments on the asteroid. Science Objectives: Jupiter Trojan asteroids are located around the Sun-Jupiter Lagrange points (L4 or L5) and most of them are classified as D- or P-type in asteroid taxonomy, but their origin still remains unknown. A classi-cal (static) model of solar system evolution indicates that they were formed around the Jupiter region and survived until now as the outer end members of asteroids. A new (dynamical) model such as Nice model suggests that they were formed at the far end of the solar system and transferred inward due to dynamical migration of giant planets [2]. Therefore physical, miner-alogical, and isotopic studies of surface materials and volatile compounds could solve their origin, and then the solar system formation [3]. Strawman Payloads: The SPS orbiter will be able to carry a 100 kg class lander with 20 kg mission payloads. Just after landing of the lander, geolog-ical, mineralogical, and geophysical observations will be performed to char-acterize the site using a panoramic optical camera, an infrared hyperspectral imager, a magnetometer, and a thermal radiometer. The surface and subsur-face materials of the asteroid will be collected into a carousel by the bullet-type and the pneumatic drill type samplers, respectively. Samples in the carousel will be investigated by a visible and an infrared microscope, and transferred for performing high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Mass resolution m/dm > 30,000 is expected to investigate isotopic ratios of D/H, 15N/14N, and 18O/16O, as well as molecules from organic matters. A set of strawman payloads are tentatively determined during the lander system study [4]. The constraints to select the strawman

  12. Evaluation of skill achievement levels and practical experiences of public health nursing students before and after the introduction of the public health nursing course as an elective.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshimi; Saito, Emiko; Sawai, Minako; Kishi, Emiko; Kakemoto, Satori; Nakada, Harumi; Igarashi, Chiyo; Asahara, Kiyomi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To equip public health nurses (PHNs) with higher qualifications, PHN education is shifting from an integrated curriculum for PHNs and registered nurses to a specific elective system of undergraduate or postgraduate programs. Most colleges in the special wards of Tokyo introduced the elective system in 2014 before the remaining areas. The outcomes of this must be evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the achievement levels and practical experiences of PHN students at seven colleges in the special wards before and after introduction of the PHN course as an elective.Method Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were completed by senior PHN students at seven colleges in the special wards who underwent training in 2013, the last year of an integrated curriculum, and in 2014, the first year of the elective system. The target numbers of participants were 663 in 2013 and 136 in 2014 with 20 students from each school exposed to the elective system. Our study focused on whether they achieved the 98 "technical items of PHN training and achievement levels at the time of graduation" required by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The study also determined whether participants obtained practical experience in 15 items developed by the special wards based on the standards set for training.Results In 2013, there were 348 total responses (52.5%) and 310 valid responses. In 2014, there were 136 total responses (88.2%) and 120 valid responses. The average achievement rate at which the student answered, "I was able to arrive at it," at an arrival degree level for the 98 technical items was 72.6% in 2014, an increase compared to the 67.9% obtained in 2013. Moreover, the average practical experience rate at which the student answered, "I was able to have an experience," regarding the 15 items was 85.7% in 2014, which constituted an increase compared to 70.5% attained in 2013. However, the number of items with an achievement rate of more than 80% remained

  13. Design and Testing of a Breadboard Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluid Combustion Facility Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.

    1999-01-01

    The Fluid Combustion Facility (FCF) Project and the Power Technology Division at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) at Lewis Field in Cleveland, OH along with the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL are jointly developing an Electrical Power Converter Unit (EPCU) for the Fluid Combustion Facility to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The FCF facility experiment contains three racks: A core rack, a combustion rack, and a fluids rack. The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS 120V(sub dc) power distribution system by each FCF experiment rack which requires 28V(sub dc). The EPCU is a modular design which contains three 120V(sub dc)-to-28V(sub dc) full-bridge, power converters rated at 1 kW(sub e) each bus transferring input relays and solid-state, current-limiting input switches, 48 current-limiting, solid-state, output switches; and control and telemetry hardware. The EPCU has all controls required to autonomously share load demand between the power feeds and--if absolutely necessary--shed loads. The EPCU, which maximizes the usage of allocated ISS power and minimizes loss of power to loads, can be paralleled with other EPCUs. This paper overviews the electrical design and operating characteristics of the EPCU and presents test data from the breadboard design.

  14. The first experiments with Pamir-3U pulsed portable MHD power system

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigarnik, V.A.; Aitov, N.A.; Okunev, V.I.

    1995-12-31

    The results of the first experiments with a portable, pulsed MHD Power System, called the Pamir-3U, performed in Russia in 1994 are presented and discussed. The Pamir-3U MHD system is a portable power system that can be transported to various operational locations. The power system is self-contained and does not require extensive support equipment to generate the design power. The work is being performed by the IVTAN-Association of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia) and Textron Defense Systems (USA). Major subcontractors also participating in this effort are Nizhny Novgorod Machine Building Plant (Russia), Lubertsy Scientific and Production Association Soyuz (Russia) and Aerojet Corporation (USA). Five hot-fire tests were performed for the adjustment of the components of the Pamir-3U MHD Power System and for the demonstration of the Pamir-3U MM Power System operating parameters. Correspondence of the operating performance to the requirements of the technical assignment document was also demonstrated. The following output parameters of the Pamir-3U MHD power system were obtained during the hot-fire tests: (1) nominal output power - 10-15 MW{sub e}; (2) maximal output power - 15.1 MW{sub e}; and (3) maximal current pulse duration in the load - 7.15 s. The performance output of the Pamir-3U Power System satisfied the primary requirements of the technical assignment document.

  15. An Introduction to System-Level, Steady-State and Transient Modeling and Optimization of High-Power-Density Thermoelectric Generator Devices Made of Segmented Thermoelectric Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, D. T.

    2011-05-01

    High-power-density, segmented, thermoelectric (TE) elements have been intimately integrated into heat exchangers, eliminating many of the loss mechanisms of conventional TE assemblies, including the ceramic electrical isolation layer. Numerical models comprising simultaneously solved, nonlinear, energy balance equations have been created to simulate these novel architectures. Both steady-state and transient models have been created in a MATLAB/Simulink environment. The models predict data from experiments in various configurations and applications over a broad range of temperature, flow, and current conditions for power produced, efficiency, and a variety of other important outputs. Using the validated models, devices and systems are optimized using advanced multiparameter optimization techniques. Devices optimized for particular steady-state operating conditions can then be dynamically simulated in a transient operating model. The transient model can simulate a variety of operating conditions including automotive and truck drive cycles.

  16. Quantifying Motor Experience in the Infant Brain: EEG Power, Coherence, and Mu Desynchronization

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Sandy L.; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Nelson, Eliza L.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of new motor skills, such as reaching and walking, dramatically changes how infants engage with the world socially and cognitively. Several examples of how motor experience can cascade into cognitive and social development have been documented, yet a significant knowledge gap remains in our understanding of whether these observed behavioral changes are accompanied by underlying neural changes. We propose that electroencephalography (EEG) measures such as power, coherence, and mu desynchronization are optimal tools to quantify motor experience in the infant brain. In this mini-review, we will summarize existing infant research that has separately assessed the relation between motor, cognitive, or social development with coherence, power, or mu desynchronization. We will discuss how the reviewed neural changes seen in seemingly separate developmental domains may be linked based on existing behavioral evidence. We will further propose that power, coherence, and mu desynchronization be used in research exploring the links between motor experience and cognitive and social development. PMID:26925022

  17. Power deposition by mode converted electron Bernstein waves in the DIII-D heat pinch experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, C.B.; Harvey, R.W.; Smirnov, A.P.

    2001-05-01

    Mode converted electron Bernstein waves are shown to play an important role in power deposition in the off-axis electron cyclotron heating experiments on the DIII-D tokamak in which the effect known as the 'heat pinch' was inferred. Ray tracing shows that the mode converted Bernstein modes (generated when the launched X mode reflects from an outboard upper hybrid layer) are damped in the central region where the previous analysis had assumed no power was being deposited.

  18. Power spectrum sensitivity of raster-scanned CMB experiments in the presence of 1/f noise

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Tom

    2007-09-15

    We investigate the effects of 1/f noise on the ability of a particular class of cosmic microwave background experiments to measure the angular power spectrum of temperature anisotropy. We concentrate on experiments that operate primarily in raster-scan mode and develop formalism that allows us to calculate analytically the effect of 1/f noise on power-spectrum sensitivity for this class of experiments and determine the benefits of raster-scanning at different angles relative to the sky field versus scanning at only a single angle (cross-linking versus not cross-linking). We find that the sensitivity of such experiments in the presence of 1/f noise is not significantly degraded at moderate spatial scales (l{approx}100) for reasonable values of scan speed and 1/f knee. We further find that the difference between cross-linked and non-cross-linked experiments is small in all cases and that the non-cross-linked experiments are preferred from a raw sensitivity standpoint in the noise-dominated regime - i.e., in experiments in which the instrument noise is greater than the sample variance of the target power spectrum at the scales of interest. This analysis does not take into account systematic effects.

  19. Power conditioning unit for 30 kWe class arcjet flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, C. M.; Fisher, J. R.; Kay, Robert J.

    1992-02-01

    The requirements, design, and operation of a 30 kilowatt (kWe) class arcjet power conditioning unit (PCU) are described by this paper. The PCU provides conditioned power to operate an ammonia-propellant arcjet thruster system for a low-earth orbit demonstration program. This arcjet Advanced Technology Transition Demonstration (ATTD) program is sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory. The purpose of the program is to develop an experiment package to operate and characterize the performance of a high-power arcjet thruster.

  20. Power-Stepped HF Cross-Modulation Experiments: Simulations and Experimental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, S.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    High frequency (HF) cross modulation experiments are a well established means for probing the HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere. The interaction between the heating wave and the probing pulse depends on the ambient and modified conditions of the D-region ionosphere. Cross-modulation observations are employed as a measure of the HF-modified refractive index. We employ an optimized version of Fejer's method that we developed during previous experiments. Experiments were performed in March 2013 at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory in Gakona, Alaska. During these experiments, the power of the HF heating signal incrementally increased in order to determine the dependence of cross-modulation on HF power. We found that a simple power law relationship does not hold at high power levels, similar to previous ELF/VLF wave generation experiments. In this paper, we critically compare these experimental observations with the predictions of a numerical ionospheric HF heating model and demonstrate close agreement.

  1. Campus Networking Strategies: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael M.

    1988-01-01

    This article is adapted from the introduction to EDUCOM's forthcoming book, Campus Networking Strategies, which includes 10 case study chapters detailing academic experiences with computer networking. Topics discussed in the introduction include network issues for management, networking economics, engineering and telecommunications issues, and…

  2. A new paradigm on battery powered embedded system design based on User-Experience-Oriented method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuoran; Wu, Yue

    2014-03-01

    The battery sustainable time has been an active research topic recently for the development of battery powered embedded products such as tablets and smart phones, which are determined by the battery capacity and power consumption. Despite numerous efforts on the improvement of battery capacity in the field of material engineering, the power consumption also plays an important role and easier to ameliorate in delivering a desirable user-experience, especially considering the moderate advancement on batteries for decades. In this study, a new Top-Down modelling method, User-Experience-Oriented Battery Powered Embedded System Design Paradigm, is proposed to estimate the target average power consumption, to guide the hardware and software design, and eventually to approach the theoretical lowest power consumption that the application is still able to provide the full functionality. Starting from the 10-hour sustainable time standard, average working current is defined with battery design capacity and set as a target. Then an implementation is illustrated from both hardware perspective, which is summarized as Auto-Gating power management, and from software perspective, which introduces a new algorithm, SleepVote, to guide the system task design and scheduling.

  3. Large scale CWM utilization experiences in 600 MW Nakoso No. 8 boiler of Joban Joint Power Company

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Yoshitaka; Abe, Nobuyuki; Morimitsu, Keimei

    1994-12-31

    Japanese Electric power companies recognized the importance of utilizing coal in 1973 when the oil crisis occurred and the early introduction of coal for power generation began to be studied. Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. aimed at the utilization of COM (coal oil mixture) to begin with and put into the commercial operation of No. 1 and 2 COM-fired units (each 265MW) of Yokosuka Thermal Power Station in 1985. Both units have been in favorable operation with an annual consumption of approximately 600,000 tons of COM.

  4. Analysis of failure and maintenance experiences of motor operated valves in a Finnish nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simola, Kaisa; Laakso, Kari

    1992-01-01

    Eight years of operating experiences of 104 motor operated closing valves in different safety systems in nuclear power units were analyzed in a systematic way. The qualitative methods used were Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Maintenance Effects and Criticality Analysis (MECA). These reliability engineering methods are commonly used in the design stage of equipment. The successful application of these methods for analysis and utilization of operating experiences was demonstrated.

  5. Testing the Waters. Duke Power State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, William C., Jr.; Beazley, Lea J.

    This learning packet of hands-on activities was developed by the Duke Power State Park in North Carolina for grades 4-7 to acquaint students with the concepts of water quality, watersheds, aquatic sampling, water pollution, preservation of natural areas, and land use. The loose-leaf book is divided into these sections: (1) introduction to the…

  6. Verification of Space Station Secondary Power System Stability Using Design of Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimi, Kamiar J.; Booker, Andrew J.; Mong, Alvin C.; Manners, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes analytical methods used in verification of large DC power systems with applications to the International Space Station (ISS). Large DC power systems contain many switching power converters with negative resistor characteristics. The ISS power system presents numerous challenges with respect to system stability such as complex sources and undefined loads. The Space Station program has developed impedance specifications for sources and loads. The overall approach to system stability consists of specific hardware requirements coupled with extensive system analysis and testing. Testing of large complex distributed power systems is not practical due to size and complexity of the system. Computer modeling has been extensively used to develop hardware specifications as well as to identify system configurations for lab testing. The statistical method of Design of Experiments (DoE) is used as an analysis tool for verification of these large systems. DOE reduces the number of computer runs which are necessary to analyze the performance of a complex power system consisting of hundreds of DC/DC converters. DoE also provides valuable information about the effect of changes in system parameters on the performance of the system. DoE provides information about various operating scenarios and identification of the ones with potential for instability. In this paper we will describe how we have used computer modeling to analyze a large DC power system. A brief description of DoE is given. Examples using applications of DoE to analysis and verification of the ISS power system are provided.

  7. Institutional Power: Identity, Politics, and Lived Experiences in the Dance License via Portfolio Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    In this research study, I examined how institutional power affected the experiences of two dance educators attempting to gain their K-12 dance teaching license in Minnesota. My research analyzed the ways in which candidates applying for the portfolio review process constructed, amended, or abandoned their identities as teachers/artists/individuals…

  8. The MERIT High-Power Target Experiment at the CERN PS

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.T.; Kirk, H.G.; Park, H.; Tsang, T.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Haug, F.; Lettry, J.; Palm, M.; Pereira, H.; Mokhov, N.; /Fermilab /Oak Ridge /Princeton U., Plasma Physics Lab. /Rutherford

    2010-05-01

    We report on the analysis of data collected in the MERIT experiment at CERN during the Fall of 2007. These results validate the concept of a free mercury jet inside a high-field solenoid magnet as a target for a pulsed proton beam of 4-MW power, as needed for a future Muon Collider and/or Neutrino Factory.

  9. Assessing Power Issues in Canadian and Jamaican Women's Experiences in Learning via Distance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines a qualitative research study which examines the experiences of ten Jamaican and Canadian women engaged in learning via distance in a graduate adult education program. Using a critical feminist perspective, three power issues emerged as topics for discussion that are important for distance educators in higher education to take…

  10. Electron-beam and high speed optical diagnostics for the Average Power Laser Experiment (APLE) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; McVey, B. D.; Greegor, R. B.; Dowell, D. H.

    The Average Power Laser Experiment (APLE) program is a collaboration of Boeing and Los Alamos to build a free-electron laser (FEL) operating at a wavelength of 10 microns and an average power of 100 kW. This program includes demonstration experiments at Boeing on the injector and at Los Alamos on a single accelerator master oscillator power amplifier (SAMOPA). In response to the simulations of the expected electron beam properties, diagnostic plans have been developed for the low-duty and the 25 percent-duty operations of APLE. Preliminary evaluations of diagnostics based on information conversion to visible or near infrared light (optical transition radiation, Cerenkov radiation, synchrotron radiation, and spontaneous emission radiation) or electrical signals (striplines, toroids, flying wires, etc.) are addressed.

  11. High-Power Electrostatic Discharges in PETN: Threshold and Scaling Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, W; McCarrick, J F; Hodgin, R L; Phillips, D F

    2010-03-05

    There is a considerable set of data establishing the safety of PETN-based detonators that are insulted by electrostatic discharge (ESD) from a human body. However, the subject of ESD safety has garnered renewed interest because of the sparse data on high-power, low-impedance discharges that result when the source is a metallic object such as a tool. Experiments on as-built components, using pin-to-cap fault circuits through PETN-based detonators, showed significant evidence of a power dependence but with a very broad energy threshold and some uncertainty in the breakdown path. We have performed a series of experiments using a well-defined arc discharge path and a well-characterized source that is capable of independent variation of energy and power. Studies include threshold variation with power, arc length, powder surface area, and surface vs. bulk discharge paths. We find that an energy threshold variation with power does not appear to exist in the tested range of fractions to tens of MW, and that there are many subtleties to proper energy and power bookkeeping. We also present some test results for PBX 9407.

  12. Early utility experience with wind power generation. Volume 1. Summary report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, T.; Henry, G.; Tennis, M.; Goldenblatt, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report is one of three presenting the results of EPRI Research Project 1590-1, Evaluation of Electric Utility Experience with Wind Power Generation. The objective of this project was to develop an improved understanding of wind power generation, in particular the process a utility must undergo to initiate and carry out a wind turbine project. The primary tasks of RP1590-1 were to document and evaluate the experience of two utilities with megawatt-scale wind turbine installations from project inception to the first rotation of the wind turbine. This summary report presents in brief form the experiences of two utilities, the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the Bonneville Power Administration, with wind turbine projects at Solano County, California and Goodnoe Hills, Washington, respectively. All documents and reports pertaining to the experiences with the wind turbine projects were reviewed and excerpts made of the highlights. Gaps in the documentation were filled by talking with appropriate people. Site visits were conducted to monitor current activity. The information obtained was evaluated for its generic relevance and benefit to other utilities. Condensed descriptions of the projects, a comparison of the projects, and highlights of the utilities' experiences are presented. Some of the insights which might benefit other utility wind programs are identified.

  13. Perspectives for neutron and gamma spectroscopy in high power laser driven experiments at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negoita, F.; Gugiu, M.; Petrascu, H.; Petrone, C.; Pietreanu, D.; Fuchs, J.; Chen, S.; Higginson, D.; Vassura, L.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Antici, P.; Balabanski, D.; Balascuta, S.; Cernaianu, M.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Neagu, L.; Petcu, C.; Risca, M.; Toma, M.; Turcu, E.; Ursescu, D.

    2015-02-01

    The measurement of energy spectra of neutrons and gamma rays emitted by nuclei, together with charge particles spectroscopy, are the main tools for understanding nuclear phenomena occurring also in high power laser driven experiments. However, the large number of particles emitted in a very short time, in particular the strong X-rays flash produced in laser-target interaction, impose adaptation of technique currently used in nuclear physics experiment at accelerator based facilities. These aspects are discussed (Section 1) in the context of proposed studies at high power laser system of ELI-NP. Preliminary results from two experiments performed at Titan (LLNL) and ELFIE (LULI) facilities using plastic scintillators for neutron detection (Section 2) and LaBr3(Ce) scintillators for gamma detection (Section 3) are presented demonstrating the capabilities and the limitations of the employed methods. Possible improvements of these spectroscopic methods and their proposed implementation at ELI-NP will be discussed as well in the last section.

  14. Flight experience of solar mesosphere explorer's power system over high temperatures ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faber, Jack; Hurley, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    The performance of the power system on the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) satellite for the life of the mission and the techniques used to ensure power system health are summarized. Early in the mission high cell imbalances in one of the batteries resulted in a loading scheme which attempted to minimize the cell imbalances without causing an undervoltage condition. A short term model of the power system allowed planners to predict depth of discharge using the latest available data. Due to expected orbital shifts the solar arrays experience extended periods of no eclipse. This has required special conditioning schemes to keep the batteries healthy when the eclipses return. Analysis of the SME data indicates long term health of the SME power system as long as the conditioning scheme is continued.

  15. A Smart Wirelessly Powered Homecage for Long-Term High-Throughput Behavioral Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byunghun; Kiani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    A wirelessly powered homecage system, called the EnerCage-HC, that is equipped with multicoil wireless power transfer, closed-loop power control, optical behavioral tracking, and a graphic user interface is presented for longitudinal electrophysiology and behavioral neuroscience experiments. The EnerCage-HC system can wirelessly power a mobile unit attached to a small animal subject and also track its behavior in real-time as it is housed inside a standard homecage. The EnerCage-HC system is equipped with one central and four overlapping slanted wire-wound coils with optimal geometries to form three- and four-coil power transmission links while operating at 13.56 MHz. Utilizing multicoil links increases the power transfer efficiency (PTE) compared with conventional two-coil links and also reduces the number of power amplifiers to only one, which significantly reduces the system complexity, cost, and heat dissipation. A Microsoft Kinect installed 90 cm above the homecage localizes the animal position and orientation with 1.6-cm accuracy. Moreover, a power management ASIC, including a high efficiency active rectifier and automatic coil resonance tuning, was fabricated in a 0.35-μm 4M2P standard CMOS process for the mobile unit. The EnerCage-HC achieves a max/min PTE of 36.3%/16.1% at the nominal height of 7 cm. In vivo experiments were conducted on freely behaving rats by continuously delivering 24 mW to the mobile unit for >7 h inside a standard homecage. PMID:26257586

  16. Experiments on power optimization for displacement-constrained operation of a vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Binh Duc; Phu Le, Cuong; Halvorsen, Einar

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents experiments on how to approach the physical limits on power from vibration energy harvesting under displacement-constrained operation. A MEMS electrostatic vibration energy harvester with voltage-control of the system stiffness is used for this purpose. The power saturation problem, when the proof mass displacement reaches maximum amplitude for sufficient acceleration amplitude, is shifted to higher accelerations by use of load optimization and tunable electromechanical coupling k2. Measurement results show that harvested power can be made to follow the optimal velocity-damped generator also for a range of accelerations that implies displacement constraints. Comparing to the saturated power, the power increases 1.5 times with the optimal load and an electromechanical coupling k2=8.7%. This value is 2.3 times for a higher coupling k2=17.9%. The obtained system effectiveness is beyond 60% under the optimization. This work also shows a first demonstration of reaching optimal power in the intermediate acceleration-range between the two extremes of maximum efficiency and maximum power transfer.

  17. On the Modeling of PHELIX and Other Pulsed-Power Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousculp, Christopher; Reass, William; Oro, David; Turchi, Peter; Holtkamp, David; Griego, Jeffery; Reinovsky, Robert

    2011-10-01

    At LANL, pulsed power hydrodynamics employs multi mega-Amp currents, over tens of microseconds, producing hundreds of kilogauss fields in a Z-pinch configuration for the study of shocks, fluids, and material physics. The new PHELIX portable pulsed power machine demonstrated for first time the efficient coupling of a high-power capacitor bank via a toroidal transformer to a central load. The whole system sits on a 200 square foot platform for use at the LANL proton radiography facility. Additionally, magnetic FCGs are employed for very high energy density experiments. Here, explosives propel metal conductors in a coaxial, helical, or disk system to produce tens of mega-Amp currents. Currents carried in the skin depth are subject to intense Lorentz forces and Joule heating. Single-fluid, resistive MHD theory with material properties of the conductors well characterizes the experiments. One and two-dimensional computational codes solve the equations of mass, momentum, field, and energy. The grids are coupled to circuit equations describing the pulsed power driver. Results of recent experiments will be compared to modeling.

  18. An Experiment To Demonstrate Spacecraft Power Beaming and Solar Cell Annealing Using High-Energy Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, Richard; Michael, Sherif

    2003-05-01

    Satellite lifetime is often limited by degradation of the electrical power subsystem, e.g. radiation-damaged solar arrays or failed batteries. Being able to beam power from terrestrial sites could alleviate this limitation, extending the lifetime of billions of dollars of satellite assets, as well as providing additional energy for electric propulsion that can be used for stationkeeping and orbital changes. In addition, laboratory research at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) has shown the potential to anneal damaged solar cells using lasers. This paper describes that research and a proposed Maui experiment to demonstrate the relevant concepts by lasing PANSAT, an NPS-built and operated spacecraft.

  19. GPS Navigation Results from the Low Power Transceiver CANDOS Experiment on STS-107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Lin; Massey, Chris; Baraban, Dmitri; Kelbel, David; Lee, Taesul; Long, Anne; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation results from the Communications and Savigation Demonstration on Shuttle (CANDOS) experiment flown on STS- 107. The CAkDOS experiment consisted of the Low Power Transceiver (LPT) that hosted the GPS Enhanced Orbit Determination Experiment (GEODE) orbit determination software. All CANDOS test data were recovered during the mission using the LPT's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) uplinh'downlink communications capabilit! . An overview of the LPT's navigation software and the GPS experiment timeline is presented. In addition. this paper discusses GEODE performance results. including comparisons ibith the Best Estimate of Trajectory (BET). N.ASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) real-time ground navigation vectors. and post-processed solutions using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS).

  20. Power spectrum extraction for redshifted 21-cm Epoch of Reionization experiments: the LOFAR case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harker, Geraint; Zaroubi, Saleem; Bernardi, Gianni; Brentjens, Michiel A.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Ciardi, Benedetta; Jelić, Vibor; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Labropoulos, Panagiotis; Mellema, Garrelt; Offringa, André; Pandey, V. N.; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Schaye, Joop; Thomas, Rajat M.; Yatawatta, Sarod

    2010-07-01

    One of the aims of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Epoch of Reionization (EoR) project is to measure the power spectrum of variations in the intensity of redshifted 21-cm radiation from the EoR. The sensitivity with which this power spectrum can be estimated depends on the level of thermal noise and sample variance, and also on the systematic errors arising from the extraction process, in particular from the subtraction of foreground contamination. We model the extraction process using realistic simulations of the cosmological signal, the foregrounds and noise, and so estimate the sensitivity of the LOFAR EoR experiment to the redshifted 21-cm power spectrum. Detection of emission from the EoR should be possible within 360 h of observation with a single station beam. Integrating for longer, and synthesizing multiple station beams within the primary (tile) beam, then enables us to extract progressively more accurate estimates of the power at a greater range of scales and redshifts. We discuss different observational strategies which compromise between depth of observation, sky coverage and frequency coverage. A plan in which lower frequencies receive a larger fraction of the time appears to be promising. We also study the nature of the bias which foreground fitting errors induce on the inferred power spectrum and discuss how to reduce and correct for this bias. The angular and line-of-sight power spectra have different merits in this respect, and we suggest considering them separately in the analysis of LOFAR data.

  1. Physics Design of the National High-power Advanced Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, J E; Fu, G -Y; Gorelenkov, N; Kaye, S M; Kramer, G; Maingi, R; Neumeyer, C L; Sabbagh, S A; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2007-07-18

    Moving beyond ITER toward a demonstration power reactor (Demo) will require the integration of stable high fusion gain in steady-state, advanced methods for dissipating very high divertor heat-fluxes, and adherence to strict limits on in-vessel tritium retention. While ITER will clearly address the issue of high fusion gain, and new and planned long-pulse experiments (EAST, JT60-SA, KSTAR, SST-1) will collectively address stable steady-state highperformance operation, none of these devices will adequately address the integrated heat-flux, tritium retention, and plasma performance requirements needed for extrapolation to Demo. Expressing power exhaust requirements in terms of Pheat/R, future ARIES reactors are projected to operate with 60-200MW/m, a Component Test Facility (CTF) or Fusion Development Facility (FDF) for nuclear component testing (NCT) with 40-50MW/m, and ITER 20-25MW/m. However, new and planned long-pulse experiments are currently projected to operate at values of Pheat/R no more than 16MW/m. Furthermore, none of the existing or planned experiments are capable of operating with very high temperature first-wall (Twall = 600-1000C) which may be critical for understanding and ultimately minimizing tritium retention with a reactor-relevant metallic first-wall. The considerable gap between present and near-term experiments and the performance needed for NCT and Demo motivates the development of the concept for a new experiment — the National High-power advanced-Torus eXperiment (NHTX) — whose mission is to study the integration of a fusion-relevant plasma-material interface with stable steady-state high-performance plasma operation.

  2. Somatosensory Experiences with Action Modulate Alpha and Beta Power during Subsequent Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Lorna C.; Marshall, Peter J.; Bouquet, Cedric A.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    How does prior experience with action change how we perceive a similar action performed by someone else? Previous research has examined the role of sensorimotor and visual experiences in action mirroring during subsequent observation, but the contribution of somatosensory experiences to this effect has not been adequately examined. The current study tests whether prior somatosensory stimulation experienced during action production modulates brain activity during observation of similar actions being performed by others. Specifically, changes in alpha- and beta-range oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during observation of reaching actions were examined in relation to the observer’s own prior experience of somatosensory stimulation while carrying out similar actions. Analyses revealed that alpha power over central electrodes was significantly decreased during observation of an action expected to result in somatosensory stimulation. Conversely, beta power was increased when an observed action was expected to result in somatosensory stimulation. These results suggest that somatosensory experiences may uniquely contribute to the way in which we process others people’s actions. PMID:23994217

  3. Pulsed-Power Driven Liner-On-Target Hydrodynamics Experiments Diagnosed with Proton Radiography using PHELIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oro, D. M.; Rousculp, C. L.; Reass, W. A.; Griego, J. R.; Turchi, P. J.; Reinovsky, R. E.; Saunders, A.; Mariam, F. G.; Morris, C.

    2015-06-01

    The Precision High Energy-density Liner Implosion eXperiment, PHELIX, is a pulsed-power driver capable of delivering multi-mega-ampere currents to cylindrical loads. The pulsed-power system utilizes a high-efficiency transformer to couple a small capacitor bank (~400 kJ) to a ~5 cm diameter cylindrical Al liner. A peak current of ~4 MA causes the liner to implode in 20 - 30 μs and attain speeds of >1 km/s. The PHELIX system is designed to be compatible with the Los Alamos proton radiography facility. Initial experiments with PHELIX explore shocked-ejected particle transport into gas in converging geometries. For these experiments a liner-on-target configuration is employed. To control the initial conditions, micron-sized tungsten particles are used in place of shock-formed ejecta. The inner surface of the cylindrical target is coated with a 0.1 mm uniform layer of W powder. The liner impacts the target generating a shock that launches the W particles off the target surface. The time history of the trajectory of the shocked-ejected particulate is captured in 21 proton radiographs recorded during the experiment. Comparison of 3 experiments, one into vacuum, one into Ar at 8.3 bars and one into Xe at 8.3 bars are discussed. Results are compared to simulations. Work supported by United States-DOE under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  4. CTS United States experiments - A progress report. [Communications Technology Satellite for high power broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) is a high-power broadcast satellite launched by NASA on January 17, 1976. CTS is the first satellite to operate at a frequency of 12 gigahertz and incorporates technology making possible new satellite telecommunications services. CTS is a cooperative program of the United States and Canada. This paper presents the results of the United States experimental activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program, including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

  5. Planning and performance of dynamic experiments with the AVR power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmers, M.; Pohl, P.

    1987-09-01

    In collaboration with Kernforschungsanlage Julich, Federal Republic of Germany, and other companies, dynamic experiments have been carried out with the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) to test advanced dynamic computer models with the goal of using low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Since LEU fuel has been used for the AVR since 1982, both experimental and theoretical behavior has been studied during the changeover from highly enriched uranium to LEU. The experiments comprise fast power transients that are initiated by either a fast control rod movement or a fast change of coolant flow. The neutron flux and other important parameters are registered in suitable time expansion.

  6. 18 CFR 801.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Introduction. 801.0 Section 801.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.0 Introduction. (a) The Governors of the States of New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland,...

  7. 18 CFR 801.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Introduction. 801.0 Section 801.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.0 Introduction. (a) The Governors of the States of New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland,...

  8. Operating experience with the natural bridges national monument photovoltaic power system

    SciTech Connect

    Solman, F. J.; Grossman, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    The 100-kW photovoltaic power system at Natural Bridges National Monument in southwestern Utah has been in operation since May 1980. A comparison of system simulation with actual operation has been performed, good agreement has been found, and results are presented. In addition, conservation measures and their benefits are described. Operating experience with the system is presented, including measured component performance of the arrays, batteries, inverters, and system overhead loads.

  9. Investigation of coplanar strip dipole rectenna elements for microwave power transmission: simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sang Yeol; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Kim, Jaehwan

    2012-04-01

    The performance of dipole rectenna for microwave power transmission is very critical to the size and configuration of the dipole rectenna. Thus, it is important to verify the performance of dipole rectenna by comparing its performance in terms of simulation and experiment. This paper reports an experimental and computational investigation of coplanar strip (CPS) dipole rectenna for microwave power transmission. Rectenna consists of an antenna and a rectifier that involves a Schottky diode. CPS dipole antenna and rectenna are simulated using commercial software, so called Ansoft's HFSS and Designer. CPS dipole antenna as well as rectenna is fabricated on a copper coated polyimide substrate using an etching process. The characteristics of CPS dipole antenna are tested by using a pulse analyzer and spectrum analyzer under a 1.2 W microwave power incidence. Comparison of the simulation results with the experiments is made. The verified simulation approach for the CPS dipole rectenna will bring an effective design approach of rectennas for microwave power transmission.

  10. Session Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliane Lessner, Co-Chair:

    2009-03-01

    A panel discussion session providing a worldwide assessment of the status and experiences of women in physics, paying attention to the different cultures and environments they work in and to how the age of the physicist affects their perspective. We will hear about women physicists in Korea in particular and Asia in general, in Egypt in particular and Africa in general, and in the Caribbean. Six invited speakers will present analyses of the progress being made in promoting women in physics from their personal experiences and as assessed from their participation in the Third International Conference on Women In Physics (ICWIP2008) convened in Seoul, Korea in October 2008. From Albania to Zimbabwe, with representation of all the continents, ICWIP2008 congregated 283 women and men physicists from 57 countries to share the participants' scientific accomplishments and evaluate international progress in improving the status of women in physics. This three-hour session is organized jointly by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics of the APS (CSWP) and the Forum on International Physics of the APS (FIP). Audience participation in the panel discussion will be strongly encouraged.

  11. Acceleration of Dense Flowing Plasmas using ICRF Power in the VASIMR Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, Jared P.

    2005-09-26

    ICRF power in the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) concept energizes ions (> 100 eV) in a diverging magnetic field to accelerate a dense ({approx} 1019 m-3) flowing plasma to velocities useful for space propulsion ({approx}100 km/s). Theory predicts that an ICRF slow wave launched from the high field side of the resonance will propagate in the magnetic beach to absorb nearly all of the power at the resonance, thus efficiently converting the RF power to ion kinetic energy. The plasma flows through the resonance only once, so the ions are accelerated in a single pass. This process has proven efficient ({approx} 70%) with an ICRF power level of 1.5 kW at about 3.6 MHz in the VASIMR experiment, VX-30, using deuterium plasma created by a helicon operating in flowing mode. We have measured ICRF plasma loading up to 2 ohms, consistent with computational predictions made using Oak Ridge National Laboratory's EMIR code. Recent helicon power upgrades (20 kW at 13.56 MHz) have enabled a 5 cm diameter target plasma for ICRF with an ion flux of over 3x10 20 s-1 and a high degree of ionization. This paper summarizes our ICRF results and presents the latest helicon developments in VX-30.

  12. Time Structure of Particle Production in the MERIT High-Power Target Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Palm, M.; Lettry, J.; Haug, F.; Pereira, H.; Pernegger, H.; Steerenberg, R.; Grudiev, A.; Kirk, H.G.; Park, H.; /Brookhaven /Fermilab /Oak Ridge /Princeton U. /Rutherford

    2009-05-01

    The MERIT experiment is a proof-of-principle test of a target system for high power proton beam to be used as front-end for a neutrino factory complex or amuon collider. The experiment took data in autumn 2007 with the fast extracted beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to a maximum intensity of about 30 x 10{sup 12} protons per pulse. We report results from the portion of the MERIT experiment in which separated beam pulses were delivered to a free mercury jet target with time intervals between pulses varying from 2 to 700 {micro}s. The analysis is based on the responses of particle detectors placed along side and downstream of the target.

  13. Pegasus II experiments and plans for the Atlas pulsed power facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shlachter, J.S.; Adams, P.J.; Atchison, W.L.

    1997-09-01

    Atlas will be a high-energy (36 MJ stored), high-power ({approximately} 10 TW) pulsed power driver for high energy-density experiments, with an emphasis on hydrodynamics. Scheduled for completion in late 1999, Atlas is designed to produce currents in the 40-50 MA range with a quarter-cycle time of 4-5 {mu}s. It will drive implosions of heavy liners (typically 50 g) with implosion velocities exceeding 20 mm/{mu}s. Under these conditions very high pressures and magnetic fields are produced. Shock pressures in the 50 Mbar range and pressures exceeding 10 Mbar in an adiabatic compression will be possible. By performing flux compression of a seed field, axial magnetic fields in the 2000 T range may be achieved. A variety of concepts have been identified for the first experimental campaigns on Atlas. These experiments include Rayleigh-Taylor instability studies, convergent (e.g., Bell-Plesset type) instability studies, material strength experiments at very high strain and strain rate, hydrodynamic flows in 3-dimensional geometries, equation of state measurements along the hugoniot and adiabats, transport and shock propagation in dense strongly-coupled plasmas, and atomic and condensed matter studies employing ultra-high magnetic fields. Experimental configurations, associated physics issues, and diagnostic strategies are all under investigation as the design of the Atlas facility proceeds. Near-term proof-of-principle experiments employing the smaller Pegasus II capacitor bank have been identified, and several of these experiments have not been performed. This paper discusses a number of recent Pegasus II experiments and identifies several areas of research presently planned on Atlas.

  14. The νGeN experiment at the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, V.; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Filosofov, D.; Fomina, M.; Gurov, Yu.; Korotkova, L.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Medvedev, D.; Pritula, R.; Rozova, I.; Rozov, S.; Sandukovsky, V.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Yurkowski, J.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-12-01

    The ν GeN is new experiment at the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) for detection of coherent Neutrino-Ge Nucleus elastic scattering. Recent neutrino and Dark Matter search experiments have revolutionized the detection of rear events, and rear events with low energies, in particular. Experiments have achieved sensitivities on the level of several events per hundred kg of detector material per day with energy thresholds from few hundred eV. This opens up a new unique possibility for experimental detection of neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering that has been considered to be impossible so far. The νGeN project uses low threshold high-purity Ge-detectors (HPGe) developed by JINR (Dubna, Russia) in collaboration with BSI (Baltic Scientific Instruments, Riga, Latvia) for creation of a setup designated for first observation of neutrino coherent scattering on Ge. As a powerful neutrino source the experiment will use electron antineutrinos from one of the power-generating units (reactor unit #3) of the KNPP. The coherent neutrino scattering will be observed using a differential method that compares 1) the spectra measured at the reactor operation and shut-down periods; 2) the spectra measured at different distances from the reactor core during the reactor operation. For a setup placed at a 10 m distance from the center of reactor core and with an energy threshold of 350 eV up to tens of events corresponding to neutrino coherent scattering on Ge are expected to be detected per day in the constructed setup with four HPGe low-energy-threshold detectors (~ 400 grams each). The setup sensitivity will be even more increased by using new detectors with total mass up to 5 kg.

  15. Experiment and theoretical study of the propagation of high power microwave pulse in air breakdown environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Ren, A.; Zhang, Y. S.

    1991-01-01

    In the study of the propagation of high power microwave pulse, one of the main concerns is how to minimize the energy loss of the pulse before reaching the destination. In the very high power region, one has to prevent the cutoff reflection caused by the excessive ionization in the background air. A frequency auto-conversion process which can lead to reflectionless propagation of powerful EM pulses in self-generated plasmas is studied. The theory shows that under the proper conditions the carrier frequency, omega, of the pulse will indeed shift upward with the growth of plasma frequency, omega(sub pe). Thus, the plasma during breakdown will always remain transparent to the pulse (i.e., omega greater than omega(sub pe)). A chamber experiment to demonstrate the frequency auto-conversion during the pulse propagation through the self-generated plasma is then conducted in a chamber. The detected frequency shift is compared with the theoretical result calculated y using the measured electron density distribution along the propagation path of the pulse. Good agreement between the theory and the experiment results is obtained.

  16. Perspectives for neutron and gamma spectroscopy in high power laser driven experiments at ELI-NP

    SciTech Connect

    Negoita, F. Gugiu, M. Petrascu, H. Petrone, C. Pietreanu, D.; Fuchs, J.; Chen, S.; Higginson, D.; Vassura, L.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Antici, P.; Balabanski, D.; Balascuta, S.; Cernaianu, M.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Neagu, L.; Petcu, C.; and others

    2015-02-24

    The measurement of energy spectra of neutrons and gamma rays emitted by nuclei, together with charge particles spectroscopy, are the main tools for understanding nuclear phenomena occurring also in high power laser driven experiments. However, the large number of particles emitted in a very short time, in particular the strong X-rays flash produced in laser-target interaction, impose adaptation of technique currently used in nuclear physics experiment at accelerator based facilities. These aspects are discussed (Section 1) in the context of proposed studies at high power laser system of ELI-NP. Preliminary results from two experiments performed at Titan (LLNL) and ELFIE (LULI) facilities using plastic scintillators for neutron detection (Section 2) and LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators for gamma detection (Section 3) are presented demonstrating the capabilities and the limitations of the employed methods. Possible improvements of these spectroscopic methods and their proposed implementation at ELI-NP will be discussed as well in the last section.

  17. Design and experiment for realization of laser wireless power transmission for small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Dechen; Zhu, Dandi; Shi, Qianyun; Gu, Jian; Ai, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Currently various types of aircraft booming and maturing, however, their long-time navigational capability should be improved urgently. This paper aims at studying laser power beaming, which includes the technology of high-efficient photoelectric conversion and APT(acquiring, pointing and tracking) technology, to provide power for flying UAV(unmanned aerial vehicles) and improve their flight endurance. The experiment of testing different types of solar cells under various conditions has been done to choose the solar cell which has the highest photoelectric conversion rate and find its most sensitive wavelength. In addition, the charge management module has been chose on the base of the characteristics of lithium batteries. Besides, a laser APT system was designed and set up, at the same time FSM (Fast Scan Mirror) control program and digital image processing program were used to control the system. The success of the indoor experiment of scan-tracking and charging for the moving UAV model via laser proves that this system is workable. And in this experiment, the photoelectric conversion rate of the whole system is up to 17.55%.

  18. The generation and amplification of intergalactic magnetic fields in analogue laboratory experiments with high power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.

    2015-11-01

    The advent of high-power laser facilities has, in the past two decades, opened a new field of research where astrophysical environments can be scaled down to laboratory dimensions, while preserving the essential physics. This is due to the invariance of the equations of magneto-hydrodynamics to a class of similarity transformations. Here we review the relevant scaling relations and their application in laboratory astrophysics experiments with a focus on the generation and amplification of magnetic fields in cosmic environment. The standard model for the origin of magnetic fields is a multi stage process whereby a vanishing magnetic seed is first generated by a rotational electric field and is then amplified by turbulent dynamo action to the characteristic values observed in astronomical bodies. We thus discuss the relevant seed generation mechanisms in cosmic environment including resistive mechanism, collision-less and fluid instabilities, as well as novel laboratory experiments using high power laser systems aimed at investigating the amplification of magnetic energy by magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. Future directions, including efforts to model in the laboratory the process of diffusive shock acceleration are also discussed, with an emphasis on the potential of laboratory experiments to further our understanding of plasma physics on cosmic scales.

  19. Feasibility of an experiment to measure stopping powers in solid-density deuterium plasmas at OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmann, B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Regan, S.; Sangster, C.; Graziani, F.; Collins, G. W.; Rygg, J. R.; Grabowski, P.; Glenzer, S.; Keiter, P.

    2014-10-01

    An experimental design to measure the stopping powers of charged-particles through solid-density, fully-ionized deuterium plasmas at temperatures around 10 eV is investigated. Stopping power in this regime is crucial to the understanding of alpha-heating and burn in Internal Confinement Fusion. Recent work by A.B. Zylstra et al. on the OMEGA laser facility has demonstrated such measurements of stopping power in partially ionized Be plasmas, by measuring the downshift of D3He-protons in an isochorically heated sample. As noted in their work, the effects of partial ionization are not well understood; however such effects are not applicable to hydrogenic fuels, for which the plasmas are expected to be fully ionized. This study will consider the viability of isochorically or shock heating a target to Warm Dense Matter conditions using a platform similar to the planar cryogenic system described by S.P. Regan et al. Plasma properties will be determined by x-ray Thomson scattering while stopping powers will be inferred through measuring downshift of either DD-protons, D3He-protons or D3He-alphas, the latter of which is directly applicable to the stopping of DT-alphas in ignition experiments. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, NLUF, LLE, and LLNL.

  20. A wireless remote high-power laser device for optogenetic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Gong, Q.; Li, Y. Y.; Li, A. Z.; Zhang, Y. G.; Cao, C. F.; Xu, H. X.; Cui, J.; Gao, J. J.

    2015-04-01

    Optogenetics affords the ability to stimulate genetically targeted neurons in a relatively innocuous manner. Reliable and targetable tools have enabled versatile new classes of investigation in the study of neural systems. However, current hardware systems are generally limited to acute measurements or require external tethering of the system to the light source. Here we provide a low-cost, high-power, remotely controlled blue laser diode (LD) stimulator for the application of optogenetics in neuroscience, focusing on wearable and intelligent devices, which can be carried by monkeys, rats and any other animals under study. Compared with the conventional light emitting diode (LED) device, this LD stimulator has higher efficiency, output power, and stability. Our system is fully wirelessly controlled and suitable for experiments with a large number of animals.

  1. Direct containment heating experiments in Zion Nuclear Power Plant geometry using prototypic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, J.L.; McUmber, L.M.; Spencer, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    Direct Containment Heating (DCH) experiments have been completed which utilize prototypic core materials. The experiments reported on here are a continuation of the Integral Effects Testing (IET) DCH program. The experiments incorporated a 1/40 scale model of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant containment structures. The model included representations of the primary system volume, RPV lower head, cavity and instrument tunnel, and the lower containment structures. The experiments were steam driven. Iron-alumina thermite with chromium was used as a core melt stimulant in the earlier IET experiments. These earlier IET experiments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) provided useful data on the effect of scale on DCH phenomena; however, a significant question concerns the potential experiment distortions introduced by the use of non-prototypic iron/alumina thermite. Therefore, further testing with prototypic materials has been carried out at ANL. Three tests have been completed, DCH-U1A, U1B and U2. DCH-U1A and U1B employed an inerted containment atmosphere and are counterpart to the IET-1RR test with iron/alumina thermite. DCH-U2 employed nominally the same atmosphere composition of its counterpart iron/alumina test, IET-6. All tests, with prototypic material, have produced lower peak containment pressure rises; 45, 111 and 185 kPa in U1A, U1B and U2, compared to 150 and 250 kPa IET-1RR and 6. Hydrogen production, due to metal-steam reactions, was 33% larger in U1B and U2 compared to IET-1RR and IET-6. The pressurization efficiency was consistently lower for the corium tests compared to the IET tests.

  2. Active experiments in geospace plasmas with gigawatts of RF power at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, James

    2016-07-01

    The ionosphere provides a relatively quiescent plasma target, stable on timescales of minutes, for a whole host of active plasma experiments. The largest HF transmitter built to date is the HAARP phased-array HF transmitter near Gakona, Alaska which can deliver up to 3.6 Gigawatts (ERP) of CW RF power in the range of 2.8 - 10 MHz to the ionosphere with millisecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. With an ionospheric background thermal energy in the range of only 0.1 eV, this amount of power gives access to the highest regimes of the nonlinearity (RF intensity to thermal pressure) ratio. HAARP's unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of nonlinear plasma experiments in the inter¬action region of overdense ionospheric plasma including generation of artificial aurorae, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, parametric instabilities, stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and optics for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the HF-enhanced plasma line, and production of suprathermal electrons. Applications are made to the controlled study of fundamental nonlinear plasma processes of relevance to laboratory plasmas, ionospheric irregularities affecting spacecraft communication and navigation systems, artificial ionization mirrors, wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, active global magnetospheric experiments, and many more.

  3. High-power, micro-integrated diode laser modules at 767 and 780 nm for portable quantum gas experiments.

    PubMed

    Schiemangk, Max; Lampmann, Kai; Dinkelaker, Aline; Kohfeldt, Anja; Krutzik, Markus; Kürbis, Christian; Sahm, Alexander; Spießberger, Stefan; Wicht, Andreas; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther; Peters, Achim

    2015-06-10

    We present micro-integrated diode laser modules operating at wavelengths of 767 and 780 nm for cold quantum gas experiments on potassium and rubidium. The master-oscillator-power-amplifier concept provides both narrow linewidth emission and high optical output power. With a linewidth (10 μs) below 1 MHz and an output power of up to 3 W, these modules are specifically suited for quantum optics experiments and feature the robustness required for operation at a drop tower or on-board a sounding rocket. This technology development hence paves the way toward precision quantum optics experiments in space. PMID:26192832

  4. A new VME based high voltage power supply for large experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, S.C.; Angstadt, R.D.; Droege, T.F.; Johnson, M.E.; MacKinnon, B.A.; McNulty, S.E.; Shea, M.F.; Thompson, R.N.; Watson, M.M.; Franzini, P.; Jones, A.A.; Lopez, M.L.; Wimpenny, S.J.; Yang, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    A new VME based high voltage power supply has been developed for the D{O} experiment at Fermilab. There are three types of supplies delivering up to {plus_minus}5.6 kV at 1.0 mA or +2.0 kV at 3.0 mA with a set accuracy of 1.5 V and extremely low voltage ripples. Complete computer control has allowed many special features to be developed for the supply, including user-defined control land monitor groups, variable ramp rates, and advanced histogram and graphic functions. 3 refs.

  5. A new VME based high voltage power supply for large experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, S.C.; Angstadt, R.D.; Droege, T.F.; Johnson, M.E.; MacKinnon, B.A.; McNulty, S.E.; Shea, M.F.; Thompson, R.N.; Watson, M.M. ); Franzini, P. ); Jones, A.A. ); Lopez, M.L. ); Wimpenny, S.J.; Yang, M.J

    1991-11-01

    A new VME based high voltage power supply has been developed for the D{O} experiment at Fermilab. There are three types of supplies delivering up to {plus minus}5.6 kV at 1.0 mA or +2.0 kV at 3.0 mA with a set accuracy of 1.5 V and extremely low voltage ripples. Complete computer control has allowed many special features to be developed for the supply, including user-defined control land monitor groups, variable ramp rates, and advanced histogram and graphic functions. 3 refs.

  6. Experience gained with development and commissioning of retrofitted process control systems for large power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idzon, O. M.; Grekhov, L. L.

    2009-01-01

    Experience gained for many years at ZAO Interavtomatika with work on retrofitting control and monitoring systems of large power units is summarized. Principles based on which these systems should be retrofitted are considered together with the factors influencing the choice of retrofitting option, as well as decisions on constructing a process control system during full and partial retrofitting. Recommendations are given for the optimal scope of functions that should be incorporated in the software and hardware tools of a process control system during its retrofitting.

  7. Operating experience review for nuclear power plants in the Systematic Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, G.T.; Harrington, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    The Systematic Evaluation Program Branch (SEPB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) whose purpose is to determine the safety margins of the design and operation of the eleven oldest operating commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. This paper describes the methodology and results of the operational experience review portion of the SEP evaluation. SEPB will combine the results from these operational reviews with other safety topic evaluations to perform an integrated assessment of the SEP plants.

  8. Movable-molybdenum-reflector reactivity experiments for control studies of compact space power reactor concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental reflector reactivity study was made with a compact cylindrical reactor using a uranyl fluoride - water fuel solution. The reactor was axially unreflected and radially reflected with segments of molybdenum. The reflector segments were displaced incrementally in both the axial and radial dimensions, and the shutdown of each configuration was measured by using the pulsed-neutron source technique. The reactivity effects for axial and radial displacement of reflector segments are tabulated separately and compared. The experiments provide data for control-system studies of compact-space-power-reactor concepts.

  9. Theta13 Neutrino Experiment at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, LBNL Engineering Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Oshatz, Daryl

    2004-03-12

    This summary document describes the results of conceptual design and cost estimates performed by LBNL Engineering staff between October 10, 2003 and March 12, 2004 for the proposed {theta}{sub 13} neutrino experiment at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP). This document focuses on the detector room design concept and mechanical engineering issues associated with the neutrino detector structures. Every effort has been made not to duplicate information contained in the last LBNL Engineering Summary Report dated October 10, 2003. Only new or updated information is included in this document.

  10. Power Distribution Analysis for the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor Critical Experiment 3

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, David; Primm, Trent; Maldonado, G Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program is to minimize and, to the extent possible, eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian nuclear applications by working to convert research and test reactors, as well as radioisotope production processes, to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel and targets. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently reviewing the design bases and key operating criteria including fuel operating parameters, enrichment-related safety analyses, fuel performance, and fuel fabrication in regard to converting the fuel of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from HEU to LEU. The purpose of this study is to validate Monte Carlo methods currently in use for conversion analyses. The methods have been validated for the prediction offlux values in the reactor target, reflector, and beam tubes, but this study focuses on the prediction of the power density profile in the core. Power distributions were calculated in the fuel elements of the HFIR, a research reactor at ORNL, via MCNP and were compared to experimentally obtained data. This study was performed to validate Monte Carlo methods for power density calculations and to observe biases. A current three-dimensional MCNP model was modified to replicate the 1965 HFIR Critical Experiment 3 (HFIRCE-3). In this experiment, the power profile was determined by counting the gamma activity at selected locations in the core. 'Foils' (chunks of fuel meat and clad) were punched out of the fuel elements in HFIRCE-3 following irradiation, and experimental relative power densities were obtained by measuring the activity of these foils and comparing each foil's activity to the activity of a normalizing foil. This analysis consisted of calculating corresponding activities by inserting volume tallies into the modified MCNP model to represent the punchings. The average fission density was calculated for each foil location and then normalized to the reference foil

  11. 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) a fast acting, promising, powerful, specific, and effective "small molecule" anti-cancer agent taken from labside to bedside: introduction to a special issue.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Peter L

    2012-02-01

    Although the "Warburg effect", i.e., elevated glucose metabolism to lactic acid (glycolysis) even in the presence of oxygen, has been recognized as the most common biochemical phenotype of cancer for over 80 years, its biochemical and genetic basis remained unknown for over 50 years. Work focused on elucidating the underlying mechanism(s) of the "Warburg effect" commenced in the author's laboratory in 1969. By 1985 among the novel findings made two related most directly to the basis of the "Warburg effect", the first that the mitochondrial content of tumors exhibiting this phenotype is markedly decreased relative to the tissue of origin, and the second that such mitochondria have markedly elevated amounts of the enzyme hexokinase-2 (HK2) bound to their outer membrane. HK2 is the first of a number of enzymes in cancer cells involved in metabolizing the sugar glucose to lactic acid. At its mitochondrial location HK2 binds at/near the protein VDAC (voltage dependent anion channel), escapes inhibition by its product glucose-6-phosphate, and gains access to mitochondrial produced ATP. As shown by others, it also helps immortalize cancer cells, i.e., prevents cell death. Based on these studies, the author's laboratory commenced experiments to elucidate the gene basis for the overexpression of HK2 in cancer. These studies led to both the discovery of a unique HK2 promoter region markedly activated by both hypoxic conditions and moderately activated by several metabolites (e.g., glucose), Also discovered was the promoter's regulation by epigenetic events (i.e., methylation, demethylation). Finally, the author's laboratory turned to the most important objective. Could they selectively and completely destroy cancerous tumors in animals? This led to the discovery in an experiment conceived, designed, and conducted by Young Ko that the small molecule 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), the subject of this mini-review series, is an incredibly powerful and swift acting anticancer agent

  12. High average power CW FELs (Free Electron Laser) for application to plasma heating: Designs and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Booske, J.H.; Granatstein, V.L.; Radack, D.J.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Bidwell, S.; Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Latham, P.E.; Levush, B.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Zhang, Z.X. . Lab. for Plasma Research); Freund, H.P. )

    1989-01-01

    A short period wiggler (period {approximately} 1 cm), sheet beam FEL has been proposed as a low-cost source of high average power (1 MW) millimeter-wave radiation for plasma heating and space-based radar applications. Recent calculation and experiments have confirmed the feasibility of this concept in such critical areas as rf wall heating, intercepted beam ( body'') current, and high voltage (0.5 - 1 MV) sheet beam generation and propagation. Results of preliminary low-gain sheet beam FEL oscillator experiments using a field emission diode and pulse line accelerator have verified that lasing occurs at the predicted FEL frequency. Measured start oscillation currents also appear consistent with theoretical estimates. Finally, we consider the possibilities of using a short-period, superconducting planar wiggler for improved beam confinement, as well as access to the high gain, strong pump Compton regime with its potential for highly efficient FEL operation.

  13. Power Supply System for the Atlas Experiment: Design Specifications, Implementation, Test and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaroni, M.; Citterio, M.; Latorre, S.; Lanza, A.; Cova, P.; Delmonte, N.; Giuliani, F.

    2014-06-01

    The planned upgrade of instrumentation sensitivity in the ATLAS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN, calls for a new type of power distribution architecture. Moreover, power supplies require DC-DC power converters able to work in very hostile environment and maintaining high level of Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (denoted as RAMS requirements) during the experimental activity. Two main issues need to be discussed: first, electronic devices and equipment must operate in very high background of both charged and neutral particles and high static magnetic field and, second, the increase of the radiation background and the requirements of new front-end electronics are indeed incompatible with the current capability of the actual distribution system. The APOLLO R&D collaboration, funded by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), aims to study dedicated topologies of both distribution system and DC-DC power converters and to design, build and test demonstrators, developing the needed technology for the industrialization phase. The collaboration has designed a 3kW, 280V-12V converter (MC) based on the Switch in Line architecture (SIL), a DC to DC phase-shifted converter characterized by a disposition in line of the MOSFETs with good soft switching performances, and in the last year many steps have been taken to enhance the power dissipation and the reliability and to improve the general features of the designed converter. In particular a new water heat sink was designed on the basis of TFD simulation accounting for the layout of the specific converter. Experimental activities in order to characterize both thermal and electrical features of the MC confirm the correctness of the adopted design criteria.

  14. PVUSA experience with power conversion for grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.

    1995-11-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Application (PVUSA) project was established to demonstrate photovoltaic (PV) systems in grid-connected utility applications. One of PVUSA`s key objectives is to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of the PV balance of system (BOS). Power conditioning units (PCUs) are the interface between the dc PV arrays and the ac utility lines, and have proved to be the most critical element in grid-connected PV systems. There are five different models of PCUs at PVUSA`s Davis and Kerman sites. This report describes the design, testing, performance characteristics, and maintenance history of each of these PCUs. PVUSA required PCUs in the power range 25 kW to 500 kW which could operate automatically and reliably under changing conditions of sunlight and changing conditions on the utility grid. Although a number of manufacturers can provide PCUs in this power range, none of these PCUs have been produced in sufficient quantity to allow refinement of a particular model into the highly reliable unit needed for long-term, unattended operation. Factory tests were useful but limited by the inability to test under full power and changing power conditions. The inability to completely test PCUs at the factory resulted in difficulty during startup, field testing, and subsequent operation. PVUSA has made significant progress in understanding the requirements for PCUs in grid-connected PV applications and improving field performance. This record of PVUSA`s experience with a variety of PCUs is intended to help utilities and their suppliers identify and retain the good performance characteristics of PCUs, and to make improvements where necessary to meet the needs of utilities.

  15. Development of an Organic Rankine-Cycle power module for a small community solar thermal power experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiceniuk, T.

    1985-01-01

    An organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power module was developed for use in a multimodule solar power plant to be built and operated in a small community. Many successful components and subsystems, including the reciever, power conversion subsystem, energy transport subsystem, and control subsystem, were tested. Tests were performed on a complete power module using a test bed concentrator in place of the proposed concentrator. All major single-module program functional objectives were met and the multimodule operation presented no apparent problems. The hermetically sealed, self-contained, ORC power conversion unit subsequently successfully completed a 300-hour endurance run with no evidence of wear or operating problems.

  16. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries—reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems—are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  17. U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, RL

    2003-09-18

    The ''U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries'' (NUREG/CR-6577, Supp. 2) report has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants during 2000-2001. Costs incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, which represent fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications, which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operations summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from operating reports submitted by the licensees, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) database for enforcement actions, and outage reports.

  18. A field application experience of integrating hydrogen technology with wind power in a remote island location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazey, R.; Salman, S. K.; Aklil-D'Halluin, D. D.

    This paper aims to share the field application experience related to the development of an innovative stand-alone sustainable energy system known as the PURE project. The PURE project has been developed alongside a Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) scheme, which is supported by the UK Department of Trade and Industry and executed by siGEN in collaboration with The Robert Gordon University. The system has been constructed within an industrial estate on the island of Unst in Shetland, 200 miles north of the Scottish mainland. The energy system now supplies five business properties with clean reliable power and utilises wind turbine and hydrogen technology to provide a sustainable energy source. The stored hydrogen gas generated by the system is used as an energy source for periods when electrical demand within the business properties exceeds wind turbine production. The hydrogen is also utilised as a fuel source for transportation and as a transportable energy source for mobile power generation. The paper therefore gives a detailed description of the PURE project and discusses the field experience accumulated during the development and installation of the system. It also shares a number of practical issues that had to be overcome during its integration and operation. The installation of the PURE project has resulted in a number of unexpected conclusions being identified and marks a significant step forward in the accessible deployment of this technology for community use.

  19. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries - reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems - are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  20. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  1. Nonlinear plasma experiments in geospace with gigawatts of RF power at HAARP

    SciTech Connect

    Sheerin, J. P.; Cohen, Morris B.

    2015-12-10

    The ionosphere is the ionized uppermost layer of our atmosphere (from 70 – 500 km altitude) where free electron densities yield peak critical frequencies in the HF (3 – 30 MHz) range. The ionosphere thus provides a quiescent plasma target, stable on timescales of minutes, for a whole host of active plasma experiments. High power RF experiments on ionospheric plasma conducted in the U.S. have been reported since 1970. The largest HF transmitter built to date is the HAARP phased-array HF transmitter near Gakona, Alaska which can deliver up to 3.6 Gigawatts (ERP) of CW RF power in the range of 2.8 – 10 MHz to the ionosphere with microsecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. With an ionospheric background thermal energy in the range of only 0.1 eV, this amount of power gives access to the highest regimes of the nonlinearity (RF intensity to thermal pressure) ratio. HAARP’s unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of unique nonlinear plasma experiments in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma including generation of artificial aurorae, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, parametric instabilities, stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and telescopes and cameras for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the HF-enhanced plasma line, and production of suprathermal electrons. One of the primary missions of HAARP, has been the generation of ELF (300 – 3000 Hz) and VLF (3 – 30 kHz) radio waves which are guided to global distances in the Earth

  2. Nonlinear plasma experiments in geospace with gigawatts of RF power at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Cohen, Morris B.

    2015-12-01

    The ionosphere is the ionized uppermost layer of our atmosphere (from 70 - 500 km altitude) where free electron densities yield peak critical frequencies in the HF (3 - 30 MHz) range. The ionosphere thus provides a quiescent plasma target, stable on timescales of minutes, for a whole host of active plasma experiments. High power RF experiments on ionospheric plasma conducted in the U.S. have been reported since 1970. The largest HF transmitter built to date is the HAARP phased-array HF transmitter near Gakona, Alaska which can deliver up to 3.6 Gigawatts (ERP) of CW RF power in the range of 2.8 - 10 MHz to the ionosphere with microsecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. With an ionospheric background thermal energy in the range of only 0.1 eV, this amount of power gives access to the highest regimes of the nonlinearity (RF intensity to thermal pressure) ratio. HAARP's unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of unique nonlinear plasma experiments in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma including generation of artificial aurorae, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, parametric instabilities, stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and telescopes and cameras for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the HF-enhanced plasma line, and production of suprathermal electrons. One of the primary missions of HAARP, has been the generation of ELF (300 - 3000 Hz) and VLF (3 - 30 kHz) radio waves which are guided to global distances in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. We review

  3. Case Studies for the Statistical Design of Experiments Applied to Powered Rotor Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overmeyer, Austin D.; Tanner, Philip E.; Martin, Preston B.; Commo, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The application of statistical Design of Experiments (DOE) to helicopter wind tunnel testing was explored during two powered rotor wind tunnel entries during the summers of 2012 and 2013. These tests were performed jointly by the U.S. Army Aviation Development Directorate Joint Research Program Office and NASA Rotary Wing Project Office, currently the Revolutionary Vertical Lift Project, at NASA Langley Research Center located in Hampton, Virginia. Both entries were conducted in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with a small portion of the overall tests devoted to developing case studies of the DOE approach as it applies to powered rotor testing. A 16-47 times reduction in the number of data points required was estimated by comparing the DOE approach to conventional testing methods. The average error for the DOE surface response model for the OH-58F test was 0.95 percent and 4.06 percent for drag and download, respectively. The DOE surface response model of the Active Flow Control test captured the drag within 4.1 percent of measured data. The operational differences between the two testing approaches are identified, but did not prevent the safe operation of the powered rotor model throughout the DOE test matrices.

  4. Effect of collisional heat transfer in ICRF power modulation experiment on ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujii, N.; D'Inca, R.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, Vl. V.; Brambilla, M.; Schneider, P.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-02-12

    ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) heating experiments were performed in D-H plasmas at various H concentrations on ASDEX Upgrade. The rf power was modulated to measure the electron power deposition profile from electron temperature modulation. To minimize the contribution from indirect collisional heating and the effect of radial transport, the rf power was modulated at 50 Hz. However, peaking of electron temperature modulation was still observed around the hydrogen cyclotron resonance indicating collisional heating contribution. Time dependent simulation of the hydrogen distribution function was performed for the discharges, using the full-wave code AORSA (E.F. Jaeger, et al., Phys. Plasmas, Vol. 8, page 1573 (2001)) coupled to the Fokker-Planck code CQL3D (R.W. Harvey, et al., Proc. IAEA (1992)). In the present experimental conditions, it was found that modulation of the collisional heating was comparable to that of direct wave damping. Impact of radial transport was also analyzed and found to appreciably smear out the modulation profile and reduce the phase delay.

  5. High power millimeter wave experiment of ITER relevant electron cyclotron heating and current drive system.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Kajiwara, K; Oda, Y; Kasugai, A; Kobayashi, N; Sakamoto, K; Doane, J; Olstad, R; Henderson, M

    2011-06-01

    High power, long pulse millimeter (mm) wave experiments of the RF test stand (RFTS) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) were performed. The system consists of a 1 MW/170 GHz gyrotron, a long and short distance transmission line (TL), and an equatorial launcher (EL) mock-up. The RFTS has an ITER-relevant configuration, i.e., consisted by a 1 MW-170 GHz gyrotron, a mm wave TL, and an EL mock-up. The TL is composed of a matching optics unit, evacuated circular corrugated waveguides, 6-miter bends, an in-line waveguide switch, and an isolation valve. The EL-mock-up is fabricated according to the current design of the ITER launcher. The Gaussian-like beam radiation with the steering capability of 20°-40° from the EL mock-up was also successfully proved. The high power, long pulse power transmission test was conducted with the metallic load replaced by the EL mock-up, and the transmission of 1 MW/800 s and 0.5 MW/1000 s was successfully demonstrated with no arcing and no damages. The transmission efficiency of the TL was 96%. The results prove the feasibility of the ITER electron cyclotron heating and current drive system. PMID:21721690

  6. High power millimeter wave experiment of ITER relevant electron cyclotron heating and current drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, K.; Kajiwara, K.; Oda, Y.; Kasugai, A.; Kobayashi, N.; Sakamoto, K.; Doane, J.; Olstad, R.; Henderson, M.

    2011-06-15

    High power, long pulse millimeter (mm) wave experiments of the RF test stand (RFTS) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) were performed. The system consists of a 1 MW/170 GHz gyrotron, a long and short distance transmission line (TL), and an equatorial launcher (EL) mock-up. The RFTS has an ITER-relevant configuration, i.e., consisted by a 1 MW-170 GHz gyrotron, a mm wave TL, and an EL mock-up. The TL is composed of a matching optics unit, evacuated circular corrugated waveguides, 6-miter bends, an in-line waveguide switch, and an isolation valve. The EL-mock-up is fabricated according to the current design of the ITER launcher. The Gaussian-like beam radiation with the steering capability of 20 deg. - 40 deg. from the EL mock-up was also successfully proved. The high power, long pulse power transmission test was conducted with the metallic load replaced by the EL mock-up, and the transmission of 1 MW/800 s and 0.5 MW/1000 s was successfully demonstrated with no arcing and no damages. The transmission efficiency of the TL was 96%. The results prove the feasibility of the ITER electron cyclotron heating and current drive system.

  7. An Experiment to Measure Range, Range Straggling, Stopping Power, and Energy Straggling of Alpha Particles in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouseph, P. J.; Mostovych, Andrew

    1978-01-01

    Experiments to measure range, range straggling, stopping power, and energy straggling of alpha particles are discussed in this article. Commercially available equipment with simple modifications is used for these measurements. (Author/GA)

  8. Phase 1 of the First Small Power System Experiment (engineering Experiment No. 1). Volume 1: Executive Summary. [development and testing of a solar thermal power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a modular solar thermal power system for application in the 1 to 10 MWe range is presented. The system is used in remote utility applications, small communities, rural areas, and for industrial uses. Investigations are performed on the energy storage requirements and type of energy storage, concentrator design and field optimization, energy transport, and power conversion subsystems. The system utilizes a Rankine cycle, an axial flow steam turbine for power conversion, and heat transfer sodium for collector fluid.

  9. Cold weather operating guidelines and experience for natural draft cooling towers on the American Electric Power system

    SciTech Connect

    Michell, F.L.; Drew, D.H.

    1996-10-01

    American Electric Power`s more than 30 years of experience in operating natural draft cooling towers during freezing winter weather conditions is discussed in the paper. Design features incorporated into the specifications for major rebuild/repack projects for crossflow and counterflow towers to facilitate cold weather operation are also reviewed.

  10. Evidence-based decision-making for vaccine introductions: Overview of the ProVac International Working Group’s experience

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Barbara; Garcia, Ana Gabriela Felix; Janusz, Cara Bess; Blau, Julia; Munier, Aline; Atherly, Deborah; Mvundura, Mercy; Hajjeh, Rana; Lopman, Benjamin; Clark, Andrew David; Baxter, Louise; Hutubessy, Raymond; de Quadros, Ciro; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pan American Health Organization’s (PAHO) ProVac Initiative aims to strengthen countries’ technical capacity to make evidence-based immunization policy. With financial support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, PAHO established the ProVac International Working Group (IWG), a platform created for two years to transfer the ProVac Initiative’s tools and methods to support decisions in non-PAHO regions. Methods In 2011, WHO Regional Offices and partner agencies established the IWG to transfer the ProVac framework for new vaccine decision support, including tools and trainings to other regions of the world. During the two year period, PAHO served as the coordinating secretariat and partner agencies played implementing or advisory roles. Results Fifty nine national professionals from 17 countries received training on the use of economic evaluations to aid vaccine policy making through regional workshops. The IWG provided direct technical support to nine countries to develop cost-effectiveness analyses to inform decisions. All nine countries introduced the new vaccine evaluated or their NITAGs have made a recommendation to the Ministry of Health to introduce the new vaccine. Discussion Developing countries around the world are increasingly interested in weighing the potential health impact due to new vaccine introduction against the investments required. During the two years, the ProVac approach proved valuable and timely to aid the national decision making processes, even despite the different challenges and idiosyncrasies encountered in each region. The results of this work suggest that: (1) there is great need and demand for technical support and for capacity building around economic evaluations; and (2) the ProVac method of supporting country-owned analyses is as effective in other regions as it has been in the PAHO region. Conclusion Decision support for new vaccine introduction in low- and middle-income countries is critical to guiding

  11. Test results of an organic Rankine-cycle power module for a small community solar thermal power experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    The organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power conversion assembly was tested. Qualification testing of the electrical transport subsystem was also completed. Test objectives were to verify compatibility of all system elements with emphasis on control of the power conversion assembly, to evaluate the performance and efficiency of the components, and to validate operating procedures. After 34 hours of power generation under a wide range of conditions, the net module efficiency exceeded 18% after accounting for all parasitic losses.

  12. Combustion-Powered Actuation for Dynamic Stall Suppression - Simulations and Low-Mach Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matalanis, Claude G.; Min, Byung-Young; Bowles, Patrick O.; Jee, Solkeun; Wake, Brian E.; Crittenden, Tom; Woo, George; Glezer, Ari

    2014-01-01

    An investigation on dynamic-stall suppression capabilities of combustion-powered actuation (COMPACT) applied to a tabbed VR-12 airfoil is presented. In the first section, results from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations carried out at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.5 are presented. Several geometric parameters are varied including the slot chordwise location and angle. Actuation pulse amplitude, frequency, and timing are also varied. The simulations suggest that cycle-averaged lift increases of approximately 4% and 8% with respect to the baseline airfoil are possible at Mach numbers of 0.4 and 0.3 for deep and near-deep dynamic-stall conditions. In the second section, static-stall results from low-speed wind-tunnel experiments are presented. Low-speed experiments and high-speed CFD suggest that slots oriented tangential to the airfoil surface produce stronger benefits than slots oriented normal to the chordline. Low-speed experiments confirm that chordwise slot locations suitable for Mach 0.3-0.4 stall suppression (based on CFD) will also be effective at lower Mach numbers.

  13. Optical Spectroscopy Experiments on the 500 kA XP Pulsed-Power Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, K. S.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; McBride, R. D.; Blesener, I. C.; Knapp, P. F.; Hammer, D. A.; Greenly, J. B.; Maron, Y.

    2009-01-21

    Recent experiments on the 500 kA XP pulsed-power generator at Cornell University have explored the properties of optical spectra in single wires and wire arrays. In the single wire experiments, {approx}1% of the current from XP has been directed through the single wire. Spectra have been recorded using a half-meter spectrometer and a CCD camera located adjacent to the XP pulser. We are studying the visible spectra emitted by the wires and the background light from the machine hardware in order to identify the levels of current per wire for which visible spectroscopy might provide a means to measure magnetic field strength. We have also investigated the dependence of single wire visible spectra on the current, which was measured using a calibrated non-integrating Rogowski coil. UV and XUV diodes were employed to gather information about the temporal structure of the background and wire radiation. The line radiation in the spectra was recorded with wire currents at the few kA level. This is comparable to the first 10 ns of a 32-wire array experiment on 1 Ma generator and a 600-wire array at 20 MA.

  14. Notes from the back room: gender, power, and (In)visibility in women's experiences of masturbation.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Breanne; Frank, Elena

    2014-01-01

    While popular culture has more frequently depicted women's masturbation in recent years, scholarly attention to women's own meaning making about masturbation remains largely absent. Existing research that emphasizes women's masturbation frequency, health correlates, masturbation as a factor in couples therapy, and masturbation as a substitute for partnered sexual behaviors have dominated the research, largely neglecting social identity correlates and women's subjectivities about masturbation. This study drew upon qualitative interviews with 20 women (mean age = 34, SD = 13.35) from diverse backgrounds to illuminate five themes in women's experiences with masturbation: (a) assumptions that most women self-penetrate during masturbation even when primarily using clitoral stimulation; (b) masturbation as sexual labor; (c) masturbation as a threat to male dominance; (d) masturbation as routine tension release; and (e) masturbation as a source of joy, fun, and pleasure. Because women revealed such a diverse set of experiences, we explored the advantages and disadvantages of the invisibility of women's masturbation. As a result of the internalization of stereotypically masculine scripts about sexuality-including an imagined penetrative focus, goal-oriented drive toward orgasm, sex as labor, and masturbation as nonemotional-women's masturbation experiences, regardless of sexual orientation, revealed the power imbalances often present in partnered (hetero)sexual dynamics. PMID:23631671

  15. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, T.K.; Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.; Nichols, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    The Containment Technology Test Facility (CTTF) and the Surtsey Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories are used to perform scaled experiments that simulate High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) phenomena on the containment load. High-temperature, chemically reactive melt (thermite) is ejected by high-pressure steam into a scale model of a reactor cavity. Debris is entrained by the steam blowdown into a containment model where specific phenomena, such as the effect of subcompartment structures, prototypic air/steam/hydrogen atmospheres, and hydrogen generation and combustion, can be studied. Four Integral Effects Tests (IETs) have been performed with scale models of the Surry NPP to investigate DCH phenomena. The 1/61{sup th} scale Integral Effects Tests (IET-9, IET-10, and IET-11) were conducted in CTRF, which is a 1/6{sup th} scale model of the Surry reactor containment building (RCB). The 1/10{sup th} scale IET test (IET-12) was performed in the Surtsey vessel, which had been configured as a 1/10{sup th} scale Surry RCB. Scale models were constructed in each of the facilities of the Surry structures, including the reactor pressure vessel, reactor support skirt, control rod drive missile shield, biological shield wall, cavity, instrument tunnel, residual heat removal platform and heat exchangers, seal table room and seal table, operating deck, and crane wall. This report describes these experiments and gives the results.

  16. High Power Heating of Magnetic Reconnection in UTokyo Spherical Tokamak Merging Experiment: TS-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Y.; Kawanami, M.; Kimura, K.; Nakai, R.; Nishida, K.; Ishida, R.; Yamanaka, H.; Kuwahata, A.; Tanabe, H.; Inomoto, M.; Cheng, C. Z.; TS; UTST Team

    2015-11-01

    Significant ion heating of magnetic reconnection up to 0.2keV and 1.2keV were documented in two tokamak merging experiments: TS-3 and MAST, leading us to a new high-field merging experiment: TS-U in University of Tokyo. 1D and 2D contours of ion and electron temperatures measured in TS-3 already revealed clear energy-conversion of magnetic reconnection: huge outflow heating of ions in the downstream and electron heating localized at the X-point. It is noted that the ion heating energy is proportional to square of the reconnecting (poloidal) magnetic field Brec. It is because the reconnection outflow accelerates ions up to the poloidal Alfven speed. The accelerated ions are thermalized by shock-like density pileups in the downstreams. These results agree qualitatively with recent solar satellite observations and PIC simulation results. Based on those results, our poster will show the design of upscaled high-field tokamak merging experiment: TS-U. The high-power heating of tokamak merging is useful not only for laboratory study of reconnection heating mechanisms but also for economical startup and heating of tokamak plasmas. The tokamak merging with Brec>0.3T will enables us to heat the tokamak plasma to the burning regime: Ti>5keV without using any additional heating facility.

  17. Introduction to Horticulture. Teacher Edition. Horticulture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is designed to provide a core of instruction for the many different fields in agricultural/horticultural education. This course contains 21 instructional units that cover the following topics: introduction to horticulture; beginning a career in horticulture; hand and power tools; introduction to safety; growing facilities;…

  18. SCHUMACHER HOT GAS FILTER LONG-TERM OPERATING EXPERIENCE in the NUON POWER BUGGENUM IGCC POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibner, B.; Wolters, C.

    2002-09-18

    Coal is a main source of primary energy for power generation and it will remain indispensable in the future. In order to increase the efficiency and to meet environmental challenges new advanced coal-fired power systems were developed starting in the beginning of the 1990s. One of these efficient and clean technologies is the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process.

  19. Dosimetry experiences and lessons learned for radiation dose assessment in Korean nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Rak; Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young; Son, Jung Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Since the first Korean nuclear power plant (NPP), Kori 1, commenced operation in 1978, a total of 21 NPPs had been put into operation in Korea by the end of 2011. Radiation doses of NPP workers have been periodically evaluated and controlled within the prescribed dose limit. Radiation dose assessment is carried out monthly by reading personal dosemeters for external radiation exposure, which have traceability in compliance with strict technical guidelines. In the case of the internal radiation exposure, workers who have access to the possible area of polluted air are also evaluated for their internal dose after maintenance task. In this article, the overall situation and experience for the assessment and distribution of radiation doses in Korean NPPs is described. PMID:23204558

  20. The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Power Spectrum from the BEAST Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dwyer, Ian J.; Bersanelli, Marco; Childers, Jeffrey; Figueiredo, Newton; Halevi, Doron; Huey, Greg; Lubin, Philip M.; Maino, Davide; Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Marvil, Joshua; Meinhold, Peter R.; Mejía, Jorge; Natoli, Paolo; O'Neill, Hugh; Pina, Agenor; Seiffert, Michael D.; Stebor, Nathan C.; Tello, Camilo; Villela, Thyrso; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Williams, Brian; Wuensche, Carlos Alexandre

    2005-05-01

    The Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST) is a 2.2 m off-axis telescope with an eight-element mixed Q-band (38-45 GHz) and Ka-band (26-36 GHz) focal plane, designed for balloon-borne and ground-based studies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Here we present the CMB angular power spectrum calculated from 682 hr of data observed with the BEAST instrument. We use a binned pseudo-Cl estimator (the MASTER method). We find results that are consistent with other determinations of the CMB anisotropy for angular wavenumbers l between 100 and 600. We also perform cosmological parameter estimation. The BEAST data alone produce a good constraint on Ωk≡1-Ωtot=-0.074+/-0.070, consistent with a flat universe. A joint parameter estimation analysis with a number of previous CMB experiments produces results consistent with previous determinations.

  1. High-power targets: experience and R&D for 2 MW

    SciTech Connect

    Hurh, P.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Loveridge, P.; Simos, N.; /Brookhaven

    2011-03-01

    High-power particle production targets are crucial elements of future neutrino and other rare particle beams. Fermilab plans to produce a beam of neutrinos (LBNE) with a 2.3 MW proton beam (Project X). Any solid target is unlikely to survive for an extended period in such an environment - many materials would not survive a single beam pulse. We are using our experience with previous neutrino and antiproton production targets, along with a new series of R&D tests, to design a target that has adequate survivability for this beamline. The issues considered are thermal shock (stress waves), heat removal, radiation damage, radiation accelerated corrosion effects, physics/geometry optimization and residual radiation.

  2. Randomized block experimental designs can increase the power and reproducibility of laboratory animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized block experimental designs have been widely used in agricultural and industrial research for many decades. Usually they are more powerful, have higher external validity, are less subject to bias, and produce more reproducible results than the completely randomized designs typically used in research involving laboratory animals. Reproducibility can be further increased by using time as a blocking factor. These benefits can be achieved at no extra cost. A small experiment investigating the effect of an antioxidant on the activity of a liver enzyme in four inbred mouse strains, which had two replications (blocks) separated by a period of two months, illustrates this approach. The widespread failure to use these designs more widely in research involving laboratory animals has probably led to a substantial waste of animals, money, and scientific resources and slowed down the development of new treatments for human and animal diseases. PMID:25541548

  3. Relational experiences of power and gender for nurse-managers of private hospitals.

    PubMed

    Brito, Maria José Menezes; Montenegro, Lívia Cozer; Alves, Marília

    2010-01-01

    Influenced by increased technology and globalization, Brazilian hospitals are undergoing significant changes. The managerial models focused on the male model are being slowly and gradually replaced, with an expressive participation of female nurses in management positions. Thus, we aimed to uncover some aspects of the relational experiences of power and gender of nine female nurse-managers working in four large and medium-sized private hospitals in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, through a qualitative case study. The results show that management discourses value a managerial style focused on the organizations' humanized aspects, where authoritative styles have no space. In this scenario, the work of female nurse-managers strengthens teamwork, which improves their image and contributes to forming their identity. PMID:21120415

  4. Phase 1 of the First Small Power System Experiment (engineering Experiment No. 1). Volume 2: System Concept Selection. [development and testing of a solar thermal power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a modular solar thermal power system for application in the 1 to 10 MWe range is presented. The system is used in remote utility applications, small communities, rural areas, and for industrial uses. Systems design and systems optimization studies are conducted which consider plant size, annual capacity factors, and startup time as variables. Investigations are performed on the energy storage requirements and type of energy storage, concentrator design and field optimization, energy transport, and power conversion subsystems. The system utilizes a Rankine cycle, an axial flow steam turbine for power conversion, and heat transfer sodium for collector fluid.

  5. 29 CFR 1910.301 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Electrical General § 1910.301 Introduction. This subpart addresses... all electric equipment and installations used to provide electric power and light for...

  6. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

  7. Study of thermal control systems for orbiting power systems. Materials experiment carrier thermal control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Four possible arrangements of the materials experiment carrier (MEC) and power system (PS) thermal control loops were defined which would provide one kW of heat rejection for each kW of power to the MEC payload. These arrangements were compared to the baseline reference concept which provides only 16 kW heat rejection to show the cost of obtaining symmetry in terms of dollars, weight, complexity, growth potential, ease of integration, technology and total launch weight. The results of these comparisons was that the concept which splits the PS thermal control loop into two systems, one to reject PS waste heat and one payload waste heat, appeared favorable. The fluid selection study resulted in recommendation of FC72 as the MEC heat transport fluid based on the thermal and physical characteristics. The coatings reviewed indicated anodized and alodine treated aluminum surfaces or silver teflon are the best choices for the MEC vehicle where durability is an important factor. For high temperature radiators silver teflon or zinc orthotitanate are recommended choices.

  8. Power supply design for the tracker detector of the AMS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Menichelli, M.; Battiston, R.; Bizzarri, M.; Checcucci, B.

    1996-12-31

    The AMS experiment is devoted to the measurement of the antimatter component of cosmic rays in particular the detection of anti-nuclei. The apparatus will operate in space. A preliminary version will fly in 1998 on a Space shuttle mission. The complete system will be installed on the space station Alpha in 2001. The apparatus, in its complete version, will be composed of a magnetic spectrometer based on a microstrip silicon tracker and on a permanent magnet. This instrument will measure the momentum and the magnitude and sign of the charge of the incoming cosmic ray. A time-of-flight detector will be used as a trigger, for up-down rejection and for the measurement of velocity for low-energy particles. A threshold Cherenkov detector will provide further up-down discrimination. An anti-coincidence system, placed on the lateral inner wall of the magnet, will provide suppression of the background due to interaction of primary cosmic rays with the magnet. A transition radiation tracker will identify electrons. This paper describes the power supply system for the tracker detector giving also a short description of the tracker detector electronics to be powered. Results of preliminary tests and studies are also reported.

  9. Nonlinear Plasma Experiments in Geospace with Gigawatts of RF Power at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Rayyan, N.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2014-10-01

    The HAARP phased-array HF transmitter at Gakona, AK delivers up to 3.6 GW (ERP) of HF power in the range of 2.8 - 10 MHz to the ionosphere with millisecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. HAARP's unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of nonlinear plasma experiments in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma including stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), artificial aurora, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and telescopes and cameras for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the plasma line, and suprathermal electrons. Applications are made to the study and control of irregularities affecting spacecraft communication and navigation systems.

  10. Introduction to the Kinetics of Homogeneous Reactions. Hydrolysis of 2,4-Dinitrophenyl Acetate Catalyzed by Imidazole: A Simple Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levashov, Andrey V.; Ryabov, Alexander D.

    1986-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, typical results obtained, and calculations are provided for a short (4-6 hours) kinetic experiment which includes different methods both in performance and in analysis of the results. The experiment can be modified and extended depending on the level of students and the available laboratory time. (JN)

  11. An experience of the introduction of a blood bank automation system (Ortho AutoVue Innova) in a regional acute hospital.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuk Wah; Wilkinson, Jenny M

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of the introduction of a blood bank automation system (Ortho AutoVue(®) Innova) in a hospital blood bank by considering the performance and workflow as compared with manual methods. The turnaround time was found to be 45% faster than the manual method. The concordance rate was found to be 100% for both ABO/Rh(D) typing and antibody screening in both of the systems and there was no significant difference in detection sensitivity for clinically significant antibodies. The Ortho AutoVue(®) Innova automated blood banking system streamlined the routine pre-transfusion testing in hospital blood bank with high throughput, equivalent sensitivity and reliability as compared with conventional manual method. PMID:25863409

  12. Operating experience feedback report -- turbine-generator overspeed protection systems: Commercial power reactors. Volume 11

    SciTech Connect

    Ornstein, H.L.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) review of operating experience of main turbine-generator overspeed and overspeed protection systems. It includes an indepth examination of the turbine overspeed event which occurred on November 9, 1991, at the Salem Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. It also provides information concerning actions taken by other utilities and the turbine manufacturers as a result of the Salem overspeed event. AEOD`s study reviewed operating procedures and plant practices. It noted differences between turbine manufacturer designs and recommendations for operations, maintenance, and testing, and also identified significant variations in the manner that individual plants maintain and test their turbine overspeed protection systems. AEOD`s study provides insight into the shortcomings in the design, operation, maintenance, testing, and human factors associated with turbine overspeed protection systems. Operating experience indicates that the frequency of turbine overspeed events is higher than previously thought and that the bases for demonstrating compliance with NRC`s General Design Criterion (GDC) 4, Environmental and dynamic effects design bases, may be nonconservative with respect to the assumed frequency.

  13. ADX: a high field, high power density, Advanced Divertor test eXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, R.; Labombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, J.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; ADX Team

    2014-10-01

    The MIT PSFC and collaborators are proposing an advanced divertor experiment (ADX) - a tokamak specifically designed to address critical gaps in the world fusion research program on the pathway to FNSF/DEMO. This high field (6.5 tesla, 1.5 MA), high power density (P/S ~ 1.5 MW/m2) facility would utilize Alcator magnet technology to test innovative divertor concepts for next-step DT fusion devices (FNSF, DEMO) at reactor-level boundary plasma pressures and parallel heat flux densities while producing high performance core plasma conditions. The experimental platform would also test advanced lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and ion-cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) actuators and wave physics at the plasma densities and magnetic field strengths of a DEMO, with the unique ability to deploy launcher structures both on the low-magnetic-field side and the high-field side - a location where energetic plasma-material interactions can be controlled and wave physics is most favorable for efficient current drive, heating and flow drive. This innovative experiment would perform plasma science and technology R&D necessary to inform the conceptual development and accelerate the readiness-for-deployment of FNSF/DEMO - in a timely manner, on a cost-effective research platform. Supported by DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  14. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  15. A spreadsheet to construct power curves and clarify the meaning of the word equivalent in evaluating experiments with poultry.

    PubMed

    Pesti, G M; Shim, M Y

    2012-09-01

    Persons conducting research trials often want to be able to declare that treatments, or particularly products, are equivalent (will provide indistinguishable results). However, all research trials can ever provide is the probability that the observed differences in an experiment were due to chance. Also, in trials in which variances are high and there are few replications, it is quite easy to declare no significant differences and equivalency. This paper describes a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet that can be used to easily construct experimental power curves. Such curves predict the proportion of experiments that would yield a given level of significance as the difference between the 2 means increases. The spreadsheet uses the mean and variances from an experiment with the Norm.inv and Rand functions of Excel to simulate outcomes from identical experiments. An experiment that declared GMO and normal feed ingredients to be equivalent was used to illustrate the application of power curves. The experiment had 12 replicate pens of broilers per treatment. The outcomes of 90,000 simulated experiments, each with the same overall variance, but 0 through 8 percent differences in treatment means, were graphed. When the published experiment purported to show equivalence, really it showed that a significant difference in growth (P < 0.05) would be expected to be detected 50% of the time if the means were different by 3.1%; a difference of 4.6% in treatment means could be detected 80% of the time by such an experiment. This Excel spreadsheet enables such a power analysis to be conducted. Easy modifications of the spreadsheet can illustrate the influence of changing the variance or number of replications on the expected power of future experiments. The economic impact of small changes in performance is also discussed. PMID:22912480

  16. Low-cost space fission power systems utilizing US and former Soviet Union experience and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetch, Joseph R.; Britt, Edward J.; Koester, J. Kent; Gunther, N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Nikolaev, Yuri V.; Nikitin, Vladimir

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the author's approach to space power total economics. In the past 40 years of U.S. government sponsored space nuclear power developments, total economics has received only token consideration. In the real world, nuclear power has had limited acceptance where it provided the enabling capability i.e. isotopes for low power, long life, deep space missions, or reactor power for underwater nuclear submarines. It was also accepted where it was perceived to be more economic. Examples are nuclear reactor powered aircraft carriers, escort vessels and central station power stations. In any case, real and perceived public and environmental safety must always be included into the economic equation.

  17. Phase 1 of the First Small Power System Experiment (engineering Experiment No. 1). Volume 4: Commercial System Definition. [development and testing of a solar thermal power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The development and design of a modular solar thermal power system for application in the 1 to 10 MWe range is described. The system is used in remote utility applications, small communities, rural areas, and for industrial uses. The operational reliability, the minimum risk of failure, and the maintenance and repair characteristics are determined and the commercial system design is defined.

  18. A Framework for Successful Research Experiences in the Classroom: Combining the Power of Technology and Mentors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama; Stefanov, William L.; Willis, Kim; Runco, Susan; McCollum, Tim; Lindgren, Charles F.; Baker, Marshalyn; Mailhot, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Authentic research opportunities in the classroom are most impactful when they are student-driven and inquiry-based. These experiences are even more powerful when they involve technology and meaningful connections with scientists. In today's classrooms, activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and state mandated testing. Therefore, programs that incorporate authentic research must address the needs of teachers. NASA's Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program has developed a framework that addresses teacher needs and incorporates the use of technology and access to mentors to promote and enhance authentic research in the classroom. EEAB is a student involvement program that facilitates student investigations of Earth or planetary comparisons using NASA data. To promote student-led research, EEAB provides standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources, an implementation structure to facilitate research, educator professional development, and ongoing support. This framework also provides teachers with the option to incorporate the use of technology and connect students with a mentor, both of which can enrich student research experiences. The framework is structured by a modeled 9-step process of science which helps students organize their research. With more schools gaining increased access to technology, EEAB has created an option to help schools take advantage of students' interest and comfort with technology by leveraging the use of available technologies to enhance student research. The use of technology not only allows students to collaborate and share their research, it also provides a mechanism for them to work with a mentor. This framework was tested during the 2010/2011 school year. Team workspaces hosted on Wikispaces for Educators allow students to initiate their research and refine their research question initially without external input. This allows teams to work independently and rely on the skills and interests of

  19. A Framework for Successful Research Experiences in the Classroom: Combining the Power of Technology and Mentors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K.; Runco, S.; McCollum, T.; Lindgren, C. F.; Baker, M.; Mailhot, M.

    2011-12-01

    Authentic research opportunities in the classroom are most impactful when they are student-driven and inquiry-based. These experiences are even more powerful when they involve technology and meaningful connections with scientists. In today's classrooms, activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and state mandated testing. Therefore, programs that incorporate authentic research must address the needs of teachers. NASA's Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program has developed a framework that addresses teacher needs and incorporates the use of technology and access to mentors to promote and enhance authentic research in the classroom. EEAB is a student involvement program that facilitates student investigations of Earth or planetary comparisons using NASA data. To promote student-led research, EEAB provides standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources, an implementation structure to facilitate research, educator professional development, and ongoing support. This framework also provides teachers with the option to incorporate the use of technology and connect students with a mentor, both of which can enrich student research experiences. The framework is structured by a modeled 9-step process of science which helps students organize their research. With more schools gaining increased access to technology, EEAB has created an option to help schools take advantage of students' interest and comfort with technology by leveraging the use of available technologies to enhance student research. The use of technology not only allows students to collaborate and share their research, it also provides a mechanism for them to work with a mentor. This framework was tested during the 2010/2011 school year. Team workspaces hosted on Wikispaces for Educators allow students to initiate their research and refine their research question initially without external input. This allows teams to work independently and rely on the skills and interests of

  20. RF Power and Magnetic Field Modulation Experiments with Simple Mirror Geometry in the Central Cell of Hanbit Device

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.G.; Bak, J.G.; Jhang, H.G.; Kim, S.S.

    2005-01-15

    The radio frequency (RF) stabilization effects to investigate the characteristics of the interchange instability by RF power and magnetic field modulation experiments were performed near {omega}/{omega}{sub i} {approx} = 1 and with low beta ({approx} 0.1%) plasmas in the central cell of the Hanbit mirror device. Temporal behaviors of the interchange mode were measured and analyzed when the interchange mode was triggered by sudden changes of the RF power and magnetic field intensity.

  1. IBA for novice experimentalists. I. Introduction to IBA: mostly symmetries. II. Tests in even-even nuclei: mostly transitional systems. III. Supersymmetries: theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J.A.

    1982-08-01

    The report contains the notes from a series of lectures on the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) model. The lectures were presented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on July 28, 30 and August 1, 1982 by Jolie A. Cizewski from Yale University. The IBA was developed by F. Iachello and A. Arima starting about seven years ago to understand collective quadrupole excitations in medium and heavy mass nuclei away from closed shells. Since then the formalism has been extended to odd-mass nuclei and considerable work has gone into understanding the microscopic construction of the bosons in this model. The IBA has been applied to nuclei as light as Zn and Ge and as heavy as U and Pu; to nuclei near closed shells, such as Mo and Hg; to stable nuclei and nuclei far from stability. The present lectures were designed to give the experimentalist an introduction to the IBA and to give specific examples of how it could be applied to understand the structure of heavy even and odd mass nuclei. Much of the emphasis was on the symmetries (and supersymmetries) of the model and how the use of symmetries enabled the relatively straightforward understanding of empirical systems as deviations from these symmetries. The richness of possible applications of the IBA to understanding collective phenomena in nuclei was not fully explored, but rather a few illustrative examples were selected and described in detail. The references, accumulated at the end of this report, provide a more comprehensive, although not complete, list of tests of the IBA in even mass nuclei and the new symmetries in odd mass nuclei. The references also list the main theoretical papers which provide the details of the IBA formalism.

  2. Phase 1 of the First Small Power System Experiment (engineering Experiment No. 1). Volume 3: Experimental System Descriptions. [development and testing of a solar thermal power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The design and development of a modular solar thermal power system for application in the 1 to 10 MWe range is described. The system consists of five subsystems: the collector, power conversion, energy transport, energy storage, and the plant control subsystem. The collector subsystem consists of concentrator, receiver, and tower assemblies. The energy transport subsystem uses a mixture of salts with a low melting temperature to transport thermal energy. A steam generator drives a steam Rankine cycle turbine which drives an electrical generator to produce electricity. Thermal and stress analysis tests are performed on each subsystem in order to determine the operational reliability, the minimum risk of failure, and the maintenance and repair characteristics.

  3. A feasibility study on HTS SMES applications for power quality enhancement through both software simulations and hardware-based experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. R.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, S.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.; Seong, K. C.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-11-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) which promises the efficiency of more than 95% and fast response becomes a competitive energy storage device. Because of its advantages, SMES can provide benefit as a power quality enhancement device to an utility especially in connection with renewable energy sources. In this paper, a software simulation and an experiment aiming for power quality enhancement are reported. The utility was referred to Ulleung Island in Korea which had one wind power generation system. The simulation was performed using power system computer aided design/electromagnetic transient including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC) and power-hardware-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS) was implemented to monitor the operational characteristics of SMES when it was connected to utility. This study provides a highly reliable simulation results, and the feasibility of a SMES application is discussed.

  4. Analysis of gamma-ray dosimetry experiments in the zero power MINERVE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Amharrak, H.; Di Salvo, J.; Lyoussi, A.; Roche, A.; Masson-Fauchier, M.; Bosq, J. C.; Carette, M.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop nuclear heating measurement methods in zero power experimental reactors. These developments contribute to the qualification of photonics calculation schemes for the assessment of gamma heating in the future Jules Horowitz Material Testing Reactor. This paper presents the analysis of thermoluminescent detector (TLD) experiments in the UO{sub 2} core of the MINERVE Research Reactor at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission center in Cadarache. The experimental sources of uncertainty in the gamma dose have been reduced by improving the measurement conditions and the repeatability of the calibration step for each individual TLD. The interpretation of these measurements needs to take into account the calculation of cavity correction factors related to calibration and irradiation configurations, as well as neutron correction calculations. These calculations are based on Monte Carlo simulations of neutron-gamma and gamma-electron transport coupled particles. The comparison between calculated and measured integral gamma-ray absorbed doses in the aluminum material surrounding the TLD shows that calculations slightly overestimate the measurement, with a calculated versus experimental ratio equal to 1.04 {+-} 5.7 % (k=2). (authors)

  5. Survey of Field Programmable Gate Array Design Guides and Experience Relevant to Nuclear Power Plant Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrek, Miljko; Bouldin, Don; Holcomb, David Eugene; Killough, Stephen M; Smith, Stephen Fulton; Ward, Christina D

    2007-09-01

    From a safety perspective, it is difficult to assess the correctness of FPGA devices without extensive documentation, tools, and review procedures. NUREG/CR-6463, "Review Guidelines on Software Languages for Use in Nuclear Power Plant Safety Systems," provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on auditing of programs for safety systems written in ten high-level languages. A uniform framework for the formulation and discussion of language-specific programming guidelines was employed. Comparable guidelines based on a similar framework are needed for FPGA-based systems. The first task involves evaluation of regulatory experience gained by other countries and other agencies, and those captured in existing standards, to identify regulatory approaches that can be adopted by NRC. If existing regulations do not provide a sufficient regulatory basis for adopting relevant regulatory approaches that are uncovered, ORNL will identify the gaps. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented.

  6. PASP, a high voltage array/plasma interaction experiment. [Photovoltaic Array Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Dale R.

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses the photovoltaic array space power (PASP) experiment, which is designed to obtain data on the interaction between high-voltage photovoltaic arrays and the polar, low-earth plasma environment. Up to six small test arrays (three each of planar and concentrator designs) can be voltage biased over a range of +/- 500 V. During the bias voltage sequence, the array current leakage is measured and array arc events are monitored. If any arcing occurs the arc characteristics will be measured by a transient pulse monitor. An emitter is included to allow voltage bias to be applied to a plasma-charged or uncharged spacecraft. Similarly, the frames of the concentrator arrays can be left floating or can be tied to the negative array terminal. An environmental data scan is made before each bias voltage sequence. This scan collects information on the plasma, array-current-versus-voltage curves, and neutral particle partial pressure. The requirement for high voltages created problems which were met by circuit isolation and logical fault protection.

  7. Phenylnaphthalene as a Heat Transfer Fluid for Concentrating Solar Power: High-Temperature Static Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Jason R; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; McFarlane, Joanna; Qualls, A L

    2012-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) may be an alternative to generating electricity from fossil fuels; however, greater thermodynamic efficiency is needed to improve the economics of CSP operation. One way of achieving improved efficiency is to operate the CSP loop at higher temperatures than the current maximum of about 400 C. ORNL has been investigating a synthetic polyaromatic oil for use in a trough type CSP collector, to temperatures up to 500 C. The oil was chosen because of its thermal stability and calculated low vapor and critical pressures. The oil has been synthesized using a Suzuki coupling mechanism and has been tested in static heating experiments. Analysis has been conducted on the oil after heating and suggests that there may be some isomerization taking place at 450 C, but the fluid appears to remain stable above that temperature. Tests were conducted over one week and further tests are planned to investigate stabilities after heating for months and in flow configurations. Thermochemical data and thermophysical predictions indicate that substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons may be useful for applications that run at higher temperatures than possible with commercial fluids such as Therminol-VP1.

  8. PASP Plus: An experiment to measure space-environment effects on photovoltaic power subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidice, Donald A.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostic experiment (PASP Plus) was accepted as part of the APEX Mission payload aboard a Pegastar satellite to be orbited by a Pegasus launch vehicle in late 1992. The mission's elliptical orbit will allow us to investigate both space plasma and space radiation effects. PASP Plus will have eleven types of solar arrays and a full complement of environmental and interactions diagnostic sensors. Measurements of space-plasma interactions on the various solar arrays will be made at large negative voltages (to investigate arcing parameters) and at large positive voltages (to investigate leakage currents) by biasing the arrays to various levels up to -500 and +500 volts. The long-term deterioration in solar array performance caused by exposure to space radiation will also be investigated; radiation dosage will be measured by an electron/proton dosimeter included in the environmental sensor complement. Experimental results from PASP Plus will help establish cause-and-effect relationships and lead to improved design guidelines and test standards for new-technology solar arrays.

  9. Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment

    PubMed Central

    Yoeli, Erez; Hoffman, Moshe; Rand, David G.; Nowak, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    A defining aspect of human cooperation is the use of sophisticated indirect reciprocity. We observe others, talk about others, and act accordingly. We help those who help others, and we cooperate expecting that others will cooperate in return. Indirect reciprocity is based on reputation, which spreads by communication. A crucial aspect of indirect reciprocity is observability: reputation effects can support cooperation as long as peoples’ actions can be observed by others. In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, natural selection favors cooperation when observability is sufficiently high. Complimenting this theoretical work are experiments where observability promotes cooperation among small groups playing games in the laboratory. Until now, however, there has been little evidence of observability’s power to promote large-scale cooperation in real world settings. Here we provide such evidence using a field study involving 2413 subjects. We collaborated with a utility company to study participation in a program designed to prevent blackouts. We show that observability triples participation in this public goods game. The effect is over four times larger than offering a $25 monetary incentive, the company’s previous policy. Furthermore, as predicted by indirect reciprocity, we provide evidence that reputational concerns are driving our observability effect. In sum, we show how indirect reciprocity can be harnessed to increase cooperation in a relevant, real-world public goods game. PMID:23754399

  10. Nano-mineralogical investigation of coal and fly ashes from coal-based captive power plant (India): an introduction of occupational health hazards.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos L S; Marostega, Fabiane; Taffarel, Silvio R; Saikia, Binoy K; Waanders, Frans B; DaBoit, Kátia; Baruah, Bimala P; Silva, Luis F O

    2014-01-15

    Coal derived nano-particles has been received much concern recently around the world for their adverse effects on human health and the environment during their utilization. In this investigation the mineral matter present in some industrially important Indian coals and their ash samples are addressed. Coal and fly ash samples from the coal-based captive power plant in Meghalaya (India) were collected for different characterization and nano-mineralogy studies. An integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to know their extent of risks to the human health when present in coal and fly ash. The study has revealed that the coals contain mainly clay minerals, whilst glass fragments, spinel, quartz, and other minerals in lesser quantities were found to be present in the coal fly ash. Fly ash carbons were present as chars. Indian coal fly ash also found to contain nanominerals and ultrafine particles. The coal-fired power plants are observed to be the largest anthropogenic source of Hg emitted to the atmosphere and expected to increase its production in near future years. The Multi Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNTs) are detected in our fly ashes, which contains residual carbonaceous matter responsible for the Hg capture/encapsulation. This detailed investigation on the inter-relationship between the minerals present in the samples and their ash components will also be useful for fulfilling the clean coal technology principles. PMID:24121564

  11. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, William J.

    Coincidentally, as I sat down in late October 2003 to read and review the second edition of Wallace H. Campbell's text, Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields, we received warnings from the news media of a massive solar flare and its possible effect on power supply systems and satellite communications. News programs briefly explained the source of Sun-Earth interactions. If you are interested in learning more about the physics of the connection between sun spots and power supply systems and their impact on orbiting satellites, I urge you to become acquainted with Campbell's book. It presents an interesting and informative explanation of the geomagnetic field and its applications to a wide variety of topics, including oil exploration, climate change, and fraudulent claims of the utility of magnetic fields for alleviating human pain. Geomagnetism, the study of the nature and processes of the Earth's magnetic fields and its application to the investigation of the Earth, its processes, and history, is a mature science with a well-developed theoretical foundation and a vast array of observations. It is discussed in varied detail in Earth physics books and most entry-level geoscience texts. The latter treatments largely are driven by the need to discuss paleomagnetism as an essential tool in studying plate tectonics. A more thorough explanation of geomagnetism is needed by many interested scientists in related fields and by laypersons. This is the objective of Campbell's book. It is particularly germane in view of a broad range of geomagnetic topics that are at the forefront of today's science, including environmental magnetism, so-called ``jerks'' observed in the Earth's magnetic field, the perplexing magnetic field of Mars, improved satellite magnetic field observations, and the increasing availability of high-quality continental magnetic anomaly maps, to name only a few.

  12. Battery-powered pulsed high density inductively coupled plasma source for pre-ionization in laboratory astrophysics experiments.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Vernon H; Bellan, Paul M

    2015-07-01

    An electrically floating radiofrequency (RF) pre-ionization plasma source has been developed to enable neutral gas breakdown at lower pressures and to access new experimental regimes in the Caltech laboratory astrophysics experiments. The source uses a customized 13.56 MHz class D RF power amplifier that is powered by AA batteries, allowing it to safely float at 3-6 kV with the electrodes of the high voltage pulsed power experiments. The amplifier, which is capable of 3 kW output power in pulsed (<1 ms) operation, couples electrical energy to the plasma through an antenna external to the 1.1 cm radius discharge tube. By comparing the predictions of a global equilibrium discharge model with the measured scalings of plasma density with RF power input and axial magnetic field strength, we demonstrate that inductive coupling (rather than capacitive coupling or wave damping) is the dominant energy transfer mechanism. Peak ion densities exceeding 5 × 10(19) m(-3) in argon gas at 30 mTorr have been achieved with and without a background field. Installation of the pre-ionization source on a magnetohydrodynamically driven jet experiment reduced the breakdown time and jitter and allowed for the creation of hotter, faster argon plasma jets than was previously possible. PMID:26233382

  13. Design and experiment on a multi-functioned and programmable piezoelectric ceramic power supply with high precision for speckle interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Biao; Ye, Yan; Wang, Yong-hong; Yang, En-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Speckle interferometry is a method of measuring structure's tiny deformations which requires accurate phase information of interference fringes. The phase information is acquired by micro-displacement produced by piezoelectric ceramic (PZT). In order to drive the PZT micro-displacement actuator, a multi-functioned and programmable PZT power supply with high precision is designed. Calibration experiment has been done to the PZT micro-actuator in speckle interferometry. Some experiments were also done to test its relevant characteristics. The experiment results show that it has high linearity, repeatability, stability, low ripple and can meet the requirement of the reliability and displacement accuracy in speckle interferometry.

  14. High-performance nonequilibrium-plasma magnetohydrodynamic electrical power generator using slightly divergent channel configuration: II. Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro

    2008-06-01

    We describe experiments carried out to evaluate a newly developed high-performance nonequilibrium-plasma magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generator equipped with a slightly divergent supersonic channel. The slightly divergent generator and a similar-scale highly divergent generator are evaluated in shock-tube experiments. The effects of electrical conductivity control and magnetic flux density control on the generator operation are investigated, and Hall voltage-Hall current characteristics, plasma-fluid behaviour and plasma structures are described. The slightly divergent channel configuration and the application of high- and uniform-density magnetic flux overcome the disadvantages of the generator due to its compactness, and markedly improves its performance. The ratio of isentropic efficiency to enthalpy extraction ratio and the power output density are outstanding compared with previous MHD power generators. The experimental results are supported by the numerically simulated results. This paper is the second part of a duology.

  15. Electron-beam and high-speed optical diagnostics for the average power laser experiment (APLE) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, Alex H.; McVey, Brian D.; Greegor, Robert B.; Dowell, David H.

    1992-07-01

    The average power laser experiment (APLE) program is a collaboration between Boeing Aerospace and Electronics Company and Los Alamos National Laboratory to build a free-electron laser (FEL) operating at a wavelength of 10 μm and an average power of 100 kW. This program includes demonstration experiments at Boeing on the injector and at Los Alamos on a single accelerator master oscillator power amplifier (SAMOPA). In response to simulations of the expected electron beam properties, diagnostic plans have been developed for the low duty factor and the 25% duty factor operations of APLE. Preliminary evaluations of diagnostics based on information conversion to visible or near-infrared light (optical-transition radiation, Cherenkov radiation, synchrotron radiation, and spontaneous-emission radiation) or electrical signals (striplines, toroids, flying wires, etc.) are addressed.

  16. The origin of tablet boudinage: Results from experiments using power-law rock analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulauf, J.; Zulauf, G.; Kraus, R.; Gutiérrez-Alonso, G.; Zanella, F.

    2011-10-01

    We used power-law viscous plasticine ( n = ca. 7) as a rock analog to simulate boudinage of rocks undergoing dislocation creep and brittle fracture. A competent plasticine layer, oriented perpendicular to the main shortening direction, Z, underwent bulk pure flattening inside a less competent plasticine matrix. Computer tomographic analyses of the deformed samples revealed that boudinage results from an initial phase of viscous necking followed by tensile failure along the previously formed necks. The resulting boudins display a polygonal shape in plan-view and are referred to as 'tablet boudins' (in contrast to the square to rectangular shaped chocolate-tablet boudins). The ratio between the plan-view long and short axis, R, ranges from 1.2 to 2.6. The polygonal, non-isometric shape of the tablet boudins can be explained by the strong interaction of concentric and radial tensile fractures. With increasing layer thickness, Hi, the mean diameter of the boudin tablets, Wa, increases, while the number of boudins, N, decreases. Progressive finite strain results in a higher number of the boudins and a smaller mean diameter. The thickness of the boudins, Hf, is almost the same as the initial layer thickness, Hi, while the aspect ratio ( Wd = Wa / Hf) decreases with layer thickness and finite strain. The mean Wd values obtained from all experiments span from ca. 4 to ca. 11. Tablet boudins, described in the present paper, have yet not been described from natural outcrops. The reasons might be that pure flattening strain is not common in nature, and the characterization and evaluation of tablet boudins requires geometrical analysis in three dimensions, which is a difficult task when such structures occur in nature.

  17. Introduction to an introduction to holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterseher, Fred D.; Deem, Rebecca E.

    1995-02-01

    A preliminary introduction to holography geared towards artists and the general public is discussed. The method is based on a participatory approach that relates holography to psychology/perception, science/physics, and art/imaging. The overall intention is designed to break down unconscious assumptions.

  18. [Paradigm shift of German medicine by introduction of nurse practicioners. Does it make sense in view of experience in the United Kingdom?].

    PubMed

    Seligmann, C; Kusus-Seligmann, M

    2012-06-01

    Germany wants to introduce some models to allow nurses to work in medical roles. Although hospital nurses worked hard during the last couple of years to concentrate on pure patient care and to detach themselves from medicine, a short additional training of 6-12 months duration is planned to allow them to work independently in well defined areas of medicine (high blood pressure, wound care, dementia, diabetes). However, success of such models has only been tested in a few studies. Study results and experience with such models in the UK - where these developments are much more advanced - are not only positive. Generally, work of nurses in medical roles does not make patient care less expensive and doctor´s work less onerous. The benefit lies more in an add-on effect to doctor´s care. Therefore, a close scientific surveillance of such models must be guaranteed and results must be considered without any kind of ideology. PMID:22644495

  19. Use of TRIPOLI-4.3 lattice tally to investigate assembly power and pin power maps of PWR critical lattices experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y. K.

    2006-07-01

    Power distribution calculation is a very important task for fuel assembly design and whole core safety analysis. In Monte Carlo power map calculation, both lattice geometry and lattice tally functions are essential. The lattice geometry features of TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code have been reported in previous studies. Lattice tally functions of TRIPOLI-4.3 can be used to tally on some or all cells in a fuel pin lattice and to tally on a fuel assembly lattice with pin-by-pin modeling. In order to study the power maps in pin-by-pin level and in assembly-by-assembly level, this paper using lattice tally of TRIPOLI-4.3 code interprets three PWR critical lattice experiments from LEU-COMP-THERM-008 benchmark. The calculated K{sub eff} and relative assembly power maps in a 3 x 3 symmetry configuration have been investigated. The measured relative pin power distributions of 1/8 central assembly with different effects of lattice heterogeneity have been benchmarked against calculated ones. (authors)

  20. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods. PMID:24272434

  1. Power Doppler imaging: clinical experience and correlation with color Doppler US and other imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Hamper, U M; DeJong, M R; Caskey, C I; Sheth, S

    1997-01-01

    Power Doppler imaging has recently gained attention as an additional color flow imaging technique that overcomes some of the limitations of conventional color Doppler ultrasound (US). Limitations of conventional color Doppler US include angle dependence, aliasing, and difficulty in separating background noise from true flow in slow-flow states. Owing to its increased sensitivity to flow, power Doppler sonography is valuable in low-flow states and when optimal Doppler angles cannot be obtained. Longer segments of vessels and more individual vessels can be visualized with power Doppler US than with conventional color Doppler sonography. Power Doppler sonography increases diagnostic confidence when verifying or excluding testicular or ovarian torsion and confirming thrombosis or occlusion of vessels. Power Doppler sonography also improves evaluation of parenchymal flow and decreases examination times in technically challenging cases. Power Doppler US is a useful adjunct to mean-frequency color Doppler sonography, especially when color Doppler US cannot adequately obtain or display diagnostic information. PMID:9084086

  2. Gender power control, sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors among young Asian-American women.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population. PMID:21259042

  3. Early operating and reliability experience with the CEBAF DC magnet power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, W.; Flood, R.; Martin, E.J.; O'Sullivan, M.

    1996-08-01

    The CEBAF accelerator is a five pass, recirculating, CW electron linear accelerator. There are a total of nine recirculation arcs connecting the two linacs. Three experimental halls are serviced by the accelerator through separate transport channels. The magnet powering system for CEBAF consists of approximately 2000 independent control channels. About 1850 of these channels are low current, trim magnet power supplies. There are 28 higher power supplies used to energize the major bending elements. Over one hundred, 20 amp, active shunts are used to vary current in selected magnets in the major dipole strings. The majority of the magnetic elements are concentrated in the arcs and transport channels. The correction dipoles, quadrupoles and sextupoles are each powered individually be a dedicated trim power supply channel. The arc and extraction channel dipoles are powered in series strings by the high powered supplies, known locally at CEBAF as `box power supplies'. Arc loads consist of some 30--40 magnets in series. Transport channel, path length control doglegs and septa box power supplies have loads ranging from 1 to 10 magnets. Shunts are installed on virtually all loads where two or more magnets are in series. At this time, 95% of the power supplies are installed and commissioned. In the past twelve months, beginning in May 1994, approximately 1200 trim magnet power supplies have been checked out. During this same period approximately 22 box power supplies and 100 shunts have been made operational. Full operation of the equipment has only been under way since early 1995. While this operation is only just beginning, much has been learned based on the reliability performance seen so far. The remainder of this paper describes the systems mentioned, their reliability problems, the fixes implemented to date, and some plans for the future. 6 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Early operating and reliability experience with the CEBAF DC magnet power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, W.; Flood, R.; Martin, E.J.; O`Sullivan, M.

    1996-08-01

    The CEBAF accelerator is a five pass, recirculating, CW electron linear accelerator. There are a total of nine recirculation arcs connecting the two linacs. Three experimental halls are serviced by the accelerator through separate transport channels. The magnet powering system for CEBAF consists of approximately 2000 independent control channels. About 1850 of these channels are low current, trim magnet power supplies. There are 28 higher power supplies used to energize the major bending elements. Over one hundred, 20 amp, active shunts are used to vary current in selected magnets in the major dipole strings. The majority of the magnetic elements are concentrated in the arcs and transport channels. The correction dipoles, quadrupoles and sextupoles are each powered individually be a dedicated trim power supply channel. The arc and extraction channel dipoles are powered in series strings by the high powered supplies, known locally at CEBAF as ``box power supplies``. Arc loads consist of some 30-40 magnets in series. Transport channel, path length control doglegs and septa box power supplies have loads ranging from 1 to 10 magnets. Shunts are installed on virtually all loads where two or more magnets are in series. At this time, 95{percent} of the power supplies are installed and commissioned. In the past twelve months, beginning in May 1994, approximately 1200 trim magnet power supplies have been checked out. During this same period approximately 22 box power supplies and 100 shunts have been made operational. Full operation of the equipment has only been under way since early 1995. While this operation is only just beginning, much has been learned based on the reliability performance seen so far. The remainder of this paper describes the systems mentioned, their reliability problems, the fixes implemented to date, and some plans for the future. 6 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Geoenvironment: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boadu, Fred Kofi

    Geoenvironment: An Introduction looks at the geoenvironment not only from an environmental point of view but also in relation to social and economic factors and the perspective of human life. It is very important that global environment issues be looked at from socioeconomic and to some extent political points of view.The book is written in a way that nonhydrogeologists, nonenvironmental scientists and nonenvironmental engineers can understand the geoenvironment and its impact on human health and life. Theoretical concepts are kept to a minimum while the book conceptually links global contamination of the environment with human health. Based on his longtime experience with the United Nations on health issues, the author makes good efforts in treating the environment from the point of view of the individual's country. This is very desirable since different countries have different environmental policies and regulations as well as socioeconomic conditions. Rules and regulations in effect in developed countries may not be in effect in some third world nations.

  6. Introduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) - multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research and capacity building initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, M.; Lappalainen, H. K.; Petäjä, T.; Kurten, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Viisanen, Y.; Hari, P.; Bondur, V.; Kasimov, N.; Kotlyakov, V.; Matvienko, G.; Baklanov, A.; Guo, H. D.; Ding, A.; Hansson, H.-C.; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2015-08-01

    The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research, research infrastructure and capacity building program. PEEX has originated from a bottom-up approach by the science communities, and is aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in Earth System Science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions, as well as China. The vision of PEEX is to solve interlinked global grand challenges influencing human well-being and societies in northern Eurasia and China. Such challenges include climate change, air quality, biodiversity loss, urbanization, chemicalization, food and fresh water availability, energy production and use of natural resources by mining, industry, energy production and transport sectors. Our approach is integrative and supra-disciplinary, recognizing the important role of the Arctic and boreal ecosystems in the Earth system. The PEEX vision includes establishing and maintaining long-term, coherent and coordinated research activities as well as continuous, comprehensive research and educational infrastructures and related capacity building across the PEEX domain. In this paper we present the PEEX structure, summarize its motivation, objectives and future outlook.

  7. Educational Experiences in Oceanography through Hands-On Involvement with Surface Drifters: an Introduction to Ocean Currents, Engineering, Data Collection, and Computer Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Northeast Fisheries Science Center's (NEFSC) Student Drifters Program is providing education opportunities for students of all ages. Using GPS-tracked ocean drifters, various educational institutions can provide students with hands-on experience in physical oceanography, engineering, and computer science. In building drifters many high school and undergraduate students may focus on drifter construction, sometimes designing their own drifter or attempting to improve current NEFSC models. While learning basic oceanography younger students can build drifters with the help of an educator and directions available on the studentdrifters.org website. Once drifters are deployed, often by a local mariner or oceanographic partner, drifter tracks can be visualised on maps provided at http://nefsc.noaa.gov/drifter. With the lesson plans available for those interested in computer science, students may download, process, and plot the drifter position data with basic Python code provided. Drifter tracks help students to visualize ocean currents, and also allow them to understand real particle tracking applications such as in search and rescue, oil spill dispersion, larval transport, and the movement of injured sea animals. Additionally, ocean circulation modelers can use student drifter paths to validate their models. The Student Drifters Program has worked with over 100 schools, several of them having deployed drifters on the West Coast. Funding for the program often comes from individual schools and small grants but in the future will preferably come from larger government grants. NSF, Sea-Grant, NOAA, and EPA are all possible sources of funding, especially with the support of multiple schools and large marine education associations. The Student Drifters Program is a unique resource for educators, students, and scientists alike.

  8. Numerical Predictions of Wind Turbine Power and Aerodynamic Loads for the NREL Phase II and IV Combined Experiment Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duque, Earl P. N.; Johnson, Wayne; vanDam, C. P.; Chao, David D.; Cortes, Regina; Yee, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Accurate, reliable and robust numerical predictions of wind turbine rotor power remain a challenge to the wind energy industry. The literature reports various methods that compare predictions to experiments. The methods vary from Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM), Vortex Lattice (VL), to variants of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS). The BEM and VL methods consistently show discrepancies in predicting rotor power at higher wind speeds mainly due to inadequacies with inboard stall and stall delay models. The RaNS methodologies show promise in predicting blade stall. However, inaccurate rotor vortex wake convection, boundary layer turbulence modeling and grid resolution has limited their accuracy. In addition, the inherently unsteady stalled flow conditions become computationally expensive for even the best endowed research labs. Although numerical power predictions have been compared to experiment. The availability of good wind turbine data sufficient for code validation experimental data that has been extracted from the IEA Annex XIV download site for the NREL Combined Experiment phase II and phase IV rotor. In addition, the comparisons will show data that has been further reduced into steady wind and zero yaw conditions suitable for comparisons to "steady wind" rotor power predictions. In summary, the paper will present and discuss the capabilities and limitations of the three numerical methods and make available a database of experimental data suitable to help other numerical methods practitioners validate their own work.

  9. "Power, Regulation and Physically Active Identities": The Experiences of Rural and Regional Living Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, M.; Mooney, A.; Smyth, J.; Payne, W.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on interpretations of Foucault's techniques of power, we explored the discourses and power relations operative between groups of girls that appeared to influence their participation in Physical Education (PE) and outside of school in sport and physical activity (PA) in rural and regional communities. Interviews and focus groups were…

  10. Student Attitudes toward Nuclear Power Plants: A Classroom Experiment in the Field of Environmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Hans; And Others

    1977-01-01

    As part of a senior high school physics unit on nuclear power, changes in student attitudes toward nuclear power plants and problems of energy supply were analyzed. Tests included a situational test, semantic differentials, knowledge or achievement, and a final questionnaire. The results are discussed. (CTM)

  11. Microwave heating power distribution in electron-cyclotron resonance processing plasmas, experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, S.R.; Eddy, C. Jr.; Lampe, M.; Joyce, G.; Slinker, S.; Weber, B.V.

    1995-12-31

    The authors are currently investigating the mechanisms of microwave power absorption in an ECR plasma. The microwave electric field is detected with an antenna at the end of a shielded co-ax cable, connected to a bolometer for power measurements. Initial measurements have been 1-D along the axis of the plasma chamber. Later, 3-D profiles will be made of the microwave heating power distribution. A comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical microwave absorption are presented. A ray tracing analysis of the propagating right hand wave are given, including both collisional and collisionless absorption. Mode conversion effects are studied to explain why most of the power is absorbed at the entry window, especially the L wave power.

  12. Alkali deposits found in biomass boilers: The behavior of inorganic material in biomass-fired power boilers -- Field and laboratory experiences. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.; Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Jenkins, B.M.; Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A.; Bryers, R.W.; Oden, L.L.

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the major findings of the Alkali Deposits Investigation, a collaborative effort to understand the causes of unmanageable ash deposits in biomass-fired electric power boilers. Volume 1 of this report provide an overview of the project, with selected highlights. This volume provides more detail and discussion of the data and implications. This document includes six sections. The first, the introduction, provides the motivation, context, and focus for the investigation. The remaining sections discuss fuel properties, bench-scale combustion tests, a framework for considering ash deposition processes, pilot-scale tests of biomass fuels, and field tests in commercially operating biomass power generation stations. Detailed chemical analyses of eleven biomass fuels representing a broad cross-section of commercially available fuels reveal their properties that relate to ash deposition tendencies. The fuels fall into three broad categories: (1) straws and grasses (herbaceous materials); (2) pits, shells, hulls and other agricultural byproducts of a generally ligneous nature; and (3) woods and waste fuels of commercial interest. This report presents a systematic and reasonably detailed analysis of fuel property, operating condition, and boiler design issues that dictate ash deposit formation and property development. The span of investigations from bench-top experiments to commercial operation and observations including both practical illustrations and theoretical background provide a self-consistent and reasonably robust basis to understand the qualitative nature of ash deposit formation in biomass boilers. While there remain many quantitative details to be pursued, this project encapsulates essentially all of the conceptual aspects of the issue. It provides a basis for understanding and potentially resolving the technical and environmental issues associated with ash deposition during biomass combustion. 81 refs., 124 figs., 76 tabs.

  13. Operation of Direct Drive Systems: Experiments in Peak Power Tracking and Multi-Thruster Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Brophy, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Direct-drive power and propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce the mass of high-power solar electric propulsion spacecraft, among other advantages. Recent experimental direct-drive work has significantly mitigated or retired the technical risks associated with single-thruster operation, so attention is now moving toward systems-level areas of interest. One of those areas is the use of a Hall thruster system as a peak power tracker to fully use the available power from a solar array. A simple and elegant control based on the incremental conductance method, enhanced by combining it with the unique properties of Hall thruster systems, is derived here and it is shown to track peak solar array power very well. Another area of interest is multi-thruster operation and control. Dualthruster operation was investigated in a parallel electrical configuration, with both thrusters operating from discharge power provided by a single solar array. Startup and shutdown sequences are discussed, and it is shown that multi-thruster operation and control is as simple as for a single thruster. Some system architectures require operation of multiple cathodes while they are electrically connected together. Four different methods to control the discharge current emitted by individual cathodes in this configuration are investigated, with cathode flow rate control appearing to be advantageous. Dual-parallel thruster operation with equal cathode current sharing at total powers up to 10 kW is presented.

  14. Design and operating experience of a 40 MW, highly-stabilized power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Boenig, H.J.; Ferner, J.A.; Bogdan, F.; Morris, G.C.; Rumrill, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    Four 10 MW, highly-stabilized power supply modules have been installed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL, to energize water-cooled, resistive, high-field research magnets. The power supply modules achieve a long term current stability if 10 ppM over a 12 h period with a short term ripple and noise variation of <10 ppM over a time period of one cycle. The power supply modules can operate independently, feeding four separate magnets, or two, three or four modules can operate in parallel. Each power supply module consists of a 12.5 kV vacuum circuit breaker, two three-winding, step-down transformers, a 24-pulse rectifier with interphase reactors, and a passive and an active filter. Two different transformer tap settings allow rated dc supply output voltages of 400 and 500 V. The rated current of a supply module is 17 kA and each supply module has a one-hour overload capability of 20 kA. The isolated output terminals of each power supply module are connected to a reversing switch. An extensive high-current bus system allows the modules to be connected to 16 magnet cells. This paper presents the detailed design of the power supply components. Various test results taken during the commissioning phase with a 10 MW resistive load and results taken with the research magnets are shown. The effects of the modules on the electrical supply system and the operational behavior of the power factor correction/harmonic filters are described. Included also are results of a power supply module feeding a superconducting magnet during quench propagation tests. Problems with the power supply design and solutions are presented. Some suggestions on how to improve the performance of these supplies are outlined.

  15. Perihelion Power Constraint and Wheel-Off-Loading Impact on BepiColombo's Relativity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Anja Katharina; Jehn, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the consequences of the Perihelion Power Constraint (PPC) are presented along with the impact of the Momentum Wheel-Off-loading (WOL) events on the estimation precision of the post-Newtonian parameters (PNP). This analysis will provide an estimate of the outcome of the relativity experiment in the framework of the joint mission between ESA and JAXA, named BepiColombo. The Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), one of the two scientific elements of the composite spacecraft, aims to verify Einstein's theory of General Relativity plus alternative theories of gravitation to an unprecedented degree of accuracy [1]. The PPC describes the switch-off of the Ka-transponder when Mercury is ±35° around perihelion [2]. This causes a decrease in the quality of radiometric measurements. The implemented PPC distinguishes between different geometries such as inferior and superior constellations. Moreover, it differentiates between the case in which Mercury is close to superior solar conjunction (SSC) while being around perihelion and the one of only being in SSC. Our treatment has the essential effect that the standard deviation of range and doppler measurements is increased in the perihelion region by up to 1.83 ṡ 10‑5 km/s (doppler noise). There is no clear trend to be seen in the resulting PNP uncertainties. For instance, the value of the estimation bias of the PNP γ of 8.232 ṡ 10‑6 is almost by factor two larger than in the case when the PPC is not activated (4.243 ṡ 10‑6). But applying the PPC to the back-up trajectory this trend is not confirmed, since the reverse is true for the γ uncertainty σ(γPPC) < σ(γref). However, the order of magnitude is comparable to the results obtained by Schettino [3], that is 1.04 ṡ 10‑6. The influence of the WOL frequency of about 12 hours compared to about 24 hours is investigated. Wheel off-loadings are implemented in the software by increasing the diagonal values of the covariance matrix that correspond to

  16. Navigation Flight Test Results from the Low Power Transceiver Communications and Navigation Demonstration on Shuttle (CANDOS) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Lin; Massey, Christopher; Baraban, Dmitri

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation results from the Communications and Navigation Demonstration on Shuttle (CANDOS) experiment flown on STS-107. This experiment was the initial flight of a Low Power Transceiver (LPT) that featured high capacity space- space and space-ground communications and GPS- based navigation capabilities. The LPT also hosted the GPS Enhanced Orbit Determination Experiment (GEODE) orbit determination software. All CANDOS test data were recovered during the mission using LPT communications links via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). An overview of the LPT s navigation software and the GPS experiment timeline is presented, along with comparisons of test results to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) real-time ground navigation vectors and Best Estimate of Trajectory (BET).

  17. Constraining Polarized Foregrounds for EoR Experiments I: 2D Power Spectra from the PAPER-32 Imaging Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, S. A.; Aguirre, J. E.; Nunhokee, C. D.; Bernardi, G.; Pober, J. C.; Ali, Z. S.; Bradley, R. F.; Carilli, C. L.; DeBoer, D. R.; Gugliucci, N. E.; Jacobs, D. C.; Klima, P.; MacMahon, D. H. E.; Manley, J. R.; Moore, D. F.; Parsons, A. R.; Stefan, I. I.; Walbrugh, W. P.

    2016-06-01

    Current generation low-frequency interferometers constructed with the objective of detecting the high-redshift 21 cm background aim to generate power spectra of the brightness temperature contrast of neutral hydrogen in primordial intergalactic medium. Two-dimensional (2D) power spectra (power in Fourier modes parallel and perpendicular to the line of sight) that formed from interferometric visibilities have been shown to delineate a boundary between spectrally smooth foregrounds (known as the wedge) and spectrally structured 21 cm background emission (the EoR window). However, polarized foregrounds are known to possess spectral structure due to Faraday rotation, which can leak into the EoR window. In this work we create and analyze 2D power spectra from the PAPER-32 imaging array in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. These allow us to observe and diagnose systematic effects in our calibration at high signal-to-noise within the Fourier space most relevant to EoR experiments. We observe well-defined windows in the Stokes visibilities, with Stokes Q, U, and V power spectra sharing a similar wedge shape to that seen in Stokes I. With modest polarization calibration, we see no evidence that polarization calibration errors move power outside the wedge in any Stokes visibility to the noise levels attained. Deeper integrations will be required to confirm that this behavior persists to the depth required for EoR detection.

  18. Key points of condenser refurbishment illustrated by our experience on Russian technology nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Somville, C.

    1998-07-01

    In 1990, the refurbishment of the condensers of the VVER 440 MW LOVIISA 2 Finnish power station was the first reference of GEC ALSTHOM Delas on a Russian type nuclear power station, covering the optimization studies, technical and-economical choices, manufacture and site operations. The current contract for the condenser renovation of the 4 units of the VVER 440 MW PAKS Hungarian power station goes even further through an investment of this company in a local manufacturing installation and a significant participation of the local industry. Their expertise has helped reducing site operation times from 28 days for one condenser of one Loviisa unit, to 26 days for two condensers of one Paks unit. This paper describes the various aspects and the improvements brought for both operations and highlights the technical and economical key advantages of a condenser renovation (quick return on investment, better performances, reliability and life extension of the power station).

  19. Early utility experience with wind power generation. Volume 2. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Solano County project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, T.; Henry, G.; Tennis, M.; Goldenblatt, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report is one of three presenting the results of EPRI Research Project 1590-1, Evaluation of Electric Utility Experience with Wind Power Generation. The objective of this project was to develop an improved understanding of wind power generation, in particular the process a utility must undergo to initiate and carry out a wind turbine project. The primary tasks of RP1590-1 were to document and evaluate the experience of two utilities with megawatt-scale wind turbine installations from project inception to the wind turbine's first rotation. This technical report presents the experiences of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) with its wind turbine installation at Solano County, California. All documents and reports pertaining to PG and E's experience with wind energy at Solano County were reviewed and excerpts made of the highlights. Gaps in the documentation were filled by talking with appropriate people. Site visits were conducted to monitor current activity. The information obtained was evaluated for its generic relevance and benefit to other utilities. The chronology of steps taken by PG and E in implementing the Solano wind turbine experience and some of the lessons learned are included in the report. In each section, important activities, critical assumptions, and interesting insights which might benefit other utility wind programs are identified.

  20. Nuclear Power from Fission Reactors. An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Technical Information Center.

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide a basic understanding of nuclear fission energy and different fission reaction concepts. Topics discussed are: energy use and production, current uses of fuels, oil and gas consumption, alternative energy sources, fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants, boiling water and pressurized water reactors, the light…

  1. Closed cycle MHD power generation experiments using a helium-cesium working fluid in the NASA Lewis Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The MHD channel in the NASA Lewis Research Center was redesigned and used in closed cycle power generation experiments with a helium-cesium working fluid. The cross sectional dimensions of the channel were reduced to 5 by 16.5 cm to allow operation over a variety of conditions. Experiments have been run at temperatures of 1900-2100 K and Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.55 in argon and 0.2 in helium. Improvements in Hall voltage isolation and seed vaporization techniques have resulted in significant improvements in performance. Typical values obtained with helium are Faraday open circuit voltage 141 V (92% of uBh) at a magnetic field strength of 1.7 T, power outputs of 2.2 kw for tests with 28 electrodes and 2.1 kw for tests with 17 electrodes. Power densities of 0.6 MW/cu m and Hall fields of about 1100 V/m were obtained in the tests with 17 electrodes, representing a factor of 18 improvement over previously reported results. The V-I curves and current distribution data indicate that while near ideal equilibrium performance is obtained under some conditions, no nonequilibrium power has been generated to date.

  2. A Classroom Experiment on Exchange Rate Determination with Purchasing Power Parity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, David T.; Rebelein, Robert P.; Schneider, Patricia H.; Simpson, Nicole B.; Fisher, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed a classroom experiment on exchange rate determination appropriate for undergraduate courses in macroeconomics and international economics. In the experiment, students represent citizens from different countries and need to obtain currency to purchase goods. By participating in an auction to buy currency, students gain a…

  3. Revisiting the Stanford Prison Experiment: A Lesson in the Power of Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2007-01-01

    When he conducted the Stanford prison experiment, Philip G. Zimbardo wanted to know who would win--good people or an evil situation--when they were brought into direct confrontation. The situation won; humanity lost. Out the window went the moral upbringings of the young men involved in the experiment, as well as their middle-class civility. Power…

  4. Power, Jobs and Bodies: The Experiences of Becoming a Gender Scholar in Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danowitz, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that doctoral students' learning and experiences are influenced by their relationships and predominant organizational norms and structures, create gender inequality and discourage or prevent alternative behaviors. However, there is very little empirical information on the nature of doctoral experiences and organizational…

  5. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  6. Introduction to Biophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Paras N.

    2003-04-01

    Paras Prasad's text provides a basic knowledge of a broad range of topics so that individuals in all disciplines can rapidly acquire the minimal necessary background for research and development in biophotonics. Introduction to Biophotonics serves as both a textbook for education and training as well as a reference book that aids research and development of those areas integrating light, photonics, and biological systems. Each chapter contains a topic introduction, a review of key data, and description of future directions for technical innovation. Introduction to Biophotonics covers the basic principles of Optics Optical spectroscopy Microscopy Each section also includes illustrated examples and review questions to test and advance the reader's knowledge. Sections on biosensors and chemosensors, important tools for combating biological and chemical terrorism, will be of particular interest to professionals in toxicology and other environmental disciplines. Introduction to Biophotonics proves a valuable reference for graduate students and researchers in engineering, chemistry, and the life sciences.

  7. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides IX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract This publication represents an introduction to the fifth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide ...

  8. Introduction to stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scilla, Degl’Innocenti

    2016-04-01

    This contribution is meant as a first brief introduction to stellar physics. First I shortly describe the main physical processes active in stellar structures then I summarize the most important features during the stellar life-cycle.

  9. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the fifteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  10. Ares I Avionics Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchant, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    The Ares I is the next generation human-rated launcher for the United States Constellation program. This system is required to provide single fault tolerance within defined crew safety and mission reliability limits. As part of the effort to achieve those safety goals, Ares I includes an avionics subsystem built as a multistring, voting architecture. The avionics design draws upon experience gained from building fly-by-wire systems for Shuttle, X- 38, and Seawolf. Architectural drivers for the avionics design include using proven technologies with existing suppliers of space rated parts for critical functions (to reduce overall development risk), easing the software development effort by using an off-theshelf, DO-178B certifiable, ARINC-653 operating system in the main flight computers, minimizing mutual data and power connections that might lead to a common-mode hardware failure of the redundant avionics strings, and centralizing overall Ares I command & control within the Upper Stage.

  11. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum using temperature and polarisation data from multiple experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, Gavin; Contaldi, Carlo R. E-mail: c.contaldi@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-07-01

    We develop a method to reconstruct the primordial power spectrum, P(k), using both temperature and polarisation data from the joint analysis of a number of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations. The method is an extension of the Richardson-Lucy algorithm, first applied in this context by Shafieloo and Souradeep [1]. We show how the inclusion of polarisation measurements can decrease the uncertainty in the reconstructed power spectrum. In particular, the polarisation data can constrain oscillations in the spectrum more effectively than total intensity only measurements. We apply the estimator to a compilation of current CMB results. The reconstructed spectrum is consistent with the best-fit power spectrum although we find evidence for a 'dip' in the power on scales k ≈ 0.002 Mpc{sup −1}. This feature appears to be associated with the WMAP power in the region 18 ≤ l ≤ 26 which is consistently below best-fit models. We also forecast the reconstruction for a simulated, Planck-like [2] survey including sample variance limited polarisation data.

  12. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum using temperature and polarisation data from multiple experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Gavin; Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2009-07-01

    We develop a method to reconstruct the primordial power spectrum, P(k), using both temperature and polarisation data from the joint analysis of a number of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations. The method is an extension of the Richardson-Lucy algorithm, first applied in this context by Shafieloo & Souradeep [1]. We show how the inclusion of polarisation measurements can decrease the uncertainty in the reconstructed power spectrum. In particular, the polarisation data can constrain oscillations in the spectrum more effectively than total intensity only measurements. We apply the estimator to a compilation of current CMB results. The reconstructed spectrum is consistent with the best-fit power spectrum although we find evidence for a `dip' in the power on scales k approx 0.002 Mpc-1. This feature appears to be associated with the WMAP power in the region 18 <= ell <= 26 which is consistently below best-fit models. We also forecast the reconstruction for a simulated, Planck-like [2] survey including sample variance limited polarisation data.

  13. Upgrades to Power Systems and Magnetic Field Coils in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, J. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Bradisse, M. R.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Swager, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    A set of facility upgrades for Pegasus is currently underway to improve the control and performance of the power systems and the magnetic field coils, with the aim of increased helicity-driven current drive for non-inductive startup. The plasma current achieved through helicity injection goes as √ITF Iinj , the toroidal field rod current and injector bias current, respectively. To increase this quantity, the toroidal field power system will be upgraded. Eight new high-current IGBT bridges will replace the 6 bridges currently in place, bringing ITF from 288 kA-turns to 600 kA-turns. Iinj is increased via a new 14 kA, 2.2 kV, single-quadrant IGCT switching power supply. The main poloidal field coil system is expanded to provide faster vertical field penetration of the vessel wall, thereby providing more flexible control of plasma position during startup and current growth. The L/R time for these coils is reduced by ˜40%. New divertor coils are being installed to provide more shaping flexibility and separatrix-limited operations. Overall power supply control will be improved and simplified by deployment of digital feedback controllers using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to replace PWM analog feedback controllers. FPGAs will provide faster control frequencies, improved fault-handling capability, and streamlined recording of power system operations.

  14. Design and experiment of a cross-shaped mode converter for high-power microwave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Shengren Yuan, Chengwei; Zhong, Huihuang; Fan, Yuwei

    2013-12-15

    A compact mode converter, which is capable of converting a TM{sub 01} mode into a circularly polarized TE{sub 11} mode, was developed and experimentally studied with high-power microwaves. The converter, consisting of two turnstile junctions, is very short along the wave propagation direction, and therefore is suitable for designing compact and axially aligned high-power microwave radiation systems. In this paper, the principle of a converter working at 1.75 GHz is demonstrated, as well as the experimental results. The experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. At the center frequency, the conversion efficiency is more than 95%, the measured axial ratio is about 0.4 dB, and the power-handing capacity is excess of 1.9 GW.

  15. Deep electromagnetic sounding of the lithosphere in the eastern Baltic (fennoscandian) shield with high-power controlled sources and industrial power transmission lines (FENICS experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Shevtsov, A. N.; Korotkova, T. G.; Kopytenko, Yu. A.; Ismagilov, V. S.; Petrishev, M. S.; Efimov, B. V.; Barannik, M. B.; Kolobov, V. V.; Prokopchuk, P. I.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Vagin, S. A.; Pertel, M. I.; Tereshchenko, E. D.; Vasil'Ev, A. N.; Grigoryev, V. F.; Gokhberg, M. B.; Trofimchik, V. I.; Yampolsky, Yu. M.; Koloskov, A. V.; Fedorov, A. V.; Korja, T.

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the technique and the first results of a unique experiment on the deep tensor frequency electromagnetic sounding, the Fennoscandian Electrical conductivity from results of sounding with Natural and Controlled Sources (FENICS). In the experiment, Energy-1 and Energy-2 generators with power of up to 200 kW and two mutually orthogonal industrial 109- and 120-km-long power transmission lines were used. The sounding frequency range was 0.1-200 Hz. The signals were measured in the Kola-Karelian region, in Finland, on Svalbard, and in Ukraine at distances up to 2150 km from the source. The parameters of electric conductivity in the lithosphere are studied down to depths on the order of 50-70 km. A strong lateral homogeneity (the one-dimensionality) of a geoelectric section of the Earth's crust is revealed below depths of 10-15 km. At the same time, a region with reduced transverse crustal resistivity spread over about 80 000 square kilometers is identified within the depth interval from 20 to 40 km. On the southeast the contour of the anomaly borders the zone of deepening of the Moho boundary down to 60 km in Central Finland. The results are compared with the AMT-MT sounding data and a geodynamic interpretation of the obtained information is carried out.

  16. Apollo experience report: Command and service module electrical power distribution on subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munford, R. E.; Hendrix, B.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the design philosophy and development of the Apollo command and service modules electrical power distribution subsystem, a brief history of the evolution of the total system, and some of the more significant components within the system are discussed. The electrical power distribution primarily consisted of individual control units, interconnecting units, and associated protective devices. Because each unit within the system operated more or less independently of other units, the discussion of the subsystem proceeds generally in descending order of complexity; the discussion begins with the total system, progresses to the individual units of the system, and concludes with the components within the units.

  17. High current/high power beam experiments from the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Herbert A.

    1986-01-01

    In this overview, on the possible uses of high power beams aboard the space station, the advantages of the space station as compared to previous space vehicles are considered along with the kind of intense beams that could be generated, the possible scientific uses of these beams and associated problems. This order was delibrately chosen to emphasize that the means, that is, the high power particle ejection devices, will lead towards the possible ends, scientific measurements in the Earth's upper atmosphere using large fluxes of energetic particles.

  18. Combined-cycle power plant experience in Pakistan and Egypt. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The paper examines combined cycle power plants installed by A.I.D. in Pakistan and Egypt. Results show that, compared to coal-fired steam plants, the combined-cycle technology has a number of advantages, including: lower capital costs per megawatt, shorter construction schedules, similar availability, higher efficiency, and reduced environmental impact. The report cautions that operations in a power shortage situation induce stresses that may affect long-term reliability or equipment life. Recommendations are offered for electric utilities in developing countries and international donors.

  19. Conceptual design of an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.; Green, H.J.; Link, H.F.; Parsons, B.K.; Parsons, J.M.; Zangrando, F.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. 71 refs., 41 figs., 34 tabs.

  20. Conceptual design of an Open-Cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Net Power-Producing Experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathan, D.; Green, H. J.; Link, H. F.; Parsons, B. K.; Parsons, J. M.; Zangrando, F.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii.

  1. Role of Muscle Morphology in Jumping, Sprinting, and Throwing Performance in Participants With Different Power Training Duration Experience.

    PubMed

    Methenitis, Spyridon K; Zaras, Nikolaos D; Spengos, Konstantinos M; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta E; Karampatsos, Giorgos P; Georgiadis, Giorgos V; Terzis, Gerasimos D

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between muscle morphology and jumping, sprinting, and throwing performance in participants with different power training duration experience. Thirty-six power-trained young men were assigned to 3 groups according to the length of their power training: less experienced (<1 year), moderately experienced (1-3 years), and experienced (4-7 years). All participants performed countermovement and squat jumps, 60-m sprint, and shot throws twice. Lean body mass (LBM) was evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) with anthropometry. The vastus lateralis architecture and fiber type composition were evaluated with ultrasonography and muscle biopsies, respectively. When all subjects were considered as 1 group (n = 36), jumping performance was correlated with LBM, fascicle length, and type II fiber CSA; sprinting performance was correlated with estimated thigh muscle CSA alone; and shot throwing was correlated with LBM and type I, IIA fiber CSA. In the least experienced group, the LBM of the lower extremities was the most significant contributor for power performance, whereas in the moderately experienced group, the LBM, architectural properties, and type II fiber percentage CSA were the most significant contributors. For the experienced group, fascicle length and type II fiber percentage CSA were the most significant factors for power performance. These data suggest that jumping performance is linked with muscle morphology, regardless of strength or power training. The vastus lateralis muscle morphology could only partially explain throwing performance, whereas it cannot predict sprinting performance. Power performance in experienced participants rely more on the quality of the muscle tissue rather than the quantity. PMID:26907845

  2. Design of a CO2 laser power control system for a Spacelab microgravity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzler, Carl J.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The surface tension driven convection experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment manifested to fly aboard the USML-1 Spacelab mission. A CO2 laser is used to heat a spot on the surface of silicone oil contained inside a test chamber. Several CO2 laser control systems were evaluated and the selected system will be interfaced with the balance of the experimental hardware to constitute a working engineering model. Descriptions and a discussion of these various design approaches are presented.

  3. Power Distance in Online Learning: Experience of Chinese Learners in U.S. Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yi (Leaf)

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the influence of Confucian-heritage culture on Chinese learners' online learning and engagement in online discussion in U.S. higher education. More specifically, this research studied Chinese learners' perceptions of power distance and its impact on their interactions with instructors and…

  4. Sacramento Power Authority experience of building and testing a successful turn key combined cycle project

    SciTech Connect

    Maring, J.; Yost, J.; Zachary, J.

    1998-07-01

    The following paper will describe a combined cycle power plant providing power and steam to a food processing plant. The project owner is Sacramento Power Authority in Sacramento, California, USA. A consortium led by Siemens supplied the equipment and provided the turn key project management. The project was completed in 23 months and the plant was released for dispatch 3 weeks ahead of schedule. The formal performance tests conducted in December 1997, indicated a better net output and a lower net heat rate from the guaranteed values. The thermal acceptance test procedure was in full compliance with the new Performance Test Code PTC-46 of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for combined cycle power plant testing, issued in 1996 and also met all the requirements of ISO 2314 Procedure. The paper will also discuss the performance of an evaporative cooler, used to lower compressor air inlet temperature and the methodology used to reduce the additional instrumentation uncertainty associated with such devices. The paper will also deal with the unique environmental emissions restrictions imposed on the project.

  5. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS OPTIMIZATION STUDY ON THE POWERED ROLL GIN STAND - REPORT II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The powered roll gin stand has been evaluated in numerous studies in regards to increases in lint turnout and ginning rate without adversely affecting fiber quality properties. In some cases, improvements in fiber quality over conventional gin stands were noted. However, the question remained as to ...

  6. Neijiang Power Plant -- Experiences with the largest CFB boiler in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Shenshou; Hotta, A.

    1997-12-31

    The 100 MWe Neijiang Thermal Power Plant owned by Sichuan Electric Power Administration (SEPA) started operation in June 1996. The power plant is equipped with Foster Wheeler CFB Boiler, which is designed to produce 114 kg/s of superheated steam at 98 bar pressure and 540 C temperature. The local Sichuan anthracite coal, which is burned in the boiler, features high ash and high sulphur content and has been difficult to burn in some PC or stoker fired boilers. The new CFB boiler has proven to be very suitable for this coal and large turn-down ratio and good load following capability have been achieved. The Neijiang CFB boiler has demonstrated that the stringent emission levels could be easily achieved with good overall economy. The construction of the project, which was done in a tight schedule jointly with Foster Wheeler and SEPA in close and excellent cooperation, is described in this paper in addition to some technical details of the power plant. Also the observations made during the commissioning as well as the performance data are presented.

  7. FERMI magnet power supplies: design strategies and five years of operational experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visintini, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    FERMI is the FEL-based light source in operation for external users since 2011 at the Elettra Research Center in Trieste, Italy. FERMI@Elettra is the name of the project for the construction and commissioning of this source. The design strategies adopted in the project had to consider the extremely close presence and the routine operation for users of the synchrotron-based source Elettra. There are more than 350 magnets and coils distributed along the linear accelerator, the two chains of undulators and the electron beam dump. Almost each magnetic element requires a dedicated DC power supply. Magnets, power supplies, and the connecting cables constitute a system, strongly interconnected with the remote control system, the machine and personnel safety system, and the infrastructure. All this has to fulfill the requirements from the particle physics specialists. We adopted a "systemic" approach in the design of new magnets and the re-use of the old ones, as well as the choice and the design of the associated power supplies. The commissioning of the systems started early 2010 and almost all magnet power supplies are in operation since then. During these 5 years, we introduced few minor upgrades and patches while the adopted solutions proved their soundness in terms of performance and reliability, causing very little downtime to the FERMI operations.

  8. Language, Identity, and Power: Navajo and Pueblo Young Adults' Perspectives and Experiences with Competing Language Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tiffany S.

    2009-01-01

    Native American languages, contemporary youth identity, and powerful messages from mainstream society and Native communities create complex interactions that require deconstruction for the benefit of Native-language revitalization. This study showed how Native youth negotiate mixed messages such as the necessity of Indigenous languages for…

  9. Quantification of human performance through the use of nuclear-power-plant experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.

    1982-06-01

    There is wide agreement throughout the commercial nuclear industry that there is a severe shortage of data on man-machine success or failure rates. At the same time, the need to adequately integrate human performance and system's analysis in the evaluation of nuclear power plant availability and safety is recognized as a dominant need. Therefore, if we are to successfully address the industry's current requirements, we must optimize the use of all existing data. This paper discusses the problem and suggests useful ways of utilizing available nuclear data and presents a conceptual format to better collect actuarial data on the most critical, from a safety perspective, aspects of the man-machine interface in a nuclear power plant.

  10. The quest for TPa Hugoniot data: using the DEMG in high velocity pulsed power experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Jeff H; Rousculp, Christopher L; Holtkamp, David B; Oro, David M; Griego, Jeffrey R; Atchison, Walter L; Reinovsky, Robert E

    2010-12-20

    ALT-3 is an experiment being designed in collaboration between Russian VNIIEF scientists and LANL that aims to conduct high velocity material experiments to measure shock velocities at pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator) is used to drive >60MA currents to accelerate an aluminum liner to speeds in excess of 20 km/s. The 1-D model of the DEMG has been refined from a given current profile to a time-varying inductance. Various techniques are used to model the FOS (Foil Opening Switch) on the DEMG and a refined DEMG model is then used to drive a liner into various targets to determine the optimum design for the experiment and analyze the possible conditions and complications.

  11. Design of a full scale model fuel assembly for full power production reactor flow excursion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.A. ); Blake, J.E.; Rush, G.C. )

    1990-01-01

    A novel full scale production reactor fuel assembly model was designed and built to study thermal-hydraulic effects of postulated Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear reactor accidents. The electrically heated model was constructed to simulate the unique annular concentric tube geometry of fuel assemblies in SRS nuclear production reactors. Several major design challenges were overcome in order to produce the prototypic geometry and thermal-hydraulic conditions. The two concentric heater tubes (total power over 6 MW and maximum heat flux of 3.5 MW/m{sup 2}) (1.1E+6 BTU/(ft{sup 2}hr)) were designed to closely simulate the thermal characteristics of SRS uranium-aluminum nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the design of the model fuel assembly, which met requirements of maintaining prototypic geometric and hydraulic characteristics, and approximate thermal similarity. The model had a cosine axial power profile and the electrical resistance was compatible with the existing power supply. The model fuel assembly was equipped with a set of instruments useful for code analysis, and durable enough to survive a number of LOCA transients. These instruments were sufficiently responsive to record the response of the fuel assembly to the imposed transient.

  12. Design of a full scale model fuel assembly for full power production reactor flow excursion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.A.; Blake, J.E.; Rush, G.C.

    1990-12-31

    A novel full scale production reactor fuel assembly model was designed and built to study thermal-hydraulic effects of postulated Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear reactor accidents. The electrically heated model was constructed to simulate the unique annular concentric tube geometry of fuel assemblies in SRS nuclear production reactors. Several major design challenges were overcome in order to produce the prototypic geometry and thermal-hydraulic conditions. The two concentric heater tubes (total power over 6 MW and maximum heat flux of 3.5 MW/m{sup 2}) (1.1E+6 BTU/(ft{sup 2}hr)) were designed to closely simulate the thermal characteristics of SRS uranium-aluminum nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the design of the model fuel assembly, which met requirements of maintaining prototypic geometric and hydraulic characteristics, and approximate thermal similarity. The model had a cosine axial power profile and the electrical resistance was compatible with the existing power supply. The model fuel assembly was equipped with a set of instruments useful for code analysis, and durable enough to survive a number of LOCA transients. These instruments were sufficiently responsive to record the response of the fuel assembly to the imposed transient.

  13. High power operation of the university of Maryland coaxial gyroklystron experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, W.; Arjona, M.; Castle, M.; Hogan, B.; Granatstein, V.; Reiser, M.

    1999-07-01

    We report the experimental studies of high power amplification in a coaxial three-cavity X-band gyroklystron. A single-anode magnetron injection gun (MIG) is used to produce a 520 A beam of 470 keV electrons with an average ratio of perpendicular-to-parallel velocity of about one. The voltage flat top is nearly 2 {mu}s. All cavities are designed to operate in the TE{sub 011} coaxial mode near 8.6 GHz. The input cavity is driven by a 150 kW, 3 {mu}s coaxial magnetron through a single slot in the radial wall. Peak powers of 75{endash}85 MW are measured with a conversion efficiency of nearly 32{percent} and a large signal gain of about 30 dB. This performance is in good agreement with simulations and represents approximately a tri-fold increase in the peak power capability of pulsed X-band gyroklystrons. We also report on the design of a three cavity second harmonic gyroklystron which is expected to produce 100 MW at 17.14 GHz. We close with a general discussion of scaling our designs to higher frequencies. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. High power operation of the university of Maryland coaxial gyroklystron experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, W.; Arjona, M.; Castle, M.; Hogan, B.; Granatstein, V.; Reiser, M.

    1999-07-12

    We report the experimental studies of high power amplification in a coaxial three-cavity X-band gyroklystron. A single-anode magnetron injection gun (MIG) is used to produce a 520 A beam of 470 keV electrons with an average ratio of perpendicular-to-parallel velocity of about one. The voltage flat top is nearly 2 {mu}s. All cavities are designed to operate in the TE{sub 011} coaxial mode near 8.6 GHz. The input cavity is driven by a 150 kW, 3 {mu}s coaxial magnetron through a single slot in the radial wall. Peak powers of 75-85 MW are measured with a conversion efficiency of nearly 32% and a large signal gain of about 30 dB. This performance is in good agreement with simulations and represents approximately a tri-fold increase in the peak power capability of pulsed X-band gyroklystrons. We also report on the design of a three cavity second harmonic gyroklystron which is expected to produce 100 MW at 17.14 GHz. We close with a general discussion of scaling our designs to higher frequencies.

  15. Results from cascade thrust reverser noise and suppression experiments. [sound power level directivity and spectral characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, O. A.; Stone, J. R.; Friedman, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results from experimental work on model scale cascade reversers with cold airflow are presented. Sound power level directivity and spectral characteristics for cascade reversers are reported. Effect of cascade exit area ratio, vane profile shape, and emission arc are discussed. Model equivalent diameters varied from 3 to 5 inches, pressure ratios range from 1.15 to 3.0. Depending on the reverser type, acoustic power was proportional to the 4 1/2 to 6th power of ideal jet velocity. Reverser noise peaked at higher frequency and was more omnidirectional than nozzle-alone jet noise. Appreciable reduction in sideline noise was obtained from plane shields. Airfoil-vaned cascades were the most aerodynamically efficient and least noisy reversers. Scaling of cascade reverser data to example aircraft engines showed all cascades above the 95 PNdB sideline goal from STOL aircraft. However, the airfoil-vaned reverser has a good potential for meeting this goal for high-bypass (low pressure ratio) exhausts.

  16. High power operation of the university of Maryland coaxial gyroklystron experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, W.; Arjona, M.; Castle, M.; Hogan, B.; Granatstein, V.; Reiser, M.

    1999-07-01

    We report the experimental studies of high power amplification in a coaxial three-cavity X-band gyroklystron. A single-anode magnetron injection gun (MIG) is used to produce a 520 A beam of 470 keV electrons with an average ratio of perpendicular-to-parallel velocity of about one. The voltage flat top is nearly 2 μs. All cavities are designed to operate in the TE011 coaxial mode near 8.6 GHz. The input cavity is driven by a 150 kW, 3 μs coaxial magnetron through a single slot in the radial wall. Peak powers of 75-85 MW are measured with a conversion efficiency of nearly 32% and a large signal gain of about 30 dB. This performance is in good agreement with simulations and represents approximately a tri-fold increase in the peak power capability of pulsed X-band gyroklystrons. We also report on the design of a three cavity second harmonic gyroklystron which is expected to produce 100 MW at 17.14 GHz. We close with a general discussion of scaling our designs to higher frequencies.

  17. Linear halogen bulb as a powerful light source for physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochníček, Zdeněk

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the usage of a conventional lamp equipped with a linear halogen bulb for physics experiments. The irradiance gain and limitation of spectral resolution are treated in detail theoretically and verified experimentally. The analysis shows that, in comparison with a standard bulb and slit arrangement, the linear bulb can increase irradiance of the spectrum image by an order of magnitude without a significant loss of spectral resolution in comparable experimental arrangements. Some concrete examples of experiments with a white light spectrum and diffraction are presented.

  18. Laser absorption, power transfer, and radiation symmetry during the first shock of inertial confinement fusion gas-filled hohlraum experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.; Milovich, J.; Strozzi, D. J.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bradley, D. K.; Divol, L.; Ho, D. D.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A. S.; Schneider, M. B.; Town, R. P. J.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Temporally resolved measurements of the hohlraum radiation flux asymmetry incident onto a bismuth coated surrogate capsule have been made over the first two nanoseconds of ignition relevant laser pulses. Specifically, we study the P2 asymmetry of the incoming flux as a function of cone fraction, defined as the inner-to-total laser beam power ratio, for a variety of hohlraums with different scales and gas fills. This work was performed to understand the relevance of recent experiments, conducted in new reduced-scale neopentane gas filled hohlraums, to full scale helium filled ignition targets. Experimental measurements, matched by 3D view factor calculations, are used to infer differences in symmetry, relative beam absorption, and cross beam energy transfer (CBET), employing an analytic model. Despite differences in hohlraum dimensions and gas fill, as well as in laser beam pointing and power, we find that laser absorption, CBET, and the cone fraction, at which a symmetric flux is achieved, are similar to within 25% between experiments conducted in the reduced and full scale hohlraums. This work demonstrates a close surrogacy in the dynamics during the first shock between reduced-scale and full scale implosion experiments and is an important step in enabling the increased rate of study for physics associated with inertial confinement fusion.

  19. Laser absorption, power transfer, and radiation symmetry during the first shock of inertial confinement fusion gas-filled hohlraum experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.; Milovich, J.; Strozzi, D. J.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bradley, D. K.; Divol, L.; Ho, D. D.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A. S.; Schneider, M. B.; Town, R. P. J.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-12-15

    Temporally resolved measurements of the hohlraum radiation flux asymmetry incident onto a bismuth coated surrogate capsule have been made over the first two nanoseconds of ignition relevant laser pulses. Specifically, we study the P2 asymmetry of the incoming flux as a function of cone fraction, defined as the inner-to-total laser beam power ratio, for a variety of hohlraums with different scales and gas fills. This work was performed to understand the relevance of recent experiments, conducted in new reduced-scale neopentane gas filled hohlraums, to full scale helium filled ignition targets. Experimental measurements, matched by 3D view factor calculations, are used to infer differences in symmetry, relative beam absorption, and cross beam energy transfer (CBET), employing an analytic model. Despite differences in hohlraum dimensions and gas fill, as well as in laser beam pointing and power, we find that laser absorption, CBET, and the cone fraction, at which a symmetric flux is achieved, are similar to within 25% between experiments conducted in the reduced and full scale hohlraums. This work demonstrates a close surrogacy in the dynamics during the first shock between reduced-scale and full scale implosion experiments and is an important step in enabling the increased rate of study for physics associated with inertial confinement fusion.

  20. The First Pulsed-Power Z-Pinch Liner-On-Target Hydrodynamics Experiment Diagnosed with Proton Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousculp, C. L.; Reass, W. A.; Oro, D. M.; Griego, J. R.; Turchi, P. J.; Reinovsky, R. E.; Saunders, A.; Mariam, F. G.; Morris, C.

    2014-10-01

    The first pulse-power driven, dynamic, liner-on-target experiment was successfully conducted at the Los Alamos proton radiography (pRad) facility. 100% data return was achieved on this experiment including a 21-image pRad movie. The experiment was driven with the PHELIX pulsed-power machine that utilizes a high-efficiency (k ~ 0.93) transformer to couple a small capacitor bank (U ~ 300 kJ) to a low inductance condensed-matter experimental load in a Z-pinch configuration. The current pulse (Ipeak = 3.7 MA, δt ~10 μs) was measured via a fiber optic Faraday rotation diagnostic. The experimental load consisted of a cylindrical Al liner (6 cm diam, 3 cm tall, 0.8 mm thick) and a cylindrical Al target (3 cm diam, 3 cm tall, 0.1 mm thick) that was coated with a thin (0.1 mm) uniform layer of tungsten powder (1 micron diam). It is observed that the shock-launched powder layer fully detaches from the target into a spatially correlated, radially converging (vr ~ 800 m/s) ring. The powder distribution is highly modulated in azimuth indicating particle interactions are significant. Results are compared to MHD simulations. Work supported by United States-DOE under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  1. The Electric Propulsion Space Experiment (ESEX)-A demonstration of high power arcjets for orbit transfer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromaghim, D. R.; Salasovich, R. M.; Leduc, J. R.; Johnson, L. K.

    1998-01-01

    The Electric Propulsion Space Experiment (ESEX) is a high power (30 kW) ammonia arcjet space demonstration sponsored by the Propulsion Directorate of the Phillips Laboratory with TRW as the prime contractor. ESEX is one of nine experiments being launched in early 1998 on board the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS). ESEX will demonstrate the feasibility of using a high power arcjet for orbit transfer. ESEX is instrumented with various sensors to address all of the expected interactions with ARGOS including electromagnetic interference, contamination, and radiated thermal loading. The performance of the arcjet will also be measured using ground tracking, an on-board GPS receiver, and on-board accelerometer. In addition to the performance and spacecraft interaction studies, ground-based spectroscopic and radiometric measurements will be performed to observe plume species as well as determine the effect of the arcjet firing on the space environment. ESEX is currently undergoing integrated testing with the spacecraft bus and the eight other experiments to verify the full operability of ARGOS while on-orbit. These tests include basic functionality of the system in addition to the normal suite of environmental tests including electromagnetic interference and compatibility, acoustic and pyroshock testing, and thermal vacuum tests.

  2. An Introduction to Distributions Using Weighted Dice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bart K.

    2011-01-01

    Distributions are the basis for an enormous amount of theoretical and applied work in statistics. While there are formal definitions of distributions and many formulas to characterize them, it is important that students at first get a clear introduction to this basic concept. For many of them, neither words nor formulas can match the power of a…

  3. 14 CFR 34.60 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Introduction. 34.60 Section 34.60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft...

  4. 14 CFR 34.80 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.80 Introduction. Except as provided under § 34.5, the... of new and in-use gas turbine engines with the applicable standards set forth in this part. The...

  5. 14 CFR 34.80 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.80 Introduction. Except as provided under § 34.5, the... of new and in-use gas turbine engines with the applicable standards set forth in this part. The...

  6. 14 CFR 34.60 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.60 Introduction. (a) Except as provided... determine the conformity of new aircraft gas turbine engines with the applicable standards set forth in...

  7. 14 CFR 34.60 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.60 Introduction. (a) Use the...

  8. 14 CFR 34.80 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.80 Introduction. Except as provided under § 34.5, the... of new and in-use gas turbine engines with the applicable standards set forth in this part. The...

  9. The Power of Adult Learning in Fine Arts: Drawing upon Personal Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orzelski-Konikowski, Izabella

    2011-01-01

    The utility of definitions and descriptions applied to adult learning can be effectively measured only by direct application to a specific field of learning, in this case, fine arts. Based on the author's 12 years of experience as an art educator, the article provides a conceptual framework for those who are at the beginning of their pedagogical…

  10. The Invisible Hand: The Power of Language in Creating Welcoming Postsecondary Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Lisa C.; Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript discusses from the joint perspectives of an undergraduate student and a faculty member the often invisible role that language can play in providing postsecondary learning experiences that can either include or exclude students on the basis of social identity. The authors discuss ignorance, uncertainty, and political correctness as…

  11. Mathematics, Power, and Language: Implications from Lived Experiences to Empower English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uribe-Flórez, Lida J.; Araujo, Blanca; Franzak, Mark; Haynes Writer, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    Because the English learners' (ELs) population is growing in the United States, teacher candidates should be provided with experiences that prepare them to effectively teach and empower linguistically/culturally diverse students. Teacher candidates should be provided with opportunities to learn skills that engage ELs in mathematics. In this…

  12. Being Relaxed and Powerful: Children's Lived Experiences of Coping with Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostenius, Catrine; Ohrling, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to describe and develop an understanding of children's lived experiences of coping with stress. Twenty-three Swedish children, ages 10-12, wrote open letters and were interviewed. The phenomenological analysis resulted in three main themes: (i) depending on oneself, others and the world around, (ii) choosing to be a doer and (iii)…

  13. Supporting Solar Power in Renewables Portfolio Standards: Experience from the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Holt, Edward

    2010-10-01

    Among the available options for encouraging the increased deployment of renewable electricity, renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have become increasingly popular. The RPS is a relatively new policy mechanism, however, and experience with its use is only beginning to emerge. One key concern that has been voiced is whether RPS policies will offer adequate support to a wide range of renewable energy technologies and applications or whether, alternatively, RPS programs will favor a small number of the currently least-cost forms of renewable energy. This report documents the design of and early experience with state-level RPS programs in the United States that have been specifically tailored to encourage a wider diversity of renewable energy technologies, and solar energy in particular. As shown here, state-level RPS programs specifically designed to support solar have already proven to be an important, albeit somewhat modest, driver for solar energy deployment, and those impacts are projected to continue to build in the coming years. State experience in supporting solar energy with RPS programs is mixed, however, and full compliance with existing requirements has not been achieved. The comparative experiences described herein highlight the opportunities and challenges of applying an RPS to specifically support solar energy, as well as the importance of policy design details to ensuring that program goals are achieved.

  14. The BaR-SPOrt experiment: measuring the CMBP E-mode power spectrum from Dome C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretti, E.; Cortiglioni, S.; Bernardi, G.; Casarini, L.; Cecchini, S.; Macculi, C.; Ramponi, M.; Sbarra, C.; Ventura, G.; Monari, J.; Poloni, M.; Poppi, S.; Baralis, M.; Peverini, O. A.; Tascone, R.; Virone, G.; Zannoni, M.; Bonometto, S.; Colombo, L.; Gervasi, M.; Sironi, G.; Fabbri, R.; Natale, V.; Nesti, R.; Nicastro, L.; de Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; de Petris, M.; Boscaleri, A.; Sazhin, M.; Vinyajkin, E.

    The BaR-SPOrt experiment is designed to measure the E-mode power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization (CMBP) in the multipole range 50 < ℓ < 1000. In the current configuration at 32 GHz it can explore up to ℓ = 400. Recent low frequency observations of the target region show that the synchrotron emission should not contamine the CMBP already at 32 GHz. A 6-month observation of a 6° × 6° sky area during the polar night, in ideal environmental conditions, will allow the Italian-French collaboration to both measure the E mode power spectrum with appropriate sensitivity and perform important tests of the anomalous dust emission. The BaR-SPOrt 32 GHz instrument, now under test and ready for operations by Spring 2005, is proposed for 1 2 years Winter operations at Dome C.

  15. Performance of High-Convergence, Layered DT Implosions on Power-Scaling Experiments at National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Atherton, L. J.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bleuel, D.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; et al

    2013-10-19

    The radiation-driven, low-adiabat, cryogenic DT layered plastic capsule implosions were carried out on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to study the sensitivity of performance to peak power and drive duration. An implosion with extended drive and at reduced peak power of 350 TW achieved the highest compression with fuel areal density of ~1.3±0.1 g/cm 2, representing a significant step from previously measured ~1.0 g/cm2 toward a goal of 1.5 g/cm 2. Moreover, for future experiments will focus on understanding and mitigating hydrodynamic instabilities and mix, and improving symmetry required to reach the threshold for thermonuclear ignition on NIF.

  16. A fast, low-power, 6-bit SAR ADC for readout of strip detectors in the LHCb Upgrade experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.

    2014-07-01

    The readout of silicon strip sensors in the upgraded Tracker System of Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment will require a novel complex Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The ASIC will extract and digitise analogue signal from the sensor and subsequently will perform digital processing and serial data transmission. One of the key processing blocks, placed in each channel, will be an Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC). A prototype of fast, low-power 6-bit Successive Approximation Register (SAR) ADC was designed, fabricated and tested. The measurements of ADC prototypes confirmed simulation results showing excellent overall performance. In particular, very good resolution with Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB) 5.85 was obtained together with very low power consumption of 0.35 mW at 40 MS/s sampling rate. The results of the performed static and dynamic measurements confirm excellent ADC operation for higher sampling rates up to 80 MS/s.

  17. Performance of High-Convergence, Layered DT Implosions on Power-Scaling Experiments at National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Atherton, L. J.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bleuel, D.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D.; Dewald, E. L.; Dixit, S. N.; Doeppner, T.; Edgell, D. H.; Edwards, M. J.; Frenje, J.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Y.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H.; Grim, G.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hartouni, E.; Hatarik, R.; Hatchett, S.; Hicks, D.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Key, M. H.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kline, J. L.; Knauer, J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Landen, O. L.; Pape, S. L.; Lindl, J. D.; Ma, T.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J.; Meezan, N. B.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A.; Moran, M.; Moses, E. I.; Pak, A.; Parham, T; Park, H. -S.; Patel, P. K.; Petrasso, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Regan, S. P.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Ross, J. S.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.; Suter, L J; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P.; Weber, S. V.; Widmann, K.

    2013-10-19

    The radiation-driven, low-adiabat, cryogenic DT layered plastic capsule implosions were carried out on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to study the sensitivity of performance to peak power and drive duration. An implosion with extended drive and at reduced peak power of 350 TW achieved the highest compression with fuel areal density of ~1.3±0.1 g/cm 2, representing a significant step from previously measured ~1.0 g/cm2 toward a goal of 1.5 g/cm 2. Moreover, for future experiments will focus on understanding and mitigating hydrodynamic instabilities and mix, and improving symmetry required to reach the threshold for thermonuclear ignition on NIF.

  18. Investigation of lower hybrid physics through power modulation experiments on Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R. R.; Porkolab, M.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G.; Wright, J. C.; Harvey, R. W.; Wilson, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is an attractive tool for off-axis current profile control in magnetically confined tokamak plasmas and burning plasmas (ITER), because of its high current drive efficiency. The LHCD system on Alcator C-Mod operates at 4.6 GHz, with ~ 1 MW of coupled power, and can produce a wide range of launched parallel refractive index (n||) spectra. A 32 chord, perpendicularly viewing hard x-ray camera has been used to measure the spatial and energy distribution of fast electrons generated by lower hybrid (LH) waves. Square-wave modulation of LH power on a time scale much faster than the current relaxation time does not significantly alter the poloidal magnetic field inside the plasma and thus allows for realistic modeling and consistent plasma conditions for different n|| spectra. Inverted hard x-ray profiles show clear changes in LH-driven fast electron location with differing n||. Boxcar binning of hard x-rays during LH power modulation allows for ~ 1 ms time resolution which is sufficient to resolve the build-up, steady-state, and slowing-down phases of fast electrons. Ray-tracing/Fokker-Planck modeling in combination with a synthetic hard x-ray diagnostic shows quantitative agreement with the x-ray data for high n|| cases. The time histories of hollow x-ray profiles have been used to measure off-axis fast electron transport in the outer half of the plasma, which is found to be small on a slowing down time scale.

  19. An evolution of nozzle design: The low NOx burner experience at the Baldwin Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Forney, D.W.; Murray, D.G.; Beal, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    Illinois Power Company (IPC) installed low NO{sub x} burners on Baldwin Unit 3 in the Spring of 1994. Although the NO{sub x} reduction performance of these burners has been outstanding, IPC suffered catastrophic nozzle failure in the first 8 weeks of operation. The nozzles were then modified and later, replaced. Within 1 week of operation, 2 of the new nozzles also failed. This paper traces the development of the original nozzle, the influences-of other nozzle failures on its design, the determination of the cause of the original and subsequent failures, and the current state of the nozzles.

  20. Characteristics of a large multijunction launcher for high-power LHCD experiments on JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Ushigusa, K.; Naito, O.; Kondoh, T.; Wolfe, S.W.; Imai, T. )

    1994-10-15

    This paper presents overview of a large multijunction launcher for JT-60U. The launcher is featured by the multijunction module with the oversized taper waveguide, in order to simplify structure of the launcher. This launcher allows high performances of current drive and current profile control by using very sharp and highly directive spectrum. Initial result of coupling property is also described. A good coupling was observed at a power level of [similar to]0.8 MW with plasma-launcher distance of [lt]14 cm.

  1. Conceptual design of a 1013 -W pulsed-power accelerator for megajoule-class dynamic-material-physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stygar, W. A.; Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Austin, K. N.; Ao, T.; Benage, J. F.; Breden, E. W.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Davis, J.-P.; Ennis, J. B.; Gard, P. D.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Haill, T. A.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jones, P. A.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Lucero, D. J.; McKee, G. R.; Moore, J. K.; Mulville, T. D.; Muron, D. J.; Root, S.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Spielman, R. B.; Waisman, E. M.; Wisher, M. L.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a conceptual design of a next-generation pulsed-power accelerator that is optimized for megajoule-class dynamic-material-physics experiments. Sufficient electrical energy is delivered by the accelerator to a physics load to achieve—within centimeter-scale samples—material pressures as high as 1 TPa. The accelerator design is based on an architecture that is founded on three concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression, impedance matching, and transit-time-isolated drive circuits. The prime power source of the accelerator consists of 600 independent impedance-matched Marx generators. Each Marx comprises eight 5.8-GW bricks connected electrically in series, and generates a 100-ns 46-GW electrical-power pulse. A 450-ns-long water-insulated coaxial-transmission-line impedance transformer transports the power generated by each Marx to a system of twelve 2.5-m-radius water-insulated conical transmission lines. The conical lines are connected electrically in parallel at a 66-cm radius by a water-insulated 45-post sextuple-post-hole convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the conical lines, and delivers the combined current to a single solid-dielectric-insulated radial transmission line. The radial line in turn transmits the combined current to the load. Since much of the accelerator is water insulated, we refer to it as Neptune. Neptune is 40 m in diameter, stores 4.8 MJ of electrical energy in its Marx capacitors, and generates 28 TW of peak electrical power. Since the Marxes are transit-time isolated from each other for 900 ns, they can be triggered at different times to construct-over an interval as long as 1 μ s -the specific load-current time history required for a given experiment. Neptune delivers 1 MJ and 20 MA in a 380-ns current pulse to an 18 -m Ω load; hence Neptune is a megajoule-class 20-MA arbitrary waveform generator. Neptune will allow the international scientific community to conduct dynamic

  2. Preliminary analysis of fluctuations in the received uplink-beacon-power data obtained from the GOLD experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeganathan, M.; Wilson, K. E.; Lesh, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Uplink data from recent free-space optical communication experiments carried out between the Table Mountain Facility and the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite are used to study fluctuations caused by beam propagation through the atmosphere. The influence of atmospheric scintillation, beam wander and jitter, and multiple uplink beams on the statistics of power received by the satellite is analyzed and compared to experimental data. Preliminary analysis indicates the received signal obeys an approximate lognormal distribution, as predicted by the weak-turbulence model, but further characterization of other sources of fluctuations is necessary for accurate link predictions.

  3. Preliminary Analysis of Fluctuations in the Received Uplink-Beacon-Power Data Obtained From the GOLD Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeganathan, M.; Wilson, K. E.; Lesh, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Uplink data from recent free-space optical communication experiments carried out between the Table Mountain Facility and the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite are used to study fluctuations caused by beam propagation through the atmosphere. The influence of atmospheric scintillation, beam wander and jitter, and multiple uplink beams on the statistics of power received by the satellite is analyzed and compared to experimental data. Preliminary analysis indicates the received signal obeys an approximate lognormal distribution, as predicted by the weak-turbulence model, but further characterization of other sources of fluctuations is necessary for accurate link predictions.

  4. Optical pyrometer system for collisionless shock experiments in high-power laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Sano, T.; Takabe, H.; Dono, S.; Ide, T.; Tanji, H.; Shiroshita, A.; Shibata, S.; Aoki, H.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.; Gregory, C. D.

    2012-10-15

    A temporally and spatially resolved optical pyrometer system has been fielded on Gekko XII experiments. The system is based on the self-emission measurements with a gated optical imager (GOI) and a streaked optical pyrometer (SOP). Both detectors measure the intensity of the self-emission from laser-produced plasmas at the wavelength of 450 nm with a bandpass filter with a width of {approx}10 nm in FWHM. The measurements were calibrated with different methods, and both results agreed with each other within 30% as previously reported [T. Morita et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 336, 283 (2011)]. As a tool for measuring the properties of low-density plasmas, the system is applicable for the measurements of the electron temperature and density in collisionless shock experiments [Y. Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011)].

  5. Magnetics and Power System Upgrades for the Pegasus-U Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, R. C.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.

    2014-10-01

    To support the missions of developing local helicity injection startup and exploiting advanced tokamak physics studies at near unity aspect ratio, the proposed Pegasus-U will include expanded magnetic systems and associated power supplies. A new centerstack increases the toroidal field seven times to 1 T and the volt-seconds by a factor of six while maintaining operation at an aspect ratio of 1.2. The poloidal field magnet system is expanded to support improved shape control and robust double or single null divertor operation at the full plasma current of 0.3 MA. An integrated digital control system based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) provides active feedback control of all magnet currents. Implementation of the FPGAs is achieved with modular noise reducing electronics. The digital feedback controllers replace the existing analog systems and switch multiplexing technology. This will reduce noise sensitivity and allow the operational Ohmic power supply voltage to increase from 2100 V to its maximum capacity of 2400 V. The feedback controller replacement also allows frequency control for ``freewheeling''--stopping the switching for a short interval and allowing the current to coast. The FPGAs assist in optimizing pulse length by having programmable switching events to minimize energy losses. They also allow for more efficient switching topologies that provide improved stored energy utilization, and support increasing the pulse length from 25 ms to 50-100 ms. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  6. Can we estimate the cellular phone RF peak output power with a simple experiment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioreze, Maycon; dos Santos Junior, Sauli; Goncalves Hönnicke, Marcelo

    2016-07-01

    Cellular phones are becoming increasingly useful tools for students. Since cell phones operate in the microwave bandwidth, they can be used to motivate students to demonstrate and better understand the properties of electromagnetic waves. However, since these waves operate at higher frequencies (L-band, from 800 MHz to 2 GHz) it is not simple to detect them. Usually, expensive real-time high frequency oscilloscopes are required. Indirect measurements are also possible through heat-based and diode-detector-based radio-frequency (RF) power sensors. Another didactic and intuitive way is to explore a simple and inexpensive detection system, based on the interference effect caused in the electronic circuit of TV and PC soundspeakers, and to try to investigate different properties of the cell phones’ RF electromagnetic waves, such as its power and modulated frequency. This manuscript proposes a trial to quantify these measurements, based on a simple Friis equation model and the time constant of the circuit used in the detection system, in order to show it didactically to the students and even allow them also to explore such a simple detection system at home.

  7. Photovoltaic power for Europe A scenario for implementation and current experience

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, M.R.; Palz, W.

    1982-09-01

    The Commission of the European Communities (EEC) has implemented a major R+D programme for photovoltaics since 1975. The Commission gives contracts to industry and research institutions in Europe aiming at solar cell development as well as system development and experimentation. The first of a series of 15 pilot projects in the 100 kW range has just been completed in Greece. The cumulative power of all pilot projects exceeds 1 MWp. They are installed in 8 of the 10 EEC member countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, United Kingdom). Associated with this activity is module testing and qualification at the European Community's Joint Research Centre in Ispra. Under contract with the Commission, an assessment study ''Photovoltaic Power for Europe'' has just been completed. It concluded that within the next twenty years and beyond, photovoltaic activities may grow considerably in Europe. Technical development should be part of a comprehensive strategy to be set up in Europe in which national authorities and the Commission will have to play an important role.

  8. Closed cycle MHD power generation experiments in the NASA Lewis Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, R. J.; Nichols, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    Many modifications were made in the MHD facility. These include a redesign of the MHD duct interior, addition of mixing bars, increased electrical isolation of all the high temperature components from each other and from ground, and experimentation with various cesium seed vaporization and injection techniques. With the exception of the cesium system which needs further improvement the above modifications were quite successful and resulted in improvements in generator performance. The facility was run for a total of 400 hours in the past year, with 70 hours of this operation at temperatures of 2000 K or more with hot generator walls. With the exception of replacing one cracked brick in the MHD channel no repairs were required in the high temperature loop components for the duration of these tests. Uniform Faraday and Hall voltage profiles were obtained and the Faraday open circuit voltage varied from 90 to 100 percent of the ideal uBh. The magnitudes of the measured parameters are: Faraday open circuit voltage approximately 70 V, total Faraday current approximately 20 A, Hall voltage approximately 250 V, power output approximately 300 W, and power density .036 W/cu cm.

  9. Virtual Constraint Control of a Powered Prosthetic Leg: From Simulation to Experiments with Transfemoral Amputees

    PubMed Central

    Lenzi, Tommaso; Hargrove, Levi J.; Sensinger, Jonathon W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent powered (or robotic) prosthetic legs independently control different joints and time periods of the gait cycle, resulting in control parameters and switching rules that can be difficult to tune by clinicians. This challenge might be addressed by a unifying control model used by recent bipedal robots, in which virtual constraints define joint patterns as functions of a monotonic variable that continuously represents the gait cycle phase. In the first application of virtual constraints to amputee locomotion, this paper derives exact and approximate control laws for a partial feedback linearization to enforce virtual constraints on a prosthetic leg. We then encode a human-inspired invariance property called effective shape into virtual constraints for the stance period. After simulating the robustness of the partial feedback linearization to clinically meaningful conditions, we experimentally implement this control strategy on a powered transfemoral leg. We report the results of three amputee subjects walking overground and at variable cadences on a treadmill, demonstrating the clinical viability of this novel control approach. PMID:25558185

  10. Operating experience with the southwire 30-meter high-temperature superconducting power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, J. P.; Lue, J. W.; Demko, J. A.; Fisher, P. W.; Gouge, M. J.; Hawsey, R. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Hughey, R. L.; Lindsay, D. T.; Roden, M. L.; Sinha, U. K.; Tolbert, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    Southwire Company is operating a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable system at its corporate headquarters. The 30-m long, 3-phase cable system is powering three Southwire manufacturing plants and is rated at 12.4-kV, 1250-A, 60-Hz. Cooling is provided by a pressurized liquid nitrogen system operating at 70-80 K. The cables were energized on January 5, 2000 for on-line testing and operation and in April 2000 were placed into extended service. As of June 1, 2001, the HTS cables have provided 100% of the customer load for 8000 hours. The cryogenic system has been in continuous operation since November 1999. The HTS cable system has not been the cause of any power outages to the average 20 MW industrial load served by the cable. The cable has been exposed to short-circuit currents caused by load-side faults without damage. Based upon field measurements described herein, the cable critical current-a key performance parameter-remains the same and has not been affected by the hours of real-world operation, further proving the viability of this promising technology.

  11. Phenylnaphthalene Derivatives as Heat Transfer Fluids for Concentrating Solar Power: Loop Experiments and Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Bell, Jason R; Felde, David K; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; Qualls, A L; Weaver, Samuel P

    2013-02-01

    ORNL and subcontractor Cool Energy completed an investigation of higher-temperature, organic thermal fluids for solar thermal applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C showed that the material isomerized at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components such as the waste heat rejection exchanger may become coated or clogged and loop performance will decrease. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the increased temperatures of interest. Hence a decision was made not to test the ORNL fluid in the loop at Cool Energy Inc. Instead, Cool Energy tested and modeled power conversion from a moderate-temperature solar loop using coupled Stirling engines. Cool Energy analyzed data collected on third and fourth generation SolarHeart Stirling engines operating on a rooftop solar field with a lower temperature (Marlotherm) heat transfer fluid. The operating efficiencies of the Stirling engines were determined at multiple, typical solar conditions, based on data from actual cycle operation. Results highlighted the advantages of inherent thermal energy storage in the power conversion system.

  12. Proof-of-Concept Experiments on a Gallium-Based Ignitron for Pulsed Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, H. K.; Hanson, V. S.; Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Ignitrons are electrical switching devices that operate at switching times that are on the order of microseconds, can conduct high currents of thousands of amps, and are capable of holding off tens of thousands of volts between pulses. They consist of a liquid metal pool within an evacuated tube that serves both the cathode and the source of atoms and electrons for an arc discharge. Facing the liquid metal pool is an anode suspended above the cathode, with a smaller ignitor electrode tip located just above the surface of the cathode. The ignitron can be charged to significant voltages, with a potential difference of thousands of volts between anode and cathode. When an ignition pulse is delivered from the ignitor electrode to the cathode, a small amount of the liquid metal is vaporized and subsequently ionized, with the high voltage between the anode and cathode causing the gas to bridge the gap between the two electrodes. The electrons and ions move rapidly towards the anode and cathode, respectively, with the ions liberating still more atoms from the liquid metal cathode surface as a high-current plasma arc discharge is rapidly established. This arc continues in a self-sustaining fashion until the potential difference between the anode and cathode drops below some critical value. Ignitrons have been used in a variety of pulsed power applications, including the railroad industry, industrial chemical processing, and high-power arc welding. In addition, they might prove useful in terrestrial power grid applications, serving as high-current fault switches, quickly shunting dangerous high-current or high-voltage spikes safely to ground. The motivation for this work stemmed from the fact that high-power, high-reliability, pulsed power devices like the ignitron have been used for ground testing in-space pulsed electric thruster technologies, and the continued use of ignitrons could prove advantageous to the future development and testing of such thrusters. Previous

  13. Development of the electrical power subsystem for the electric propulsion experiment onboard the Space Flyer Unit (SFU)

    SciTech Connect

    Kunii, Y.; Moriai, T.; Sasaki, H.; Okamura, T.; Harada, H.

    1987-05-01

    Bread Board Model of a few kW class electrical power subsystem is being developed for the Electric Propulsion Experiment (EPEX), which is a space experiment program for a quasi-steady MPD thruster system. EPEX is planned to be tested on a Japanese free flying platform, which is planned to be operational in the 1990s. A one-million-cycle endurance test was carried out from December 1985 to January 1986 with a 1-kW-class pulse forming network (PFN) using improved plastic film capacitors of reduced weight. The test was accomplished in a vacuum chamber with arc discharges. The BBM PFN was designed and manufactured with the results of the one-million-cycle endurance test, and a ten-million cycle endurance test is planned starting October 1987. 8 references.

  14. Investigation of the effect of a power feed vacuum gap in solid liner experiments at 1 MA

    SciTech Connect

    Bott-Suzuki, S. C. E-mail: sbottsuzuki@p3ucsd.com; Cordaro, S. W.; Caballero Bendixsen, L. S.; Blesener, I. C.; Atoyan, L.; Byvank, T.; Potter, W.; Bell, K. S.; Kusse, B. R.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.

    2015-09-15

    We present an experimental study of plasma initiation of a solid metal liner at the 1 MA level. In contrast to previous work, we introduce a vacuum gap at one of the liner connections to the power feed to investigate how this affects plasma initiation and to infer how this may affect the symmetry of the liner in compression experiments. We observed that the vacuum gap causes non-uniform plasma initiation both azimuthally and axially in liners, diagnosed by gated optical imaging. Using magnetic field probes external to the liner, we also determined that the optical emission is strongly linked to the current distribution in the liner. The apparent persistent of azimuthal non-uniformities may have implications for fusion-scale liner experiments.

  15. Introduction to HACCP.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction to HACCP Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit USDA-Agricultural Research Service Russell Research Center Athens, GA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov HACCP is an acronym for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point and was initially developed by the Pillsbury Company a...

  16. Hindi, An Active Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, D. N.; Stone, James W.

    This beginning text in Hindi follows the "microwave" style of lesson organization originated by Earl W. Stevick of the Foreign Service Institute. (An explanation of the "microwave" approach, as well as suggestions to the teacher, are provided in the Introduction.) Successful trial versions used in Peace Corps training programs at FSI were expanded…

  17. An Introduction to Psycholinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jodai, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    This paper is written to have a preliminary introduction about psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the interrelation between linguistic factors and psychological aspects. The main subject of research in psycholinguistics is the study of cognitive processes that underlie the comprehension and production of…

  18. Introduction to chiral symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, V.

    1996-01-08

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented.

  19. Introduction to space dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, W. T.

    This Dover edition is an unabridged, corrected republication of the work first published by John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, in 1961.Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Kinematics. 3. Transformation of coordinates. 4. Particle dynamics (satellite orbits). 5. Gyrodynamics. 6. Dynamics of gyroscopic instruments. 7. Space vehicle motion. 8. Performance and optimization.9. Generalized theories of mechanics.

  20. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the eleventh in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel characterization of new biologic...

  1. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  2. Introduction to Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    There are numerous ways to structure the introduction to film course so as to meet the needs of the different types of students who typically enroll. Assuming there is no production component in the course, the teacher is left with two major approaches to choose from--historical and aesthetic. The units in the course will typically be built around…

  3. Introduction: Morality in Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmann, Jorg R.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces a special issue containing a series of articles on the relation of social interaction and morality. The articles analyze actual instances of moral discourse, elucidating the nature and dynamics of the relationship. This introduction discusses morality, discourse, and social science; proto-mortality as a substructure of discourse;…

  4. Introduction to Shakespeare: English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Richard

    The "Introduction to Shakespeare" course in the Quinmester Program involves the careful study of the tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" and the comedy "The Taming of the Shrew," emphasizing language, development of character and theme. The course also includes the study of biographical data relevant to the evolution of Shakespeare's literary genius, and…

  5. Mauritian Creole: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Morris F.; And Others

    The format of this 23-unit course in Mauritian Creole is based on "microwave" cycles, each cycle beginning with the introduction of new material and ending with the use of that material in communication. A small amount of new material is introduced at a time (usually in a monolog, drill, or dialog) which, after a brief bit of practice is used for…

  6. Why SRS Matters - Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul

    2015-01-21

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode provides an introduction to the SRS mission and operations.

  7. 3.1 Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, H.-M.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '3.1 Introduction' of the Chapter '3 Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and Radiotherapy'.

  8. 4.1 Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.1 Introduction' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  9. 5.1 Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almén, A.; Valentin, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '5.1 Introduction' of the Chapter '5 Medical Radiological Protection' with the contents:

  10. 2.1 Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, J. H.; Kasch, K.-U.; Kaul, A.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '2.1 Introduction' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects'.

  11. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.

    1997-02-01

    The Surtsey Test Facility is used to perform scaled experiments simulating High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The experiments investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load. The results from Zion and Surry experiments can be extrapolated to other Westinghouse plants, but predicted containment loads cannot be generalized to all Combustion Engineering (CE) plants. Five CE plants have melt dispersal flow paths which circumvent the main mitigation of containment compartmentalization in most Westinghouse PWRs. Calvert Cliff-like plant geometries and the impact of codispersed water were addressed as part of the DCH issue resolution. Integral effects tests were performed with a scale model of the Calvert Cliffs NPP inside the Surtsey test vessel. The experiments investigated the effects of codispersal of water, steam, and molten core stimulant materials on DCH loads under prototypic accident conditions and plant configurations. The results indicated that large amounts of coejected water reduced the DCH load by a small amount. Large amounts of debris were dispersed from the cavity to the upper dome (via the annular gap). 22 refs., 84 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. Rank products: a simple, yet powerful, new method to detect differentially regulated genes in replicated microarray experiments.

    PubMed

    Breitling, Rainer; Armengaud, Patrick; Amtmann, Anna; Herzyk, Pawel

    2004-08-27

    One of the main objectives in the analysis of microarray experiments is the identification of genes that are differentially expressed under two experimental conditions. This task is complicated by the noisiness of the data and the large number of genes that are examined simultaneously. Here, we present a novel technique for identifying differentially expressed genes that does not originate from a sophisticated statistical model but rather from an analysis of biological reasoning. The new technique, which is based on calculating rank products (RP) from replicate experiments, is fast and simple. At the same time, it provides a straightforward and statistically stringent way to determine the significance level for each gene and allows for the flexible control of the false-detection rate and familywise error rate in the multiple testing situation of a microarray experiment. We use the RP technique on three biological data sets and show that in each case it performs more reliably and consistently than the non-parametric t-test variant implemented in Tusher et al.'s significance analysis of microarrays (SAM). We also show that the RP results are reliable in highly noisy data. An analysis of the physiological function of the identified genes indicates that the RP approach is powerful for identifying biologically relevant expression changes. In addition, using RP can lead to a sharp reduction in the number of replicate experiments needed to obtain reproducible results. PMID:15327980

  13. Powerful Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Jim, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Tett, Lyn, Ed.

    These 15 papers share a common theme: seeking to promote literacy as a powerful tool for challenging existing inequalities and dependencies. "Powerful Literacies" (Jim Crowther et al.) is an introduction. Section 1 establishes the theoretical and policy frameworks that underpin the book and shows how literacy is situated in different geographical…

  14. Operating experience with a 250 kW el molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Manfred; Huppmann, Gerhard

    The MTU MCFC program is carried out by a European consortium comprising the German companies MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Ruhrgas AG and RWE Energie AG as well as the Danish company Energi E2 S/A. MTU acts as consortium leader. The company shares a license and technology exchange agreement with Fuel Cell Energy Inc., Danbury, CT, USA (formerly Energy Research Corp., ERC). The program was started in 1990 and covers a period of about 10 years. The highlights of this program to date are: Considerable improvements regarding component stability have been demonstrated on laboratory scale. Manufacturing technology has been developed to a point which enables the consortium to fabricate the porous components on a 250 cm 2 scale. Several large area stacks with 5000-7660 cm 2 cell area and a power range of 3-10 kW have been tested at the facilities in Munich (Germany) and Kyndby (Denmark). These stacks have been supplied by FCE. As far as the system design is concerned it was soon realized that conventional systems do not hold the promise for competitive power plants. A system analysis led to the conclusion that a new innovative design approach is required. As a result the "Hot Module" system was developed by the consortium. A Hot Module combines all the components of a MCFC system operating at the similar temperatures and pressures into a common thermally insulated vessel. In August 1997 the consortium started its first full size Hot Module MCFC test plant at the facilities of Ruhrgas AG in Dorsten, Germany. The stack was assembled in Munich using 292 cell packages purchased from FCE. The plant is based on the consortium's unique and proprietary "Hot Module" concept. It operates on pipeline natural gas and was grid connected on 16 August 1997. After a total of 1500 h of operation, the plant was intentionally shut down in a controlled manner in April 1998 for post-test analysis. The Hot Module system concept has demonstrated its functionality. The safety concept has been

  15. Line-focus solar central power system, phase I. Subsystem experiment: receiver heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, A J

    1980-04-01

    Wind-tunnel tests confirmed that heat losses due to natural convection are negligible in the line-focus, solar-powered receiver. Anomalies in the forced-convection tests prevented definitive conclusions regarding the more important forced convection. Flow-visualization tests using a water table show much lower velocities inside the receiver cavity than outside, supporting the supposition that the forced-heat transfer should be less than that from a standard exposed cylinder. Furthermore, the water-table tests showed ways to decrease the low velocities in the cavity should this be desired. Further wind-tunnel testing should be done to confirm estimates and to support advanced design. This testing can be done in standard wind tunnels since only the forced convection is of concern.

  16. A compact ultranarrow high-power laser system for experiments with 578 nm ytterbium clock transition

    SciTech Connect

    Cappellini, G.; Lombardi, P.; Mancini, M.; Pagano, G.; Pizzocaro, M.; Fallani, L.; Catani, J.

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we present the realization of a compact, high-power laser system able to excite the ytterbium clock transition at 578 nm. Starting from an external-cavity laser based on a quantum dot chip at 1156 nm with an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator, we were able to obtain up to 60 mW of visible light at 578 nm via frequency doubling. The laser is locked with a 500 kHz bandwidth to an ultra-low-expansion glass cavity stabilized at its zero coefficient of thermal expansion temperature through an original thermal insulation and correction system. This laser allowed the observation of the clock transition in fermionic {sup 173}Y b with a <50 Hz linewidth over 5 min, limited only by a residual frequency drift of some 0.1 Hz/s.

  17. Pulsed Power Issues for the Phillips Laboratory's Capillary Discharge Soft X-Ray Laser Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruden, Edward L.; Graham, Jack D.

    1996-11-01

    The Phillips Laboratory is presently attempting to reproduce the high gain laser results of J. Rocca's Capillary Discharge z-pinch pumped 46.9 nm Ne-like Ar laser. This poster discusses the design and operation of the PL laser's pulsed power circuit. The capillary circuit consists of a low inductance 3nH water capacitor discharged by a coaxial spark gap into a presently 12 cm capillary. The capillary is supplied with 39 kA of current which rises in 20ns. The capillary tube itself is submerged in the same water supply as the capacitor. The effect of the slower speed of electromagnetic propagation in water vs. plastic on the dynamic inductance of the plastic capillary is discussed. Higher current rise rates for the first few ns apparently result from the lag in the EM propagation in the water. This effect may improve implosion uniformity during the initial formative phase of the imploding z- pinch plasma.

  18. A compact ultranarrow high-power laser system for experiments with 578 nm ytterbium clock transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellini, G.; Lombardi, P.; Mancini, M.; Pagano, G.; Pizzocaro, M.; Fallani, L.; Catani, J.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present the realization of a compact, high-power laser system able to excite the ytterbium clock transition at 578 nm. Starting from an external-cavity laser based on a quantum dot chip at 1156 nm with an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator, we were able to obtain up to 60 mW of visible light at 578 nm via frequency doubling. The laser is locked with a 500 kHz bandwidth to an ultra-low-expansion glass cavity stabilized at its zero coefficient of thermal expansion temperature through an original thermal insulation and correction system. This laser allowed the observation of the clock transition in fermionic 173Y b with a <50 Hz linewidth over 5 min, limited only by a residual frequency drift of some 0.1 Hz/s.

  19. The photovoltaic-powered water desalination plant 'SORO' design, start up, operating experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaeusser, G.; Mohn, J.; Petersen, G.

    Design features, operational parameters, and test results of a year of operation of the SORO prototype photovoltaic (PV) reverse osmosis salt water desalinization plant are described. Chemicals are added to the salt water to control the pH, prevent formation of compounds which could plug the flow system, and kill bacteria and slime which might grow in the solution. The water is pressurized and forced into contact with membranes which separate the fresh water from the brackish or sea water. The flow rate in the project was 180 l/h, with the main electrical energy load being the high pressure pump and the well pump. Batteries are charged before current is switched to power the desalinization system. The plant yielded 1.50 cu of fresh water/day and is concluded to be a viable design for scale-up to larger production figures, besides being economically competitive with solar desalinization installations where the salt content is 2000 ppm.

  20. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    Many countries--reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems--are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy (RE) on the grid. Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Colorado and Texas), for example, have effectively integrated variable RE utilizing diverse approaches. Analysis of the results from these case studies reveals a wide range of mechanisms that can be used to accommodate high penetrations of variable RE (e.g., from new market designs to centralized planning). Nevertheless, the myriad approaches collectively suggest that governments can best enable variable RE grid integration by implementing best practices in five areas of intervention: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations.

  1. Interferometric adaptive optics for high-power laser beam correction in fast ignition experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Homoelle, D C; Baker, K L; Patel, P K; Utterback, E; Rushford, M C; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-10-22

    We present the design for a high-speed adaptive optics system that will be used to achieve the necessary laser pointing and beam-quality performance for initial fast-ignition coupling experiments. This design makes use of a 32 x 32 pixellated MEMS device as the adaptive optic and a two-channel interferometer as the wave-front sensor. We present results from a system testbed that demonstrates improvement of the Strehl ratio from 0.09 to 0.61 and stabilization of beam pointing from {approx}75{micro}rad to <2{micro}rad.

  2. Emergent Power-Law Phase in the 2D Heisenberg Windmill Antiferromagnet: A Computational Experiment.

    PubMed

    Jeevanesan, Bhilahari; Chandra, Premala; Coleman, Piers; Orth, Peter P

    2015-10-23

    In an extensive computational experiment, we test Polyakov's conjecture that under certain circumstances an isotropic Heisenberg model can develop algebraic spin correlations. We demonstrate the emergence of a multispin U(1) order parameter in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet on interpenetrating honeycomb and triangular lattices. The correlations of this relative phase angle are observed to decay algebraically at intermediate temperatures in an extended critical phase. Using finite-size scaling we show that both phase transitions are of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless type, and at lower temperatures we find long-range Z(6) order. PMID:26551137

  3. Configuration and Heating Power Dependence of Edge Parameters and H-mode Dynamics in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Bush; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; J. Boedo; E.D. Fredrickson; S.M. Kaye; S. Kubota; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; R.J. Maqueda; S.A. Sabbagh; V.A. Soukhanovskii; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; J.B. Wilgen; S.J. Zweben; W.M. Davis; D.A. Gates; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; H.W. Kugel; D. Mastrovito; S. Medley; J.E. Menard; D. Mueller; M. Ono; F. Paoletti; S.J. Paul; Y-K.M. Peng; R. Raman; P.G. Roney; A.L. Roquemore; C.H. Skinner; E.J. Synakowski; G. Taylor; the NSTX Team

    2003-01-09

    Edge parameters play a critical role in H-mode (high-confinement mode) access, which is a key component of plasma discharge optimization in present-day toroidal confinement experiments and the design of next-generation devices. Because the edge magnetic topology of a spherical torus (ST) differs from a conventional aspect ratio tokamak, H-modes in STs exhibit important differences compared with tokamaks. The dependence of the NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) edge plasma on heating power, including the L-H transition requirements and the occurrence of edge-localized modes (ELMs), and on divertor configuration is quantified. Comparisons between good L-modes (low-confinement modes) and H-modes show greater differences in the ion channel than the electron channel. The threshold power for the H-mode transition in NSTX is generally above the predictions of a recent ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) scaling. Correlations of transition and ELM phenomena with turbulent fluctuations revealed by Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) and reflectometry are observed. In both single-null and double-null divertor discharges, the density peaks off-axis, sometimes developing prominent ''ears'' which can be sustained for many energy confinement times, tau subscript ''E'', in the absence of ELMs. A wide variety of ELM behavior is observed, and ELM characteristics depend on configuration and fueling.

  4. A Proof-of-Principal Experiment for a High-Power Target System

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk,H.G.; Samulyak, R.; Simos, N.; Tsang, T.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Haseroth, H.; Haug, F.; Lettry, J.; Graves, V. B.; Spampinato, P. T.; McDonald, K. T.; Bennett, J. R. J.; Edgecock, T. R.

    2006-06-26

    The MERIT experiment, to be run at CERN in 2007, is a proof-of-principle test for a target system that converts a 4-MW proton beam into a high-intensity muon beam for either a neutrino factory complex or a muon collider. The target system is based on a free mercury jet that intercepts an intense proton beam inside a 15-T solenoidal magnetic field. A muon collider or neutrino factory requires intense beams of muons, which are obtained from the decay of pions. Pion production by a proton beam is maximized by use of a high-Z target such as mercury. A liquid jet target has the advantages over a solid target that a flowing jet can readily remove heat and that it is immune to radiation damage. However the proton beam energy disrupts the jet and the system could be operationally unstable. Efficient capture of low-energy secondary pions (for transfer into the subsequent muon accelerator complex) requires that the target system be immersed in a strong magnetic field of solenoidal geometry. This magnetic field should stabilize the mercury flow in regions of nearly uniform field, but it perturbs the liquid metal jet as it enters the field. Hence, the behavior of the mercury jet plus an intense proton beam inside a strong magnetic field needs to be understood better before resources are committed to a larger facility. The MERIT experiment is to be conducted at CERN in 2007 for this purpose.

  5. Magnetic flux compression experiments on the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, R. D.; Gomez, M. R.; Hansen, S. B.; Jennings, C. A.; Bliss, D. E.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Awe, T. J.; Martin, M. R.; Sinars, D. B.; Greenly, J. B.; Intrator, T. P.; Weber, T. E.

    2014-10-01

    We report on the progress made to date for diagnosing magnetic flux compression on Z. Each experiment consisted of an initially solid Be or Al liner (cylindrical tube), which was imploded using Z's drive current (0-20 MA in 100 ns). The imploding liner compresses a 10-T axial seed field, Bz(0), supplied by an independently driven Helmholtz coil pair. Assuming perfect flux conservation, the axial field amplification should be well described by Bz (t) =Bz (0) × [ R (0) / R (t) ]2 , where R is the liner's inner surface radius. With perfect flux conservation, Bz and dBz/dt values exceeding 104 T and 1012 T/s, respectively, are expected. These large values, the diminishing liner volume, and the harsh environment on Z, make it particularly challenging to measure these fields. We report our latest efforts to do so using three primary techniques: (1) micro B-dot probes, (2) streaked visible Zeeman spectroscopy, and (3) fiber-based Faraday rotation. We will also briefly highlight some recent developments using neutron diagnostics (ratio of secondary DT to primary DD neutrons and secondary DT neutron energy spectra) to assess the degree of magnetization in fully integrated magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) experiments on Z. This project was funded in part by Sandia's LDRD program and US DOE-NNSA Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Applying the results of probablistic safety analysis of nuclear power plants: a survey of experience

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.B.; Herttrich, M.; Koeberlein, K.; Schwager

    1985-01-01

    To date, discussions of the many different types of potential applications of PRA/PSA results and insights to safety-decision-making have been mainly theoretical. Various safety goals have been proposed as decision criteria. However, the discussion on the role of PRA/PSA and Safety Goals in safety-decision-making, especially in licensing, is controversial. A Working Group of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency is completing a compilation and evaluation of real examples of past and present practical experience with the application of probabilistic methods in reactor safety decision-making, with the idea of developing a common understanding in this area. More than fifty different cases where PRA has influenced decision-making have been surveyed. These include, for example, regulatory changes, fixing of licensing requirements, plant specific modifications of design of operation, prioritization of safety issues and emergency planning. This feedback of experience - both positive and negative - with PRA/PSA applications is considered to provide guidance on how probabilistic approaches can be introduced into current safety practices, and on desirable future developments in probabilistic methods and specific PSA/PRA studies. Generic insights from the survey are given.

  7. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in CrossFit exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hatchett, A; Judge, LW; Breaux, ME; Marcus, L

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time) with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete), VO2max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p < 0.05) in the model. The second workout (repetitions), when examined similarly using regression, only resulted in CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p < 0.05). The results of the study suggest that a history of participation in CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success. PMID:26681834

  8. Ultrasonic power transfer from a spherical acoustic wave source to a free-free piezoelectric receiver: Modeling and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, S.; Gray, M.; Erturk, A.

    2015-03-01

    Contactless powering of small electronic components has lately received growing attention for wireless applications in which battery replacement or tethered charging is undesired or simply impossible, and ambient energy harvesting is not a viable solution. As an alternative to well-studied methods of contactless energy transfer, such as the inductive coupling method, the use of ultrasonic waves transmitted and received by piezoelectric devices enables larger power transmission distances, which is critical especially for deep-implanted electronic devices. Moreover, energy transfer by means of acoustic waves is well suited in situations where no electromagnetic fields are allowed. The limited literature of ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer is mainly centered on proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this method, lacking experimentally validated modeling efforts for the resulting multiphysics problem that couples the source and receiver dynamics with domain acoustics. In this work, we present fully coupled analytical, numerical, and experimental multiphysics investigations for ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer from a spherical wave source to a piezoelectric receiver bar that operates in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity. The fluid-loaded piezoelectric receiver under free-free mechanical boundary conditions is shunted to an electrical load for quantifying the electrical power output for a given acoustic source strength of the transmitter. The analytical acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling framework is validated experimentally, and the effects of system parameters are reported along with optimal electrical loading and frequency conditions of the receiver.

  9. Utility experience with a 250-kW molten carbonate fuel cell cogeneration power plant at NAS Miramar, San Diego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, R. A.; Otahal, J.

    This paper focuses on the strategy and experience of San Diego Gas and Electric with the development and demonstration of a proof of concept 250-kW internally manifolded heat exchanger (IMHEX®) carbonate fuel cell power plant. The plant was installed, commissioned, and operated by San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) in a cogeneration mode at the Naval Air Station (NAS) at Miramar in San Diego. These activities were part of a collaborative effort between SDG&E and M-C Power's Program team (IMHEX® Team). The IMHEX® Team consists of M-C Power, Bechtel Engineering, Stewart and Stevenson, and the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The technical aspects of the plant's commissioning and operation were addressed by my colleague, J. Otahal, in a poster presentation. Our activities in carbonate fuel cell development are unique because of the level of involvement by an investor-owned utility in the development, engineering, installation, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell demonstration plant. The following topics are discussed in this paper: (i) SDG&E's involvement in the development of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) technology; (ii) the active role in engineering and specification of the IMHEX® MCFC demonstration plant; (iii) responsibility for installation, commissioning, and operation; (iv) utility role in technology development and application of MCFC in a restructured and competitive environment; (v) summary.

  10. Ultrasonic power transfer from a spherical acoustic wave source to a free-free piezoelectric receiver: Modeling and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shahab, S.; Gray, M.; Erturk, A.

    2015-03-14

    Contactless powering of small electronic components has lately received growing attention for wireless applications in which battery replacement or tethered charging is undesired or simply impossible, and ambient energy harvesting is not a viable solution. As an alternative to well-studied methods of contactless energy transfer, such as the inductive coupling method, the use of ultrasonic waves transmitted and received by piezoelectric devices enables larger power transmission distances, which is critical especially for deep-implanted electronic devices. Moreover, energy transfer by means of acoustic waves is well suited in situations where no electromagnetic fields are allowed. The limited literature of ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer is mainly centered on proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this method, lacking experimentally validated modeling efforts for the resulting multiphysics problem that couples the source and receiver dynamics with domain acoustics. In this work, we present fully coupled analytical, numerical, and experimental multiphysics investigations for ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer from a spherical wave source to a piezoelectric receiver bar that operates in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity. The fluid-loaded piezoelectric receiver under free-free mechanical boundary conditions is shunted to an electrical load for quantifying the electrical power output for a given acoustic source strength of the transmitter. The analytical acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling framework is validated experimentally, and the effects of system parameters are reported along with optimal electrical loading and frequency conditions of the receiver.

  11. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in CrossFit exercise.

    PubMed

    Bellar, D; Hatchett, A; Judge, L W; Breaux, M E; Marcus, L

    2015-11-01

    CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time) with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete), VO2max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p < 0.05) in the model. The second workout (repetitions), when examined similarly using regression, only resulted in CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p < 0.05). The results of the study suggest that a history of participation in CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success. PMID:26681834

  12. All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute experience in using difficult to burn fuels in the power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugov, A. N.; Ryabov, G. A.; Shtegman, A. V.; Ryzhii, I. A.; Litun, D. S.

    2016-07-01

    This article presents the results of the research carried out at the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (VTI) aimed at using saline coal, municipal solid waste and bark waste, sunflower husk, and nesting/ manure materials from poultry farms. The results of saline coal burning experience in Troitsk and Verkhny Tagil thermal power plants (TPP) show that when switching the boiler to this coal, it is necessary to take into account its operating reliability and environmental safety. Due to increased chlorine content in saline coal, the concentration of hydrogen chloride can make over 500 mg/m3. That this very fact causes the sharp increase of acidity in sludge and the resulting damage of hydraulic ash removal system equipment at these power stations has been proven. High concentration of HCl can trigger damage of the steam superheater due to high-temperature corrosion and result in a danger of low-temperature corrosion of air heating surfaces. Besides, increased HCl emissions worsen the environmental characteristics of the boiler operation on the whole. The data on waste-to-energy research for municipal solid waste (MSW) has been generalized. Based on the results of mastering various technologies of MSW thermal processing at special plants nos. 2 and 4 in Moscow, as well as laboratory, bench, and industrial studies, the principal technical solutions to be implemented in the modern domestic thermal power plant with the installed capacity of 24 MW and MSW as the primary fuel type has been developed. The experience of the VTI in burning various kinds of organic waste—bark waste, sunflower husk, and nesting/manure materials from poultry farms—has been analyzed.

  13. Model experiments of fast ignition with coaxial high-power laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Katsumasa; Sunahara, A.; Tanaka, Kazuo A.; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Miyakoshi, Takeshi; Otani, H.; Fukao, Mitsuhiro; Heya, Manabu; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Kitagawa, Yoneyoshi; Kodama, Ryosuke; Mima, Kunioki; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Takabe, Hideaki; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko

    2001-04-01

    An imploded plasma core is irradiated by a 100 ps laser pulse in a model experiments of fast ignition. Additional laser pulses for drilling and heating are introduced co- axially with the laser beams for the implosion. The preformed imploded core is created by the 12 beams of 0.53 micrometers laser with the total energy of 800 J. The additional heating pluses contain 100 ps pulses separated by 300 ps at the wavelength of 1.06 micrometers with the total energy of 320J. The first pulse is intended for drilling the coronal pulses surrounding the core and the second is for addition heating of the core. We measured the imploded core additionally heated with 100 ps pulses.

  14. Computation and Experiment: A Powerful Combination to Understand and Predict Reactivities.

    PubMed

    Sperger, Theresa; Sanhueza, Italo A; Schoenebeck, Franziska

    2016-06-21

    Computational chemistry has become an established tool for the study of the origins of chemical phenomena and examination of molecular properties. Because of major advances in theory, hardware and software, calculations of molecular processes can nowadays be done with reasonable accuracy on a time-scale that is competitive or even faster than experiments. This overview will highlight broad applications of computational chemistry in the study of organic and organometallic reactivities, including catalytic (NHC-, Cu-, Pd-, Ni-catalyzed) and noncatalytic examples of relevance to organic synthesis. The selected examples showcase the ability of computational chemistry to rationalize and also predict reactivities of broad significance. A particular emphasis is placed on the synergistic interplay of computations and experiments. It is discussed how this approach allows one to (i) gain greater insight than the isolated techniques, (ii) inspire novel chemistry avenues, and (iii) assist in reaction development. Examples of successful rationalizations of reactivities are discussed, including the elucidation of mechanistic features (radical versus polar) and origins of stereoselectivity in NHC-catalyzed reactions as well as the rationalization of ligand effects on ligation states and selectivity in Pd- and Ni-catalyzed transformations. Beyond explaining, the synergistic interplay of computation and experiments is then discussed, showcasing the identification of the likely catalytically active species as a function of ligand, additive, and solvent in Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. These may vary between mono- or bisphosphine-bound or even anionic Pd complexes in polar media in the presence of coordinating additives. These fundamental studies also inspired avenues in catalysis via dinuclear Pd(I) cycles. Detailed mechanistic studies supporting the direct reactivity of Pd(I)-Pd(I) with aryl halides as well as applications of air-stable dinuclear Pd(I) catalysts are

  15. Status of power generation experiments in the NASA Lewis closed cycle MHD facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, R. J.; Nichols, L. D.

    1971-01-01

    The design and operation of the closed cycle MHD facility is discussed and results obtained in recent experiments are presented. The main components of the facility are a compressor, recuperative heat exchanger, heater, nozzle, MHD channel with 28 pairs of thoriated tungsten electrodes, cesium condenser, and an argon cooler. The facility has been operated at temperatures up to 2100 K with a cesium-seeded argon working fluid. At low magnetic field strengths, the open circuit voltage, Hall voltage and short circuit current obtained are 90, 69, and 47 percent of the theoretical equilibrium values, respectively. Comparison of this data with a wall and boundary layer leakage theory indicates that the generator has shorting paths in the Hall direction.

  16. Evaluation of home energy audit and retrofit loan programs in Minnesota: the Northern States Power experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.; Thornsjo, M.; Sundin, D.

    1983-12-01

    Northern States Power NPS, the largest utility in Minnesota, operates several residential energy conservation programs. A detailed quantitative evaluation of two of these programs is described. The Minnesota Energy Conservation Service (MECS), provides home energy audits and related services to eligible households (who live in structures with four or fewer dwelling units and pay gas or electricity bills to a utility participating in MECS). Loans are available to a portion of NSP's customers for installation of retrofit measures recommended in a MECS audit: low-interest installment loans to City of St. Paul households and deferred payment low-interest loans to a pilot group of St. Paul area households (constituting one of NSP's Public utility Conservation Investment Programs, PUCIP). This evaluation showed that NSP's MECS and PUCIP programs led to statistically significant energy savings. The value of these energy savings was sufficient to make the programs cost-effective to participants; however, the programs are not economically attractive to NSP nonparticipating ratepayers when viewed from the perspective of minimizing natural gas rates. The economics of the MECS program are neutral from the social (i.e., state) perspective. The PUCIP program is not cost-effective to the state.

  17. Design of Biomass Gasification and Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydary, Juma; Jelemenský, Ľudovít

    Three types of wooden biomass were characterized by calorimetric measurements, proximate and elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, kinetics of thermal decomposition and gas composition. Using the Aspen steady state simulation, a plant with the processing capacity of 18 ton/h of biomass was modelled based on the experimental data obtained under laboratory conditions. The gasification process has been modelled in two steps. The first step of the model describes the thermal decomposition of the biomass based on a kinetic model and in the second step, the equilibrium composition of syngas is calculated by the Gibbs free energy of the expected components. The computer model of the plant besides the reactor model includes also a simulation of other plant facilities such as: feed drying employing the energy from the process, ash and tar separation, gas-steam cycle, and hot water production heat exchangers. The effect of the steam to air ratio on the conversion, syngas composition, and reactor temperature was analyzed. Employment of oxygen and air for partial combustion was compared. The designed computer model using all Aspen simulation facilities can be applied to study different aspects of biomass gasification in a Combined Heat and Power plant.

  18. Sensitivity and power deposition in a high-field imaging experiment.

    PubMed

    Hoult, D I; Phil, D

    2000-07-01

    Image signal-to-noise ratio and power dissipation are investigated theoretically up to 400 MHz. While the text is mathematical, the figures give insights into predictions. Hertz potential is introduced for probe modeling where charge separation cannot be ignored. Using a spherical geometry, the potential from current loops that would produce a homogeneous static B1 field is calculated; at high frequency it is shown to create an unnecessarily inhomogeneous field. However, a totally homogeneous field is shown to be unattainable. Boundary conditions are solved for circularly polarized fields, and strategies for limited shimming of the sample B1 field are then presented. A distinction is drawn between dielectric resonance and spatial field focusing. At high frequency, the region of maximum specific absorption is shown to move inside the sample and decrease. From the fields in both rotating frames, the signal-to-noise ratio is derived and compared with the traditional, low-frequency formulation. On average, it is mostly found to be slightly larger at high frequency. Nevertheless, the free induction decay is sometimes found to be annulled. PMID:10931564

  19. MIR Solar Array Return Experiment: Power Performance Measurements and Molecular Contamination Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James; Kinard, William; Brinker, David; Scheiman, David; Banks, Bruce; Albyn, Keith; Hornung, Steve; See, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A solar array segment was recently removed from the Mir core module and returned for ground-based analysis. The segment, which is similar to the ones the Russians have provided for the FGB and Service Modules, was microscopically examined and disassembled by US and Russian science teams. Laboratory analyses have shown the segment to he heavily contaminated by an organic silicone coating, which was converted to an organic silicate film by reactions with atomic oxygen within the. orbital flight environment. The source of the contaminant was a silicone polymer used by the Russians as an adhesive and bonding agent during segment construction. During its life cycle, the array experienced a reduction in power performance from approx. 12%, when it was new and first deployed, to approx. 5%, when it was taken out of service. However, current-voltage measurements of three contaminated cells and three pristine, Russian standard cells have shown that very little degradation in solar array performance was due to the silicate contaminants on the solar cell surfaces. The primary sources of performance degradation is attributed to "thermal hot-spotting" or electrical arcing; orbital debris and micrometeoroid impacts; and possibly to the degradation of the solar cells and interconnects caused by radiation damage from high energy protons and electrons.

  20. The small community solar thermal power experiment. Parabolic dish technology for industrial process heat application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzien, R. E.; Rodriguez, D.

    1981-01-01

    Aspects of incorporating a thermal energy transport system (ETS) into a field of parabolic dish collectors for industrial process heat (IPH) applications were investigated. Specific objectives are to: (1) verify the mathematical optimization of pipe diameters and insulation thicknesses calculated by a computer code; (2) verify the cost model for pipe network costs using conventional pipe network construction; (3) develop a design and the associated production costs for incorporating risers and downcomers on a low cost concentrator (LCC); (4) investigate the cost reduction of using unconventional pipe construction technology. The pipe network design and costs for a particular IPH application, specifically solar thermally enhanced oil recovery (STEOR) are analyzed. The application involves the hybrid operation of a solar powered steam generator in conjunction with a steam generator using fossil fuels to generate STEOR steam for wells. It is concluded that the STEOR application provides a baseline pipe network geometry used for optimization studies of pipe diameter and insulation thickness, and for development of comparative cost data, and operating parameters for the design of riser/downcomer modifications to the low cost concentrator.

  1. Laser-Powered, Vertical Flight Experiments at the High Energy Laser System Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Franklin B., Jr.; Larson, C. W.

    2000-11-01

    In 1996, the Air Force Research Laboratory's Propulsion Division at Edwards AFB initiated a program that had as its main objective to launch a laser-propelled vehicle into a suborbital trajectory within a period of 5 years in order to demonstrate the concept and its attractive features. The concept is a nanosatellite in which the laser propulsion engine and satellite hardware are intimately shared. The Lightcraft Technology Demonstration Program was planned in three phases. Phase I, Lightcraft Concept Demonstration, was to demonstrate the feasibility of the basic concept. This phase ended in December 1998. Phase II, Lightcraft Vertical Launches to Extreme Altitudes, was initiated in January 1999, and is a five-year effort designed to extend Lightcraft flights in sounding rocket trajectories to 30 km with a 100 kW CO2 laser. Phase III, Lightcraft Dual Mode Vehicle, is a two year effort designed to launch the first laser-propelled vehicle, fully functional, into space. This phase will require the construction of a megawatt class CO2 laser with appropriate optics to meet the power beam propagation requirements.

  2. The CERTO Beacon on CASSIOPE/e-POP and Experiments Using High-Power HF Ionospheric Heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefring, Carl L.; Bernhardt, Paul A.; James, H. Gordon; Parris, Richard Todd

    2015-06-01

    A new Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography (CERTO) beacon is on the CASSIOPE satellite and part of the enhanced-Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) suite of scientific instruments. CERTO signals can be used to measure ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) and radio scintillations along propagation paths between CERTO and receivers. The combination of CERTO and the array of e-POP in-situ diagnostics form a powerful tool for studying ionospheric plasma processes that have not been previously possible. Of note, the combination CERTO and the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI), a modern digital receiver, which measures between 10 Hz to 18 MHz in selectable bands allows for innovative High Frequency (HF) radio propagation experiments. The use of high-power HF ionospheric heating facilities for such experiments further allows for repeatable studies of a number of important plasma processes. The new CERTO beacon transmits un-modulated, phase-coherent waves at 150, 400, and 1067 MHz with either right-hand-circular or linear polarization and TEC is measured using either differential phase and/or Faraday rotation. With a linear array of CERTO receivers, TEC data can be used for tomographic imaging of the ionosphere yielding two-dimensional maps of the plasma below the satellite orbit. In addition, the three CERTO frequencies cover a wide range for determination of radio scintillation effects caused by diffraction from propagation through ionospheric irregularities. We will describe the CERTO beacon and several potential innovative experiments using HF heating facilities in conjunction with CERTO, the RRI and other e-POP instruments.

  3. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boya, Luis J.

    2011-01-01

    This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old) five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  4. Introduction to Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.

  5. Insect resistance in sweetpotato plant introduction accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-five sweetpotato plant introductions (PI) were evaluated in 17 field experiments at the USDA, ARS, U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC (12 evaluations, 1997-2010), the Clemson University, Edisto Research and Education Center, Blackville, SC (2 evaluations, 1998-1999), and the University ...

  6. Computer Awareness: An Introduction for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Walter

    Written for elementary and secondary school teachers with little or no experience with the computer, this book provides an overview of the computer and the role it can play in the classroom. An introduction presents a brief history of computing and a brief discussion of computers in society and computer literacy. Individual chapters cover…

  7. Earth System Monitoring, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John

    This section provides sensing and data collection methodologies, as well as an understanding of Earth's climate parameters and natural and man-made phenomena, to support a scientific assessment of the Earth system as a whole, and its response to natural and human-induced changes. The coverage ranges from climate change factors and extreme weather and fires to oil spill tracking and volcanic eruptions. This serves as a basis to enable improved prediction and response to climate change, weather, and natural hazards as well as dissemination of the data and conclusions. The data collection systems include satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and land- and ocean-based monitoring stations. Our objective in this treatise is to provide a significant portion of the scientific and engineering basis of Earth system monitoring and to provide this in 17 detailed articles or chapters written at a level for use by university students through practicing professionals. The reader is also directed to the closely related sections on Ecological Systems, Introduction and also Climate Change Modeling Methodology, Introduction as well as Climate Change Remediation, Introduction to. For ease of use by students, each article begins with a glossary of terms, while at an average length of 25 print pages each, sufficient detail is presented for use by professionals in government, universities, and industries. The chapters are individually summarized below.

  8. Measurement of the cosmic microwave background polarization lensing power spectrum with the POLARBEAR experiment.

    PubMed

    Ade, P A R; Akiba, Y; Anthony, A E; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Dobbs, M; Elleflot, T; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Flanigan, D; Gilbert, A; Grainger, W; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Howard, J; Hyland, P; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Le Jeune, M; Lee, A T; Linder, E; Leitch, E M; Lungu, M; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Meng, X; Miller, N J; Morii, H; Moyerman, S; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Quealy, E; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Schanning, I; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B; Shimizu, A; Shimmin, C; Shimon, M; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Spieler, H; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Takakura, S; Tomaru, T; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O

    2014-07-11

    Gravitational lensing due to the large-scale distribution of matter in the cosmos distorts the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby induces new, small-scale B-mode polarization. This signal carries detailed information about the distribution of all the gravitating matter between the observer and CMB last scattering surface. We report the first direct evidence for polarization lensing based on purely CMB information, from using the four-point correlations of even- and odd-parity E- and B-mode polarization mapped over ∼30 square degrees of the sky measured by the POLARBEAR experiment. These data were analyzed using a blind analysis framework and checked for spurious systematic contamination using null tests and simulations. Evidence for the signal of polarization lensing and lensing B modes is found at 4.2σ (stat+sys) significance. The amplitude of matter fluctuations is measured with a precision of 27%, and is found to be consistent with the Lambda cold dark matter cosmological model. This measurement demonstrates a new technique, capable of mapping all gravitating matter in the Universe, sensitive to the sum of neutrino masses, and essential for cleaning the lensing B-mode signal in searches for primordial gravitational waves. PMID:25062161

  9. Simulation of high power broadband cyclotron autoresonance maser amplifier and electron beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speirs, D. C.; Phelps, A. D. R.; Konoplev, I. V.; Cross, A. W.; He, W.

    2004-04-01

    The design, simulation, and preliminary experimental implementation of an efficient, broadband cyclotron autoresonance maser (CARM) amplifier operating over the 9-13 GHz frequency band is presented. The amplifier is based on a high current accelerator capable of generating a ˜35 A pencil electron beam at an accelerating voltage of ˜450 kV. A full three-dimensional numerical model of the CARM amplifier has been constructed within the particle-in-cell code KARAT taking into account electron beam parameters derived from simulation and experiment. An electron beam current of 32A at an accelerating voltage of 400 kV was measured. Numerical simulations demonstrate the possibility of obtaining 37 dB gain and an interaction efficiency of 17%. In addition a viable amplification bandwidth of 9-13 GHz is apparent, with a minimum gain and efficiency of 25 dB and 10%, respectively, at the boundaries of the amplification band. The peak modeled efficiency and gain (17%, 37 dB) were obtained at a frequency of 12 GHz. Computational simulations have also revealed correlation between the instantaneous amplification bandwidth and the spectral width of cyclotron superradiant emission within the system.

  10. Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Lensing Power Spectrum with the POLARBEAR Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Anthony, A. E.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Flanigan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Grainger, W.; Halverson, N. W.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Howard, J.; Hyland, P.; Inoue, Y.; Jaehnig, G. C.; Jaffe, A.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Linder, E.; Leitch, E. M.; Lungu, M.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Meng, X.; Miller, N. J.; Morii, H.; Moyerman, S.; Myers, M. J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Quealy, E.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Schanning, I.; Schenck, D. E.; Sherwin, B.; Shimizu, A.; Shimmin, C.; Shimon, M.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Spieler, H.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Takakura, S.; Tomaru, T.; Wilson, B.; Yadav, A.; Zahn, O.; Polarbear Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Gravitational lensing due to the large-scale distribution of matter in the cosmos distorts the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby induces new, small-scale B-mode polarization. This signal carries detailed information about the distribution of all the gravitating matter between the observer and CMB last scattering surface. We report the first direct evidence for polarization lensing based on purely CMB information, from using the four-point correlations of even- and odd-parity E- and B-mode polarization mapped over ˜30 square degrees of the sky measured by the POLARBEAR experiment. These data were analyzed using a blind analysis framework and checked for spurious systematic contamination using null tests and simulations. Evidence for the signal of polarization lensing and lensing B modes is found at 4.2σ (stat +sys) significance. The amplitude of matter fluctuations is measured with a precision of 27%, and is found to be consistent with the Lambda cold dark matter cosmological model. This measurement demonstrates a new technique, capable of mapping all gravitating matter in the Universe, sensitive to the sum of neutrino masses, and essential for cleaning the lensing B-mode signal in searches for primordial gravitational waves.

  11. Electron Acceleration and Ionization Production in High-Power Heating Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, E. V.; Pedersen, T.

    2012-12-01

    Recent ionospheric modification experiments with the 3.6 MW transmitter at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska led to discovery of artificial ionization descending from the nominal interaction altitude in the background F-region ionosphere by ~60-80 km. Artificial ionization production is indicated by significant 427.8 nm emissions from the 1st negative band of N2+ and the appearance of transmitter-induced bottomside traces in ionosonde data during the periods of most intense optical emissions. However, the exact mechanisms producing the artificial plasmas remain to be determined. Yet the only existing theoretical models explain the development of artificial plasma as an ionizing wavefront moving downward due to ionization by electrons accelerated by HF-excited strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) generated near the plasma resonance, where the pump frequency matches the plasma frequency. However, the observations suggest also the significance of interactions with upper hybrid and electron Bernstein waves near multiples of the electron gyrofrequency. We describe recent observations and discuss suitable acceleration mechanisms.

  12. Experiments with Uas Imagery for Automatic Modeling of Power Line 3d Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźków, G.; Vander Jagt, B.; Toth, C.

    2015-08-01

    The ideal mapping technology for transmission line inspection is the airborne LiDAR executed from helicopter platforms. It allows for full 3D geometry extraction in highly automated manner. Large scale aerial images can be also used for this purpose, however, automation is possible only for finding transmission line positions (2D geometry), and the sag needs to be estimated manually. For longer lines, these techniques are less expensive than ground surveys, yet they are still expensive. UAS technology has the potential to reduce these costs, especially if using inexpensive platforms with consumer grade cameras. This study investigates the potential of using high resolution UAS imagery for automatic modeling of transmission line 3D geometry. The key point of this experiment was to employ dense matching algorithms to appropriately acquired UAS images to have points created also on wires. This allowed to model the 3D geometry of transmission lines similarly to LiDAR acquired point clouds. Results showed that the transmission line modeling is possible with a high internal accuracy for both, horizontal and vertical directions, even when wires were represented by a partial (sparse) point cloud.

  13. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; Genoni, T. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jennings, C. A.; Jobe, D. O.; Jones, B. M.; Jones, M. C.; Jones, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Lash, J. S.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Leeper, R. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Long, F. W.; Lucero, D. J.; Madrid, E. A.; Martin, M. R.; Matzen, M. K.; Mazarakis, M. G.; McBride, R. D.; McKee, G. R.; Miller, C. L.; Moore, J. K.; Mostrom, C. B.; Mulville, T. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reisman, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Rochau, G. E.; Rose, D. V.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Schmit, P. F.; Schneider, R. F.; Schwarz, J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Thoma, C.; Vesey, R. A.; Wakeland, P. E.; Welch, D. R.; Wisher, M. L.; Woodworth, J. R.; Bailey, J. E.; Rovang, D. C.

    2015-11-30

    ) simulations suggest Z 300 will deliver 4.3 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 18 MJ. Z 800 is 52 m in diameter and stores 130 MJ. This accelerator generates 890 TW at the output of its LTD system, and delivers 65 MA in 113 ns to a MagLIF target. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF liner is 2500 TW. The principal goal of Z 800 is to achieve high-yield thermonuclear fusion; i.e., a yield that exceeds the energy initially stored by the accelerator’s capacitors. 2D MHD simulations suggest Z 800 will deliver 8.0 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 440 MJ. Z 300 and Z 800, or variations of these accelerators, will allow the international high-energy-density-physics community to conduct advanced inertial-confinement-fusion, radiation-physics, material-physics, and laboratory-astrophysics experiments over heretofore-inaccessible parameter regimes.

  14. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; et al

    2015-11-30

    ) simulations suggest Z 300 will deliver 4.3 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 18 MJ. Z 800 is 52 m in diameter and stores 130 MJ. This accelerator generates 890 TW at the output of its LTD system, and delivers 65 MA in 113 ns to a MagLIF target. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF liner is 2500 TW. The principal goal of Z 800 is to achieve high-yield thermonuclear fusion; i.e., a yield that exceeds the energy initially stored by the accelerator’s capacitors. 2D MHD simulations suggest Z 800 will deliver 8.0 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 440 MJ. Z 300 and Z 800, or variations of these accelerators, will allow the international high-energy-density-physics community to conduct advanced inertial-confinement-fusion, radiation-physics, material-physics, and laboratory-astrophysics experiments over heretofore-inaccessible parameter regimes.« less

  15. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bailey, J. E.; Bennett, N. L.; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; Genoni, T. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jennings, C. A.; Jobe, D. O.; Jones, B. M.; Jones, M. C.; Jones, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Lash, J. S.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Leeper, R. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Long, F. W.; Lucero, D. J.; Madrid, E. A.; Martin, M. R.; Matzen, M. K.; Mazarakis, M. G.; McBride, R. D.; McKee, G. R.; Miller, C. L.; Moore, J. K.; Mostrom, C. B.; Mulville, T. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reisman, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Rochau, G. E.; Rose, D. V.; Rovang, D. C.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Schmit, P. F.; Schneider, R. F.; Schwarz, J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Thoma, C.; Vesey, R. A.; Wakeland, P. E.; Welch, D. R.; Wisher, M. L.; Woodworth, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    suggest Z 300 will deliver 4.3 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 18 MJ. Z 800 is 52 m in diameter and stores 130 MJ. This accelerator generates 890 TW at the output of its LTD system, and delivers 65 MA in 113 ns to a MagLIF target. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF liner is 2500 TW. The principal goal of Z 800 is to achieve high-yield thermonuclear fusion; i.e., a yield that exceeds the energy initially stored by the accelerator's capacitors. 2D MHD simulations suggest Z 800 will deliver 8.0 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 440 MJ. Z 300 and Z 800, or variations of these accelerators, will allow the international high-energy-density-physics community to conduct advanced inertial-confinement-fusion, radiation-physics, material-physics, and laboratory-astrophysics experiments over heretofore-inaccessible parameter regimes.

  16. Direct containment heating experiments in Zion Nuclear Power Plant Geometry using prototypic core materials, the U2 test

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, J.L.; McUmber, L.M.; Spencer, B.W.

    1993-05-01

    A third Direct Containment Heating (DCH) experiments has been completed which utilizes prototypic core materials. The reactor material tests are a follow on to the Integral Effects Testing (IET) DCH program. The IET series of tests primarily addressed the effect of scale on DCH phenomena. This was accomplished by completing a series of counterpart tests in 1/40 and 1/10th linear scale DCH facilities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), respectively. The IET experiments modeled the Zion Nuclear Power Plant Geometry. The scale models included representations of the primary system volume, RPV lower head, cavity and instrument tunnel, and the lower containment structures. The experiments were steam driven at nominally 6.2 MPa. Iron-alumina thermite with chromium was used as a core melt simulant in the IET experiments. While the IET experiments at ANL and SNL provided useful data on the effect of scale on DCH phenomena, a significant question concerns the potential experiment distortions introduced by the use of non-prototypic iron/alumina thermite. Therefore, further testing with prototypic materials has been carried out at ANL. A prototypic core melt was produced for the experiment by first mixing powders of uranium, zirconium, iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and chromium trioxide (CrO{sub 3}). When ignited the powders react exothermically to produce a molten mixture. The amounts of each powder were selected to produce the anticipated composition for a core melt following a station blackout: 57.8 mass% UO{sub 2} 10.5 mass% ZrO{sub 2} 14.3 mass% Fe, 13.7 mass% Zr, and 3.7 mass% Cr. Development tests measured the initial melt temperature to be in the range of 2600 - 2700 K. The total thermal specific energy content of the melt at 2700 K is 1.2 MJ/kg compared to 2.25 MJ/kg for the iron-alumina simulant at its measured initial temperature of 2500 K.

  17. Identity, culture and shared experiences: The power of cogenerative dialogues in urban science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayne, Gillian Ursula

    2007-05-01

    The research presented in this dissertation details four major examples of work that took place during a three-year longitudinal study in a small urban New York City public high school for high achieving youth. It aims to play a role in contributing to the understanding of the breakdown between and amongst those parties involved in urban science education. The work outlined herein responds to the calls for improvement within urban education, utilizing the experiences, knowledge and practices of its students, in order to help inform and improve science teaching and learning. Theoretical lenses upon which this critical ethnographic research is grounded primarily involve those that are socio-cultural in nature and examine the sociology of emotions. In this research, I address how urban students, who have been historically alienated by science, develop forms of culture, enact them in science classes and then make transitions from participating marginally toward participating more centrally, demonstrating increasing science and science-like practices with higher levels of expertise. This work involves investigating human agency and its expansion as it becomes increasingly incorporated and internalized into individual and collective habitus. The protocol utilized in this critical ethnography (videotapes of cogenerative dialogues, classroom practices and interviews; journal entries, field notes, student and teacher generated artifacts) facilitates the exploration and understanding of the ways by which aligning culture and expanding student roles, both inside and outside of the classroom can occur. The results of this study include concrete examples and interpretations of these expansions and, provide suggestions by which more adaptable forms of teaching and learning can be enacted. These practices ultimately benefit a wider variety of students who as result will become better at creating their own structures to succeed.

  18. High-energy density experiments on planetary materials using high-power lasers and X-ray free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Norimasa

    2015-06-01

    Laser-driven dynamic compression allows us to investigate the behavior of planetary and exoplanetary materials at extreme conditions. Our high-energy density (HED) experiments for applications to planetary sciences began over five years ago. We measured the equation-of-state of cryogenic liquid hydrogen under laser-shock compression up to 55 GPa. Since then, various materials constituting the icy giant planets and the Earth-like planets have been studied using laser-driven dynamic compression techniques. Pressure-volume-temperature EOS data and optical property data of water and molecular mixtures were obtained at the planetary/exoplanetary interior conditions. Silicates and oxides data show interesting behaviors in the warm-dense matter regime due to their phase transformations. Most recently the structural changes of iron were observed for understanding the kinetics under the bcc-hcp transformation phenomena on a new HED science platform coupling power-lasers and the X-ray free electron laser (SACLA). This work was performed under the joint research project at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. It was partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grant Nos. 20654042, 22224012, 23540556, and 24103507) and also by grants from the Core-to-Core Program of JSPS on International Alliance for Material Science in Extreme States with High Power Laser and XFEL, and the X-ray Free Electron Laser Priority Strategy Program of MEXT.

  19. Engineering development of a digital replacement protection system at an operating US PWR nuclear power plant: Installation and operational experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.H.

    1995-04-01

    The existing Reactor Protection Systems (RPSs) at most US PWRs are systems which reflect 25 to 30 year-old designs, components and manufacturing techniques. Technological improvements, especially in relation to modern digital systems, offer improvements in functionality, performance, and reliability, as well as reductions in maintenance and operational burden. The Nuclear power industry and the US nuclear regulators are poised to move forward with the issues that have slowed the transition to modern digital replacements for nuclear power plant safety systems. The electric utility industry is now more than ever being driven by cost versus benefit decisions. Properly designed, engineered, and installed digital systems can provide adequate cost-benefit and allow continued nuclear generated electricity. This paper describes various issues and areas related to an ongoing RPS replacement demonstration project which are pertinant for a typical US nuclear plant to consider cost-effective replacement of an aging analog RPS with a modern digital RPS. The following subject areas relative to the Oconee Nuclear Station ISAT{trademark} Demonstrator project are discussed: Operator Interface Development; Equipment Qualification; Validation and Verification of Software; Factory Testing; Field Changes and Verification Testing; Utility Operational, Engineering and Maintenance; Experiences with Demonstration System; and Ability to operate in parallel with the existing Analog RPS.

  20. Low-power CO2 laser in the treatment of chronic pharyngitis: a five-year experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; Nicola, Jorge H.

    1994-09-01

    Spatial and temporal coherence are properties of laser light we studied for some time as responsible for biophysical phenomena, capable of significant contributions in the treatment of chronic inflammatory lesions. In this paper we present the results of five years experience in the application of CO2 low power laser (LPL) therapy as a new means of treating chronic pharyngitis. Based on our previous studies, we selected 85 patients with nonspecific chronic pharyngitis to be treated at our laser unit. The patients were grouped as follows: Group I, 40 patients, predominance of hyperemic aspect; and Group II, 45 patients, predominance of hypertrophied aspect. Both groups were submitted to low power irradiation of CO2 laser in eight to ten sessions, one week interval according to the evolution of symptoms. The good results obtained lead us to conclude that this new application for LPL is very suitable for systematic treatment of chronic pharyngitis: a very common and disturbing symptom for a great number of ear, nose, and throat patients, still lacking an effective form of therapy.

  1. Closed cycle MHD power generation experiments using a helium-cesium working fluid in the NASA Lewis Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A MHD channel, which was previously operated for over 500 hours of thermal operation, ten thermal cycles, and 200 cesium injection tests, was removed from the facility and redesigned. The cross sectional dimensions of the channel were reduced to 5 by 16.5 cm to allow operation over a variety of conditions. The redesigned channel has been operated for well over 300 hours, 10 thermal cycles, and 150 cesium injection tests with no problems. Experiments have been run at temperatures of 1900-2100 K and Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.55 in argon and 0.2 in helium. The best results to date have been obtained in the helium tests. Power outputs of 2.2 kw for tests with 28 electrodes and 2.1 kw for tests with 17 electrodes were realized. Power densities of 0.6 MW/cu m and Hall fields of about 1,100 V/m were obtained in the tests with 17 electrodes.

  2. Azimuthal Current Density Distribution Resulting from a Power Feed Vacuum Gap in Metallic Liner Experiments at 1 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bott-Suzuki, Simon; Cordaro, S. W.; Caballero Bendixsen, L. S.; Atoyan, L.; Byvank, T.; Potter, W.; Kusse, B. R.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Chittenden, J. P.; Jennings, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    We present a study investigating the initiation of plasma in solid, metallic liners where the liner thickness is large compared to the collisionless skin depth. A vacuum gap is introduced in the power feed and we investigate the effect of this on the azimuthal initiation of plasma in the liner. We present optical emission data from aluminum liners on the 1 MA, 100ns COBRA generator. We use radial and axial gated imaging and streak photography, which show a dependence of onset of emission with the size of a small power-feed vacuum gap. The evolution of ``hot-spots'' generated from breakdown vacuum gap evolves relatively slowly and azimuthal uniformity is not observed on the experimental time-scale. We also show measurements of the B-field both outside and inside the liner, using miniature Bdot probes, which show a dependence on the liner diameter and thickness, and a correlation to the details of the breakdown. These data will be compared to magneto-hydrodynamic simulations to infer how such non-uniformities may affect full liner implosion experiments.

  3. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

  4. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  5. Neurolaw: A brief introduction

    PubMed Central

    Petoft, Arian

    2015-01-01

    Neurolaw, as an interdisciplinary field which links the brain to law, facilitates the pathway to better understanding of human behavior in order to regulate it accurately through incorporating neuroscience achievements in legal studies. Since 1990’s, this emerging field, by study on human nervous system as a new dimension of legal phenomena, leads to a more precise explanation for human behavior to revise legal rules and decision-makings. This paper strives to bring about significantly a brief introduction to neurolaw so as to take effective steps toward exploring and expanding the scope of law and more thorough understanding of legal issues in the field at hand. PMID:25874060

  6. Introduction to Econophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantegna, Rosario N.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2007-08-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Efficient market hypothesis; 3. Random walk; 4. Lévy stochastic processes and limit theorems; 5. Scales in financial data; 6. Stationarity and time correlation; 7. Time correlation in financial time series; 8. Stochastic models of price dynamics; 9. Scaling and its breakdown; 10. ARCH and GARCH processes; 11. Financial markets and turbulence; 12. Correlation and anti-correlation between stocks; 13. Taxonomy of a stock portfolio; 14. Options in idealized markets; 15. Options in real markets; Appendix A: notation guide; Appendix B: martingales; References; Index.

  7. Introduction to Econophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantegna, Rosario N.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1999-12-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Efficient market hypothesis; 3. Random walk; 4. Lévy stochastic processes and limit theorems; 5. Scales in financial data; 6. Stationarity and time correlation; 7. Time correlation in financial time series; 8. Stochastic models of price dynamics; 9. Scaling and its breakdown; 10. ARCH and GARCH processes; 11. Financial markets and turbulence; 12. Correlation and anti-correlation between stocks; 13. Taxonomy of a stock portfolio; 14. Options in idealized markets; 15. Options in real markets; Appendix A: notation guide; Appendix B: martingales; References; Index.

  8. Introduction to biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. PMID:27365030

  9. Introduction to deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Peter A.

    2005-09-01

    Deconvolution tasks will always lie at the frontier of human knowledge in many fields, almost by definition. Rising in the latter 20th century from near disreputability, first to usefulness, then necessity in some disciplines, the varied techniques of deconvolution have assumed an important role in the scientists tool kit. This talk will trace deconvolutions development with examples, including many ``firsts,'' drawn from spectroscopy, radio astronomy, photography, cell biology, color science and diverse other fields. Following a tutorial introduction, detail will be provided on modern super-resolving methods and lesser known topics such as selected-ordinate image (SORI) processing.

  10. Introduction to biosensors.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello; Estrela, Pedro

    2016-06-30

    Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. PMID:27365030

  11. An introduction to webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. D.

    2016-04-01

    Webs are sets of Feynman diagrams that contribute to the exponents of scattering amplitudes, in the kinematic limit in which emitted radiation is soft. As such, they have a number of phenomenological and formal applications, and offer tantalizing glimpses into the all-order structure of perturbative quantum field theory. This article is based on a series of lectures given to graduate students, and aims to provide a pedagogical introduction to webs. Topics covered include exponentiation in (non-)abelian gauge theories, the web mixing matrix formalism for non-abelian gauge theories, and recent progress on the calculation of web diagrams. Problems are included throughout the text, to aid understanding.

  12. Corrected Article: Measure of the impact of future dark energy experiments based on discriminating power among quintessence models [Phys. Rev. D 78, 043528 (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Michael; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Bozek, Brandon; Yashar, Mark

    2009-12-01

    We evaluate the ability of future data sets to discriminate among different quintessence dark energy models. This approach gives an alternative (and complementary) measure for assessing the impact of future experiments, as compared with the large body of literature that compares experiments in abstract parameter spaces (such as the well-known w0-wa parameters) and more recent work that evaluates the constraining power of experiments on individual parameter spaces of specific quintessence models. We use the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) models of future data sets and compare the discriminative power of experiments designated by the DETF as stages 2, 3, and 4 (denoting increasing capabilities). Our work reveals a minimal increase in discriminating power when comparing stage 3 to stage 2, but a very striking increase in discriminating power when going to stage 4 (including the possibility of completely eliminating some quintessence models). We also see evidence that even modest improvements over DETF stage 4 (which many believe are realistic) could result in even more dramatic discriminating power among quintessence dark energy models. We develop and demonstrate the technique of using the independently measured modes of the equation of state (derived from principle component analysis) as a common parameter space in which to compare the different quintessence models, and we argue that this technique is a powerful one. We use the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, exponential, Albrecht-Skordis, and inverse tracker (or inverse power law) quintessence models for this work. One of our main results is that the goal of discriminating among these models sets a concrete measure on the capabilities of future dark energy experiments. Experiments have to be somewhat better than DETF stage 4 simulated experiments to fully meet this goal.

  13. Corrected Article: Measure of the impact of future dark energy experiments based on discriminating power among quintessence models [Phys. Rev. D 78, 043528 (2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Michael; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Bozek, Brandon; Yashar, Mark

    2009-12-15

    We evaluate the ability of future data sets to discriminate among different quintessence dark energy models. This approach gives an alternative (and complementary) measure for assessing the impact of future experiments, as compared with the large body of literature that compares experiments in abstract parameter spaces (such as the well-known w{sub 0}-w{sub a} parameters) and more recent work that evaluates the constraining power of experiments on individual parameter spaces of specific quintessence models. We use the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) models of future data sets and compare the discriminative power of experiments designated by the DETF as stages 2, 3, and 4 (denoting increasing capabilities). Our work reveals a minimal increase in discriminating power when comparing stage 3 to stage 2, but a very striking increase in discriminating power when going to stage 4 (including the possibility of completely eliminating some quintessence models). We also see evidence that even modest improvements over DETF stage 4 (which many believe are realistic) could result in even more dramatic discriminating power among quintessence dark energy models. We develop and demonstrate the technique of using the independently measured modes of the equation of state (derived from principle component analysis) as a common parameter space in which to compare the different quintessence models, and we argue that this technique is a powerful one. We use the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, exponential, Albrecht-Skordis, and inverse tracker (or inverse power law) quintessence models for this work. One of our main results is that the goal of discriminating among these models sets a concrete measure on the capabilities of future dark energy experiments. Experiments have to be somewhat better than DETF stage 4 simulated experiments to fully meet this goal.

  14. Typical power budget and possible energy source for Autonomous Oceanographic Network (AOSN) Labrador Sea Experiment (LSE). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, H.

    1996-06-01

    The Autonomous Oceanographic Network (AOSN) Labrador Sea Experiment (LSE) will be held in the Labrador Sea at a seawater depth of 3000 - 3500 meters. The total system will consist of a number of AUVs which will operate from a set of moorings within a defined area. Each mooring will be placed on the seafloor. The docking stations will be placed in the water column at 1000-2000 meters water depth. Each AUV will have at least one possible docking station to charge batteries and to transfer data. This report will show two different load pattern examples for the AOSN LSE, and the implications upon the power budget of the mooring. The possible use of a seawater battery and its implications upon the system will be discussed. A preliminary design of the sizes and weights of a seawater battery for this application is also included. Energy delivery to an experiment like the AOSN LSE with the use of a seawater battery is feasible both technically and within the time span of the AOSN project. The environment of the Labrador Sea is well documented and seems suitable to accommodate a seawater battery. Due to the large water depths involved and the simplicity of the system, and the lack of any large pressure housings the seawater battery seems like a good candidate both in respect to costs and feasibility.

  15. [Disaster nursing: one nurse's role and experience during the Fukushima Power Plant disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake].

    PubMed

    Kamei, Yukari; Lee, Shao-Huai

    2012-06-01

    The Richter-scale 9.0 earthquake that struck Northeast Japan on March 11th, 2011 caused a tsunami that damaged the Fukushima No. 1 Power Plant and released enormous amounts of radiation into the environment. Many area residents were evacuated to several protected fallout shelters. Prior to the tsunami, Fukashima had around 505,760 residents over 65 years of age, comprising 24.9% of the city's pre-tsunami population of Fukushima (City of Fukushima, 2011). The high proportion of elderly contributed to difficulties encountered in evacuating and caring for Fukushima citizens in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. The first author participated in disaster relief efforts in two fallout shelters in Fukushima. This article was written to share her post-disaster care experience and learned knowledge with medical care professionals in Taiwan and other high earthquake risk areas. The article also offers guidelines on appropriate medical personnel response and behavior with regard to disaster response. We hope this experience-sharing offers positive suggestions for the future and facilitates improved disaster-care education in East Asia and enhanced international cooperation on disaster rescue. PMID:22661036

  16. 47 CFR 1.363 - Introduction of statistical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Introduction of statistical data. 1.363 Section... Proceedings Evidence § 1.363 Introduction of statistical data. (a) All statistical studies, offered in... analyses, and experiments, and those parts of other studies involving statistical methodology shall...

  17. 47 CFR 1.363 - Introduction of statistical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction of statistical data. 1.363 Section... Proceedings Evidence § 1.363 Introduction of statistical data. (a) All statistical studies, offered in... analyses, and experiments, and those parts of other studies involving statistical methodology shall...

  18. Introduction to Concepts in Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niebur, Dagmar

    1995-01-01

    This introduction to artificial neural networks summarizes some basic concepts of computational neuroscience and the resulting models of artificial neurons. The terminology of biological and artificial neurons, biological and machine learning and neural processing is introduced. The concepts of supervised and unsupervised learning are explained with examples from the power system area. Finally, a taxonomy of different types of neurons and different classes of artificial neural networks is presented.

  19. GUEST EDITORS' INTRODUCTION: Guest Editors' introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, Geoff; de Meer, Jan B.

    1997-03-01

    service management' by Gregor v Bochmann and Abdelhakim Hafid offers lessons in QoS management learned during the implementation of a prototype News-on-Demand application. Some general principles are extracted from this experience. In particular, a novel QoS adaptation technique is highlighted: transparent automatic reconfiguration of the components involved in a communication (e.g. choice of an alternative network or server at run time). An algorithm which attempts to choose optimal configurations is discussed. `Quality of service management using generic modelling and monitoring techniques', by Leonard Franken and Boudewijn Haverkort investigates the use of Petri nets as the basis of generic QoS monitoring of distributed applications. A distributed application is exploded into finegrained component parts and interactions between these parts are instrumented. The paper offers a case study of the instrumentation of a videophone application using this technique. Simulation is used to evaluate the scheme. The final two papers in the special issue are more focused and pragmatic in nature. These papers explore QoS provision in particular environments (the World Wide Web and ATM networks respectively) through reported implementation experience. `QoS management in a World Wide Web environment which supports continuous media' by Michael Fry, Aruna Seneviratne, Andreas Vogel and Varuni Witana looks at the practical provision of end to end QoS management in the World Wide Web. The paper looks beyond currently available tools such as RealAudio and StreamWorks and presents a QoS managed RTP based solution featuring an adjunct QoS management protocol. This work offers QoS management functions (e.g. QoS negotiation, adaptation and control of QoS degradation paths) directly to the user via the usual Web GUI. `A QoS adaptive multimedia transport system: design, implementation and experiences' by Andrew Campbell and Geoff Coulson offers further practical experience of QoS management

  20. Power and Politics in the Classroom: The Effect of Student Roles in Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranowski, Michael; Weir, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    We argue that power roles can make a significant difference in how students experience in-class simulations. To test this, students who participated in Congressional simulations in one of the author's introduction to American politics classes were surveyed concerning their views of Congress, the legislative process, and the simulation experience.…