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Sample records for power socio-economic costs

  1. Cost-Sharing in Higher Education: Differences between Countries and between Distinct Socio-Economic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzenberger, Astrid; Opheim, Vibeke

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the relation between different national cost-sharing models and how students from different socio-economic backgrounds finance their higher education in six different European countries: the Czech Republic, England, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and Spain. The findings reveal considerable differences both between the…

  2. Socio-Economic Status and Enrollment in Higher Education: Do Costs Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declercq, Koen; Verboven, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of socio-economic status on enrollment and study decisions in higher education. We use a discrete choice approach to distinguish between three channels. First, students from disadvantaged backgrounds may be more sensitive to the costs of education. Second, they may have lower preferences for education. Third, they may have…

  3. Integration of Socio-Economic Measures in Benefit-Cost Analysis for Groundwater Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqadan, A. A.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.; Khalil, Y. H.

    2006-12-01

    Groundwater quality is a major concern since sources of contamination are common and degraded water quality has severe economic and health impacts to the society. Management of contaminated groundwater resources has been a challenge due to limited resources committed to monitor and remediate a large number of contaminated sites. Therefore, there is a prominent question on the optimal allocation of resources for additional data collection and actual remedial measures. In this work, we extended the risk assessment methodology under subsurface heterogeneity and population variability proposed by others to estimate individuals' willingness-to-pay(WTP) for a proposed risk reduction by adding socio-economic measures. We introduced one of the early applications of welfare measures namely, health state, utility, and WTP concepts to study the benefits and costs of collecting additional data to reduce uncertainty for groundwater remediation. The proposed framework considered uncertainty due to subsurface heterogeneity and public health risk through a utility theory based approach that can be used in decision-making. Our framework replaced costly contingent valuation approaches and used a meta analysis which considered a theoretical structure on population age, income, and health state and used empirical estimates from previous contingent valuation methods. We also performed sensitivity analysis on important variables such as WTP and utility levels. Our findings showed that health state and age have vital impacts on WTP. The predictions of WTP trends are consistent with patterns expected in economic theory. We illustrated the proposed framework by evaluating two scenarios of gathering additional information to better describe subsurface heterogeneity. In this example we considered a small addition of data at a correlation scale of 112 m versus a large addition of data at a correlation scale of 22 m. The results showed the two scenarios have annual individuals' WTP of 258 and

  4. Acute ACL Surgery Decreases First Year Socio Economic Costs Compared to Delayed Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Karl; von Essen, Christoffer; Barenius, Björn

    2016-01-01

    group. 4 patients in the acute group and 1 in the delayed group were neither students nor registered for any compensation for sick leave from work. One patient from the delayed group resigned from the study before surgery. The remaining 49 patients, 26 patients in the acute and 23 in the delayed group received compensation for sick leave due to the injury. The number of sick leave days for the acute group was significantly lower, mean 57 (median 53) days compared to the delayed group, mean 99 (median 66) days (p<0.05). Conclusion: Acute ACL reconstruction seems to significantly reduce socio economic costs (compensation for sick leave) compared to delayed reconstruction. From a nation based perspective this could have major implications in health care spending.

  5. Socio-economic burden of rare diseases: A systematic review of cost of illness evidence.

    PubMed

    Angelis, Aris; Tordrup, David; Kanavos, Panos

    2015-07-01

    Cost-of-illness studies, the systematic quantification of the economic burden of diseases on the individual and on society, help illustrate direct budgetary consequences of diseases in the health system and indirect costs associated with patient or carer productivity losses. In the context of the BURQOL-RD project ("Social Economic Burden and Health-Related Quality of Life in patients with Rare Diseases in Europe") we studied the evidence on direct and indirect costs for 10 rare diseases (Cystic Fibrosis [CF], Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy [DMD], Fragile X Syndrome [FXS], Haemophilia, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis [JIA], Mucopolysaccharidosis [MPS], Scleroderma [SCL], Prader-Willi Syndrome [PWS], Histiocytosis [HIS] and Epidermolysis Bullosa [EB]). A systematic literature review of cost of illness studies was conducted using a keyword strategy in combination with the names of the 10 selected rare diseases. Available disease prevalence in Europe was found to range between 1 and 2 per 100,000 population (PWS, a sub-type of Histiocytosis, and EB) up to 42 per 100,000 population (Scleroderma). Overall, cost evidence on rare diseases appears to be very scarce (a total of 77 studies were identified across all diseases), with CF (n=29) and Haemophilia (n=22) being relatively well studied, compared to the other conditions, where very limited cost of illness information was available. In terms of data availability, total lifetime cost figures were found only across four diseases, and total annual costs (including indirect costs) across five diseases. Overall, data availability was found to correlate with the existence of a pharmaceutical treatment and indirect costs tended to account for a significant proportion of total costs. Although methodological variations prevent any detailed comparison between conditions and based on the evidence available, most of the rare diseases examined are associated with significant economic burden, both direct and indirect. PMID:25661982

  6. Long-term socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis: a historical cohort study involving 3606 polio patients.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Kay, Lise; Wanscher, Benedikte; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob; Jennum, Poul

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide 10-20 million individuals are living with disabilities after acute poliomyelitis. However, very little is known about the socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis. We carried out a historical register-based study including 3606 individuals hospitalised for poliomyelitis in Copenhagen, Denmark 1940-1954, and 13,795 age and gender-matched Danes. Participants were followed from 1980 until 2012, and family, socio-economic conditions and health care costs were evaluated in different age groups using chi-squared tests, boot-strapped t tests or hazard ratios (HR) calculated in Cox-regression models. The analyses were performed separately for paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors and their controls, respectively. Compared with controls a higher percentage of paralytic polio survivors remained childless, whereas no difference was observed for non-paralytic polio survivors. The educational level among paralytic as well as non-paralytic polio survivors was higher than that among their controls, employment rate at the ages of 40, 50 and 60 years was slightly lower, whereas total income in the age intervals of 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years were similar to controls. Paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors had a 2.5 [HR = 2.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI); 2.29-2.77)] and 1.4 [HR = 1.35 (95 % CI; 1.23-1.49)]-fold higher risk, respectively, of receiving disability pension compared with controls. Personal health care costs were considerably higher in all age groups in both groups of polio survivors. Individuals with a history of poliomyelitis are well educated, have a slightly lower employment rate, an income similar to controls, but a considerably higher cost in the health care system. PMID:27083562

  7. Socio-economic impact of antiretroviral treatment in HIV patients. An economic review of cost savings after introduction of HAART.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, Teresa; García Goñi, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, María Angeles

    2009-01-01

    Star celebrities such as Rock Hudson, Freddie Mercury, Magic Johnson, and Isaac Asimov have unfortunately something in common: they were all victims of the HIV global pandemic. Since then HIV infection has become considered a pandemic disease, and it is regarded as a priority in healthcare worldwide. It is ranked as the first cause of death among young people in industrialized countries, and it is recognized as a public healthcare problem due to its human, social, mass media, and economic impact. Incorporation of new and highly active antiretroviral treatment, available since 1996 for HIV/AIDS treatment, has provoked a radical change in the disease pattern, as well as in the impact on patient survival and quality of life. The pharmaceutical industry's contribution, based on the research for more active new drugs, has been pivotal. Mortality rates have decreased significantly in 20 years by 50% and now AIDS is considered a chronic and controlled disease. In this review we have studied the impact of HAART treatment on infected patients, allowing them to maintain their status as active workers and the decreased absenteeism from work derived from this, contributing ultimately to overall social wealth and, thus, to economic growth. Furthermore, an analysis of the impact on healthcare costs, quality of life per year, life per year gained, cost economic savings and cost opportunity among other parameters has shown that society and governments are gaining major benefits from the inclusion of antiretroviral therapies in HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:19529748

  8. Management of corporate socio-economic policy by the energy corporations

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the energy corporations in the mitigation of the socio-economic impacts of rapid development. The study employed an exploratory descriptive research design. The sample was limited to an in-depth study of the socio-economic managerial processes at the Standard Oil Company (Indiana) and the Standard Oil Company of California, two of the nation's largest and wealthiest energy corporations. Findings demonstrated that division managers believe that socio-economic expenses are a normal cost of doing business and can, in fact, lead to cost savings for the corporation. The study confirmed other research findings that corporate executive management has a further role to play in the design of administrative systems that govern the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of socio-economic policy. The study recommended the development of specific centralized corporate socio-economic policies for energy-impact development, decentralization of policy implementation, integration of trained socio-economic project managers into the formal authority hierarchy, inclusion of specific socio-economic criterion in the formal performance-evaluation system, incorporation of socio-economic expenses into the operating budget format, and the development of a formal corporate-level socio-economic policy-evaluation committee.

  9. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Ongondo, F.O.; Williams, I.D.; Dietrich, J.; Carroll, C.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  10. Socio-Economic Diversity and Mathematical Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has proved that in Germany the impact that socio-economic background has on 15-year-old pupils' achievement is stronger than in other countries. The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) showed that the correlation is less with 10-year-old children, but is still apparent.…

  11. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises.

    PubMed

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Dietrich, J; Carroll, C

    2013-12-01

    In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the U.K. from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the U.K. in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the U.K. market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into "reuse parks" would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations' activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations

  12. Educational Justice and Socio-Economic Segregation in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Sociologists exploring educational injustice often focus on socio-economic segregation as a central measure of injustice. The comprehensive ideal, furthermore, has the idea of socio-economic integration built into it. The current paper argues that socio-economic segregation is valuable only insofar as it serves other, more fundamental values. This…

  13. Impact of socio-economic growth on desalination in the US.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R; Reyes, Reuben

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, around 1336 desalination plants in the United States (US) provided purified water mainly to municipalities, the industry sector and for power generation. In 2013 alone, ∼200 million m(3) of water were desalinated; the amount that could satisfy annual municipal water consumption of more than 1.5 million people in the US. Desalination has proven to be a reliable water supply source in many countries around the world, with the total global desalination capacity of ∼60 million m(3)/day in 2013. Desalination has been used to mitigate water scarcity and lessen the pressure on water resources. Currently, data and information about desalination are still limited, while extensive socio-economic analyses are missing. This paper presents an econometric model to fill this gap. It evaluates the impact of selected socio-economic variables on desalination development in the US in the time span 1970-2013. The results show that the GDP and population growth have significantly impacted the desalination sector over the analyzed time period. The insights into the economics of desalination provided with this paper can be used to further evaluate cost-effectiveness of desalination both in the US and in other countries around the world. PMID:26610194

  14. Dynamic motifs in socio-economic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Shao, Shuai; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2014-12-01

    Socio-economic networks are of central importance in economic life. We develop a method of identifying and studying motifs in socio-economic networks by focusing on “dynamic motifs,” i.e., evolutionary connection patterns that, because of “node acquaintances” in the network, occur much more frequently than random patterns. We examine two evolving bi-partite networks: i) the world-wide commercial ship chartering market and ii) the ship build-to-order market. We find similar dynamic motifs in both bipartite networks, even though they describe different economic activities. We also find that “influence” and “persistence” are strong factors in the interaction behavior of organizations. When two companies are doing business with the same customer, it is highly probable that another customer who currently only has business relationship with one of these two companies, will become customer of the second in the future. This is the effect of influence. Persistence means that companies with close business ties to customers tend to maintain their relationships over a long period of time.

  15. The Socio-Economic Dimensions of ICT-Driven Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Jorg; Sancho Gil, Juana M.; Hernandez, Fernando; Giro, Xavier; Bosco, Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the varied socio-economic implications of ICT-based educational change. Drawing from a rich, 3-year long research project with 20 secondary schools throughout Europe, the social, human, professional, institutional, and economic costs for building the school of tomorrow in close alliance with ICT are discussed. The aim of this…

  16. Biobank Finances: A Socio-Economic Analysis and Review.

    PubMed

    Gee, Sally; Oliver, Rob; Corfield, Julie; Georghiou, Luke; Yuille, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This socio-economic study is based on the widely held view that there is an inadequate supply of human biological samples that is hampering biomedical research development and innovation (RDI). The potential value of samples and the associated data are thus not being realized. We aimed to examine whether the financing of biobanks contributes to this problem and then to propose a national solution. We combined three methods: a qualitative case study; literature analysis; and informal consultations with experts. The case study enabled an examination of the complex institutional arrangements for biobanks, with a particular focus on cost models. For the purposes of comparison, a typology for biobanks was developed using the three methods. We found that it is not possible to apply a standard cost model across the diversity of biobanks, and there is a deficit in coordination and sustainability and an excess of complexity. We propose that coordination across this diversity requires dedicated resources for a national biobanking distributed research infrastructure. A coordination center would establish and improve standards and support a national portal for access. This should be financed centrally by public funds, possibly supplemented by industrial funding. We propose that: a) sample acquisition continues to be costed into projects and project proposals to ensure biobanking is driven by research needs; b) core biobanking activities and facilities be supported by central public funds distributed directly to host public institutions; and c) marginal costs for access be paid for by the user. PMID:26697914

  17. Effects of parental socio-economic conditions on facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Huber, Susanne; Fieder, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Socio-economic conditions during early life are known to affect later life outcomes such as health or social success. We investigated whether family socio-economic background may also affect facial attractiveness. We used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 8434) to analyze the association between an individual's parental socio-economic background (in terms of father's highest education and parental income) and that individual's facial attractiveness (estimated by rating of high school yearbook photographs when subjects were between 17 and 20 years old), controlling for subjects' sex, year of birth, and father's age at subjects' birth. Subjects' facial attractiveness increased with increasing father's highest educational attainment as well as increasing parental income, with the latter effect being stronger for female subjects as well. We conclude that early socio-economic conditions predict, to some extent, facial attractiveness in young adulthood. PMID:25548886

  18. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  19. Socio-economic and communication factors influencing the diffusion of solar-energy equipment among California homeowners

    SciTech Connect

    Mbindyo, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation explores the influence of socio-economic, communication, and social-psychological factors on the diffusion of solar-energy equipment among California homeowners. There were four specific objectives: (1) to critique previous studies on the diffusion of solar technology; (2) to critique fundamental aspects of current diffusion models and to formulate an alternative diffusion perspective; (3) to use the proposed theoretical perspective to predict solar diffusion; and (4) to test certain of the proposed predictions about solar diffusion. Data used to test some of the predictions were based on a state-wide random survey of 812 California homeowners. The dissertation presents two major findings. First, some of the best predictors of the solar-diffusion process were found to be age, socio-economic status, knowing solar owners, ownership of a swimming pool, utility costs, efficacy towards the energy situation, voluntary simplicity, energy consciousness, community size, and perceived community interest in solar. Second, these predictors were found to be strongly related to socio-economic status. The present study argues that these predictors are in fact post indicators of socio-economic status. Thus, whereas many of the previous studies tended to underestimate the influence of socio-economic factors, this study was able to demonstrate the crucial influence of socio-economic factors in determining the rate and pattern of solar diffusion. The data show that household solar-energy equipment is basically an innovation for high and medium socio-economic groups. The implications of these findings with regard to previous studies, policy, and future research are also discussed.

  20. Rapid regional-scale assessments of socio-economic vulnerability to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Erin F.; Lieske, Scott N.; Keys, Noni; Smith, Timothy F.

    2016-03-01

    Assessing socio-economic vulnerability to climate change impacts to support regional decision-making is conceptually and practically challenging. We report on research that tested a rapid assessment approach of socio-economic vulnerability in Australia’s natural resource management regions. The approach focuses on regionally important economic sectors, identified using existing datasets, which are likely to be sensitive to climate change impacts. Disaggregated spatial representations of factors known to be associated with vulnerability function as multiple lines of evidence for highlighting intra-regional hotspots of high potential vulnerability. Our results show that a small number of factors based upon contextually relevant empirical evidence offers a low-cost, rapid assessment process, which is readily transferable across regions and provides end-users with guidance for interpreting the results within the context of regional conditions.

  1. Investigating Male Tobacco Use and Expenditure Patterns across Socio-Economic Groups in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uguru, Nkoli P.; Mbachu, Chinyere; Ibe, Ogochukwu P.; Uguru, Chibuzo C.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of variation in economic costs of tobacco consumption among socio-economic status (SES) groups in Nigeria is unclear. Understanding the factors that influence tobacco use and expenditure among different socio-economic groups would inform decisions on interventions for tobacco control in Nigeria. Secondary data was obtained from the 2008 National demographic and health survey. Information on tobacco use and expenditure in households and individual males were extracted from the database. A total of 34,070 households and 15,846 individual males were sampled. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analysis. Information on wealth index obtained were categorized into socio-economic quintile groups (Q1 to Q5), representing poorest to richest socio-economic groups. To estimate expenditure on cigarettes, the average cost of a stick of cigarette was obtained and multiplied with the number of sticks smoked per day. The proportion of households that use tobacco in Nigeria is 5.25% with a greater percentage (89.6%) residing in the rural areas. Prevalence of cigarette smoking in individual males is 8.59%, and the poorer SES group smoked more cigarettes (20.9%) and spent more (0.60–1.19USD) than the richest SES group. Low education level, traditional beliefs, literacy levels, SES and employment status all influence cigarette smoking in adult males. Although poor people smoked more and spent more of their income on cigarettes, other factors like educational level and traditional beliefs were found to influence practice of cigarette smoking in men. This implies that tobacco control legislation through increased taxes alone may not effectively reduce the use of tobacco and its products in Nigeria. A consolidated approach that includes behavioral change procedures, enforcing bans on tobacco advertisement and the use of strong graphic anti-tobacco messages targeted at both the poor and rich as well as the educated and uneducated

  2. Wind pumps for irrigating greenhouse crops: comparison in different socio-economical frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Rodrigo; Rasheed, Adnan; Peillon, Manuel; Perdigones, Alicia; Sanchez, Raúl; María Tarquis, Ana; García, Jose Luis

    2013-04-01

    Wind power can play an interesting role in irrigation projects in different areas. A simple methodology has been developed in previous papers for technical evaluation of windmills for irrigation water pumping [1]. This methodology can determine the feasibility of the technology and the levels of daily irrigation demand satisfied by windmills at different levels of risk, using tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) as greenhouse crop. The present work compared the feasibility of the technology and the critical factors involved in three different countries: Cuba, Spain and Pakistan. The study considered as factors the wind speed level, the energy cost, the tomato prices, the reliability and distance to the electrical grid, and the crop development dates, determining the economic feasibility for each combination of factors in each country. Countries have been selected because of their different socio-economical frameworks, leading to different critical factors. References [1] Peillón, M., Sánchez, R., Tarquis, A.M., García, J.L. The use of wind pumps for greenhouse microirrigation: A case study for tomato in Cuba. Agricultural Water Management, DOI 10.1016/j.agwat.2012.10.024

  3. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Peach Bottom case study

    SciTech Connect

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined.

  4. Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. Conclusions Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families. PMID:24278244

  5. Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…

  6. Socio-Economic and Ethnic Correlates of Dialect Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markel, Norman N.; Sharpless, Clair Ann

    This study examines the pronunciation characteristics of Negro and white children from different socio-economic classes in Gainesville, Florida. As expected, there are significant differences between the white and Negro children. However, all of the Negroes and the higher whites produce both "General American" and "Southern" dialect…

  7. Explaining the Socio-Economic Status School Completion Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidano, Cain; Hanel, Barbara; Buddelmeyer, Hielke

    2013-01-01

    Relatively low rates of school completion among students from low socio-economic backgrounds is a key driver of intergenerational inequality. Linking data from the Programme for International Student Assessment with data from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth, we use a decomposition framework to explain the gap in school completion rates…

  8. Socio-economic data for global environmental change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Ilona M.; Biewald, Anne; Coumou, Dim; Feulner, Georg; Köhler, Claudia; Nocke, Thomas; Blok, Anders; Gröber, Albert; Selchow, Sabine; Tyfield, David; Volkmer, Ingrid; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim; Beck, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    Subnational socio-economic datasets are required if we are to assess the impacts of global environmental changes and to improve adaptation responses. Institutional and community efforts should concentrate on standardization of data collection methodologies, free public access, and geo-referencing.

  9. Socio-Economic Position and Higher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, Tim N.

    2011-01-01

    The proportion of students enrolled at university from the lowest quartile of socio-economic position has remained static at around 15% for at least the past 15 years (DEEWR, "Transforming Australia's higher education system," 2009). This paper argues that the apparent lack of progress towards equity of access has been exacerbated due to how…

  10. Lunar settlements - A socio-economic outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    Factors in the design and development of a lunar settlement (LS) which affect the performance of the crew members are discussed. Topics examined include LS-program time constraints imposed by decisions made in developing and operating the Space Station; changes to make allowance for the long-term requirements of LSs; the design of the physical, technical, and organic LS environment; and the vital role of group dynamics in assuring LS success. It is suggested that many short-term cost-minimization strategies employed in spacecraft development may be inappropriate for LS programs.

  11. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    PubMed

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research. PMID:24391285

  12. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  13. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  14. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  15. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  16. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  17. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  18. Health Economic Data in Reimbursement of New Medical Technologies: Importance of the Socio-Economic Burden as a Decision-Making Criterion

    PubMed Central

    Iskrov, Georgi; Dermendzhiev, Svetlan; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Tsonka; Stefanov, Rumen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assessment and appraisal of new medical technologies require a balance between the interests of different stakeholders. Final decision should take into account the societal value of new therapies. Objective: This perspective paper discusses the socio-economic burden of disease as a specific reimbursement decision-making criterion and calls for the inclusion of it as a counterbalance to the cost-effectiveness and budget impact criteria. Results/Conclusions: Socio-economic burden is a decision-making criterion, accounting for diseases, for which the assessed medical technology is indicated. This indicator is usually researched through cost-of-illness studies that systematically quantify the socio-economic burden of diseases on the individual and on the society. This is a very important consideration as it illustrates direct budgetary consequences of diseases in the health system and indirect costs associated with patient or carer productivity losses. By measuring and comparing the socio-economic burden of different diseases to society, health authorities and payers could benefit in optimizing priority setting and resource allocation. New medical technologies, especially innovative therapies, present an excellent case study for the inclusion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making. Assessment and appraisal have been greatly concentrated so far on cost-effectiveness and budget impact, marginalizing all other considerations. In this context, data on disease burden and inclusion of explicit criterion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making may be highly beneficial. Realizing the magnitude of the lost socio-economic contribution resulting from diseases in question could be a reasonable way for policy makers to accept a higher valuation of innovative therapies. PMID:27582707

  19. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial "socially" performs in comparison with its alternatives. "Industrial economics" methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a "pragmatic regulatory impact analysis", that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is "pragmatic" in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess "what happens" with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  20. Familial and socio-economic correlates of somatisation disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ladipo, Modupe M.; Irabor, Achiaka E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Somatisation disorder can result from an interplay between suboptimal family environment and socio-economic deprivation, which enhances the underlying cognitive tendency for this disorder. There are pertinent familial and socio-economic factors associated with this disorder, but research addressing this is sparse. Aim and setting The study aims to evaluate family and socio-economic factors that are associated with somatisation disorder amongst patients presenting to the Family Medicine clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods This is an observational case-control study of 120 participants who presented to the clinic between May and August 2009. Data collection was by interviewer-administered structured questionnaire using the World Health Organization Screener for Somatoform Disorder and Somatoform Disorder Schedule to ascertain somatisation in 60 patients who were then matched with 60 controls. The respondents’ demographic and family data were also collected and their interpersonal relationships were assessed with the Family Relationship Index. Results The somatising patients were mostly females (70%), with a female to male ratio of 2.3:1 and mean age of 43.65 ± 13.04years.Living in a polygamous family (as any member of the family) was significantly related to somatisation (p = 0.04). Somatisation was also more common in people who were separated, divorced or widowed (p = 0.039). Somatisers from a lower social class or those earning below a dollar a day experienced poorer cohesion (p = 0.042) and more conflicts (p = 0.019) in their interpersonal relationship. Conclusion This study was able to demonstrate that a polygamous family setting, disrupted marriage, low social status and financial constraints are correlates of somatisation. It is of essence to identify these factors in holistic management of somatising patients. PMID:26245602

  1. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective. PMID:25288814

  2. Scientific soundness and socio-economic realities in reclamation for habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, K.D.

    1997-12-31

    Reclamation projects must balance data requirements for scientifically-sound design with uncertainty and socio-economic constraints. Whether designing for physical stability, cultural benefits or ecological enhancements, the reclamation project can work with or fight natural processes (physical, chemical, biological). Projects which anticipate and design to fit natural processes have greater chances of success with lower short and long-term cost, and with achievement of a greater range of social objectives. However, the cost of anticipating natural processes (succession, geomorphic patterns, etc.) increases the budget allocation at the design stage in order to save on construction and maintenance. In southern Ontario, once design teams recognize that designing for an {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} natural condition is not feasible, they too often revert to conventional, single-objective approaches which compromise design integrity and social benefits. Case studies are reviewed with analysis of alternative approaches that seek to balance ranges of achievable objectives with cost allocation and scientific soundness.

  3. Solar thermal electric power plants - Their performance characteristics and total social costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, R. S.; Truscello, V. C.

    1976-01-01

    The central receiver (power tower) concept as a thermal conversion approach to the conversion of solar energy into electricity is compared to other solar power plant designs which feature distributed solar collection and use other types of solar collector configurations. A variety of solar thermal storage concepts are discussed and their impacts on system performance are assessed. Although a good deal of quantification is possible in a comparative study, the subjective judgments carry enormous weight in a socio-economic decision, the ultimate choice of central power plant being more a social than an economic or technical decision. Major elements of the total social cost of each type of central plant are identified as utility economic costs, R&D funds, health costs, and other relevant social impacts.

  4. Mobile phone call data as a regional socio-economic proxy indicator.

    PubMed

    Šćepanović, Sanja; Mishkovski, Igor; Hui, Pan; Nurminen, Jukka K; Ylä-Jääski, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The advent of publishing anonymized call detail records opens the door for temporal and spatial human dynamics studies. Such studies, besides being useful for creating universal models for mobility patterns, could be also used for creating new socio-economic proxy indicators that will not rely only on the local or state institutions. In this paper, from the frequency of calls at different times of the day, in different small regional units (sub-prefectures) in Côte d'Ivoire, we infer users' home and work sub-prefectures. This division of users enables us to analyze different mobility and calling patterns for the different regions. We then compare how those patterns correlate to the data from other sources, such as: news for particular events in the given period, census data, economic activity, poverty index, power plants and energy grid data. Our results show high correlation in many of the cases revealing the diversity of socio-economic insights that can be inferred using only mobile phone call data. The methods and the results may be particularly relevant to policy-makers engaged in poverty reduction initiatives as they can provide an affordable tool in the context of resource-constrained developing economies, such as Côte d'Ivoire's. PMID:25897957

  5. Mobile Phone Call Data as a Regional Socio-Economic Proxy Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Šćepanović, Sanja; Mishkovski, Igor; Hui, Pan; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Ylä-Jääski, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The advent of publishing anonymized call detail records opens the door for temporal and spatial human dynamics studies. Such studies, besides being useful for creating universal models for mobility patterns, could be also used for creating new socio-economic proxy indicators that will not rely only on the local or state institutions. In this paper, from the frequency of calls at different times of the day, in different small regional units (sub-prefectures) in Côte d'Ivoire, we infer users' home and work sub-prefectures. This division of users enables us to analyze different mobility and calling patterns for the different regions. We then compare how those patterns correlate to the data from other sources, such as: news for particular events in the given period, census data, economic activity, poverty index, power plants and energy grid data. Our results show high correlation in many of the cases revealing the diversity of socio-economic insights that can be inferred using only mobile phone call data. The methods and the results may be particularly relevant to policy-makers engaged in poverty reduction initiatives as they can provide an affordable tool in the context of resource-constrained developing economies, such as Côte d'Ivoire's. PMID:25897957

  6. Socio-Economic Resilience to Floods in 90 Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegatte, S.; Bangalore, M.; Vogt-Schilb, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global losses from floods are increasing, with renewed calls for action to reduce their impact. In each country, region or city, many actions can protect the population and help rebuild and recover: building dikes and restoring mangroves; land-use planning; early warning and evacuation; insurance and social safety nets. What should be the priorities? How to build a comprehensive strategy? Is progress being made? We propose a tool - a national-level scorecard based on welfare economics - to assess a country's socio-economic resilience to river floods and identify the most promising policy options in different contexts to reduce the impact of floods on well-being. The tool is applied to 90 countries using open databases, and can serve as a starting point for designing policies and more in-depth local studies.

  7. Socio-economic impact of astronomy in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In South Africa, a country where almost half the population lives in poverty, we have built the multi-million dollar Southern African Large Telescope, we have begun on the even more expensive Karoo Array Telescope, and we are one of the two finalists bidding to host the multi-billion dollar Square Kilometre Array! In trying to communicate astronomy to the public, how do we justify such spending to a family in a rural area living in poverty? This presentation will expand on efforts in South Africa, specifically the SALT Collateral Benefits Programme, which are trying to answer these seemingly difficult questions. The socio-economic impact of astronomy on societies, especiallythose in the vicinity of these large telescope projects, will be investigated, with examples and experiences being shared, especially from the sparsely populated Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

  8. The need for and use of socio-economic scenarios for climate change analysis: A new approach based on shared socio-economic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegler, Elmar; O'Neill, Brian; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Lempert, Rob; Moss, Richard H.; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    A new set of socioeconomic scenarios (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways) are described that provide a set of global narratives and socio-economic pathways to pair with climate model scenarios developed using the new Representative Concentration Pathways.

  9. Socio-economic gradients in psychological distress: a focus on women, social roles and work-home characteristics.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Sharon; Power, Chris

    2002-03-01

    A focus in the literature on determinants of women's health is the cost and benefit of occupying multiple roles as employee, spouse, and mother, yet little attention has been given to the work and home characteristics of different roles for women in paid and unpaid work. The impact of work-home factors on socio-economic gradients in health has also tended to be overlooked. This paper assesses the contribution of work-home factors on socio-economic differences in psychological distress among women, using data from the 1958 British birth cohort. Outcome measures include psychological distress and social class at age 33. Work-home measures include: (1) roles--employment, marital status, domestic responsibility and parental status (2) work characteristics--psychosocial job strain, insecurity, unsocial working hours, and (3) home characteristics youngest child's age, total number of children, childcare responsibilities and having an older adult in the household (over 70 years). A social gradient in psychological distress exists: the odds ratio (OR) for classes IV and V versus. I and II was 3.02, adjusting for prior psychological distress reduces this to 2.36. Whilst, work and home factors were associated separately with distress and social class, the combined effect of work and home factors did not account for the class gradient in distress. This surprising result therefore implicates factors beyond adult social roles examined here in the development of socio-economic gradients. PMID:11999494

  10. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  11. Socio-Economic Gradients in Maternal and Child Health-Seeking Behaviours in Egypt: Systematic Literature Review and Evidence Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Benova, Lenka; Campbell, Oona M. R.; Ploubidis, George B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Health-seeking behaviour lies on the direct pathway between socio-economic position (SEP) and health outcomes. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and synthesise evidence of socio-economic gradients in health-seeking behaviours related to maternal and child health in Egypt. Methods Four databases (Medline, Embase, Global Health and Web of Science) were searched in September 2013 for material published in English from 1992 to 2013 for a combination of terms describing health-seeking behaviours, indicators of socio-economic position and geographical limitation to Egypt. Findings of studies were described and synthesised in a narrative format as meta-analysis was not possible. Findings Among the 786 references identified, 10 articles met the inclusion criteria. Six studies examined maternal and five studies child health-seeking behaviours (one study examined both). For maternal health, three dimensions of health-seeking behaviour (receipt of any care, type of care and intensity of care) were covered by studies of ante-natal and one dimension (type of care) by analyses of delivery care. For child health, two dimensions of preventive care (coverage of and intensity of immunisation) and three dimensions of curative care (receipt of any care, type and cost of care) were analysed. Conclusions Based on two studies of time trends in nationally-representative surveys, socio-economic inequalities in seeking care for basic preventive and curative interventions in maternal and child health appear to have narrowed. Limited evidence of gradients in intensity of maternal preventive and provider selection in child curative care showed that inequalities may have widened. In studies of more geographically and socially homogeneous samples, fewer gradients were identified. Current body of evidence contains numerous limitations and gaps and is insufficient to draw a conclusive summary of such gradients. Improved understanding of SEP gradients is crucial in

  12. Socio-economic Value Analysis in Geospatial and Earth Observation: A methodology review (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coote, A. M.; Bernknopf, R.; Smart, A.

    2013-12-01

    Many industries have long since realised that applying macro-economic analysis methodologies to assess the socio-economic value of a programme is a critical step to convincing decision makers to authorise investment. The geospatial and earth observation industry has however been slow to embrace economic analysis. There are however a growing number of studies, published in the last few years, that have applied economic principles to this domain. They have adopted a variety of different approaches, including: - Computable General Equilibrium Modelling (CGE) - Revealed preference, stated preference (Willingness to Pay surveys) - Partial Analysis - Simulations - Cost-benefit analysis (with and without risk analysis) This paper will critically review these approaches and assess their applicability to different situations and to meet multiple objectives.

  13. Study on the water related disaster risks using the future socio-economic scenario in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.

  14. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  15. Women's Socio-Economic Development in India: The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Jacobs (2000) and McLean (2000) affirm the need to expand boundaries of HRD to include multiple topics in a variety of contexts. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) provide possibilities and limitations for the socio-economic development of women in India. The roles of NGOs in serving the socio-economic needs of women provide a broader,…

  16. Institutional Strategies for Capturing Socio-Economic Impact of Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoble, Rosa; Dickson, Keith; Hanney, Steve; Rodgers, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of socio-economic impact is an emerging theme for publicly-funded academic research. Within this context, the paper suggests that the concept of institutional research capital be expanded to include the capture and evaluation of socio-economic impact. Furthermore, it argues that understanding the typology of impacts and the tracking…

  17. A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Socio-Economic Position and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidlow, Christopher; Johnston, Lynne Halley; Crone, Diane; Ellis, Naomi; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present review was to examine epidemiological evidence to determine if there is strong evidence of a positive gradient of increasing physical activity across the socio-economic strata, and how relationships are affected by socio-economic measurement. Design: Systematic review. Method: A search of major databases was…

  18. 77 FR 68104 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Profile of Small-Scale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ...-Economic Profile of Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries in the U.S. Caribbean AGENCY: National Oceanic and... socio-economic data about small scale fishermen and seafood dealers operating in the U.S. Caribbean. The...-economic performance of small- scale fleets, and evaluate the socio-economic impacts of Federal...

  19. Public and Private Schools: How Management and Funding Relate to Their Socio-Economic Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In most PISA-participating countries and economies, the average socio-economic background of students who attend privately managed schools is more advantaged than that of those who attend public schools. Yet in some countries, there is little difference in the socio-economic profiles between public and private schools. Why? An analysis of PISA…

  20. A Study on Relationship between Personality and Socio Economic Status of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Xavier, Amaladoss

    2015-01-01

    Personality covers the whole nature of the individual. Socio Economic Status refers to the position that an individual and family occupies with reference to prevailing average standards, cultural possession and participation in group activity of community. This paper reports on relationship between Personality and Socio Economic Status of student…

  1. Socio-Economic Status and Language Acquisition: Children's Performance on the New Reynell Developmental Language Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letts, Carolyn; Edwards, Susan; Sinka, Indra; Schaefer, Blanca; Gibbons, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies in recent years have indicated a link between socio-economic status (SES) of families and children's language development, including studies that have measured children's language through formal standardized test procedures. High numbers of children with low performance have been found in lower socio-economic groups in…

  2. Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-01-01

    Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

  3. The political mobilization of corporate directors: socio-economic correlates of affiliation to European pressure groups.

    PubMed

    Bond, Matthew; Glouharova, Siana; Harrigan, Nicholas

    2010-06-01

    Business has played a central role in the debate over Britain's place in the European Union. This paper examines the socio-economic characteristics of directors of Britain's largest corporations who affiliated either to Business for Sterling or Britain in Europe. It reports associations between directors' social backgrounds and their probabilities of affiliation. Elite university education, club membership, wealth and multiple directorships were all associated with higher propensities to affiliate. The associations are consistent with the idea that directors' social resources allow them to overcome collective action problems as well as supplying them with the motivations to affiliate. They also indicated that directors form a privileged group in that they have a number of very powerful actors who can take unilateral political actions. PMID:20579056

  4. Diet quality in older age: the influence of childhood and adult socio-economic circumstances.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Janice L; Ramsay, Sheena E; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2015-05-14

    Socio-economic gradients in diet quality are well established. However, the influence of material socio-economic conditions particularly in childhood, and the use of multiple disaggregated socio-economic measures on diet quality have been little studied in the elderly. In the present study, we examined childhood and adult socio-economic measures, and social relationships, as determinants of diet quality cross-sectionally in 4252 older British men (aged 60-79 years). A FFQ provided data on daily fruit and vegetable consumption and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), with higher scores indicating better diet quality. Adult and childhood socio-economic measures included occupation/father's occupation, education and household amenities, which combined to create composite scores. Social relationships included social contact, living arrangements and marital status. Both childhood and adult socio-economic factors were independently associated with diet quality. Compared with non-manual social class, men of childhood manual social class were less likely to consume fruit and vegetables daily (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66, 0.97), as were men of adult manual social class (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54, 0.79), and less likely to be in the top EDI quartile (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61, 0.88), similar to men of adult manual social class (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.55, 0.79). Diet quality decreased with increasing adverse adult socio-economic scores; however, the association with adverse childhood socio-economic scores diminished with adult social class adjustment. A combined adverse childhood and adulthood socio-economic score was associated with poor diet quality. Diet quality was most favourable in married men and those not living alone, but was not associated with social contact. Diet quality in older men is influenced by childhood and adulthood socio-economic factors, marital status and living arrangements. PMID:25827289

  5. Socio-economic status and overall and cause-specific mortality in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Weires, Marianne; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported discrepancies in cause-specific mortality among groups of individuals with different socio-economic status. However, most of the studies were limited by the specificity of the investigated populations and the broad definitions of the causes of death. The aim of the present population-based study was to explore the dependence of disease specific mortalities on the socio-economic status in Sweden, a country with universal health care. Another aim was to investigate possible gender differences. Methods Using the 2006 update of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we identified over 2 million individuals with socio-economic data recorded in the 1960 national census. The association between mortality and socio-economic status was investigated by Cox's proportional hazards models taking into account the age, time period and residential area in both men and women, and additionally parity and age at first birth in women. Results We observed significant associations between socio-economic status and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, to cancer and to endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The influence of socio-economic status on female breast cancer was markedly specific: women with a higher socio-economic status showed increased mortality due to breast cancer. Conclusion Even in Sweden, a country where health care is universally provided, higher socio-economic status is associated with decreased overall and cause-specific mortalities. Comparison of mortality among female and male socio-economic groups may provide valuable insights into the underlying causes of socio-economic inequalities in length of life. PMID:18826562

  6. Integrating natural and socio-economic science in coastal management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, R. Kerry

    2000-07-01

    The future more sustainable management of coastal resources is an important policy goal for all governments of countries with coastlines. Coastal areas are under intense environmental change pressure with extensive feedback effects between the natural systems and the human systems. It could be argued that there is just one jointly determined and coevolving system that needs to be studied and managed. Understanding the interactions between the coastal zone and environmental change cannot be achieved by observational studies alone. Modelling of key environmental and socio-economic processes is a vital tool, required to buttress coastal management institutions and practice. Three overlapping procedural stages can be identified in the coastal resource assessment process. The scoping and auditing stage, implemented via a 'pressure-state-impact-response' framework, details, among other thing, problems, system boundaries and value conflicts. The framework is itself based on a conceptual model, which lays stress on functional value diversity and the links between ecosystem processes, functions and outputs of goods and services which are deemed 'valuable' by society. The two subsequent stages are integrated modelling, combining natural and social science methodologies, and evaluation of management options and related gains and losses. An overview of a research project, which utilised the pressure-state-impacts-response (P-S-I-R) framework and supporting concepts and methods, is presented in the last section of the paper, together with some generic 'lessons' for interdisciplinary research.

  7. Dynamic impacts of socio-economic development in rural Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several development policies and programs have been enacted to improve the economic vitality, social well-being, and quality of life in rural communities. Predominant among these is the attempt by many rural communities to attract or expand industry to promote economic growth. The main objective of this study is to develop a dynamic interactive model that accommodates the projection of socio economic growth and the impact of additional employment from a new plant in a rural community. The economic account contains projections of business activities, income and employment by sector. A local input-output model is constructed by using the location quotient technique. The Leontief dynamic input-output framework is used to project the output levels by economic sector while considering capital replacement and expansion requirements as well as current consumption. The demographic account uses an age-sex cohort survival method to project population. The annual local labor force is estimated by labor participation rates for each age and sex cohort, and is used to determine the migration activities required to match employment requirements. The public service account is projected by the average standards method, and includes age-specific usage coefficients for local areas. The projections encompass education, medical, housing, criminal justice, fire protection, water supply, water treatment, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and transportation requirements.

  8. Socio-economic status of workers of building construction industry

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P. K.; Biswas, S.; Nayak, K.; Chatterjee, M. K.; Chakraborty, D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. Material and Methods: The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. Results and Conclusion: The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here. PMID:23580836

  9. Rare Malignancies in Eastern India, Socio-Economic Impact

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Surendranath; Samanta, Diptirani; Mishra, Saumyaranjan; Bose, Chaitali

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development. PMID:27441070

  10. Rare Malignancies in Eastern India, Socio-Economic Impact.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Surendranath; Samanta, Diptirani; Mishra, Saumyaranjan; Bose, Chaitali

    2016-06-28

    The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development. PMID:27441070

  11. HEALTH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH KHAT CONSUMPTION

    PubMed Central

    Ageely, Hussein M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of the stimulant leaf Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is widespread in several countries of East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The leaf comes from a small evergreen shrub that can grow to the size of a tree. Young buds and tender leaves are chewed to attain a state of euphoria and stimulation. Khat leaves contain cathinones, an active brain stimulant that is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamines. Like amphetamines, Khat ingestion in low doses results in decreased appetite, euphoria, increased intellectual efficiency, and hyperalertness. High doses and chronic use of Khat can cause more serious adverse neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular, dental, gastrointestinal and genitourinary effects. Besides damaging health, Khat has adverse socio-economic consequences effects on many other aspects of life including the loss of thousands of acres of arable land and billions of hours of work. The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the adverse consequences of habitual chewing of Khat on health, and help educate the general public. The study is based on literature review that includes internet search and journals. PMID:23012161

  12. Strategic considerations in Indian space programme—Towards maximising socio-economic benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Madhusudan, H. N.

    2008-07-01

    Strategic thinking and planning have been the hallmarks of Indian space programme, whose objectives are sharply focused on deriving socio-economic benefits of space technology. The purpose of this paper is to identify various strategies, which played a role in different phases of the programme, contributing to social and economic outcomes and effectiveness. While self-reliant development of technological capacity and evaluation of applications with involvement of users formed the backbone of strategy in the initial phase of the programme, subsequent strategies were centred on development of organisational culture and systems, industry role and promotion of spin offs. Other strategies dealt with the response to challenges inherent in space endeavours in terms of risk management, sustainability, investments and long-term commitments, judicious make or buy decisions, safeguard of sensitive technologies, space commerce and finally harmonising international cooperation with national objectives. The strategies in the programme were consistently driven by a clear-cut vision and objectives to develop and use space technology in diverse areas where space systems become relevant for socio-economic development such as telecommunications and broadcasting, meteorology, disaster management support, remote sensing of natural and anthropogenic phenomena, and positioning and navigation services. This paper synthesises various studies and experiences in India in order to analyse strategies in the face of changes in technology, application needs and international policies. It also examines the effectiveness of these strategies in terms of economic and social costs and benefits. Based on the above analysis, a typical conceptual model for use of space for development is suggested.

  13. Costing the satellite power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for satellite power system costing, places approximate limits on the accuracy possible in cost estimates made at this time, and outlines the use of probabilistic cost information in support of the decision-making process. Reasons for using probabilistic costing or risk analysis procedures instead of standard deterministic costing procedures are considered. Components of cost, costing estimating relationships, grass roots costing, and risk analysis are discussed. Risk analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation model is used to estimate future costs.

  14. Socio-economic cultural transformations and Depression in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Stranieri, Giuseppe; Carabetta, Carmelo

    2015-09-01

    The socio-economic and cultural evolution in the last decades encouraged a significant process of transformation of the life conditions in advanced societies, particularly the average duration of the life of the elderly population, which since the second half of the past century has increased by about 60%, becoming from an average of fifty years to about eighty two for women and eighty for men. This phenomenon enables scholars and in particular demography scholars, to assume that in 2030 the number of elderly persons will reach about two billion worldwide. This development of an increasingly longer life expectancy, justifies the trust in the great progress that characterizes our society. The rapid growth of this segment of population, due to the improved living conditions and the related progress in science, technology and medicine, in addition to its positive aspects, also includes negative elements, which already affect the Welfare State and, more generally, the public administration that is called to fill the gaps that the transformation of the family and kinship networks have treated with indifference. The problems of the increasingly long-lived, is not freed from new elements of negativity related to the physical and mental decline that leads to the development of new diseases in addition to those already present, ans is increasingly motivated to seek the best remedies to shorten or eliminate the diseases of the elderly. In this context, Depression assumes a central dimension which will surely be a central concern for the economic, social and health impact and for the multitude of changes that put in crisis many of the traditional institutions. This work aims to analyze through a careful review of the scientific literature, the causes of the spread of this disease, the diagnostic difficulties and possible solutions for prevention and care. PMID:26417765

  15. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A. D.; Mattah, Memuna M.; Armah, Frederick A.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O.

    2016-01-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants’ perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities. PMID:26821039

  16. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A D; Mattah, Memuna M; Armah, Frederick A; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O

    2016-02-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana's economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants' perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities. PMID:26821039

  17. Problem-Solving Behavior of First Grade Children From Differing Socio-Economic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Charles D.; Mortenson, W. Paul

    1973-01-01

    Describes investigation designed to determine if differences in socio-economic level and sex affect the development of strategies used by first grade students in attempting to solve a scientific problem involving simple machines. (JR)

  18. Associations between forest characteristics and socio-economic development: a case study from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sónia Carvalho; Lovett, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    The integration of socio-economic and environmental objectives is a major challenge in developing strategies for sustainable landscapes. We investigated associations between socio-economic variables, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition in the context of Portugal. The main goals of the study were to 1) investigate relationships between forest conditions and measures of socio-economic development at national and regional scales, 2) test the hypothesis that a systematic variation in forest landscape metrics occurs according to the stage of socio-economic development and, 3) assess the extent to which landscape metrics can inform strategies to enhance forest sustainability. A ranking approach and statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis were used to achieve these objectives. Relationships between socio-economic characteristics, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition were only significant in the regional analysis of municipalities in Northern Portugal. Landscape metrics for different tree species displayed significant variations across socio-economic groups of municipalities and these differences were consistent with changes in characteristics suggested by the forest transition model. The use of metrics also helped inform place-specific strategies to improve forest management, though it was also apparent that further work was required to better incorporate differences in forest functions into sustainability planning. PMID:18848746

  19. Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: a mixed-methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R; Ogilvie, David

    2012-06-01

    Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009-2010). Even in Britain's leading 'cycling city', cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a 'park-and-ride' site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could 'afford' to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio-economic

  20. Physical-Socio-Economic Modeling of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Vatan, F.

    2008-12-01

    Because of the global nature of climate change, any assessment of the effects of plans, policies, and response to climate change demands a model that encompasses the entire Earth System, including socio- economic factors. Physics-based climate models of the factors that drive global temperatures, rainfall patterns, and sea level are necessary but not sufficient to guide decision making. Actions taken by farmers, industrialists, environmentalists, politicians, and other policy makers may result in large changes to economic factors, international relations, food production, disease vectors, and beyond. These consequences will not be felt uniformly around the globe or even across a given region. Policy models must comprehend all of these considerations. Combining physics-based models of the Earth's climate and biosphere with societal models of population dynamics, economics, and politics is a grand challenge with high stakes. We propose to leverage our recent advances in modeling and simulation of military stability and reconstruction operations to models that address all these areas of concern. Following over twenty years' experience of successful combat simulation, JPL has started developing Minerva, which will add demographic, economic, political, and media/information models to capabilities that already exist. With these new models, for which we have design concepts, it will be possible to address a very wide range of potential national and international problems that were previously inaccessible. Our climate change model builds on Minerva and expands the geographical horizon from playboxes containing regions and neighborhoods to the entire globe. This system consists of a collection of interacting simulation models that specialize in different aspects of the global situation. They will each contribute to and draw from a pool of shared data. The basic models are: the physical model; the demographic model; the political model; the economic model; and the media

  1. Solar power satellite cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harron, R. J.; Wadle, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The solar power configuration costed is the 5 GW silicon solar cell reference system. The subsystems identified by work breakdown structure elements to the lowest level for which cost information was generated. This breakdown divides into five sections: the satellite, construction, transportation, the ground receiving station and maintenance. For each work breakdown structure element, a definition, design description and cost estimate were included. An effort was made to include for each element a reference that more thoroughly describes the element and the method of costing used. All costs are in 1977 dollars.

  2. A comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators for fishery management in SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasalla, Maria A.; Rodrigues, Amanda R.; Duarte, Luis F. A.; Rashid Sumaila, U.

    2010-10-01

    One of the problems in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management is the lack of economic analyses which clearly define the performance of different fishing fleets within the system. We describe a comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators applicable for inclusion into ecosystem modeling and management. Based on a survey of different industrial fishing fleets in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, an inter-fleet comparison of economic attributes such as investment, fixed costs, effort, labour, sailing-related costs and profits, as well as a set of performance indicators, was conducted. Costs varied between fleets with fuel being the largest component on average, representing almost 37% of total costs. Similarities between fleets were driven by fuel costs, gross incomes and profits. In general, the best economic performance was associated with indicators of profitability and economic efficiency. Bottom-longliners and both surface and bottom-gillnet fleets showed the best economic performance per fishing trip due to their low percentage of variable costs. Purse-seiners and pink-shrimp trawlers had the lowest average rate of return and economic efficiency because of their high variable costs and relatively low catch values, and were considered economically net losers. However, in terms of jobs generated, purse-seiners had the greatest value creating about 49% of total jobs by all fleets. The sea-bob-shrimp fleet had the lowest crew size per vessel but generated the second highest total number of direct jobs (23%), with high economic viability as a whole. The inter-fleet cost and socio-economic performance analysis revealed that additional attention should be given to the poor profitability and overcapacity of fleets, fishing impacts, and open-access related issues, while social indicators may also be considered. This study provides information useful for evaluating different fisheries management scenarios and fleet size optimization in the South

  3. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Adherence challenges in environments of low socio-economic status

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The efficacy of treatment for clients with diabetes is highly dependent on the individual's ability to manage the disease. Several constraints, such as poverty, illiteracy and insufficient resources (finances and specialised healthcare professionals), especially communities of low socio-economic status, could influence clients’ ability to manage their disease. Aim The main aim of this study was to outline the obstacles encountered by individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus from an urban community with regard to management of their disease. Setting The study was conducted at a primary health care facility in the Western Cape, South Africa. Methods Ethical clearance was obtained from all relevant authorities. Eight (8) conveniently selected clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus per participating community healthcare centre (six approved centres in total) were invited to take part in focus group discussions. Twenty six clients, 15 females and 11 males, with a mean age of 58.92 years (SD = 7.33), agreed to participate. Audiotaped data were transcribed verbatim followed by content analysis and identification of themes. Results Themes that emerged were challenges with: a healthy eating plan, physical activity, financial constraints, other people's understanding of the disease, and service received at the community healthcare centre. Verbatim quotes were used to exemplify the themes. Conclusion Clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus experienced several challenges in the management of their disease. These challenges should be addressed to assist with better glycaemic control and to curb the emergence of diabetic complications and their attendant cost implications. PMID:26245413

  4. Is therapeutic judgement influenced by the patient's socio-economic status? A factorial vignette survey.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Esben Elholm; Morville, Anne-Le; Larsen, Anette Enemark; Hansen, Tina

    2016-07-01

    Background In Denmark patients are entitled to rehabilitation regardless of socio-economic status (SES). During this process therapists have to balance cost effectiveness with providing equal treatment. Aim To investigate whether occupational therapists and physiotherapists were influenced by the patient's SES. Material and method An experimental factorial vignette survey was used. Four different vignettes describing fictitious patient cases with different SES variables were randomly allocated to therapists working in somatic hospitals. Thereafter, the therapists judged specific clinical situations and general attitudes in relation to the patient's SES. Chi-square was used to test the statistical association between the variables. Results No statistically significant associations were found between the specific clinical situations and the patient's SES. A statistical significant association was found between general attitudes and the patient's SES. Subgroup analysis revealed a statistically significant association between the therapist's gender, age, and the therapeutic judgement in relation to SES. Conclusion In the specific clinical situations, Danish therapists seem to maintain their professional ethical principles, although they might face ethical dilemmas during their clinical decision-making. In order to prevent and resolve these dilemmas, they have to be made explicit. However, further research on how SES influences the health care professional's judgement is warranted. PMID:26982521

  5. Study for urbanization corresponding to socio-economic activities in Savannaket, Laos using satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

    2014-06-01

    In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development.

  6. The Innovative Socio-economic Interventions Against Tuberculosis (ISIAT) project: an operational assessment

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, C.; Montoya, R.; Zevallos, K.; Curatola, A.; Ynga, W.; Franco, J.; Fernandez, F.; Becerra, N.; Sabaduche, M.; Tovar, M. A.; Ramos, E.; Tapley, A.; Allen, N. R.; Onifade, D. A.; Acosta, C. D.; Maritz, M.; Concha, D. F.; Schumacher, S. G.; Evans, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    SETTING Tuberculosis (TB) affected households in impoverished shantytowns, Lima, Peru. OBJECTIVE To evaluate socio-economic interventions for strengthening TB control by improving uptake of TB care and prevention services. DESIGN Barriers to TB control were characterised by interviews with TB-affected families. To reduce these barriers, a multidisciplinary team offered integrated community and household socio-economic interventions aiming to: 1) enhance uptake of TB care by education, community mobilisation and psychosocial support; and 2) reduce poverty through food and cash transfers, microcredit, microenterprise and vocational training. An interim analysis was performed after the socio-economic interventions had been provided for 2078 people in 311 households of newly diagnosed TB patients for up to 34 months. RESULTS Poverty (46% earned socio-economic interventions were associated with increases in household contact TB screening (from 82% to 96%); successful TB treatment completion (from 91% to 97%); patient human immunodeficiency virus testing (from 31% to 97%); and completion of preventive therapy (from 27% to 87%; all P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Socio-economic interventions can strengthen TB control activities. PMID:21740659

  7. Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980 - 2011).

    PubMed

    Sede, Peter I; Ohemeng, Williams

    2015-01-01

    Attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020 is one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria using data from 1980-2011. Judging from the endogeneity feature of the variables, A VAR and VECM frameworks were employed. Socio-economic features were proxy by secondary school enrolment, government expenditure on health, per capita income, unemployment rate and the Naira foreign exchange rate. It was found that, the conventional socio-economic variables such as per capita income, education and government expenditure on health considered to be highly effective in determining life expectancy of developing countries are not significant in the case of Nigeria. The study however suggests that, life expectancy in Nigeria could be improved if attention is given to quality of government health expenditure, unemployment and measures to halt the depreciation of the Nigerian Naira against major foreign currency. PMID:25853000

  8. Welcome from the policies, socio-economic aspects, and health systems research section.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Anna; Walls, Helen L; Backholer, Kathryn; Sacks, Gary; Abdullah, Asnawi

    2015-01-01

    At BMC Obesity, the Policies, Socio-economic Aspects, and Health Systems Research Section provides an opportunity to submit research focussed on what we need to know to support implementation of obesity policies most likely to achieve substantial, sustainable and equitable reductions in the prevalence of obesity globally. Here, we present the aims and objectives of this section, hearing from each of the Associate Editors in turn. The ambition of the Policies, Socio-economic Aspects, and Health Systems Research Section is to foster innovative research combining scientific quality with real world experience. We envisage this will include research addressing the structural drivers of obesity, solution oriented research, research addressing socio-economic inequalities in obesity and obesity prevention in low and middle income countries. We look forward to stimulating research to advance both the methods and substance required to drive uptake of effective and equitable obesity reduction policies globally. PMID:26217538

  9. Cultural and Socio-Economic Factors on Changes in Aging among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008). The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women’s financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences. PMID:24762357

  10. Coastal vulnerability assessment with the use of environmental and socio-economic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Vousdoukas, Mixalis; Ghionis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has significant repercussions on the natural environment, triggering obvious changes in the natural processes that have a severe socio-economic impact on the coastal zone; where a great number of human activities are concentrated. So far, the estimation of coastal vulnerability was based primarily on the natural processes and less on socio-economic variables, which would assist in the identification of vulnerable areas. The present investigation proposes a methodology to examine the vulnerability of a highly touristic area in the Island of Crete to an expected sea level rise of up to ~40 cm by the year 2100, according to the A1B scenario of IPCC 2007. The methodology includes the combination of socio-economic indicators into a GIS-based coastal vulnerability index for wave-induced erosion. This approach includes three sub-indices that contribute equally to the overall index. The sub-indices refer to coastal forcing, socio-economic and coastal characteristics. All variables are ranked on a 1-5 scale with 5 indicating higher vulnerability. The socio-economic sub-index includes, as indicators, the population of the study area, cultural heritage sites, transport networks, land use and protection measures. The coastal forcing sub-index includes the frequency of extreme events, while the Coastal Vulnerability Index includes the geological variables (coastal geomorphology, historical coastline changes, and regional coastal slope) and the variables representing the marine processes (relative sea level rise, mean significant wave height, and tidal range). The main difficulty for the estimation of the index lies in assessing and ranking the socio-economic indicators. The whole approach was tested and validated through field and desktop studies, using as a case study the Elouda bay, Crete Isl., an area of high cultural and economic value, which combines monuments from ancient and medieval times, with a very high touristic development since the 1970s.

  11. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2016-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  12. Development of an integrated methodology for the sustainable environmental and socio-economic management of river ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Koundouri, P; Ker Rault, P; Pergamalis, V; Skianis, V; Souliotis, I

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Water Framework Directive aimed to establish an integrated framework of water management at European level. This framework revolves around inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and ground waters. In the process of achieving the environment and ecological objectives set from the Directive, the role of economics is put in the core of the water management. An important feature of the Directive is the recovery of total economic cost of water services by all users. The total cost of water services can be disaggregated into environmental, financial and resource costs. Another important aspect of the directive is the identification of major drivers and pressures in each River Basin District. We describe a methodology that is aiming to achieve sustainable and environmental and socioeconomic management of freshwater ecosystem services. The Ecosystem Services Approach is in the core of the suggested methodology for the implementation of a more sustainable and efficient water management. This approach consists of the following three steps: (i) socio-economic characterization of the River Basin area, (ii) assessment of the current recovery of water use cost, and (iii) identification and suggestion of appropriate programs of measures for sustainable water management over space and time. This methodology is consistent with a) the economic principles adopted explicitly by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), b) the three-step WFD implementation approach adopted in the WATECO document, c) the Ecosystem Services Approach to valuing freshwater goods and services to humans. Furthermore, we analyze how the effects of multiple stressors and socio-economic development can be quantified in the context of freshwater resources management. We also attempt to estimate the value of four ecosystem services using the benefit transfer approach for the Anglian River Basin, which showed the significance of such services. PMID:26277441

  13. Electric power substation capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, J.E.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-12-01

    The displacement or deferral of substation equipment is a key benefit associated with several technologies that are being developed with the support of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. This could occur, for example, as a result of installing a distributed generating resource within an electricity distribution system. The objective of this study was to develop a model for preparing preliminary estimates of substation capital costs based on rudimentary conceptual design information. The model is intended to be used by energy systems analysts who need ``ballpark`` substation cost estimates to help establish the value of advanced utility technologies that result in the deferral or displacement of substation equipment. This cost-estimating model requires only minimal inputs. More detailed cost-estimating approaches are recommended when more detailed design information is available. The model was developed by collecting and evaluating approximately 20 sets of substation design and cost data from about 10 US sources, including federal power marketing agencies and private and public electric utilities. The model is principally based on data provided by one of these sources. Estimates prepared with the model were compared with estimated and actual costs for the data sets received from the other utilities. In general, good agreement (for conceptual level estimating) was found between estimates prepared with the cost-estimating model and those prepared by the individual utilities. Thus, the model was judged to be adequate for making preliminary estimates of typical substation costs for US utilities.

  14. [Public health in major socio-economic crisis].

    PubMed

    Cosmacini, G

    2014-01-01

    The term "crisis" in different cultures (such as ancient Greece or China) can have a positive meaning, since it indicates a time of growth, change and opportunity. Over the centuries there have been times of severe economic and social crisis that led to the implementation of major reforms and improved population health. Nowadays, despite the new economic crisis which has also affected health care for its rising costs, health economics does not hesitate to affirm the importance of key objectives such as prevention and medical assistance. Prevention is not prediction. Prevention means "going upstream" and fixing a problem at the source; the goal is to reduce diseases' effects, causes and risk factors, thereby reducing the prevalence of costly medical conditions. PMID:25486685

  15. Socio-Economic Affects of Floods on Female Teachers in Jampur (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of…

  16. International Students' Perceptions of Race and Socio-Economic Status in an American Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Zachary S.

    2016-01-01

    International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…

  17. Socio-Economic Status, Parenting Practices and Early Learning at French Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlégan, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory…

  18. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  19. Socio-Economic Status Affects Sentence Repetition, but Not Non-Word Repetition, in Chilean Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balladares, Jaime; Marshall, Chloë; Griffiths, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Sentence repetition and non-word repetition tests are widely used measures of language processing which are sensitive to language ability. Surprisingly little previous work has investigated whether children's socio-economic status (SES) affects their sentence and non-word repetition accuracy. This study investigates sentence and non-word…

  20. Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Australian Mining Towns: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonts, Matthew; Plummer, Paul; Lawrie, Misty

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the links between resource dependence and socio-economic wellbeing has long been a subject of interest amongst social scientists in North America. By contrast, relatively few Australian studies exist on this topic. This is despite the significant role of resource industries in shaping Australia's economic and social geography. Where…

  1. How Do Epistemological Beliefs Differ by Gender and Socio-Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…

  2. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…

  3. Statistical Analysis of Different Socio Economic Factors Affecting Education of N-W.F.P (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Atta Ur; Uddin, Salah

    2009-01-01

    A data of students in the urban and rural area institutions of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group was collected to examine the different socio-economic factor which affects our education system. The logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate)…

  4. The Socio-Economic Circumstances of Children at Risk of Disability in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Our aims were to describe the socio-economic circumstances faced by families supporting a child at risk of disability and to investigate the extent to which disability is associated with hardship once family income is held constant. We analysed data on 7070 family units containing 12,916 children aged under 17. Families supporting a child at risk…

  5. Attitudes towards the Euro: An Empirical Study Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isengard, Bettina; Schneider, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates changing attitudes towards the euro over time in Germany using longitudinal micro-data from the German Socio Economic Panel Study. We observe that a large part of the German population was worried about the new currency both before and after its introduction. Social psychological theories provide insight into these…

  6. How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20– to 65-year-old...

  7. Socio-Economic Status and Academic Achievement Trajectories from Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.

    2009-01-01

    Although a positive relationship between socio-economic status and academic achievement is well-established, how it varies with age is not. This article uses four data points from Canada's National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to examine how the academic achievement gap attributed to SES changes from childhood to adolescence…

  8. Socio-Economic Background and Access to Internet as Correlates of Students' Achievement in Agricultural Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegoke, Sunday Paul; Osokoya, Modupe M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated access to internet and socio-economic background as correlates of students' achievement in Agricultural Science among selected Senior Secondary Schools Two Students in Ogbomoso South and North Local Government Areas. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique. Simple random sampling was used to select 30 students from…

  9. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  10. The Changing Face of America: Population, Education, and Socio-Economic. Manpower Report 87-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisack, J. P.

    This Manpower Report presents charts and graphs that reflect the increased growth of U.S. minority populations and discusses this growth in terms of population distribution and change, education, socio-economic trends, employment trends, and literacy. By the year 2000, the U.S. population will be less than 76 percent White and more than 24 percent…

  11. Socio-Economic Background, Senior Secondary Mathematics, and Post-Secondary Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeoh, Eng; Leigh-Lancaster, David

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between socio-economic background and completion of senior secondary mathematics study leading to various post-schooling pathways has been an area of keen interest to researchers, school systems and policy makers for some time. This paper briefly considers some aspects of this relationship using recent Victorian data relating to…

  12. Diet of Finnish children in relation to the family's socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, S; Räsänen, L; Viikari, J; Akerblom, H K

    1995-06-01

    The differences between higher and lower socio-economic groups in food consumption, energy intake and nutrient density of the diet of Finnish 9- to 15-year-old children were examined in a study performed within the project entitled Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns. Data on food consumption were collected using the 48-hour recall method. Family's socio-economic status was defined according to the father's educational level, his occupation, and family income. Children of families with higher socio-economic status used more fruit, low-fat milk, soft vegetable margarine and less high-fat milk, butter, rye products and coffee than did the children of families with lower socioeconomic status. Consequently, the main differences appeared in the fat, vitamin D, vitamin C and fatty acid content of the diet. Differences in energy intake and in mineral density of the diet were minor. If these childhood dietary differences remain in adulthood, it is possible that the present disparity between socio-economic groups in mortality from coronary heart disease will not disappear. PMID:7676224

  13. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  14. Inequalities in child mortality in Mozambique: differentials by parental socio-economic position.

    PubMed

    Macassa, Gloria; Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus; Bernhardt, Eva; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo

    2003-12-01

    This study investigates the relation between socio-economic parental position (education and occupation) and child death in Mozambique using data from the Mozambican Demographic and Health Survey carried out between March and July 1997. The analysis included 9142 children born within 10 years before the survey. In spite of the Western system of classification used in the study, the results partly showed a parental socio-economic gradient of infant and child mortality in Mozambique. Father's education seemed to reflect the family's social standing in the Mozambique context, showing a strong statistical association with postneonatal and child mortality. However, maternal education as a measure of socio-economic position was not statistically significantly associated with child mortality. This finding may partly be explained by the extreme hardships experienced by the country (civil war and natural disasters) and the implementation of the Economic Structural Adjustment Programme that have also affected the health of women and their children during the years covered by this study. Other measures of socio-economic position applicable to the rural African setting should be investigated. PMID:14572835

  15. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  16. Talking in Class: A Study of Socio-Economic Difference in the Primary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manison Shore, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I consider the relationship between socio-economic background and the school experience of two groups of children. I seek to establish whether or not there are identifiable differences in the language of primary school children living in two demographically contrasting geographical areas and, if there are differences, how these…

  17. How Do Some Students Overcome Their Socio-Economic Background? PISA in Focus. No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Are socio-economically disadvantaged students condemned to perpetuate an intergenerational cycle of poor academic achievement, poor job prospects and poverty? Not if they attend schools that provide them with more regular classes. Resilient students in the 2006 and 2009 PISA surveys displayed high levels of academic achievement despite the fact…

  18. An Adapted Dialogic Reading Program for Turkish Kindergarteners from Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergül, Cevriye; Akoglu, Gözde; Sarica, Ayse D.; Karaman, Gökçe; Tufan, Mümin; Bahap-Kudret, Zeynep; Zülfikar, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the Adapted Dialogic Reading Program (ADR) on the language and early literacy skills of Turkish kindergarteners from low socio-economic (SES) backgrounds. The effectiveness of ADR was investigated across six different treatment conditions including classroom and home based implementations in various…

  19. The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Alex Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

  20. Cultural, Socio-Economic and Political Influences on Special Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E.

    The paper describes the present state of education in Nigeria with emphasis on the cultural, socio-economic, and political influences affecting special education. After a brief summary of education in Nigeria since independence (1960), the paper looks at problems identified in special education and at Section 8, that portion of the National Policy…

  1. Building Lectures and Building Bridges with Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…

  2. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

  3. Socialisation into Organised Sports of Young Adolescents with a Lower Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…

  4. Elucidating the spatially varying relation between cervical cancer and socio-economic conditions in England

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) was applied to the relation between cervical cancer disease incidence rates in England and socio-economic deprivation, social status and family structure covariates. Local parameters were estimated which describe the spatial variation in the relations between incidence and socio-economic covariates. Results A global (stationary) regression model revealed a significant correlation between cervical cancer incidence rates and social status. However, a local (non-stationary) GWPR model provided a better fit with less spatial correlation (positive autocorrelation) in the residuals. Moreover, the GWPR model was able to represent local variation in the relations between cervical cancer incidence and socio-economic covariates across space, whereas the global model represented only the overall (or average) relation for the whole of England. The global model could lead to misinterpretation of the relations between cervical cancer incidence and socio-economic covariates locally. Conclusions Cervical cancer incidence was shown to have a non-stationary relationship with spatially varying covariates that are available through national datasets. As a result, it was shown that if low social status sectors of the population are to be targeted preferentially, this targeting should be done on a region-by-region basis such as to optimize health outcomes. While such a strategy may be difficult to implement in practice, the research does highlight the inequalities inherent in a uniform intervention approach. PMID:21943079

  5. Vertical and horizontal aspects of socio-economic inequity in general practitioner contacts in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Matthew

    2002-09-01

    Health status varies across socio-economic groups and health status is generally assumed to predict health care needs. Therefore the need for health care varies across socio-economic groups, and studies of equity in the distribution of health care between socio-economic groups must compare levels of utilisation with levels of need. Economic studies of equity in health care generally assume that health care needs can be derived from the current health-health care relationship. They therefore do not consider whether the current health-health care relationship is (vertically) equitable and the focus is restricted to horizontal inequity. This paper proposes a framework for incorporating the implications of vertical inequity for the socio-economic distribution of health care. An alternative to the current health-health care relationship is proposed using a restriction on the health-elasticity of health care. The health-elasticity of general practitioner contacts in Scotland is found to be generally negative, but positive at low levels of health status. Pro-rich estimates of horizontal inequity and vertical inequity are obtained but neither is statistically significant. Further analysis demonstrates that the magnitude of vertical inequity in health care may be larger than horizontal inequity. PMID:12203756

  6. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  7. Teacher Perceptions of Race, Socio-Economic Status and Language Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilberts, Richard A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to find whether race, socio-economic status (SES) and language cues of speakers modify the ratings of white experienced teachers. Subjects were 250 white male and female experienced teachers whose responses were recorded on a semantic differential designed to assess teacher expectancies on two concepts: speaker and speaker's…

  8. The relationship between socio-economic status and cancer detection at screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.

  9. Longitudinal Models of Socio-Economic Status: Impact on Positive Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George

    2014-01-01

    Parenting research is frequently conducted without a thorough examination of socio-economic characteristics. In this study, longitudinal observations of positive parenting were conducted across six time points. Participants were 219 mothers of children with and without developmental delays. Mothers' positive parenting increased during early…

  10. Relationship between Socio-Economic Values and Wellbeing: An Overview Research in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trung, Nguyen Ngoc; Cheong, Kimoon; Nghi, Pham Thanh; Kim, Won Joong

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates ten Asian nations to consider how socio-economic values affect happiness and satisfaction. Moreover, it considers whether economic factors can strongly affect wellbeing under certain conditions. Males in Asia are said they have more opportunities to obtain higher happiness and satisfaction but it does not happen in the…

  11. Life Satisfaction Depending on Socio-Economic Status and Gender among Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eroglu, Susran Erkan; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Calisir, Vahit

    2009-01-01

    This research was carried out using the survey method in an attempt to find out the relationship between the life satisfaction and socio-economic status (SES) of adolescents. The research was conducted among 275 young Turkish people chosen by the random sampling method. The research findings determined that there was a significant difference…

  12. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  13. Integrating socio-economic and infrastructural dimension to reveal hazard vulnerability of coastal districts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumdar, Jublee; Paul, Saikat

    2015-04-01

    Losses of life and property due to natural hazards have intensified in the past decade, motivating an alteration of disaster management away from simple post event resettlement and rehabilitation. The degree of exposure to hazard for a homogeneous population is not entirely reliant upon nearness to the source of hazard event. Socio-economic factors and infrastructural capability play an important role in determining the vulnerability of a place. This study investigates the vulnerability of eastern coastal states of India from tropical cyclones. The record of past hundred years shows that the physical vulnerability of eastern coastal states is four times as compared to the western coastal states in terms of frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones. Nevertheless, these physical factors played an imperative role in determining the vulnerability of eastern coast. However, the socio-economic and infrastructural factors influence the risk of exposure exponentially. Inclusion of these indicators would provide better insight regarding the preparedness and resilience of settlements to hazard events. In this regard, the present study is an effort to develop an Integrated Vulnerability Model (IVM) based on socio-economic and infrastructural factors for the districts of eastern coastal states of India. A method is proposed for quantifying the socio-economic and infrastructural vulnerability to tropical cyclone in these districts. The variables included in the study are extracted from Census of India, 2011 at district level administrative unit. In the analysis, a large number of variables are reduced to a smaller number of factors by using principal component analysis that represents the socio-economic and infrastructure vulnerability to tropical cyclone. Subsequently, the factor scores in socio-economic Vulnerability Index (SeVI) and Infrastructure Vulnerability Index (InVI) are standardized from 0 to 1, indicating the range from low to high vulnerability. The factor

  14. Socio-economic Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disaster Considering Urban Characteristics in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Sangdan

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is the highest population density in Korea. Scales of the model are divided into two classes. First scale is "borough", which is town, or a district with a large town, and has its own council. In the case of Seoul, average size of boroughs is 24.28 square kilometers. Second one is "census output area", which is the finest level of statistical information. Average size of census output area in Seoul is 0.0374 kilometers. The Census output area has high resolution than boroughs. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that southeastern boroughs in Seoul (Gangnam and Seocho) have lower vulnerability scores than other boroughs. According to this results, these places are much safer than other regions under natural disaster. Additionally, the socio-economic vulnerability was assessed in scale of census output data. Socio-economic vulnerability scores are shown similar results comparing with results of borough scale. However, socio-economic vulnerability scores are calculated in higher resolution. These results are caused by different demographic and social factors in each census output area even census output areas are located same borough. The additional importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land

  15. Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, C.; Faust, E.

    2013-01-01

    The western North Pacific (WNP) is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs). However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr - driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower) by 14% (9%) in the positive (negative) phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980-2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

  16. Students' Choice of Post-Compulsory Science: In search of schools that compensate for the socio-economic background of their students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderhag, Per; Emanuelsson, Patrik; Wickman, Per-Olof; Mikael Hamza, Karim

    2013-12-01

    It is commonly argued that socio-economic inequalities can explain many of the differences in achievement and participation in science education that have been reported among countries and among schools within a country. We addressed this issue by examining (a) the relationship between variables associated with socio-economic background and application frequencies to the Swedish Natural Science Programme (NSP) in upper secondary school and (b) whether there are lower secondary schools in Sweden that seem to compensate for these variables. Data from Statistics Sweden (SCB) covering the whole population of 106,483 ninth-grade students were used to calculate the probability for each student to apply to the NSP. Our results indicate that the variables, such as parental educational level and grades, have explanatory power, but with varying effect for different subpopulations of students. For example, grades in mathematics have a greater impact than grades in science for females' choice of the NSP. The opposite holds for male students. Out of 1,342 schools, 158 deviated significantly from predicted, that is, the students in these schools applied to the NSP in greater or lesser extent than expected. The number of deviating schools is greater than predicted by pure random variation. This suggests that variables of socio-economic background are only a partial explanation of the application frequencies, and that the deviation needs to be investigated further. Our findings suggest that in order to understand why schools deviate positively and so compensate for the socio-economic background of their students, we need to study their practices more closely.

  17. Lunar settlements--a socio-economic outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    The primary ingredient in a Lunar Settlement Program is the people. At the very high cost that will be required to transport, maintain and supply the people who will staff the Lunar operation, it is important to do everything possible to ensure their continued effectiveness in such an isolated, confined, and barren environment. This paper will attempt to identify the issues involved in providing for effective human performance in Lunar Settlements. The approach to be used will be contextual, and thus will not only examine the facets of the Lunar Settlement itself, but will also look at the organizational elements and the design and development processes used in project management from the point of view of long term success and cost effectiveness. The approach will also attempt to look at the Lunar Settlement "in time" as it is connected to events and experiences as they will evolve from the Space Station to Lunar Settlements. Finally, the approach will be contextual in the range of disciplines considered and their impact on planning, evolution, and activities in the entire process of Lunar Settlement. We will hope that Lunar settlers will be able to work and live as effective team members, and to make that possible, the designers, developers, builders, and managers must also function as a coherent team working together to bring about a common goal.

  18. Personalized cancer medicine—advances and socio-economic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David B.; Sood, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    It was Hippocrates, the father of Western medicine, who first emphasized the patient as the most important determinant of therapeutic efficacy. Although the principle of adjusting treatment to specific patient characteristics has since been the strategy of physicians, this is undermined by a population-biased approach to drug development. Therefore, it is generally true to say that our current evidential approach to cancer treatment is driven more by drug-regulation requirements and market considerations than the specific needs of an individual patient. But, with cancer drug costs now spiraling out of control and the modest efficacy typically seen in patients, the community is again turning to Hippocrates’ ancient paradigm—this time with emphasis on molecular considerations. Rapidly evolving technologies are empowering us to describe the molecular ‘nature’ of a patient and/or tumor and with this has come the beginning of truly personalized medicine, with maximized efficacy, cost effectiveness and hopefully improved survival for the patient. PMID:21989071

  19. Lunar settlements--a socio-economic outlook.

    PubMed

    Bluth, B J

    1988-07-01

    The primary ingredient in a Lunar Settlement Program is the people. At the very high cost that will be required to transport, maintain and supply the people who will staff the Lunar operation, it is important to do everything possible to ensure their continued effectiveness in such an isolated, confined, and barren environment. This paper will attempt to identify the issues involved in providing for effective human performance in Lunar Settlements. The approach to be used will be contextual, and thus will not only examine the facets of the Lunar Settlement itself, but will also look at the organizational elements and the design and development processes used in project management from the point of view of long term success and cost effectiveness. The approach will also attempt to look at the Lunar Settlement "in time" as it is connected to events and experiences as they will evolve from the Space Station to Lunar Settlements. Finally, the approach will be contextual in the range of disciplines considered and their impact on planning, evolution, and activities in the entire process of Lunar Settlement. We will hope that Lunar settlers will be able to work and live as effective team members, and to make that possible, the designers, developers, builders, and managers must also function as a coherent team working together to bring about a common goal. PMID:11542834

  20. Women's relative immunity to the socio-economic health gradient: artifact or real?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Susan P.; Hamberg, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background Individual and area socio-economic status (SES) are significant predictors of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. However, the span in health from poorest to richest, that is, the socio-economic gradient, appears steeper for men than women. Objective Our aim is to understand women's apparent immunity to the health harms of the SES gradient. Design Findings from a non-systematic search of Medline for population-based, SES gradient studies reporting results for both men and women and with health outcomes of morbidity, mortality or self-rated health (SRH) were reflectively analyzed. Results The 36 papers reviewed generally showed women to be relatively immune to the SES gradient for all but cardiovascular health outcomes. However, addressing the interconnected nature of socio-economic circumstances, exploring whether some measures of SES had ambiguous meanings for either women or men, including modifiers of SES such as household circumstances, social capital or area gender equity, or using indicators of area SES that were contextual rather than aggregates of individual, compositional measures increased the SES gradient for women. Outcome measures that combined mental and physical health, accounted for gender differences in SRH and adjusted for sex-specific differences in causes of mortality also explained some of the observed amelioration of the SES gradient among women. Conclusions Socio-economic circumstances have a real and sustained impact on individual health. The SES gradient appears stronger for men than for women for all health outcomes other than heart disease. However, some of the observed variability between men and women may be an artifact of biased methodology. Considering webs of causation rather than individual markers of SES along with other sources of gender bias can explain much of women's blunted socio-economic gradient and deepen understanding of the pathways from SES to morbidity and mortality overall. PMID

  1. Suicide in young adults: psychiatric and socio-economic factors from a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide in young adults remains an important public health issue in Australia. The attributable risks associated with broader socioeconomic factors, compared to more proximal psychiatric disorders, have not been considered previously in individual-level studies of young adults. This study compared the relative contributions of psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage associated with suicide in terms of relative and attributable risk in young adults. Method A population-based case–control study of young adults (18–34 years) compared cases of suicide (n = 84) with randomly selected controls (n = 250) from population catchments in New South Wales (Australia), with exposure information collected from key informant interviews (for both cases and controls). The relative and attributable risk of suicide associated with ICD-10 defined substance use, affective, and anxiety disorder was compared with educational achievement and household income, adjusting for key confounders. Prevalence of exposures from the control group was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF). Results Strong associations were evident between mental disorders and suicide for both males and females (ORs 3.1 to 18.7). The strongest association was for anxiety disorders (both males and females), followed by affective disorders and substance use disorders. Associations for socio-economic status were smaller in magnitude than for mental disorders for both males and females (ORs 1.1 to 4.8 for lower compared to high SES groups). The combined PAF% for all mental disorders (48% for males and 52% for females) was similar in magnitude to socio-economic status (46% for males and 58% for females). Conclusion Socio-economic status had a similar magnitude of population attributable risk for suicide as mental disorders. Public health interventions to reduce suicide should incorporate socio-economic disadvantage in addition to mental illness as a potential target for

  2. Measuring the Socio-Economic Background of Students and Its Effect on Achievement on PISA 2000 and PISA 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    One of the consistent findings of educational research studies is the effect of the students' family socio-economic background on their learning achievement. Consequently, international comparative studies emphasis the role of socio-economic background for determining learning outcomes. In particular, PISA results have been used to describe how…

  3. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  4. The Socio-Economic Gradient in Children's Reading Skills and the Role of Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna; Lingam, Raghu; Friend, Angela

    2015-01-01

    By the time children leave primary school there is a large socio-economic gap in their reading proficiency. There are a number of potential explanations for this socio-economic gap and in this paper we investigate the role of three particular genes and gene-environment interactions in determining children's reading skills, using the Avon…

  5. Growth in Literacy and Numeracy Achievement: Evidence and Explanations of a Summer Slowdown in Low Socio-Economic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen; Weaven, Mary; Davies, Anne; Hooley, Neil; Davidson, Kristy; Loton, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of summer slide or setback has gained a great deal of attention in the USA. It is understood to account for as much as 80% of the difference in achievement for students between low and high socio-economic families over their elementary schooling. In a mixed method longitudinal study of reforms in low socio-economic school…

  6. Families' Social Backgrounds Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children's Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…

  7. Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…

  8. Kinetic models for socio-economic dynamics of speculative markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldarella, Dario; Pareschi, Lorenzo

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we introduce a simple model for a financial market characterized by a single stock or good and an interplay between two different trader populations, chartists and fundamentalists, which determine the price dynamics of the stock. The model has been inspired by the microscopic Lux-Marchesi model (Lux and Marchesi (2000, 1999) [3,25]). The introduction of kinetic equations permits to study the asymptotic behavior of the investments and the price distributions and to characterize the regimes of lognormal behavior and the formation of power law tails.

  9. Socio-Economic Vulnerability to Climate Change in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberger, M. G.; Cooley, H.; Moore, E.; Garzon, C.

    2011-12-01

    The western United States faces a range of impacts from global climate change, including increases in extreme heat, wildfires, and coastal flooding and erosion; changes are also likely to occur in air quality, water availability, and the spread of infectious diseases. To date, a great deal of research has been done to forecast the physical effects of climate change, while less attention has been given to the factors make different populations more or less vulnerable to harm from such changes. For example, mortality rates from Hurricane Audrey, which struck the coast of Louisiana in 1957, were more than eight times higher among blacks than among whites. While disaster events may not discriminate, impacts on human populations are shaped by "intervening conditions" that determine the human impact of the flood and the specific needs for preparedness, response, and recovery. In this study, we analyze the potential impacts of climate change by using recent downscaled climate model outputs, creating a variety of statistics and visualizations to communicate potential impacts to community groups and decision makers, after several meetings with these groups to ask, "What types of information are most useful to you for planning?" We relate climate impacts to social vulnerability - defined as the intersection of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of a person or group of people - with a focus on the U.S. state of California. Understanding vulnerability factors and the populations that exhibit these factors are critical for crafting effective climate change policies and response strategies. It is also important to the emerging study of climate justice, which is the concept that no group of people should disproportionately bear the burden of climate impacts or the costs of mitigation and adaptation.

  10. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road

    PubMed Central

    Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania’s food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while

  11. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road.

    PubMed

    Hopcraft, J Grant C; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania's food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while maintaining

  12. Langevin processes, agent models and socio-economic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Sabatelli, Lorenzo

    2004-05-01

    We review some approaches to the understanding of fluctuations of financial asset prices. Our approach builds on the development of a simple Langevin equation that characterises stochastic processes. This provides a unifying approach that allows first a straightforward description of the early approaches of Bachelier. We generalize the approach to stochastic equations that model interacting agents. The agent models recently advocated by Marsilli and Solomon are motivated. Using a simple change of variable, we show that the peer pressure model of Marsilli and the wealth dynamics model of Solomon are essentially equivalent. The methods are further shown to be consistent with a global free energy functional that invokes an entropy term based on the Boltzmann formula. There follows a brief digression on the Heston model that extends the simple model to one that, in the language of physics, exhibits a temperature this is subject to stochastic fluctuations. Mathematically the model corresponds to a Feller process. Dragulescu and Yakovenko have shown how the model yields some of the stylised features of asset prices. A more recent approach by Michael and Johnson maximised a Tsallis entropy function subject to simple constraints. They obtain a distribution function for financial returns that exhibits power law tails and which can describe the distribution of returns not only over low but also high frequencies (minute by minute) data for the Dow Jones index. We show how this approach can be developed from an agent model, where the simple Langevin process is now conditioned by local rather than global noise. Such local noise may of course be the origin of speculative frenzy or herding in the market place. The approach yields a BBGKY type hierarchy of equations for the system correlation functions. Of especial interest is that the results can be obtained from a new free energy functional similar to that mentioned above except that a Tsallis like entropy term replaces the

  13. Operation of hydropower generation systems in the Alps under future climate and socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    describes the behavior of hydropower operators. This integrated model allows to quantitatively explore possible trajectories of future evolution of the hydropower systems under the combined effect of climate and socio-economic drivers. In a multi-objective perspective, the model can test how different hydropower operation strategies perform in terms of power production, reliability and flexibility of supply, profitability of operation, and ecosystem conservation. This contribution presents the methodological framework designed to formulate the integrated model, its expected outcomes, and some preliminary results on a pilot study.

  14. Integration of Weather Research Forecast (WRF) Hurricane model with socio-economic data in an interactive web mapping service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnert, J.; Wilhelmi, O.; Sampson, K. M.

    2009-12-01

    The integration of weather forecast models and socio-economic data is key to better understanding of the weather forecast and its impact upon society. Whether the forecast is looking at a hurricane approaching land or a snow storm over an urban corridor; the public is most interested in how this weather will affect day-to-day activities, and in extreme events how it will impact human lives, property and livelihoods. The GIS program at NCAR is developing an interactive web mapping portal which will integrate weather forecasts with socio-economic and infrastructure data. This integration of data is essential to better communication of the weather models and their impact on society. As a pilot project, we are conducting a case study on hurricane Ike, which made landfall at Galveston, Texas on 13 September, 2008, with winds greater than 70 mph. There was heavy flooding and loss of electricity due to high winds. This case study is an extreme event, which we are using to demonstrate how the Weather Research Forecasts (WRF) model runs at NCAR can be used to answer questions about how storms impact society. We are integrating WRF model output with the U.S. Census and infrastructure data in a Geographic Information System (GIS) web mapping framework. In this case study, we have identified a series of questions and custom queries which can be viewed through the interactive web portal; such as who will be affected by rain greater than 5 mm/h, or which schools will be affected by winds greater than 90 mph. These types of queries demonstrate the power of GIS and the necessity of integrating weather models with other spatial data in order to improve its effectiveness and understanding for society.

  15. Ethnic differences in maternal dietary patterns are largely explained by socio-economic score and integration score: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne K.; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Andersen, Lene F.; Birkeland, Kåre I.; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of socio-economic position and integration level on the observed ethnic differences in dietary habits has received little attention. Objectives To identify and describe dietary patterns in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, to explore ethnic differences in odds ratio (OR) for belonging to a dietary pattern, when adjusted for socio-economic status and integration level and to examine whether the dietary patterns were reflected in levels of biomarkers related to obesity and hyperglycaemia. Design This cross-sectional study was a part of the STORK Groruddalen study. In total, 757 pregnant women, of whom 59% were of a non-Western origin, completed a food frequency questionnaire in gestational week 28±2. Dietary patterns were extracted through cluster analysis using Ward's method. Results Four robust clusters were identified where cluster 4 was considered the healthier dietary pattern and cluster 1 the least healthy. All non-European women as compared to Europeans had higher OR for belonging to the unhealthier dietary patterns 1–3 vs. cluster 4. Women from the Middle East and Africa had the highest OR, 21.5 (95% CI 10.6–43.7), of falling into cluster 1 vs. 4 as compared to Europeans. The ORs decreased substantially after adjusting for socio-economic score and integration score. A non-European ethnic origin, low socio-economic and integration scores, conduced higher OR for belonging to clusters 1, 2, and 3 as compared to cluster 4. Significant differences in fasting and 2-h glucose, fasting insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and total cholesterol were observed across the dietary patterns. After adjusting for ethnicity, differences in fasting insulin (p=0.015) and HOMA-IR (p=0.040) across clusters remained significant, despite low power. Conclusion The results indicate that socio-economic and integration level may explain a large proportion of the ethnic differences in dietary patterns. PMID

  16. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market

    PubMed Central

    Boerema, Annelies; Peeters, Alain; Swolfs, Sanne; Vandevenne, Floor; Jacobs, Sander; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion) as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed). Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed. PMID:27244079

  17. Rates of breastfeeding and exposure to socio-economic adversity amongst children with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Gore, Nick; Emerson, Eric; Brady, Serena

    2015-04-01

    Children with intellectual disability are at increased risk of experiencing poor health relative to their typically developing peers. Previous research indicates that exposure to socio-economic disadvantage contributes towards this disparity but that additional factors (including parenting practices) may be involved in mediating/moderating pathways. This study examined duration of breastfeeding amongst children with and without intellectual disability by a secondary analysis of data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Children with intellectual disability were significantly less likely to have been ever breastfed; breastfed exclusively or at all at 3 months or breastfed at all at 6 months relative to children without intellectual disability. None of these differences remained significant when other psycho-social risk factors for reduced breastfeeding were controlled for. The study adds to both the sparse literature on breastfeeding practices amongst families of children with intellectual disability and research demonstrating relationships between socio-economic disadvantage and wellbeing for children with intellectual disability. PMID:25613368

  18. [Effect of selected socio-economic factors on incidence and outcome of tuberculosis in Poland].

    PubMed

    Miller, M; Masztalerz, J; Szczuka, I; Piasecki, Z; Zielińska, B

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to verify the widely held opinion about the influence of socio-economic conditions on tuberculosis incidence and outcome. The analysis of the relationship between different socio-economic factors and tuberculosis shows that level of education seems to be the most important indicator. The level of education of tuberculosis patients in Poland is lower than the average. Together with the standard of living it differentiates patients with regard to clinical form of the disease-the lower the level of education and standard of living conditions, the more fibrocavernous forms. The analysis also indicated that the level of education and employment or unemployment did not influence the choice of treatment regiments but influenced the outcome of treatment. PMID:8924875

  19. Predictors of resilience among adolescents of low socio-economic status in India.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Annalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the predictors of resilience among adolescents of low socio-economic status (SES). Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1451 adolescent students (girls = 718) of low SES aged 14 to 19 years in rural public schools. Students completed a set of self-report measures relating to temperament familiar in Indian culture (sattvic, rajasic and tamasic gunas), intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations, academic aspiration, and perceived school environment. Resilience was operationalized as a composite derived from academic grades and scores on the Subjective Well-Being Inventory. Regression analysis revealed that sattvic, rajasic and tamasic self-concepts were significant predictors of resilience. Resilience was negatively predicted by both rejection experienced in the school environment and extrinsic aspirations. The findings have implications for policy and intervention for adolescent students in rural schools of low socio-economic backgrounds. PMID:26219464

  20. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market.

    PubMed

    Boerema, Annelies; Peeters, Alain; Swolfs, Sanne; Vandevenne, Floor; Jacobs, Sander; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion) as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed). Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed. PMID:27244079

  1. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  2. A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways - Part 1: Water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.; Kainuma, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Masui, T.; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

    2013-07-01

    A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, the IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment), and the climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect not only quantitative socio-economic factors, such as population and electricity production, but also key qualitative concepts such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigated area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, and withdrawal-based potential industrial and municipal water demands. The first three factors are used to estimate the potential irrigation water demand. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century in five-year intervals. Each factor shows wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigated area in 2085 varies between 2.7 × 106 and 4.5 × 106 km2, withdrawal-based potential industrial water demand between 246 and 1714 km3 yr-1, and municipal water between 573 and 1280 km3 yr-1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments that identify the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyze the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

  3. Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?

    PubMed

    van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2015-04-14

    Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help. PMID:25784199

  4. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; Tubiello, Francesco N; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-11-29

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  5. Declining reliance on marine resources in remote South Pacific societies: ecological versus socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, R. A.; Cakacaka, A.; Graham, N. A. J.; Polunin, N. V. C.; Pratchett, M. S.; Stead, S. M.; Wilson, S. K.

    2007-12-01

    Degraded coral reef ecosystems yield limited goods and services, which is expected to have significant socio-economic impacts on isolated tropical island communities with strong reliance on coral reefs. This study investigates socio-economic changes, specifically in fresh fish consumption and fishing activities, associated with environmental degradation at five fishing grounds ( qoliqoli) in the Lau Islands (Fiji). Semi-structured interviews with fishers and senior household members revealed that the importance of fishing was low relative to other occupations, and consumption of fresh fish has declined over the last decade. Reduced fishing and choice of fresh fish is largely attributable to an increased need to derive income as well as new income-generating opportunities. A possible consequence of reduced reliance on marine resources was limited awareness of recent environmental degradation caused by climate-induced coral bleaching and outbreaks of coral-feeding crown-of-thorns starfish. Limited use and reduced awareness of the local marine environment in the short term may erode social memory and local ecological knowledge, reducing opportunities to fall back on marine resources. This may also compromise long-term economic and social stability. Conversely, low reliance on marine resources may confer greater flexibility to adapt to future ecological change in the marine environment. Importantly, changes in fish consumption and exploitation of marine resources were linked to socio-economic factors rather than a consequence of recent degradation of marine environments. Greater knowledge of the dynamics driving change in marine resource use is necessary to understand how societies respond to ecological and socio-economic change, and to identify opportunities for adaptive sustainable ecosystem management.

  6. Socio-economic differences in health risk behavior in adolescence: do they exist?

    PubMed

    Tuinstra, J; Groothoff, J W; van den Heuvel, W J; Post, D

    1998-07-01

    Socio-economic differences in risk behaviors in adolescence can be seen as a prelude to the re-emergence of socio economic health differences in adulthood. We studied whether or not socio-economic differences in health risk behaviors are present in male and female adolescents in The Netherlands. The relation between socio-economic status (SES) and health risk behaviors was examined, by testing both the main and interaction effects of SES and gender on separate health risk behaviors on one hand, and on the behaviors cumulatively on the other. The data were derived from 1984 adolescents in the four northern provinces of The Netherlands. SES was measured by means of the educational level and the occupational status of both parents. Four health risk behaviors were included in this study: smoking, alcohol consumption, soft drug use, and (no) physical exercise. We found that the relationships between SES and health risk behaviors are not as linear as is often found in adulthood. Our findings can be characterised overall by an absence of relationship between SES and health risk behaviors. The only exception applies to sport, which is linearly related to SES. Adolescents in the lower SES groups engage in sport less than adolescents in the higher SES groups. There was an irregular relationship between the father's occupational status and the adolescents' smoking and drinking. Adolescents in the highest, lowest and middle of the six SES groups have the highest rates of health risk behaviors. All observed relationships are similar for both male and female adolescents. A relationship between gender and the separate health risk behaviors was found only for alcohol consumption and drug use. For both male adolescents showed higher rates of risk behavior. Males also scored higher on the cumulative health risk behaviors than their female counterparts. The findings of this study do not support the hypothesis of latent differences in adolescence. PMID:9683380

  7. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; N. Tubiello, Francesco; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological–economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5′×5′ latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  8. Wind energy prospecting: socio-economic value of a new wind resource assessment technique based on a NASA Earth science dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanvyve, E.; Magontier, P.; Vandenberghe, F. C.; Delle Monache, L.; Dickinson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is amongst the fastest growing sources of renewable energy in the U.S. and could supply up to 20 % of the U.S power production by 2030. An accurate and reliable wind resource assessment for prospective wind farm sites is a challenging task, yet is crucial for evaluating the long-term profitability and feasibility of a potential development. We have developed an accurate and computationally efficient wind resource assessment technique for prospective wind farm sites, which incorporates innovative statistical techniques and the new NASA Earth science dataset MERRA. This technique produces a wind resource estimate that is more accurate than that obtained by the wind energy industry's standard technique, while providing a reliable quantification of its uncertainty. The focus now is on evaluating the socio-economic value of this new technique upon using the industry's standard technique. Would it yield lower financing costs? Could it result in lower electricity prices? Are there further down-the-line positive consequences, e.g. job creation, time saved, greenhouse gas decrease? Ultimately, we expect our results will inform efforts to refine and disseminate the new technique to support the development of the U.S. renewable energy infrastructure. In order to address the above questions, we are carrying out a cost-benefit analysis based on the net present worth of the technique. We will describe this approach, including the cash-flow process of wind farm financing, how the wind resource assessment factors in, and will present current results for various hypothetical candidate wind farm sites.

  9. Mortality and socio-economic differences in Denmark: a competing risks proportional hazard model.

    PubMed

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Svarer, Michael

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores how mortality is related to such socio-economic factors as education, occupation, skill level and income for the years 1992-1997 using an extensive sample of the Danish population. We employ a competing risks proportional hazard model to allow for different causes of death. This method is important as some factors have unequal (and sometimes opposite) influence on the cause-specific mortality rates. We find that the often-found inverse correlation between socio-economic status and mortality is to a large degree absent among Danish women who die of cancer. In addition, for men the negative correlation between socio-economic status and mortality prevails for some diseases, but for women we find that factors such as being married, income, wealth and education are not significantly associated with higher life expectancy. Marriage increases the likelihood of dying from cancer for women, early retirement prolongs survival for men, and homeownership increases life expectancy in general. PMID:15722260

  10. Socio-economic transformation of Akan funeral rites in Ghana: the changing process.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Cultural traditions at the end of life solidify societal members. As the world becomes more globalized, socio-economic factors affect how traditional practices are expressed, and the role and toll they make on modern societies. This article examines the contemporary Akan funeral practices in Ghana. Akan lineage members, from birth through puberty, marriage, maturity, old age, go through various rites of passage that bond them culturally and spiritually to others in society. One such ritual is funeral celebration. Funeral celebration, an old practice, has always been at the heart of public social events of Akan people. However, the changes in Ghanaian Akan funerals over the past 4 decades, and their impact on the people, make this an important topic. The article describes the Akan belief of life after death, the respect accorded to the dead, the prestige associated with successful funeral celebrations, and socio-economic factors that continue to shape Akan funeral practices. Socio-economic impact and the resulting challenges are discussed. PMID:23115893

  11. Socio-economic status and socio-emotional health of orphans in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pappin, Michele; Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Motsaathebe

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between socio-economic status and emotional well-being of orphans in Mangaung, South Africa. Five hundred orphans aged 7-11 years participated in the cross-sectional study between 2009 and 2012. Data was collected by trained fieldworkers, who conducted face-to-face interviews and questionnaires with the orphans, their teachers and caregivers, and the heads of the households where the orphans resided. The caregivers, children and teachers all completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in order to measure the orphans' mental health, while heads of household provided information about socio-economic indicators. STATA version 12 was used to perform multivariate data analyses to identify socio-economic factors associated with the mental health of orphans. Food security, access to medical services and a male caregiver were factors associated with better emotional well-being of orphans, whereas other variables such as household asset index and monthly household expenditure were not linked with the orphans' mental health. Two of the three variables (food security and access to medical services) associated with better emotional well-being of orphans are also government interventions to assist orphans. Further research is needed to determine whether other government programs also impact the emotional well-being of orphans. PMID:24968757

  12. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy.

    PubMed

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage. PMID:25100315

  13. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J.; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage. PMID:25100315

  14. Ancient Human Bone Microstructure in Medieval England: Comparisons between Two Socio-Economic Groups.

    PubMed

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna J; Mahoney, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the links between bone microstructure and human lifestyle is critical for clinical and anthropological research into skeletal growth and adaptation. The present study is the first to report correspondence between socio-economic status and variation in bone microstructure in ancient humans. Products of femoral cortical remodeling were assessed using histological methods in a large human medieval sample (N = 450) which represented two distinct socio-economic groups. Osteonal parameters were recorded in posterior midshaft femoral sections from adult males (N = 233) and females (N = 217). Using univariate and multivariate statistics, intact, fragmentary, and osteon population densities, Haversian canal area and diameter, and osteon area were compared between the two groups, accounting for sex, age, and estimated femoral robusticity. The size of osteons and their Haversian canals, as well as osteon density, varied significantly between the socio-economic groups, although minor inconsistencies were observed in females. Variation in microstructure was consistent with historical textual evidence that describes differences in mechanical loading and nutrition between the two groups. Results demonstrate that aspects of ancient human lifestyle can be inferred from bone microstructure. PMID:26480030

  15. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-01

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species. PMID:26460136

  16. Urban vegetation and thermal patterns following city growth in different socio-economic contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dronova, I.; Clinton, N.; Yang, J.; Radke, J.; Marx, S. S.; Gong, P.

    2015-12-01

    Urban expansion accompanied by losses of vegetated spaces and their ecological services raises significant concerns about the future of humans in metropolitan "habitats". Despite recent growth of urban studies globally, it is still not well understood how environmental effects of urbanization vary with the rate and socioeconomic context of development. Our study hypothesized that with urban development, spatial patterns of surface thermal properties and green plant cover would shift towards higher occurrence of relatively warmer and less vegetated spaces such as built-up areas, followed by losses of greener and cooler areas such as urban forests, and that these shifts would be more pronounced with higher rate of economic and/or population growth. To test these ideas, we compared 1992-2011 changes in remotely sensed patterns of green vegetation and surface temperature in three example cities that experienced peripheral growth under contrasting socio-economic context - Dallas, TX, USA, Beijing, China and Kyiv, Ukraine. To assess their transformation, we proposed a metric of thermal-vegetation angle (TVA) estimated from per-pixel proxies of vegetation greenness and surface temperature from Landsat satellite data and examined changes in TVA distributions within each city's core and two decadal zones of peripheral sprawl delineated from nighttime satellite data. We found that higher economic and population growth were coupled with more pronounced changes in TVA distributions, and more urbanized zones often exhibited higher frequencies of warmer, less green than average TVA values with novel patterns such as "cooler" clusters of building shadows. Although greener and cooler spaces generally diminished with development, they remained relatively prevalent in low-density residential areas of Dallas and peripheral zones of Kyiv with exurban subsistence farming. Overall, results indicate that the effects of modified green space and thermal patterns within growing cities

  17. Investigating the Visual-Motor Integration Skills of 60-72-Month-Old Children at High and Low Socio-Economic Status as Regard the Age Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…

  18. Socio-Economic Determinants of the Need for Dental Care in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Trohel, Gilda; Bertaud-Gounot, Valérie; Soler, Marion; Chauvin, Pierre; Grimaud, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral health has improved in France. However, there are still inequalities related to the socio-economic status. Objectives The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dental care needs in an adult population and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables that may explain variations in this parameter. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the French SIRS cohort (n = 2,997 adults from the Paris region; 2010 data) was carried out to determine the prevalence of self-reported dental care needs relative to demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables. A logistic regression model was used to identify the variables that were most strongly associated with the level of need. Results In 2010, the prevalence of the need for dental care in the SIRS cohort was 35.0% (95% CI [32.3–37.8]). It was lower in people with higher education levels (31.3% [27.9–34.6]), without immigrant background (31.3% [28.0–34.6]) and with comprehensive health insurance (social security + complementary health cover; 32.8% [30.2–35.4]). It decreased as the socio-economic status increased, but without following a strict linear change. It was also lower among individuals who had a dental check-up visit in the previous two years. In multivariate analyses, the socioeconomic variables most strongly associated with the need for dental care were: educational attainment (OR = 1.21 [1.02–1.44]), income level (OR = 1.66 [1.92–2.12]) and national origin (OR = 1.53 [1.26–1.86]). Conclusion These results confirm that the prevalence of dental care needs is higher among adults with low socio-economic status. Education level, income level and also national origin were more strongly associated with the need for dental care than insurance cover level. PMID:27441841

  19. Casemix-based funding of Northern Territory public hospitals: adjusting for severity and socio-economic variations.

    PubMed

    Beaver, C; Zhao, Y; McDermid, S; Hindle, D

    1998-02-01

    The Northern Territory intends to make use of Australian National Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) and their cost relativities as the basis for the allocation of budgets among public hospitals. The study reported here attempted to assess the extent to which there are variations in severity of illness and socio-economic status which are not adequately explained by DRG alone and, if so, to develop a DRG payment adjustment index by use of routinely available data items. The investigation was undertaken by use of a database containing all discharges between July 1992 and June 1995. Hospital length of stay was used as a proxy for cost. Multivariate analysis was undertaken and it was found that several variables were associated with cost variations within DRGs. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to develop a model in which 14 variables were able to explain 45% of the variations. Index values were subsequently computed from the regression model for each of eight categories of admitted patient episodes which are the intersections of three binary variables: Aborigine or non-Aborigine, rural or urban usual place of residence of the patient and hospital type (teaching or other). It is intended that these index values will be used to compute differential funding rates for each hospital in the Territory. PMID:9541084

  20. The socio-economic dimension of flood risk assessment: insights of KULTURisk framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giupponi, Carlo; Gain, Animesh; Mojtahed, Vahid; Balbi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The approaches for vulnerability and risk assessment have found different and often contrasting solutions by various schools of thought. The two most prominent communities in this field are: climate change adaptation (CCA), and disaster risk reduction (DRR). Although those communities have usually in common the aim of reducing socio-economic vulnerability and risk to natural hazards, they have usually referred to different definitions and conceptualizations. For example, the DRR community has always driven more emphasis on the concept of risk and vulnerability is considered as a physical/environmental input for the quantification of risk, while the CCA research stream, mainly under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), considered vulnerability as an output deriving from social conditions and processes such as adaptation or maladaptation. Recently, with the publication of the IPCC Special Report on extreme events and disasters (IPCC-SREX), the notions of vulnerability and risk are somehow integrated in order to jointly consider both climate change adaptation and disaster risk management. The IPCC-SREX indeed is expected to significantly contribute to find common language and methodological approaches across disciplines and, therefore, the opportunity emerges for proposing new operational solutions, consistent with the most recent evolution of concepts and terminology. Based on the development of the IPCC Report, the KULTURisk project developed an operational framework to support integrated assessment and decision support through the combination of contributions from diverse disciplinary knowledge, with emphasis on the social and economic dimensions. KIRAF (KULTURisk Integrated Risk Assessment Framework) is specifically aimed at comprehensively evaluate the benefits of risk mitigation measures with consideration of the dynamic context deriving from the consideration of climatic changes and their effects on natural disasters, within the

  1. Socio-economic Inequality in the Use of Procedures and Mortality Among AMI Patients: Quantifying the Effects Along Different Paths.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Terje P; Häkkinen, Unto; Iversen, Tor; Klitkou, Søren Toksvig; Moger, Tron Anders

    2015-12-01

    It is not known whether inequality in access to cardiac procedures translates into inequality in mortality. In this paper, we use a path analysis model to quantify both the direct effect of socio-economic status on mortality and the indirect effect of socio-economic status on mortality as mediated by the provision of cardiac procedures. The study links microdata from the Finnish and Norwegian national patient registers describing treatment episodes with data from prescription registers, causes-of-death registers and registers covering education and income. We show that socio-economic variables affect access to percutaneous coronary intervention in both countries, but that these effects are only moderate and that the indirect effects of the socio-economic factors on mortality through access to percutaneous coronary intervention are minor. The direct effects of income and education on mortality are significantly larger. We conclude that the socio-economic gradient in the use of percutaneous coronary intervention adds to socio-economic differences in mortality to little or no extent. PMID:26633871

  2. The Impact of Socio-Economic Determinants on the Vaccination Rates with Rotavirus and Human Papiloma Virus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    GRDADOLNIK, Urška; SOČAN, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic inequalities may have an impact on the uptake of selfpaid vaccines. The aim of the study was to identify the effect of some socio economic determinants on vaccination rates with self-paid human papilloma virus (HPV) and rotavirus (RV) vaccines. Methods Vaccination coverage data, available in electronic database cepljenje.net (administered by the National Institute of Public Health), were collected at administrative unit level. The socio-economic determinants (the average gross pay in euros, the unemployment rate, the educational and households structure, the population density, the number of inhabitants, the number of children aged from 0 to 4, the number of women aged from 15 to 30) were extracted from Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia web page. The strength of the correlation between socioeconomic variables and self-paid HPV and RV vaccination rates was determined. Results Rotavirus vaccination rates show a slight negative correlation with the number of residents per administrative unit (ρ=−0.29, p=0.04), and no correlation with other socio-economic variables. Likewise, no correlation has been found between HPV vaccination rates and the selected socio-economic variables. Conclusion Ecological study did not reveal any correlations between socio economic variables and vaccination rates with RV and HPV self-paid vaccines on administrative unit level.

  3. Can social cognitive theory constructs explain socio-economic variations in adolescent eating behaviours? A mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ball, K; MacFarlane, A; Crawford, D; Savige, G; Andrianopoulos, N; Worsley, A

    2009-06-01

    Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived explanatory model. Data were obtained from a community-based sample of 2529 adolescents aged 12-15 years, from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Adolescents completed a web-based survey assessing their eating behaviours, self-efficacy for healthy eating, perceived importance of nutrition and health, social modelling and support and the availability of foods in the home. Parents provided details of maternal education level, which was used as an indicator of SEP. All social cognitive constructs assessed mediated socio-economic variations in at least one indicator of adolescents' diet. Cognitive factors were the strongest mediator of socio-economic variations in fruit intakes, while for energy-dense snack foods and fast foods, availability of energy-dense snacks at home tended to be strong mediators. Social cognitive theory provides a useful framework for understanding socio-economic variations in adolescent's diet and might guide public health programmes and policies focusing on improving adolescent nutrition among those experiencing socio-economic disadvantage. PMID:18927442

  4. Socio-economic Evaluation Of Different Alternatives For Flood Protection Within The Rivierenland-project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, S. P.; van Ast, J. A.

    The Netherlands have a tradition of protecting land against flooding from the main rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt by means of an extensive system of dikes. In recent years, however, this approach to protection has been increasingly questioned with re- gard to its sustainability and cost-effectiveness. The argument is that although the continued elevation of dikes may be technically feasible, there are several disadvan- tages to this approach. Firstly, a vast network of dikes requires a very high degree of organisation of water management, in which mistakes can not be afforded. Such a high degree of organisation may not always be maintainable in the future, due to changed economic or political circumstances. Secondly, it may not be the most cost- effective system for maintaining safety in the long term. Thirdly, it may not be the most desirable approach in terms of sustainability. One of the alternatives to contin- ued dike-elevation is the concept 'room for the river' ('ruimte voor de rivier'), which aims to give more space to rivers in the horizontal in stead of the vertical dimen- sion. This approach would reduce the risk of flooding, defined as the product of the probability and the consequences of flooding. In order to explore the long term con- sequences of both alternatives ('dike elevation' and 'room for the river'), the ministry of Verkeer en Waterstaat (Public Works, Transport and Water Management) started the 'Rivierenland'-project. The comparison of the alternatives mentioned was based on a fictitious project to adjust a region of The Netherlands, between the rivers Rhine and Meuse, to the concept of 'room for water'. The consequence of this adjustment would be that safety within that region would no longer be safeguarded by dikes, but by adjusting daily life to the 'demands of the water'. Part of the 'Rivierenland'-project was an analysis of the socio-economic costs and benefits of the alternative approaches. Within this analysis, a study was performed

  5. Future trends in power generation cost by power resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    The Japan Energy Economy Research Institute has been evaluating power generation cost by each power resource every year focusing on nuclear power generation. The Institute is surveying the cost evaluations by power resources in France, Britain and the U.S.A., the nuclear generation advanced nations. The OECD is making power generation cost estimation using a hypothesis which uniforms basically the conditions varying in different member countries. In model power generation cost calculations conducted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan, nuclear power generation is the most economical system in any fiscal year. According to recent calculations performed by the Japan Energy Economy Research Institute, the situation is such that it is difficult to distinguish the economical one from others among the power generation systems in terms of generation costs except for thermal power generation. Economic evaluations are given on estimated power generation costs based on construction costs for nuclear and thermal power plants, nuclear fuel cycling cost, and fuel cost data on petroleum, LNG and coal. With regard to the future trends, scenario analyses are made on generation costs, that assume fluctuations in fuel prices and construction costs, the important factors to give economic influence on power generation.

  6. Power costs of thirteen electric generation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.C.; Doyle, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on a study performed for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to estimate as consistently as possible the cost of future generating technologies using renewable and conventional resources and highly fuel-efficient systems. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate future generating technologies by calculating the 30-yr. levelized busbar power costs of each technology on a consistent basis. Esimates for capital costs, operating costs, project schedules, fuel costs, annual energy generation and cost uncertainty were developed for the busbar power cost analysis. The study was designed to produce the most objective and consistent cost estimates possible for all of the generating technologies. The analysis of the uncertainty in capital cost and project schedule shows that there is a high level of uncertainty in the future costs for the developing technologies. Includes 5 tables.

  7. Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors.

    PubMed

    Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions. PMID:27153819

  8. Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.

  9. Comparison of environmental and socio-economic domains of vulnerability to flood hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leidel, M.; Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.

    2009-04-01

    Socio-economic and environmental based vulnerability models have been developed within the research context of the FP6 project BRAHMATWINN. The conceptualisation of vulnerability has been defined in the project and is characterised as a function of sensitivity and adaptive capacity, where sensitivity is used to refer to systems that are susceptible to the impacts of environmental stress. Adaptive capacity is used to refer to systems or resources available to communities that could help them adapt or cope with the adverse consequences of environmental stresses in the recovery phase. In a wider context the approach reflects the wider objective and conceptualizations of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) framework, where vulnerability is characterized as a component of overall risk. A methodology has been developed which delineates spatial units of vulnerability (VULNUS). These units share a specific common characteristic and allow the independent spatial modelling of a complex phenomena independent from administrative units and raster based approaches. An increasing detail of spatial data and complex decision problems require flexible means for scaled spatial representations, for mapping the dynamics and constant changes, and delivering the crucial information. Automated techniques of object-based image analysis (OBIA, Lang & Blaschke, 2006), capable of integrating a virtually unlimited set of spatial data sets, try to match the information extraction with our world view. To account for that, a flexible concept of manageable units is required. The term geon was proposed by Lang (2008) to describe generic spatial objects that are homogenous in terms of a varying spatial phenomena under the influence of, and partly controlled by, policy actions. The geon concept acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. It is flexible in terms of a certain perception of a problem

  10. Analysing Relationships Between Urban Land Use Fragmentation Metrics and Socio-Economic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapena, M.; Ruiz, L. A.; Goerlich, F. J.

    2016-06-01

    Analysing urban regions is essential for their correct monitoring and planning. This is mainly accounted for the sharp increase of people living in urban areas, and consequently, the need to manage them. At the same time there has been a rise in the use of spatial and statistical datasets, such as the Urban Atlas, which offers high-resolution urban land use maps obtained from satellite imagery, and the Urban Audit, which provides statistics of European cities and their surroundings. In this study, we analyse the relations between urban fragmentation metrics derived from Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) data from the Urban Atlas dataset, and socio-economic data from the Urban Audit for the reference years 2006 and 2012. We conducted the analysis on a sample of sixty-eight Functional Urban Areas (FUAs). One-date and two-date based fragmentation indices were computed for each FUA, land use class and date. Correlation tests and principal component analysis were then applied to select the most representative indices. Finally, multiple regression models were tested to explore the prediction of socio-economic variables, using different combinations of land use metrics as explanatory variables, both at a given date and in a dynamic context. The outcomes show that demography, living conditions, labour, and transportation variables have a clear relation with the morphology of the FUAs. This methodology allows us to compare European FUAs in terms of the spatial distribution of the land use classes, their complexity, and their structural changes, as well as to preview and model different growth patterns and socio-economic indicators.

  11. Understanding, creating, and managing complex techno-socio-economic systems: Challenges and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, D.; Balietti, S.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.

    2011-05-01

    This contribution reflects on the comments of Peter Allen [1], Bikas K. Chakrabarti [2], Péter Érdi [3], Juval Portugali [4], Sorin Solomon [5], and Stefan Thurner [6] on three White Papers (WP) of the EU Support Action Visioneer (www.visioneer.ethz.ch). These White Papers are entitled "From Social Data Mining to Forecasting Socio-Economic Crises" (WP 1) [7], "From Social Simulation to Integrative System Design" (WP 2) [8], and "How to Create an Innovation Accelerator" (WP 3) [9]. In our reflections, the need and feasibility of a "Knowledge Accelerator" is further substantiated by fundamental considerations and recent events around the globe. newpara The Visioneer White Papers propose research to be carried out that will improve our understanding of complex techno-socio-economic systems and their interaction with the environment. Thereby, they aim to stimulate multi-disciplinary collaborations between ICT, the social sciences, and complexity science. Moreover, they suggest combining the potential of massive real-time data, theoretical models, large-scale computer simulations and participatory online platforms. By doing so, it would become possible to explore various futures and to expand the limits of human imagination when it comes to the assessment of the often counter-intuitive behavior of these complex techno-socio-economic-environmental systems. In this contribution, we also highlight the importance of a pluralistic modeling approach and, in particular, the need for a fruitful interaction between quantitative and qualitative research approaches. newpara In an appendix we briefly summarize the concept of the FuturICT flagship project, which will build on and go beyond the proposals made by the Visioneer White Papers. EU flagships are ambitious multi-disciplinary high-risk projects with a duration of at least 10 years amounting to an envisaged overall budget of 1 billion EUR [10]. The goal of the FuturICT flagship initiative is to understand and manage complex

  12. Socio-economic & household risk factors of malaria in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh, central India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ravendra K.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Saha, Kalyan B.; Bharti, Praveen K.; Jain, Vidhan; Singh, P. P.; Silawat, Nipun; Patel, R.; Hussain, M.; Chand, S.K.; Pandey, Arvind; Singh, Neeru

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Malaria is a major public health problem in many States of the country, particularly, in Madhya Pradesh where both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum are endemic. Although many studies have been conducted to investigate risk factors for malaria, but only a few have examined household and socio-economic risk factors. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to explore the relationship of different socio-demographic, socio-economic and behavioural risk factors with malaria prevalence in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh, India. Methods: This study was undertaken in all 62 villages of Bargi Primary Health Centre from May 2005 to June 2008. These villages comprised 7117 households with an average family size of five members. Fortnightly fever surveys were conducted in all villages to assess prevalence of malaria infection in the community. The distinct univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted on the data set. Results: The important socio-demographic risk factors like age of household head, social group, occupation and family size; socio-economic factors like type of walls of house, place of drinking water source, irrigated land, cash crop; and behavioural variables like place of sleeping, use of bed nets, etc. were found significantly associated with malaria in univariate analyses. In multivariate analyses only social groups, family size, type of walls of house, and place of sleeping had strong significant association with prevalence of malaria. Interpretation & conclusions: The study shows that in tribal areas where people are living in poor quality of houses with no proper use of preventive measures, malaria is firmly established. We conclude that community based interventions which bring improvement in standard of living, access to healthcare facilities and health awareness, will have a significant impact on malaria prevention in these areas. PMID:26139773

  13. A bridge between liquids and socio-economic systems: the key role of interaction strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2005-03-01

    One distinctive and pervasive aspect of social systems is the fact that they involve several kinds of agents. Thus, in order to draw parallels with physical systems one is led to consider binary (or multi-component) compounds. Recent views about the mixing of liquids in solutions gained from neutron and X-ray scattering show these systems to have a number of similarities with socio-economic systems. It appears that such phenomena as rearrangement of bonds in a solution, gas condensation, and selective evaporation of molecules can be transposed in a natural way to some socio-economic phenomena. These connections provide with a novel perspective for looking at social systems which we illustrate through examples. For instance, we interpret suicide as an escape phenomenon and in order to test this interpretation we consider social systems characterized by very low levels of social interaction. For these systems suicide rates are found to be 10 to 100 times higher than in the general population. Another interesting parallel concerns the phase transition that occurs when locusts gather together to form swarms which may contain several billion insects. What hinders the thorough investigation of such cases from the standpoint of collective phenomena that we advocate is the lack or inadequacy of statistical data; up to now socio-economic data were collected for completely different purposes. Most essential, for further progress, are the statistics which would permit to estimate the strength of social ties and interactions. Once adequate data become available, rapid advancement may be expected. At the end of the paper, we will discuss whether or not the ergodic principle applies to social systems.

  14. Attitudes of haemophilic patients towards their health and socio-economic problems in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mehramiri, A; Parand, S; Haghpanah, S; Karimi, M

    2012-01-01

    Although new technologies and treatments have improved the quality of life of people with haemophilia, they still face many health and socio-economic problems. We designed this study to identify some of these problems according to patients' attitudes towards efforts to solve them. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shiraz, southern Iran, during January and May 2010. The participants were 100 patients with haemophilia who were referred to Shiraz Hemophilia Center, a major referral centre in southern Iran. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on the attitudes of haemophilic patients about some of their health and socio-economic problems. Mean age of the patients was 28.2 ± 9.0 (range of 16-67 years). In univariate analysis, disease severity, joint involvement, HCV status, income level and educational level of the patients were found to have possible effect on patients' attitude towards their health and socio-economic problems. However, in multivariate model we found that only income level, educational level and HCV status as independent factors influencing the patients' attitude towards childbearing, employment problems, occupational problems, social and friend relationship and continuing education. Haemophilic patients had many social and health problems, which could be alleviated with interdisciplinary interventions to improve their quality of life. Financial support of these patients should be taken into account to reduce their economic problems. Also, encouraging them and providing facilities to achieve a higher educational level could help them to have a better attitude towards their health and overcome the disease-related problems. PMID:21651677

  15. Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2014-07-01

    Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ≤Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (≥2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (≥1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

  16. A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways - Part 1: Water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.; Kainuma, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Masui, T.; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

    2012-12-01

    A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment), and climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect the key concepts underpinning each situation. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigation area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, industrial water withdrawal, and municipal water withdrawal. The first three factors are used to estimate agricultural water withdrawal. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century at 5-yr intervals. Each factor displays a wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigation area in 2085 varies between 270 and 450 km2, industrial water between 246 and 1714 km3 yr-1, and domestic water withdrawal between 573 and 1280 km3 yr-1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments by identifying the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyzing the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

  17. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-06-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668

  18. Environmental and socio-economic risk modelling for Chagas disease in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Mischler, Paula; Kearney, Michael; McCarroll, Jennifer C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Vounatsou, Penelope; Malone, John B

    2012-09-01

    Accurately defining disease distributions and calculating disease risk is an important step in the control and prevention of diseases. Geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies, with maximum entropy (Maxent) ecological niche modelling computer software, were used to create predictive risk maps for Chagas disease in Bolivia. Prevalence rates were calculated from 2007 to 2009 household infection survey data for Bolivia, while environmental data were compiled from the Worldclim database and MODIS satellite imagery. Socio-economic data were obtained from the Bolivian National Institute of Statistics. Disease models identified altitudes at 500-3,500 m above the mean sea level (MSL), low annual precipitation (45-250 mm), and higher diurnal range of temperature (10-19 °C; peak 16 °C) as compatible with the biological requirements of the insect vectors. Socio-economic analyses demonstrated the importance of improved housing materials and water source. Home adobe wall materials and having to fetch drinking water from rivers or wells without pump were found to be highly related to distribution of the disease by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) (0.69 AUC, 0.67 AUC and 0.62 AUC, respectively), while areas with hardwood floors demonstrated a direct negative relationship (-0.71 AUC). This study demonstrates that Maxent modelling can be used in disease prevalence and incidence studies to provide governmental agencies with an easily learned, understandable method to define areas as either high, moderate or low risk for the disease. This information may be used in resource planning, targeting and implementation. However, access to high-resolution, sub-municipality socio-economic data (e.g. census tracts) would facilitate elucidation of the relative influence of poverty-related factors on regional disease dynamics. PMID:23032284

  19. Socio-Economic Factors, Food Habits and Phosphorus Levels in Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Domenico; Ingegnieri, Maria Teresa; Vita, Giuseppe; Lucisano, Silvia; Zuppardo, Carmelo; Canale, Valeria; Savica, Vincenzo; Buemi, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperphosphoremia is one of the most important risk factors for morbidity and mortality for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and also, for the general population. Excessive dietary intake of phosphate (P) is one of the key factors. In particular, P in its inorganic form, which is contained in food additives, is more readily absorbed. Unfortunately, these food additives are mostly present in convenience so called “fast foods” (pre-cooked), soft drinks, which represent the typical food consumed by our hemodialysis (HD) population, composed by elderly people, mostly low-socio economic class, who often live alone. Objectives: We performed an observational retrospective multicenter study to find any association between social, cultural and economic situation, as well as food habits, and P levels in a cohort of patients on HD. Secondarily; we also examined the association between the fast food consumption and increased P levels, as well as patient compliance for P binding products. Patients and Methods: To explore the association between socio-economic factors and serum P levels, we enrolled 100 patients on periodic HD treatment from three different units. Information on social, cultural, economic, diet habits, therapy for hyperphosphoremia and hematological and clinical parameters had been collected through specific questionnaires, administered by a physician. Results: Results showed serum P level was reduced in patients who live alone compared to patients in family (P = 0.04), in self-sufficient (P = 0.05) and in patients belonging to middle-upper class, versus low-class (P = 0.003). Fast foods intake correlates with increase in P serum levels (P = 0.002), whilst the same correlation was not found for cheese intake. Our data show that socio-economic status and food habits are useful predictors of P serum levels. Conclusions: In conclusion, dietary counseling of patients on HD is mandatory. Interventions that consider the socio-economic situation

  20. The SocioEconomic analysis of repository siting (SEARS): Guide to data base preparation: Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, R.R.; Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.; Kiel, B.; Parpia, B.

    1984-11-01

    This guide describes the data bases in the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) modeling system. This model is a user-interactive, computerized model for projecting the economic, demographic, public service, and fiscal impacts of repository siting. This guide provides a description of the data bases, sources of data, data formats, and preprocessing programs for adapting and implementing the SEARS system and is seen as an essential reference for technical users of the model. It should be used in conjunction with reports describing the model's features and characteristics. 95 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Faecal steroids and bacteria and large bowel cancer in Hong Kong by socio-economic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, J. S.; Drasar, B. S.; Hill, M. J.; Maclennan, R.; Magnin, D.; Peach, S.; Teoh-chan, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    In a study of three socio-economic groups in Hong Kong, the high income group had a high faecal concentration of bile acids, especially the dihydroxy bile acids, compared to the low income group. The faecal bile acids were also more highly degraded. The faecal flora contained more bacteroides and fewer eubacteria. Very few of the clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus were isolated. An epidemiological study based on street blocks indicated that the high income group also have a higher incidence of cancer of the large bowel and of the breast. The results are discussed in terms of theories on the aetiology of large bowel cancer. PMID:962996

  2. Approach to nitinol power plant cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McNichols, J.L. Jr.; Cory, J.S.; Curtis, E.H.

    1982-11-01

    The objective of this paper is tof provide a method for cost evaluation of low grade thermal energy conversion by Nitinol power plants. To accomplish this objective Nitinol power plant costs are subdivided int those which can be obtained through conventional cost analysis, and those which are associated with the Nitino heat engine and are not subject to conventional analysis. Analytic expressions are provided for the Nitinol heat engine capital costs and Nitinol replacement costs in terms of Nitinol performance, heat engine configuration, plant operating factors, material costs, and the cost of capital. Nitinol working material factors are identified that require further definition before firm and reliable costs can be determined. Where data are lacking, plausible assumptions and estimates are utilized tof perform a first-cut analysis. It is found that the Nitinol heat engine capital costs per unit power generating capacity are approximately $0.15/W, and that the cost of produced energy for the Nitinol heat engine portion of the power plant is approximately 0.74 /kWh, includin operation, maintenance, Nitinol replacements and the cost of capital for the heat engine. It is concluded tha Nitinol power plants for the conversion of low grade thermal energy may have a significant economical advantage over conventionally fueled power plants.

  3. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2011-10-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  4. Human Costs of Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the human costs of producing and using nuclear fuel to generate electricity and...whether these costs are equitably compensated for and represented in the price of the electricity.'' Analysis considers estimates of the value of human life, lost productivity, and potential effects of radiation. (Author/AL)

  5. Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery Based on Spatial Correlation Analysis in Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Chengjing; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Zhong, Gemei; Zhang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. Methods Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. Results The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other. PMID:25036182

  6. Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.C.; Saraswatula, S.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency`s mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations.

  7. Psychological Traces of China's Socio-Economic Reforms in the Ultimatum and Dictator Games

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liqi; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Huangfu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Can traces of rapid socio-economic changes within a society be reflected in experimental games? The post-Mao reforms in China provide a unique natural quasi-experiment to study people from the same society who were raised with radically different values about distribution of wealth and altruistic behavior. We tested whether the size of offers in the ultimatum and dictator games are an increasing function of the number of years Chinese citizens experienced of the Mao era (“planned economy”). For the cohort that lived throughout the entire Mao era, we found that mean offers in the two games were substantially higher than what is typically offered in laboratory studies. These offers were also higher than those of two younger Chinese cohorts. In general, the amount offered decreased with less time spent under Mao, while in the oldest group in which every member spent the same amount of time under Mao, the younger members tended to offer more, suggesting an additional effect of early education under Mao and contradicting the alternative hypothesis that generosity increases with age. These results suggest that some of the observed individual differences in the offers made in experimental games can be traced back to the values of the socio-economic era in which individuals grew up. PMID:23967102

  8. Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ≤24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services. PMID:23839061

  9. Teaching Lower Socio-Economic Students About The Electromagnetic Spectrum Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauvelt, Sharon R.

    2006-12-01

    Educating students from lower socio-economic backgrounds can be both challenging and rewarding. In this study, I attempted to present information on the electromagnetic spectrum in several creative ways to make it both interesting and concrete for my students. Students from lower socio-economic backgrounds must have a connection with the subject matter and the electromagnetic spectrum presents the challenge of thinking abstractly about light and its properties. In the state of Missouri students are exposed to the concept of light and how humans perceive light in the 6th grade. Students at this age and especially in economically depressed areas have a harder time thinking abstractly and therefore the concept of light and sight can be confusing and misconceptions formed. The goal of my research is to gain insight to students’ prior knowledge, dispel misconceptions with concrete evidence and ideas while creating engaging lessons about electromagnetic spectrum. The understanding of the electromagnetic spectrum is fundamental for students to understand other concepts such as the Doppler Effect in stars, stellar magnitudes, distances to stars and other physics and astronomical concepts.

  10. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Gregory C.; Vadali, Monika L.; Kvale, Dorian L.; Ellickson, Kristie M.

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888

  11. Modelling the socio-economic impact of river floods in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc; Salamon, Peter; Thielen, Jutta; Bianchi, Alessandra; Dottori, Francesco; Burek, Peter

    2016-06-01

    River floods generate a large share of the socio-economic impact of weather-driven hazards worldwide. Accurate assessment of their impact is a key priority for governments, international organization, reinsurance companies and emergency responders. Yet, available databases of flood losses over large domains are often affected by gaps and inconsistencies in reported figures. In this work, a framework to reconstruct the economic damage and population affected by river floods at continental scale is applied. Pan-European river flow simulations are coupled with a high-resolution impact assessment framework based on 2-D inundation modelling. Two complementary methods are compared in their ability to estimate the climatological average flood impact and the impact of each flood event in Europe between 1990 and 2013. The event-based method reveals key features, such as the ability to include changes in time of all three components of risk, namely hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Furthermore, it skilfully reproduces the socio-economic impact of major flood events in the past two decades, including the severe flooding hitting central Europe in June 2013. On the other hand, the integral method is capable of reproducing the average flood losses which occurred in Europe between 1998 and 2009. Strengths and limitations of the proposed model are discussed to stress the large potential for filling in the gaps of current datasets of flood impact.

  12. Understanding socio-economic impacts of geohazards aided by cyber-enabled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.; Webersik, C.

    2008-12-01

    Due to an increase in the volume of geohazards worldwide, not only are impoverished regions in less developed countries such as Haiti, vulnerable to risk but also low income regions in industrialized countries, e.g. USA, as well. This has been exemplified once again by Hurricanes Gustav, Hanna and Ike and the impact on the Caribbean countries during the summer of 2008. To date, extensive research has been conducted to improve the monitoring of human-nature coupled systems. However, there is little emphasis on improving and developing methodologies to a) interpret multi-dimensional and complex data and b) validate prediction and modeling results. This presentation tries to motivate more research initiatives to address the aforementioned issues, bringing together two academic disciplines, earth and social sciences, to research the relationship between natural and socio-economic processes. Results are presented where cyber-enabled methods based on artificial intelligence are applied to different geohazards and regions in the world. They include 1) modeling of public health risks associated with volcanic gas hazards, 2) prediction and validation of potential areas of mining-triggered earthquakes, and 3) modeling of socio-economic risks associated with tropical storms in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

  13. [Evaluation of socio-economic status of the orthognathous and disgnathous school age examinees].

    PubMed

    Stefanac-Papić, J

    1991-01-01

    Purpose of this investigation is verification of socio-economic status of two orthodontic groups of examinees, to find out differences and similarities between them. Out of total sample of 640 elementary school age children, 320 are orthognathous (E) and 320 disgnathous (D). The disgnathous subjects have a specific malocclusion; early tooth loss or secondary crowding. According to their sex (male, female), orthodontic condition (E, D) and age (7-14 years) children are classified into 8 groups (each consisting of 20 examinees). Socio-economic status is assessed by using data on the occupation and education level (high = V, medium = S, low = Z) of the subjects' parents. A specific questionnaire is created for the technical performance of the investigation. The results are statistically analyzed and presented in tables. The data processing is made by using UNIVAC-1110 computer in FORTRAN system language. The parents of the orthognathous (E) children are mostly of a higher and high (V) education level as compared to the parents of the disgnathous (D) children who are mostly of a lower (Z) education level. The ratio is 54.3% E to 44.6% PS. The difference is statistically significant on the level of 0.05 (x2 = 6.04, df = 2). This might indicate that a higher level of parents' education contributes to a more successful influence of parents on the environmental factors which predominantly cause orthodontic anomaly of a premature tooth loss and secondary crowding. PMID:1819954

  14. Considering something 'ELSE': ethical, legal and socio-economic factors in medical imaging and medical informatics.

    PubMed

    Duquenoy, Penny; George, Carlisle; Solomonides, Anthony

    2008-12-01

    The focus on the use of existing and new technologies to facilitate advances in medical imaging and medical informatics (MIMI) is often directed to the technical capabilities and possibilities that these technologies bring. The technologies, though, in acting as a mediating agent alter the dynamics and context of information delivery in subtle ways. While these changes bring benefits in more efficient information transfer and offer the potential of better healthcare, they also disrupt traditional processes and practices which have been formulated for a different setting. The governance processes that underpin core ethical principles, such as patient confidentiality and informed consent, may no longer be appropriate in a new technological context. Therefore, in addition to discussing new methodologies, techniques and applications, there is need for a discussion of ethical, legal and socio-economic (ELSE) issues surrounding the use and application of technologies in MIMI. Consideration of these issues is especially important for the area of medical informatics which after all exists to support patients, healthcare practitioners and inform science. This paper brings to light some important ethical, legal and socio-economic issues related to MIMI with the aim of furthering an interdisciplinary approach to the increasing use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in healthcare. PMID:18649968

  15. Future Discounting in Congo Basin Hunter-Gatherers Declines with Socio-Economic Transitions.

    PubMed

    Salali, Gul Deniz; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a tendency to discount the future; that is we value small, short-term rewards over larger, long-term rewards. The degree of future discounting, however, changes in response to socio-ecological factors. Here, we study Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers of northern Congo and their farmer neighbours to investigate adaptations in inter-temporal preferences in humans. We argue that in immediate-return systems, where food storage is absent and egalitarianism is enforced through levelling mechanisms, future discounting is an adaptive strategy to prevent wealth accumulation and the emergence of hierarchies. This ensures food sharing and allows for survival in unpredictable environments where there is risk of an energy shortfall. On the other hand, when food storage is made possible by the emergence of agriculture or as seen in some delayed-return hunter-gatherer populations, wealth accumulation, hierarchies and lower discount rates become the adaptive strategy. Therefore, individuals in immediate-return, egalitarian societies will discount the future more than those in non-egalitarian, delayed-return societies. Consistent with the predictions we found that market integration and socio-economic transitions decrease the future discounting in Mbendjele hunter-gatherers. Our measures of socio-economic differences marked this transition in hunter-gatherers living in a logging town. The degree of future-discounting was the same between more market-integrated hunter-gatherers and their farmer neighbours. PMID:26381883

  16. Public health in China: An environmental and socio-economic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wenjing; Li, Yonghua; Hao, Zhe; Li, Hairong; Wang, Wuyi

    2016-03-01

    Despite the large literature on public health, few studies have examined the associations between public health outcomes and environmental and socio-economic factors. This study bridges this gap by demonstrating the relationships between public health and 10 selected environmental and socio-economic factors from the spatial perspective. In particular, three public health outcomes in China are investigated, namely the number of centenarians per 100,000 people (termed the centenarian ratio), the proportion of nonagenarians of the 65 years and older population (termed the longevity index), and life expectancy at birth. We base our analysis on stepwise regression and geographically weighted regression models, with study areas of 31 provinces in China. Our results show that SO2 (sulfur dioxide) concentration decreases the centenarian ratio; PM10 (particles with diameters of 10 μm or less) concentration and coal consumption (CC) per capita decrease the longevity index, and GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita prolongs life expectancy at birth, while energy consumption (EC) per capita decreases life expectancy at birth. Further, our findings demonstrate that public health outcomes show clear regional differences in China.

  17. Mass media campaign improves cervical screening across all socio-economic groups.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jenny O; Mullins, Robyn M; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-10-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data were obtained from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry for each Pap test registered during 2005 and categorized into SES quintiles using the Index of Socio-Economic Advantage/Disadvantage. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the impact of the campaign on the weekly number of Pap tests and whether the media campaign had a differential effect by SES, after adjusting for the number of workdays per week, age group and time since previous test. Cervical screening increased 27% during the campaign period and was equally effective in encouraging screening across all SES groups, including low-SES women. Mass media campaigns can prompt increased rates of cervical screening among all women, not just those from more advantaged areas. Combining media with additional strategies targeted at low-SES women may help lessen the underlying differences in screening rates across SES. PMID:19342422

  18. Future Discounting in Congo Basin Hunter-Gatherers Declines with Socio-Economic Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Salali, Gul Deniz; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a tendency to discount the future; that is we value small, short-term rewards over larger, long-term rewards. The degree of future discounting, however, changes in response to socio-ecological factors. Here, we study Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers of northern Congo and their farmer neighbours to investigate adaptations in inter-temporal preferences in humans. We argue that in immediate-return systems, where food storage is absent and egalitarianism is enforced through levelling mechanisms, future discounting is an adaptive strategy to prevent wealth accumulation and the emergence of hierarchies. This ensures food sharing and allows for survival in unpredictable environments where there is risk of an energy shortfall. On the other hand, when food storage is made possible by the emergence of agriculture or as seen in some delayed-return hunter-gatherer populations, wealth accumulation, hierarchies and lower discount rates become the adaptive strategy. Therefore, individuals in immediate-return, egalitarian societies will discount the future more than those in non-egalitarian, delayed-return societies. Consistent with the predictions we found that market integration and socio-economic transitions decrease the future discounting in Mbendjele hunter-gatherers. Our measures of socio-economic differences marked this transition in hunter-gatherers living in a logging town. The degree of future-discounting was the same between more market-integrated hunter-gatherers and their farmer neighbours. PMID:26381883

  19. Socio-economic analysis of the risk management of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in China in the context of the Stockholm Convention.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Liu, Jian-Guo; Hu, Jian-xin; Yi, Shan

    2016-05-01

    Socio-economic analysis (SEA) plays an important role in decision-making on risk management actions for certain chemicals under Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) in developing countries. This paper showed the first holistic and quantitative SEA case study on that by developing a country-specific SEA framwork and methodologies and applying the case of HBCD phase-out in China under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). The study indicates that, under the possible scenarios of 10 years and 5 years , the economic costs of HBCD phase-out in China would be between 9.032 and 19.021 billion RMB. Although the total economic costs seems to be significant, it would only have a marginal impact on the house building industry with a likely cost increase by about 0.07‰-0.14‰. Meanwhile, the HBCD phase-out may render significant environmental and health benefits, including about 23-29 tons of HBCD release prevented to the environment, 1.142-1.469 million tons of potentially HBCD contained hazardous wastes avoided, along with significant reduction from 58% up to almost 100% in local environmental concentrations of HBCD, and about 0.0996-0.128 million workers at risk avoided and at least 3.067-4.033 billion RMB of the health care savings. While the scenario of phasing out HBCD over 10 years would be less costly than the scenario of that over 5 years, the later scenario suggested much greater environmental and health benefits for China. PMID:26615892

  20. A methodological framework to assess the socio-economic impact of underground quarries: A case study from Belgian Limburg.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, A; Poesen, J; Duchateau, P; Vranken, L

    2016-01-15

    This study developed a methodology to assess the socio-economic impact of the presence and collapse of underground limestone quarries. For this we rely on case study evidence from Riemst, a village located in Eastern Belgium and use both secondary and primary data sources. A sinkhole inventory as well as data about the prevention costs provided by the municipality was used. To estimate the recreational values of the quarries, visitor data was obtained from the tourist office of Riemst. Next, two surveys were conducted among inhabitants and four real estate agents and one notary. The direct and indirect damages were assessed using respectively the repair cost and production and real estate value losses. The total yearly direct and indirect damage equals €415000 (±€85000) and more than half of it can be attributed to the depreciation of real estate (€230000). The quarries have recreational, cultural-historical and ecological values and thus generate societal benefits. The yearly recreational value was at least €613000 in 2012 values. The ecological and cultural-historical values augment to €180000 per year (in 2012 values). Further, our study indicates that the gains from filling up the quarries below the houses located above an underground limestone quarry outweigh the costs in the case study area. The net gain from filling up the underground quarry ranges €38700 to €101700 per house. This is only the lower bound of the net gain from filling up these underground quarries since preventive filling makes future collapses less likely so that future direct repair costs will be most likely smaller. PMID:26439649

  1. Risk factors in road crossing among elderly pedestrians and readiness to adopt safe behavior in socio-economic comparison.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Sapir-Lavid, Yael; Perlman, Amotz

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the Health Promotion Behavior (HPB) models regarding elderly pedestrians' behaviors and attitudes. We studied cognitive-psychological variables, such as risk estimation, self-efficacy and demographic variables and compared elderly pedestrians' attitudes and behaviors in a city with higher socio-economic level (Tel Aviv) versus a city with low socio-economic level (Beer Sheva). We expected to find more problematic behaviors among elderly pedestrians in the low socio-economic city compared to the high socio-economic city, and also less feeling of self-efficacy, and lessened awareness of the risks, that leads to lessened willingness to adopt preventive behaviors. The research was conducted in two studies. The first study was based on observations on 2591 pedestrians in six similar crosswalks in both cities. It revealed that pedestrians in the high socio-economic city demonstrated safer road crossing patterns than in the low socio-economic city and that elderly pedestrians reveal safer crossing patterns than younger pedestrians. We found an interaction of location and age due to greater gap of safe behaviors of elderly and young pedestrians in the high socio-economic city than in the low socio-economic city. In Tel Aviv elderly adhere to the crossing rules much more than the young while in Beer Sheva elderly and young people are almost similar in their crossing patterns. The second study used questionnaires that have been completed by 143 elderly in both cities. The questionnaires referred to (a) demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, education, socio-economic level, (b) variables related to the affiliation to the main culture such as migration, date of migration, knowledge in Hebrew (local language) and connectivity to media and (c) cognitive as well as psychological variables related to the decline to adopt healthy behaviors based on Schwarzer and Fuchs (1995). This part also indicated that elderly in Tel Aviv have higher

  2. Access to health care services as a justiciable socio-economic right under the South African constitution.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles

    2003-01-01

    This commentary describes and analyses the decision of the Constitutional Court of South Africa in Minister of Health and Others v Treatment Action Campaign and Others where the South African government was found to have violated the right of access to health care under the Constitution. Section 27(1) guarantees everyone the right of access to health care services. Section 27(2) imposes on the state a duty to take reasonable measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of this right. To the extent that government was unreasonably delaying access to patently affordable life-saving therapy for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV to a class of persons that was largely vulnerable and indigent, it is submitted that the case was correctly decided. However, there is little doubt that the decision, and in particular the prescriptive nature of the remedy granted by the Court and its budgetary implications, do no sit easily with a traditional notion of separation of powers between the judiciary on the one hand, and the executive and Parliament on the other. At the same time, it must be accepted that the remedy and its budgetary implications are an inevitable consequence of the inclusion of justiciable socio-economic rights in the Bill of Rights. The principles that were applied by the Court in determining the case were largely drawn from jurisprudence developed by organs under treaty bodies, and in particular the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. PMID:14983892

  3. Using GIS-based methods of multicriteria analysis to construct socio-economic deprivation indices

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nathaniel; Schuurman, Nadine; Hayes, Michael V

    2007-01-01

    Background Over the past several decades researchers have produced substantial evidence of a social gradient in a variety of health outcomes, rising from systematic differences in income, education, employment conditions, and family dynamics within the population. Social gradients in health are measured using deprivation indices, which are typically constructed from aggregated socio-economic data taken from the national census – a technique which dates back at least until the early 1970's. The primary method of index construction over the last decade has been a Principal Component Analysis. Seldom are the indices constructed from survey-based data sources due to the inherent difficulty in validating the subjectivity of the response scores. We argue that this very subjectivity can uncover spatial distributions of local health outcomes. Moreover, indication of neighbourhood socio-economic status may go underrepresented when weighted without expert opinion. In this paper we propose the use of geographic information science (GIS) for constructing the index. We employ a GIS-based Order Weighted Average (OWA) Multicriteria Analysis (MCA) as a technique to validate deprivation indices that are constructed using more qualitative data sources. Both OWA and traditional MCA are well known and used methodologies in spatial analysis but have had little application in social epidemiology. Results A survey of British Columbia's Medical Health Officers (MHOs) was used to populate the MCA-based index. Seven variables were selected and weighted based on the survey results. OWA variable weights assign both local and global weights to the index variables using a sliding scale, producing a range of variable scenarios. The local weights also provide leverage for controlling the level of uncertainty in the MHO response scores. This is distinct from traditional deprivation indices in that the weighting is simultaneously dictated by the original respondent scores and the value of the

  4. Socio-economic development with regard to the availability of resources in Benin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbarek, R.; Behle, C.; Doevenspeck, M.; Mulindabigwi, V.; Schopp, M.; Singer, U.; Henrichsmeyer, W.; Janssens, M.; Schug, W.

    2003-04-01

    The socio-economic part within the IMPETUS-Project analyses interdependencies between resource availability and socio-economic development in Benin. The results of various research activities of natural and social sciences are integrated in a modelling system, in order to calculate development scenarios of resource utilisation and food security in Benin for the next two decades. Missing data concerning water usage and economic parameters are collected in field surveys, in co-operation with other disciplines and stakeholders on site, investigating the upper Ouémé-catchment in particular. The demand of water is analysed by water frequency observation, household analysis and interviews with experts and shows the effects of changing socio-economic parameters on demand growth. The analysis of water availability investigates the question, how the gap between water demand and water availability, due to demographic, social and natural conditions, may be closed by improved management systems and improved technical equipment. A further field of interest is to measure the influence of land use systems and rain variability on carbon balance and food security. Rain variability associated with inadequate land use systems has become the most important factor for determining food insecurity and emission of (global )greenhouse gases in Benin. Therefore, farmers in Benin need efficient water management systems, otherwise they are obliged to extend their agricultural areas or to migrate towards less occupied regions. The results of the above mentioned research activities are introduced in the modelling system BenIMPACT (Benin Integrated Modelling System for Policy Analysis, Climate and Technology Change). It consists of an agricultural sector model (spatial, synthetic, non-linear), a tool to calculate water balances and a basic data system, which provides data and results in a mapping tool (BenMap). Establishing BenIMPACT as a decision support system in corresponding institutions

  5. Relative importance of climatic, geographic and socio-economic determinants of malaria in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission is influenced by variations in meteorological conditions, which impact the biology of the parasite and its vector, but also socio-economic conditions, such as levels of urbanization, poverty and education, which impact human vulnerability and vector habitat. The many potential drivers of malaria, both extrinsic, such as climate, and intrinsic, such as population immunity are often difficult to disentangle. This presents a challenge for the modelling of malaria risk in space and time. Methods A statistical mixed model framework is proposed to model malaria risk at the district level in Malawi, using an age-stratified spatio-temporal dataset of malaria cases from July 2004 to June 2011. Several climatic, geographic and socio-economic factors thought to influence malaria incidence were tested in an exploratory model. In order to account for the unobserved confounding factors that influence malaria, which are not accounted for using measured covariates, a generalized linear mixed model was adopted, which included structured and unstructured spatial and temporal random effects. A hierarchical Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was used for model fitting and prediction. Results Using a stepwise model selection procedure, several explanatory variables were identified to have significant associations with malaria including climatic, cartographic and socio-economic data. Once intervention variations, unobserved confounding factors and spatial correlation were considered in a Bayesian framework, a final model emerged with statistically significant predictor variables limited to average precipitation (quadratic relation) and average temperature during the three months previous to the month of interest. Conclusions When modelling malaria risk in Malawi it is important to account for spatial and temporal heterogeneity and correlation between districts. Once observed and unobserved confounding factors are allowed for

  6. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Screening among Women across Different Socio-Economic Regions of China

    PubMed Central

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Wu, Jiuling; Song, Bo; Ma, Lan; Chen, Jingyi; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective China has a high burden of cervical cancer (CC) and wide disparities in CC burden exist among different socio-economic regions. In order to reduce these disparities, China’s government launched the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NCCSPRA) in 2009. Understanding the factors associated with underutilization of CC screening among target populations is important to improve the screening participation rate, and a high participation rate is key to achieving the goals of a screening program. However, data on the knowledge of CC among target populations in program areas is lacking in China. This study will investigate the knowledge of CC prevention and control among women in specific project counties to develop a better understanding of factors that might influence CC screening participation in order to improve the implementation of the NCCSPRA. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted and face-to-face interview questionnaires were completed by 308 women who received CC screening services in 6 project counties of NCCSPRA across different socio-economic regions of China. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to compare the knowledge rates and scores across the different subgroups. Logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with knowledge level. Results The overall CC knowledge rate of the target population was only 19.5%. Regional socio-economic level, advice from doctors, age, and educational status were strong predictors of knowledge level of CC screening. Significantly lower knowledge rates and scores were identified in older women (55–64 years old), less educated women (with primary school or illiterate), women in less developed regions and women who did not receive any advice about screening results from doctors. Conclusion The knowledge of CC screening among women in the project counties of NCCSPRA was found to be very poor. Given the importance of knowledge in encouraging

  7. Burden of micronutrient deficiencies by socio-economic strata in children aged 6 months to 5 years in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are a chronic lack of vitamins and minerals and constitute a huge public health problem. MNDs have severe health consequences and are particularly harmful during early childhood due to their impact on the physical and cognitive development. We estimate the costs of illness due to iron deficiency (IDA), vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and zinc deficiency (ZnD) in 2 age groups (6–23 and 24–59 months) of Filipino children by socio-economic strata in 2008. Methods We build a health economic model simulating the consequences of MNDs in childhood over the entire lifetime. The model is based on a health survey and a nutrition survey carried out in 2008. The sample populations are first structured into 10 socio-economic strata (SES) and 2 age groups. Health consequences of MNDs are modelled based on information extracted from literature. Direct medical costs, production losses and intangible costs are computed and long term costs are discounted to present value. Results Total lifetime costs of IDA, VAD and ZnD amounted to direct medical costs of 30 million dollars, production losses of 618 million dollars and intangible costs of 122,138 disability adjusted life years (DALYs). These costs can be interpreted as the lifetime costs of a 1-year cohort affected by MNDs between the age of 6–59 months. Direct medical costs are dominated by costs due to ZnD (89% of total), production losses by losses in future lifetime (90% of total) and intangible costs by premature death (47% of total DALY losses) and losses in future lifetime (43%). Costs of MNDs differ considerably between SES as costs in the poorest third of the households are 5 times higher than in the wealthiest third. Conclusions MNDs lead to substantial costs in 6-59-month-old children in the Philippines. Costs are highly concentrated in the lower SES and in children 6–23 months old. These results may have important implications for the design, evaluation and choice of the

  8. The Effect of Socio-Economic Predictors of Chronic Diseases in Ghana: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Bashiru I. I.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Blay, Samuel Nguah; Zhao, Xicang

    2013-01-01

    Socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in Ghana are not well understood and their influence has been relatively overlooked. This paper seeks to examine the influence of socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in Ghanaians three different age groups. The data employed in the study were drawn from Global Ageing and Adult Health survey conducted in Ghana by SAGE and was based on the design for the World Health Survey. The survey was conducted in 2007 and collected data on socio-economic characteristics and other variables of the individuals interviewed. The overall results suggest that chronic diseases in relatively older Ghanaians reflects social and economic exposures with the differentials observed only partially explained by current social and economic conditions. Our results were by and large very much expected from the current medical knowledge available. PMID:23985113

  9. Respiratory performance and grip strength tests in Indian school bodys of different socio-economic status.

    PubMed Central

    De, A. K.; Debnath, P. K.; Dey, N. K.; Nagchaudhuri, J.

    1980-01-01

    Physical efficiency tests were performed on urban school boys drawn from high socio-economic status in comparison to rural school boys. The height and weight records of the subjects indicating growing process showed that the rural boys attained less physical growth than their urban counterparts. The Vital Capacity and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate data expressed either per unit of height or body surface area were significantly lower in rual boys. these findings indicated a poor development of the thorax in the rural group. However, the determined grip strengths for both the group were similar. The grip test might reflect improvement of muscle mass in case of rural boys as a result of regular physical activity employing the arm muscles. Images p145-a p145-b PMID:7407454

  10. Young adolescents' wellbeing and health-risk behaviours: gender and socio-economic differences.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M M; Scott, J

    2001-04-01

    In this paper we use the 1994-1997 Youth Surveys of the British Household Panel Study to examine the wellbeing of young adolescents. We conceptualize wellbeing as a multi-dimensional construct and we develop and test models of gender and age differences. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we find clear gender differences in self-esteem, self-efficacy, unhappiness and worries. We confirm that wellbeing and some health-risk behaviours (fighting and smoking) are linked. We test models that examine how family structure, father's occupation, tenure, and household income, affect adolescent wellbeing. While socio-economic factors affect health-risk behaviours and also adolescents' reported worries, they have little impact on other aspects of youth wellbeing. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:11437479

  11. Socio-economic factors associated with intestinal parasites among children living in Gombak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, B; Sinniah, B; Hussein, H

    1994-01-01

    Fecal specimens collected from 456 school children in Gombak, Malaysia, revealed an overall prevalence rate of 62.9%. The most common parasite found was Trichuris trichiura (47.1%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (14.7%), Entamoeba coli (11.4%), Entamoeba histolytica (9.9%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (7.9%). Infection rates were high among the Indonesian immigrant workers' children (90%) followed by the Orang Asli (79.5%), Malay (59.4%) and Indians (36.4%). Females (66.3%) had a higher prevalence rate than the males (58.5%). The prevalence of infection was found to be associated with the socio-economic status, water supply, sanitary disposal of feces and family size. Albendazole administered as a single dose (400 mg) was found to be effective against Ascaris (100%) and hookworm (92.3%) but was not effective against Trichuris (39.2%). PMID:8074940

  12. Socio-economic resources and first-union formation in Finland, cohorts born 1969-81.

    PubMed

    Jalovaara, Marika

    2012-03-01

    Social scientists generally agree that better individual economic prospects enhance the probability of marriage for men, whereas there are conflicting views with regard to women. Moreover, it is argued that cohabitation does not require as strong an economic foundation as marriage. The aim of this study, which was based on Finnish register data, was to find out how the socio-economic resources of young adults affect first-union formation, and whether the effects vary by sex or union type. The results show that high education, labour-force participation, and high income seem to promote union formation. The findings are similar for women and men, which is plausible given the comparatively gender-egalitarian societal context. Similar factors encourage entry into both union types, although the union-promoting effects of university-level education and stable employment are stronger in the marriage models, suggesting that long-term prospects are more important when marriage is contemplated. PMID:22239474

  13. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site. PMID:25359395

  14. Socio-economic status and body mass index in low-income Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Lia

    2007-01-01

    The study reported here explored the associations of body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status (SES), and beverage consumption in a very low income population. A house-to-house survey was conducted in 2003 of 12,873 Mexican adults. The sample was designed to be representative of the poorest communities in seven of Mexico’s thirty-one states. Greater educational attainment was significantly associated with higher BMI and a greater prevalence of overweight (25≤BMI<30) and obesity (30≤BMI) in men and women. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was over 70% in women over the median age of 35.4 years old with at least some primary education compared with a prevalence of 45% in women below the median age with no education. BMI was positively correlated with five of the six SES variables in both sexes: education, occupation, quality of housing conditions, household assets, and subjective social status. BMI and household income were significantly correlated in women but not in men. In the model including all SES variables, education, occupation, housing conditions and household assets all contributed independently and significantly to BMI, and household income and subjective social status did not. Increased consumption of alcoholic and carbonated sugar beverages was associated with higher SES and higher BMI in men and women. Thus, in spite of the narrow range of socio-economic variability in this population, the increased consumption of high calorie beverages may explain the positive relationship between SES and BMI. The positive associations between SES and BMI in this low-income, rural population are likely to be related to the changing patterns of food availability, food composition, consumption patterns and cultural factors. Contextually sensitive population-level interventions are critically needed to address obesity and overweight in poor populations, particularly in older women. PMID:17368895

  15. Socio-Economic Concerns and Essential Elements in Estuary Management Strategies; Haliç Case, Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpar, Bedri; Isil Cetin, Basak

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries are transitional areas between the land and sea and home to a large and growing proportion of the world's population. They are highly productive ecosystems which create jobs, and boosts local economic growth with a higher percentage of collective and private enterprises and a larger share of production. They serve many important socio-economic functions and therefore receive untreated urban wastes and riverine inputs and concentrate various pollutants coming from inland domestic, agricultural and industrial activities. Therefore such kinds of complex systems are highly vulnerable because they are usually the sink for the hinterlands. Due to serious environmental problems felt more intensively day by day, central and local governments must adopt an integrated policy and decision making process to promote a balance of uses. As surrounded by many historical attractions, heritage sites, buzzing cultural scenes and other natural resources, the Haliç (the Golden Horn estuary) offers great opportunities and has a vitality fed by widespread economic and cultural factors. The typical landscape of the estuary, its bridges, geomorphic features, oceanographic and hydrodynamic features of its waters, sea bottom characteristics, environmental pollution, make this estuary a critical marine environment which impacts to economy, environment and community. However, rapid urban growth and uncontrolled industrial development (1950-1985) led to a severe increase in pollution levels of its water and cohesive sediments. The siltation due to liquid and solid waste dumped by two streams caused anaerobic decomposition problems. In addition, the ecological processes occurring in the Haliç are rather complex as they are interacted with the socio-economic system. This study focuses on the essential elements of integrated coastal zone management for the Haliç, and its probable impacts to economy, environment and community. All objectives and probable impacts need to be integrated

  16. Assessing conservation opportunity on private land: socio-economic, behavioral, and spatial dimensions.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Christopher M; Brown, Gregory

    2011-10-01

    This study presents a method for assessing conservation opportunity on private land based on landholders' socio-economic, behavioral, and farm characteristics. These characteristics include age, gender, education, level of off-farm income, farm size, proportion of remnant native vegetation on-farm, and ecological value of native vegetation on-farm. A sample of landholders who own greater than 2 ha of land in the South Australian Murray-Darling Basin region were sent a mail-based survey about their values and preferences for environmental management (N = 659, 52% response). Cross-tabulations and ANOVA statistical analysis techniques were used to compare the socio-economic attributes across three landholder classes: disengaged, moderately engaged, and highly engaged in native vegetation planting. Results indicate that highly engaged landholders were more likely to be female, formally educated, hobby farmers who managed small parcels of land and have high off-farm incomes, whereas disengaged landholders held significantly stronger farming connections (more farming experience, family have lived on the farm for more generations). Spatial analysis revealed area-specific differences in conservation opportunity and conservation priority. In some areas, properties of high ecological value were managed by highly engaged landholders, but nearby properties of high value were managed by moderately engaged or disengaged landholders. Environmental managers therefore cannot assume areas of high conservation priority will be areas of high conservation opportunity. At the regional scale, the potential for revegetation seems most promising within the moderately engaged landholder group considering the vast amount of land managed by this group in areas of high ecological value, particularly within the less represented Mallee and Coorong and Rangelands sub-regions. We suggest that incentive schemes which purchase conservation need to be targeted at disengaged landholders; mentoring

  17. A fuzzy stochastic framework for managing hydro-environmental and socio-economic interactions under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subagadis, Yohannes Hagos; Schütze, Niels; Grundmann, Jens

    2014-05-01

    An amplified interconnectedness between a hydro-environmental and socio-economic system brings about profound challenges of water management decision making. In this contribution, we present a fuzzy stochastic approach to solve a set of decision making problems, which involve hydrologically, environmentally, and socio-economically motivated criteria subjected to uncertainty and ambiguity. The proposed methodological framework combines objective and subjective criteria in a decision making procedure for obtaining an acceptable ranking in water resources management alternatives under different type of uncertainty (subjective/objective) and heterogeneous information (quantitative/qualitative) simultaneously. The first step of the proposed approach involves evaluating the performance of alternatives with respect to different types of criteria. The ratings of alternatives with respect to objective and subjective criteria are evaluated by simulation-based optimization and fuzzy linguistic quantifiers, respectively. Subjective and objective uncertainties related to the input information are handled through linking fuzziness and randomness together. Fuzzy decision making helps entail the linguistic uncertainty and a Monte Carlo simulation process is used to map stochastic uncertainty. With this framework, the overall performance of each alternative is calculated using an Order Weighted Averaging (OWA) aggregation operator accounting for decision makers' experience and opinions. Finally, ranking is achieved by conducting pair-wise comparison of management alternatives. This has been done on the basis of the risk defined by the probability of obtaining an acceptable ranking and mean difference in total performance for the pair of management alternatives. The proposed methodology is tested in a real-world hydrosystem, to find effective and robust intervention strategies for the management of a coastal aquifer system affected by saltwater intrusion due to excessive groundwater

  18. Socio-economic position and adiposity among children and their parents in the Republic of Belarus

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kramer, Michael S.; Smith, George Davey; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Martin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Socio-economic differences in the prevalence of overweight/obesity may be one factor through which health inequalities arise and may vary by the population studied. Methods: Analysing a cohort of 13 889 children born in Belarus between June 1996 and December 1997, the authors investigated associations of parental educational attainment and highest household occupation with: (i) measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and skinfold thicknesses at age 6.5 years and (ii) the parents’ reported BMI. Results: Overall, 10% of children, 37% of mothers and 53% of fathers were either overweight or obese. Children from non-manual households were 27% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10%, 47%] more likely to be overweight/obese (based on BMI) than those from manual households. They also had larger waist circumferences and higher percentage body fat (calculated from subscapular and triceps skinfolds). Similar associations for being overweight/obese were seen for fathers [odds ratio (OR), 1.10; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.18], but mothers from non-manual households were less likely to be overweight/obese: (OR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.79, 0. 90). Associations of childhood and parental overweight/obesity with higher educational status of either parent were similar to those observed for non-manual households. Conclusion: We observed socio-economic differentials in overweight/obesity prevalence among children and their parents in Belarus. More affluent children and their fathers were more likely to be overweight/obese but the reverse was found for mothers. PMID:20418336

  19. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP) analysis on depressed mood in Korea: the impact of gender differences and other socio-economic factors

    PubMed Central

    Gitto, Lara; Noh, Yong-Hwan; Andrés, Antonio Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people’s quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on Korea. In fact, in spite of the great amount of empirical studies carried out for other countries, few epidemiological studies have examined the socio-economic determinants of depression in Korea and they were either limited to samples of employed women or did not control for individual health status. Moreover, as the likely data endogeneity (i.e. the possibility of correlation between the dependent variable and the error term as a result of autocorrelation or simultaneity, such as, in this case, the depressed mood due to health factors that, in turn might be caused by depression), might bias the results, the present study proposes an empirical approach, based on instrumental variables, to deal with this problem. Methods: Data for the year 2008 from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were employed. About seven thousands of people (N= 6,751, of which 43% were males and 57% females), aged from 19 to 75 years old, were included in the sample considered in the analysis. In order to take into account the possible endogeneity of some explanatory variables, two Instrumental Variables Probit (IVP) regressions were estimated; the variables for which instrumental equations were estimated were related to the participation of women to the workforce and to good health, as reported by people in the sample. Explanatory variables were related to age, gender, family factors (such as the number of family members and marital status) and socio-economic factors

  20. Cost Contributors to Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Nathwani, Jay; Mines, Greg

    2011-07-01

    The US Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Office (DOE-GTO) has developed the tool Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model (GETEM) to assess the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of power produced from geothermal resources. Recently modifications to GETEM allow the DOE-GTO to better assess how different factors impact the generation costs, including initial project risk, time required to complete a development, and development size. The model characterizes the costs associated with project risk by including the costs to evaluate and drill those sites that are considered but not developed for commercial power generation, as well as to assign higher costs to finance those activities having more risk. This paper discusses how the important parameters impact the magnitude project costs for different project scenarios. The cost distributions presented include capital cost recovery for the exploration, confirmation, well field completion and power plant construction, as well as the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. The paper will present these cost distributions for both EGS and hydrothermal resources.

  1. [Assessment of the impact of socio-economic factors on the health state of the population of the Sverdlovsk region in the system of social-hygienic monitoring].

    PubMed

    Derstuganova, T M; VelichkovskiĬ, B T; Varaksin, A N; Gurvich, V B; Malykh, O L; Kochneva, N I; Iarushin, S V

    2013-01-01

    There was investigated the impact of socioeconomic factors on medical and demographic processes in working age population. For the assessment of the impact of living conditions and environmental factors on mortality rate in a population of the Sverdlovsk region factor-typological, correlation and regression analyzes were applied There was shown an availability of statistically significant correlation relationships between mortality of the population of working age and socio-economic characteristics (degree of home improvement, quality of medical care, the level of social tension, the level of the demographic load), as well as between their increments with taking into account the time shifts. The effect of the value of the purchasing power on the mortality rate of the working population has been established The purchasing power was shown to be connected with a mortality rate of working population from external causes more stronger than death from all causes. PMID:24624831

  2. Low cost space power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Randall B.

    1991-01-01

    The success of this study has given a method of fabricating durable copolymer films without size limitations. Previously, only compression molded samples were durable enough to generate electrical energy. The strengthened specimens are very long lived materials. The lifetime was enhanced at least a factor of 1,300 in full pyroelectric conversion cycle experiments compared with extruded, non-strengthened film. The new techniques proved so successful that the lifetime of the resultant copolymer samples was not fully characterized. The lifetime of these new materials is so long that accelerated tests were devised to probe their durability. After a total of more than 67 million high voltage electrical cycles at 100 C, the electrical properties of a copolymer sample remained stable. The test was terminated without any detectable degradation to allow for other experiments. One must be cautious in extrapolating to power cycle performance, but 67 million electrical cycles correspond to 2 years of pyroelectric cycling at 1 Hz. In another series of experiments at reduced temperature and electrical stress, a specimen survived over one-third of a billion electrical cycles during nearly three months of continuous testing. The radiation-limited lifetimes of the copolymer were shown to range from several years to millions of years for most earth orbits. Thus, the pyroelectric copolymer has become a strong candidate for serious consideration for future spacecraft power supplies.

  3. Perspectives and Challenges for Water Desalination - A Socio-Economic Multi-Regional Analysis and a Case Study for Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowska, J. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Young, M.

    2013-12-01

    Water desalination is anticipated to become a prospective solution for mitigating future water shortages in Texas. As of 2010, 46 municipal brackish water desalination plants were operating in Texas with an estimated total desalination capacity of about 120 million gallons per day (2.3% of state water use) (TWDB 2010; TWDB 2013). In 2011, 99% of the State of Texas suffered extreme drought, with large portions suffering through exceptional drought. This event was classified as the one-year drought of record. Moreover, the growing population of Texas and the subsequent growing water demand create an immediate need for long-term planning for a reliable and efficient water supply. Desalination, even though acknowledged as a reliable option in many countries in the world, requires high investment costs and energy inputs. Current costs of desalinated water can range between US1.09/1,000 gallons and US3.7/1,000 gallons (Arroyo and Shirazi 2012), which are about two to three times higher than water costs from conventional sources (San Antonio Water System 2012; AustinTexas.gov 2013). Economic efficiency is still the main factor determining future developments of desalination investments in Texas, and the technology is still emerging. While currently only investment, maintenance and total capital costs per unit water are considered as factors determining viability of a desalination plant, this study aims at depicting a broader picture of socio-economic impacts related to the construction project itself, both in the immediate region and adjacent communities and interlinked sectors. This study presents an Input-Output model for the brackish water desalination plant in San Antonio, with the first stage expected to be completed in 2016. By using multi-regional and sectoral multipliers, the analysis shows that constructing the desalination plant can create 2,050 jobs in the San Antonio region, while it will add 316 more jobs in other regions in Texas by 2016. Construction will

  4. The socio-economic impact of important camel diseases as perceived by a pastoralist community in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mochabo, M O K; Kitala, P M; Gathura, P B; Ogara, W O; Eregae, E M; Kaitho, T D; Catley, A

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted in a pastoral community in Kenya using participatory appraisal approaches. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of camel trypanosomosis (surra) according to the perceptions of the pastoralists. Four livestock grazing units were conveniently selected and in each of them, three groups of key informants comprising five to eight persons were selected for the participatory exercises. Five camel diseases were listed in order of importance according to their severity and frequency of occurrence including trypanosomosis, mange, non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The losses listed as incurred due to the five diseases were: losses in milk, meat, blood, fats and hides, dowry payments, and depreciation in sale of animals, losses due to infertility and abortions, and losses due to the cost of treatment. There was good agreement (P < 0.05) between the informant groups on the losses incurred as a result of the diseases for all the selected loss indicators. Surra and mange were given high median scores on all the indicators while non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations, and haemorrhagic septicaemia received moderate median scores. Based on the study findings it is concluded that the camel plays a central role in the lives of Turkana pastoralists and that surra has a devastating social and economic impact. There is a need for veterinary and policy decision-makers to focus more attention on the control of surra in this arid and semi-arid area of Kenya. PMID:17283727

  5. Spatial, socio-economic, and ecological implications of incorporating minimum size constraints in marine protected area network design.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Kristian; Vaughan, Gregory; Vaz, Sandrine; Smith, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the cornerstone of most marine conservation strategies, but the effectiveness of each one partly depends on its size and distance to other MPAs in a network. Despite this, current recommendations on ideal MPA size and spacing vary widely, and data are lacking on how these constraints might influence the overall spatial characteristics, socio-economic impacts, and connectivity of the resultant MPA networks. To address this problem, we tested the impact of applying different MPA size constraints in English waters. We used the Marxan spatial prioritization software to identify a network of MPAs that met conservation feature targets, whilst minimizing impacts on fisheries; modified the Marxan outputs with the MinPatch software to ensure each MPA met a minimum size; and used existing data on the dispersal distances of a range of species found in English waters to investigate the likely impacts of such spatial constraints on the region's biodiversity. Increasing MPA size had little effect on total network area or the location of priority areas, but as MPA size increased, fishing opportunity cost to stakeholders increased. In addition, as MPA size increased, the number of closely connected sets of MPAs in networks and the average distance between neighboring MPAs decreased, which consequently increased the proportion of the planning region that was isolated from all MPAs. These results suggest networks containing large MPAs would be more viable for the majority of the region's species that have small dispersal distances, but dispersal between MPA sets and spill-over of individuals into unprotected areas would be reduced. These findings highlight the importance of testing the impact of applying different MPA size constraints because there are clear trade-offs that result from the interaction of size, number, and distribution of MPAs in a network. PMID:26219669

  6. Promoting Access to Higher Education and Identifying Access Students: How Useful Is Research on Participation by Socio-Economic Group?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Research conducted by Patrick Clancy and by Fitzpatrick Associates and Philip O'Connell on the level of representation of socio-economic groups amongst higher education entrants has been a key element in the development of access policy and practice in Ireland. This article reviews the context for the development of access and explores the…

  7. Promoting Low Socio-Economic Participation in Higher Education: A Comparison of Area-Based and Individual Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Alfred M.; Seymour, Richard; Koshy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As with other countries, Australia has been grappling with the identification, measurement and impact of disadvantage in higher education. In particular, the measurement of socio-economic status (SES) has been of central concern. The immediate solution in Australia has been the introduction of an "area" measure in which students' SES is…

  8. The Influence of Gender, School Location and Socio-Economic Status on Students' Academic Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alordiah, Caroline Ochuko; Akpadaka, Grace; Oviogbodu, Christy Oritseweyimi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of gender, school location, and socio-economic status (SES) on students' academic achievement in mathematics. The study was an ex-post factor design in which the variables were not manipulated nor controlled. Four research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The stratified random…

  9. The Political Response of Spanish Youth to the Socio-Economic Crisis: Some Implications for Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jover, Gonzalo; Belando-Montoro, María R.; Guío, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of the current socio-economic crisis on Spanish youth and their political response to it. It does so in three consecutive stages. In the first, it analyses the repercussion of the crisis on young people using information from certain social indicators (employment, mobility and education). It then outlines the…

  10. Does Socio-Economic Status Moderate the Associations between Psychosocial Predictors and Fruit Intake in Schoolchildren? The Pro Children Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandvik, C.; Gjestad, R.; Samdal, O.; Brug, J.; Klepp, K. -I.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether socio-economic status (SES) moderated the association between the psychosocial constructs included in the attitude-social influence-self-efficacy (ASE) model and fruit intake in Norwegian schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 962 Norwegian sixth graders, mean age 11.3 years. They were split into three SES groups, and…