Science.gov

Sample records for power plant design

  1. Power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, E.E. )

    1990-01-01

    This overviews basic theories and concepts of power plant design using an accessible approach that moves smoothly from simple to real configurations. Utilizing a large number of worked examples the book provides a treatment and understanding of all aspects of power plant design from basic thermodynamics to complex applications.

  2. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  3. The design of solar tower power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gretz, J.

    The conversion of solar energy into electricity in solar thermal tower power plants is examined. Mirrors attached to mobile, sun-following heliostats concentrate solar rays into the opening of a receiver mounted on a tower. In the receiver, the radiant energy is absorbed by a system of pipes filled with a flowing material which is heated and drives a turbogenerator directly or via a heat exchanger. It is shown that the optics involved in this concept preclude the optimization of the pipe material, since the local distribution of rays in the heater of tower power plants varies diurnally and annually. This requires each pipe section to be designed for maximum stress, even though that stress occurs only at brief intervals during the day.

  4. Evaluation of the ECAS open cycle MHD power plant design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Staiger, P. J.; Pian, C. C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) MHD/steam power plant is described. The NASA critical evaluation of the design is summarized. Performance of the MHD plant is compared to that of the other type ECAS plant designs on the basis of efficiency and the 30-year levelized cost of electricity. Techniques to improve the plant design and the potential performance of lower technology plants requiring shorter development time and lower development cost are then discussed.

  5. Designing geothermal power plants to avoid reinventing the corrosion wheel

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, Marshall F.

    1982-10-08

    This paper addresses how designers can take into account, the necessary chemical and materials precautions that other geothermal power plants have learned. Current worldwide geothermal power plant capacity is presented as well as a comparison of steam composition from seven different geothermal resources throughout the world. The similarities of corrosion impacts to areas of the power plants are discussed and include the turbines, gas extraction system, heat rejection system, electrical/electronic systems, and structures. Materials problems and solutions in these corrosion impact areas are identified and discussed. A geothermal power plant design team organization is identified and the efficacy of a new corrosion/materials engineering position is proposed.

  6. System Definition and Analysis: Power Plant Design and Layout

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This is the Topical report for Task 6.0, Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The report describes work by Westinghouse and the subcontractor, Gilbert/Commonwealth, in the fulfillment of completing Task 6.0. A conceptual design for critical and noncritical components of the gas fired combustion turbine system was completed. The conceptual design included specifications for the flange to flange gas turbine, power plant components, and balance of plant equipment. The ATS engine used in the conceptual design is an advanced 300 MW class combustion turbine incorporating many design features and technologies required to achieve ATS Program goals. Design features of power plant equipment and balance of plant equipment are described. Performance parameters for these components are explained. A site arrangement and electrical single line diagrams were drafted for the conceptual plant. ATS advanced features include design refinements in the compressor, inlet casing and scroll, combustion system, airfoil cooling, secondary flow systems, rotor and exhaust diffuser. These improved features, integrated with prudent selection of power plant and balance of plant equipment, have provided the conceptual design of a system that meets or exceeds ATS program emissions, performance, reliability-availability-maintainability, and cost goals.

  7. Design of dechlorination units for power plant cooling streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.S.; Berker, A.; Whitaker, S.

    1980-02-01

    The design of dechlorination units using sulfur dioxide as a reducing agent for once-through power plant cooling streams is considered. The average concentration of hypochlorite ions is determined downstream from the point of injection of sulfurous acid as a function of the number of injection points and the initial sulfurous acid concentration. The results can be used for the design of sulfurous acid injection units required to reduce the hypochlorite ion concentration to a specified level. A sample design calculation is presented for a typical power plant cooling stream.

  8. Design of an energy efficient solar powered water desalting plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nadler, M.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for a 6000 m/sup 3//day totally solar thermal energy powered seawater desalting plant. The objective was to design a process which would produce water at minimum cost using leading edge but commercial or near-commercial technology. Because the cost of solar energy is high, about half the cost of the plant is for solar equipment, minimum product water cost is achieved by minimizing energy consumption.

  9. Design considerations for an inertial confinement fusion reactor power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, J.V.; Simpson, J.E.

    1981-08-10

    To further define the engineering and economic concerns for inertial confinement fusion reactors (ICR's), a conceptual design study was performed by Bechtel Group Incorporated under the direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study examined alternatives to the LLNL HYLIFE concept and expanded the previous balance of plant design to incorporate information from recent liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) power plant studies. The majority of the effort was to incorporate present laser and target physics models into a reactor design with a low coolant flowrate and a high driver repetition rate. An example of such a design is the LLNL JADE concept. In addition to producing a power plant design for LLNL using the JADE example, Bechtel has also examined the applicability of the EAGLE (Energy Absorbing Gas Lithium Ejector) concept.

  10. Design and acquisition process for the Multimegawatt Terrestrial Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, C.P.; Bowman, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    In August 1984, the USAF entered into a joint agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to consider with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to consider nuclear energy as an alternative to meet secure power requirements. With USAF approval, the DOE began development of the Multimegawatt Terrestrial Power Plant (MTPP), a nuclear reactor power plant capable of providing safe, sustained, secure, reliable, and economic power to key mission facilities. The MTPP would provide base-load electricity and/or thermal energy as well as energy to key mission facilities. The plant would operate for extended time periods (months or years) without refueling and be independent of off-site support. The MTPP is to be designed to the most modern standards and is to meet USAF and DOE design requirements. Except for a few unique features that assure the plant is capable of supporting military missions, the design would meet licensing criteria. A few of the major design criteria are described. Procurement, and design efforts are also discussed.

  11. Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Parris, H.L.

    1981-07-01

    The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.

  12. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  13. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C. D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  14. Understanding seismic design criteria for Japanese Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Costello, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results of recent survey studies on the seismic design practice for nuclear power plants in Japan. The seismic design codes and standards for both nuclear as well as non-nuclear structures have been reviewed and summarized. Some key documents for understanding Japanese seismic design criteria are also listed with brief descriptions. The paper highlights the design criteria to determine the seismic demand and component capacity in comparison with U.S. criteria, the background studies which have led to the current Japanese design criteria, and a survey of current research activities. More detailed technical descriptions are presented on the development of Japanese shear wall equations, design requirements for containment structures, and ductility requirements.

  15. Design and implementation of power system stabilizers in wind plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Carlos

    Wind energy, increasing its share in the generation mix, is intended to replace fossil fuel plants in order to reduce green house gas emissions. However, the replacement of conventional synchronous units by wind generators reduces the number of online Power Systems Stabilizers (PSS) and may therefore deteriorate the damping of critical swing modes, leading to a reduction of the power transfer capacity in transmission corridors. Several reports indicate that angular instability, due to insufficient damping and inadequate tuning or disabling of power system stabilizers, is one of the major events that lead and/or contributed to wide area blackouts. Variable speed wind turbine generators are capable of fast decoupled real and reactive power control. A damping torque can be generated by modulating a fraction of the real and reactive power output of the wind farm. Supplementary active and reactive power control loops are designed and integrated in the wind turbine controls. Operating limits are added to restrict the kinetic energy exchange of the supplementary control loop within a specified turbine speed. An analytical method is developed in order to assess the effectiveness of real and reactive power modulation in damping inter-area oscillations and to justify the use and commissioning of wind based PSS. A wide area measurement based power system stabilizer suitable for wind farms is designed and integrated in the global and local controls of wind turbines. Feedback signals are selected based on an observability index of the selected mode(s). The proposed stabilizer transfer function is derived via a constrained Hinfinity optimization. The controller is tested in time domain simulations using a two area four generators benchmark suffering from interarea oscillatory mode within the range of 0.4-0.6Hz. Testing scenarios show the resiliency and effectiveness of the wind based PSS in damping angular oscillations and stabilizing the power system. The damping contribution

  16. Helium turbomachine design for GT-MHR power plant

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.; Orlando, R.J.; Cotzas, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The power conversion system in the gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) power plant is based on a highly recuperated closed Brayton cycle. The major component in the direct cycle system is a helium closed-cycle gas turbine rated at 286 MW(e). The rotating group consists of an intercooled helium turbocompressor coupled to a synchronous generator. The vertical rotating assembly is installed in a steel vessel, together with the other major components (i.e., recuperator, precooler, intercooler, and connecting ducts and support structures). The rotor is supported on an active magnetic bearing system. The turbine operates directly on the reactor helium coolant, and with a temperature of 850{degree}C (1562{degree}F) the plant efficiency is over 47%. This paper addresses the design and development planning of the helium turbomachine, and emphasizes that with the utilization of proven technology, this second generation nuclear power plant could be in service in the first decade of the 21st century.

  17. Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-03-01

    For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

  18. Simplified tornado depressurization design methods for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, N.M.; Krasnopoler, M.I.

    1983-05-01

    A simplified approach for the calculation of tornado depressurization effects on nuclear power plant structures and components is based on a generic computer depressurization analysis for an arbitrary single volume V connected to the atmosphere by an effective vent area A. For a given tornado depressurization transient, the maximum depressurization ..delta..P of the volume was found to depend on the parameter V/A. The relation between ..delta..P and V/A can be represented by a single monotonically increasing curve for each of the three design-basis tornadoes described in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.76. These curves can be applied to most multiple-volume nuclear power plant structures by considering each volume and its controlling vent area. Where several possible flow areas could be controlling, the maximum value of V/A can be used to estimate a conservative value for ..delta..P. This simplified approach was shown to yield reasonably conservative results when compared to detailed computer calculations of moderately complex geometries. Treatment of severely complicated geometries, heating and ventilation systems, and multiple blowout panel arrangements were found to be beyond the limitations of the simplified analysis.

  19. 76 FR 63541 - Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 50 and 52 Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants... Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides licensees and...- basis hurricane and design-basis hurricane-generated missiles that a nuclear power plant should...

  20. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

    1984-08-30

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  1. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Huebotter, Paul R.; McLennan, George A.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  2. HYLIFE-II inertial confinement: Fusion power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1990-12-14

    The HYLIFE-2 inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-1 used liquid lithium. HYLIFE 2 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-1. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required. In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-1, there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09 $/kW{center dot}h in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Study of seismic design bases and site conditions for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of four topics pertinent to the seismic design of nuclear power plants: Design accelerations by regions of the continental United States; review and compilation of design-basis seismic levels and soil conditions for existing nuclear power plants; regional distribution of shear wave velocity of foundation materials at nuclear power plant sites; and technical review of surface-founded seismic analysis versus embedded approaches.

  4. Results from conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

    1981-06-01

    This paper presents conceptual design information for a potential early MHD power plant developed in the second phase of a joint study of such plants. Conceptual designs of plant components and equipment with performance, operational characteristics and costs are reported on. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are reviewed. Results from reliability/availability analysis conducted are also included.

  5. Results from conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents conceptual design information for a potential early MHD power plant developed in the second phase of a joint study of such plants. Conceptual designs of plant components and equipment with performance, operational characteristics and costs are reported on. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are reviewed. Results from reliability/availability analysis conducted are also included.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 50 - General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants A Appendix A to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. A Appendix A to Part 50—General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants Table of Contents introduction definitions...

  7. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD, is summarized. Main elements of the design, systems, and plant facilities are illustrated. System design descriptions are included for closed cycle cooling water, industrial gas systems, fuel oil, boiler flue gas, coal management, seed management, slag management, plant industrial waste, fire service water, oxidant supply, MHD power ventilating

  9. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 1: Executive Summary & Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C.D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability economics, and technology development needs.

  10. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritterbusch, Stanley; Golay, Michael; Duran, Felicia; Galyean, William; Gupta, Abhinav; Dimitrijevic, Vesna; Malsch, Marty

    2003-01-29

    OAK B188 Summary of methods proposed for risk informing the design and regulation of future nuclear power plants. All elements of the historical design and regulation process are preserved, but the methods proposed for new plants use probabilistic risk assessment methods as the primary decision making tool.

  11. A Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Optimal Design of Tidal Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, B.

    2013-03-01

    A dynamic programming algorithm is proposed and demonstrated on a test case to determine the optimum operating schedule of a barrage tidal power plant to maximize the energy generation over a tidal cycle. Since consecutive sets of high and low tides can be predicted accurately for any tidal power plant site, this algorithm can be used to calculate the annual energy generation for different technical configurations of the plant. Thus an optimal choice of a tidal power plant design can be made from amongst different design configurations yielding the least cost of energy generation. Since this algorithm determines the optimal time of operation of sluice gate opening and turbine gates opening to maximize energy generation over a tidal cycle, it can also be used to obtain the annual schedule of operation of a tidal power plant and the minute-to-minute energy generation, for dissemination amongst power distribution utilities.

  12. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  13. Thermal energy storage heat exchanger: Molten salt heat exchanger design for utility power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferarra, A.; Yenetchi, G.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1977-01-01

    Sizing procedures are presented for latent heat thermal energy storage systems that can be used for electric utility off-peak energy storage, solar power plants and other preliminary design applications.

  14. Off-design study of an open cycle MHD power plant with oxygen enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, H. K.; Berry, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the more important aspects of off-design operation for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power plant are discussed. It is noted that the plant must be designed to meet part-load and overload conditions and that the optimal design should be subject to a specified load demand curve. An analysis is made for off-design regimes to determine the compatible joint operating conditions for an MHD topping cycle, a steam bottoming plant, a turbine train, a compressor, and an oxygen separation plant. The analysis is subject to such constraints as metal temperatures, second law violations, component performance requirements, and environmental considerations.

  15. A graphical user interface for design, simulation and analysis of power plant electrical auxiliary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, D.C.; Jamal, N.; Wang, W.; Zhang, X.G. ); Brandt, J.R. )

    1994-06-01

    An interactive Graphical User Interface (GUI) package for the design, simulation and analysis of a power plant electrical auxiliary system is presented in this paper. The purpose of this package is to assist the engineer in performing non real-time, what-if, analysis in an interactive and intuitive environment. The package, AUXSYS, is capable of performing load flow and motor starting simulations. It provides a graphical interface for designing the one-line diagram of the plant and analyzing the output of the simulations. It is currently used for modeling Wisconsin Electric Power Company's (WEPCO) power plant electrical auxiliary systems and is implemented for use on PC's.

  16. Final focus shielding designs for modern heavy-ion fusion power plant designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latkowski, J. F.; Meier, W. R.

    2001-05-01

    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet. Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or to an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-II IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  17. Final Focus Shielding Designs for Modern Heavy-Ion Fusion Power Plant Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R

    2000-07-05

    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet, Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-I1 IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Design Requirements Document (DRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigo, H. S.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Bents, D. J.; Hatch, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    A description and the design requirements for the 200 MWe (nominal) net output MHD Engineering Test Facility (ETF) Conceptual Design, are presented. Performance requirements for the plant are identified and process conditions are indicated at interface stations between the major systems comprising the plant. Also included are the description, functions, interfaces and requirements for each of these major systems. The lastest information (1980-1981) from the MHD technology program are integrated with elements of a conventional steam electric power generating plant.

  19. The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 10-MW{sub e} Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top a of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the US Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the US utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

  20. The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, G. J.

    The 10-MW(sub e) Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

  1. A Design Tool for Matching UAV Propeller and Power Plant Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangio, Arion L.

    A large body of knowledge is available for matching propellers to engines for large propeller driven aircraft. Small UAV's and model airplanes operate at much lower Reynolds numbers and use fixed pitch propellers so the information for large aircraft is not directly applicable. A design tool is needed that takes into account Reynolds number effects, allows for gear reduction, and the selection of a propeller optimized for the airframe. The tool developed in this thesis does this using propeller performance data generated from vortex theory or wind tunnel experiments and combines that data with an engine power curve. The thrust, steady state power, RPM, and tip Mach number vs. velocity curves are generated. The Reynolds number vs. non dimensional radial station at an operating point is also found. The tool is then used to design a geared power plant for the SAE Aero Design competition. To measure the power plant performance, a purpose built engine test stand was built. The characteristics of the engine test stand are also presented. The engine test stand was then used to characterize the geared power plant. The power plant uses a 26x16 propeller, 100/13 gear ratio, and an LRP 0.30 cubic inch engine turning at 28,000 RPM and producing 2.2 HP. Lastly, the measured power plant performance is presented. An important result is that 17 lbf of static thrust is produced.

  2. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 1, Executive summary and overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    Conceptual designs and assessments have been completed for two inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plants. The detailed designs and results of the assessment studies are presented in this report. Osiris is a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) driven power plant and SOMBRERO is a Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser-driven power plant. Both plants are sized for a net electric power of 1000 MWe.

  3. Some studies on the use of NASTRAN for nuclear power plant structural analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setlur, A. V.; Valathur, M.

    1973-01-01

    Studies made on the use of NASTRAN for nuclear power plant analysis and design are presented. These studies indicate that NASTRAN could be effectively used for static, dynamic and special purpose problems encountered in the design of such plants. Normal mode capability of NASTRAN is extended through a post-processor program to handle seismic analysis. Static and dynamic substructuring is discussed. Extension of NASTRAN to include the needs in the civil engineering industry is discussed.

  4. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits...

  10. Direct contact condensers: Advanced designs for geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baharathan, D.

    1995-02-01

    America`s geothermal resources-the reservoirs of steam and hot water that lie below the earth`s surface-have the potential to supply large amounts of clean, inexpensive energy. For example, The Geyser-a dry-steam geothermal field-supplies 7% of California`s electricity. With a 750-megawatt output from 14 units, The Geysers is the largest production of geothermal power in the world.

  11. Technical considerations for flexible piping design in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.C.; Chou, C.K.

    1985-03-15

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a technical basis for flexible piping designs which will improve piping reliability and minimize the use of pipe supports, snubbers, and pipe whip restraints. The current study was conducted to establish the necessary groundwork based on the piping reliability analysis. A confirmatory piping reliability assessment indicated that removing rigid supports and snubbers tends to either improve or affect very little the piping reliability. A couple of changes to be implemented in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.61 and RG 1.122 aimed at more flexible piping design were investigated. It was concluded that these changes substantially reduce calculated piping responses and allows piping redesigns with significant reduction in number of supports and snubbers without violating ASME code requirements.

  12. Characterisation of Liquefaction Effects for Beyond-Design Basis Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bán, Zoltán; Győri, Erzsébet; János Katona, Tamás; Tóth, László

    2015-04-01

    Preparedness of nuclear power plants to beyond design base external effects became high importance after 11th of March 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquakes. In case of some nuclear power plants constructed at the soft soil sites, liquefaction should be considered as a beyond design basis hazard. The consequences of liquefaction have to be analysed with the aim of definition of post-event plant condition, identification of plant vulnerabilities and planning the necessary measures for accident management. In the paper, the methodology of the analysis of liquefaction effects for nuclear power plants is outlined. The case of Nuclear Power Plant at Paks, Hungary is used as an example for demonstration of practical importance of the presented results and considerations. Contrary to the design, conservatism of the methodology for the evaluation of beyond design basis liquefaction effects for an operating plant has to be limited to a reasonable level. Consequently, applicability of all existing methods has to be considered for the best estimation. The adequacy and conclusiveness of the results is mainly limited by the epistemic uncertainty of the methods used for liquefaction hazard definition and definition of engineering parameters characterizing the consequences of liquefaction. The methods have to comply with controversial requirements. They have to be consistent and widely accepted and used in the practice. They have to be based on the comprehensive database. They have to provide basis for the evaluation of dominating engineering parameters that control the post-liquefaction response of the plant structures. Experience of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant hit by Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 and analysis of site conditions and plant layout at Paks plant have shown that the differential settlement is found to be the dominating effect in case considered. They have to be based on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and allow the integration into logic

  13. Engineering support for magnetohydrodynamic power plant analysis and design studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Marchmont, G.; Rogali, R.; Shikar, D.

    1980-08-01

    The major factors which influence the economic engineering selection of stack inlet temperatures in combined cycle MHD powerplants are identified and the range of suitable stack inlet temperatures under typical operating conditions is indicated. Engineering data and cost estimates are provided for four separately fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) system designs for HTAH system thermal capacity levels of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 MWt. An engineering survey of coal drying and pulverizing equipment for MHD powerplant application is presented as well as capital and operating cost estimates for varying degrees of coal pulverization.

  14. Engineering support for magnetohydrodynamic power plant analysis and design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Marchmont, G.; Rogali, R.; Shikar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The major factors which influence the economic engineering selection of stack inlet temperatures in combined cycle MHD powerplants are identified and the range of suitable stack inlet temperatures under typical operating conditions is indicated. Engineering data and cost estimates are provided for four separately fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) system designs for HTAH system thermal capacity levels of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 MWt. An engineering survey of coal drying and pulverizing equipment for MHD powerplant application is presented as well as capital and operating cost estimates for varying degrees of coal pulverization.

  15. Security Design of Remote Maintenance Systems for Nuclear Power Plants Based on ISO/IEC 15408

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watabe, Ryosuke; Oi, Tadashi; Endo, Yoshio

    This paper presents a security design of remote maintenance systems for nuclear power plants. Based on ISO/IEC 15408, we list assets to be protected, threats to the assets, security objectives against the threats, and security functional requirements that achieve the security objectives. Also, we show relations between the threats and the security objectives, and relations between the security objectives and the security functional requirements. As a result, we concretize a necessary and sufficient security design of remote maintenance systems for nuclear power plants that can protect the instrumentation and control system against intrusion, impersonation, tapping, obstruction and destruction.

  16. Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems. [use of a digital computer for designing power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, K. A.; Hayden, J. H.; Rehmann, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of formulating a methodology for the modeling and analysis of aerospace electrical power processing systems is investigated. It is shown that a digital computer may be used in an interactive mode for the design, modeling, analysis, and comparison of power processing systems.

  17. Design and off-design operation of a dual-boiling binary geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bliem, C.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a 5 MW(e) geothermal plant using a binary fluid process is described. The second fluid is isobutane. This plant is presently under construction at Raft River, Idaho. A mathematical simulation of the plant is discussed. The heat exchangers were modeled by dividing them into segments in the direction of flow to permit local adjustments in heat transfer coefficients and fluid properties. Sensitivity of plant performance to geofluid temperature and flow rate, heat exchanger fouling and cooling water temperatures were investigated. Conventional correlations were used for the heat transfer coefficients except for the condensing coefficient, which was obtained from a recent study at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.

  18. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  19. Design and operation of a geopressurized-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.G.; Hattar, M.M.

    1991-02-01

    Geopressured-geothermal resources can contribute significantly to the national electricity supply once technical and economic obstacles are overcome. Power plant performance under the harsh conditions of a geopressured resource was unproven, so a demonstration power plant was built and operated on the Pleasant Bayou geopressured resource in Texas. This one megawatt facility provided valuable data over a range of operating conditions. This power plant was a first-of-a-kind demonstration of the hybrid cycle concept. A hybrid cycle was used to take advantage of the fact that geopressured resources contain energy in more than one form -- hot water and natural gas. Studies have shown that hybrid cycles can yield thirty percent more power than stand-alone geothermal and fossil fuel power plants operating on the same resource. In the hybrid cycle at Pleasant Bayou, gas was burned in engines to generate electricity directly. Exhaust heat from the engines was then combined with heat from the brine to generate additional electricity in a binary cycle. Heat from the gas engine was available at high temperature, thus improving the efficiency of the binary portion of the hybrid cycle. Design power output was achieved, and 3445 MWh of power were sold to the local utility over the course of the test. Plant availability was 97.5% and the capacity factor was over 80% for the extended run at maximum power production. The hybrid cycle power plant demonstrated that there are no technical obstacles to electricity generation at Pleasant Bayou. 14 refs., 38 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. Conceptual design study of the moderate size superconducting spherical tokamak power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gi, Keii; Ono, Yasushi; Nakamura, Makoto; Someya, Youji; Utoh, Hiroyasu; Tobita, Kenji; Ono, Masayuki

    2015-06-01

    A new conceptual design of the superconducting spherical tokamak (ST) power plant was proposed as an attractive choice for tokamak fusion reactors. We reassessed a possibility of the ST as a power plant using the conservative reactor engineering constraints often used for the conventional tokamak reactor design. An extensive parameters scan which covers all ranges of feasible superconducting ST reactors was completed, and five constraints which include already achieved plasma magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and confinement parameters in ST experiments were established for the purpose of choosing the optimum operation point. Based on comparison with the estimated future energy costs of electricity (COEs) in Japan, cost-effective ST reactors can be designed if their COEs are smaller than 120 mills kW-1 h-1 (2013). We selected the optimized design point: A = 2.0 and Rp = 5.4 m after considering the maintenance scheme and TF ripple. A self-consistent free-boundary MHD equilibrium and poloidal field coil configuration of the ST reactor were designed by modifying the neutral beam injection system and plasma profiles. The MHD stability of the equilibrium was analysed and a ramp-up scenario was considered for ensuring the new ST design. The optimized moderate-size ST power plant conceptual design realizes realistic plasma and fusion engineering parameters keeping its economic competitiveness against existing energy sources in Japan.

  1. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  2. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  3. Thermal energy storage heat exchanger: Molten salt heat exchanger design for utility power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferarra, A.; Yenetchi, G.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of thermal energy storage (TES) in the latent heat of molten salts as a means of conserving fossil fuels and lowering the cost of electric power was evaluated. Public utility systems provided electric power on demand. This demand is generally maximum during late weekday afternoons, with considerably lower overnight and weekend loads. Typically, the average demand is only 60% to 80% of peak load. As peak load increases, the present practice is to purchase power from other grid facilities or to bring older less efficient fossil-fuel plants on line which increase the cost of electric power. The widespread use of oil-fired boilers, gas turbine and diesel equipment to meet peaking loads depletes our oil-based energy resources. Heat exchangers utilizing molten salts can be used to level the energy consumption curve. The study begins with a demand analysis and the consideration of several existing modern fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants for use as models. Salts are evaluated for thermodynamic, economic, corrosive, and safety characteristics. Heat exchanger concepts are explored and heat exchanger designs are conceived. Finally, the economics of TES conversions in existing plants and new construction is analyzed. The study concluded that TES is feasible in electric power generation. Substantial data are presented for TES design, and reference material for further investigation of techniques is included.

  4. Conceptual design study. Standard Floating Nuclear Power Plant on inshore site and Modified Floating Nuclear Power plant on upriver site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    Both plants/designs are technically feasible. Both compare favorably with conventional nuclear plants with respect to licensability, quality of construction, reliability of operation, and safety. Both offer considerable reductions in construction schedule over conventional nuclear plants. It was estimated that if project durations were reduced by three years the cost of a 1100 MWe nuclear unit could be decreased by $260 million to $450 million. The allowance for funds during construction (AFDC) was estimated to be $929 million for a 1260 MWe nuclear plant with a commercial operation date in 1992. Reducing the schedule from 12 to 9 years, a reduction of 25%, implies a savings in AFDC alone of approximately $230 million. .DLN : Killed, superseded by N85-21597 NASA patent

  5. Design of an Adaptive Power Regulation Mechanism and a Nozzle for a Hydroelectric Power Plant Turbine Test Rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Burak; Aytac, Zeynep; Tascioglu, Yigit; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    This study deals with the design of a power regulation mechanism for a Hydroelectric Power Plant (HEPP) model turbine test system which is designed to test Francis type hydroturbines up to 2 MW power with varying head and flow(discharge) values. Unlike the tailor made regulation mechanisms of full-sized, functional HEPPs; the design for the test system must be easily adapted to various turbines that are to be tested. In order to achieve this adaptability, a dynamic simulation model is constructed in MATLAB/Simulink SimMechanics. This model acquires geometric data and hydraulic loading data of the regulation system from Autodesk Inventor CAD models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis respectively. The dynamic model is explained and case studies of two different HEPPs are performed for validation. CFD aided design of the turbine guide vanes, which is used as input for the dynamic model, is also presented. This research is financially supported by Turkish Ministry of Development.

  6. Conceptual Design of a 100 MWe Modular Molten Salt Power Tower Plant

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Pacheco; Carter Moursund, Dale Rogers, David Wasyluk

    2011-09-20

    A conceptual design of a 100 MWe modular molten salt solar power tower plant has been developed which can provide capacity factors in the range of 35 to 75%. Compared to single tower plants, the modular design provides a higher degree of flexibility in achieving the desired customer's capacity factor and is obtained simply by adjusting the number of standard modules. Each module consists of a standard size heliostat field and receiver system, hence reengineering and associated unacceptable performance uncertainties due to scaling are eliminated. The modular approach with multiple towers also improves plant availability. Heliostat field components, receivers and towers are shop assembled allowing for high quality and minimal field assembly. A centralized thermal-storage system stores hot salt from the receivers, allowing nearly continuous power production, independent of solar energy collection, and improved parity with the grid. A molten salt steam generator converts the stored thermal energy into steam, which powers a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. This paper describes the conceptual design of the plant, the advantages of modularity, expected performance, pathways to cost reductions, and environmental impact.

  7. Conceptual design of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plants in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Haruo Uehara; Dilao, C.O.; Tsutomu Nakaoka )

    1988-01-01

    Extensive temperature readings were obtained to determine suitable OTEC power plant sites in the Philippines. An analysis of temperature profiles reveals that surface seawater is in the range of 25 to 29{degree}C throughout the year while seawater at 500 to 700 m depth remains at a low temperature of 8 to 4{degree}C, respectively. In this article, 14 suitable sites within the Philippine seas are suggested. Conceptual designs for a 5-MW onland-type and a 25-MW floating-type OTEC power plant are proposed. Optimum conditions are determined and plant specifications are computed. Cost estimates show that a floating-type 25-MW OTEC power plant can generate electricity at a busbar power cost of 5.33 to 7.57 cents/kW {times} h while an onshore type 5-MW plant can generate electricity at a busbar cost of 14.71 to 18.09 cents/kW {times} h.

  8. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To... to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits...

  9. Design of a fault diagnosis system for next generation nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, K.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Wood, R.T.

    2004-07-01

    A new design approach for fault diagnosis is developed for next generation nuclear power plants. In the nuclear reactor design phase, data reconciliation is used as an efficient tool to determine the measurement requirements to achieve the specified goal of fault diagnosis. In the reactor operation phase, the plant measurements are collected to estimate uncertain model parameters so that a high fidelity model can be obtained for fault diagnosis. The proposed algorithm of fault detection and isolation is able to combine the strength of first principle model based fault diagnosis and the historical data based fault diagnosis. Principal component analysis on the reconciled data is used to develop a statistical model for fault detection. The updating of the principal component model based on the most recent reconciled data is a locally linearized model around the current plant measurements, so that it is applicable to any generic nonlinear systems. The sensor fault diagnosis and process fault diagnosis are decoupled through considering the process fault diagnosis as a parameter estimation problem. The developed approach has been applied to the IRIS helical coil steam generator system to monitor the operational performance of individual steam generators. This approach is general enough to design fault diagnosis systems for the next generation nuclear power plants. (authors)

  10. Conceptual designs of advanced high-temperature desulfurization processes: Volume 1, Molten carbonate fuel cell power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, M.G.; Boulay, R.B.; Buchanan, T.L.; Chen, H.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Losovsky, M.L.; Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this effort is to provide conceptual commercial-scale designs, including engineering, relative cost, and economic information for high-temperature desulfurization processes. The commercial-scale processes were designed as an integral part of a nominal 100-MW(e) power plant. Two types of power plants were considered, a coal gasification molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant and an integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant. Three desulfurization processes combined with three different gasification processes were evaluated, for a total of 16 cases for the MCFC power plant. The three desulfurization processes evaluated were: METC's zinc ferrite process, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory's solid-supported molten salt process, and Institute of Gas Technology's mixed metal oxide process. Volume I of this report presents the results for the MCFC power plant.

  11. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 1. Design description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-31

    The design of the 30 MWe central receiver solar power plant to be located at Carrisa Plains, San Luis Obispo County, California, is summarized. The plant uses a vertical flat-panel (billboard solar receiver located at the top of a tower to collect solar energy redirected by approximately 1900 heliostats located to the north of the tower. The solar energy is used to heat liquid sodium pumped from ground level from 610 to 1050/sup 0/F. The power conversion system is a non-reheat system, cost-effective at this size level, and designed for high-efficiency performance in an application requiring daily startup. Successful completion of this project will lead to power generation starting in 1986. This report discusses in detail the design of the collector system, heat transport system, thermal storage subsystem, heat transport loop, steam generation subsystem, electrical, instrumentation, and control systems, power conversion system, master control system, and balance of plant. The performance, facility cost estimate and economic analysis, and development plan are also discussed.

  12. Space Nuclear Power Plant Pre-Conceptual Design Report, For Information

    SciTech Connect

    B. Levine

    2006-01-27

    This letter transmits, for information, the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) Pre-Conceptual Design Report completed by the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT). This report documents the work pertaining to the Reactor Module, which includes integration of the space nuclear reactor with the reactor radiation shield, energy conversion, and instrumentation and control segments. This document also describes integration of the Reactor Module with the Heat Rejection segment, the Power Conditioning and Distribution subsystem (which comprise the SNPP), and the remainder of the Prometheus spaceship.

  13. Effect of First-Stage Blade Design on Performance of Mark 25 Torpedo Power Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schum, Harold J.; Hoyt, Jack W.

    1948-01-01

    The effect of rotor-blade length, inlet angle, and shrouding was investigated with four different nozzles in a single-stage modification of the Mark 25 aerial-torpedo power plant. The results obtained with the five special rotor configurations are compared with those of the standard first-stage rotor with each nozzle. Each nozzle-rotor combination was operated at nominal pressure ratios of 8, 15 (design), and 20 over a range of speeds from 6000 rpm to the design speed of 18,000 rpm. Inlet temperature and pressure conditions of 1OOOo F and 95 pounds per square inch gage, respectively, were maintained constant for all runs.

  14. Design of power-plant installations pressure-loss characteristics of duct components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, John R

    1944-01-01

    A correlation of what are believed to be the most reliable data available on duct components of aircraft power-plant installations is presented. The information is given in a convenient form and is offered as an aid in designing duct systems and, subject to certain qualifications, as a guide in estimating their performance. The design and performance data include those for straight ducts; simple bends of square, circular, and elliptical cross sections; compound bends; diverging and converging bends; vaned bends; diffusers; branch ducts; internal inlets; and an angular placement of heat exchangers. Examples are included to illustrate methods of applying these data in analyzing duct systems. (author)

  15. Multi-Megawatt Organic Rankine Engine power plant (MORE). Phase IA final report: system design of MORE power plant for industrial energy conservation emphasizing the cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, E.K.; Breindel, B.; Collamore, F.N.; Hodgson, J.N.; Olson, G.K.

    1980-01-31

    The Multi-Megawatt Organic Rankine Engine (MORE) program is directed towards the development of a large, organic Rankine power plant for energy conservation from moderate temperature industrial heat streams. Organic Rankine power plants are ideally suited for use with heat sources in the temperature range below 1100/sup 0/F. Cement manufacture was selected as the prototype industry for the MORE system because of the range of parameters which can be tested in a cement application. This includes process exit temperatures of 650/sup 0/F to 1110/sup 0/F for suspension preheater and long dry kilns, severe dust loading, multi-megawatt power generation potential, and boiler exhaust gas acid dew point variations. The work performed during the Phase IA System Design contract period is described. The System Design task defines the complete MORE system and its installation to the level necessary to obtain detailed performance maps, equipment specifications, planning of supporting experiments, and credible construction and hardware cost estimates. The MORE power plant design is based upon installation in the Black Mountain Quarry Cement Plant near Victorville, California.

  16. Design issues concerning Iran`s Bushehr nuclear power plant VVER-1000 conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.F.

    1996-12-31

    On January 8, 1995, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) signed a contract for $800 million with the Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) to complete Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) unit 1. The agreement called for a Russian VVER-1000/320 pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be successfully installed into the existing German-built BNPP facilities in 5 yr. System design differences, bomb damage, and environmental exposure are key issues with which Minatom must contend in order to fulfill the contract. The AEOI under the Shah of Iran envisioned Bushehr as the first of many nuclear power plants, with Iran achieving 24 GW(electric) by 1993 and 34 GW(electric) by 2000. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) began construction of the two-unit plant near the Persian Gulf town of Halileh in 1975. Unit 1 was {approx}80% complete and unit 2 was {approx}50% complete when construction was interrupted by the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution. Despite repeated AEOI attempts to lure KWU and other companies back to Iran to complete the plant, Western concerns about nuclear proliferation in Iran and repeated bombings of the plant during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war dissuaded Germany from resuming construction.

  17. Design process of the nanofluid injection mechanism in nuclear power plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nanofluids, which are engineered suspensions of nanoparticles in a solvent such as water, have been found to show enhanced coolant properties such as higher critical heat flux and surface wettability at modest concentrations, which is a useful characteristic in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This study attempted to provide an example of engineering applications in NPPs using nanofluid technology. From these motivations, the conceptual designs of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) assisted by nanofluid injection mechanism were proposed after following a design framework to develop complex engineering systems. We focused on the analysis of functional requirements for integrating the conventional ECCSs and nanofluid injection mechanism without loss of performance and reliability. Three candidates of nanofluid-engineered ECCS proposed in previous researches were investigated by applying axiomatic design (AD) in the manner of reverse engineering and it enabled to identify the compatibility of functional requirements and potential design vulnerabilities. The methods to enhance such vulnerabilities were referred from TRIZ and concretized for the ECCS of the Korean nuclear power plant. The results show a method to decouple the ECCS designs with the installation of a separate nanofluids injection tank adjacent to the safety injection tanks such that a low pH environment for nanofluids can be maintained at atmospheric pressure which is favorable for their injection in passive manner. PMID:21711896

  18. Design process of the nanofluid injection mechanism in nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Myoung-Suk; Jee, Changhyun; Park, Sangjun; Bang, In Choel; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2011-04-01

    Nanofluids, which are engineered suspensions of nanoparticles in a solvent such as water, have been found to show enhanced coolant properties such as higher critical heat flux and surface wettability at modest concentrations, which is a useful characteristic in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This study attempted to provide an example of engineering applications in NPPs using nanofluid technology. From these motivations, the conceptual designs of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) assisted by nanofluid injection mechanism were proposed after following a design framework to develop complex engineering systems. We focused on the analysis of functional requirements for integrating the conventional ECCSs and nanofluid injection mechanism without loss of performance and reliability. Three candidates of nanofluid-engineered ECCS proposed in previous researches were investigated by applying axiomatic design (AD) in the manner of reverse engineering and it enabled to identify the compatibility of functional requirements and potential design vulnerabilities. The methods to enhance such vulnerabilities were referred from TRIZ and concretized for the ECCS of the Korean nuclear power plant. The results show a method to decouple the ECCS designs with the installation of a separate nanofluids injection tank adjacent to the safety injection tanks such that a low pH environment for nanofluids can be maintained at atmospheric pressure which is favorable for their injection in passive manner.

  19. Design process of the nanofluid injection mechanism in nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myoung-Suk; Jee, Changhyun; Park, Sangjun; Bang, In Choel; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2011-01-01

    Nanofluids, which are engineered suspensions of nanoparticles in a solvent such as water, have been found to show enhanced coolant properties such as higher critical heat flux and surface wettability at modest concentrations, which is a useful characteristic in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This study attempted to provide an example of engineering applications in NPPs using nanofluid technology. From these motivations, the conceptual designs of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) assisted by nanofluid injection mechanism were proposed after following a design framework to develop complex engineering systems. We focused on the analysis of functional requirements for integrating the conventional ECCSs and nanofluid injection mechanism without loss of performance and reliability. Three candidates of nanofluid-engineered ECCS proposed in previous researches were investigated by applying axiomatic design (AD) in the manner of reverse engineering and it enabled to identify the compatibility of functional requirements and potential design vulnerabilities. The methods to enhance such vulnerabilities were referred from TRIZ and concretized for the ECCS of the Korean nuclear power plant. The results show a method to decouple the ECCS designs with the installation of a separate nanofluids injection tank adjacent to the safety injection tanks such that a low pH environment for nanofluids can be maintained at atmospheric pressure which is favorable for their injection in passive manner. PMID:21711896

  20. Results from study of potential early commercial MHD power plants and from recent ETF design work. [Engineering Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

    1980-01-01

    The study deals with different 'moderate technology' entry-level commercial MHD power plants. Two of the reference plants are based on combustion of coal with air preheated in a high-temperature regenerative air heater separately fired with a low-BTU gas produced in a gasifier integrated with the power plant. The third reference plant design is based on the use of oxygen enriched combustion air. Performance calculations show that an overall power plant efficiency of the order of 44% can be reached with the use of oxygen enrichment.

  1. Power Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kuljian Corporation provides design engineering and construction management services for power generating plants in more than 20 countries. They used WASP (Calculating Water and Steam Properties), a COSMIC program to optimize power station design. This enabled the company to substantially reduce lead time and software cost in a recent design project.

  2. The photovoltaic-powered water desalination plant 'SORO' design, start up, operating experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaeusser, G.; Mohn, J.; Petersen, G.

    Design features, operational parameters, and test results of a year of operation of the SORO prototype photovoltaic (PV) reverse osmosis salt water desalinization plant are described. Chemicals are added to the salt water to control the pH, prevent formation of compounds which could plug the flow system, and kill bacteria and slime which might grow in the solution. The water is pressurized and forced into contact with membranes which separate the fresh water from the brackish or sea water. The flow rate in the project was 180 l/h, with the main electrical energy load being the high pressure pump and the well pump. Batteries are charged before current is switched to power the desalinization system. The plant yielded 1.50 cu of fresh water/day and is concluded to be a viable design for scale-up to larger production figures, besides being economically competitive with solar desalinization installations where the salt content is 2000 ppm.

  3. Human-centered HMI design to support cognitive process of operators in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. J.; Seong, P. H.

    2006-07-01

    In this study, an operation advisory system to aid cognitive process of operators is proposed for advanced main control rooms (MCRs) in future nuclear power plants (NPPs). As MCRs are fully digitalized and designed based on computer technologies, MCRs have much evolved by improving human-machine interface (HMI) design and by adapting automation or support systems for helping operator's convenient operation and maintenance. Various kinds of support systems for operators are developed or developing for advanced MCRs. The proposed system is suggesting a design basis about 'What kinds of support systems are most efficient and necessary for MCR operators ' and 'how to use them together.' In this paper, the operator's operation processes are analyzed based on a human cognitive process model and appropriate support systems that support each activity of the human cognitive process are suggested. Also, the proposed support system is evaluated using Bayesian belief network model and human error probabilities in order to estimate its effect. (authors)

  4. Applying Human Factors Evaluation and Design Guidance to a Nuclear Power Plant Digital Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Ulrich; Ronald Boring; William Phoenix; Emily Dehority; Tim Whiting; Jonathan Morrell; Rhett Backstrom

    2012-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) nuclear industry, like similar process control industries, has moved toward upgrading its control rooms. The upgraded control rooms typically feature digital control system (DCS) displays embedded in the panels. These displays gather information from the system and represent that information on a single display surface. In this manner, the DCS combines many previously separate analog indicators and controls into a single digital display, whereby the operators can toggle between multiple windows to monitor and control different aspects of the plant. The design of the DCS depends on the function of the system it monitors, but revolves around presenting the information most germane to an operator at any point in time. DCSs require a carefully designed human system interface. This report centers on redesigning existing DCS displays for an example chemical volume control system (CVCS) at a U.S. nuclear power plant. The crucial nature of the CVCS, which controls coolant levels and boration in the primary system, requires a thorough human factors evaluation of its supporting DCS. The initial digital controls being developed for the DCSs tend to directly mimic the former analog controls. There are, however, unique operator interactions with a digital vs. analog interface, and the differences have not always been carefully factored in the translation of an analog interface to a replacement DCS. To ensure safety, efficiency, and usability of the emerging DCSs, a human factors usability evaluation was conducted on a CVCS DCS currently being used and refined at an existing U.S. nuclear power plant. Subject matter experts from process control engineering, software development, and human factors evaluated the DCS displays to document potential usability issues and propose design recommendations. The evaluation yielded 167 potential usability issues with the DCS. These issues should not be considered operator performance problems but rather opportunities

  5. Some issues in the seismic design of nuclear power-plant facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjian, A.H.; Iwan, W.D.

    1980-09-01

    This paper summarizes the major issues discussed by an international panel of experts during the post-SMIRT (Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology) Seminar on Extreme Load Design of Nuclear Power-Plant Facilities, which was held in Berlin, Aug. 20-21, 1979. The emphasis of the deliberations was on the state of the art of seismic-response calculations to predict the expected performance of structures and equipment during earthquakes. Four separate panels discussed issues on (1) soil-structure interaction and structural response, (2) modeling, materials, and boundary conditions, (3) damping in structures and equipment, and (4) fragility levels of equipment. The international character of the seminar was particularly helpful in the cross-pollination of ideas regarding the issues and the steps required to enhance the cause of safety of nuclear plants.

  6. Design of Biomass Gasification and Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydary, Juma; Jelemenský, Ľudovít

    Three types of wooden biomass were characterized by calorimetric measurements, proximate and elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, kinetics of thermal decomposition and gas composition. Using the Aspen steady state simulation, a plant with the processing capacity of 18 ton/h of biomass was modelled based on the experimental data obtained under laboratory conditions. The gasification process has been modelled in two steps. The first step of the model describes the thermal decomposition of the biomass based on a kinetic model and in the second step, the equilibrium composition of syngas is calculated by the Gibbs free energy of the expected components. The computer model of the plant besides the reactor model includes also a simulation of other plant facilities such as: feed drying employing the energy from the process, ash and tar separation, gas-steam cycle, and hot water production heat exchangers. The effect of the steam to air ratio on the conversion, syngas composition, and reactor temperature was analyzed. Employment of oxygen and air for partial combustion was compared. The designed computer model using all Aspen simulation facilities can be applied to study different aspects of biomass gasification in a Combined Heat and Power plant.

  7. EARLY-STAGE DESIGN AND EVALUATION FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger T. Lew

    2015-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate operator performance with these systems as part of a verification and validation process. While there is regulatory and industry guidance for some modernization activities, there are no well defined standard processes or predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages. This paper proposes a framework defining the design process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The process and metrics are generalizable to other applications and serve as a guiding template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  8. Power Plant Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation utilized TAP-A, a COSMIC program originally developed as part of a NASA investigation into the potential of nuclear power for space launch vehicles. It is useful in nuclear power plant design to qualify safety-related equipment at the temperatures it would experience should an accident occur. The program is easy to use, produces accurate results, and is inexpensive to run.

  9. A dynamic simulation model for power plants with atmospheric and pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustion -- Interactions of plant components and design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Glasmacher-Remberg, C.; Fett, F.N.

    1999-07-01

    Power plants with atmospheric or pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustion are complex technical systems. The operation characteristics of these power plants depend on the behavior of the single components and their interactions. The theoretical understanding of power plant processes of this kind as well as the design, the reliability and the practical operation can be enhanced by the application of mathematical models for the complete process. A dynamic simulation model for power plants with atmospheric circulating fluidized bed combustion (ACFBC) and pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustion (PCFBC) consisting of comprehensive submodels for the subsystems gas turbine, circulating fluidized bed combustor and water/steam cycle is presented. Apart from the investigation of the complete power plant, the simulation program enables the analysis of the three mentioned subsystems separately. Each subsystem is described by a set of unsteady-state differential and algebraic equations solved by an implicit Euler-method using a modified Newton-Raphson method. With the aid of the dynamic simulation program for a selected power plant, the effect of changes in plant operation will be examined for full and part load as well as the transient response of the system due to the carried out operation. Emphasis is laid on the characterization of the interactions between the subsystems. The dynamic simulation program can be used for design studies and it is investigated how changes of the plant design influence the operation characteristics of the example plant.

  10. Summary and evaluation of the conceptual design study of a potential early commercial MHD power plant (CSPEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staiger, P. J.; Penko, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    The conceptual design study of a potential early commercial MHD power plant (CSPEC) is described and the results are summarized. Each of two contractors did a conceptual design of an approximtely 1000 MWe open-cycle MHD/steam plant with oxygen enriched combustion air preheated to an intermediate temperatue in a metallic heat exchanger. The contractors were close in their overall plant efficiency estimates but differed in their capital cost and cost of electricity estimates, primarily because of differences in balance-of-plant material, contingency, and operating and maintenance cost estimates. One contractor concluded that its MHD plant design compared favorably in cost of electricity with conventional coal-fired steam plants. The other contractor is making such a comparison as part of a follow-on study. Each contractor did a preliminary investigation of part-load performance and plant availability. The results of NASA studies investigating the effect of plant size and oxidizer preheat temperature on the performance of CSPEC-type MHD plants are also described. The efficiency of a 1000 MWe plant is about three points higher than of a 200 MWe plant. Preheating to 1600 F gives an efficiency about one and one-half points higher than preheating to 800 F for all plant sizes. For each plant size and preheat temperature there is an oxidizer enrichment level and MHD generator length that gives the highest plant efficiency.

  11. 75 FR 5632 - Office of New Reactors; Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ...The NRC staff is soliciting public comment on its proposed Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) DC/COL-ISG-021 titled ``Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs Using a Gas Turbine Driven Standby Emergency Alternating Current Power System,'' (Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS) Accession No. ML092640035). This ISG provides new guidance information for......

  12. Piping design considerations in a solar-Rankine power plant. [pipe size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    Two of the main parameters in sizing the piping of a solar power plant are the working pressure of the vapor leaving the solar collectors, and the type of working fluid used. Numerical examples for each case are given using the graphical Moody friction charts and the analytical Darcy-Weisbach equation. Different working pressures of steam vapor in the solar collector-turbine pipe connection indicate their major role in the design. The size variation was found not to be in linear proportion to vapor density variations. On the other hand, high molecular weight organic fluids such as R-11 and R-113, when compared with water, show insignificant changes in piping sizes.

  13. Progress in accident analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-10-11

    The present work continues our effort to perform an integrated safety analysis for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. Recently we developed a base case for a severe accident scenario in order to calculate accident doses for HYLIFE-II. It consisted of a total loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in which all the liquid flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) was lost at the beginning of the accident. Results showed that the off-site dose was below the limit given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for public protection in case of accident, and that his dose was dominated by the tritium released during the accident.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT SIMULATORS FOR SOVIET-DESIGNED NUCLEAR REACTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohut, P.; Tutu, N.K.; Cleary, E.J.; Erickson, K.G.; Yoder, J.; Kroshilin, A.

    2001-01-07

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE), under the US government's International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), is implementing a program of developing and providing simulators for many of the Russian and Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) manage and provide technical oversight of the various INSP simulator projects for DOE. The program also includes a simulator technology transfer process to simulator design organizations in Russia and Ukraine. Training programs, installation of new simulators, and enhancements in existing simulators, are viewed as providing a relatively fast and cost-effective technology transfer that will result in measurable improvement in the safety culture and operation of NPPs. A review of this program, its present status, and its accomplishments are provided in this paper.

  15. Comparative analysis of the conceptual design studies of potential early commercial MHD power plants (CSPEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, R. J.; Winter, J. M.; Juhasz, A. J.; Berg, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the MHD/steam plant that incorporates the use of oxygen enriched air preheated in a metallic heat exchanger as the combustor oxidant showed that this plant is the most attractive for early commercial applications. The variation of performance and cost was investigated as a function of plant size. The contractors' results for the overall efficiencies are in reasonable agreement considering the slight differences in their plant designs. NASA LeRC is reviewing cost and performance results for consistency with those of previous studies, including studies of conventional steam plants. LeRC in house efforts show that there are still many tradeoffs to be considered for these oxygen enriched plants and considerable variations can be made in channel length and level of oxygen enrichment with little change in overall plant efficiency.

  16. Comparative analysis of the conceptual design studies of potential early commercial MHD power plants (CSPEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovie, R. J.; Winter, J. M.; Juhasz, A. J.; Berg, R. D.

    A conceptual design study of the MHD/steam plant that incorporates the use of oxygen enriched air preheated in a metallic heat exchanger as the combustor oxidant showed that this plant is the most attractive for early commercial applications. The variation of performance and cost was investigated as a function of plant size. The contractors' results for the overall efficiencies are in reasonable agreement considering the slight differences in their plant designs. NASA LeRC is reviewing cost and performance results for consistency with those of previous studies, including studies of conventional steam plants. LeRC in house efforts show that there are still many tradeoffs to be considered for these oxygen enriched plants and considerable variations can be made in channel length and level of oxygen enrichment with little change in overall plant efficiency.

  17. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities.

  18. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  19. Probabilistic assessment of decoupling loss-of-coolant accident and earthquake in nuclear power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.C.; Harris, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a research project conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to establish a technical basis for reassessing the requirement of combining large loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and earthquake loads in nuclear power plant design. A large LOCA is defined herein as a double-ended guillotine break of the primary reactor coolant loop piping (the hot leg, cold leg, and crossover) of a pressureized water reactor (PWR). A systematic probability approach has been employed to estimate the probability of a large LOCA directly and indirectly induced by earthquakes. The probability of a LOCA directly induced by earthquakes was assessed by a numerical simulation of pipe rupture of a reactor coolant system. The simulation employed a deterministic fracture mechanics model which dictates the fatigue growth of pre-existing cracks in the pipe. The simulation accounts for the stochastic nature of input elements such as the initial crack size distribution, the crack occurrence rate, crack and leak detection probabilities as functions of crack size, plant transient occurrence rates, the seismic hazard, stress histories, and crack growth model parameters. Effects on final results due to variation an uncertainty of input elements were assessed by a limited sensitivity study. Results of the simulation indicate that the probability of a double-ended guillotine break, either with or without an earthquake, is very small (on the orer of 10/sup -12/). The probability of a leak was found to be several orders of magnitudes greater than that of a complete break.

  20. Salton Sea Solar Pond Power Plant Design Study and Regional Applicability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Ormat collected and organized the data base and conducted conceptual plant design, performance, and cost analysis. JPL conducted site-specific studies related to solar pond chemistry, soil biological activity, and dike design and construction. WESTEC conducted environmental investigation studies and performed an environmental assessment. SCE provided planning support for licensing and permitting and technical evaluations of the system design and cost estimate.

  1. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J.

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work, computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) have been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here we consider a severe loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in conjunction with simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the confinement) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and confinement building itself). Even though confinement failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product transport and release. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 5 mSv (0.5 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  2. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-02-23

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work a set of computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) has been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here the authors consider a severe lost of coolant accident (LOCA) producing simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the containment) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and containment building it self). Even though containment failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product release and transport. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 6 mSv (0.6 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  3. Design and Performance of South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant Mixed Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullayev, A. M.; Baydulin, V.; Zhukov, A. I.; Latorre, Richard

    2011-09-24

    In 2010, 42 Westinghouse fuel assemblies (WFAs) were loaded into the core of South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP) Unit 3 after four successful cycles with 6 Westinghouse Lead Test Assemblies. The scope of safety substantiating documents required for the regulatory approval of this mixed core was extended considerably, particularly with development and implementation of new methodologies and 3-D kinetic codes. Additional verification for all employed codes was also performed. Despite the inherent hydraulic non-uniformity of a mixed core, it was possible to demonstrate that all design and operating restrictions for three different types of fuel (TVS-M, TVSA and WFA) loaded in the core were conservatively met. This paper provides the main results from the first year of operation of the core loaded with 42 WFAs, the predicted parameters for the transition and equilibrium cycles with WFAs, comparisons of predicted versus measured core parameters, as well as the acceptable margin evaluation results for reactivity accidents using the 3-D kinetic codes. To date WFA design parameters have been confirmed by operation experience.

  4. Demonstrating Structural Adequacy of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures for Beyond Design-Basis Pressure Loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, J.I.; Morante, R.

    2010-07-18

    ABSTRACT Demonstrating the structural integrity of U.S. nuclear power plant (NPP) containment structures, for beyond design-basis internal pressure loadings, is necessary to satisfy Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements and performance goals. This paper discusses methods for demonstrating the structural adequacy of the containment for beyond design-basis pressure loadings. Three distinct evaluations are addressed: (1) estimating the ultimate pressure capacity of the containment structure (10 CFR 50 and US NRC Standard Review Plan, Section 3.8) ; (2) demonstrating the structural adequacy of the containment subjected to pressure loadings associated with combustible gas generation (10 CFR 52 and 10 CFR 50); and (3) demonstrating the containment structural integrity for severe accidents (10 CFR 52 as well as SECY 90-016, SECY 93-087, and related NRC staff requirements memoranda (SRMs)). The paper describes the technical basis for specific aspects of the methods presented. It also presents examples of past issues identified in licensing activities related to these evaluations.

  5. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. K.

    1983-12-31

    The auxiliary heat transport systems of the Carrisa Plains Solar Power Plant (CPSPP) comprise facilities which are used to support plant operation and provide plant safety and maintenance. The facilities are the sodium purification system, argon cover gas system, sodium receiving and filling system, sodium-water reaction product receiving system, and safety and maintenance equipment. The functions of the facilities of the auxiliary system are described. Design requirements are established based on plant operating parameters. Descriptions are given on the system which will be adequate to perform the function and satisfy the requirements. Valve and equipment lists are included in the appendix.

  6. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  7. Crosbyton Solar Power Project. Volume 8: Preliminary design of 55-MWe solar-fossil hybrid electric power plant at Crosbyton, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary design and the construction cost for a 5 MWe Solar Hybrid Electric Energy Plant (SHEEP) to be built at Crosbyton, Texas. The plant has been designed to serve as a small size, commercially operable power plant which fully demonstrates the function, performance, and cost of this solar technology and integrated steam management concept. Good lifetime performance at minimum cost were the critical design objectives. The major solar components of this plant are ten 203 foot diameter stationary tilted quartersphere solar bowls. Each with a slender 58 foot solar receiver which tracks the solar focus produced by the bowl. At peak insolation the ten bowls will produce sufficient steam to generate 5 MWe. This plant has only a few minutes of thermal storage capability. The plant has a fossil boiler (oil or gas fired) which is integrated into the solar-turbine steam loop to provide supplemental steam for electric generation at night or during periods of low insolation.

  8. ESP IMPROVEMENTS AT POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An on-going ORD and OIA collaborative project in the Newly Independent States (NIS) is designed to upgrade ESPs used in NIS power plants and has laid the foundation for implementing cost-effective ESP modernization efforts at power plants. Thus far, state-of-the-art ESP performan...

  9. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them was reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates are presented, and the engineering issues that should be reexamined are identified. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program is integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant.

  10. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 4: Supplementary engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the Magnetohydrodynamic Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates, and identification of engineering issues that should be reexamined are also given. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program are integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant. Supplementary Engineering Data (Issues, Background, Performance Assurance Plan, Design Details, System Design Descriptions and Related Drawings) is presented.

  11. The effect on thermal power plant design due to the implementation of China`s new environmental laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Dingrong; Liu Yongjiu; Lei Kechang

    1996-10-01

    In light of the requirements of China`s new environmental protection laws and regulations, the countermeasures adopted by the Chinese government to protect environment, and China`s Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996--2000) and Long-Term Target for the Year 2010, this paper describes the considerations and countermeasures that shall be taken in power plant construction and design.

  12. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To... to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and § 50.10 of this part require a Commission...

  13. 76 FR 17160 - Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ...The NRC staff is issuing its Final Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) DC/COL-ISG-021 titled ``Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs Using a Gas Turbine Driven Standby Emergency Alternating Current Power System,'' Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS) Accession No. ML102510119 for DC/ COL-ISG-021 and ADAMS Accession No. ML102510164 for Attachment 1 to......

  14. Design-Basis Flood Estimation for Site Characterization at Nuclear Power Plants in the United States of America

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Rajiv; Hibler, Lyle F.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe approaches and methods for estimation of the design-basis flood at nuclear power plant sites. Chapter 1 defines the design-basis flood and lists the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations that require estimation of the design-basis flood. For comparison, the design-basis flood estimation methods used by other Federal agencies are also described. A brief discussion of the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency for estimation of the design-basis floods in its member States is also included.

  15. Design of the Fully Digitalized SOE System in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jong Yong, Keum; Geun Ok, Park; Heui Youn, Park; Gui Sook, Jang

    2006-07-01

    With the spread of the digital technologies, the Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems including the Sequence of Events (SOE) system in the nuclear power plants gradually follow these general trends. This paper discusses the methods for calculating SOE events' occurrence time in each of the non-safety systems and the safety systems. This paper presents the structure of a fully digitalized SOE system in the I and C systems and takes the important design elements of the SOE systems into consideration, including the time resolution, time protocol, and the properties of the data communication networks in the non-safety systems and the safety systems. The feature of the SOE system is that the processing of the SOE events' occurrence time is distributed in their individual systems except for the safety systems processed in a gateway. The commercial data communication networks adopting TCP/IP are used in the non-safety systems and the safety systems use the deterministic data communication networks in order to produce their output within restricted time. Under the two different data communications networks, the methods for establishing the SOE events' occurrence time which are classified into a safety grade and a non-safety grade are applied here. The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used to synchronize the time keeping among the time servers and the clients in the non-safety systems. When the SOE events occur, the clients record the time information from their own local clocks. The safety systems are designed to precisely calculate the SOE events' occurrence time. The equation defined as a function of a transmission time, a transmission waiting time and an arrival time to a gateway is presented here. This paper analyzed the time errors of the SOE events in non-safety systems by using NTP through an experimental environment. In the case of the safety systems, the principle for the calculation of the SOE events' occurrence time is explained by an example. (authors)

  16. Nova-Scotia Power's Point Aconi plant overcomes CFB design problems to become rock of reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2006-09-15

    Point Aconi's circulating fluidized-bed boiler experienced erosion, corrosion, and fouling problems from the day it went on-line in 1993. After several frustrating years of unreliable operation, in late 1999, Nova Scotia Power discovered the right combination of engineering and fuel modifications. Today, after a switch to 80% petroleum coke and major boiler modifications, Point Aconi's output exceeds its original nameplate rating. For having the vision and fortitude to plan and execute a multi year, $20 million project to revitalize North America's first in-service utility CFB boiler, Nova Scotia Power's Point Aconi plant is the well-deserved winner of POWER magazine's 2006 Marmaduke Award for excellence in O & M. The award is named for Marmaduke Surfaceblow, the fictional marine engineer/plant troubleshooter par excellence. 10 figs. 1 tab.

  17. Functional Conceptual Design Criteria - 5-MW/sub e/ salt-gradient solar pond power plant at Great Salt Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.M.; Barnhart, J.S.; Cavola, R.G.; Drost, M.K.; Hauser, S.G.; Johnson, B.M.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of this solar pond plant facility would be to provide valid data on the cost, operation, and reliability of salt-gradient solar ponds as a means of producing power. A general facility description is given which includes design code requirements, site selection, site characteristics, and site-specific design requirements. Functional requirements discussed include: civil-structural; mechanical; electrical; and control, instrumentation and alarms. Occupational and environmental safety, security, and quality assurance are also discussed.

  18. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  19. A coordinated MIMO control design for a power plant using improved sliding mode controller.

    PubMed

    Ataei, Mohammad; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Samani, Siavash Golmohammadi

    2014-03-01

    For the participation of the steam power plants in regulating the network frequency, boilers and turbines should be co-ordinately controlled in addition to the base load productions. Lack of coordinated control over boiler-turbine may lead to instability; oscillation in producing power and boiler parameters; reduction in the reliability of the unit; and inflicting thermodynamic tension on devices. This paper proposes a boiler-turbine coordinated multivariable control system based on improved sliding mode controller (ISMC). The system controls two main boiler-turbine parameters i.e., the turbine revolution and superheated steam pressure of the boiler output. For this purpose, a comprehensive model of the system including complete and exact description of the subsystems is extracted. The parameters of this model are determined according to our case study that is the 320MW unit of Islam-Abad power plant in Isfahan/Iran. The ISMC method is simulated on the power plant and its performance is compared with the related real PI (proportional-integral) controllers which have been used in this unit. The simulation results show the capability of the proposed controller system in controlling local network frequency and superheated steam pressure in the presence of load variations and disturbances of boiler. PMID:24112644

  20. Bivalve fouling of nuclear power plant service-water systems. Volume 1. Correlation of bivalve biological characteristics and raw-water system design

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Johnson, K.I.; Page, T.L.; Young, J.S.; Daling, P.M.

    1984-12-01

    Fouling of raw-water systems in nuclear power plants in the US can affect the safe operation of a power plant. This report describes correlations between the biology of bivalve organisms and the design and operation of power plants that allow bivalves to enter and reside in nuclear power plants. Discussions are focused on safety-related raw-water systems subject to fouling by the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea), the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), and the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Score sheets to rate fouling potential of power plant systems and components are provided.

  1. Importance of the specific heat anomaly in the design of binary Rankine cycle power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, W.L.; Doyle, P.A.; Fulton, R.L.; Silvester, L.F.

    1980-05-01

    The transposed critical temperature (TPCT) is shown to be an extremely important thermodynamic property in the selection of working fluids and turbine states for geothermal power plants operating on a closed organic (binary) Rankine cycle. When the optimum working fluid composition and process states are determined for specified source and sink conditions, turbine inlet states consistently lie adjacent to the working fluids' TPCT line for all resource temperatures, constraints, and cost and efficiency factors investigated.

  2. Human factors design, verification, and validation for two types of control room upgrades at a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, Laurids Ronald

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of a new plant process computer (PPC) and turbine control system (TCS) at a representative nuclear power plant. This paper reviews ways to take a human-system interface (HSI) specification and use it when migrating legacy PPC displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then undergo an integrated system validation (ISV) in a full scope control room training simulator. Following the successful demonstration of operator performance with the systems during the ISV, the new system is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the main control room.

  3. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamics MHD Engineering Test Facility ETF 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report CDER. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The estimated plant capital cost for a coal fired 200 MWE electric generating plant with open cycle magnetohydrodynamics is divided into principal accounts based on Federal Energy Regulatory Commision account structure. Each principal account is defined and its estimated cost subdivided into identifiable and major equipment systems. The cost data sources for compiling the estimates, cost parameters, allotments, assumptions, and contingencies, are discussed. Uncertainties associated with developing the costs are quantified to show the confidence level acquired. Guidelines established in preparing the estimated costs are included. Based on an overall milestone schedule related to conventional power plant scheduling experience and starting procurement of MHD components during the preliminary design phase there is a 6 1/2-year construction period. The duration of the project from start to commercial operation is 79 months. The engineering phase of the project is 4 1/2 years; the construction duration following the start of the man power block is 37 months.

  5. Evolution of integrated panel structural design and interfaces for PV power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, J. C.; Anderson, A. J.; Robertson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of integrated photovoltaic (PV) panel design at ARCO Solar is discussed. Historically, framed PV modules of about 1 x 4-ft size were individually mounted in the field on fixed support structures and interconnected electrically with cables to build higher-power arrays. When ARCO Solar saw the opportunity in 1982 to marry its PV modules with state-of-the-art heliostat trackers developed by ARCO Power Systems, it became obvious that mounting individual modules was impractical. For this project, the framed modules were factory-assembled into panels and interconnected with cables before being mounted on the trackers. Since then, ARCO Solar made considerable progress and gained substantial experience in the design and fabrication of large PV panels. Constraints and criteria considered in these design activities included static and dynamic loads; assembly and transportation equipment and logistics, structural and electrical interfaces, and safety and grounding concerns.

  6. Design of heat and power recovery systems for energy conservation in chemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Colmenares Torrealba, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    The heat and power integration problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming (NLP) model using an optimality criterion as a design objective that includes the energy-capital trade-offs for the power cycles. The strategies utilize the Temperature Interval method and permit the efficient use of negative heat deficits to obtain lower cost designs. Also, a technique for the lumping of temperature intervals is developed, which often increases the efficiency of optimization without adversely affecting the solution. Initially, a NLP model is formulated for the integration of the heat engines and heat pumps with the process. The model permits an easy assessment of the alternatives for integration and the potential working fluids. Then, an algorithm is presented for the synthesis of cascade refrigeration systems, integrated with the process, with alternate working fluids, and optimized over a continuous range of operating temperatures. Finally, a nonlinear programming strategy is presented for the synthesis of utility systems that satisfy the heating and power demands of the process at 100 percent efficiency. The utility system is modeled as a cascade of heat engines that exchange heat with the process and among themselves. Mass exchange between the adjacent heat engines produces lower pressure designs and provides heat for the process over a broader range of temperatures for a given power demand. Through mass integration, it was discovered that simple Rankine cycles are adequate to generate the complex utility systems that characterize industrial practice. Process examples are presented to illustrate the utility of these models.

  7. Architecture and design of third Qinshan nuclear power plant risk monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Hu, L.

    2012-07-01

    Risk monitor is a real-time analysis tool to determine the point-in-time risk based on actual plant configuration, which is an important application of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment). In this study the status and development trend of risk monitor were investigated and a risk monitor named TQRM (Third Qinshan nuclear power plant Risk Monitor) was developed. The B/S architecture and the two key computing methods pre-solved and resolving PSA model method adopted in TQRM were introduced. The functions and technical features were also presented. Now TQRM has been on-line for more than one year and used in the operation and maintenance of TQNPP. The experience demonstrates that TQRM's results are accurate and real-time, the architecture is stable, and it could be extended and maintained conveniently for any other Risk-Informed Application. (authors)

  8. Life cycle assessment of a power tower concentrating solar plant and the impacts of key design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Michael B; Heath, Garvin A; Burkhardt, John J; Turchi, Craig S

    2013-06-01

    A hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate four sustainability metrics over the life cycle of a power tower concentrating solar power (CSP) facility: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). The reference design is for a dry-cooled, 106 MW(net) power tower facility located near Tucson, AZ that uses a mixture of mined nitrate salts as the heat transfer fluid and storage medium, a two-tank thermal energy storage system designed for six hours of full load-equivalent storage, and receives auxiliary power from the local electric grid. A thermocline-based storage system, synthetically derived salts, and natural gas auxiliary power are evaluated as design alternatives. Over its life cycle, the reference plant is estimated to have GHG emissions of 37 g CO2eq/kWh, consume 1.4 L/kWh of water and 0.49 MJ/kWh of energy, and have an EPBT of 15 months. Using synthetic salts is estimated to increase GHG emissions by 12%, CED by 7%, and water consumption by 4% compared to mined salts. Natural gas auxiliary power results in greater than 10% decreases in GHG emissions, water consumption, and CED. The thermocline design is most advantageous when coupled with the use of synthetic salts. PMID:23663111

  9. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  10. Design of a H{sub {infinity}}-optimal servo compensator for the frequency and voltage control of power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kiffmeier, U.; Unbehauen, H.

    1994-12-31

    This contribution investigates modern H{sub {infinity}} control concepts for frequency and voltage control of power plants. Based on a linearized model for a national grid H{sub {infinity}}-optimal servo compensators have been designed using a frequency domain approach recently published by the authors. As demonstrated in this paper, the multivariable H{sub {infinity}}-controller shows superior performance with respect to setting time and damping of oscillations compared to classical controllers of P/PID type.

  11. Neutronic design studies of a conceptual DCLL fusion reactor for a DEMO and a commercial power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, I.; Veredas, G.; Gómez-Ros, J. M.; Sanz, J.; Ibarra, A.

    2016-01-01

    Neutronic analyses or, more widely, nuclear analyses have been performed for the development of a dual-coolant He/LiPb (DCLL) conceptual design reactor. A detailed three-dimensional (3D) model has been examined and optimized. The design is based on the plasma parameters and functional materials of the power plant conceptual studies (PPCS) model C. The initial radial-build for the detailed model has been determined according to the dimensions established in a previous work on an equivalent simplified homogenized reactor model. For optimization purposes, the initial specifications established over the simplified model have been refined on the detailed 3D design, modifying material and dimension of breeding blanket, shield and vacuum vessel in order to fulfil the priority requirements of a fusion reactor in terms of the fundamental neutronic responses. Tritium breeding ratio, energy multiplication factor, radiation limits in the TF coils, helium production and displacements per atom (dpa) have been calculated in order to demonstrate the functionality and viability of the reactor design in guaranteeing tritium self-sufficiency, power efficiency, plasma confinement, and re-weldability and structural integrity of the components. The paper describes the neutronic design improvements of the DCLL reactor, obtaining results for both DEMO and power plant operational scenarios.

  12. Evaluation of a ducted-fan power plant designed for high output and good cruise fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behun, M; Rom, F E; Hensley, R V

    1950-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of performance of a ducted-fan power plant designed both for high-output, high-altitude operation at low supersonic Mach numbers and for good fuel economy at lower fight speeds is presented. Performance of ducted fan is compared with performance (with and without tail-pipe burner) of two hypothetical turbojet engines. At maximum power, the ducted fan has propulsive thrust per unit of frontal area between thrusts obtained by turbojet engines with and without tail-pipe burners. At cruise, the ducted fan obtains lowest thrust specific fuel consumption. For equal maximum thrusts, the ducted fan obtains cruising flight duration and range appreciably greater than turbojet engines.

  13. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed though a variety of dose reduction techniques. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction, quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  14. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This is a tabulation of the results of this magazines survey of current plans for new baseload power plants. The table lists the unit name, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, suppliers for steam generator, turbine generator and flue gas desulfurization equipment, date due on-line, and any non-utility participants. The table includes fossil-fuel plants, nuclear plants, geothermal, biomass and hydroelectric plants.

  15. An introduction to the design, commissioning and operation of nuclear air cleaning systems for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Xinliang Chen; Jiangang Qu; Minqi Shi

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the design evolution, system schemes and design and construction of main nuclear air cleaning components such as HEPA filter, charcoal adsorber and concrete housing etc. for Qinshan 300MW PWR Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP), the first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant in China. The field test results and in-service test results, since the air cleaning systems were put into operation 18 months ago, are presented and evaluated. These results demonstrate that the design and construction of the air cleaning systems and equipment manufacturing for QNPP are successful and the American codes and standards invoked in design, construction and testing of nuclear air cleaning systems for QNPP are applicable in China. The paper explains that the leakage rate of concrete air cleaning housings can also be assured if sealing measures are taken properly and embedded parts are designed carefully in the penetration areas of the housing and that the uniformity of the airflow distribution upstream the HEPA filters can be achieved generally no matter how inlet and outlet ducts of air cleaning unit are arranged.

  16. Optimization and preconceptual design of a 5 MWe salt-gradient solar pond power plant at Great Salt Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; Brown, L.M.; Barnhart, J.S.; Cavola, R.G.; Hauser, S.G.; Johnson, B.M.

    1983-05-01

    The techniques used to optimize and design a solar salt-gradient pond (SSP) power plant for installation at the Great Salt Lake are described. The method and results of the site selection study are described as well as the characteristics of the selected site. The figure of merit used as well as the characteristics of the selected site. The figure of merit used in the optimization study, the general optimization approach, and the specific optimization method used for each subsystem are described. Results are then discussed of the optimization of the pond configuration, total system, and piping. Pond design and ground rule sensitivity studies are reported. (LEW)

  17. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants. PMID:15676441

  18. Optimization procedure for design of heliostat field layout of a 1MWe solar tower thermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiudong; Lu, Zhenwu; Lin, Zi; Zhang, Hongxin; Ni, Zhengguo

    2008-03-01

    A procedure for designing and optimizing heliostat field layout of solar tower thermal power plant is developed. The ray tracing is used for the calculation of the optical efficiency of field. The mathematical theory of the calculation is derived. The parametric search algorithm, which allows variation of the field parameters within a specified range, is used for the optimization of field. The field layout is made automatically according to the no-blocking loss condition and the heliostats are located at the positions where the annual incident cosine value is higher. In this way, the blocking and cosine losses are lowered. Because the optimization of the distance between fore-and-aft two rows of heliostat is avoided, the computer time is reduced effectively. Using this procedure the heliostat field of a 1MWe solar tower power plant was designed. Four modes of layout including North-South cornfield, North-South stagger, Radial cornfield and Radial stagger were experimented and optimized respectively. The comparison of the field efficiency for the four optimized results was made. It is concluded that the North-South cornfield layout is the optimal decision for the 1MWe solar tower power plant.

  19. Nuclear power plant human computer interface design incorporating console simulation, operations personnel, and formal evaluation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, C.; Edwards, R.M.; Goldberg, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    New CRT-based information displays which enhance the human machine interface are playing a very important role and are being increasingly used in control rooms since they present a higher degree of flexibility compared to conventional hardwired instrumentation. To prototype a new console configuration and information display system at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), an iterative process of console simulation and evaluation involving operations personnel is being pursued. Entire panels including selector switches and information displays are simulated and driven by plant dynamical simulations with realistic responses that reproduce the actual cognitive and physical environment. Careful analysis and formal evaluation of operator interaction while using the simulated console will be conducted to determine underlying principles for effective control console design for this particular group of operation personnel. Additional iterations of design, simulation, and evaluation will then be conducted as necessary.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 2: Engineering. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Engineering design details for the principal systems, system operating modes, site facilities, and structures of an engineering test facility (ETF) of a 200 MWE power plant are presented. The ETF resembles a coal-fired steam power plant in many ways. It is analogous to a conventional plant which has had the coal combustor replaced with the MHD power train. Most of the ETF components are conventional. They can, however, be sized or configured differently or perform additional functions from those in a conventional coal power plant. The boiler not only generates steam, but also performs the functions of heating the MHD oxidant, recovering seed, and controlling emissions.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 2: Engineering. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Engineering design details for the principal systems, system operating modes, site facilities, and structures of an engineering test facility (ETF) of a 200 MWE power plant are presented. The ETF resembles a coal-fired steam power plant in many ways. It is analogous to a conventional plant which has had the coal combustor replaced with the MHD power train. Most of the ETF components are conventional. They can, however, be sized or configured differently or perform additional functions from those in a conventional coal power plant. The boiler not only generates steam, but also performs the functions of heating the MHD oxidant, recovering seed, and controlling emissions.

  2. ATOMIC POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1957-11-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactor power plants and discloses a design of a reactor utilizing a mixture of discrete units of a fissionable material, such as uranium carbide, a neutron moderator material, such as graphite, to carry out the chain reaction. A liquid metal, such as bismuth, is used as the coolant and is placed in the reactor chamber with the fissionable and moderator material so that it is boiled by the heat of the reaction, the boiling liquid and vapors passing up through the interstices between the discrete units. The vapor and flue gases coming off the top of the chamber are passed through heat exchangers, to produce steam, for example, and thence through condensers, the condensed coolant being returned to the chamber by gravity and the non- condensible gases being carried off through a stack at the top of the structure.

  3. Development of Digital Materials Database for Design and Construction of New Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju

    2008-01-01

    To facilitate materials selection, structural design, and future maintenance of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems, an interactive, internet accessible materials property database, dubbed Gen IV Materials Handbook, has been under development with the support of the United States Department of Energy. The Handbook will provide an authoritative source of information on structural materials needed for the development of various Gen IV nuclear reactor systems along with powerful data analysis and management tools. In this paper, the background, history, framework, major features, contents, and development strategy of the Gen IV Materials Handbook are discussed. Current development status and future plans are also elucidated.

  4. A supply chain network design model for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Md. S. Roni; Sandra D. Eksioglu; Erin Searcy; Krishna Jha

    2014-01-01

    We propose a framework for designing the supply chain network for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants. This framework is inspired by existing practices with products with similar physical characteristics to biomass. We present a hub-and-spoke supply chain network design model for long-haul delivery of biomass. This model is a mixed integer linear program solved using benders decomposition algorithm. Numerical analysis indicates that 100 million tons of biomass are located within 75 miles from a coal plant and could be delivered at $8.53/dry-ton; 60 million tons of biomass are located beyond 75 miles and could be delivered at $36/dry-ton.

  5. Martin Drake power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmoller, B.K.

    2005-08-01

    The relatively old Martin Drake coal-fired plant at Colorado Springs is facing challenges to meet environmental requirements whilst satisfying power demands and remaining competition. The article describes measures taken and planned to tackle these challenges. 2 photos.

  6. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mouradian, E. M.

    1983-12-31

    Thermal analyses for the preliminary design phase of the Receiver of the Carrizo Plains Solar Power Plant are presented. The sodium reference operating conditions (T/sub in/ = 610/sup 0/F, T/sub out/ = 1050/sup 0/F) have been considered. Included are: Nominal flux distribution on receiver panal, Energy input to tubes, Axial temperature distribution; sodium and tubes, Sodium flow distribution, Sodium pressure drop, orifice calculations, Temperature distribution in tube cut (R-0), Backface structure, and Nonuniform sodium outlet temperature. Transient conditions and panel front face heat losses are not considered. These are to be addressed in a subsequent design phase. Also to be considered later are the design conditions as variations from the nominal reference (operating) condition. An addendum, designated Appendix C, has been included describing panel heat losses, panel temperature distribution, and tube-manifold joint thermal model.

  7. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Savy, J.B.; Foxall, W.

    2000-01-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  9. Life cycle assessment of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant and the impacts of key design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, John J; Heath, Garvin A; Turchi, Craig S

    2011-03-15

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, CA, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrates salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its LC, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g of CO(2eq) per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJ(eq)/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce LC water consumption by 77% but increase LC GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase LC GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces LC GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption. PMID:21391722

  10. Transfer of infrared thermography predictive maintenance technologies to Soviet-designed nuclear power plants: experience at Chernobyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, Ray; Huff, Roy

    1999-03-01

    The importance of infrared (IR) technology and analysis in today's world of predictive maintenance and reliability- centered maintenance cannot be understated. The use of infrared is especially important in facilities that are required to maintain a high degree of equipment reliability because of plant or public safety concerns. As with all maintenance tools, particularly those used in predictive maintenance approaches, training plays a key role in their effectiveness and the benefit gained from their use. This paper details an effort to transfer IR technology to Soviet- designed nuclear power plants in Russia, Ukraine, and Lithuania. Delivery of this technology and post-delivery training activities have been completed recently at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. Many interesting challenges were encountered during this effort. Hardware procurement and delivery of IR technology to a sensitive country were complicated by United States regulations. Freight and shipping infrastructure and host-country customs policies complicated hardware transport. Training activities were complicated by special hardware, software and training material translation needs, limited communication opportunities, and site logistical concerns. These challenges and others encountered while supplying the Chornobyl plant with state-of-the-art IR technology are described in this paper.

  11. Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipippo, R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvado, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included.

  12. Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included. (MHR)

  13. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  14. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  15. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  16. Optimal control system design of an acid gas removal unit for an IGCC power plants with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture should be operated optimally in the face of disturbances without violating operational and environmental constraints. To achieve this goal, a systematic approach is taken in this work to design the control system of a selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for a commercial-scale integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The control system design is performed in two stages with the objective of minimizing the auxiliary power while satisfying operational and environmental constraints in the presence of measured and unmeasured disturbances. In the first stage of the control system design, a top-down analysis is used to analyze degrees of freedom, define an operational objective, identify important disturbances and operational/environmental constraints, and select the control variables. With the degrees of freedom, the process is optimized with relation to the operational objective at nominal operation as well as under the disturbances identified. Operational and environmental constraints active at all operations are chosen as control variables. From the results of the optimization studies, self-optimizing control variables are identified for further examination. Several methods are explored in this work for the selection of these self-optimizing control variables. Modifications made to the existing methods will be discussed in this presentation. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for control variables and due to the complexity of the underlying optimization problem, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. The second stage is a bottom-up design of the control layers used for the operation of the process. First, the regulatory control layer is

  17. Class 1E dc power subsystem design description: 4 x 350 MW(t) Modular HTGR [High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor] Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    The Class 1E DC Power System of the Electrical Group provides reliable and regulated 125 V dc electric power to the plant safety-related dc loads connected to the Four redundant and independent 125 V dc Class 1E buses to ensure plant safe shutdown or mitigate the effects of a design basis event. These four dc buses comprise the plant four Class 1E dc control and instrument channels (A, B, C and D).

  18. Fuel Cell Power Plant Initiative. Volume 2; Preliminary Design of a Fixed-Base LFP/SOFC Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veyo, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the preliminary design for a military fixed-base power system of 3 MWe nominal capacity using Westinghouse's tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell [SOFC] and Haldor Topsoe's logistic fuels processor [LFP]. The LFP provides to the fuel cell a methane rich sulfur free fuel stream derived from either DF-2 diesel fuel, or JP-8 turbine fuel. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that directly convert the chemical energy contained in fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, or coal gas into electricity at high efficiency with no intermediate heat engine or dynamo. The SOFC is distinguished from other fuel cell types by its solid state ceramic structure and its high operating temperature, nominally 1000'C. The SOFC pioneered by Westinghouse has a tubular geometry closed at one end. A power generation stack is formed by aggregating many cells in an ordered array. The Westinghouse stack design is distinguished from other fuel cell stacks by the complete absence of high integrity seals between cell elements, cells, and between stack and manifolds. Further, the reformer for natural gas [predominantly methane] and the stack are thermally and hydraulically integrated with no requirement for process water. The technical viability of combining the tubular SOFC and a logistic fuels processor was demonstrated at 27 kWe scale in a test program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency [ARPA) and carried out at the Southern California Edison's [SCE] Highgrove generating station near San Bernardino, California in 1994/95. The LFP was a breadboard design supplied by Haldor Topsoe, Inc. under subcontract to Westinghouse. The test program was completely successful. The LFP fueled the SOFC for 766 hours on JP-8 and 1555 hours of DF-2. In addition, the fuel cell operated for 3261 hours on pipeline natural gas. Over the 5582 hours of operation, the SOFC generated 118 MVVH of electricity with no perceptible degradation in performance. The LFP processed military

  19. Conceptual design of a lunar base solar power plant. Lunar base systems study task 3. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    The best available concepts for a 100 kW Solar Lunar Power Plant based on static and dynamic conversion concepts have been examined. The two concepts which emerged for direct comparison yielded a difference in delivered mass of 35 MT, the mass equivalent of 1.4 lander payloads, in favor of the static concept. The technologies considered for the various elements are either state-of-the-art or near-term. Two photovoltaic cell concepts should receive high priority for development: i.e., amorphous silicon and indium phosphide cells. The amorphous silicon, because it can be made so light weight and rugged; and the indium phosphide, because it shows very high efficiency potential and is reportedly not degraded by radiation. Also the amorphous silicon cells may be mounted on flexible backing that may roll up much like a carpet for compact storage, delivery, and ease of deployment at the base. The fuel cell and electrolysis cell technology is quite well along for lunar base applications, and because both the Shuttle and the forthcoming Space Station incorporate these devices, the status quo will be maintained. Early development of emerging improvements should be implemented so that essential life verification test programs may commence.

  20. The assessment of future extremes of air temperature to design EPR type power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, S.; Hoang, T. T. H.; Dacunha-Castelle, D.

    2010-09-01

    EDF projects the construction of new EPR type nuclear power plants in Europe. These installations are likely to run until the second half of the century, and thus, it is necessary to think their dimensioning in taking current knowledge of climate change impact into account. This paper will present the study dedicated to the estimation of future extremes of air temperature by using the statistical extreme value theory. The adopted methodology consists firstly in comparing current climate temperature extremes between local observations and models at the nearest grid point. Then, if the extremes of both series are comparable, future extremes are derived from the modelled series for a future period. In parallel, the link between the evolution of the mean, variance and extremes is studied in the observation series. If a strong link is identified, future extremes are derived from the stationary extremes of the centred and normalised series and the changes in mean and variance given by climate models for the desired future period. The approach will be illustrated with an example of such an evaluation for an EPR project in the United Kingdom.

  1. Problems in Assessment of Wind Energy Potential and Acoustic Noise Distribution when Designing Wind Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukovs, Valerijs; Bezrukovs, Vladislavs; Levins, Nikolajs

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the use of renewable energy in Latvia is increasing every year. Government support and availability of large unpopulated areas on the coast makes the use of these lands for the placement of large wind power plants (WPP) attractive. The key factors that determine the choice of the location of WPP are reliable information about distribution of the resource of wind energy in this area and the influence of wind turbines on the environment. The paper presents the results of years-long observations on the density fluctuations of wind energy at heights of 10 to 60 m in the area in the Baltic Sea coast in Ventspils and Ainaži. The velocity observations since 2007 have been gathered by measurements complex of the LOGGER 9200 Symphonie type. The results are presented in the form of tables, bar charts and graphs. Extrapolation results of wind velocity and density mean values on heights up to 150 m for the two areas with different terrain types were shown. The distribution of acoustic noise in the vicinity of the WPP was studied and an assessment of its impact on the environment in accordance with the Latvian government requirements was conducted.

  2. Designing, installing and operating low NOx combustion systems in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzeri, L.; Santis, R. de

    1997-09-01

    Ansaldo Energia, in strict cooperation with the Italian Electricity Board (ENEL), has developed and implemented innovative technologies for in furnace NOx control which have been applied, both in italy and abroad, on over 20,000 MWe boilers of every kind (Tangentially Fired, Front Fired, Opposite Fired) and for different fuels like oil, gas, coal and ORIMULSION{reg_sign}. Taking advantage of innovative low NOx burners and of optimized air and fuel staging techniques NOx reductions up to 85% have been obtained with no significant impact on boiler efficiency. The paper describes: characteristics and industrial application of TEA{reg_sign} oil/gas LNB which is now capable of attaining NOx reductions up to 60% in respect to original circular burners; development and industrial applications of the TEA C{reg_sign} (oil/coal) LNB, capable of attaining NOx reductions up to 50% with contemporary control of unburned carbon levels (typical values less than 300 ppm NOx corrected to 6% O{sub 2} and less than 7% UBC); application of reburning oil over oil and gas over oil for both tangential and front-opposite fired boilers rated up 660 MWe; and information on the CEE THERMIE projects of gas over coal reburning in a 600 MWe Scottish Power boiler and oil over coal and coal over coal reburning in the ENEL plant of Vado Ligure unit 4, rated 320 MWe.

  3. Survey of Field Programmable Gate Array Design Guides and Experience Relevant to Nuclear Power Plant Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrek, Miljko; Bouldin, Don; Holcomb, David Eugene; Killough, Stephen M; Smith, Stephen Fulton; Ward, Christina D

    2007-09-01

    From a safety perspective, it is difficult to assess the correctness of FPGA devices without extensive documentation, tools, and review procedures. NUREG/CR-6463, "Review Guidelines on Software Languages for Use in Nuclear Power Plant Safety Systems," provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on auditing of programs for safety systems written in ten high-level languages. A uniform framework for the formulation and discussion of language-specific programming guidelines was employed. Comparable guidelines based on a similar framework are needed for FPGA-based systems. The first task involves evaluation of regulatory experience gained by other countries and other agencies, and those captured in existing standards, to identify regulatory approaches that can be adopted by NRC. If existing regulations do not provide a sufficient regulatory basis for adopting relevant regulatory approaches that are uncovered, ORNL will identify the gaps. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented.

  4. Basic Research and Development Effort to Design a Micro Nuclear Power Plant for Brazilian Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimares, L. N. F.; Camillo, G. P.; Placco, G. M.; Barrios, G., A., Jr.; Do Nascimento, J. A.; Borges, E. M.; De Castro Lobo, P. D.

    For some years the Nuclear Energy Division of the Institute for Advanced Studies is conducting the TERRA (Portuguese abbreviation for advanced fast reactor technology) project. This project aims at research and development of the key issues related with nuclear energy applied to space technology. The purpose of this development is to allow future Brazilian space explorers the access of a good and reliable heat, power and/or propulsion system based on nuclear energy. Efforts are being made in fuel and nuclear core design, designing and building a closed Brayton cycle loop for energy conversion, heat pipe systems research for passive space heat rejection, developing computational programs for thermal loop safety analysis and other technology that may be used to improve efficiency and operation. Currently there is no specific mission that requires these technology development efforts; therefore, there is a certain degree of freedom in the organization and development efforts. This paper will present what has been achieved so far, what is the current development status, where efforts are heading and a proposed time table to meet development objectives.

  5. Methodology for the optimal design of an integrated first and second generation ethanol production plant combined with power cogeneration.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Rami; Gomez, Adrien; Saint-Antonin, Valérie; Schweitzer, Jean-Marc; Maréchal, François

    2016-08-01

    The application of methodologies for the optimal design of integrated processes has seen increased interest in literature. This article builds on previous works and applies a systematic methodology to an integrated first and second generation ethanol production plant with power cogeneration. The methodology breaks into process simulation, heat integration, thermo-economic evaluation, exergy efficiency vs. capital costs, multi-variable, evolutionary optimization, and process selection via profitability maximization. Optimization generated Pareto solutions with exergy efficiency ranging between 39.2% and 44.4% and capital costs from 210M$ to 390M$. The Net Present Value was positive for only two scenarios and for low efficiency, low hydrolysis points. The minimum cellulosic ethanol selling price was sought to obtain a maximum NPV of zero for high efficiency, high hydrolysis alternatives. The obtained optimal configuration presented maximum exergy efficiency, hydrolyzed bagasse fraction, capital costs and ethanol production rate, and minimum cooling water consumption and power production rate. PMID:27160954

  6. Amedee geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1988-12-01

    In September 1988, the power plant began generating electricity in Northern California, near Honey Lake. The plant generates 2 megawatts, net, of electricity in the winter, and from 20 to 30% less in the summer, depending on the temperature. Geothermal fluids from two wells are used to operate the plant, and surface discharge is used to dispose of the spent fluids. This is possible because the geothermal fluids have a very low salinity and a composition the same as area hot spring waters. The binary power plant has a Standard Offer No. 4 contract for 5 megawatts with pacific Gas and Electric Company. Sometime in the near future, they will expand the project to add another 3 megawatts of electrical generation.

  7. FPGA Design Practices for I&C in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrek, Miljko; Wood, Richard Thomas; Bouldin, Donald; Waterman, Michael E

    2009-01-01

    Safe FPGA design practices can be classified into three major groups covering board-level and FPGA logic-level design practices, FPGA design entry methods, and FPGA design methodology. This paper is presenting the most common hardware and software design practices that are acceptable in safety-critical FPGA systems. It also proposes an FPGA-specific design life cycle including design entry, FPGA synthesis, place and route, and validation and verification.

  8. Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The United States Supreme Court, with PG&E and Silkwood, and in the eight years since, has expanded the acceptable extent of state regulation of commercial nuclear power plants. In PG&E, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation that purports to be concerned with the non-radiological aspects of nuclear plant operations but that, as a practical matter, is concerned with their radiological hazards. In Silkwood, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation of radiological hazards when its impact on federal regulation of radiological hazards is indirect and incidental. Finally, in Goodyear and English, the Court confirmed and elaborated on such state regulation. Subject to political demands either for additional involvement in commercial nuclear power plant regulation or from political interests opposed altogether to nuclear power, some states, in the 1980s, sought to expand even further the involvement of state and local governments in nuclear plant regulation. Indeed, some states sought and in some instances acquired, through innovative and extraordinary means, a degree of involvement in the regulation of radiological hazards that seriously erodes and undermines the role of the federal government in such regulation. In particular, the State of New York concluded with the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO), in February 1989, an agreement for the purchase of New York of the Shoreham nuclear power plant on Long Island. A response to failed efforts by New York to prevent the issuance by the NRC of a license to LILCO to operate the plant, the agreement was concluded to allow New York to close the plant either altogether or to convert it to a fossil fuel facility. The opposition to the sale of Shoreham is discussed.

  9. System Design of a Natural Gas PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Ferrall, Tim Rehg, Vesna Stanic

    2000-09-30

    The following conclusions are made based on this analysis effort: (1) High-temperature PEM data are not available; (2) Stack development effort for Phase II is required; (3) System results are by definition preliminary, mostly due to the immaturity of the high-temperature stack; other components of the system are relatively well defined; (4) The Grotthuss conduction mechanism yields the preferred system characteristics; the Grotthuss conduction mechanism is also much less technically mature than the vehicle mechanism; (5) Fuel processor technology is available today and can be procured for Phase II (steam or ATR); (6) The immaturity of high-temperature membrane technology requires that a robust system design be developed in Phase II that is capable of operating over a wide temperature and pressure range - (a) Unpressurized or Pressurized PEM (Grotthuss mechanism) at 140 C, Highest temperature most favorable, Lowest water requirement most favorable, Pressurized recommended for base loaded operation, Unpressurized may be preferred for load following; (b) Pressurized PEM (vehicle mechanism) at about 100 C, Pressure required for saturation, Fuel cell technology currently available, stack development required. The system analysis and screening evaluation resulted in the identification of the following components for the most promising system: (1) Steam reforming fuel processor; (2) Grotthuss mechanism fuel cell stack operating at 140 C; (3) Means to deliver system waste heat to a cogeneration unit; (4) Pressurized system utilizing a turbocompressor for a base-load power application. If duty cycling is anticipated, the benefits of compression may be offset due to complexity of control. In this case (and even in the base loaded case), the turbocompressor can be replaced with a blower for low-pressure operation.

  10. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  11. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  12. Competitiveness of small power plants using ambient pressure, air-blown gasifiers. Final report. [Seven 50 MW designs using fuel gas, fuel oil, natural gas and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boulay, R.B.; Chen, H.T.; Harvey, L.E.; Losovsky, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Small power plants have become more attractive to utilities recently for a variety of reasons, including the desire to minimize new plant investment and to tailor increases in generation base to smaller annual load growths. The study presented herein is an analysis and comparison of seven different 50 MW commercially available power plants designs, including four utilizing ambient pressure, air-blown, fixed-bed coal gasifiers for fuel supply. Plant designs, capital costs, and busbar electricity costs for each plant are presented. The results of the study indicate that nominal 50 MW coal gasification based power plants, when using commercially available, ambient pressure, air-blown, fixed-bed gasifiers, are not competitive with conventional coal-fired steam plants or combined cycle plants fueled with fuel oil or natural gas. Capital costs, heat rates, and operating costs are higher for the coal gasification based plants. This leads to costs-of-electricity for gasification based plants that range from 18 to 59% higher than costs of electricity produced in conventional plants. The two major influences leading to high costs of the gasification based plants are the small size of a gasification train (about 5 MW) and the need to compress the ambient pressure gas to required combustion pressure. 47 figs., 89 tabs.

  13. Helium heater design for the helium direct cycle component test facility. [for gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, V. R.; Gunn, S. V.; Lee, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes a helium heater to be used to conduct non-nuclear demonstration tests of the complete power conversion loop for a direct-cycle gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant. Requirements for the heater include: heating the helium to a 1500 F temperature, operating at a 1000 psia helium pressure, providing a thermal response capability and helium volume similar to that of the nuclear reactor, and a total heater system helium pressure drop of not more than 15 psi. The unique compact heater system design proposed consists of 18 heater modules; air preheaters, compressors, and compressor drive systems; an integral control system; piping; and auxiliary equipment. The heater modules incorporate the dual-concentric-tube 'Variflux' heat exchanger design which provides a controlled heat flux along the entire length of the tube element. The heater design as proposed will meet all system requirements. The heater uses pressurized combustion (50 psia) to provide intensive heat transfer, and to minimize furnace volume and heat storage mass.

  14. DIFFUSION IN THE VICINITY OF STANDARD-DESIGN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS--II: WIND-TUNNEL EVALUATION OF BUILDING-WAKE CHARACTERISTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to simulate radiopollutant effluents released to the atmosphere from two standard-design nuclear power plants. The main objective of the study was to compare the dispersion in the wakes of the plants with that in a simulated atmospheric bound...

  15. Design and cost of near-term OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plants for the production of desalinated water and electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C. B.; Genens, L.

    There currently is an increasing need for both potable water and power for many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology fills these needs and is a viable option because of the unlimited supply of ocean thermal energy for the production of both desalinated water and electricity. The OTEC plant design must be flexible to meet the product-mix demands that can be very different from site to site. Different OTEC plants are described that can supply various mixes of desalinated water and vapor; the extremes being either all water and no power or no water and all power. The economics for these plants are also presented. The same flow rates and pipe sizes for both the warm and cold seawater streams are used for different plant designs. The OTEC plant designs are characterized as near-term because no major technical issues need to be resolved or demonstrated. The plant concepts are based on DOE-sponsored experiments dealing with power systems, advanced heat exchanger designs, corrosion and fouling of heat exchange surfaces, and flash evaporation and moisture removal from the vapor using multiple spouts. In addition, the mature multistage flash evaporator technology is incorporated into the plant designs where appropriate. For the supply and discharge warm and cold uncertainties do exist because the required pipe sizes are larger than the maximum currently deployed; 40 inch high density polyethylene pipe at Keahole Point in Hawaii.

  16. Design and cost of near-term OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plants for the production of desalinated water and electric power. [Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C.; Genens, L.

    1990-01-01

    There currently is an increasing need for both potable water and power for many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology fills these needs and is a viable option because of the unlimited supply of ocean thermal energy for the production of both desalinated water and electricity. The OTEC plant design must be flexible to meet the product-mix demands that can be very different from site to site. This paper describes different OTEC plants that can supply various mixes of desalinated water and vapor -- the extremes being either all water and no power or no water and all power. The economics for these plants are also presented. The same flow rates and pipe sizes for both the warm and cold seawater streams are used for different plant designs. The OTEC plant designs are characterized as near-term because no major technical issues need to be resolved or demonstrated. The plant concepts are based on DOE-sponsored experiments dealing with power systems, advanced heat exchanger designs, corrosion and fouling of heat exchange surfaces, and flash evaporation and moisture removal from the vapor using multiple spouts. In addition, the mature multistage flash evaporator technology is incorporated into the plant designs were appropriate. For the supply and discharge warm and cold uncertainties do exist because the required pipe sizes are larger than the maximum currently deployed -- 40-inch high-density polyethylene pipe at Keahole Point in Hawaii. 30 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Applying Human-performance Models to Designing and Evaluating Nuclear Power Plants: Review Guidance and Technical Basis

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.

    2009-11-30

    Human performance models (HPMs) are simulations of human behavior with which we can predict human performance. Designers use them to support their human factors engineering (HFE) programs for a wide range of complex systems, including commercial nuclear power plants. Applicants to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) can use HPMs for design certifications, operating licenses, and license amendments. In the context of nuclear-plant safety, it is important to assure that HPMs are verified and validated, and their usage is consistent with their intended purpose. Using HPMs improperly may generate misleading or incorrect information, entailing safety concerns. The objective of this research was to develop guidance to support the NRC staff's reviews of an applicant's use of HPMs in an HFE program. The guidance is divided into three topical areas: (1) HPM Verification, (2) HPM Validation, and (3) User Interface Verification. Following this guidance will help ensure the benefits of HPMs are achieved in a technically sound, defensible manner. During the course of developing this guidance, I identified several issues that could not be addressed; they also are discussed.

  18. State power plant productivity programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The findings of a working group formed to review the status of efforts by utilities and utility regulators to increase the availability and reliability of generating units are presented. Representatives from nine state regulatory agencies, NRRI, and DOE, participated on the Working Group. The Federal government has been working cooperatively with utilities, utility organizations, and with regulators to encourage and facilitate improvements in power plant productivity. Cooperative projects undertaken with regulatory and energy commissions in California, Illinois, New York, Ohio, Texas, North Carolina and Mighigan are described. Following initiation of these cooperative projects, DOE funded a survey to determine which states were explicitly addressing power plant productivity through the regulatory process. The Working Group was formed following completion of this survey. The Working Group emphasized the need for those power plant productivity improvements which are cost effective. The cost effectiveness of proposed availability improvement projects should be determined within the context of opportunities for operating and capital improvements available to an entire utility. The Working Group also identified the need for: allowing for plant designs that have a higher construction cost, but are also more reliable; allowing for recovery and reducing recovery lags for productivity-related capital expenditures; identifying and reducing disincentives in the regulatory process; ascertaining that utilities have sufficient money available to undertake timely maintenance; and support of EPRI and NERC to develop a relevant and accurate national data base. The DOE views these as extremely important aspects of any regulatory program to improve power plant productivity.

  19. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  20. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  1. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiNunzio, Camillo A.; Gupta, Abhinav; Golay, Michael; Luk, Vincent; Turk, Rich; Morrow, Charles; Jin, Geum-Taek

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  2. Design and operation of a geopressured-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.G.; Hattar, M.M.

    1991-02-01

    The following appendices are included: process flow diagram, piping and instrumentation diagram, new equipment specifications, main single line diagram, shutdown and start-up procedures, data sheets for tests, plant outages, detailed process equations, computer program and sample output, chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy results, and management report data sheets for January 5, 1990 to May 29, 1990. (MHR)

  3. Exploratory design study on reactor configurations for carbon dioxide capture from conventional power plants employing regenerable solid sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W.C.; Hoffman, J.

    2009-01-15

    Preliminary commercial designs were carried out for a fluidized bed as a CO{sub 2} adsorber and a moving bed as a CO{sub 2} regenerator. Reverse engineering methodology was employed on the basis of a commercial 500 MW supercritical PC power plant whereby the boundaries required for a particular reactor design and configuration could be set. Employing the proposed moving bed for regenerator is, however, not promising because of poor heat transfer, evolution of CO{sub 2} during regeneration, and high pressure drop when small particles are used. If regeneration kinetics is as slow as reported in tens of minutes, the bed height can be quite high and the reactor can be quite costly. In its place, a so-called assisted self-fluidization bed with embedded heat transfer surface was proposed. Theoretically, there is no reason why the fluidized bed cannot be successfully designed and operated both as an adsorber and a regenerator under proper adsorption and regeneration kinetics. Recent publications, where fluidized beds, circulating fluidized beds, or a combination of them were employed both as an adsorber and a regenerator, were cited. Staging may not be necessary employing the fluidized bed technology because of the capability to control reaction temperature at the optimum operating temperature through embedded heat transfer surface in the fluidized beds. Even if the staging is necessary, the implementation of staging in fluidized beds at ambient pressure and moderate temperature is relatively easy and with minimum cost penalty. Example designs are presented.

  4. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 8: Open-cycle MHD. [energy conversion efficiency and design analysis of electric power plants employing magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q.

    1976-01-01

    Electric power plant costs and efficiencies are presented for three basic open-cycle MHD systems: (1) direct coal fired system, (2) a system with a separately fired air heater, and (3) a system burning low-Btu gas from an integrated gasifier. Power plant designs were developed corresponding to the basic cases with variation of major parameters for which major system components were sized and costed. Flow diagrams describing each design are presented. A discussion of the limitations of each design is made within the framework of the assumptions made.

  5. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-27

    The subMW hybrid DFC/T power plant facility was upgraded with a Capstone C60 microturbine and a state-of-the-art full size fuel cell stack. The integration of the larger microturbine extended the capability of the hybrid power plant to operate at high power ratings with a single gas turbine without the need for supplementary air. The objectives of this phase of subMW hybrid power plant tests are to support the development of process and control and to provide the insight for the design of the packaged subMW hybrid demonstration units. The development of the ultra high efficiency multi-MW power plants was focused on the design of 40 MW power plants with efficiencies approaching 75% (LHV of natural gas). The design efforts included thermodynamic cycle analysis of key gas turbine parameters such as compression ratio.

  6. Assessment of scaling criteria adopted in designing nuclear power plants experimental simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Auria, F.; Galassi, G. M.; Moschetti, L.

    1985-02-01

    The choice of the scaling laws and particularly the extrapolation of data measured in experimental facilities for application to real plants remains an important unresolved issue in Nuclear Reactor Safety. One of such experimental facilities, named PIPER-ONE, is in construction at "Dipartimento di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari" of Pisa University with the aim of simulating Small Break LOCAs in BWRs. This paper presents an in depth analysis of scaling principles adopted in similar apparatuses in the world. Besides it deals with the problem of the extrapolation of experimental data to real systems; in order to achieve this, a comparative analysis is carried out with reference to calculated or measured transients arising or assumed in ROSA-III, FIX-II, PIPER-ONE and BWR plants.

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1962-12-25

    This patent relates to a nuclear reactor power plant incorporating an air-cooled, beryllium oxide-moderated, pebble bed reactor. According to the invention means are provided for circulating a flow of air through tubes in the reactor to a turbine and for directing a sidestream of the circu1ating air through the pebble bed to remove fission products therefrom as well as assist in cooling the reactor. (AEC)

  8. Power plant emissions reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  9. Target Designs for an Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Driven by Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, D A; Tabak, M

    2001-08-23

    We present two indirect drive inertial fusion targets driven by heavy ions beams for fusion energy production. Because there are uncertainties in the ion beam focal spot size and uncertainties in the accelerator cost, we have tried to design targets that cover a large parameter space. One of the designs requires small ion beam focal spots but produces more than adequate gain at low driver energy (gain 130 from 3.3 MJ of beam energy). The other design allows a large beam spot, but requires more driver energy (gain 55 from 6.7 MJ of beam energy). Target physics issues as well as the implications for the accelerator from each design are discussed.

  10. Design and optimization of organic rankine cycle for low temperature geothermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barse, Kirtipal A.

    Rising oil prices and environmental concerns have increased attention to renewable energy. Geothermal energy is a very attractive source of renewable energy. Although low temperature resources (90°C to 150°C) are the most common and most abundant source of geothermal energy, they were not considered economical and technologically feasible for commercial power generation. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology makes it feasible to use low temperature resources to generate power by using low boiling temperature organic liquids. The first hypothesis for this research is that using ORC is technologically and economically feasible to generate electricity from low temperature geothermal resources. The second hypothesis for this research is redesigning the ORC system for the given resource condition will improve efficiency along with improving economics. ORC model was developed using process simulator and validated with the data obtained from Chena Hot Springs, Alaska. A correlation was observed between the critical temperature of the working fluid and the efficiency for the cycle. Exergy analysis of the cycle revealed that the highest exergy destruction occurs in evaporator followed by condenser, turbine and working fluid pump for the base case scenarios. Performance of ORC was studied using twelve working fluids in base, Internal Heat Exchanger and turbine bleeding constrained and non-constrained configurations. R601a, R245ca, R600 showed highest first and second law efficiency in the non-constrained IHX configuration. The highest net power was observed for R245ca, R601a and R601 working fluids in the non-constrained base configuration. Combined heat exchanger area and size parameter of the turbine showed an increasing trend as the critical temperature of the working fluid decreased. The lowest levelized cost of electricity was observed for R245ca followed by R601a, R236ea in non-constrained base configuration. The next best candidates in terms of LCOE were R601a, R

  11. Flow Accelerated Erosion-Corrosion (FAC) considerations for secondary side piping in the AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderhoff, J. F.; Rao, G. V.; Stein, A.

    2012-07-01

    The issue of Flow Accelerated Erosion-Corrosion (FAC) in power plant piping is a known phenomenon that has resulted in material replacements and plant accidents in operating power plants. Therefore, it is important for FAC resistance to be considered in the design of new nuclear power plants. This paper describes the design considerations related to FAC that were used to develop a safe and robust AP1000{sup R} plant secondary side piping design. The primary FAC influencing factors include: - Fluid Temperature - Pipe Geometry/layout - Fluid Chemistry - Fluid Velocity - Pipe Material Composition - Moisture Content (in steam lines) Due to the unknowns related to the relative impact of the influencing factors and the complexities of the interactions between these factors, it is difficult to accurately predict the expected wear rate in a given piping segment in a new plant. This paper provides: - a description of FAC and the factors that influence the FAC degradation rate, - an assessment of the level of FAC resistance of AP1000{sup R} secondary side system piping, - an explanation of options to increase FAC resistance and associated benefits/cost, - discussion of development of a tool for predicting FAC degradation rate in new nuclear power plants. (authors)

  12. Designing a magnetoacoustic emission measurement configuration for measurement of creep damage in power plant boiler tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustyniak, B.; Chmielewski, M.; Piotrowski, L.; Sablik, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    We discuss design features that are needed for magnetoacoustic emission (MAE) measurement of creep damage in the outer walls of boiler tubes. MAE is used because it decreases monotonically with increasing creep damage. Features of magnet design for boiler tube inspection are presented. Relationship of total MAE to Barkhausen noise path integrals is discussed. Also, dependence of MAE on frequency and tube wall thickness is delineated. Finally, measurements are discussed which show how azimuthal asymmetry in creep damage is echoed in azimuthal asymmetry in MAE. All tests were performed on 2Cr-1Mo Polish steel tube specimens.

  13. Methodology for Scaling Fusion Power Plant Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Lester M. Waganer

    2011-01-04

    Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, "Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the "teething" problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated "mature" subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 50 - General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... include the principal design criteria for a proposed facility. Under the provisions of 10 CFR 52.47, 52.79... Closed Systems Isolation Valves 57 VI. Fuel and Radioactivity Control: Control of Releases of Radioactive... function shall be to transfer fission product decay heat and other residual heat from the reactor core at...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 50 - General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... include the principal design criteria for a proposed facility. Under the provisions of 10 CFR 52.47, 52.79... Closed Systems Isolation Valves 57 VI. Fuel and Radioactivity Control: Control of Releases of Radioactive... function shall be to transfer fission product decay heat and other residual heat from the reactor core at...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 50 - General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... include the principal design criteria for a proposed facility. Under the provisions of 10 CFR 52.47, 52.79... Closed Systems Isolation Valves 57 VI. Fuel and Radioactivity Control: Control of Releases of Radioactive... function shall be to transfer fission product decay heat and other residual heat from the reactor core at...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 50 - General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... include the principal design criteria for a proposed facility. Under the provisions of 10 CFR 52.47, 52.79... Closed Systems Isolation Valves 57 VI. Fuel and Radioactivity Control: Control of Releases of Radioactive... function shall be to transfer fission product decay heat and other residual heat from the reactor core at...

  18. System and method for design and optimization of grid connected photovoltaic power plant with multiple photovoltaic module technologies

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Bex George; Elasser, Ahmed; Bollapragada, Srinivas; Galbraith, Anthony William; Agamy, Mohammed; Garifullin, Maxim Valeryevich

    2016-03-29

    A system and method of using one or more DC-DC/DC-AC converters and/or alternative devices allows strings of multiple module technologies to coexist within the same PV power plant. A computing (optimization) framework estimates the percentage allocation of PV power plant capacity to selected PV module technologies. The framework and its supporting components considers irradiation, temperature, spectral profiles, cost and other practical constraints to achieve the lowest levelized cost of electricity, maximum output and minimum system cost. The system and method can function using any device enabling distributed maximum power point tracking at the module, string or combiner level.

  19. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1: CDRL Item 2, pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VII. Pilot plant cost and commercial plant cost and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1980-05-01

    Detailed cost and performance data for the proposed tower focus pilot plant and commercial plant are given. The baseline central receiver concept defined by the MDAC team consists of the following features: (A) an external receiver mounted on a tower, and located in a 360/sup 0/ array of sun-tracking heliostats which comprise the collector subsystem. (B) feedwater from the electrical power generation subsystem is pumped through a riser to the receiver, where the feedwater is converted to superheated steam in a single pass through the tubes of the receiver panels. (C) The steam from the receiver is routed through a downcomer to the ground and introduced to a turbine directly for expansion and generation of electricity, and/or to a thermal storage subsystem, where the steam is condensed in charging heat exchangers to heat a dual-medium oil and rock thermal storage unit (TSU). (D) Extended operation after daylight hours is facilitated by discharging the TSU to generate steam for feeding the admission port of the turbine. (E) Overall control of the system is provided by a master control unit, which handles the interactions between subsystems that take place during startup, shutdown, and transitions between operating modes. (WHK)

  20. Delano Biomass Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.; Hendershaw, W.K.; Corbin, H.R.; Taylor, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Delano Biomass Power Plant utilizes orchard prunings, urban wood waste, almond shells, and cotton stalks to fuel a boiler for steam generation. The steam is condensed in a steam turbine/generator to produce 31.8 MW of power. The electrical power generated (27 MW net) is then sold to Southern California Edison Co. for distribution. By incorporating a cooling tower, demineralizer, brine concentration tower, and evaporation ponds this system is able to achieve zero discharge. Steam at 97{degrees}F is condensed with cooling water. The cooling water is recirculated through an evaporator tower. Due to the temperature of the water entering the tower (83{degrees}F), evaporation occurs leaving behind concentrated salts. A blowdown is used to remove these salts from the tower. Losses from evaporation or leaks require make up to the tower. Wastewater from various processes in the plant are passed to a brine concentration tower. This concentrate is then taken to the evaporation ponds. Concentrated blowdown of small volumes (approximately 2-4 gpm) from the brine tower is disposed of in evaporation ponds.

  1. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Okrent, D.

    1989-03-01

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled ``Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  2. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Okrent, D.

    1989-03-01

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  3. Use of Clearance Indexes to Assess Waste Disposal Issues for the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2002-01-17

    Traditionally, waste management studies for fusion energy have used the Waste Disposal Rating (WDR) to evaluate if radioactive material from irradiated structures could qualify for shallow land burial. However, given the space limitations and the negative public perception of large volumes of waste, there is a growing international motivation to develop a fusion waste management system that maximizes the amount of material that can be cleared or recycled. In this work, we present an updated assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, using the concept of Clearance Index (CI) for radioactive waste disposal. With that purpose, we have performed a detailed neutronics analysis of the HYLIFE-II design, using the TART and ACAB computer codes for neutron transport and activation, respectively. Whereas the traditional version of ACAB only provided the user with the WDR as an index for waste considerations, here we have modified the code to calculate Clearance Indexes using the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) clearance limits for radiological waste disposal. The results from the analysis are used to perform an assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II IFE design.

  4. Hybrid solar powered desalination plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hamester, H.L.; Husseiny, A.; Lumdstrom, J.; La Porta, C.; McLagan, G.

    1981-01-01

    A solar powered sea water desalination system design is described. The commercial size plant is specified to provide at least 1.8*10/sup 6/m/sup 3//year of product water (<500 kg/m/sup 3/ total dissolved solids) from sea water containing 44,000 kg/m/sup 3/ total dissolved solids. The basis of the design is a two-stage desalination system employing membrane technologies. Membrane technologies were selected since they require about a factor of five less energy than desalination technologies which use distillation.

  5. Application of EPRI risk-based inservice inspection procedure to combustion engineering design of nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, B.T.; Fourgerousse, R.

    1996-12-01

    The EPRI developed risk-based inservice inspection procedure is used to select the elements for inservice inspection on a section of the high pressure safety injection system of the Entergy Operations ANO2 nuclear plant. This plant is the pilot plant in a six utility-eleven plant EPRI tailored collaboration program to apply the general EPRI procedures to Combustion Engineering NSSS designs. The procedure results in a reduction of candidate inspection locations from 14, based on current ASME Section XI rules for B-J welds to 3, based on the risk-based selection criteria.

  6. Engineer, design, construct, test and evaluate a pressurized fluidized bed pilot plant using high sulfur coal for production of electric power. Phase III. Pilot plant construction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This final report describes the coal-fired plant design capable of producing electric power in an environmentally clean manner. The report presents the predicted performance using high sulfur bituminous coal and summarizes the construction activities and changes through completion on November 30, 1983. The construction activities involved: (1) the site excavation and pouring foundations for the PFB process equipment structural tower, control building, dolomite silo, boost compressor, and various equipment footings; (2) the fabrication and erection of the support steel work for the process equipment tower, control building, rail car thaw shed, and particulate scrubber and exhaust stack; (3) the fabrication and erection of the process equipment including the PFB combustor vessel, windbox, in-bed heat exchanger and process piping, the ash recycle system, the gas clean-up system, the ash removal, cooling and storage system, the coal handling, preparation and injection systems, the dolomite receiving, handling, storage and injection systems, the boost air compressor, dryer and receiver systems, the purge instrument and service air systems, the control, instrument and electrical systems, the tower elevator, the cardox, Halon and water fire protection system, etc. In addition, modifications and refurbishment were completed on the existing equipment at the site which was incorporated into the Pilot Plant system. Finally, plans were prepared describing the operating procedures, maintenance requirements, spare parts list, training program and manpower requirements for the proposed Phase IV test evaluation program. 37 figures, 11 tables.

  7. Control system design for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture in IGCC power plants while loading-following

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Load-following requirements for future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with precombustion CO{sub 2} capture are expected to be far more challenging as electricity produced by renewable energy is connected to the grid and strict environmental limits become mandatory requirements. In this work, loadfollowing studies are performed using a comprehensive dynamic model of an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture developed in Aspen Engineering Suite (AES). Considering multiple single-loop controllers for power demand load following, the preferred IGCC control strategy from the perspective of a power producer is gas turbine (GT) lead with gasifier follow. In this strategy, the GT controls the load by manipulating its firing rate while the slurry feed flow to the gasifier is manipulated to control the syngas pressure at the GT inlet. The syngas pressure control is an integrating process with significant time delay mainly because of the large piping and equipment volumes between the gasifier and the GT inlet. A modified proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control is considered for IGCC syngas pressure control. The desired CO{sub 2} capture rate must be maintained while the IGCC plant follows the load. For maintaining the desired CO{sub 2} capture rate, the control performance of PID control is compared with linear model predictive control (LMPC). The results show that the LMPC outperforms PID control for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture rates in an IGCC power plant while load following.

  8. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  9. Wave action power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, L.V.

    1982-03-16

    A wave action power plant powered by the action of water waves has a drive shaft rotated by a plurality of drive units, each having a lever pivotally mounted on and extending from said shaft and carrying a weight, in the form of a float, which floats on the waves and rocks the lever up and down on the shaft. A ratchet mechanism causes said shaft to be rotated in one direction by the weight of said float after it has been raised by wave and the wave has passed, leaving said float free to move downwardly by gravity and apply its full weight to pull down on the lever and rotate the drive shaft. There being a large number of said drive units so that there are always some of the weights pulling down on their respective levers while other weights are being lifted by waves and thereby causing continuous rotation of the drive shaft in one direction. The said levers are so mounted that they may be easily raised to bring the weights into a position wherein they are readily accessible for cleaning the bottoms thereof to remove any accumulation of barnacles, mollusks and the like. There is also provided means for preventing the weights from colliding with each other as they independently move up and down on the waves.

  10. DIRECT FUEL/CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-05-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha DFC/T hybrid power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Also, the preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed.

  11. Evaluation of computer-aided foundation design techniques for fossil fuel power plants. Final report. [Includes list of firms involved, equipment, software, etc

    SciTech Connect

    Kulhawy, F.H.; Dill, J.C.; Trautmann, C.H.

    1984-11-01

    The use of an integrated computer-aided drafting and design system for fossil fuel power plant foundations would offer utilities considerable savings in engineering costs and design time. The technology is available, but research is needed to develop software, a common data base, and data management procedures. An integrated CADD system suitable for designing power plant foundations should include the ability to input, display, and evaluate geologic, geophysical, geotechnical, and survey field data; methods for designing piles, mats, footings, drilled shafts, and other foundation types; and the capability of evaluating various load configurations, soil-structure interactions, and other construction factors that influence design. Although no such integrated system exists, the survey of CADD techniques showed that the technology is available to computerize the whole foundation design process, from single-foundation analysis under single loads to three-dimensional analysis under earthquake loads. The practices of design firms using CADD technology in nonutility applications vary widely. Although all the firms surveyed used computer-aided drafting, only two used computer graphics in routine design procedures, and none had an integrated approach to using CADD for geotechnical engineering. All the firms had developed corporate policies related to system security, supervision, overhead allocation, training, and personnel compensation. A related EPRI project RP2514, is developing guidelines for applying CADD systems to entire generating-plant construction projects. 4 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER) supplement. Magnet system special investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of magnet system special investigations listed below are summarized: 4 Tesla Magnet Alternate Design Study; 6 Tesla Magnet Manufacturability Study. The conceptual design for a 4 Tesla superconducting magnet system for use with an alternate (supersonic) ETF power train is described, and estimated schedule and cost are identified. The magnet design is scaled from the ETF 6 T Tesla design. Results of a manufacturability study and a revised schedule and cost estimate for the ETF 6 T magnet are reported. Both investigations are extensions of the conceptual design of a 6 T magnet system performed earlier as a part of the overall MED-ETF conceptual design described in Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER) Vol. V, System Design Description (SDD) 503 dated September, 1981, DOE/NASA/0224-1; NASA CR-165/52.

  13. Design & development fo a 20-MW flywheel-based frequency regulation power plant : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Rounds, Robert; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the successful efforts of Beacon Power to design and develop a 20-MW frequency regulation power plant based solely on flywheels. Beacon's Smart Matrix (Flywheel) Systems regulation power plant, unlike coal or natural gas generators, will not burn fossil fuel or directly produce particulates or other air emissions and will have the ability to ramp up or down in a matter of seconds. The report describes how data from the scaled Beacon system, deployed in California and New York, proved that the flywheel-based systems provided faster responding regulation services in terms of cost-performance and environmental impact. Included in the report is a description of Beacon's design package for a generic, multi-MW flywheel-based regulation power plant that allows accurate bids from a design/build contractor and Beacon's recommendations for site requirements that would ensure the fastest possible construction. The paper concludes with a statement about Beacon's plans for a lower cost, modular-style substation based on the 20-MW design.

  14. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-19

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct Fuel Cell/Turbine. (DFC/T.) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha sub-MW DFC/T power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. Following these proof-of-concept tests, a stand-alone test of the microturbine verified the turbine power output expectations at an elevated (representative of the packaged unit condition) turbine inlet temperature. Preliminary design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed and procurement activity has been initiated. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant has also been prepared. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output/fuel utilization capabilities are also being evaluated.

  15. Safety Assessment for Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plants: Methodology and Application to the Analysis of the HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO Conceptual Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Sanz, J.; Gomez del Rio, J.

    2001-06-01

    Although the safety and environmental (S & E) characteristics of fusion energy have long been emphasized, these benefits are not automatically achieved. To maximize the potential S & E attractiveness of the inertial fusion energy (IFE), analyses must be performed early in the designs so that lessons can be learned and intelligent decisions made. In this work we have introduced for the first time heat transfer and thermal-hydraulics calculations as part of a state-of-the-art set of codes and libraries in order to establish an updated methodology for IFE safety analysis. We have focused our efforts primarily on two IFE power plant conceptual designs: HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO. To some degree, these designs represent the extremes in IFE power plant designs. Also, a preliminary safety assessment has been performed for a generic target fabrication facility producing various types of targets and using various production techniques. Although this study cannot address all issues and hazards posed by an IFE power plant, it advances our understanding of radiological safety of such facilities. This will enable better comparisons between IFE designs and competing technologies from the safety point of view.

  16. Preliminary assessment of alternative PFBC power plant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocki, J.; Rogali, R.

    1980-07-01

    Design and economic comparisons of the following nominal 1000 MWe pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plants are presented for both eastern and western coal: Curtiss-Wright PFBC power plants with an air-cooled design; General Electric RFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design; and AEP/Stal-Laval PFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design. In addition, reference pulverized coal-fired (PCF) power plants are included for comparison purposes. The results of the analysis indicate: (1) the steam-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 10% and 11% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost; (2) the air-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 1% and 2% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost.

  17. Preliminary assessment of alternative PFBC power plant systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wysocki, J.; Rogali, R.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the design and and economic comparisons of the following nominal 1000 MWe PFBC power plants for both eastern and western coal: Curtiss-Wright PFBC power plants with an air-cooled design; General Electric RFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design; and AEP/Stal-Laval PFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design. In addition, reference pulverized coal-fired (PCF) power plants are included for comparison purposes. The results of the analysis indicate: (1) The steam-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 10% and 11% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost; (2) the air-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 1% and 2% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost.

  18. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  19. Steam Power Plants in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E E

    1926-01-01

    The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.

  20. Engineering and Economic Analysis of an Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plant with and without Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Task 7. Design and Economic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Booras, George; Powers, J.; Riley, C.; Hendrix, H.

    2015-09-01

    This report evaluates the economics and performance of two A-USC PC power plants; Case 1 is a conventionally configured A-USC PC power plant with superior emission controls, but without CO2 removal; and Case 2 adds a post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) system to the plant from Case 1, using the design and heat integration strategies from EPRI’s 2015 report, “Best Integrated Coal Plant.” The capture design basis for this case is “partial,” to meet EPA’s proposed New Source Performance Standard, which was initially proposed as 500 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1100 lb-CO2/MWh (gross), but modified in August 2015 to 635 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1400 lb-CO2/MWh (gross). This report draws upon the collective experience of consortium members, with EPRI and General Electric leading the study. General Electric provided the steam cycle analysis as well as v the steam turbine design and cost estimating. EPRI performed integrated plant performance analysis using EPRI’s PC Cost model.

  1. Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

    1934-01-01

    This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

  2. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-22

    Project activities were focused on the design and construction the sub-scale hybrid Direct Fuel Cell/turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plant and modification of a Capstone Simple Cycle Model 330 microturbine. The power plant design work included preparation of system flow sheet and performing computer simulations based on conservation of mass and energy. The results of the simulation analyses were utilized to prepare data sheets and specifications for balance-of-plant equipment. Process flow diagram (PFD) and piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID) were also completed. The steady state simulation results were used to develop design information for modifying the control functions, and for sizing the heat exchangers required for recuperating the waste heat from the power plant. Line and valve sizes for the interconnecting pipes between the microturbine and the heat recuperators were also identified.

  3. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  4. A Conceptual Design Study on the Application of Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Technology to the Solar Thermal Power Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Robertson, C. S.; Ehde, C. L.; Divakaruni, S. M.; Stacy, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    Alkali metal heat transfer technology was used in the development of conceptual designs for the transport and storage of sensible and latent heat thermal energy in distributed concentrator, solar Stirling power conversion systems at a power level of 15 kWe per unit. Both liquid metal pumped loop and heat pipe thermal transport were considered; system configurations included: (1) an integrated, focal mounted sodium heat pipe solar receiver (HPSR) with latent heat thermal energy storage; (2) a liquid sodium pumped loop with the latent heat storage, Stirling engine-generator, pump and valves located on the back side of the concentrator; and (3) similar pumped loops serving several concentrators with more centralized power conversion and storage. The focus mounted HPSR was most efficient, lightest and lowest in estimated cost. Design confirmation testing indicated satisfactory performance at all angles of inclination of the primary heat pipes to be used in the solar receiver.

  5. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. The operation of sub-MW hybrid Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant test facility with a Capstone C60 microturbine was initiated in March 2003. The inclusion of the C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in previous tests using a 30kW microturbine. The design of multi-MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, was initiated. A new concept was developed based on clusters of One-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. System analyses were performed, including systems for near-term deployment and power plants with long-term ultra high efficiency objectives. Preliminary assessment of the fuel cell cluster concept, including power plant layout for a 14MW power plant, was performed.

  6. Design and initial operation of the Spray Dry FGD system at the Marquette Michigan Board of Light and Power Shiras number 3 plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, T.F.; Arello, J.; Fortune, O.; Puska, E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the design issues, design decisions, start-up, and early operation of a Spray Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (SDFGD) system which went into operation at the Marquette Michigan Board of Light and Power Shiras number 3 in May 1983. This fortyfour (44) megawatt unit consisting of a rotary atomizer reactor, reverse air fabric filter, lime preparation, and reagent recycle system was engineered in the 1980-82 time period utilizing pilot plant and prototype industrial system results as a design basis. Initial operation has been uneventful with performance results in the expected ranges.

  7. Fuel cell power plant economic and operational considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cell power plants intended for electric utility and cogeneration applications are now in the design and construction stage. This paper describes economic and operational considerations being used in the development and design of plants utilizing air cooled phosphoric acid fuel cells. Fuel cell power plants have some unique characteristics relative to other types of power plants. As a result it was necessary to develop specific definitions of the fuel cell power plant characteristics in order to perform cost of electricity calculations. This paper describes these characteristics and describes the economic analyses used in the Westinghouse fuel cell power plant program.

  8. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  9. Owners of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.

    2000-01-12

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of November 1999. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  10. Asbury power plant, Asbury, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2005-08-01

    The Asbury power plant in rural southwest Missouri is off the beaten path in more ways than one. Three years ago, Empire District Electric Co., the plant's owner/operator, began mixing pieces of discarded tires into its coal fuel supply. Each ensuing year, without compromising local air quality, the plant has rid the area of millions of tires that otherwise would have ended up in a landfill. For demonstrating that a blight can be made right, Asbury is one of Power's 2005 top plants. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  12. BN-800 advanced nuclear power plant with fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shishkin, A.N.; Kuzavkov, N.G.; Sobolev, V.A.; Shestakov, G.V.; Bagdasarov, Yu.E.; Kochetkov, L.A.; Matveyev, V.I.; Poplavsky, V.M.

    1993-12-31

    Bn-800 reactor plant with fast reactor and sodium coolant in the primary and secondary circuits is designed for operation as part of the power units in the Yuzhno-Uralskaya nuclear power plant scheduled to be constructed in Chelyabinsk region and as part unit 4 in the Beloyarskaya nuclear power plant. Reactor operations are described.

  13. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  14. Proceedings of cogeneration power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeter, J.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Cogeneration Power Plants. Topics as diverse as extended operational performance findings, updating of control systems, the complex relationships involved in cogeneration projects, and correction of station noise complaints are covered.

  15. Design of a photovoltaic central power station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Photovoltaic central power station designs have been developed for both high-efficiency flat-panel arrays and two-axis tracking concentrator arrays. Both designs are based on a site adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The plants are 100 MW each, made of 5 MW subfields. The site specific designs allow detailed cost estimate for site preparation, installation, and engineering. These designs are summarized and cost estimates analyzed. Provided also are recommendations for future work to reduce system cost for each plant design.

  16. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  17. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  18. Dynamic Simulation Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-03

    DSNP (Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-Plants) is a system of programs and data files by which a nuclear power plant, or part thereof, can be simulated. The acronym DSNP is used interchangeably for the DSNP language, the DSNP libraries, the DSNP precompiler, and the DSNP document generator. The DSNP language is a special-purpose, block-oriented, digital-simulation language developed to facilitate the preparation of dynamic simulations of a large variety of nuclear power plants. It is amore » user-oriented language that permits the user to prepare simulation programs directly from power plant block diagrams and flow charts by recognizing the symbolic DSNP statements for the appropriate physical components and listing these statements in a logical sequence according to the flow of physical properties in the simulated power plant. Physical components of nuclear power plants are represented by functional blocks, or modules. Many of the more complex components are represented by several modules. The nuclear reactor, for example, has a kinetic module, a power distribution module, a feedback module, a thermodynamic module, a hydraulic module, and a radioactive heat decay module. These modules are stored in DSNP libraries in the form of a DSNP subroutine or function, a block of statements, a macro, or a combination of the above. Basic functional blocks such as integrators, pipes, function generators, connectors, and many auxiliary functions representing properties of materials used in nuclear power plants are also available. The DSNP precompiler analyzes the DSNP simulation program, performs the appropriate translations, inserts the requested modules from the library, links these modules together, searches necessary data files, and produces a simulation program in FORTRAN.« less

  19. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

  20. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H. W.; Kistner, R.

    1999-11-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised i n debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  1. Preliminary design study of Underground Pumped Hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches. UPH, Appendix D: Power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine power plant arrangements for a single stage reversible pump turbine two step underground pumped hydro (UPH) installation and for a multi-stage reversible pump turbine single step (MSRPT) UPH installation. Arrangements consist of: the underground powerhouses; transformer galleries; associated mechanical and electrical equipment; the administration and control building; hoist head frames; the access; draft tube and bus tunnels; and the switchyard. Primary considerations including the number and size of pump turbine and motor generator units, starting methods, transformers, high voltage connections, geotechnical and construction aspects and safety were studied. A feasibility analysis to minimize costs was conducted. The study led to the selection of suitable equipment and layouts for the powerhouses, transformer galleries, and associated facilities. The material presented and also the cost estimates are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  2. Report on Hawaii Geothermal Power Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The report describes the design, construction, and operation of the Hawaii Geothermal Generator Project. This power plant, located in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii, produces three megawatts of electricity from the steam phase of a geothermal well. (ACR)

  3. Toxic releases from power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1999-09-15

    Beginning in 1998, electric power plants burning coal or oil must estimate and report their annual releases of toxic chemicals listed in the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper identifies the toxic chemicals of greatest significance for the electric utility sector and develops quantitative estimates of the toxic releases reportable to the TRI for a representative coal-fired power plant. Key factors affecting the magnitude and types of toxic releases for individual power plants also are discussed. A national projection suggests that the magnitude of electric utility industry releases will surpass those of the manufacturing industries which current report to the TRI. Risk communication activities at the community level will be essential to interpret and provide context for the new TRI results.

  4. Design and test of an exhaust gas clean-up system for power plants using high sulphur content fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.N.

    1980-10-10

    This experimental program, initially designated to study an exhaust gas cleanup and water recovery system for a Cheng Cycle Dual-Fluid (CCDF) turbine power plant using sulfur rich fuels, has shown the potential of a general Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system applicable to utility and industrial boilers as well. The process was studied both theoretically and experimentaly. Experiments were performed using a bench scale (25k equivalent) apparatus and a pilot scale (1Mw equivalent) apparatus. Data obtained indicated the IPT process potentially can out-perform the conventional FGD process with significant cost savings.

  5. Conceptual design of a lunar base solar power plant lunar base systems study task 3.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The best available concepts for a 100 kW Solar Lunar Power Plant based on static and dynamic conversion concepts have been examined. The two concepts which emerged for direct comparison yielded a difference in delivered mass of 35 MT, the mass equivalent of 1.4 lander payloads, in favor of the static concept. The technologies considered for the various elements are either state-of-the-art or near-term. Two photovoltaic cell concepts should receive high priority for development: i.e., amorphous silicon and indium phosphide cells. The amorphous silicon, because it can be made so light weight and rugged; and the indium phosphide, because it shows very high efficiency potential and is reportedly not degraded by radiation. Also the amorphous silicon cells may be mounted on flexible backing that may roll up much like a carpet for compact storage, delivery, and ease of deployment at the base. The fuel cell and electrolysis cell technology is quite well along for lunar base applications, and because both the Shuttle and the forthcoming Space Station incorporate these devices, the status quo will be maintained. Early development of emerging improvements should be implemented so that essential life verification test programs may commence.

  6. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Prabir; Labbe, Pierre; Naus, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  7. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  8. MARS, 600 MWth NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Cumo, M.; Naviglio, A.; Sorabella, L.

    2004-10-06

    MARS (Multipurpose Advanced Reactor, inherently Safe) is a 600 MWth, single loop, pressurized light water reactor (PWR), developed at the Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Energy Conversion of the University of Rome ''La Sapienza''. The design was focused to a multipurpose reactor to be used in high population density areas also for industrial heat production and, in particular, for water desalting. Using the well-proven technology and the operation experience of PWRs, the project introduces a lot of innovative features hugely improving the safety performance while keeping the cost of KWh competitive with traditional large power plants. Extensive use of passive safety, in depth plant simplification and decommissioning oriented design were the guidelines along the design development. The latest development in the plant design, in the decommissioning aspects and in the experimental activities supporting the project are shown in this paper.

  9. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  10. Solar thermionic power plant. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Elfotouh, F.; Almassary, M.; Fatmi, H.

    It has been shown that the geometric configuration of a central receiver solar electric power plant SEPP can be optimized for the high power density and concentration required for the operation of a thermionic converter. The working period of a TDC constructed on the top of a SEPP in Riyadh area is 5 to 6 hours per day in winter and 6 to 8 hours in summer. At the 25 percent conversion efficiency achieved by a laboratory test model, a reduction in the cost per unit power of 8-12 per cent is expected. The spectral behavior and work functions of the working surface of the thermionic electrodes were investigated