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  1. Management scenarios for the Jordan River salinity crisis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent geochemical and hydrological findings show that the water quality of the base flow of the Lower Jordan River, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is dependent upon the ratio between surface water flow and groundwater discharge. Using water quality data, mass-balance calculations, and actual flow-rate measurements, possible management scenarios for the Lower Jordan River and their potential affects on its salinity are investigated. The predicted scenarios reveal that implementation of some elements of the Israel-Jordan peace treaty will have negative effects on the Jordan River water salinity. It is predicted that removal of sewage effluents dumped into the river (???13 MCM/a) will significantly reduce the river water's flow and increase the relative proportion of the saline groundwater flux into the river. Under this scenario, the Cl content of the river at its southern point (Abdalla Bridge) will rise to almost 7000 mg/L during the summer. In contrast, removal of all the saline water (16.5 MCM/a) that is artificially discharged into the Lower Jordan River will significantly reduce its Cl concentration, to levels of 650-2600 and 3000-3500 mg/L in the northern and southern areas of the Lower Jordan River, respectively. However, because the removal of either the sewage effluents or the saline water will decrease the river's discharge to a level that could potentially cause river desiccation during the summer months, other water sources must be allocated to preserve in-stream flow needs and hence the river's ecosystem. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN NARROWS STATION. PLAN AND SECTION. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  3. 1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN STATION, JULY 2, 1909. GENERAL VIEW. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  4. The Mediterranean Oscillation and precipitation in the Jordan River region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, Tobias; Menzel, Lucas

    2014-05-01

    Most of the precipitation in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) is associated with mid-latitude cyclones (Black, 2011). Furthermore, a low pressure over this region is often accompanied by a high pressure in the Western Mediterranean (WM). This pattern has been referred to as the Mediterranean Oscillation and given rise to the Mediterranean Oscillation Index (MOI), which can be expressed as pressure differences between Algiers in the WM and Cairo in the EM (Palutikof et al., 1996). In this study, the relationship between the MOI and precipitation in the Jordan River region, located in the EM is addressed. First of all, 30 precipitation series were tested for homogeneity and serial correlation. Thereafter, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses were applied to the homogenous series and the years 1960-1993. The results showed that the EOF-1 explained 60-71% of the precipitation variance and received a significant correlation with the MOI in December-February whereas no correlation was obtained for the EOF-2. In order to obtain the large scale pressure anomalies associated with winter precipitation in the study region, the EOF-1 coefficient time series was correlated with Sea Level Pressure (SLP) obtained for ca. 23° W to 70° E and 5° N to 67° N. This resulted in a correlation coefficient between -0.5 and 0.5; where negative values correspond to below normal SLP, and positive values to above normal SLP by the time of rainfall in the study region. The spatial pattern showed above normal SLP over central Europe and the WM and below normal SLP in the EM. Hence, it was reminiscent of the Mediterranean Oscillation and consistence with the results from the previous correlation analysis. The probability of precipitation during negative and positive MOI phases was thereafter derived by fitting gamma distributions to monthly precipitation. The result showed that negative MOI phases are associated with low- and below normal winter precipitation whereas positive MOI phases

  5. Expected future runoff of the Upper Jordan River simulated with CORDEX climate change data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiatek, Gerhard; Kunstmann, Harald

    2015-04-01

    The Jordan River, flowing from the Mount Hermon area to the Dead Sea, is an important freshwater source in the region. Its water is almost fully used by withdrawal from Lake Kinneret, fed to a large extent from the upper Jordan River (UJR) basin. Future climate change is expected to increase the pressure on the water availability in a region already now suffering from scarcity of water. Simulation of the future UJR discharge is therefore a societal highly relevant key scientific task. The contribution presents simulations of the future discharge of the Upper Jordan River based on climate change data from five different RCM models run in two Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiments (CORDEX) experiments. This data are applied together with the hydrological simulation model WaSiM-ETH. Obtained findings extend the previous simulations performed within the GLOWA Jordan River project (www.glowa-jordan-river.de), an interdisciplinary research project providing scientific support for sustainable water management in the Jordan River region. The presentation discuses the difficult constraints of hydrological simulations in the UJR region, which include complex terrain, karstic features and missing observational meteorological reference. It describes the setup of the applied hydrological model and concentrates upon the obtained results. The performed simulations for the period from 1976 to 2100 indicate an increasing annual mean temperature for 20071-2100 by 2.6 K above the 1971-2000 mean. The simulated ensemble mean precipitation is predicted to decrease in this period by 20 %. Related to the mean for 1976 - 2000, the discharge of the upper Jordan River is simulated to decrease by 25.3% until 2100

  6. 3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. INTERIOR VIEW, JULY 2, 1909. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  7. Application of Water Quality Model of Jordan River to Evaluate Climate Change Effects on Eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Grouw, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Jordan River is a 51 mile long freshwater stream in Utah that provides drinking water to more than 50% of Utah's population. The various point and nonpoint sources introduce an excess of nutrients into the river. This excess induces eutrophication that results in an inhabitable environment for aquatic life and is expected to be exacerbated due to climate change. Adaptive measures must be evaluated based on predictions of climate variation impacts on eutrophication and ecosystem processes in the Jordan River. A Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) model was created to analyze the data results acquired from a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) study conducted on the Jordan River. Eutrophication is modeled based on levels of phosphates and nitrates from point and nonpoint sources, temperature, and solar radiation. It will simulate the growth of phytoplankton and periphyton in the river. This model will be applied to assess how water quality in the Jordan River is affected by variations in timing and intensity of spring snowmelt and runoff during drought in the valley and the resulting effects on eutrophication in the river.

  8. Effect of extreme rainfall events on the water resources of the Jordan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Rana; Rimmer, Alon; Alpert, Pinhas

    2009-09-01

    SummaryAs a response to climate change, shifting rainfall trends including increased multi-year droughts and an escalation in extreme rainfall events are expected in the Middle East. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential impact of these shifting trends on stream flow in the Jordan River and its tributaries. We use a non-homogeneous hidden Markov model to generate artificial daily rainfall simulations which capture independently shifting trends of increased droughts and escalated extreme. These simulations are then used as input into a hydrological model calibrated for the upper catchments of the Jordan River to compare the impact on stream flow and water resources between the different rainfall scenarios. We compare the predicted baseflow and surface flow components of the tested watersheds, and find that while an increase in extreme rainfall events increases the intensity and frequency of surface flow, the over all flow to the Jordan River, and the characteristics of the baseflow in the Jordan River system is not largely impacted. In addition, though it has been suggested that in the case of a multi-year drought the karstic nature of the aquifer might lead to more intense, non-linear reductions in stream flow, here we quantify and show the conditions when annual stream flow reduce linearly with rainfall, and when these relations will become non-linear.

  9. Dissolved-oxygen regime of the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the Jordan River in Salt Lake County decrease considerably as the river flows northward. Mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen decreased from 8.1 milligrams per liter at the Jordan Narrows to 4.7 milligrams per liter at 500 North Street during April 1981 to September 1982. Coincident with the decrease, the biochemical-oxygen demand increased from 5 to 7 milligrams per liter. About 50 percent of the dissolved-oxygen concentrations and 90 percent of the 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand measured downstream from 1700 South Street exceeded the State intended-use standards. An estimated 6. million pounds of oxygen-demanding substances as measured by 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand were discharged to the Jordan River during 1981 from point sources downstream from 9000 South Street. Seven wastewater-treatment plants contributed 77 percent of this load, nonstorm base flows contributed 22 percent, and storm flows less than 1 percent. The Surplus Canal diversion at 2100 South Street removed about 70 percent of this load, and travel time of about 1 day also decreased the actual effects of the load on the river. Reaeration rates during September and October were quite high (average K2 at 20 degrees Celsius was about 12 per day) between the Jordan Narrows and 9000 South Street, but they decreased to 2.4 per day in the reach from 1330 South to 1800 North Streets. (USGS)

  10. Source detection in the Lower Jordan River - How to monitor the impossible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillel, Noa; Siebert, Christian; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.

    2016-04-01

    The Lower Jordan River (LJR) is a major ecosystem in the semi-arid to arid Jordan-Dead Sea Graben, the backbone of abundant farming activities in the Lower Jordan Valley and the major inflow to the dying Dead Sea. During the 1960's the Sea of Galilee and the Yarmouk River, the main sources of the river, were dammed, decreasing its annual flow from ˜1.2×109 m3 to less than 0.2×109 m3, leaving a mix of point and non-point sources composing its base flow. Beside natural saline springs along its course, current day anthropogenic sources (e.g. sewage, agricultural return flow and fishpond effluents) have a negative impact on the water quality and the ecosystem, contributing high salinity and causing overall pollution. To enable an environmental assessment of the river and to satisfy the regulations of LJR international treaties, the temporal dynamics of water quantity and quality must be observed on a regular basis. As the LJR forms the highly secured border between Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority, nearly the entire river course is physically inaccessible. To overcome that situation, considerable efforts have been made to install a network of 7 sampling stations along the LJR to identify and separate the different contributing sources. Automatic water samplers in three of the stations collect water daily in addition to continuous measurement of stage, EC, pH and temperature. Sensors at all locations transmit online real-time data. During monthly campaigns a total of 14 sites are manually sampled along the river and some tributaries. Water samples are analyzed for major ions, trace elements and stable isotopes. While the sensor network allows separating events occurring in different reaches along the river course and calculating travel time between stations, water sample analyses enable fingerprinting and separating the actual sources. By doing so, an unusual and very local event was recorded by the most southern station (5.5 km north of the Dead Sea

  11. Slope failure on the Jordan River Delta in the Dead Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Almagor, G. )

    1990-06-01

    The Dead Sea is a longitudinal (80 km {times} 20 km) terminal lake that was formed by the active Syrian-African transform fault. Considerably saline inflow from the Jordan River and a very high evaporation rate have led to the excessive salinity (360 g/L) and water density (1.226-1.232 g/cc) of the lake. The rate of evaporite precipitation is 630-2,000 mg/cm{sup 2}/yr. Clastic sediments from the Jordan River have formed a very moderately sloping (about 2{degree}) delta that covers the northern lake to a distance of 8 km offshore and to a depth of 300 m. Many irregularly shaped mounds of sediment that are acoustically transparent and that contain numerous discontinuous reflectors cover the delta slope. They extend over several hundred square meters each and rise 2-5 m above their surroundings. These sediments indicate active downslope slumping processes. The small-scale sedimentary pattern and the engineering properties of the sediments were examined by testing 6 core samples collected at various depths along the Jordan delta. Lengths range from 0.90 to 3.20 m. Depth of coring was restricted by an extremely hard, impenetrable layer of halite, and the topmost 10-25 cm consists of unconsolidated, recently deposited grainy halite. Euhedral crystals of halite are disseminated throughout the entire length of the core samples, especially in the deep-water cores. The high salinity of the pore water and the presence of large amounts of disseminated halite within the cores required modifications of the standard soil mechanics laboratory testing procedures. The sediments are predominantly dark brown, layered kaolinitic silty clays. They contain numerous conspicuous black organic-matter and sulfide-bearing layers and white aragonite and gypsum layers. Occasionally, slump structures are encountered.

  12. Becoming Jordan's Writers: Developing Powerful Writing Instruction in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Christopher; DeLiddo, Emily

    2010-01-01

    The United States involvement in the Middle East has been prominent in our recent national history, sometimes clouded by myths and misrepresentations of the people of that region of the world. This article details the experiences of teacher-researchers working with teachers and students in Amman, Jordan, to develop powerful English writing…

  13. An assessment of using oil shale for power production in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Holcomb, R.S.; Petrich, C.H.; Roop, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    This report addresses the oil shale-for-power-production option in Jordan. Under consideration are 20- and 50-MW demonstration units and a 400-MW, commercial-scale plant with, at the 400-MW scale, a mining operation capable of supplying 7.8 million tonnes per year of shale fuel and also capable of disposal of up to 6.1 million tonnes per year of wetted ash. The plant would be a direct combustion facility, burning crushed oil shale through use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The report emphasizes four areas: (1) the need for power in Jordan, (2) environmental aspects of the proposed oil shale-for-power plant(s), (3) the engineering feasibility of using Jordan's oil shale in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler, and (4) the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s). A sensitivity study was conducted to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s) under different cost assumptions and revenue flows over the plant's lifetime. The sensitivity results are extended to include the major extra-firm benefits of the shale-for-power option: (1) foreign exchange savings from using domestic energy resources, (2) aggregate income effects of using Jordan's indigenous labor force, and (3) a higher level of energy security. 14 figs., 47 tabs.

  14. Source detection by chemical and isotopic means - the Lower Jordan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillel, Noa; Geyer, Stefan; Khayat, Saed; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Siebert, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During the past several decades the volume of freshwater carried by the Lower Jordan River (LJR) has been reduced by 90% due to damming of its main tributaries, leaving a mixed flow of polluted and brackish to saline water from anthropogenic and partly known geogenic sources. Since the river represents the highly secured border between Jordan, Israel and the West Bank, neither systematic nor long-term measurements were conducted in it. Only vague knowledge exists about the amount and composition of natural contributors and no knowledge concerning their temporal dynamics. However, since the river water is intensely used for irrigation along its course and represents the major source of water to the Dead Sea, the spatio-temporal variation of water discharge and chemistry are required for water resource assessment in the Lower Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea. To monitor the temporal variations of water discharge and hydrochemistry, an automatic sampler, including water level and EC sensors with real time transmission were installed at the Baptism site, a few kilometers upstream of the delta. Major ions are analyzed on a daily basis, while stable isotopes of sulfate (δ34S, δ18O), nitrate (δ15N, δ18O) and water (δ2H, δ18O) are analyzed on an event basis. A general inverse correlation between EC and water level was found although extreme high conductivity values relate to flood events during the wet period. Due to the high-resolution monitoring, a series of flood events could be observed, some having unusually high saline water. Results from Cl/Br, Na/Cl, Mg/Ca, δ34S allow separation and identification of sources: (i) the dissolution of evaporite minerals, abundant in the surrounding geological strata, (ii) sewage and (iii) brine springs. The continuous monitoring is an essential tool for understanding long-term processes and changes in such a dynamic system, and is crucial for identifying rarely occurring extreme flow events. However, a single sampling location is

  15. Evaluation of Managed Aquifer Recharge Scenarios using Treated Wastewater: a Case study of the Zarqa River Basin, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Rawy, Mustafa; Zlotnik, Vitaly; Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Al-Raggad, Marwan; Kacimov, Anvar; Abdalla, Osman

    2016-04-01

    Jordan is an arid country, facing great challenges due to limited water resources. The shortage of water resources constrains economy, especially agriculture that consumes the largest amount of available water (about 53 % of the total demand). According to the Jordan Water Strategy 2008 - 2022, groundwater is twice greater than the recharge rate. Therefore, the government charged the planners to consider treated wastewater (TWW) as a choice in the water resources management and development strategies. In Jordan, there are 31 TWW plants. Among them, As Samra plant serving the two major cities, Amman and Zarqa, is the largest, with projected maximum capacity of 135 Million m3/year. This plant is located upstream of the Zarqa River basin that accepts all TWW discharges. The Zarqa River is considered the most important source of surface water in Jordan and more than 78 % of its current is composed of TWW. The main objectives were to develop a conceptual model for a selected part of the Zarqa River basin, including the As Samrapant, and to provide insights to water resources management in the area using TWW. The groundwater flow model was developed using MODFLOW 2005 and used to assess changes in the aquifer and the Zarqa River under a set of different increments in discharge rates from the As Samra plant and different groundwater pumping rates. The results show that the water table in the study area underwent an average water table decline of 29 m prior to the As Samra plant construction, comparing with the current situation (with annual TWW discharge of 110 Million m3). The analysis of the TWW rate increase to 135 million m3/year (maximum capacity of the As Samra plant) shows that the average groundwater level will rise 0.55 m, compared to the current conditions. We found that the best practices require conjunctive use management of surface- and groundwater. The simulated scenarios highlight the significant role of TWW in augmenting the aquifer storage, improving

  16. Absorption and Mobility of Cr and Zn in Soil in the Vicinity of Jordan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfouche, M.; Ghrair, A. M.; Jaradat, D. M. M.; Aquilanti, G.; Jaber, R.; Aldrabee, A.; Sawai, N.

    2016-05-01

    Sediments from the basin of Jordan River are to some extent significantly contaminated by heavy metals. The goal of this study was to examine the nature of the heavy metals, their mobility, and their binding in the soil matrix in order to understand the accumulation mechanism. Exhaustive mineralogical and geochemical study on the heavy metals in the vicinity of the river will allow knowing the dominant forms of emitted metals. The structural local order around Cr and Zn in soil samples were investigated by analyzing XAFS data. Our investigations show that the coordination sphere, around both Cr and Zn, is constituted of oxygen atoms at an interatomic distance of ∼2 Å which is close to those in clay minerals. It is also shown that Cr(III) is the most dominating redox state in soil samples. Moreover, the next backscattering neighbors around Zn and Cr are either carbon or sulfur atoms which reveal a multiple and heterogeneous speciation of Cr and Zn with organic matter.

  17. Quantifying selected morphometric characteristics for Jordanian side of the Jordan river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Rukah, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The Jordanian part of the Jordan river basin is almost 3679.692 km2. The river flows within the Jordan Rift Valley, a structurally complicated region which is cover almost by Upper Cretaceous chalky marls, bituminous limestone and nodular limestone, while the Quaternary sediments are mainly fluvitile deposits and Lisan marls. Other deposits are Tertiary and Jurassic. The present study includes the selected drainage basin characteristics, part of these characteristics refer as primary characteristics measurements and the others are found and concluded from the primary drainage basin characteristics and name as calculated basin characteristics. The drainage pattern is mainly dendritic but in some part is shows parallel pattern but not very mature. To simplify the study more and based on the detailed analysis of the drainage selected characteristics of the study area using various techniques and both topographic and geologic maps, the Jordan river basin is furtherly divided into 10 sub basin. Keywords: Jordan side of Jordan River Basin, Drainage Basin Morphology (Primary Basin Characteristics measurements, Calculated Basin Characteristics), Jordan. Table (1): Combined (Primary + Calculated) Basin Characteristics, Based on Toposheets 1:50,000 and Equations. Code Name of Catchment Area TDA (km2) 1 NCDA (km2) 2 BL (km2) 3 BP (km2) Total 4 BS (m) area 5 BR (m) 6 CDA (km2) 7 BW (km2) 8 SF 9 A Wadi Arab 413.905 302.02 239.3 27.8 34.4 636 ♢111. 0.467 512.42 B Wadi Zeglab 130.039 95.23 95 15.7 25 966 32.81 0.37 256.26 C Wadi Jurum 84.62 50.28 61.6 22.4 36.36 400 34.34 ♢1.7 34.4 D Wadi Yabis 208.02 150.930 122.1 25.2 46.29 400 57.09 0.47 259.78 E Wadi Kufanga 214.564 189.953 120.9 19.3 41.66 123 26.61 0.22 549.55 F Wadi Rajib 405.6 374.23 118.5 29.5 37.33 1285 31.37 0.27 438.88 G Wadi Siel Ezzarqa 476.293 394.83 258.1 29 28.56 1277 81.46 0.32 806.56 H Wadi el Mallaha 554.251 485.1 ♢385 ♢35 ♢48.25 ♢1435 69.25 0.18 ♢2142.7 I Wadi Nimrin ♢601.9 ♢520.3 282.5 30

  18. Extreme value indicators in highly resolved climate change simulations for the Jordan River area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, R.; Smiatek, G.; Krichak, S.; Kunstmann, H.; Alpert, P.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding changing trends and frequency of extreme rainfall and temperature events is extremely important for optimal planning in many sectors, including agriculture, water resource management, health, and even economics. For people living in the Jordan River region of the Middle East such changes can have immediate devastating impacts as water resources are already scarce and overexploited and summer temperatures in the desert regions can reach 45°C or higher. Understanding shifts in frequency and intensity of extreme events can provide crucial information for planning and adaptation. In this paper we present results from regional climate model simulations with RegCM3 and MM5 centered on the eastern Mediterranean region. Our analysis focuses on changes in extreme temperature and rainfall events. We show that maximum daily summer temperature is expected to increase by between 2.5°C and 3°C, with an increase in warm spell length. Precipitation extremes are expected to increase with longer dry spells, shorter wet spells, and increases in heavy rainfall. Model agreement for the control period 1961-1990 is higher in the southern region than in the north, perhaps because of the complex topography, suggesting that even small differences in spatial scale play an important role. In addition, we notice that the chosen global model plays an important role in determining future temperature trends, while the choice of regional climate model is critical for understanding how precipitation is expected to evolve.

  19. Determination of flow losses in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington, North Carolina, 2008-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J. Curtis; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2013-01-01

    computations of discharge records that would indicate false flow losses. A total of 34 measured discharges at a streamgage on the Haw River below B. Everett Jordan Lake near Moncure were compared with the reported hourly flow releases from Jordan Lake Dam. Because 28 of 34 measurements were within plus or minus 10 percent of the hourly flow releases reported by the U.S Army Corps of Engineers, use of the current discharge computation tables for reporting Jordan Lake Dam flow releases is generally supported. A stage gage was operated on the Cape Fear River at Buckhorn Dam near Corinth to collect continuous stage-only records. Throughout the study period, flow over the dam was observed along its length, and flow loss within the study reach is not attributed to river-level fluctuations at the dam. Water-use information and (or) data were obtained for five industrial facilities, a regional power utility, two municipalities, one small hydropower facility on the Deep River, and one quarry operation also adjacent to the Deep River. The largest water users are the regional power producer, a small hydropower operation, and the two municipalities. The total water-use diversions for these facilities range from almost 25.5 to 38.5 cubic feet per second (39.5 to 59.5 million gallons per day) during the winter and summer periods, respectively. This range is equivalent to 69 to 104 percent of the 37 cubic feet per second median flow loss. The Lockville hydropower station is on the Deep River about 1 mile downstream from the streamgage near Moncure. Run-of-river operations at the facility do not appear to affect flow losses in the study reach. The largest water user in the study area is a regional power producer at a coal-fired power-generation plant located immediately adjacent to the Cape Fear River just downstream from the confluence of the Haw an Deep Rivers. Comparisons of daily water withdrawals, sup-plied by the regional power producer, and discharge records at a streamgage on the

  20. Effect of snow accumulation and melt on the stream flow in the Jordan River, East Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Alon; Hartmann, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Snow melt on high mountains, at low latitudes (<40 degrees N), can be an important component of the surface water flow during the winter and spring seasons. As opposed to snow cover at high latitudes which are persistent due to below zero temperatures, snow cover in warmer climates is rapidly changing, potentially resulting in several complete melting cycles during one winter season. In the Mt. Hermon region (Israel-Lebanon-Syria border, East Mediterranean, ~33.5 degrees N) previous studies have concluded that snow storage accounts for ~10% of the Jordan River annual yields. Here we apply a modified version of HYdrological Model for Karst Environment (HYMKE) to estimate the effect of snow accumulation and snow melt on the timing of stream flow in the Jordan River. It is a system approach, physically based karst hydrology model, which receives daily precipitation and potential evaporation time series as input. The modeled fast flow stream component is correlated with the physical area of the catchment, while the area of the groundwater aquifer is a parameter which is calibrated against the separated measured baseflow. We have added a snowmelt routine before the main equations in HYMKE creating the following model structure: the snow routine (1), surface layer water balance (2), surface ("fast") flow (3), vadose zone flow (4), and groundwater ("base flow", 5). The new snowmelt routine uses the measured precipitation and temperature data, and analyzes it separately to produce snow and snowmelt at 56 discrete stripes of 50 m' height each, ranging in elevation from 75 m' to 2825 m'. It uses a standard HBV (Hydrological Bureau Waterbalance-section) approach based on a degree-day temperature-index. With current available temperature data the actual temperature gradient was calibrated, and the daily temperature at each elevation stripe was evaluated. However, due to the lack of measured snowmelt, several parameters of the model could not be calibrated, and were adopted

  1. An assessment study of heavy metal distribution within soil in upper course of Zarqa River basin/Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abderahman, Nabil; Abu-Rukah, Y. H.

    2006-04-01

    Levels of heavy metals are found in soils and waters of the major tributary valleys of the Jordan Valley. Heavy metal content in soils irrigated by treated waste water were measured for a 40 km reach of Zarqa River. Soil samples from eight different sites along the upper course of this river were analyzed to determine the concentration of selected heavy metals (CO, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn). Silt forms the major component of the soils with an average of 54%. Clay fractions show an increase with depth from 17 to 41%. Trends in particle size distribution and metal contents were compared across sample sites. Samples contained moderate to considerable levels of Pb and Ni. Concentrations of Cu and Cr ranged between 33-59 and 65-90 ppm, respectively. These values represent a slight to moderate class of pollution. The concentration of Cr shows a decrease with depth and distance from the waste water plant. Cu, Zn, and Ni show increasing concentrations with depth but Pb and CO do not. The concentrations of the measured heavy metals increases near the waste water treatment plant but decreases with distance from the plant due to precipitation in the stream bed and dilution with stream water. This decline in metal content with distance from the treatment plant suggests that most metals reaching floodplain soils may derive from the same source. Although current metal concentrations are low to moderate, floodplain surface soils in this area should be regarded as a potential source for future heavy metal pollution downstream.

  2. Structural control on the evolution of groundwater quality for B2A7 aquifer in the area extending from Ajlun to Yarmouk river in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raggad, Marwan; Salameh, Elias; Magri, Fabien; Muller, Peter; Siebert, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater flow in the Northwestern highlands of Jordan is controlled y the Ajlun Heights were groundwater flows towards north and west along the Yarmouk river and the Jordan Valley. Due to water rock interactions, groundwater that discharges in the Jordan Valley and along the Yarmuk River is thermal, radioactive and mineralized. Its total dissolved solids especially in the confined parts of the aquifer. Electrical conductivity of groundwater in the unconfined aquifer of B2A7 ranges between 500 to 700 µs/cm and increases up to 1600 µs/cm towards the confined part of the aquifer with a notable increase in Na and Cl towards the discharge areas. According to the chloride content in the groundwater the evaporation in the recharge areas is considered to be high representing 82% of the total rainfall. Groundwaters are classified as calcium bicarbonate types with Mg/Ca ratios varying from 0.11 to1.21 and Na/Cl ratio in the range of 0.49 to 1.85. The chemical evolution of groundwater from Ajlun Heights toward Jordan Valley and Yarmouk River is marked by a progressive decrease in calcium and bicarbonate with increase of sodium, and chloride due to halite dissolution and upward percolation of deep saline groundwater. The 3D modeling for the aquifer system indicated the rule of geologic structure in the groundwater digenesis through upward and downward leakage enhanced along high permeability lineaments. According to the modeled water budget, the inflow to the upper B2A7 Aquifer 54 *106 m3/yr replenishing the B2A7 system as underground flow in the karstic limestone of the vadose zone. The underground discharge to the Yarmouk River and Jordan valley modeled to be 23.2 *106 m3/yr as underflow to the springs. The leakage from B2A7 aquifer into the lower aquifer is about 9.7 *106 m3/yr. Within the north western lowered elevations the hydraulic different between upper and deep aquifers is at minimum an upward leakage and seems to take place through the main faults trending EW

  3. Effectiveness of an electrical barrier in blocking a sea lamprey spawning migration on the Jordan River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swink, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Mark-recapture studies indicated that a pulsed-DC electrical barrier set to a 2-ms pulse width and 10 pulses/s completely blocked the spawning migration of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus in the Jordan River, Michigan. Capture efficiency of fyke nets averaged 24% for four groups, about 300 tagged sea lampreys each, released upstream of the barrier; no unmarked sea lampreys and none of the 1,194 sea lampreys tagged and released downstream of the barrier were captured in the fyke nets while the barrier was energized. At a lower pulsator setting (1-ms pulse width; 10 pulses/s), 1 of 900 sea lampreys released below the barrier was recaptured in the nets. Sea lampreys from downstream were captured in the fyke nets after the barrier was de-energized, indicating that the barrier should remain in operation later than mid-July. Both sea lampreys and teleosts exposed to the electrical field were stunned but exhibited no apparent damage at either barrier setting. The pulsed-DC electrical barrier should help reduce the use of chemical lampricides for controlling sea lampreys in some Great Lakes streams and would be particularly suited for streams where even the smallest low-head barrier would create an unacceptably large impoundment.

  4. 77 FR 26541 - Alabama Power Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Request: Due to drought conditions in the Coosa River basin, Alabama Power proposes to release from Jordan.... d. Applicant: Alabama Power Company. e. Name of Project: Jordan Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Coosa River, in Elmore, Chilton and Coosa Counties, Alabama. g. Filed Pursuant to:...

  5. Mapping Ecosystem Services in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, Ana; Marques, Ana; Ribeiro, Inês; Alho, Maria; Catarina Afonso, Ana; Almeida, Erika; Branquinho, Cristina; Talozi, Samer; Pinho, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade researchers started using ecosystem services as a new framework to understand the relationships between environment and society. Habitat quality and water quality are related with ecosystem services regulation and maintenance, or even provision. According to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) both habitat quality and water quality are associated with lifecycle maintenance, habitat and gene pool protection, and water conditions, among others. As there is increased pressure on habitats and rivers especially for agricultural development, mapping and evaluating habitat and water quality has important implications for resource management and conservation, as well as for rural development. Here, we model and map habitat and water quality in the Jordan Valley, Jordan. In this study, we aim to identify and analyse ecosystem services both through 1) habitat quality and 2) water quality modelling using InVest, an integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs. The data used in this study mainly includes the LULC, Jordan River watershed and main threats and pollutants in the study area, such as agriculture, industry, fish farms and urbanization. Results suggest a higher pressure on natural habitats in the Northern region of the Jordan Valley, where industry is dominant. Agriculture is present along the Jordan Valley and limits the few natural forested areas. Further, water pollution is mainly concentrated in disposal sites due to the low flow of the Jordan River. Our results can help to identify areas where natural resources and water resource management is most needed in the Jordan Valley. Acknowledgements: Transbasin FP7 project

  6. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. 207.310 Section 207.310 Navigation and Navigable... Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. (a) All...

  7. 78 FR 33406 - Clean River Power MR-1, LLC, Clean River Power MR-2, LLC, Clean River Power MR-3, LLC, Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project Nos. P-13404-002, P-13405-002, P-13406-002, P-13407-002, P- 13408-002, and P-13411-002] Clean River Power MR-1, LLC, Clean River Power MR-2, LLC, Clean River Power...

  8. Structural control of groundwater flow regimes and groundwater chemistry along the lower reaches of the Zerka River, West Jordan, using remote sensing, GIS, and field methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odeh, Taleb; Salameh, Elias; Schirmer, Mario; Strauch, Gerhard

    2009-10-01

    A hydrogeological study was completed within a sub-catchment of the Zerka River drainage basin, in western Jordan. The system is characterized by anticlinal bending with an axis trending SSW-NNE and plunging a few degrees in the SSW direction. The anticlinal structure diverts groundwater flow towards the SSW while the strike-slipe faults cause the groundwater to diverge where the fault is perpendicular to the groundwater flow lines, and to converge where the fault is parallel to the groundwater flow lines. A direct relationship was found between the location of springs and the type of groundwater flow with regard to the amount of discharge wherein large spring discharges are located in zones of converging groundwater flow lines. In areas where faults are not abundant, the groundwater retention time in the aquifers is long and a zonation of the electrical conductivity was detected due to mineral dissolution. By controlling groundwater flow, the anticlinal setting produces three genetic groups of groundwater flow systems: (1) alkaline-earth alkaline water which is predominately a bicarbonate-type composition, (2) alkaline-earth alkaline water which is predominately bicarbonate-sulfate, and (3) alkaline-earth alkaline water with a high alkaline component.

  9. 76 FR 53437 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications August 18, 2011. On January 11, 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC (Northland) filed preliminary permit...

  10. New River Geothermal Exploration (Ram Power Inc.)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Miller, Clay

    2013-11-15

    The New River Geothermal Exploration (DOE Award No. EE0002843) is located approximately 25km south of the Salton Sea, near town of Brawley in Imperial County and approximately 150km east of San Diego, California. A total of 182 MT Logger sites were completed covering the two separate Mesquite and New River grids. The data was collected over a frequency range of 320Hz to 0.001Hz with variable site spacing. A number of different inversion algorithms in 1D, 2D and 3D were used to produce resistivity-depth profiles and maps of subsurface resistivity variations over the survey area. For 2D inversions, a total of eighteen lines were constructed in east-west and north-south orientations crossing the entire survey area. For MT 3D inversion, the New River property was divided in two sub-grids, Mesquite and New River areas. The report comprises of two parts. For the first part, inversions and geophysical interpretation results are presented with some recommendations of the potential targets for future follow up on the property. The second part of the report describes logistics of the survey, survey parameters, methodology and the survey results (data) in digital documents. The report reviews a Spartan MT survey carried out by Quantec Geoscience Limited over the New River Project in California, USA on behalf of Ram Power Inc. Data was acquired over a period of 29 days from 2010/06/26 to 2010/07/24.

  11. Hub River: A private power prototype. [Independent Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, J.L.

    1992-10-01

    This article examines the challenges of financing an independent power project in a developing country. The oil-fired plant is to be located on the Hub River in Baluchistan on the Arabian Sea coast. The topics of the article include a description of the team that put the project together, the financing plans, the risk in the face of political unrest and change of governments, and the beginning of construction of the project.

  12. 77 FR 2288 - Free Flow Power Corporation and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC... Mississippi River, in West Baton Rouge and East Baton Rouge Parishes, Louisiana. The applications were filed by Free Flow Power Corporation for Project No. 12817-002, and Northland Power Mississippi River...

  13. Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  14. Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gates ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gates & Gate-Lifting Mechanisms, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  15. 41. EXTERNAL ELEVATIONS, POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. EXTERNAL ELEVATIONS, POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, EDISON ELECTRIC CO., NOV. 3, 1904. SCE drawing no. 5392. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. 77 FR 68757 - Clean River Power MR-1, LLC; Clean River Power MR-2, LLC; Clean River Power MR-3, LLC; Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project Nos. P-13404-002, P-13405-002, P-13406-002, P-13407-002, P- 13408-002, P-13411-002, and P-13412-002] Clean River Power MR-1, LLC; Clean River Power MR-2, LLC;...

  17. Special Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  18. MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL RACE OF POWER PLANT AND PENSTOCK HEADGATE TO LOWER GORGE CONTROL PLANT. A MINIMAL FLOW OF RIVER WATER IS REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN FISH LIFE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Middle Gorge Power Plant, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. The "stream power" of the Alpine Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcher, Bernhard; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel

    2010-05-01

    We examine the spatial pattern of fluvial erosion on the entire European Alps and adjacent areas by applying the widely used stream power model (e.g. Whipple and Tucker, 1999). According to that model, the bedrock incision rate (E) equals the water flux (upstream contributing area (A) times rainfall (W)) multiplied by the channel slope (S) and a coefficient K which aggregates the influence of many factors, e.g. rock resistance to erosion or channel geometry. E= (Am * W) * Sn * K We apply the stream power (SP) approach as a generalized abstraction of erosional processes in the Alps using the highest available DEM (ASTER GDEM) for the entire orogen in a resolution of 1" (~30m). Climatic variability is implemented in to the SP adding a precipitation correction factor (average precipitation per year). We further average rates of large drainage basins' stream power to compare with existing post-LGM and Holocene erosion rates (Hinderer, 2001; Wittmann et al., 2007; Champagnac et al., 2009). Results show that the ice extension during the LGM is still represented in the extracted stream power. More specifically, SP values generally start to rise as soon as streams reach the areas of the former piedmont ice lobes. Outside of the LGM limits, SP values rise continuously, representing generally higher values in bedrock sections and lower values in alluvial-dominated sections. To better interpret the relative potential for erosion across the entire Alps, we use an averaged moving window on large catchments, and across the belt as a whole. At the scale of our analysis SP is used as a surrogate for the spatial pattern of erosion for which values may be used as an index of erosion (e.g. Finlaysson and Montgomery). Finally, we examine the important role of different East and West Alpine base levels on SP and discuss the associated effects on the evolution of the belt: the large eastern alpine rivers show generally higher SP values than those in the western Alps (e.g. Rhine or Rh

  20. 76 FR 53438 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland Power.... The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic Project, Project No....

  1. 76 FR 53430 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland Power.... The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic Project, Project No....

  2. 76 FR 53427 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland Power.... The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic Project, Project No....

  3. 76 FR 53428 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland Power...' express permission. The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic...

  4. 76 FR 53429 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland Power.... The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic Project, Project No....

  5. 76 FR 53431 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC... To Intervene, and Competing Applications Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland Power.... The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic Project, Project No....

  6. 76 FR 53437 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland Power... others without the owners' express permission. The proposed projects are described as follows: Free...

  7. 76 FR 53440 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC... To Intervene, and Competing Applications Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland Power...' express permission. The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic...

  8. 76 FR 53432 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland Power.... The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic Project, Project No....

  9. 76 FR 53439 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland Power.... The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic Project, Project No....

  10. 76 FR 53428 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland Power.... The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic Project, Project No....

  11. 44. SECTIONS OF POWER HOUSE, EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. SECTIONS OF POWER HOUSE, EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PROJECT, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523644 (sheet no. 15; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. 76 FR 53434 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 11, 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and...' express permission. The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic...

  13. 76 FR 53436 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 11, 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and...' express permission. The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic...

  14. 76 FR 53427 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC... To Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 11, 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow... owners' express permission. The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's...

  15. 76 FR 53435 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 11, 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and... owners' express permission. The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's...

  16. 76 FR 53432 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 11, 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and...' express permission. The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic...

  17. 76 FR 53429 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland...

  18. 77 FR 3761 - Free Flow Power Corporation, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice.... Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Project No. 14083-000. Dated: January 18, 2012. Nathaniel J....

  19. 29. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PLAN FOR POWER HOUSE, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PLAN FOR POWER HOUSE, SANTA ANA RIVER P. H. NO. 3, JUNE 23, 1943; REVISIONS, MAR. 14, 1945 AND MAY 17, 1954. SCE drawing no. 523219-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. 48. MAP OF SANTA ANA RIVER POWER PLANT NO. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MAP OF SANTA ANA RIVER POWER PLANT NO. 2 OF THE EDISON ELECTRIC CO. THROUGH UNSURVEYED LAND IN THE SAN BERNARDINO FOREST RESERVE, APPROVED MAY 26, 1904, F. C. FINKLE, CHIEF HYDRAULIC ENGINEER. SCE drawing no. 53988. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. 75 FR 38800 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for...-12740-003. c. Date filed: July 13, 2009. d. Applicant: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership. e. Name of Project: Flannagan Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Pound River, in the Town...

  2. 75 FR 6371 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted for...: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership e. Name of Project: Flannagan Hydroelectric Project f. Location: On the Pound River, in the Town of Clintwood, in Dickenson County, Virginia. The project would...

  3. 76 FR 53431 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland Power... described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic Project, Project No. 12857-002 would consist of: (1) Up to...

  4. 77 FR 52709 - Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing..., 2012. d. Applicant: Loup River Public Power District (Loup Power District). e. Name of Project: Loup River Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The existing project is located on the Loup River, Loup...

  5. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. 76 FR 53434 - Free Flow Power Corporation, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 11, 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and... described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic Project, Project No. 12861-003 would consist of: (1) Up to...

  7. 76 FR 53433 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 11, 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and... without the owners' express permission. The proposed projects are described as follows: Free...

  8. 76 FR 53433 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 11, 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and.... The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic Project, Project No....

  9. 76 FR 53438 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 11, 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and.... The proposed projects are described as follows: Free Flow's hydrokinetic Project, Project No....

  10. 76 FR 53436 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 11, 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow)...

  11. Axial power monitoring uncertainty in the Savannah River Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Losey, D.C.; Revolinski, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of this analysis quantified the uncertainty associated with monitoring the Axial Power Shape (APS) in the Savannah River Reactors. Thermocouples at each assembly flow exit map the radial power distribution and are the primary means of monitoring power in these reactors. The remaining uncertainty in power monitoring is associated with the relative axial power distribution. The APS is monitored by seven sensors that respond to power on each of nine vertical Axial Power Monitor (APM) rods. Computation of the APS uncertainty, for the reactor power limits analysis, started with a large database of APM rod measurements spanning several years of reactor operation. A computer algorithm was used to randomly select a sample of APSs which were input to a code. This code modeled the thermal-hydraulic performance of a single fuel assembly during a design basis Loss-of Coolant Accident. The assembly power limit at Onset of Significant Voiding was computed for each APS. The output was a distribution of expected assembly power limits that was adjusted to account for the biases caused by instrumentation error and by measuring 7 points rather than a continuous APS. Statistical analysis of the final assembly power limit distribution showed that reducing reactor power by approximately 3% was sufficient to account for APS variation. This data confirmed expectations that the assembly exit thermocouples provide all information needed for monitoring core power. The computational analysis results also quantified the contribution to power limits of the various uncertainties such as instrumentation error.

  12. Axial power monitoring uncertainty in the Savannah River Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Losey, D.C.; Revolinski, S.M.

    1990-12-31

    The results of this analysis quantified the uncertainty associated with monitoring the Axial Power Shape (APS) in the Savannah River Reactors. Thermocouples at each assembly flow exit map the radial power distribution and are the primary means of monitoring power in these reactors. The remaining uncertainty in power monitoring is associated with the relative axial power distribution. The APS is monitored by seven sensors that respond to power on each of nine vertical Axial Power Monitor (APM) rods. Computation of the APS uncertainty, for the reactor power limits analysis, started with a large database of APM rod measurements spanning several years of reactor operation. A computer algorithm was used to randomly select a sample of APSs which were input to a code. This code modeled the thermal-hydraulic performance of a single fuel assembly during a design basis Loss-of Coolant Accident. The assembly power limit at Onset of Significant Voiding was computed for each APS. The output was a distribution of expected assembly power limits that was adjusted to account for the biases caused by instrumentation error and by measuring 7 points rather than a continuous APS. Statistical analysis of the final assembly power limit distribution showed that reducing reactor power by approximately 3% was sufficient to account for APS variation. This data confirmed expectations that the assembly exit thermocouples provide all information needed for monitoring core power. The computational analysis results also quantified the contribution to power limits of the various uncertainties such as instrumentation error.

  13. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations of the Secretary of War relating to the use of the Mississippi River for the generation of power... Secretary of War, March 26, 1908, are rescinded, and the following regulations will govern the operation of... approximately 64,000 cubic feet per second, which corresponds to a normal stage of 6 feet above low water...

  14. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulations of the Secretary of War relating to the use of the Mississippi River for the generation of power... Secretary of War, March 26, 1908, are rescinded, and the following regulations will govern the operation of... approximately 64,000 cubic feet per second, which corresponds to a normal stage of 6 feet above low water...

  15. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulations of the Secretary of War relating to the use of the Mississippi River for the generation of power... Secretary of War, March 26, 1908, are rescinded, and the following regulations will govern the operation of... approximately 64,000 cubic feet per second, which corresponds to a normal stage of 6 feet above low water...

  16. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations of the Secretary of War relating to the use of the Mississippi River for the generation of power... Secretary of War, March 26, 1908, are rescinded, and the following regulations will govern the operation of... approximately 64,000 cubic feet per second, which corresponds to a normal stage of 6 feet above low water...

  17. Geophysical investigations in Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, R.L.; Andreasen, G.E.; Gettings, M.E.; El-Kaysi, K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of geophysical investigations have been undertaken in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide data for understanding the tectonic framework, the pattern of seismicity, earthquake hazards and geothermal resources of the country. Both the historical seismic record and the observed recent seismicity point to the dominance of the Dead Sea Rift as the main locus of seismic activity but significant branching trends and gaps in the seismicity pattern are also seen. A wide variety of focal plane solutions are observed emphasizing the complex pattern of fault activity in the vicinity of the rift zone. Geophysical investigations directed towards the geothermal assessment of the prominent thermal springs of Zerga Ma'in and Zara are not supportive of the presence of a crustal magmatic source. ?? 1990.

  18. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Raymoony, A

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted on 100 patients with symptomatic gallbladder stones, aged 22-81 years with a mean of 51.5 years, who underwent cholecystectomy in Zarqa city, Jordan between July 1998 and July 1999. The success rate was 87% and the procedure was completed using the conventional method in 13 patients. The mean operative time was 60 minutes, complication rate was 5% and there were no deaths. The mean hospital stay was 1 day and mean time to return to work was 10 days. This study showed that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe procedure with reasonable operative time, less postoperative pain, a short hospital stay, early return to work, and a low morbidity and mortality rate. PMID:15332788

  19. 76 FR 5216 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background... authorizes operation of the Crystal River ] Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (Crystal River). The license... under 10 CFR 55.11 from the schedule requirements of 10 CFR 55.59. Specifically for Crystal River,...

  20. "Interior Views of the Tule River Power HouseUpper, Main Gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Interior Views of the Tule River Power House--Upper, Main Gate Valve, Governor, Waterwheel and Generator of No. 1 Set; Lower, View Looking Down upon Generator Set." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. II, No. 3, March 1914, p. 122 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  1. 77 FR 2290 - FFP Project 18, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 18, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... filed on February 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\ for proposed projects to be located on the Mississippi River.... 12857-002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC for Project No. 14073-000. \\1\\ Under the...

  2. 77 FR 2290 - FFP Project 30, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 30, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... filed on February 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\ for proposed projects to be located on the Mississippi River... 30, LLC for Project No. 12927-002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC for Project No....

  3. 77 FR 2287 - FFP Project 32, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 32, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... filed on February 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\ for proposed projects to be located on the Mississippi River... Project 32, LLC for Project No. 12921-002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC for Project No....

  4. 77 FR 2289 - FFP Project 33, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 33, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... filed on February 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\ for proposed projects to be located on the Mississippi River... filed by FFP Project 33, LLC for Project No. 12924- 002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC...

  5. 77 FR 2289 - FFP Project 39, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 39, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... filed on February 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\ for proposed projects to be located on the Mississippi River... Project 39, LLC for Project No. 12925-002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC for Project No....

  6. 77 FR 2288 - FFP Project 10, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 10, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... ] filed on February 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\ for proposed projects to be located on the Mississippi River... 10, LLC for Project No. 12866-002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC for Project No....

  7. 77 FR 2287 - FFP Project 6, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 6, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... filed on February 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\ for proposed projects to be located on the Mississippi River... 6, LLC for Project No. 12848-002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC for Project No....

  8. 77 FR 2288 - FFP Project 7, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 7, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... filed on February 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\ for proposed projects to be located on the Mississippi River... by FFP Project 7, LLC for Project No. 12851-002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC...

  9. 77 FR 2288 - FFP Project 21, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 21, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... filed on February 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\ for proposed projects to be located on the Mississippi River... Project 21, LLC for Project No. 12863-002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC for Project No....

  10. 77 FR 2289 - FFP Project 41, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 41, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... filed on February 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\ for proposed projects to be located on the Mississippi River... 41, LLC for Project No. 12930-002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC for Project No....

  11. 77 FR 2287 - FFP Project 17, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 17, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... filed on February 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\ for proposed projects to be located on the Mississippi River... Project 17, LLC for Project No. 12865-002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC for Project No....

  12. Autonomous solutions for powering wireless sensor nodes in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenar, E.; Maćešić, S.; Gregov, G.; Blažević, D.; Zelenika, S.; Marković, K.; Glažar, V.

    2015-05-01

    There is an evident need for monitoring pollutants and/or other conditions in river flows via wireless sensor networks. In a typical wireless sensor network topography, a series of sensor nodes is to be deployed in the environment, all wirelessly connected to each other and/or their gateways. Each sensor node is composed of active electronic devices that have to be constantly powered. In general, batteries can be used for this purpose, but problems may occur when they have to be replaced. In the case of large networks, when sensor nodes can be placed in hardly accessible locations, energy harvesting can thus be a viable powering solution. The possibility to use three different small-scale river flow energy harvesting principles is hence thoroughly studied in this work: a miniaturized underwater turbine, a so-called `piezoelectric eel' and a hybrid turbine solution coupled with a rigid piezoelectric beam. The first two concepts are then validated experimentally in laboratory as well as in real river conditions. The concept of the miniaturised hydro-generator is finally embedded into the actual wireless sensor node system and its functionality is confirmed.

  13. 77 FR 58125 - American River Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ..., 2012, American River Power, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act proposing to study the feasibility of the Brookville Hydroelectric Water Power Project... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

  14. 77 FR 25997 - Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Tendered For Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Tendered For Filing....: 1256-031. c. Date Filed: April 16, 2012. d. Applicant: Loup River Public Power District (Loup Power District). e. Name of Project: Loup River Hydroelectric Project (Loup River Project). f. Location: On...

  15. Circassian Language Maintenance in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Ulle

    2009-01-01

    The central goal of this research is to explore the language policy aspects in Jordan by focusing on the Circassian language maintenance issues and to provide measures for language revitalisation in the current demographic, linguistic and political situation. Research is based on multiple sources of information, but primarily on the empirical data…

  16. Controls on morphological variability and role of stream power distribution pattern, Yamuna River, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawa, Nupur; Jain, Vikrant; Shekhar, Shashank; Kumar, Niraj; Jyani, Vikas

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the controls on the morphological variability of river systems constitutes one of the fundamental questions in geomorphic investigation. Channel morphology is an important indicator of river processes and is of significance for mapping the hydrology-ecologic connectivity in a river system and for predicting the future trajectory of river health in response to external forcings. This paper documents the spatial morphological variability and its natural and anthropogenic controls for the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganga River, India. The Yamuna River runs through a major urban centre i.e. Delhi National Capital Region. The Yamuna River was divided into eight geomorphically distinct reaches on the basis of the assemblages of geomorphic units and the association of landscape, valley and floodplain settings. The morphological variability was analysed through stream power distribution and sediment load data at various stations. Stream power distribution of the Yamuna River basin is characterised by a non-linear pattern that was used to distinguish (a) high energy ‘natural' upstream reaches, (b) ‘anthropogenically altered', low energy middle stream reaches, and (c) ‘rejuvenated' downstream reaches again with higher stream power. The relationship between stream power and channel morphology in these reaches was integrated with sediment load data to define the maximum flow efficiency (MFE) as the threshold for geomorphic transition. This analysis supports the continuity of river processes and the significance of a holistic, basin-scale approach rather than isolated local scale analysis in river studies.

  17. Power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veitzer, S.A.; Troutman, B.M.; Gupta, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The significance of power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins was discussed. The convergence to a power law was not observed for all underlying distributions, but for a large class of statistical distributions with specific limiting properties. The article also discussed about the scaling properties of topologic and geometric network properties in river basins.

  18. 77 FR 2287 - FFP Project 40, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 40, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... filed on February 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\ for proposed projects to be located on the Mississippi River... applications were filed by FFP Project 40, LLC for Project No. 12929-002, and Northland Power Mississippi...

  19. 76 FR 46793 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of... Hydroelectric Project located on the Pound River, at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (Corps) John W....

  20. 76 FR 71967 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of...) Flannagan Hydroelectric Project located on the Pound River, at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers'...

  1. 76 FR 12101 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Commission's regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 447897), the Office of Energy Projects has... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Environmental Assessment... located on the Jackson River in Alleghany County, Virginia, and has prepared an Environmental...

  2. 76 FR 70437 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final... located on the Jackson River in Alleghany County, Virginia, at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers'...

  3. 77 FR 41783 - American River Power VII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Hydroelectric Water Power Project No. 14389, to be located at the existing Lower Appleton Dam on the Fox River... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power VII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, American River Power VII, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section 4(f)...

  4. 77 FR 41783 - American River Power VI, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Water Power Project No. 14392, to be located at the existing La Grange Dam on the Illinois River, near... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power VI, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, the American River Power VI, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section...

  5. 77 FR 41782 - American River Power VIII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Hydroelectric Water Power Project No. 14391, to be located at the existing Upper Appleton Dam on the Fox River... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power VIII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, American River Power VIII, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section...

  6. 77 FR 34032 - American River Power III, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Water Power Project No. 14375, to be located at the existing Dillon Lake Dam on the Licking River, near... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power III, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, the American River Power III, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section...

  7. 76 FR 58261 - American River Power I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Chute, Ohio--Water Power No. 14258 to be located at the existing Luke Chute Lock and Dam on the... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, American River Power I, LLC (American River) filed an application for a preliminary...

  8. 76 FR 58262 - American River Power I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ..., Ohio--Water Power Project No. 14257 to be located at the existing Ellis Ohio Lock Dam No. 11 on the... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, American River Power I, LLC (American River) filed an application for a preliminary...

  9. 76 FR 53972 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit and serve all... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of... Facility Operating License No. DPR-72 for Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear generating Plant (CR-3),...

  10. 76 FR 54765 - Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... generating units installed in a matrix on the bottom of the river; (2) the total capacity of the installation would be up to 100,000 kilowatts; (3) shielded underwater cables would convey each matrix power to...

  11. EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION OF MAJOR FOSSIL FUEL POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study characterizes the atmospheric emissions from five major coal-fired power plant units in the Ohio River Valley between Portsmouth, Ohio, and Louisville, Kentucky. This characterization provides data that are representative of the boiler fuel emission control combination...

  12. EVALUATION OF EUROPEAN RIVERS FOR POWER PLANT COOLING - A POLISH RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes analytical, laboratory, and field research conducted to optimize the use of rivers, specifically in Poland, for once-through cooling of steam electric power plants. Maximum discharge and receiving water temperatures, based on biological criteria, are coupled ...

  13. Basic Space Sciences in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naimy, H. M. K.; Konsul, Khalil

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the activities and research projects of Basic Space Sciences (Astronomy and Space Sciences (AASS)) in the following Jordanian organizations and Institutions: 1. Jordanian Astronomical Society (JAS). 2. Universities {Mainly Al al-Bayt University}. Institute of Astronomy and Space Sciences (IAASS). Maragha Astronomical Observatory (MAO). 3. Arab Union for Astronomy and Space Sciences (AUASS). 4. ICOP Activities: Islamic Crescent Observational Program. The paper summarizes also other activities in some Jordanian organizations and the future expectation, for AASS in Jordan.

  14. Assessing power of large river fish monitoring programs to detect population changes: the Missouri River sturgeon example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Holan, S.H.; Bryan, J.L.; Gladish, D.W.; Ellersieck, M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the US Army Corps of Engineers initiated the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program (PSPAP) to monitor pallid sturgeon and the fish community of the Missouri River. The power analysis of PSPAP presented here was conducted to guide sampling design and effort decisions. The PSPAP sampling design has a nested structure with multiple gear subsamples within a river bend. Power analyses were based on a normal linear mixed model, using a mixed cell means approach, with variance estimates from the original data. It was found that, at current effort levels, at least 20 years for pallid and 10 years for shovelnose sturgeon is needed to detect a 5% annual decline. Modified bootstrap simulations suggest power estimates from the original data are conservative due to excessive zero fish counts. In general, the approach presented is applicable to a wide array of animal monitoring programs.

  15. Raft River 5MW power plant: A small binary power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitbeck, J. F.; Dibello, E. G.; Walrath, L. F.

    1982-06-01

    The Raft River 5MW power plant is a binary cycle pilot plant. The system uses isobutane in a dual boiling cycle. This cycle was selected because the well field and temperatures were not well known at the time of cycle selection, and therefore, a boiling cycle was desirable. The dual boiling features provides about 15 to 20% more power and makes the output less sensitive to changes in geothermal temperature changes than a single boiler system. The plant design was based upon a 290F geothermal fluid temperature at the inlet to the plant and has a gross nominal generator rating of 5MW; however, actual output will vary according to ambient wet bulb temperatures over a range from 4.4MW to 6.2MW with the actual plant inlet temperature of 278F being obtained. The plant is supplied by three production wells. Geothermal fluid boost pumps within the plant inlet provide the pressure necessary to overcome plant pressure drop and return the fluid to the two injection sites.

  16. 78 FR 3458 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3, Draft Environmental Assessment Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3, Draft Environmental Assessment Related to the Proposed License Amendment To Increase the Maximum Reactor Power Level AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft environmental assessment...

  17. 75 FR 13320 - Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation... [Part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27, 2009)]. The licensee... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant;...

  18. 75 FR 69710 - Florida Power Corporation, et al.; Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... March 27, 2009; 74 FR 13926. There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation... impact [Part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, March 27, 2009; 74 FR 13926]. With its request to... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, et al.; Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant...

  19. 77 FR 34033 - American River Power IX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...--Hydroelectric Water Power Project (Peoria Dam Project or project) to be located at the U.S. Army Corps of... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power IX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, American River Power IX, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section...

  20. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  1. Calibration of seismic wave propagation in Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husien, A; Amrat, A; Harris, D; Mayeda, K; Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A; Ruppert, S; Ryall, F; Skinnell, K; Yazjeen, T

    1999-07-23

    The Natural Resources Authority of Jordan (NRA), the USGS and LLNL have a collaborative project to improve the calibration of seismic propagation in Jordan and surrounding regions. This project serves common goals of CTBT calibration and earthquake hazard assessment in the region. These objectives include accurate location of local and regional earthquakes, calibration of magnitude scales, and the development of local and regional propagation models. In the CTBT context, better propagation models and more accurately located events in the Dead Sea rift region can serve as (potentially GT5) calibration events for generating IMS location corrections. The detection and collection of mining explosions underpins discrimination research. The principal activity of this project is the deployment of two broadband stations at Hittiyah (south Jordan) and Ruweishid (east Jordan). These stations provide additional paths in the region to constrain structure with surface wave and body wave tomography. The Ruweishid station is favorably placed to provide constraints on Arabian platform structure. Waveform modeling with long-period observations of larger earthquakes will provide constraints on 1-D velocity models of the crust and upper mantle. Data from these stations combined with phase observations from the 26 short-period stations of the Jordan National Seismic Network (JNSN) may allow the construction of a more detailed velocity model of Jordan. The Hittiyah station is an excellent source of ground truth information for the six phosphate mines of southern Jordan and Israel. Observations of mining explosions collected by this station have numerous uses: for definition of templates for screening mining explosions, as ground truth events for calibrating travel-time models, and as explosion populations in development and testing discriminants. Following previously established procedures for identifying explosions, we have identified more than 200 explosions from the first 85 days of

  2. Fish vs. power: Remaking salmon, science and society on the Fraser River, 1900--1960

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenden, Matthew Dominic

    Overlapping resource demands made the Fraser River a contested site of development politics in twentieth century British Columbia. Since the turn of the century, power interests surveyed the river's flow, sited dams and promoted development schemes. Fisheries interests, on the other hand, sought to maintain the river as salmon spawning habitat. They questioned the necessity of dams, supported fisheries research and rehabilitation and organized anti-development coalitions. Before the mid-1950s a number of dam projects proceeded on Fraser tributaries and major landslides at Hells Gate modeled the dangers of main stem development. Because of the concerted political lobbying of fisheries groups, the skeptical appraisal of fisheries scientists to development proposals and the legal and political authority of the federal Department of Fisheries and the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, major dam projects were defeated on the Fraser in the late 1950s. Delayed development on the Fraser helped to spur hydroelectric projects on other rivers in the province; the fish-power problem on the Fraser altered the province's spatial economy of power. Once development began on the Columbia and Peace Rivers, the Fraser was protected by implication. The study combines approaches from environmental history, the history of science and political economy to demonstrate the intersections and interactions between nature, knowledge and society. Research was conducted at eleven archives in Canada and the United States in the papers of organizations, corporations, government departments, politicians, scientists and individuals.

  3. Power of Streams and Power of Management: How Community and Fluvial Science Work Together for Massachusetts Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, C. E.; Mabee, S. B.; Slovin, N. B.; Vogel, E.; Gartner, J. D.; Gillett, N.; Warner, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    In the Northeastern U.S., the most costly damages from intense storm events were impacts to road-stream crossings. In steep post-glacial terrain, erosion by floodwater and entrained sediment is the largest destructive force during intense storms, and the most likely driver of major morphological changes to riverbanks and channels. Steam power analysis is a tool that can successfully quantify floodwater energy that caused damage afterward, however, prediction of which reaches or watersheds may experience future impacts remains uncertain. We must better determine how states with thousands of river miles may better prioritize flood mitigation studies, crossing replacements, or other infrastructure upgrades for future flood resilience within resource constraints. This challenged us to develop a statewide-scale scientific method for screening waterways and translating the results into effective policies for river corridor management. Here we present a method based on stream power analysis using widely-available 10-m DEMs and stream flow data to identify locations with extreme high or low stream power values (i.e., >300 W⁄m2 or <60 W⁄m2) or abrupt changes in these values. We used this information to identify potential areas of erosion or deposition in the Deerfield River watershed in Massachusetts and Vermont, then compared it to areas where damage occurred during Tropical Storm Irene. We show that areas of increasing (with respect to distance downstream) and high stream power are prone to landslides, bank failures, and other pulse sediment inputs in flood events. These are also the focal points of wood input to rivers, which combined with increased sediment load, makes culverts in these reaches especially prone to failure. Integration of this information into state databases allows communities to prioritize and make land-use decisions that are informed by the fluvial geomorphic workings of the larger watershed, but that have powerful local implications. Outreach and

  4. 75 FR 71429 - Clean River Power 15, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION Project No. 13874-000 Clean River Power 15, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On October 22, 2010, Clean River Power 15, LLC filed an application for a preliminary...

  5. 75 FR 71427 - Clean River Power 11, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Clean River Power 11, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On October 15, 2010, Clean River Power 11, LLC filed an application for ] a preliminary...

  6. 75 FR 71427 - Clean River Power 12, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Clean River Power 12, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On October 15, 2010, Clean River Power 12, LLC filed an application for a preliminary...

  7. 75 FR 70223 - Clean River Power 13, LLC; Project No. 13864-000; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Clean River Power 13, LLC; Project No. 13864-000; Notice of Preliminary... Applications November 9, 2010. On October 15, 2010, Clean River Power 13, LLC filed an application for...

  8. 75 FR 71428 - Clean River Power 14, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Clean River Power 14, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On October 15, 2010, Clean River Power 14, LLC filed an application for a preliminary...

  9. 75 FR 70226 - Clean River Power 16, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Clean River Power 16, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On October 22, 2010, Clean River Power 16, LLC filed an application for a preliminary...

  10. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  11. 75 FR 16518 - Florida Power Corporation, et al.; Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... FR 13926- 13993), effective May 26, 2009, with a full implementation date of March 31, 2010, requires... have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 13320, dated March 19, 2010... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, et al.; Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption...

  12. 75 FR 70953 - Florida Power Corporation, et al.; Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... site security plans. The amendments to 10 CFR 73.55 published on March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926... on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 69710 dated November 15, 2010). This exemption is... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, et al.; Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption...

  13. 76 FR 32237 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of Availability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of Availability of Draft Supplement 44 to the Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants and Public Meetings for the License...

  14. 76 FR 22696 - Missouri River Energy Services, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Motion To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ...; Notice of Motion To Withdraw Filing and Request for Expedited Action On March 23, 2011, Missouri River Energy Services and Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (collectively, MRES/WMMPA) filed a motion to... Markets Tariff. MRES/WMMPA also request that the Commission act on this motion no later than May 1,...

  15. 77 FR 1743 - Facility Operating License Amendment From Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Facility Operating License Amendment From Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: License amendment; opportunity to request a hearing, petition for leave to...

  16. On the control of riverbed incision induced by run-of-river power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, Simone; Dinh, Quang; Bernardi, Dario; Denaro, Simona; Schippa, Leonardo; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2015-07-01

    Water resource management (WRM) through dams or reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities, ranging from hydropower production to water allocation and flood risk mitigation. Designing of reservoir operations aims primarily to fulfill the main purpose (or purposes) for which the structure has been built. However, it is well known that reservoirs strongly influence river geomorphic processes, causing sediment deficits downstream, altering water, and sediment fluxes, leading to riverbed incision and causing infrastructure instability and ecological degradation. We propose a framework that, by combining physically based modeling, surrogate modeling techniques, and multiobjective (MO) optimization, allows to include fluvial geomorphology into MO optimization whose main objectives are the maximization of hydropower revenue and the minimization of riverbed degradation. The case study is a run-of-the-river power plant on the River Po (Italy). A 1-D mobile-bed hydro-morphological model simulated the riverbed evolution over a 10 year horizon for alternatives operation rules of the power plant. The knowledge provided by such a physically based model is integrated into a MO optimization routine via surrogate modeling using the response surface methodology. Hence, this framework overcomes the high computational costs that so far hindered the integration of river geomorphology into WRM. We provided numerical proof that river morphologic processes and hydropower production are indeed in conflict but that the conflict may be mitigated with appropriate control strategies.

  17. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over several years, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana.

  18. What explains the increased utilization of Powder River Basin coal in electric power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Gerking, S.; Hamilton, S.F.

    2008-11-15

    This article examines possible explanations for increased utilization of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in electric power generation that occurred over the last two decades. Did more stringent environmental policy motivate electric power plants to switch to less polluting fuels? Or, did greater use of PRB coal occur because relative price changes altered input markets in favor of this fuel. A key finding is that factors other than environmental policy such as the decline in railroad freight rates together with elastic demand by power plants were major contributors to the increased utilization of this fuel.

  19. Irrigation and water scarcity in the Zerqa Triangle, Jordan or why archaeology is relevant for understanding current practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, M. W.; Kaptijn, E.

    2009-04-01

    Scarcity of water resources for development is a recurrent and important issue, and has been for thousands of years. Based on the case of the Jordan Valley, this contribution will argue that our understanding of current issues can be improved by studying ancient contexts. At the same time, archeology can benefit from analysis and models applied in the engineering domain. In the Zerqa triangle in the Jordan Valley, irrigation would have been an important instrument to deal with the arid climate and its associated uncertainties concerning rainfall for societies in different periods. Before irrigation modernization efforts were started in the 1960's, the people of the Zerqa area used the known ethnohistorical irrigation system, which dates back to the Mamluk period. This system consisted of a number of sub-systems tapping water from the Zerqa river and transporting water to the fields through open canals under gravity. The settlement pattern of the Iron Age points to an irrigation system of similar type being in use during this period. The location of Early Bronze Age settlements along natural watercourses suggests that a form of flood irrigation was practiced, without a dedicated canal system. Each of these settings will have had its specific uncertainties in terms of water availability to deal with, which will be discussed. In other words, each setting provided specific materially structuring conditions for societies to develop responses in terms of agriculture, institutions and power relations. This contribution discusses these uncertainties and responses for the different periods. In the discussion, insights from both archaeology and irrigation engineering will be integrated.

  20. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, Gary S; Burnside, Niall G; Gray, Jeremy C; Orr, Harriet G

    2016-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR) schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon-Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout-Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout). The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies. PMID:27191717

  1. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR) schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon—Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout—Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout). The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies. PMID:27191717

  2. English in Jordan: Attitudes and Prestige

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saidat, Emad M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the attitudes of a number of Jordanian university students towards English as a foreign language and the place it occupies in Jordan. Although research of a similar nature has been done, this study complements others by following 420 students in their university studies, and it provides another avenue for examining…

  3. Assessment of Early Childcare Programs in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Aieman A.; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Dababneh, Khouloud A.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Forty-five child caregivers and 120 parents participated in this study to examine perceptions of childcare programs in Jordan. The researchers developed a questionnaire that consisted of 6 dimensions: health, education, parent-caregiver relationship, facilities, building/landscape, and playground. Moreover, interviews with 10…

  4. A model-based assessment of the effects of projected climate change on the water resources of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Wade, A J; Black, E; Brayshaw, D J; El-Bastawesy, M; Holmes, P A C; Butterfield, D; Nuimat, S; Jamjoum, K

    2010-11-28

    This paper is concerned with the quantification of the likely effect of anthropogenic climate change on the water resources of Jordan by the end of the twenty-first century. Specifically, a suite of hydrological models are used in conjunction with modelled outcomes from a regional climate model, HadRM3, and a weather generator to determine how future flows in the upper River Jordan and in the Wadi Faynan may change. The results indicate that groundwater will play an important role in the water security of the country as irrigation demands increase. Given future projections of reduced winter rainfall and increased near-surface air temperatures, the already low groundwater recharge will decrease further. Interestingly, the modelled discharge at the Wadi Faynan indicates that extreme flood flows will increase in magnitude, despite a decrease in the mean annual rainfall. Simulations projected no increase in flood magnitude in the upper River Jordan. Discussion focuses on the utility of the modelling framework, the problems of making quantitative forecasts and the implications of reduced water availability in Jordan. PMID:20956366

  5. 76 FR 77023 - In the Matter of Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Opportunity for Hearing,'' was published in the Federal Register on August 30, 2011 (76 FR 53972). No comments... COMMISSION In the Matter of Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant...) and nine other entities are the owners of Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (Crystal...

  6. Run-of-river power plants in Alpine regions: whither optimal capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaro, Gianluca; Botter, Gianluca

    2015-04-01

    Hydropower is the major renewable electricity generation technology worldwide. The future expansion of this technology mostly relies on the development of small run-of-river projects, in which a fraction of the running flows is diverted from the river to a turbine for energy production. Even though small hydro inflicts a smaller impact on aquatic ecosystems and local communities compared to large dams, it cannot prevent stresses on plant, animal, and human well-being. This is especially true in mountain regions where the plant outflow is located several kilometers downstream of the intake, thereby inducing the depletion of river reaches of considerable length. Moreover, the negative cumulative effects of run-of-river systems operating along the same river threaten the ability of stream networks to supply ecological corridors for plants, invertebrates or fishes, and support biodiversity. Research in this area is severely lacking. Therefore, the prediction of the long-term impacts associated to the expansion of run-of-river projects induced by global-scale incentive policies remains highly uncertain. This contribution aims at providing objective tools to address the preliminary choice of the capacity of a run-of-river hydropower plant when the economic value of the plant and the alteration of the flow regime are simultaneously accounted for. This is done using the concepts of Pareto-optimality and Pareto-dominance, which are powerful tools suited to face multi-objective optimization in presence of conflicting goals, such as the maximization of the profitability and the minimization of the hydrologic disturbance induced by the plant in the river reach between the intake and the outflow. The application to a set of case studies belonging to the Piave River basin (Italy) suggests that optimal solutions are strongly dependent the natural flow regime at the plant intake. While in some cases (namely, reduced streamflow variability) the optimal trade-off between economic

  7. Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hamhalter, Jan

    2012-12-15

    In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

  8. POTENTIAL WATER QUANTITY AND WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF POWER PLANT DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS ON MAJOR RIVERS IN THE OHIO BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. Water consumption levels associated with power plant cooling were estimated for different energy develop...

  9. Intermediate accelerated solutions as generic late-time attractors in a modified Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Antonella; Leon, Genly; Leyva, Yoelsy

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the evolution of a Jordan-Brans-Dicke scalar field, Φ, with a power-law potential in the presence of a second scalar field, phi, with an exponential potential, in both the Jordan and the Einstein frames. We present the relation of our model with the induced gravity model with power-law potential and the integrability of this kind of models is discussed when the quintessence field phi is massless, and has a small velocity. The fact that for some fine-tuned values of the parameters we may get some integrable cosmological models, makes our choice of potentials very interesting. We prove that in Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory, the de Sitter solution is not a natural attractor. Instead, we show that the attractor in the Jordan frame corresponds to an ``intermediate accelerated'' solution of the form a(t) simeq eα1 tp1, as t → ∞ where α1 > 0 and 0 < p1 < 1, for a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, when we work in the Einstein frame we get that the attractor is also an ``intermediate accelerated'' solution of the form fraktur a(fraktur t) simeq eα2 fraktur tp2 as fraktur t → ∞ where α2 > 0 and 0Jordan frame. In the special case of a quadratic potential in the Jordan frame, or for a constant potential in the Einstein's frame, the above intermediate solutions are of saddle type. These results were proved using the center manifold theorem, which is not based on linear approximation. Finally, we present a specific elaboration of our extension of the induced gravity model in the Jordan frame, which corresponds to a particular choice of a linear potential of Φ. The dynamical system is then reduced to a two dimensional one, and the late-time attractor is linked with the exact solution found for the induced gravity model. In this example the ``intermediate accelerated'' solution does not exist, and the attractor solution has an asymptotic de Sitter-like evolution law for the

  10. Fertility and family planning in Jordan: results from the 1985 Jordan Husbands' Fertility Survey.

    PubMed

    Warren, C W; Hiyari, F; Wingo, P A; Abdel-Aziz, A M; Morris, L

    1990-01-01

    The 1985 Jordan Husbands' Fertility Survey (JHFS) was designed to assess husbands' attitudes and behavior toward fertility and family planning. The 1985 JHFS was a follow-up survey to obtain data from husbands of women who were currently married in the 1983 Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey (JFFHS). The results from the 1985 JHFS point to the usefulness of collecting fertility and family planning information from husbands. These findings showed that nearly 40 percent of the husbands do not believe in practicing contraception, and more than 50 percent of the husbands report that family size should be "up to God." How program officials address these issues will be important for the future success of the family planning program in Jordan. PMID:2315966

  11. Modeling power-plant impacts on multipopulation systems: application of loop analysis to the Hudson River white perch population

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1981-12-01

    The white perch population of the Hudson River suffers unusually high mortality due to impingement and entrainment at power plants. The long-term consequences of this mortality for the Hudson River ecosystem depend in part on interactions between the white perch population and its prey, competitors, and predators, many of which are themselves subject to mortality at power plants. Size multipopulation models were analyzed, using a technique known as loop analysis, to determine how patterns of interaction affect population responses to stress and to identify the parameters that have the greatest influence on those responses. These theoretical results, together with information on life history and vulnerability to power plants for Hudson River fish and macroinvertebrate populations, were used to assess the likely effects of power plant mortality on the white perch population and its prey, competitors, and predators. The results suggest that effects of interactions with other populations are insufficient to offset the effects of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River white perch population. The results also suggest that if mortality imposed by power plants does cause a substantial decline in the white perch population, then piscivore populations in the Hudson River should not be noticeably affected, a complementary increase in the abundance of competitors that are relatively invulnerable to power plants should occur, and a shift in the distribution of biomass within the white perch population toward the older age classes should occur.

  12. Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

  13. Barriers to Utilizing ICT in Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Nayef Ibrahim; Menchaca, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study explored barriers to utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT) for teaching and learning in the country of Jordan as indicated by participating stakeholders: students, teachers, and administrators. Jordan is a developing country in the heart of the Middle East with both tremendous opportunity as well as significant…

  14. Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Engineering Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aqlan, Faisal; Al-Araidah, Omar; Al-Hawari, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a study of the quality assurance and accreditation in the Jordanian higher education sector and focuses mainly on engineering education. It presents engineering education, accreditation and quality assurance in Jordan and considers the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) for a case study. The study highlights the…

  15. The Prevalence of Speech Disorders among University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Amayreh, Mousa Mohammad; Saleh, Mohammad Yusef

    2014-01-01

    Problem: There are no available studies on the prevalence, and distribution of speech disorders among Arabic speaking undergraduate students in Jordan. Method: A convenience sample of 400 undergraduate students at the University of Jordan was screened for speech disorders. Two spontaneous speech samples and an oral reading of a passage were…

  16. Jordan Reforms Public Education to Compete in a Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    The King of Jordan's vision for education is resulting in innovative projects for the country. King Abdullah II wants Jordan to develop its human resources through public education to equip the workforce with skills for the future. From King Abdullah II's vision, the Education Reform for a Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) project implemented by the…

  17. Education Reform and the Quality of Kindergartens in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Obeidat, Osama M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluates a major education reform in Jordan--the implementation of public kindergartens--and provides an example of how evaluation can be incorporated into education reform. In the context of education reform in Jordan, 532 public kindergartens have been created over the last five years. A stratified random sample of…

  18. Child-Friendly School Initiative in Jordan: A Sharing Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weshah, Hani A.; Al-Faori, Oraib; Sakal, Reham M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to report on a Child-Friendly School (CFS) initiative pilot project in Jordan, which aims at initiating the creation of CFS and to raise stakeholders' awareness of the importance of this project in promoting and implementing Child Rights Conviction (CRC) in Jordan. The study was conducted by a joint team selected…

  19. Social Support and Stress among University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…

  20. Gender and the Expansion of University Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Willy

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how gender is threaded through the expansion and privatization of higher education in Jordan. Due to the justified current concern with the educational deficit of Muslim girls, it is easy to overlook the educational advances made by girls in some Islamic countries. In Jordan, girls have profited more than boys from the…

  1. University Acceptance Features in the Open Arab University (Jordan Branch) Amman Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALmahasneh, Ebtisam Z.; ALhabees, Mahmoud A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the experience of the Open Arab University/Jordan branch, in terms of accepted students as well as the graduates from 2002 to 2005, and to conclude on one hand the relation between the students' genders, the majors and the scientific programs, and to study the differences between the number of graduates…

  2. Power law time dependence of river flood decay and its relationship to long term discharge frequency distribution. [California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Investigations have continued into the possibility that significant information on stream flow rates can be obtained from aerial and satellite imagery of river meander patterns by seeking a correlation between the meander and discharge spectra of rivers. Such a correlation could provide the basis for a simple and inexpensive technique for remote sensing of the water resources of large geographical areas, eliminating the need for much hydrologic recording. The investigation of the nature of the meander and discharge spectra and their interrelationship can also contribute to a more fundamental understanding of the processes of both river meander formation and drainage of large basins. It has been found that floods decay with an inverse power law dependence on time. The exponent of this dependence varies from river to river and even from station to station along the same river. This power law time dependence makes possible the forecasting of river discharge with an uncertainty of about 5% for as long as a month following the flood peak.

  3. Crop water use measurement using a weighing lysimeter at the Dayr Alla Research Station in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2003, a regional project funded by USDA-ARS-OIRP has focused on improving irrigation scheduling in Jordan, Palestine and Israel. The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems (MERMIS) project involves cooperators from Palestine, Jordan, Israel and the United States, all...

  4. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Reservoirs in the Lower Jordan Watershed.

    PubMed

    Alshboul, Zeyad; Lorke, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed monthly hydrological, meteorological and water quality data from three irrigation and drinking water reservoirs in the lower Jordan River basin and estimated the atmospheric emission rates of CO2. The data were collected between 2006 and 2013 and show that the reservoirs, which differ in size and age, were net sources of CO2. The estimated surface fluxes were comparable in magnitude to those reported for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropical and sub-tropical zones. Highest emission rates were observed for a newly established reservoir, which was initially filled during the sampling period. In the two older reservoirs, CO2 partial pressures and fluxes were significantly decreasing during the observation period, which could be related to simultaneously occurring temporal trends in water residence time and chemical composition of the water. The results indicate a strong influence of water and reservoir management (e.g. water consumption) on CO2 emission rates, which is affected by the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the limited water resources in the study area. The low wind speed and relatively high pH favored chemical enhancement of the CO2 gas exchange at the reservoir surfaces, which caused on average a four-fold enhancement of the fluxes. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the uncertainty of the estimated fluxes is, besides pH, mainly affected by the poorly resolved wind speed and resulting uncertainty of the chemical enhancement factor. PMID:26588241

  5. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Reservoirs in the Lower Jordan Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Alshboul, Zeyad; Lorke, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed monthly hydrological, meteorological and water quality data from three irrigation and drinking water reservoirs in the lower Jordan River basin and estimated the atmospheric emission rates of CO2. The data were collected between 2006 and 2013 and show that the reservoirs, which differ in size and age, were net sources of CO2. The estimated surface fluxes were comparable in magnitude to those reported for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropical and sub-tropical zones. Highest emission rates were observed for a newly established reservoir, which was initially filled during the sampling period. In the two older reservoirs, CO2 partial pressures and fluxes were significantly decreasing during the observation period, which could be related to simultaneously occurring temporal trends in water residence time and chemical composition of the water. The results indicate a strong influence of water and reservoir management (e.g. water consumption) on CO2 emission rates, which is affected by the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the limited water resources in the study area. The low wind speed and relatively high pH favored chemical enhancement of the CO2 gas exchange at the reservoir surfaces, which caused on average a four-fold enhancement of the fluxes. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the uncertainty of the estimated fluxes is, besides pH, mainly affected by the poorly resolved wind speed and resulting uncertainty of the chemical enhancement factor. PMID:26588241

  6. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, M R; Castor, S B; Robins, J W

    1982-04-01

    The Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits in accordance with criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Surface radiometric reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were used for overall evaluation of the quadrangle. Detailed rock sampling, geologic mapping, and examination of uranium deposits and occurrences were performed in areas suspected to be favorable. The northeast part of the McDermitt caldera within the quadrangle is favorable for volcanogenic deposits associated with the ring-fracture zone. The favorable area contains the Aurora uranium deposit, the Bretz mercury mine, and the Cottonwood Creek occurrence. The Triangle Ranch area and the Snake River Plain, both in the northeast part of the quadrangle, have environments that may be favorable for uranium deposits in sandstone but are considered unevaluated due to lack of subsurface data and lack of detailed investigations. Rocks in the remainder of the quadrangle are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits because of low uranium contents, basic to intermediate compositions, or lack of favorable structures.

  7. 78 FR 34089 - Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 21, 2013, Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P. (Jordan Cove), 125 Central Avenue, Suite 380, Coos Bay... granted Jordan Cove's request to utilize the Pre-Filing Process and assigned Docket No. PF12- 7 to...

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from building and operating electric power plants in the Upper Colorado River Basin.

    PubMed

    Pacca, Sergio; Horvath, Arpad

    2002-07-15

    As demand for electricity increases, investments into new generation capacity from renewable and nonrenewable sources should include assessment of global (climate) change consequences not just of the operational phase of the power plants but construction effects as well. In this paper, the global warming effect (GWE) associated with construction and operation of comparable hydroelectric, wind, solar, coal, and natural gas power plants is estimated for four time periods after construction. The assessment includes greenhouse gas emissions from construction, burning of fuels, flooded biomass decay in the reservoir, loss of net ecosystem production, and land use. The results indicate that a wind farm and a hydroelectric plant in an arid zone (such as the Glen Canyon in the Upper Colorado River Basin) appear to have lower GWE than other power plants. For the Glen Canyon hydroelectric plant, the upgrade 20 yr after the beginning of operation increased power capacity by 39% but resulted in a mere 1% of the CO2 emissions from the initial construction and came with no additional emissions from the reservoir, which accounts for the majority of the GWE. PMID:12141503

  9. Prediction of Ungauged River Basin for Hydro Power Potential and Flood Risk Mitigation; a Case Study at Gin River, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnayake, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    The most of the primary civilizations of the world emerged in or near river valleys or floodplains. The river channels and floodplains are single hydrologic and geomorphic system. The failure to appreciate the integral connection between floodplains and channel underlies many socioeconomic and environmental problems in river management today. However it is a difficult task of collecting reliable field hydrological data. Under such situations either synthetic or statistically generated data were used for hydraulic engineering designing and flood modeling. The fundamentals of precipitation-runoff relationship through synthetic unit hydrograph for Gin River basin were prepared using the method of the Flood Studies Report of the National Environmental Research Council, United Kingdom (1975). The Triangular Irregular Network model was constructed using Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine hazard prone zones. The 1:10,000 and 1:50,000 topography maps and field excursions were also used for initial site selection of mini-hydro power units and determine flooding area. The turbines output power generations were calculated using the parameters of net head and efficiency of turbine. The peak discharge achieves within 4.74 hours from the onset of the rainstorm and 11.95 hours time takes to reach its normal discharge conditions of Gin River basin. Stream frequency of Gin River is 4.56 (Junctions/ km2) while the channel slope is 7.90 (m/km). The regional coefficient on the catchment is 0.00296. Higher stream frequency and gentle channel slope were recognized as the flood triggering factors of Gin River basin and other parameters such as basins catchment area, main stream length, standard average annual rainfall and soil do not show any significant variations with other catchments of Sri Lanka. The flood management process, including control of flood disaster, prepared for a flood, and minimize it impacts are complicated in human population encroached and modified

  10. Glacially conditioned specific stream powers in low-relief river catchments of the southern Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. T. J.; Desloges, J. R.

    2014-02-01

    Fluvial systems of the southern Laurentian Great Lakes region are carved into a complex glacial landscape shaped by continental ice and meltwater of the late Pleistocene. These glacially conditioned river catchments are typically small with drainage areas < 104 km2. A 10-m digital elevation model (DEM) is used to map the spatial distribution of stream gradient for 22 major river catchments of peninsular southern Ontario, which drain to base levels in the lower Great Lakes (Huron, St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Raw data from the DEM show stream gradients that exhibit multiscale variance from real and from artifact sources. Based on a vertical slice and multiple-pass moving-window averaging approach, slope data are generalised to the river reach scale (1-2 km) as a representative spatial scale for fluvial processes operating over Holocene timescales. Models of specific stream power are then compared with glacial landform and surface geology mapping. Inherited glacial signatures in river slope appear as deviations in a stream length-gradient index (SL/K index), where river reaches are frequently oversteepened or understeepened. Based on a slope-area analysis, and complementary to theories of channel pattern discrimination, constant stream power curves (with power-law exponent of - 0.4) provide a first-order approach to stratify river reaches in terms of glacial conditioning and expected planform morphologies. However, multiple-channel planform types are rare and localised in southern Ontario, indicating that oversteepened reaches with high stream powers may often be moderated by (1) sediment calibre, with cobble-beds from inherited glacial sediments; and/or (2) relative bank strength, with limited channel widening particularly in gravel and sand-bed channels. Further discrimination of glacially conditioned fluvial process domains will ultimately require consideration of alluvial floodplain characteristics in addition to general observations of river morphology and

  11. Urbanisation of Suweimeh area, Jordan, versus sinkholes and landslides proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib

    2013-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a terminal lake whose level lowers each year of about one meter per year since more than one decade. This is caused mainly by the diversion of surface waters from its watershed. Currently, 1/10 of the Jordan River still reaches the salt lake. The rapid lowering of the lake level does not allow all the surrounding groundwater tables to adjust their level to that of the Dead Sea. This imbalance causes an always faster migration of a part of the groundwater causing underground erosion leading to the formation of sinkholes along the coast, especially where discontinuities, such as faults, are present. The first collapses occurred in the years 1980-90. From the 2000s, in Jordan, they have proliferated to the point of causing serious damages to the facilities of the Arab Potash Company, the agricultural area of Ghor Al Haditha, and more recently the touristic region of Suweimeh. Aware of the problem and the need for gradual rising of the lake level, the Jordanian authorities attended from 2009 to 2011 to the feasibility study of the Red Sea - Dead Sea conduit. Currently, on the one hand, the growing environmental imbalance, and, on the other hand, the desires to develop economic activities along the coast, imply that more goods will be exposed to damages. For example, the area of Wadi Mujib Bridge was rebuilt completely in the late 2000s. It is the same for the 12 km of the dam 18 of an evaporation pond Arab Potash Company. The Numeira Salt Factory was completely destroyed in Ghor Al Haditha and was relocated to Safi. In August 2012, during touristic period, a landslide destroyed half of the Holiday Inn front beach, Suweimeh area ... End of December 2012, a team lead by Prof. Najib Abou Karaki warned the Arab Potash Company of the presence of a circular depression 250 m in diameter within the evaporation pond SP-0A. Although the dike of this saltpan is closely monitored, the exact location and shape of this large sinkhole were not known to the security

  12. The PCDD/PCDF Dioxin releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period (2000-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dabbas, Mohammed Awwad

    2010-04-01

    Many environment problems of the full using of several categories of processing include mining, heat generators, direct combustion of forest fires, cement production, power plant, transport, medical waste. Dioxin/furan releases from these categories are one of these environment problems. Possible lines of reducing the PCDD/PCDF (Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins/Polychlorinated dibenzofurans) releases from these categories are elucidated. The contribution of this paper is present the identification and estimation of the latest figure of dioxin/furan releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period 2000-2008 from the following categories (cement, aluminum, ceramic, medical waste, power plant, land fill, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, uncontrolled combustion process (biomass burning, waste burning, accidental fires in house, transport). These finding shows the sign of growth of estimated PCDD/PCDF releases from categories which did not calculated and followed after 2003. The result shows the highest PCDD/PCDF release from landfill fires (62.75 g TEQ/year), medical waste (8.8264 g TEQ/year), and transport (3.0145 g TEQ/year). Jordan seeks by next years, a reduction in total releases of dioxins and furans from sources resulting from human activity. This challenge will apply to the aggregate of releases to the air nationwide and of releases to the water within the Jordan area. Jordan should conduct air monitoring for dioxin in order to track fluctuations in atmospheric deposition levels.

  13. Concept of biosimilar products in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, Rania Dakhlallah

    2011-09-01

    After the expiration of patents on originator biological products, Jordanian local manufacturers and the agents of international pharmaceutical companies in Jordan started to submit registration dossiers for biosimilar products. The Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA) is the national regulatory authority responsible for the registration of biosimilar products. Biosimilars are registered under the same regulations used for drugs until specific guidelines for registration of biological and biosimilar products are released. Those regulations are called Criteria of Registration of Drugs, Vaccines, Sera and Biological Products, the Renewal of its Registration and the Cancellation of Any of them which was published in the official gazette in 2004 under the Provisional Law Number 80 of the year 2001, Drug and Pharmacy Law and its amendments of the year 2003. Also, the JFDA follows the EMA guidelines on similar biological medicinal products for specific active biological substances for non-clinical and clinical studies requirements and the EMA guideline on similar biological medicinal products containing biotechnology-derived proteins as active substance: quality issues. A post marketing surveillance study is requested after a biosimilar product is authorized. The JFDA keeps pace with all advances in the regulatory issues related to biosimilars in order to be capable of authorizing biosimilar products with a safe, effective and good quality profile. PMID:21873079

  14. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Lynch

    2004-01-07

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The Phase I of this project was supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while the Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research, Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The two project phases planned for execution include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and

  15. Science, law, and Hudson River power plants: A case study in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Klauda, R.J.; Vaughan, D.S.; Kendall, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1980, the Hudson River estuary was the focus of one of the most ambitious environmental research and assessment programs ever performed. The studies supported a series of US federal proceedings involving licenses and discharge permits for two controversial electric power generating facilities: the Cornwall pumped storage facility, and units 2 and 3 of the Indian Point nuclear generating station. Both facilities were to draw large volumes of water from a region of the Hudson used as spawning and nursery habitat by several fish species, including the striped bass. Fishermen and conservationists feared that a major fraction of the striped bass eggs and larvae in the Hudson would be entrained with the pumped water and killed. Additional fish would be killed on trash screens at the intakes. Scientists were asked to aid the utility companies and regulatory agencies in determining the biological importance of entrainment and impingement. This monograph contains both technical papers that present research results and synthesis papers that summarize and interpret the results. The intent was to: (1) summarize the scientific issues and approaches; (2) present the significant results of the Hudson River biological studies; (3) describe the role of the studies in the decision-making process; (4) evaluate the successes and failures of the studies; and (5) present recommendations for future estuarine impact assessments. Separate abstracts are processed for 22 papers for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  16. Use Of limestone resources in flue-gas desulfurization power plants in the Ohio River Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; Barsotti, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, more than 41 of the approximately 160 coal-fired, electrical- power plants within the six-state Ohio River Valley region used flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) units to desulfurize their emissions, an approximately 100% increase over the number of plants using FGD units in 1989. This increase represents a trend that may continue with greater efforts to meet Federal Clean Air Act standards. Abundant limestone resources exist in the Ohio River Valley and are accessed by approximately 975 quarries. However, only 35 of these are believed to have supplied limestone for FGD electrical generating facilities. The locations of these limestone suppliers do not show a simple spatial correlation with FGD facilities, and the closest quarries are not being used in most cases. Thus, reduction in transportation costs may be possible in some cases. Most waste generated by FGD electrical-generating plants is not recycled. However, many FGD sites are relatively close to gypsum wallboard producers that may be able to process some of their waste.

  17. Mapping spatial patterns of stream power and channel change along a gravel-bed river in northern Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Devin M.; Legleiter, Carl J.

    2016-01-01

    Stream power represents the rate of energy expenditure along a river and can be calculated using topographic data acquired via remote sensing or field surveys. This study sought to quantitatively relate temporal changes in the form of Soda Butte Creek, a gravel-bed river in northeastern Yellowstone National Park, to stream power gradients along an 8-km reach. Aerial photographs from 1994 to 2012 and ground-based surveys were used to develop a locational probability map and morphologic sediment budget to assess lateral channel mobility and changes in net sediment flux. A drainage area-to-discharge relationship and DEM developed from LiDAR data were used to obtain the discharge and slope values needed to calculate stream power. Local and lagged relationships between mean stream power gradient at median peak discharge and volumes of erosion, deposition, and net sediment flux were quantified via spatial cross-correlation analyses. Similarly, autocorrelations of locational probabilities and sediment fluxes were used to examine spatial patterns of sediment sources and sinks. Energy expended above critical stream power was calculated for each time period to relate the magnitude and duration of peak flows to the total volumetric change in each time increment. Collectively, we refer to these methods as the stream power gradient (SPG) framework. The results of this study were compromised by methodological limitations of the SPG framework and revealed some complications likely to arise when applying this framework to small, wandering, gravel-bed rivers. Correlations between stream power gradients and sediment flux were generally weak, highlighting the inability of relatively simple statistical approaches to link sub-budget cell-scale sediment dynamics to larger-scale driving forces such as stream power gradients. Improving the moderate spatial resolution techniques used in this study and acquiring very-high resolution data from recently developed methods in fluvial remote

  18. False vacuum decay in Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun; Weinberg, Erick J.

    1989-01-01

    The bubble nucleation rate in a first-order phase transition taking place in a background Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology is examined. The leading order terms in the nucleation rate when the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field is large (i.e., late times) are computed by means of a Weyl rescaling of the fields in the theory. It is found that despite the fact that the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field (hence the effective gravitational constant) has a time dependence in the false vacuum at late times the nucleation rate is time independent.

  19. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Harmond; Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are

  20. LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF INTERSTATE POWER PLANT DEVELOPMENT IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report was prepared in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program. It discusses both the present legal and institutional setting of power plant siting and development and possible legal and institutional means to solve pr...

  1. Pascual Jordan, Varying Gravity, and the Expanding Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-06-01

    In the 1950s, surprising links were proposed between cosmological theory and the geological and paleontological sciences. These links were mainly provided by Paul Dirac's hypothesis of 1937 that the gravitational constant G decreases with cosmic time. Pascual Jordan, famous for his pioneering contributions to quantum theory, took up Dirac's hypothesis; after the end of World War II, Jordan developed its geophysical consequences, concluding that the Earth is expanding. Much of Jordan's later scientific work focused on the expanding Earth and other aspects of the earth sciences relating to the varying- G hypothesis. This chapter in the history of science has received almost no attention from either scientists or historians. The article analyzes Jordan's cosmo-geological work in relation to the somewhat similar efforts of other "expansionists" in the period that led to the plate tectonic revolution in the earth sciences.

  2. Negotiating river ecosystems: Impact assessment and conflict mediation in the cases of hydro-power construction

    SciTech Connect

    Karjalainen, Timo P.; Jaervikoski, Timo

    2010-09-15

    In this paper we discuss how the legitimacy of the impact assessment process is a key issue in conflict mediation in environmental impact assessment. We contrast two EIA cases in hydro-power generation plans made for the Ii River, Finland in different decades, and evaluate how impact assessment in these cases has contributed to the creation, mediation and resolution of conflicts. We focus on the elements of distributional and procedural justice that made the former EIA process more legitimate and consensual and the latter more conflictual. The results indicate that it is crucial for conflict mediation to include all the values and interests of the parties in the goal-setting process and in the definition and assessment of alternatives. The analysis also indicates that procedural justice is the most important to help the people and groups involved to accept the legitimacy of the impact assessment process: how different parties and their values and interests are recognized, and how participation and distribution of power are organized in an impact assessment process. It is confirmed in this article that SIA may act as a mediator or a forum providing a process through which competing knowledge claims, various values and interests can be discussed and linked to the proposed alternatives and interventions.

  3. [Major Air Pollutant Emissions of Coal-Fired Power Plant in Yangtze River Delta].

    PubMed

    Ding, Qing-qing; Wei, Wei; Shen, Qun; Sun, Yu-han

    2015-07-01

    The emission factor method was used to estimate major air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plant in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of the year 2012. Results showed that emissions of SO2, NOx, dust, PM10, PM2.5 were respectively 473 238, 1 566 195, 587 713, 348 773 and 179 820 t. For SO2 and NOx, 300 MW and above class units made contributions of 85% and 82% in emission; while in the respect of dust, PM10 and PM2.5 contribution rates of 100 MW and below class units were respectively 81%, 53% and 40%. Considering the regional distribution, Jiangsu discharged the most, followed by Zhejiang, Shanghai. According to discharge data of several local power plants, we also calculated and made a comparative analysis of emission factors in different unit levels in Shanghai, which indicated a lower emission level. Assuming an equal level was reached in whole YRD, SO2 emission would cut down 55. 8% - 65. 3%; for NOx and dust emissions were 50. 5% - 64. 1% and 3. 4% - 11. 3%, respectively. If technologies and pollution control of lower class units were improved, the emission cuts would improve. However, according to the pollution realities of YRD, we suggested to make a multiple-cuts plan, which could effectively improve the reaional atmospheric environment. PMID:26489303

  4. Fluxes of radiocaesium associated with suspended sediment in rivers impacted by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Hugh; Blake, Will; Onda, Yuichi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Yamashiki, Yosuke; Matsuura, Yuki; Taylor, Alex

    2014-05-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident which followed the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of Cs-134 and Cs-137 into the surrounding environment, where highly elevated levels are reported. There is considerable concern about the redistribution of these radioactive contaminants from the atmosphere to vegetation, soil and aquatic systems. Fluvial redistribution of radiocaesium may contaminate downstream areas that were subject to low fallout and deliver significant quantities of highly contaminated fine sediment to the coastal zone. This study reports on the magnitude of fluvial transfer of Cs-134 and Cs-137 through river networks located across the fallout region. Initially six nested river monitoring stations were established within the Abukuma River basin from June 2011. Subsequently, an additional 23 stations were established between October 2012 and January 2013, which included stations within the Abukuma basin as well as smaller coastal catchments north and south of the power plant. Combined, these 29 sites represent a globally-unique river monitoring network designed to quantify sediment-associated transfer of radiocaesium from headwaters to the Pacific Coast of Japan. The catchments range in area from 8 to 5,172 km2 and span a large range in spatially-averaged radiocaesium inventories. Flow and turbidity (converted to suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each station while bulk suspended sediment samples were collected at regular intervals using time-integrated samplers to allow measurement of Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Preliminary monitoring data showed highly elevated but also highly variable fluxes of radiocaesium in rivers across the fallout region. High magnitude flows in response to typhoon events exported large quantities of radiocaesium. Rivers are an important and continuing source of radiocaesium input to the coastal environment and the Pacific Ocean in

  5. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert C. Tsang

    2004-03-26

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The project has completed Phase I, and is currently in Phase II of development. The two project phases include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; and (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The Phase I of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The WREL integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the

  6. Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Conocophillips

    2007-09-30

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator

  7. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Tsang

    2003-10-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Two project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment

  8. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Strickland; Albert Tsang

    2002-10-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial plants operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues; and (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. This report describes management planning, work breakdown structure development, and feasibility study activities by the IMPPCCT consortium in support of the first project phase. Project planning activities have been completed, and a project timeline and task list has been generated. Requirements for an economic model to evaluate the West Terre Haute implementation and for other commercial implementations are being defined. Specifications for methanol product and availability of local feedstocks for potential commercial embodiment plant sites have been defined. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the fifth phase solicitation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas

  9. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are

  10. Mapping spatial patterns of stream power and channel change along a gravel-bed river in northern Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Devin M.

    Stream power represents the rate of energy expenditure along a river and can be calculated using topographic data acquired via remote sensing or field surveys. This study used remote sensing and GIS tools along with field data to quantitatively relate temporal changes in the form of Soda Butte Creek, a gravel-bed river in northeastern Yellowstone National Park, to stream power gradients along an 8 km reach. Aerial photographs from 1994-2012 and cross-section surveys were used to develop a locational probability map and morphologic sediment budget to assess lateral channel mobility and changes in net sediment flux. A drainage area-to-discharge relationship and digital elevation model (DEM) developed from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data were used to obtain the discharge and slope values needed to calculate stream power. Local and lagged relationships between mean stream power gradient at median peak discharge and volumes of erosion, deposition, and net sediment flux were quantified via spatial cross-correlation analyses. Similarly, autocorrelations of locational probabilities and sediment fluxes were used to examine spatial patterns of sediment sources and sinks. Energy expended above critical stream power was calculated for each time period to relate the magnitude and duration of peak flows to the total volumetric change in each time increment. Results indicated a lack of strong correlation between stream power gradients and sediment response, highlighting the geomorphic complexity of Soda Butte Creek and the inability of relatively simple statistical approaches to link sub-budget cell-scale sediment dynamics to larger-scale driving forces such as stream power gradients. Improving the moderate spatial resolution techniques used in this study and acquiring very-high resolution data from recently developed methods in fluvial remote sensing could help improve understanding of the spatial organization of stream power, sediment transport, and channel change in

  11. Patronage power: Rural electrification, river development, and Lyndon Johnson (1937--1939)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, Paul-Michael Mays

    his own personal ambition. Burning ambition—his own personal sense of political self-preservation—trumped Johnson's early beliefs about civil rights. Therefore because of his personal ambition he kept his opinions about civil rights silent while his operators utilized "out of sight, out of mind" policies towards race relations when necessary. While building this political community Johnson pledged electricity for votes. He had two goals: (1) create a market for LCRA-generated power to prevent private utilities from acquiring the power, and (2) create a political machine. Initially growth occurred slowly but Johnson used modern forms of communications and propaganda to construct a community; including radio, newsprint, theater, and public events and affairs. Johnson also laid the foundations for this community through the creation of shared community space and the promotion of a shared community-mindset. Johnson prioritized the creation of these community spaces over the construction of transmission lines and engaged in deceit when necessary—Arthur Stehling committed forgery—while pursuing Johnson's plans for the formation of this political machine through the conception of a new, common community. Johnson pushed for optimal growth and utilized every opportunity for publicity. These new structures signified the changes occurring across the landscape and for the first time the people of Central Texas began to feel the relief of the New Deal—five years after President Roosevelt initiated relief efforts. Subsequently, the people of Central Texas supported Johnson in his political endeavors. Secondly, this thesis explores the geographical expansion of multipurpose river development and rural electrification operations in Central Texas. Expansion was priority number one because this increased Johnson's political clout in Central Texas. Johnson expanded his control by infiltrating or manipulating newly forming rural electric cooperatives. His operators side

  12. Patronage power: Rural electrification, river development, and Lyndon Johnson (1937--1939)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, Paul-Michael Mays

    his own personal ambition. Burning ambition—his own personal sense of political self-preservation—trumped Johnson's early beliefs about civil rights. Therefore because of his personal ambition he kept his opinions about civil rights silent while his operators utilized "out of sight, out of mind" policies towards race relations when necessary. While building this political community Johnson pledged electricity for votes. He had two goals: (1) create a market for LCRA-generated power to prevent private utilities from acquiring the power, and (2) create a political machine. Initially growth occurred slowly but Johnson used modern forms of communications and propaganda to construct a community; including radio, newsprint, theater, and public events and affairs. Johnson also laid the foundations for this community through the creation of shared community space and the promotion of a shared community-mindset. Johnson prioritized the creation of these community spaces over the construction of transmission lines and engaged in deceit when necessary—Arthur Stehling committed forgery—while pursuing Johnson's plans for the formation of this political machine through the conception of a new, common community. Johnson pushed for optimal growth and utilized every opportunity for publicity. These new structures signified the changes occurring across the landscape and for the first time the people of Central Texas began to feel the relief of the New Deal—five years after President Roosevelt initiated relief efforts. Subsequently, the people of Central Texas supported Johnson in his political endeavors. Secondly, this thesis explores the geographical expansion of multipurpose river development and rural electrification operations in Central Texas. Expansion was priority number one because this increased Johnson's political clout in Central Texas. Johnson expanded his control by infiltrating or manipulating newly forming rural electric cooperatives. His operators side

  13. Snow Cover, Snowmelt Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather, including earlier snowmelt, has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (is greater than 70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for the management of streamflow. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work, such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud-gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period as a whole. The extent of snow-cover (percent of basin covered) derived from the lowest elevation zone (2500-3000 m) of the WRR, using MODIS CGF snow-cover maps, is strongly correlated with maximum monthly discharge on 30 April, where Spearman's Rank correlation, rs,=0.89 for the decade of the 2000s. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek above Bull Lake; and found a trend (significant at the 90% confidence level) toward reduced stream power from 1970 to 2009. Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature

  14. Analysis on radiocesium concentration in rivers that have catchment areas affected by the fallout from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Onda, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    Due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive materials including Cs-134 and Cs-137 were widely distributed in surrounded area. The radiocesiums have been transported in river networks. This study showed the monitoring results of radiocesium concentration in river waters and suspended sediments in Abukuma river basin and smaller coastal river catchments. The monitoring started at 6 sites from June 2011. Subsequently, additional 24 monitoring sites were installed between October 2012 and January 2013. Flow and turbidity (for calculation of suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each site, while suspended sediments and river water were collected every one or half month to measure Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs- 137 on suspended sediments were generally decreasing at all sites. The decreasing rate changed lower at about one year later from the accident. Activity concentration in river waters also showed the same tendency although there are only few data within 1 year from the accident. Activity concentrations measured at the same day are proportional to the mean catchment inventory. Therefore, the activity concentration can be normalized by the mean catchment inventory. The normalized activity can be fitted to following double exponential function: [At] = 1.551 exp (-5.265t) + 0.069 exp (-0.266 t), where t [year] is the time from the accident. There is no time evolution of Kd between suspended sediments and river water. Instead, Kd was varied spatially. Although the reason of the spatial variation is not clear for now, geology of the catchment (i.e. mineral composition of suspended particles) seems to relate to the variation.

  15. Impingement losses of white perch at Hudson River power plants: magnitude and biological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Vaughan, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the impact of impingement at power plants on the Hudson River white perch population was made. It was estimated that impingement reduces the abundance of each white perch year class by at least 10% and probably by 15-20% or more after 2-3 years of vulnerability to power plants. Effects of impingement on average year-class abundance of white perch could not be detected from a time series of abundance indices derived from impingement data. Even if a reliable index were developed, natural fluctuations in year-class strength are great enough that a short-term monitoring program would be inadequate for detecting even a large reduction in average year-class strength. A multipopulation analysis was performed using simple food chain and food web models. The results suggest that any long-term decline in white perch abundance caused by impingement should be accompanied by an increase in the biomass of adult white perch relative to young-of-the-year. It was concluded that (1) at present, assessments of population-level impact of impingement should focus on short-term effects, (2) research is needed to develop a reliable index of year-class strength for use in long-term monitoring programs, (3) identification and quantification of natural environmental factors influencing year-class strength are needed to improve the ability to predict and detect changes in abundance, and (4) it would be useful in designing monitoring programs to focus on detecting patterns of change among populations and age groups rather than solely on declines in abundance of individual populations. 24 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Knowledges and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-20

    The Knowledges and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operations: Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactors, provides the basis for the development of content-valid certification examinations for Senior Reactor Operators (SROs) and Central Control Room Supervisors (SUP). The position of Shift Technical Engineer (STE) has been included in the catalog for completeness. This new SRS reactor operating shift crew position is held by an individual holding a CCR Supervisor Certification who has received special engineering and technical training. Also, the STE has a Bachelor of Science degree in engineering or a related technical field. The SRS catalog contains approximately 2500 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for SROs and SUPs at heavy water moderated production reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring the health and safety of the public. The SRS K/A catalog is presently organized into five major sections: Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Plant Wide Generic K/As, Emergency Plant Evolutions, Theory and Components (to be developed).

  17. Hydro-economic performances of streamflow withdrawal strategies: the case of small run-of-river power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Stefano; Lazzaro, Gianluca; Schirmer, Mario; Botter, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    River flows withdrawals to supply small run-of-river hydropower plants have been increasing significantly in recent years - particularly in the Alpine area - as a consequence of public incentives aimed at enhancing energy production from renewable sources. This growth further raised the anthropic pressure in areas traditionally characterized by an intense exploitation of water resources, thereby triggering social conflicts among local communities, hydropower investors and public authorities. This brought to the attention of scientists and population the urgency for novel and quantitative tools for assessing the hydrologic impact of these type of plants, and trading between economic interests and ecologic concerns. In this contribution we propose an analytical framework that allows for the estimate of the streamflow availability for hydropower production and the selection of the run-of-river plant capacity, as well as the assessment of the related profitability and environmental impacts. The method highlights the key role of the streamflow variability in the design process, by showing the significance control of the coefficient of variation of daily flows on the duration of the optimal capacity of small run-of-river plants. Moreover, the analysis evidences a gap between energy and economic optimizations, which may result in the under-exploitation of the available hydropower potential at large scales. The disturbances to the natural flow regime produced between the intake and the outflow of run-of-river power plants are also estimated within the proposed framework. The altered hydrologic regime, described through the probability distribution and the correlation function of streamflows, is analytically expressed as a function of the natural regime for different management strategies. The deviations from pristine conditions of a set of hydrologic statistics are used, jointly with an economic index, to compare environmental and economic outcomes of alternative plant

  18. Integration of ENSO Signal Power Through Hydrological Processes in the Little River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keener, V. W.; Jones, J. W.; Bosch, D. D.; Cho, J.

    2011-12-01

    The relationship of the El-Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to hydrology is typically discussed in terms of the ability to separate significantly different hydrologic variable responses versus the anomaly that has taken place. Most of the work relating ENSO trends to proxy variables had been done on precipitation records until the mid 1990s, at which point increasing numbers of studies started to focus on ENSO relationships with streamflow as well as other environmental variables. The signals in streamflow are typically complex, representing the integration of both climatic, landscape, and anthropological responses that are able to strengthen the inherent ENSO signal in chaotic regional precipitation data. There is a need to identify climate non-stationarities related to ENSO and their links to watershed-scale outcomes. For risk-management in particular, inter-annual modes of climate variability and their seasonal expression are of interest. In this study, we analyze 36 years of historical monthly streamflow data from the Little River Watershed (LWR), a coastal plain ecosystem in Georgia, in conjunction with wavelet spectral analysis and modeling via the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Using both spectral and physical models allows us to identify the mechanism by which the ENSO signal power in surface and simulated groundwater flow is strengthened as compared to precipitation. The clear increase in the power of the inter-annual climate signal is demonstrated by shared patterns in water budget and exceedance curves, as well as in high ENSO related energy in the 95% significant wavelet spectra for each variable and the NINO 3.4 index. In the LRW, the power of the ENSO teleconnection is increased in both the observed and simulated stream flow through the mechanisms of groundwater flow and interflow, through confinement by a geological layer, the Hawthorn Formation. This non-intuitive relationship between ENSO signal strength and streamflow could prove to be

  19. Prehistoric cultural ecology in southern jordan.

    PubMed

    Henry, D O

    1994-07-15

    Research in the mountains of southern Jordan resulted in the discovery of 109 archaeological sites that are from the Lower Paleolithic to the Chalcolithic period [150 to 6 thousand years ago (ka)]. Beginning with the Middle Paleolithic (70 ka) two site types (long-term and ephemeral camps) are recognized. Long-term sites have larger areas, thicker deposits, higher artifact densities, and more abundant archaeological features than ephemeral sites. Their natural settings (elevation and exposure) and associated seasonal evidence (phytolith and cementum increment data) indicate that long-term sites were occupied during the winter, wet season and ephemeral sites during the warm, dry season. These differences in site use and seasonality likely reflect an adaptive strategy of transhumance that persisted to modern Bedouin times. At the end of the Pleistocene, the onset of warmer, drier conditions induced a shift of the long-term winter camps from relatively low (800 to 1000 meters above sea level) to high (1000 to 1250 meters above sea level) elevations and largely reversed the earlier transhumant pattern. PMID:17838033

  20. Jordan: A Study of the Educational System of Jordan and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Jordan in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Garland G.

    The educational system of Jordan is described, and placement recommendations concerning students who want to study in the United States are presented. After describing the setting and structure of Jordanian education, attention is directed to curricula and enrollments, undergraduate student admissions, higher education, and graduate education and…

  1. Water-power resources in upper Carson River basin, California-Nevada, A discussion of potential development of power and reservoir sites on east and west forks, Carson River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pumphrey, Harold L.

    1955-01-01

    West Fork Carson River offers the best opportunity for power development in the Carson River basin. The Hope Valley reservoir site could be developed to provide adequate storage regulation and concentration of fall would permit utilization of 1,400 feet of head in 51h miles below the clam site, or 1,900 feet of head in about 972 miles below the dam site; however, the average annual runoff susceptible of development is only about 70,000 acre-feet which limits the power that could be developed continuously in an average year with regulation to about 8,700 kilowatts utilizing 1,400 feet of head, or 12,000 kilowatts utilizing 1,900 feet of head. The method and degree of development will be determined to large extent by the method devised to supplement regulated flows from the Hope Valley reservoir to supply the water already appropriated for irrigation. If the Hope Valley site and the Watasheamu site on East Fork Carson River were developed coordinately water could be transferred to the West Fork for distribution through canals leading from that stream thus satisfying the deficiency due to regulation at Hope Valley and release of stored water on a power schedule. This would permit utilization of the entire 1,900 feet of fall. Independent development of the West Fork for optimum power production would require re-regulation of releases from Hope Valley reservoir and storage of a considerable part of the fall and winter flow for use during the irrigation season. Adequate storage capacity is apparently not available on the West Fork below Hope Valley; but offstream storage may be available in Diamond Valley which could be utilized by diversion from the West Fork near Woodfords. This would limit the utilization of the stream for power purposes to the development of the 1,400 feet of head between the Hope Valley dam site and Wood fords. In a year of average discharge East Fork Carson River and three of its principal tributaries could be developed to produce about 13

  2. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; Clayton, Mary E.; Webber, Michael E.

    2011-07-01

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights—a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions—a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m3—enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  3. Emigration for Higher Education: The Case of Palestinians Living in Israel Studying in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Haj-Yehia, Kussai

    2010-01-01

    This study explored reasons for the rapid increase in the number of Palestinian Arabs from Israel (PAI) studying higher education (HE) in Jordan. Four hundred and sixty PAI studying in Jordan answered a questionnaire assessing factors related to HE in both countries. Lenient admission requirements and cultural-language similarity explain Jordan's…

  4. General and Special Education Systems in Jordan: Present and Future Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Jabery, Mohammad; Zumberg, Marshall

    2008-01-01

    Educating a student with special needs became an interest in Jordan at the end of the 1960s. This article provides an overview of the general and special education systems in Jordan. Historical and demographical information is included for the purpose of placing the education of children in Jordan within the context of its land and the population…

  5. Mapping Spatial Distributions of Stream Power and Channel Change along a Gravel-Bed River in Northern Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, D. M.; Legleiter, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Stream power represents the rate of energy expenditure along a river and can be calculated using topographic data acquired via remote sensing. This study used remotely sensed data and field measurements to quantitatively relate temporal changes in the form of Soda Butte Creek, a gravel-bed river in northeastern Yellowstone National Park, to stream power gradients along an 8 km reach. Aerial photographs from 1994-2012 and cross-section surveys were used to assess lateral channel mobility and develop a morphologic sediment budget for quantifying net sediment flux for a series of budget cells. A drainage area-to-discharge relationship and digital elevation model (DEM) developed from LiDAR data were used to obtain the discharge and slope values, respectively, needed to calculate stream power. Local and lagged relationships between mean stream power gradient at median peak discharge and volumes of erosion, deposition, and net sediment flux were quantified via spatial cross-correlation analyses. Similarly, autocorrelations of locational probabilities and sediment fluxes were used to examine spatial patterns of channel mobility and sediment transfer. Energy expended above critical stream power was calculated for each time period to relate the magnitude and duration of peak flows to the total volume of sediment eroded or deposited during each time increment. Our results indicated a lack of strong correlation between stream power gradients and sediment flux, which we attributed to the geomorphic complexity of the Soda Butte Creek watershed and the inability of our relatively simple statistical approach to link sediment dynamics expressed at a sub-budget cell scale to larger-scale driving forces such as stream power gradients. Future studies should compare the moderate spatial resolution techniques used in this study to very-high resolution data acquired from new fluvial remote sensing technologies to better understand the amount of error associated with stream power

  6. The paralytic poliomyelitis epidemic of 1978 in Jordan: epidemiological implications.

    PubMed

    Khuri-Bulos, N; Melnick, J L; Hatch, M H; Dawod, S T

    1984-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is endemic in Jordan, but until 1978 there were no epidemics. In that year, 66 children were admitted to the Jordan University Hospital with a paralytic illness, compared with 13 in 1979 and 11 in 1980. The epidemic reached a peak in the summer and fall of 1978. While 54% of the patients had not received any vaccine, 19% had received 3 doses of oral poliovaccine; 82% of the cases were in children less than 2 years of age, and all belonged to the lower socioeconomic group. There were 28 deaths with complications of the disease.Poliovirus was isolated from 10 out of 14 rectal swab samples examined (9 with poliovirus 1, 1 with poliovirus 2), and from 4 out of 13 throat specimens from the same patients. It is concluded that as a result of improving living standards in Jordan and neighbouring countries, more epidemics may occur unless immunization efforts against poliomyelitis are intensified. PMID:6609022

  7. The paralytic poliomyelitis epidemic of 1978 in Jordan: epidemiological implications

    PubMed Central

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Melnick, Joseph L.; Hatch, Milford H.; Dawod, Saleh T.

    1984-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is endemic in Jordan, but until 1978 there were no epidemics. In that year, 66 children were admitted to the Jordan University Hospital with a paralytic illness, compared with 13 in 1979 and 11 in 1980. The epidemic reached a peak in the summer and fall of 1978. While 54% of the patients had not received any vaccine, 19% had received 3 doses of oral poliovaccine; 82% of the cases were in children less than 2 years of age, and all belonged to the lower socioeconomic group. There were 28 deaths with complications of the disease. Poliovirus was isolated from 10 out of 14 rectal swab samples examined (9 with poliovirus 1, 1 with poliovirus 2), and from 4 out of 13 throat specimens from the same patients. It is concluded that as a result of improving living standards in Jordan and neighbouring countries, more epidemics may occur unless immunization efforts against poliomyelitis are intensified. PMID:6609022

  8. Activity, discoveries in Syria and Jordan are encouraging

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1987-08-24

    This article reports that Syria and Jordan, two of the smaller producers in the Middle East, are starting to expand exploration and production activity. Syria, traditionally a producer of small volumes of heavy crude, is further developing its first light crude reservoir. The new Tayyim field is producing around 60,000 b/d and an expansion program should increase output to 100,000 b/d early next year. Heavy crude production will average about 180,000 b/d this year. Jordan, which previously relied on imports to meet all local demand, has its first discovery. The Hamzah field is now making a modest contribution to local refinery requirements. Gas has also been found in the northeast of Jordan, close to the border with Iraq. This article provides details of these projects.

  9. Electrical power from sea and river water by reverse electrodialysis: a first step from the laboratory to a real power plant.

    PubMed

    Veerman, Joost; Saakes, Michel; Metz, Sybrand J; Harmsen, G Jan

    2010-12-01

    Electricity can be produced directly with reverse electrodialysis (RED) from the reversible mixing of two solutions of different salinity, for example, sea and river water. The literature published so far on RED was based on experiments with relatively small stacks with cell dimensions less than 10 × 10 cm(2). For the implementation of the RED technique, it is necessary to know the challenges associated with a larger system. In the present study we show the performance of a scaled-up RED stack, equipped with 50 cells, each measuring 25 × 75 cm(2). A single cell consists of an AEM (anion exchange membrane) and a CEM (cation exchange membrane) and therefore, the total active membrane area in the stack is 18.75 m(2). This is the largest dimension of a reverse electrodialysis stack published so far. By comparing the performance of this stack with a small stack (10 × 10 cm(2), 50 cells) it was found that the key performance parameter to maximal power density is the hydrodynamic design of the stack. The power densities of the different stacks depend on the residence time of the fluids in the stack. For the large stack this was negatively affected by the increased hydrodynamic losses due to the longer flow path. It was also found that the large stack generated more power when the sea and river water were flowing in co-current operation. Co-current flow has other advantages, the local pressure differences between sea and river water compartments are low, hence preventing leakage around the internal manifolds and through pinholes in the membranes. Low pressure differences also enable the use of very thin membranes (with low electrical resistance) as well as very open spacers (with low hydrodynamic losses) in the future. Moreover, we showed that the use of segmented electrodes increase the power output by 11%. PMID:20964356

  10. Geomorphic data collected within and adjacent to Nebraska Public Power District's Cottonwood Ranch Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinzel, Paul; Parker, Randolph; Nelson, Johnathan; Burman, R.; Heckman, Aashley

    2003-01-01

    River-channel topographic surveys were conducted and bed-material samples were collected along transects across the Platte River during water year 2001 (October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2001). A total of 57 transect lines or cross sections were established within three study reaches located along the middle channel of the Platte River in a 2,650-acre parcel of land owned by the Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD), hereinafter referred to as the Cottonwood Ranch Property. Five additional cross sections were established downstream of the Cottonwood Ranch Property across the entire width of the Platte River as a component of a proposed future general monitoring program. A development and enhancement plan is proposed by NPPD on the Cottonwood Ranch Property to satisfy their Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing guidelines. The goal of the plan is to improve habitat along this reach for endangered species. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) designed a monitoring and research program to study and detect what effects, if any, these channel management actions have on channel morphology and sediment transport within and adjacent to the Cottonwood Ranch Property. This report presents the data-collection methods and summarizes the geomorphic data collected in support of the monitoring program for water year 2001.

  11. Monitoring and assessment of radionuclide discharges from Temelín Nuclear Power Plant into the Vltava River (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Hanslík, Eduard; Ivanovová, Diana; Juranová, Eva; Simonek, Pavel; Jedináková-Krízová, Vĕra

    2009-02-01

    The paper summarizes impacts of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on the Vltava and Labe River basins. The study is based on the results of long-term monitoring carried out before the plant operation (1989-2000), and subsequently during the plant operation (2001-2005). In the first period, the main objective was to determine background radionuclide levels remaining in the environment after global fallout and due to the Chernobyl accident. A decrease in the concentrations of (90)Sr, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, which was observed before the plant operation, continued also during the subsequent period. Apart from tritium, the results of the observation did not indicate any impacts of the plant on the concentrations of activation and fission products in the hydrosphere. The annual average tritium concentrations in the Vltava River were in agreement with predicted values. The maximum annual average tritium concentration (13.5 Bq L(-1)) was observed in 2004 downstream from the wastewater discharge in the Vltava River at Solenice. Estimated radiation doses for adults due to intakes of river water as drinking water contaminated by tritium are below 0.1 microSv y(-1). PMID:19070946

  12. The Power to Detect Trends in Missouri River Fish Populations within the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, Janice L.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Gladish, Dan; Holan, Scott; Ellerseick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As with all large rivers in the United States, the Missouri River has been altered, with approximately 32.5 percent of the main stem length impounded and 32.5 percent channelized. These physical alterations to the environment have had effects on the fisheries, but studies examining the effects of alterations have been localized and for short periods of time. In response to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biological opinion, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers initiated monitoring of the fish community of the Missouri River in 2003. The goal of the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program is to provide information to detect changes in populations and habitat preferences with time for pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and native target species in the Missouri River Basin. To determine statistical power of the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program, a power analysis was conducted using a normal linear mixed model with variance component estimates based on the first 3 years of data (2003 to 2005). In cases where 3 years of data were unavailable, estimates were obtained using those data. It was determined that at least 20 years of data, sampling 12 bends with 8 subsamples per bend, would be required to detect a 5 percent annual decline in most of the target fish populations. Power varied between Zones. Zone 1 (upstream from Lake Sakakawea) did not have any species/gear type combinations with adequate power, whereas Zone 3 (downstream from Gavins Point Dam) had 19 species/gear type combinations with adequate power. With a slight increase in the sampling effort to 12 subsamples per bend, the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program has adequate power to detect declines in shovelnose sturgeon (S. platorynchus) throughout the entire Missouri River because of large catch rates. The lowest level of non-occurrence (in other words, zero catches) at the bend level for pallid sturgeon was 0.58 using otter trawls in Zone 1. Consequently, the power of the

  13. Noise Pollution in Irbid City — Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odat, Sana'A.

    2015-09-01

    Noise defined as any sound that annoys or disturbs humans or that causes or tends to cause an adverse psychological and physiological effect on humans. Irbid is one of the most populated cities in Jordan. It is environmentally noise polluted due to the rapid and widespread introduction of mechanical methods for production and for their transportation. L10, L50, L90 and LAeq noise levels were measured during the day time and night time to assess and evaluate the noise levels from mosques, schools, celebration halls, streets, building works, industrial areas and commercial areas. The results of the investigation showed that the measured noise levels from all the selected sources were high during the day time and the noise problem is not only limited to day time, but continues in night time in this city. These noise levels were higher than those set by Jordanian limits during day time and night time. A significant correlation between the measured statistical noise levels L10, L50 and L90 and equivalent continuous noise level LAeq were also detected. The mean value of industrial noise source was motors of large vehicles and engines. Whereas the presence of slow moving vehicles, low speed and honking of horns during traffic ingestion periods lead to an increase in noise levels in commercial areas. The noise from building machines and equipment (dredges, concrete mixers, concrete pumps and jackhammers) is quite different from that of traditional equipment. The construction machines have engines that produce a loud, fluctuating noise with varying frequencies that can propagate the sound for a long distance. The noise produced by these engines is particularly disturbing due to the wide variations in frequency and volume.

  14. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay. PMID:24732060

  15. Characterization of historical mortars in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Heras, M.; Arce, I.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the petrographic and mineralogical characterization of mortars from different archaeological sites in Jordan which encompass Nabatean, Late-Antique and Early Islamic (Umayyad) sites, in some cases offering a sequence of different period mortars from the same building. These sites include the Nabataean city of Petra, the Late Antique town of Umm al Jimal and the castle of Qasr Al Hallabat. These mortars were produced with different raw materials and manufacturing technologies, which are reflected on distinctive variations of mineralogy, texture and crystal size and aggregates composition (including volcanic ashes, ceramic fragments, burnt organic material) size and their puzzolanic properties. As a consequence these mortars present different physical properties and reveal nowadays very different states of conservation. There is a dramatic change in mortar properties between those manufactured in pre-Islamic period and those from early Islamic - Ummayad times with a general trend in which these last ones present coarser crystal and aggregate sizes with less puzzolanic aggregates that result in less durable mortars. All of this reflects changes in the different stages of production of the mortar, from the use of either hydraulic, lime putty or slaked lime and the selection of aggregates to the application techniques (polishing). This reflects the evolution of building technology that took place in this area during early Islamic period and how petrological information can shed light on historical interpretation of building technologies. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10), GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-16) and MCU (Analisis y Documentación de tipología arquitectónica y técnicas constructivas en el periodo de transición Bizantino-Omeya en Jordania)

  16. Preliminary estimate of possible flood elevations in the Columbia River at Trojan Nuclear Power Plant due to failure of debris dam blocking Spirit Lake, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, D.L.; Laenen, Antonius

    1984-01-01

    Failure of the debris dam, blocking the outflow of Spirit Lake near Mount St. Helens, could result in a mudflow down the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers into the Columbia River. Flood elevations at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant on the Columbia River, 5 mi upstream from the Cowlitz River, were simulated with a hydraulic routing model. The simulations are made for four Columbia River discharges in each of two scenarios, one in which Columbia River floods coincide with a mudflow and the other in which Columbia River floods follow a mudflow sediment deposit upstream from the Cowlitz River. In the first scenario, Manning 's roughness coefficients for clear water and for mudflow in the Columbia River are used; in the second scenario only clear water coefficients are used. The grade elevation at the power plant is 45 ft above sea level. The simulated elevations exceed 44 ft if the mudflow coincides with a Columbia River discharge that has a recurrence interval greater than 10 years (610,000 cu ft/sec); the mudflow is assumed to extend downstream from the Cowlitz River to the mouth of the Columbia River, and Manning 's roughness coefficients for a mudflow are used. The simulated elevation is 32 ft if the mudflow coincides with a 100-yr flood (820,000 cu ft/sec) and clear-water Manning 's coefficients are used throughout the entire reach of the Columbia River. The elevations exceed 45 ft if a flow exceeding the 2-yr peak discharge in the Columbia River (410,000 cu ft/sec) follows the deposit of 0.5 billion cu yd of mudflow sediment upstream of the Cowlitz River before there has been any appreciable scour or dredging of the deposit. In this simulation it is assumed that: (1) the top of the sediment deposited in the Columbia River is at an elevation of 30 ft at the mouth of the Cowlitz River, (2) the surface elevation of the sediment deposit decreases in an upstream direction at a rate of 2.5 ft/mi, and (3) clear water Manning 's coefficients apply to the entire modeled reach of

  17. Renormalizations and Wandering Jordan Curves of Rational Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Guizhen; Peng, Wenjuan; Tan, Lei

    2016-05-01

    We realize a dynamical decomposition for a post-critically finite rational map which admits a combinatorial decomposition. We split the Riemann sphere into two completely invariant subsets. One is a subset of the Julia set consisting of uncountably many Jordan curve components. Most of them are wandering. The other consists of components that are pullbacks of finitely many renormalizations, together with possibly uncountably many points. The quotient action on the decomposed pieces is encoded by a dendrite dynamical system. We also introduce a surgery procedure to produce post-critically finite rational maps with wandering Jordan curves and prescribed renormalizations.

  18. Renormalizations and Wandering Jordan Curves of Rational Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Guizhen; Peng, Wenjuan; Tan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    We realize a dynamical decomposition for a post-critically finite rational map which admits a combinatorial decomposition. We split the Riemann sphere into two completely invariant subsets. One is a subset of the Julia set consisting of uncountably many Jordan curve components. Most of them are wandering. The other consists of components that are pullbacks of finitely many renormalizations, together with possibly uncountably many points. The quotient action on the decomposed pieces is encoded by a dendrite dynamical system. We also introduce a surgery procedure to produce post-critically finite rational maps with wandering Jordan curves and prescribed renormalizations.

  19. 75 FR 28595 - Wisconsin Power River Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... River Company, P.O. Box 19001, Green Bay, Wisconsin 54307, (920) 433-1094. i. FERC Contact: Jade Alvey at (202) 502-6864 or Jade.Alvey@ferc.gov . j. Deadline for filing comments: June 14, 2010....

  20. Limnological and ecological methods: approaches, and sampling strategies for middle Xingu River in the area of influence of future Belo Monte Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Tundisi, J G; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Tundisi, J E M; Faria, C R L; Abe, D S; Blanco, F; Rodrigues Filho, J; Campanelli, L; Sidagis Galli, C; Teixeira-Silva, V; Degani, R; Soares, F S; Gatti Junior, P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper the authors describe the limnological approaches, the sampling methodology, and strategy adopted in the study of the Xingu River in the area of influence of future Belo Monte Power Plant. The river ecosystems are characterized by unidirectional current, highly variable in time depending on the climatic situation the drainage pattern an hydrological cycle. Continuous vertical mixing with currents and turbulence, are characteristic of these ecosystems. All these basic mechanisms were taken into consideration in the sampling strategy and field work carried out in the Xingu River Basin, upstream and downstream the future Belo Monte Power Plant Units. PMID:26691072

  1. 77 FR 53885 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP, Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Extension of Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Cove Energy Project LP, Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Extension of Comment Period and Additional Public Scoping Meetings for the Jordan Cove Liquefaction and... comment period for Jordan Cove Energy Project LP's (Jordan Cove) proposed liquefaction project in...

  2. Students with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study which aimed to explore the learning and behavioral characteristics of students with Learning Disabilities (LDs) in Jordan. Specifically, variables that related to challenging behaviors, school's type, and gender differences were investigated. Four resource room teachers in public and private schools were…

  3. International Education: A Case Study from the University of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes international education at the University of Jordan (UJ). Specifically it investigates a random sample of international students comprising Americans, Europeans and Asians. A field survey approach with qualitative and quantitative dimensions was used. Questionnaires were used to solicit information from the students. In…

  4. Negotiating Cultural Identities through Language: Academic English in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how a group of multilingual scholars in Jordan negotiate multiple linguistic and cultural affiliations. These writers' experiences demonstrate the varied ways English's global dominance affects individuals' lives. The scholars find both empowerment and disempowerment in English, viewing English as linked to Western hegemony…

  5. Educational Demands to Reduce Avoidance of Vocational Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsa'aideh, Monim

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the educational demands to reduce students' avoidance of vocational education in Jordan. Results of a previous study addressing reasons for avoidance of vocational education, distributed these reasons into personal, social, economic, educational and vocational domains. Focus-groups method was used to identify the…

  6. Zeta functional equation on Jordan algebras of type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayoya, J. B.

    2005-02-01

    Using the Jordan algebras methods, specially the properties of Peirce decomposition and the Frobenius transformation, we compute the coefficients of the zeta functional equation, in the case of Jordan algebras of type II. As particular cases of our result, we can cite the case of studied by Gelbart [Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 108 (1971)] and Godement and Jacquet [Zeta functions of simple algebras, Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 260, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972], and the case of studied by Muro [Adv. Stud. Pure Math. 15 (1989) 429]. Let us also mention, that recently, Bopp and Rubenthaler have obtained a more general result on the zeta functional equation by using methods based on the algebraic properties of regular graded algebras which are in one-to-one correspondence with simple Jordan algebras [Local Zeta Functions Attached to the Minimal Spherical Series for a Class of Symmetric Spaces, IRMA, Strasbourg, 2003]. The method used in this paper is a direct application of specific properties of Jordan algebras of type II.

  7. Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the Better Parenting Programme (BPP) which has been implemented nationally in Jordan to enhance parents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to caring for young children. The participants (N = 337, 94% female) were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in…

  8. Paving a Path for the Future: Comparing Israel and Jordan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Ivan; Fitzhugh, William P.

    The materials in this paper could be used to enrich the secondary classroom curriculum in Middle Eastern studies or in world affairs. The paper provides four essay questions to use as a starting point in composing a research paper on the general topic, "Israel and Jordan: Paving the Way to Peace." It outlines the common history and political…

  9. What Is the Reality of Preschool in Jordan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALdarab'h, Intisar; Alrub, Mohammad Abo; Al-Mohtadi, Reham Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the reality of the preschools in Jordan. A random sample of 500 preschool teachers participated in this study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Preschools' learning environment quality was assessed using the revised version of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (Harms, Clifford, & Cryer,…

  10. Academic Library Consortium in Jordan: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mustafa H.; Suleiman, Raid Jameel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the current financial and managerial difficulties that are encountered by libraries in public universities in Jordan and the geographical diffusion of these academic institutions, the idea of establishing a consortium was proposed by the Council of Higher Education to combine these libraries. This article reviews the reality of…

  11. Writing Instruction in Jordan: Past, Present, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarrah, Rasheed S.; Al-Ahmad, Sayyah

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated English-language writing instruction in Jordan at three levels, namely primary and secondary state schools, a private school, and a state university. To address this issue, the researchers used tape-recorded interviews and class observations as primary tools of collecting data for the study. It turned out that a host of…

  12. Youth in Jordan: Transitions from Education to Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan Andrew; Constant, Louay; Glick, Peter; Grant, Audra K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite strong economic growth during the last decade, youth unemployment in Jordan remains stubbornly high, and labor-force participation markedly low. Young women in particular face labor??market barriers in access to many career paths, and their job aspirations are often discouraged by their parents. Graduates of secondary and postsecondary…

  13. Prevalence of Speech Disorders in Elementary School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jazi, Aya Bassam; Al-Khamra, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Goal: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of speech (articulation, voice, and fluency) disorders among elementary school students from first grade to fourth grade. This research was based on the screening implemented as part of the Madrasati Project, which is designed to serve the school system in Jordan. Method: A sample of 1,231…

  14. Library Education in Tunisia and Jordan: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouazza, A.; Nimer, R.

    1986-01-01

    This article examines the state of development of library education in Jordan and Tunisia and pinpoints problems affecting this development in order to verify if library education in countries with similar cultures and type of economy evolves similarly and faces same problems. A brief introduction to the countries is provided. (EJS)

  15. Oral Health Patterns among Schoolchildren in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the oral hygiene patterns among schoolchildren in Jordan. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2010. A simple random sampling method was used. Each student participant completed a detailed questionnaire regarding oral hygiene habits. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software version…

  16. Reasons for Avoidance of Vocational Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saaideh, Mon'im A.

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the factors that lead students to avoid joining Vocational Education (VE) in Jordan. A pilot study was conducted, then a 39-item questionnaire was developed, and its validity and reliability were ensured. The reasons included were divided into personal, social, economic, educational and vocational domains. The…

  17. Clinical bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Alqawasmeh, D M

    2010-12-01

    A 1-year-old Holstein Friesian heifer was presented for anorexia and acute diarrhoea. The heifer was born and raised at the farm. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection was diagnosed using clinical signs and RT-PCR. Clinical BVDV infection has never been reported in Jordan. PMID:21117287

  18. Run-of-river power plants in Alpine regions: Whither optimal capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaro, G.; Botter, G.

    2015-07-01

    Although run-of-river hydropower represents a key source of renewable energy, it cannot prevent stresses on river ecosystems and human well-being. This is especially true in Alpine regions, where the outflow of a plant is placed several kilometers downstream of the intake, inducing the depletion of river reaches of considerable length. Here multiobjective optimization is used in the design of the capacity of run-of-river plants to identify optimal trade-offs between two contrasting objectives: the maximization of the profitability and the minimization of the hydrologic disturbance between the intake and the outflow. The latter is evaluated considering different flow metrics: mean discharge, temporal autocorrelation, and streamflow variability. Efficient and Pareto-optimal plant sizes are devised for two representative case studies belonging to the Piave river (Italy). Our results show that the optimal design capacity is strongly affected by the flow regime at the plant intake. In persistent regimes with a reduced flow variability, the optimal trade-off between economic exploitation and hydrologic disturbance is obtained for a narrow range of capacities sensibly smaller than the economic optimum. In erratic regimes featured by an enhanced flow variability, instead, the Pareto front is discontinuous and multiple trade-offs can be identified, which imply either smaller or larger plants compared to the economic optimum. In particular, large capacities reduce the impact of the plant on the streamflow variability at seasonal and interannual time scale. Multiobjective analysis could provide a clue for the development of policy actions based on the evaluation of the environmental footprint of run-of-river plants.

  19. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-09-01

    The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

  20. Journey to Planet Earth: Rivers of Destiny. The Public Television Series. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This video program focuses on four rivers: the Mississippi, the Amazon, the Jordan, and the Mekong. Each locale serves as an example of what can happen when human beings tamper with the natural system of a river. Without thoughtful planning, the consequences can be disastrous,, but when communities work together, a balance can be achieved between…

  1. Water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F.; Alkaraki, Almuthanna K.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Alzoubi, Karem H.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Although water pipe tobacco smoking is common in Lebanon and Syria, prevalence in neighboring Jordan is uncertain. The purposes of this study were (a) to assess the prevalence of water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan and (b) to determine associations between sociodemographic variables and water pipe tobacco smoking in this population. Methods: A trained interviewer administered a questionnaire among randomly selected students at four prominent universities in Jordan. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic data, personal history of water pipe tobacco use, and attitudes regarding water pipe tobacco smoking. We used logistic regression to determine independent associations between sociodemographic and attitudinal factors and each of two dependent variables: ever use of water pipe and use at least monthly. Results: Of the 548 participants, 51.8% were male and mean age was 21.7 years. More than half (61.1%) had ever smoked tobacco from a water pipe, and use at least monthly was reported by 42.7%. Multivariable analyses controlling for all relevant factors demonstrated significant associations between ever use and only two sociodemographic factors: (a) gender (for women compared with men, odds ratio [OR] = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.07–0.17) and (b) income (for those earning 500–999 Jordanian dinar (JD) monthly vs. <250 JD monthly, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.31–4.31). There were also significant associations between perception of harm and addictiveness and each outcome. Discussion: Water pipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in Jordan. Although use is associated with male gender and upper middle income levels, use is widespread across other sociodemographic variables. Continued surveillance and educational interventions emphasizing the harm and addictiveness of water pipe tobacco smoking may be valuable in Jordan. PMID:20418383

  2. Higgs inflation with a Gauss-Bonnet term in the Jordan frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Longden, Chris

    2016-03-01

    We consider an extension of Higgs inflation in which the Higgs field is coupled to the Gauss-Bonnet term. Working solely in the Jordan frame, we first recover the standard predictions of field inflation without a Gauss-Bonnet term. We then calculate the power spectra for scalar and tensor perturbations in the presence of a coupling to a Gauss-Bonnet term. We show that generically the predictions of Higgs inflation are robust and the contributions to the power spectra coming from the Gauss-Bonnet term are negligible. We find, however, that the end of inflation can be strongly modified and that we hence expect the details of (p)reheating to be significantly altered, leading to some concerns over the feasibility of the model which require further investigation.

  3. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R(2) obtained from (137)Cs and (134)Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 10(9) bq.month(-1) while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for (137)Cs and 44 TBq for (134)Cs. PMID:25673214

  4. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R2 obtained from 137Cs and 134Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 109 bq.month−1 while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for 137Cs and 44 TBq for 134Cs. PMID:25673214

  5. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-02-01

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R2 obtained from 137Cs and 134Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 109 bq.month-1 while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for 137Cs and 44 TBq for 134Cs.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Emmert, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

  7. CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS AND BUSBAR COSTS FOR POWER IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN, 1985 AND 2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It provides estimates of capital-output ratios and typical operating costs for the comparison of alternativ...

  8. Distribution of Upper Pliocene brines in the northern Jordan Rift Valley, Israel and Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Christian; Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Guttman, Joseph; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Inbar, Nimrod; Magri, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    In the triangle of Lake Tiberias (LT), Yarmouk Gorge and Lower Jordan Valley (Fig. 1), fresh groundwaters are frequently deteriorated by variable admixture of ascending subsurface Upper-Pliocene brines. Element ratios and water isotopes reveal, that common source brine is present and is modified by water rock interaction and dilution with freshwater. This common source brine is inferred from the composition of the known Ha'on well brine being characterized by molar ratios of Na/Cl=0.53, 1000Br/Cl=5.5 and Ca/Mg=0.39 (Möller et al., 2011). The low Ca/Mg, a ratio also found for Newe Ur, is unique in an environment in which ratios >1 dominate because of omnipresent dolomitization of abundant limestones. Interaction with abundant intrusive basaltic bodies would add sodium and hence increase the low Na/Cl ratio to >1. Uptake of halite increases Na/Cl but decreases Br/Cl ratios. These ratios resemble seawater after 37-fold enrichment in Li molality by evaporation (McCaffrey et al. 1987). Although being diluted by freshwater the Ha'on well brine proves the presence of an evaporated seawater mother brine residing at unknown depth. The derivatives of inferred Ha'on mother brine are present around Lake Tiberias, in the lower Yarmouk Valley and in the northern Rift Valley at least as far southwards as Newe Ur. Areas of structural weakness, where the major fault systems occur, are the main distribution areas for these brines. The study provides an example whereby hydrochemical analyses are applied as key tool to better understand deep fluid transport processes at basin-scale, which are supported by numerical modeling of groundwater flow. Möller P., Siebert C., Geyer S., Inbar N., Rosenthal E., Flexer A., Zilberbrand M. (2011): Relationship of brines in the Kinnarot Basin, Jordan-Dead Sea Rift Valley. Geofluids 12(2): 166-181. McCaffrey M.A., Lazar B., Holland H.D. (1987): The evaporation path of seawater and the coprecipitation of Br- and K+ with halite. J. Sediment. Petrol

  9. Hydroelectric power generation in an Alpine basin: future water-energy scenarios in a run-of-the-river plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongio, Marco; Avanzi, Francesco; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    We investigate scenarios of hydroelectric power generation for an Alpine run-of-the-river plant in 2050. To this end, we include a conversion from streamflow to energy in a hydrological model of the basin, and we introduce a set of benchmark climate scenarios to evaluate expected future production. These are a "future-like-present" scenario assuming future precipitation and temperature inputs to be statistically equivalent to those observed during the recent past at the same location, a "warmer-future" scenario, which considers an additional increase in temperature, and a "liquid-only" scenario where only liquid precipitation is admitted. In addition, two IPCC-like climatic scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) are considered. Uncertainty in glaciers' volume is accounted by initializing the hydrological model with two different inventories of glaciers. Ensemble results reveal that 1) an average decrease between -40% and -19% of hydroelectric power generation in 2050 is predicted at the plant considered (with respect to present condition); 2) an average decrease between -20% and -38% of cumulative incoming streamflow volume at the plant is also predicted, again with respect to present condition; 3) these effects are associated with a strong average decrease of the volume of glaciers (between -76% and -96%, depending on the initial value considered). However, Monte Carlo simulations show that results are also prone to high uncertainties. Implications of these results for run-of-the-river plants are discussed.

  10. Landscape development in the context of soil distribution in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Processes of landscape change can be assessed by studying the distribution of soil types and their connection to climate, the geology, and land use. In this context, even in areas where no virgin soils are available, paleosols pre-dating the introduction of agriculture can be utilized for estimating potential soil development without human impact. Soil distribution in Jordan follows closely the climate and topography: specific soil orders can be found within the dry and hot subtropical, subhumid-semiarid, semiarid-arid, and arid regions. The pattern of soil and paleosol distribution in Jordan points to an important role of the geology (bedrock and relief), and of climate in their formation, both locally such as in the vicinity of the ancient site of Abila, and regionally in the whole country. In contrast, the impact of land use appears relatively limited: overall erosion has been estimated not to exceed the expected geological rate, and Jordan is considered to be in the stable state of completed geologic erosion. This is further supported by strongly varying soil properties and archaeological material on agricultural fields, which suggests that overall erosion processes during historical periods were limited. The presence of a quite uniform 4 m thick loess cover around the site of Umm el-Jimal in north-east Jordan suggests that aeolian deposits are probably the by far dominating parent material of current soils in northern Jordan. In this context, an apparent division of some soil profiles into subsoil and topsoil could correspond to dominant in-situ soil formation out of bedrock weathering at the bottom, while the upper part of the profiles could correspond to aeolian dust as main parent material. A stone line or lithological discontinuity separating these two parts of the profile might refer to a major erosion event. If true, this could indicate that current soils in Jordan might represent a mixture of at least two phases of soil development with probably