Science.gov

Sample records for power train phase

  1. Occupational Safety. Power Tools. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on safety when using power tools is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to familiarize students with general safety rules and uses of commonly used electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and powder-actuated tools. The module may contain some or…

  2. MHD Advanced Power Train Phase I, Final Report, Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    A. R. Jones

    1985-08-01

    This appendix provides additional data in support of the MHD/Steam Power Plant Analyses reported in report Volume 5. The data is in the form of 3PA/SUMARY computer code printouts. The order of presentation in all four cases is as follows: (1) Overall Performance; (2) Component/Subsystem Information; (3) Plant Cost Accounts Summary; and (4) Plant Costing Details and Cost of Electricity.

  3. Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukuk, Marvin; Mathis, Joe

    This curriculum guide is part of a series designed to teach students about diesel engines. The materials in this power trains guide apply to both on-road and off-road vehicles and include information about chain and belt drives used in tractors and combines. These instructional materials, containing nine units, are written in terms of student…

  4. Automotive Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

  5. Simulation of three-dimensional multi-phase flow characteristics in the deswirl section of the CDIF MHD power train

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.

    1994-06-01

    A three-dimensional, two-phase, turbulent flow computer code was used to predict flow characteristics of seed particles and coal gas in the deswirl section of the CDIF MHD power train system. Seed material which has a great effect on the overall performance of the MHD system is injected in the deswirl against the swirling coal gas flow coming from the first stage combustor. While testing the MHD system, excessive seed material (70% more than theoretical value) was required to achieve design operating conditions. Calculations show that the swirling coal gas flow turns a 90 degree angle to minimize the swirl motion before entering a second stage combustor and many seed particles are too slow to react to the flow turning and deposit on the walls of the deswirl section. Some seed material deposited on the walls is covered by slag layer and removed from the gas flow. The reduction of seed material in the gas flow decreases MHD power generation significantly. A computational experiment was conducted and its results show that seed injection on the wall can be minimized by simply changing the seed injection and an optimum location was identified. If seed is injected from the location of choice, the seed deposition is reduced by a factor of 10 compared to the original case.

  6. High power phase shifter

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, B.; Gonin, I.; Khabiboulline, T.; Makarov, A.; Solyak, N.; Terechkine, I.; Wildman, D.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    One of the approaches to power distribution system of a superconducting proton linac under discussion at FNAL requires development of a fast-action, megawatt-range phase shifter. Using a couple of this kind of devices with a waveguide hybrid junction can allow independent control of phase and amplitude of RF power at the input of each superconducting cavity, which will result in significant saving in number of klystrons and modulators required for the accelerator. A prototype of a waveguide version of the shifter that uses Yttrium-Iron Garnet (YIG) blocks was developed and tested. This report presents design concept of the device, and main results of simulation and proof-of-principle tests.

  7. Power Trains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This power trains manual is one of a series of power mechanics for training in the servicing of transmissions, etc., on farm and industrial machines. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The ten chapters focus on (1) Power Trains: How They Work; (2)…

  8. Occupational Safety. Hand Tools. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on safety when using hand tools is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to teach students the correct safety techniques for operating common hand- and arm-powered tools, including selection, maintenance, technique, and uses. The module may…

  9. Bricklaying. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholewinski, Scott

    These 23 Student Training Modules on bricklaying comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 567.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  10. Plastering. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblen, Ron

    These 20 Student Training Modules on plastering comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 569.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  11. Painting. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kracht, Shannon

    These 21 Student Training Modules on painting comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 561.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  12. Tilesetting. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausland, Greg

    These 24 Student Training Modules on tilesetting comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 563.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  13. Plumbing. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brath, Ed

    These 26 Student Training Modules on plumbing comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 577.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  14. Drywall. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Doug

    These 18 Student Training Modules on drywall comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 573.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  15. Private Security Training. Phase 4: Firearms Training. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials for the firearms training phase of a private security training course of study. The seven units in the course cover the following topics: safety; revolver nomenclature and maintenance; inspecting revolvers and holsters; fundamentals of revolver shooting; legal issues and deadly force; range…

  16. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician Program. Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the outdoor power equipment technician program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee…

  17. Power Line Technician's Training. Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Earle L.

    These instructional units, developed in Oklahoma, are designed for training power line technicians for rural electric cooperatives. Planned to help current employees advance in knowledge and skill, the instructional materials are divided into seven areas of training: Laborer; Groundworker or Equipment Operator; Power Line Technician, Step 1; Power…

  18. Sketching. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on sketching is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to teach students the elements of and reasons for sketching as an essential aid to understanding blueprints. The module may contain some or all of the following: a cover sheet listing module…

  19. Multichannel Phase and Power Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Samuel; Lux, James; McMaster, Robert; Boas, Amy

    2006-01-01

    An electronic signal-processing system determines the phases of input signals arriving in multiple channels, relative to the phase of a reference signal with which the input signals are known to be coherent in both phase and frequency. The system also gives an estimate of the power levels of the input signals. A prototype of the system has four input channels that handle signals at a frequency of 9.5 MHz, but the basic principles of design and operation are extensible to other signal frequencies and greater numbers of channels. The prototype system consists mostly of three parts: An analog-to-digital-converter (ADC) board, which coherently digitizes the input signals in synchronism with the reference signal and performs some simple processing; A digital signal processor (DSP) in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board, which performs most of the phase- and power-measurement computations on the digital samples generated by the ADC board; and A carrier board, which allows a personal computer to retrieve the phase and power data. The DSP contains four independent phase-only tracking loops, each of which tracks the phase of one of the preprocessed input signals relative to that of the reference signal (see figure). The phase values computed by these loops are averaged over intervals, the length of which is chosen to obtain output from the DSP at a desired rate. In addition, a simple sum of squares is computed for each channel as an estimate of the power of the signal in that channel. The relative phases and the power level estimates computed by the DSP could be used for diverse purposes in different settings. For example, if the input signals come from different elements of a phased-array antenna, the phases could be used as indications of the direction of arrival of a received signal and/or as feedback for electronic or mechanical beam steering. The power levels could be used as feedback for automatic gain control in preprocessing of incoming signals

  20. Weight Training for Strength and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This paper begins by defining the terms "weight training,""weight lifting,""strength,""power," and "muscular endurance.""Weight training" is differentiated from "weight lifting" and defined as a systematic series of resistance exercises designed to promote physical development and conditioning or to rehabilitate persons who have suffered injury or…

  1. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  2. Comparison of different vehicle power trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizsey, Peter; Newson, Esmond

    Four different alternatives of mobile power train developments (hybrid diesel, fuel cell operating with hydrogen produced on a petrochemical basis, methanol reformer-fuel cell system, gasoline reformer-fuel cell system), are compared with the gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE), for well-to-wheel efficiencies, CO 2 emissions, and investment costs. Although the ICE requires the lowest investment cost, it is not competitive in well-to-wheel efficiencies and less favourable than the above alternatives for CO 2 emissions. The hybrid diesel power train has the highest well-to-wheel efficiency (30%), but its well-to-wheel carbon dioxide emission is similar to that of the fuel cell power train operated with compressed hydrogen produced on a centralised petrochemical basis. This latter case, however, has the advantage over the hybrid diesel power train that the carbon dioxide emission is concentrated and easier to control than the several point-like sources of emissions. Among the five cases studied only the on-board reforming of methanol offers the possibility of using a renewable energy source (biomass).

  3. Single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinn-Chang; Wang, Yung-Shan; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Lu, Wei-Tso

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface which converts the power from a single-phase utility to three-phase power for a three-phase load. The proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface comprises a bridge-type switch set, a set of three-phase inductors, a transformer set and a set of three-phase capacitors. A current-mode control controls the switching of bridge-type switch set, to generate a set of nonzero-sequence (NZS) currents and a set of zero-sequence (ZS) currents. The transformer set is used to decouple the NZS currents and the ZS currents. The NZS currents are used to generate a high-quality three-phase voltage that supplies power to a three-phase load. The ZS currents flow to the single-phase utility so that the utility current is sinusoidal and in phase with the utility voltage. Accordingly, only a bridge-type switch set is used in the single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface to simply the power circuit. A prototype is developed and tested to verify the performance of the proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface.

  4. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  5. Three-Phase Power Factor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Three-Phase Power-Factor Controller develops a control signal for each motor winding. As motor loading decreases, rms value of applied voltage is decreased by feedback-control circuit. Power consumption is therefore lower than in unregulated operation. Controller employs phase detector for each of three phases of delta-connected induction motor. Phase-difference sum is basis for control.

  6. T-4G Methodology: Undergraduate Pilot Training T-37 Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Robert R.; And Others

    The report's brief introduction describes the application of T-4G methodology to the T-37 instrument phase of undergraduate pilot training. The methodology is characterized by instruction in trainers, proficiency advancement, a highly structured syllabus, the training manager concept, early exposure to instrument training, and hands-on training.…

  7. Phase Detector for Power-Factor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    Positive feedback assures reliable switching. Three Phase Power Factor Controller includes three phase detectors, each produces rectangular waves of duration approximately equal to lag time between line voltage and motor current.

  8. C-130 Phase I Pilot Training Program (CCTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jack B.; And Others

    This is a detailed study of the C-130 Phase I (CCTS) pilot training program conducted by the 4442nd Combat Crew Training Wing at Stewart Air Force Base, Tennessee. The purpose of the study was to determine the most effective training program that will continue to produce highly qualified pilots at the least cost. The program was evaluated and…

  9. Auto Mechanics. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on auto mechanics, one of which is available separately as CE 032 867. Introductory materials include an introduction to pre-apprenticeship and its three phases of training, a recommended preocedure for conducting pre-apprenticeship training, and a course outline. Teaching…

  10. Undeground Coal Mine Supervisory and Management Training. Phase I Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Paul; And Others

    A project was conducted to develop a safety-oriented supervisory and management training program for the underground coal mining industry. The first phase of the project involved research to determine relevant training materials that are available and in use, assessment of supervisory and management training needs, and development of objectives…

  11. Design of Training Systems Phase I Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, William H.; And Others

    A summary is provided of the status of Phase I of the three-stage project, "Design of Training Systems" (DOTS). The purpose of the overall project is described as being to introduce the technologies of education, psychology, management and operations research into the management of Navy training. Phase I of the effort is designed to provide a…

  12. Common Worker Benefits. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This student training module on worker benefits is one of the general work information modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Rather than relating to a specific trade, this module is designed to impart to the student general knowledge of worker benefits needed by all workers and can be used in all the trade module series. This…

  13. Drywall. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Doug

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on drywall available separately as CE 031 574. Introductory materials include a description of the components of the pre-apprenticeship project, discussion of teacher's role in students' completion of the modules, and scope and contents of Phase 2 training. Each of the 18…

  14. Hand Electric Tools. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on hand electric tools is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to teach students the general uses and precautions of common portable electric tools. The module may contain some or all of the following: a cover sheet listing module title, goal,…

  15. General Safety. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on safety is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to teach students the importance of becoming aware of safety, including causes of accidents, unsafe acts, and safety planning. The module may contain some or all of the following: a cover sheet…

  16. Holding and Fastening Tools. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on holding and fastening tools is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify, select, and demonstrate the proper selection, use, and care of pliers, wrenches, clamps, hammers, and screwdrivers. The module may contain…

  17. Fastening Devices. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on fastening devices is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify various nails, screws, and other anchoring devices and to describe under which conditions they are best used. The module may contain some or all of the…

  18. Scaling and Dimensioning. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on scaling and dimensioning is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to teach students the concepts of scales and dimensions, their symbols, and how they are applied in reading and drawing blueprints. The module may contain some or all of the…

  19. Boring and Drilling Tools. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on boring and drilling tools is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify, select, and understand the proper use of many common awls, bits, and drilling tools. The module may contain some or all of the following: a…

  20. Phase detector for three-phase power factor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A phase detector for the three phase power factor controller (PFC) is described. The phase detector for each phase includes an operational amplifier which senses the current phase angle for that phase by sensing the voltage across the phase thyristor. Common mode rejection is achieved by providing positive feedback between the input and output of the voltage sensing operational amplifier. this feedback preferably comprises a resistor connected between the output and input of the operational amplifier. The novelty of the invention resides in providing positive feedback such that switching of the operational amplifier is synchronized with switching of the voltage across the thyristor. The invention provides a solution to problems associated with high common mode voltage and enables use of lower cost components than would be required by other approaches.

  1. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  2. Enhancing FEL Power with Phase Shifters

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC

    2010-07-30

    Tapering the undulator parameter is a well-known method for maintaining the resonant condition past saturation, and increasing Free Electron Laser (FEL) efficiency. In this paper, we demonstrate that shifting the electron bunch phase relative to the radiation is equivalent to tapering the undulator parameter. Using discrete phase changes derived from optimized undulator tapers for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray FEL, we show that appropriate phase shifts between undulator sections can reproduce the power enhancement of undulator tapers. Phase shifters are relatively easy to implement and operate, and could be used to aid or replace undulator tapers in optimizing FEL performance.

  3. Cement Finishing. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nama, Joe

    These 20 Student Training Modules on cement finishing comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 575.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of…

  4. Parts Counter. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, James A.

    These 23 Student Training Modules on parts counter comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 571.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  5. Floor Covering. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblen, Ron

    These 21 Student Training Modules on floor covering comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 565.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  6. Cummins Power Generation SECA Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Vesely

    2007-08-17

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) SECA Phase 1 SOFC development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) contract DE-FC26-01NT41244. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner research development leading to successful demonstration of the SECA Phase 1 objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant Phase 1 Milestones: (1) Demonstrated: (a) Operation meeting Phase 1 requirements on commercial natural gas. (b) LPG and Natural Gas CPOX fuel reformers. (c) SOFC systems on dry CPOX reformate. (c) Steam reformed Natural Gas operation. (d) Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC system without inert gas purge. (e) Utility of stack simulators as a tool for developing balance of plant systems. (2) Developed: (a) Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. (b) Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. (c) Demonstrated high efficiency SOFC output power conditioning. (d) Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods. The Phase 1 performance test was carried out at the Cummins Power Generation facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota starting on October 2, 2006. Performance testing was successfully completed on January 4, 2007 including the necessary steady-state, transient, efficiency, and peak power operation tests.

  7. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120 Section 1915.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120 Section 1915.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120 Section 1915.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120 Section 1915.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120 Section 1915.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck...

  12. Power system identification toolbox: Phase two progress

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes current progress on a project funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to develop a set of state-of-the-art analysis software (termed the Power System Identification [PSI] Toolbox) for fitting dynamic models to measured data. The project is being conducted as a three-phase effort. The first phase, completed in late 1992, involved investigating the characteristics of the analysis techniques by evaluating existing software and developing guidelines for best use. Phase Two includes extending current software, developing new analysis algorithms and software, and demonstrating and developing applications. The final phase will focus on reorganizing the software into a modular collection of documented computer programs and developing user manuals with instruction and application guidelines. Phase Two is approximately 50% complete; progress to date and a vision for the final product of the PSI Toolbox are described. The needs of the power industry for specialized system identification methods are particularly acute. The industry is currently pushing to operate transmission systems much closer to theoretical limits by using real-time, large-scale control systems to dictate power flows and maintain dynamic stability. Reliably maintaining stability requires extensive system-dynamic modeling and analysis capability, including measurement-based methods. To serve this need, the BPA has developed specialized system-identification computer codes through in-house efforts and university contract research over the last several years. To make full integrated use of the codes, as well as other techniques, the BPA has commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to further develop the codes and techniques into the PSI Toolbox.

  13. Lower extremity muscle function after strength or power training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Anthony P; Miller, Michael E; Rejeski, W Jack; Hutton, Stacy L; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2009-10-01

    It is unclear whether strength training (ST) or power training (PT) is the more effective intervention at improving muscle strength and power and physical function in older adults. The authors compared the effects of lower extremity PT with those of ST on muscle strength and power in 45 older adults (74.8 +/- 5.7 yr) with self-reported difficulty in common daily activities. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: PT, ST, or wait-list control. PT and ST trained 3 times/wk for 12 wk using knee-extension (KE) and leg-press (LP) machines at approximately 70% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM). For PT, the concentric phase of the KE and LP was completed "as fast as possible," whereas for ST the concentric phase was 2-3 s. Both PT and ST paused briefly at the midpoint of the movement and completed the eccentric phase of the movement in 2-3 s. PT and ST groups showed significant improvements in KE and LP 1RM compared with the control group. Maximum KE and LP power increased approximately twofold in PT compared with ST. At 12 wk, compared with control, maximum KE and LP power were significantly increased for the PT group but not for the ST group. In older adults with compromised function, PT leads to similar increases in strength and larger increases in power than ST. PMID:19940322

  14. Private Security Training. Phase 3: Private Investigator. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials for the private investigator phase of a private security training course of study. Five units cover the following topics: understanding responsibilities to clients; interpreting laws of private investigations; complying with the Fair Credit Reporting Act; conducting investigations and…

  15. Survival Skills. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Instructors Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide contains the 43 Survival Skills modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Introductory materials include a description of components of the pre-apprenticeship project, recommendations for module implementation, and synopses of the modules that were developed to prompt social skills development. Each module…

  16. Knowledge engineering tool for training power-substation operators

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert-Torres, G. |; Costa, C.I.A.; Alves da Silva, A.P.; Ribeiro, G.M.; Quintana, V.H.

    1997-04-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques have been applied to create systems that can give answers for different situations and assistance during the substation switching operation. These techniques have also been used for training purposes. This paper presents a computational package for training power substation operators in the control and corrective actions using expert system techniques. Illustrative examples are presented using a 138-kV CEMIG substation.

  17. Power Equalization through Organization Development Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartunek, Jean M.; Keys, Christopher B.

    The effects of a three-year Organization Development (OD) intervention on power equalization were examined in seven experimental and seven control schools. The principals and teachers from experimental schools participated in OD workshops, in a project-coordinating council for planning and policy, and in school goal-setting activities. The power…

  18. Strength and power training: physiological mechanisms of adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, W J; Fleck, S J; Evans, W J

    1996-01-01

    Adaptations in resistance training are focused on the development and maintenance of the neuromuscular unit needed for force production [97, 136]. The effects of training, when using this system, affect many other physiological systems of the body (e.g., the connective tissue, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems) [16, 18, 37, 77, 83]. Training programs are highly specific to the types of adaptation that occur. Activation of specific patterns of motor units in training dictate what tissue and how other physiological systems will be affected by the exercise training. The time course of the development of the neuromuscular system appears to be dominated in the early phase by neural factors with associated changes in the types of contractile proteins. In the later adaptation phase, muscle protein increases, and the contractile unit begins to contribute the most to the changes in performance capabilities. A host of other factors can affect the adaptations, such as functional capabilities of the individual, age, nutritional status, and behavioral factors (e.g., sleep and health habits). Optimal adaptation appears to be related to the use of specific resistance training programs to meet individual training objectives. PMID:8744256

  19. Phase discontinuity predictions using a machine-learning trained kernel.

    PubMed

    Sawaf, Firas; Groves, Roger M

    2014-08-20

    Phase unwrapping is one of the key steps of interferogram analysis, and its accuracy relies primarily on the correct identification of phase discontinuities. This can be especially challenging for inherently noisy phase fields, such as those produced through shearography and other speckle-based interferometry techniques. We showed in a recent work how a relatively small 10×10 pixel kernel was trained, through machine learning methods, for predicting the locations of phase discontinuities within noisy wrapped phase maps. We describe here how this kernel can be applied in a sliding-window fashion, such that each pixel undergoes 100 phase-discontinuity examinations--one test for each of its possible positions relative to its neighbors within the kernel's extent. We explore how the resulting predictions can be accumulated, and aggregated through a voting system, and demonstrate that the reliability of this method outperforms processing the image by segmenting it into more conventional 10×10 nonoverlapping tiles. When used in this way, we demonstrate that our 10×10 pixel kernel is large enough for effective processing of full-field interferograms. Avoiding, thus, the need for substantially more formidable computational resources which otherwise would have been necessary for training a kernel of a significantly larger size. PMID:25321117

  20. Thermophotovoltaic space power system, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. E.; Lancaster, C.

    1987-01-01

    Work performed on a research and development program to establish the feasibility of a solar thermophotovoltaic space power generation concept was summarized. The program was multiphased. The earlier work is summarized and the work on the current phase is detailed as it pertains to and extends the earlier work. Much of the experimental hardware and materials development was performed on the internal program. Experimental measurements and data evaluation were performed on the contracted effort. The objectives of the most recent phase were: to examine the thermal control design in order to optimize it for lightweight and low cost; to examine the concentrator optics in an attempt to relieve pointing accuracy requirements to + or - 2 degrees about the optical axis; and to use the results of the thermal and optical studies to synthesize a solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) module design that is optimized for space application.

  1. Undergraduate Research Communities: A Powerful Approach to Research Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kight, Scott; Gaynor, John J.; Adams, Sandra D.

    2006-01-01

    We applied the concept of learning communities, whereby students develop their own ideas in cohort-based settings, to undergraduate research training. This creates powerful research communities where students practice science from observation to experimental design to interpretation of data. We describe a biology program, but the approach suits…

  2. Phase Change Material Thermal Power Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    An innovative modification has been made to a previously patented design for the Phase Change Material (PCM) Thermal Generator, which works in water where ocean temperature alternatively melts wax in canisters, or allows the wax to re-solidify, causing high-pressure oil to flow through a hydraulic generator, thus creating electricity to charge a battery that powers the vehicle. In this modification, a similar thermal PCM device has been created that is heated and cooled by the air and solar radiation instead of using ocean temperature differences to change the PCM from solid to liquid. This innovation allows the device to use thermal energy to generate electricity on land, instead of just in the ocean.

  3. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. A.; Wooldridge, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The state-of-the-art (SOTA) of electric vehicles built since 1965 was reviewed to establish a base for the preliminary design of a power train for a SOTA electric vehicle. The performance of existing electric vehicles were evaluated to establish preliminary specifications for a power train design using state-of-the-art technology and commercially available components. Power train components were evaluated and selected using a computer simulation of the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle. Predicted range was determined for a number of motor and controller combinations in conjunction with the mechanical elements of power trains and a battery pack of sixteen lead-acid batteries - 471.7 kg at 0.093 MJ/Kg (1040 lbs. at 11.7 Whr/lb). On the basis of maximum range and overall system efficiency using the Schedule D cycle, an induction motor and 3 phase inverter/controller was selected as the optimum combination when used with a two-speed transaxle and steel belted radial tires. The predicted Schedule D range is 90.4 km (56.2 mi). Four near term improvements to the SOTA were identified, evaluated, and predicted to increase range approximately 7%.

  4. Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train features and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, R.; Benitez, P.; Zamora, P.; Miñano, J. C.; Mendes, J.; Cvetkovic, A.; Vilaplana, J.; Hernandez, M.; Chaves, J.; Biot, G.

    2013-09-01

    Most CPV systems are based on Fresnel lenses. Among these, LPI-patented Fresnel-Köhler (FK) concentrator outstands owing to performance and practical reasons. The Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train is the first off-the-shelf commercial product based on the FK and comprises both the primary (POE) lenses (a 36-units 1×1 m2 acrylic panel) and glass (or silica glass) secondary optics (SOE). This high concentration optical train (Cg=1,024×, ˜250mm optical depth) fits with 5×5 mm2 (at least) solar cells. The optical train is the fruit of a 1-year development that has included design, modeling, prototyping and characterization, and through the process we had the opportunity to find out how well the actual performance correlates with models, but also learned practical aspects of a CPV system of this kind, some of which have very positive impact on system performance and reliability.

  5. Frequency and duration of interval training programs and changes in aerobic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, E. L.; Bartels, R. L.; Obrien, R.; Bason, R.; Mathews, D. K.; Billings, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain whether a training frequency of 2 days/wk for a 7- and 13-wk interval training program would produce improvement in maximal aerobic power comparable to that obtained from 7- and 13-wk programs of the same intensity consisting of 4 training days/wk. After training, there was a significant increase in maximal aerobic power that was independent of both training frequency and duration. Maximal heart rate was significantly decreased following training. Submaximal aerobic power did not change with training, but submaximal heart rate decreased significantly with greater decreases the more frequent and the longer the training.

  6. Phase mixed rotation magnetoconvection and Taylor's condition III. Wave trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewen, Susan A.; Soward, Andrew M.

    Nonlinear amplitude equations governing the radial modulation of quasi-geostrophic convective rolls, which occur in a rapidly rotating self-gravitating sphere permeated by a weak azimuthal magnetic field (small Elsasser number), were derived in Part I. Stationary and travelling pulse solutions were obtained in Part II. That analysis is extended here; wave train solutions are sought and their stability tested. Special features of the equations include: nonlinear diffusion and dispersion; also phase mixing, which leads to a lack of translational invariance of the system. In spite of the latter, the underlying structure of the wave trains sought is spatially periodic on a length L, but modulated by a time dependent Floquet exponent. Consequently, a Fourier representation is employed and the time evolution of the Fourier coefficients is determined numerically. It is shown that pulses confined to lengths l(< L) can be superimposed non-interactively to form wave trains. The numerical demonstration relies on establishing that the pseudo-energy based on the time averaged wave train amplitude coincides with the corresponding pulse energy E calculated in Part II. When l and L are comparable some pulse interaction can be inferred. Available numerical evidence suggests that wave trains, and by implication pulses, are unstable. The geophysical implications are discussed. All finite amplitude solutions pertain to the Ekman regime in which the modified Taylor's condition is satisfied by small magnetic field perturbations. Only in the infinite amplitude limit do the solutions determine true Taylor states. It is anticipated that following instability in the Ekman regime convection equilibrates in some large amplitude Taylor state, which is determined when additional ageostrophic effects are taken into account. Analysis of that state lies outside the range of validity of our amplitude equations.

  7. An experimental study of a PEM fuel cell power train for urban bus application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbo, P.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    An experimental study was carried out on a fuel cell propulsion system for minibus application with the aim to investigate the main issues of energy management within the system in dynamic conditions. The fuel cell system (FCS), based on a 20 kW PEM stack, was integrated into the power train comprising DC-DC converter, Pb batteries as energy storage systems and asynchronous electric drive of 30 kW. As reference vehicle a minibus for public transportation in historical centres was adopted. A preliminary experimental analysis was conducted on the FCS connected to a resistive load through a DC-DC converter, in order to verify the stack dynamic performance varying its power acceleration from 0.5 kW s -1 to about 4 kW s -1. The experiments on the power train were conducted on a test bench able to simulate the vehicle parameters and road characteristics on specific driving cycles, in particular the European R40 cycle was adopted as reference. The "soft hybrid" configuration, which permitted the utilization of a minimum size energy storage system and implied the use of FCS mainly in dynamic operation, was compared with the "hard hybrid" solution, characterized by FCS operation at limited power in stationary conditions. Different control strategies of power flows between fuel cells, electric energy storage system and electric drive were adopted in order to verify the two above hybrid approaches during the vehicle mission, in terms of efficiencies of individual components and of the overall power train. The FCS was able to support the dynamic requirements typical of R40 cycle, but an increase of air flow rate during the fastest acceleration phases was necessary, with only a slight reduction of FCS efficiency. The FCS efficiency resulted comprised between 45 and 48%, while the overall power train efficiency reached 30% in conditions of constant stack power during the driving cycle.

  8. Phase control system concepts and simulations. [solar power satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, V. C.

    1980-01-01

    A phase control system concept for a solar power satellite is proposed which partitions the system into three major levels. The first level of phase control consists of a reference phase distribution system implemented in the form of phase distribution tree structure. The major purpose of the tree structure is to electronically compensate for the phase shift due to the transition path lengths from the center of the spacetenna to each phase control center located in each subarray. In the reference system, this is accomplished using the master slave returnable timing system technique. The second level of phase control consists of the beam steering and microwave power generating system which houses the power transponders. This transponder consists of a set of phase conjugation multipliers driven by the reference phase distribution system output and the output of a pilot spread spectrum receiver which accepts the received pilot via a diplexer connected to a separate receive horn or the subarray itself. The output of the phase conjugation circuits serve as inputs to the third level of the phase control system. The third level of phase control is associated with maintaining an equal and constant phase shift through the microwave power amplifier devices while minimizing the associated phase noise effects on the generated power beam. This is accomplished by providing a phase locked loop around each high power amplifier.

  9. Transference of kettlebell training to strength, power, and endurance.

    PubMed

    Manocchia, Pasquale; Spierer, David K; Lufkin, Adrienne K S; Minichiello, Jacqueline; Castro, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    Kettlebells are a popular implement in many strength and conditioning programs, and their benefits are touted in popular literature, books, and videos. However, clinical data on their efficacy are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether kettlebell training transfers strength and power to weightlifting and powerlifting exercises and improves muscular endurance. Thirty-seven subjects were assigned to an experimental (EXP, n = 23; mean age = 40.9 ± 12.9 years) or a control group (CON; n = 14; mean age = 39.6 ± 15.8 years), range 18-72 years. The participants were required to perform assessments including a barbell clean and jerk, barbell bench press, maximal vertical jump, and 45° back extensions to volitional fatigue before and after a 10-week kettlebell training program. Training was structured in a group setting for 2 d·wk(-1) for 10 weeks. A repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to determine group × time interactions and main effects. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted when appropriate. Bench press revealed a time × group interaction and a main effect (p < 0.05). Clean and jerk and back extension demonstrated a trend toward a time × group interaction, but it did not reach significance (p = 0.053). However, clean and jerk did reveal a main effect for time (p < 0.05). No significant findings were reported for maximal vertical jump. The results demonstrate a transfer of power and strength in response to 10 weeks of training with kettlebells. Traditional training methods may not be convenient or accessible for strength and conditioning specialists, athletes, coaches, and recreational exercisers. The current data suggest that kettlebells may be an effective alternative tool to improve performance in weightlifting and powerlifting. PMID:22549084

  10. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the...

  11. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the...

  12. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the...

  13. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the...

  14. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the...

  15. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M.; Thomas, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills.

  16. Power train for front and rear wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, M.; Shinozaki, T.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes a power train for a front and rear wheel drive vehicle comprising: an engine having a crankshaft and an engine case; a first output shaft on a first side of the crankshaft and parallel thereto in the engine case; a second output shaft on a second side to the crankshaft and parallel thereto in the engine case; and a speed change transmission coupled between the crankshaft and the second output shaft, the first output shaft being driven by the second output shaft.

  17. Dissemination of the Coping Power Program: Importance of Intensity of Counselor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.; Boxmeyer, Caroline; Powell, Nicole; Qu, Lixin; Wells, Karen; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined an important but rarely investigated aspect of the dissemination process: the intensity of training provided to practitioners. Counselors in 57 schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: Coping Power-training plus feedback (CP-TF), Coping Power-basic training (CP-BT), or a comparison condition. CP-TF counselors…

  18. Electric vehicle power train instrumentation: Some constraints and considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triner, J. E.; Hansen, I. G.

    1977-01-01

    The application of pulse modulation control (choppers) to dc motors creates unique instrumentation problems. In particular, the high harmonic components contained in the current waveforms require frequency response accommodations not normally considered in dc instrumentation. In addition to current sensing, accurate power measurement requires not only adequate frequency response but must also address phase errors caused by the finite bandwidths and component characteristics involved. The implications of these problems are assessed.

  19. Solar power satellite system definition study, phase 2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A program plan for the Solar Power Satellite Program is presented. The plan includes research, development, and evaluation phase, engineering and development and cost verification phase, prototype construction, and commercialization. Cost estimates and task requirements are given for the following technology areas: (1) solar arrays; (2) thermal engines and thermal systems; (3) power transmission (to earth); (4) large space structures; (5) materials technology; (6) system control; (7) space construction; (8) space transportation; (9) power distribution, and space environment effects.

  20. Microwave power transmitting phased array antenna research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    An initial design study and the development results of an S band RF power transmitting phased array antenna experiment system are presented. The array was to be designed, constructed and instrumented to permit wireless power transmission technology evaluation measurements. The planned measurements were to provide data relative to the achievable performance in the state of the art of flexible surface, retrodirective arrays, as a step in technically evaluating the satellite power system concept for importing to earth, via microwave beams, the nearly continuous solar power available in geosynchronous orbit. Details of the microwave power transmitting phased array design, instrumentation approaches, system block diagrams, and measured component and breadboard characteristics achieved are presented.

  1. Early-phase strength gains during traditional resistance training compared with an upper-body air-resistance training device.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Cian; Jensen, Randall L; Byrne, Ciarán A; Shafat, Amir

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the early-phase adaptations of traditional dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) training vs. a portable upper-body training device (Fortex). The Fortex is a concentric training device based on air resistance. Contractions using this device are slow (1.5-3 s) and have a limited range of motion. The exercises potentially allow maximal muscle action during each contraction. Healthy, sedentary men (n = 30) were assigned to begin either 8 weeks of weight training (W, n = 12) or 8 weeks of Fortex training (F, n = 9), and were compared with a control group (C, n = 9). Exercises were chosen for the W group that would train similar muscle groups and contain a similar volume of repetitions as the F group. However, movement patterns and force curves were not identical. Increases in the upper-arm cross-sectional area were not detected in any of the groups. Both training groups showed strength gains in the various strength tests that were distinct from each other. Our results indicate that both Fortex and DCER training proved effective in eliciting strength gains in sedentary men over an 8-week training period. There are, however, limitations with the Fortex in terms of progression needs and training asymmetry that indicate it should be used as a complement to other training. PMID:17530937

  2. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p < 0.001) and similarly in both groups after training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Both groups also improved their functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p < 0.001), with no difference between groups. The present study showed that TRT and PT using RPE scale to control intensity were significantly and similarly effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women. PMID:27009295

  3. Phase I Space Station power system development

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.O.

    1988-10-01

    The development of the electric power system (EPS) for the Space Station is discussed. The EPS requirements related to station size, operational lifetime, operational autonomy, and technology evolution are considered. It is suggested that environmental control and life support will require 55 kWe of power. The possible use of solar photovoltaic, solar thermal dynamic, or a hybrid combination of the two are examined.

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXI, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--COMPLETE POWER TRAIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MOSULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER TRAIN SYSTEM USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE EXAMINING THE POWER FLOW, UNIT OIL FLOW, AND OIL PRESSURE IN THE CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM TRAINING FILM "UNDERSTANDING THE…

  5. LOWER EXTREMITY PEAK POWER TRAINING IN ELDERLY SUBJECTS WITH MODERATE MOBILITY LIMITATIONS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the effects of a lower extremity high-velocity high-power exercise training intervention in older adults with moderate mobility impairments, and to investigate whether peak power training results in greater increases of peak muscle power output compared to traditional progressive resistan...

  6. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING, PHASE I. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STOLUROW, LAWRENCE M.

    A FINAL REPORT WAS MADE OF THE ACTIVITIES PURSUED IN PHASE 1 OF A 10-YEAR PROJECT DEALING WITH THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING. PHASE I CONSISTED OF A SURVEY OF THE EXISTENT DATA AND CONCEPTS OF TRANSFER OF TRAINING IN AN ATTEMPT (1) TO SUMMARIZE, INTEGRATE, CONSOLIDATE, AND INTERPRET RESEARCH FINDINGS…

  7. High-power phase locking of a fiber amplifier array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, T. M.; Baker, J. T.; Sanchez, A. D.; Robin, C. A.; Vergien, C. L.; Zeringue, C.; Gallant, D.; Lu, Chunte A.; Pulford, Benjamin; Bronder, T. J.; Lucero, Arthur

    2009-02-01

    We report high power phase locked fiber amplifier array using the Self-Synchronous Locking of Optical Coherence by Single-detector Electronic-frequency Tagging technique. We report the first experimental results for a five element amplifier array with a total locked power of more than 725-W. We will report on experimental measurements of the phase fluctuations versus time when the control loop is closed. The rms phase error was measured to be λ/60. Recent results will be reported. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the highest fiber laser power to be coherently combined.

  8. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle (executive summary)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a state-of-the-art electric power train is part of a national effort to reap the potential benefit of useful urban electric passenger vehicles. Outlined in a detailed presentation are: (1) assessment of the state-of-the-art in electric vehicle technology; (2) state-of-the-art power train design; (3) improved power train; and (4) summary and recommendations.

  9. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  10. Electric vehicle power train instrumentation - Some constraints and considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triner, J. E.; Hansen, I. G.

    1977-01-01

    The application of pulse modulation control (choppers) to dc motors creates unique instrumentation problems. In particular, the high-harmonic components contained in the current waveforms require frequency-response accommodations not normally considered in dc instrumentation. In addition to current sensing, accurate power measurement not only requires adequate frequency response but also must address phase errors caused by the finite bandwidths and component characteristics involved. This paper discusses the implications of these problems and reports on the degree to which they have been solved at Lewis Research Center.

  11. TWRS privatization phase 1 electrical power system

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-05-30

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for a new 11 km (7 miles) 230 kV transmission line and a new 40 MVA substation (A6) which will be located east of Grout Facility in 200E Area tank farm. This substation will provide electrical power up to 20 MW each for two private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low activity waste (LAW).

  12. Trellis phase codes for power-bandwith efficient satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. G.; Highfill, J. H.; Hsu, C. D.; Harkness, R.

    1981-01-01

    Support work on improved power and spectrum utilization on digital satellite channels was performed. Specific attention is given to the class of signalling schemes known as continuous phase modulation (CPM). The specific work described in this report addresses: analytical bounds on error probability for multi-h phase codes, power and bandwidth characterization of 4-ary multi-h codes, and initial results of channel simulation to assess the impact of band limiting filters and nonlinear amplifiers on CPM performance.

  13. Radiological Control Technician: Phase 1, Site academic training lesson plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This volume provides lesson plans for training radiological control technicians. Covered here is basic radiological documentation, counting errors, dosimetry, environmental monitoring, and radiation instruments.

  14. Private Security Training. Phase 1: Basic. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This basic module on private security training was designed under the direction of the Oklahoma Council on Law Enforcement Education and Training to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. This module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) interpreting the Oklahoma Security Guard and…

  15. Private Security Training. Phase 2: Security Guard. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This module on private security guard training was designed under the direction of the Oklahoma Council on Law Enforcement Education and Training to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. This module contains four instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) public relations; (2) performing fixed post…

  16. Electrical. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on the electrical trade, one of which is available separately as CE 032 874. Introductory materials include an introduction to pre-apprenticeship training, and a course outline. Teaching outlines are then provided for the 11 modules that comprise this course. For each…

  17. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  18. Space power demonstrator engine, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design, analysis, and preliminary test results for a 25 kWe Free-Piston Stirling engine with integral linear alternators are described. The project is conducted by Mechanical Technology under the direction of LeRC as part of the SP-100 Nuclear Space Power Systems Program. The engine/alternator system is designed to demonstrate the following performance: (1) 25 kWe output at a specific weight less than 8 kg/kW; (2) 25 percent efficiency at a temperature ratio of 2.0; (3) low vibration (amplitude less than .003 in); (4) internal gas bearings (no wear, no external pump); and (5) heater temperature/cooler temperature from 630 to 315 K. The design approach to minimize vibration is a two-module engine (12.5 kWe per module) in a linearly-opposed configuration with a common expansion space. The low specific weight is obtained at high helium pressure (150 bar) and high frequency (105 Hz) and by using high magnetic strength (samarium cobalt) alternator magnets. Engine tests began in June 1985; 16 months following initiation of engine and test cell design. Hydrotest and consequent engine testing to date has been intentionally limited to half pressure, and electrical power output is within 15 to 20 percent of design predictions.

  19. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... training as defined in 10 CFR 55.4, and must provide for the training and qualification of the following... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION...

  20. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... training as defined in 10 CFR 55.4, and must provide for the training and qualification of the following... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION...

  1. Lower extremity power training in elderly subjects with moderate mobility limitations: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-seven community-dwelling older adults were randomized to either high-velocity high-power training (POW), slow-velocity progressive resistance training (STR) or a control group of lower extremity stretching (CON). Training was performed three times per week for 12 weeks and subjects completed t...

  2. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... training as defined in 10 CFR 55.4, and must provide for the training and qualification of the following... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION...

  3. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... training as defined in 10 CFR 55.4, and must provide for the training and qualification of the following... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION...

  4. Time and wavelength interleaved pulse trains generation based on pure phase processing of optical spectral comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongbiao; Chen, Minghua; Chen, Hongwei; Xie, Shizhong

    2014-02-01

    By applying linear phase to optical spectral comb, we experimentally demonstrate that the time interval of the compressed pulse trains with different wavelength can be precisely controlled for the generation of time and wavelength interleaved pulse train. The time and wavelength interleaved pulse train with the repetition rate of 40 GHz and 80 GHz are generated based on this and the possibility to improve the performance of the generated pulse train is also discussed. We also measure the precision of time delay obtained by applying linear phase to the comb.

  5. Power dependence of phase noise in microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiansong; Mazin, Benjamin; Daal, Miguel; Day, Peter; LeDuc, Henry; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2006-06-01

    Excess phase noise has been observed in microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) which prevents the noise-equivalent power (NEP) of current detectors from reaching theoretical limits. One characteristic of this excess noise is its dependence on the power of the readout signal: the phase noise decreases as the readout power increases. We investigated this power dependence in a variety of devices, varying the substrate (silicon and sapphire), superconductor (aluminum and niobium) and resonator parameters (resonant frequency, quality factor and resonator geometry). We find that the phase noise has a power law dependence on the readout power, and that the exponent is -1/2 in all our devices. We suggest that this phase noise is caused by coupling between the high-Q microwave resonator that forms the sensitive element of the MKID and two-level systems associated with disorder in the dielectric material of the resonator. The physical situation is analogous to the resonance fluorescence in quantum optics, and we are investigating the application of resonance fluorescence theory to MKID phase noise.

  6. Effects of high-speed power training on muscle strength and power in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Medina-Perez, Carlos; de Souza-Teixeira, Fernanda; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Murua, Jose-Aldo; Antonio de Paz-Fernandez, Jose

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a high-speed power training program in peak muscle power and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of knee extensors in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Forty patients, 20 women (age 42.8 +/- 10.3 yr) and 20 men (age 44.0 +/- 8.7 yr) diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS were randomly assigned, with respect to sex, to either an exercise group or a control group. Participants from the exercise group performed 12 wk of supervised muscle power training of knee extensors. All subjects were tested for MVIC and peak muscle power at baseline and after the training intervention. A strain gauge was used to measure the MVIC, and peak muscle power was assessed with a linear encoder at five relative loads. The training-related effects were assessed using a t-test. The results showed no significant changes in the control group from baseline to postintervention evaluation. In contrast, the exercise group significantly increased MVIC (10.8%; p < 0.05) and muscle power at 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% of the MVIC by 21.8, 14.5, 17.3, 19.4, and 22.3%, respectively (p < 0.01), after the training. These findings suggest that 12 wk of high-speed power training improve both MVIC and muscle power at five different loads in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. PMID:27270470

  7. Analysis of Commercial Contract Training for the Navy (Phase II) [And] Commercial Contract Training Navy Area VOTEC Support Center (AVSC) Guidelines. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, D. Robert; And Others

    The two-part report describing the Phase 2 findings of a two-phase study demonstrates the utility of the commercial contract training concept for satisfying certain Navy skill training requirements. Part 1 concerns source evaluation, skill analysis and selection, contractual considerations, and comparative training capability evaluation. It…

  8. Analysis of Commercial Contract Training for the Marine Corps (Phase II) [And] Commercial Contract Training Marine Corps Area VOTEC Support Center (AVSC) Guidelines. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, D. Robert; And Others

    The two-part report describing the Phase 2 findings of a two-phase study demonstrates the utility of the commercial contract training concept for satisfying certain Marine Corps skill training requirements. Part 1 concerns source evaluation, skill analysis and selection, contractual considerations, and comparative training capability evaluation.…

  9. Lower Extremity Power Training in Elderly Subjects with Mobility Limitations: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims This study investigated whether high-velocity high-power training (POW) improved lower extremity muscle power and quality in functionally-limited elders greater than traditional slow-velocity progressive resistance training (STR). Methods Fifty-seven community-dwelling older adul...

  10. Power System Electrician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 4609

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The graduate of the Power System Electrician apprenticeship training is a journeyman who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyman; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) use and maintain hand and power tools to the standards of competency and safety required in the trade; (4) read and interpret drawing,…

  11. Mobility Outcomes Following Five Training Sessions with a Powered Exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Clare; Kandilakis, Casey; Dalley, Skyler; Clausen, Mike; Wilson, Edgar; Morrison, Scott; Etheridge, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background: Loss of legged mobility due to spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with multiple physiological and psychological impacts. Powered exoskeletons offer the possibility of regained mobility and reversal or prevention of the secondary effects associated with immobility. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate mobility outcomes for individuals with SCI after 5 gait-training sessions with a powered exoskeleton, with a primary goal of characterizing the ease of learning and usability of the system. Methods: Sixteen subjects with SCI were enrolled in a pilot clinical trial at Shepherd Center, Atlanta, Georgia, with injury levels ranging from C5 complete to L1 incomplete. An investigational Indego exoskeleton research kit was evaluated for ease of use and efficacy in providing legged mobility. Outcome measures of the study included the 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) as well as measures of independence including donning and doffing times and the ability to walk on various surfaces. Results: At the end of 5 sessions (1.5 hours per session), average walking speed was 0.22 m/s for persons with C5-6 motor complete tetraplegia, 0.26 m/s for T1-8 motor complete paraplegia, and 0.45 m/s for T9-L1 paraplegia. Distances covered in 6 minutes averaged 64 meters for those with C5-6, 74 meters for T1-8, and 121 meters for T9-L1. Additionally, all participants were able to walk on both indoor and outdoor surfaces. Conclusions: Results after only 5 sessions suggest that persons with tetraplegia and paraplegia learn to use the Indego exoskeleton quickly and can manage a variety of surfaces. Walking speeds and distances achieved also indicate that some individuals with paraplegia can quickly become limited community ambulators using this system. PMID:26364278

  12. Gamma power is phase-locked to posterior alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Osipova, Daria; Hermes, Dora; Jensen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations in various frequency bands have been reported in numerous studies in both humans and animals. While it is obvious that these oscillations play an important role in cognitive processing, it remains unclear how oscillations in various frequency bands interact. In this study we have investigated phase to power locking in MEG activity of healthy human subjects at rest with their eyes closed. To examine cross-frequency coupling, we have computed coherence between the time course of the power in a given frequency band and the signal itself within every channel. The time-course of the power was calculated using a sliding tapered time window followed by a Fourier transform. Our findings show that high-frequency gamma power (30-70 Hz) is phase-locked to alpha oscillations (8-13 Hz) in the ongoing MEG signals. The topography of the coupling was similar to the topography of the alpha power and was strongest over occipital areas. Interestingly, gamma activity per se was not evident in the power spectra and only became detectable when studied in relation to the alpha phase. Intracranial data from an epileptic subject confirmed these findings albeit there was slowing in both the alpha and gamma band. A tentative explanation for this phenomenon is that the visual system is inhibited during most of the alpha cycle whereas a burst of gamma activity at a specific alpha phase (e.g. at troughs) reflects a window of excitability. PMID:19098986

  13. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass. PMID:27457914

  14. Introduction to the Electrical Trade. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on Introduction to the Electrical Trade is part of the course, Electrical Trade, which was developed for Preapprenticeship Phase 1 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 032 873.) The course is designed to provide students with an orientation to the trade and an opportunity…

  15. Cutting Tools, Files and Abrasives. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on cutting tools, files, and abrasives is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify and explain the proper use and care of various knives, saws, snips, chisels, and abrasives. The module may contain some or all of the…

  16. An Evaluation System for Training Programs: A Case Study Using a Four-Phase Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingham, Tony; Richley, Bonnie; Rezania, Davar

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: With the increased importance of training in organizations, creating important and meaningful programs are critical to an organization and its members. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a four-phase systematic approach to designing and evaluating training programs that promotes collaboration between organizational leaders, trainers,…

  17. Measuring, Layout and Leveling Tools. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on measuring, layout, and leveling tools is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify, explain, and demonstrate correct procedures for the use and care of measuring tools, gauges, squares, and levels. The module may…

  18. Benefit-Cost Analysis of TAT Phase I Worker Training. Training and Technology Project. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Frederick C.; Castagna, Paul A.

    The purpose of this study is to estimate costs and benefits and to compute alternative benefit-cost ratios for both the individuals and the Federal Government as a result of investing time and resources in the Training and Technology (TAT) Project. TAT is a continuing experimental program in training skilled workers for private industry. The five…

  19. Single phase inverter for a three phase power generation and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindena, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A breadboard design of a single-phase inverter with sinusoidal output voltage for a three-phase power generation and distribution system was developed. The three-phase system consists of three single-phase inverters, whose output voltages are connected in a delta configuration. Upon failure of one inverter the two remaining inverters will continue to deliver three-phase power. Parallel redundancy as offered by two three-phase inverters is substituted by one three-phase inverter assembly with high savings in volume, weight, components count and complexity, and a considerable increase in reliability. The following requirements must be met: (1) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of being synchronized to a three-phase reference system such that its output voltage remains phaselocked to its respective reference voltage. (2) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of accepting leading and lagging power factors over a range from -0.7 through 1 to +0.7.

  20. Nuclear power plant simulators: their use in operator training and requalification

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.; Baer, D.K.; Francis, C.C.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the capabilities and use of nuclear power plant simulators either built or being built by the US nuclear power industry; to determine the adequacy of existing standards for simulator design and for the training of power plant operators on simulators; and to assess the issues about simulator training programs raised by the March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2.

  1. Lightweight Phase-Change Material For Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Lightweight panels containing phase-change materials developed for use as heat-storage elements of compact, lightweight, advanced solar dynamic power system. During high insolation, heat stored in panels via latent heat of fusion of phase-change material; during low insolation, heat withdrawn from panels. Storage elements consist mainly of porous carbon-fiber structures imbued with germanium. Developed for use aboard space station in orbit around Earth, also adapted to lightweight, compact, portable solar-power systems for use on Earth.

  2. Effects of Menstrual Phase-Dependent Resistance Training Frequency on Muscular Hypertrophy and Strength.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki-Sunaga, Mikako; Min, Seokki; Kamemoto, Kayoko; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2016-06-01

    Sakamaki-Sunaga, M, Min, S, Kamemoto, K, and Okamoto, T. Effects of menstrual phase-dependent resistance training frequency on muscular hypertrophy and strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1727-1734, 2016-The present study investigated how different training frequencies during menstrual phases affect muscle hypertrophy and strength. Fourteen eumenorrheic women performed 3 sets of arm curls (8-15 repetitions) until failure for 12 weeks. Depending on the menstrual cycle phase, each subject trained each arm separately after either a 3- or a 1-d·wk training protocol during the follicular phase (FP-T) and a 3- or 1-d·wk training protocol during the luteal phase (LP-T). Cross-sectional area (CSA), 1 repetition maximum, and maximum voluntary contraction significantly increased 6.2 ± 4.4, 36.4 ± 11.9, and 16.7 ± 5.6%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05 vs. before training), in the FP-T group and 7.8 ± 4.2, 31.8 ± 14.1, and 14.9 ± 12.7%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05 vs. before training), in the LP-T group. Changes in CSA between the FP-T and the LP-T groups significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.54, p ≤ 0.05). There were no major differences among the different training protocols with regard to muscle hypertrophy and strength. Therefore, we suggest that variations in female hormones induced by the menstrual cycle phases do not significantly contribute to muscle hypertrophy and strength gains during 12 weeks of resistance training. PMID:26554551

  3. The effects of passive leg press training on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiang; Chen, Chuan-Shou; Ho, Wei-Hua; Füle, Róbert János; Chung, Pao-Hung; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-06-01

    Passive leg press (PLP) training was developed based on the concepts of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and the benefits of high muscle contraction velocity. Passive leg press training enables lower limb muscle groups to apply a maximum downward force against a platform moved up and down at high frequency by an electric motor. Thus, these muscle groups accomplished both concentric and eccentric isokinetic contractions in a passive, rapid, and repetitive manner. This study investigates the effects of 10 weeks of PLP training at high and low movement frequencies have on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power. The authors selected 30 college students who had not performed systematic resistance training in the previous 6 months, including traditional resistance training at a squat frequency of 0.5 Hz, PLP training at a low frequency of 0.5 Hz, and PLP training at a high frequency of 2.5 Hz, and randomly divided them into 3 groups (n = 10). The participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, explosive force, and SSC efficiency were tested under the same experimental procedures at pre- and post-training. Results reveal that high-frequency PLP training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, peak power, and SSC efficiency (p < 0.05). Additionally, their change rate abilities were substantially superior to those of the traditional resistance training (p < 0.05). The low-frequency PLP training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, and peak power (p < 0.05). However, traditional resistance training only increased participants' 30-m sprint performance and peak power (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that jump performance, speed, and muscle power significantly improved after 10 weeks of PLP training at high movement frequency. A PLP training machine powered by an electrical motor enables muscles of the lower extremities to

  4. Welding. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on welding, three of which are available separately as CE 032 889-891. Introductory materials include a description of the components of the pre-apprenticeship project, a discussion of the teacher's role in conducting the course, and scope and contents of the four phases…

  5. Small, Mid-Sized Businesses Power Up with Workforce Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WorkAmerica, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Increasingly, small and mid-sized businesses are becoming just as focused on work force training as large corporations are. The training being provided by smaller companies is extending beyond nuts-and-bolts instruction into the area of core business skills, such as leading, managing, thinking creatively, and solving problems. States are…

  6. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply: Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-17

    The preliminary safety assessment report analyzes the potential radiological risk of the integrated MSNPS with the launch vehicle including interface with the weapon system. Most emphasis will be placed the prime power concept design. Safety problems can occur any time during the entire life cycle of the system including contingency phases. The preliminary safety assessment report is to be delivered at the end of phase 2. This assessment will be the basis of the safety requirements which will be applied to the design of the MSNPS as it develops in subsequent phases. The assessment also focuses design activities on specific high-risk scenarios and missions that may impact safety.

  7. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  8. Solid-state retrodirective phased array concepts for microwave power transmission from Solar Power Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, K. G.; Petroff, I. K.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid-state phased array systems concepts for potential use in the Solar Power Satellite are described. In both concepts, the beam is centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. Also discussed is on-going solid-state amplifier development.

  9. Engineering study for the phase 1 privatization facilities electrical power

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-18

    This engineering study evaluates the availability of electric power from the existing 13.8 kV substation, BPA 115 kV system,and RL 230 kV transmission line; for supporting the Privatization Phase I Facilities. 230 kV system is a preferable alternative.

  10. Power production with two-phase expansion through vapor dome

    SciTech Connect

    Amend, W.E.; Toner, S.J.

    1984-08-07

    In a system wherein a fluid exhibits a regressive vapor dome in a T-S diagram, the following are provided: a two-phase nozzle receiving the fluid in pressurized and heated liquid state and expanding the received liquid into saturated or superheated vapor state, and apparatus receiving the saturated or superheated vapor to convert the kinetic energy thereof into power.

  11. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 5111.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Outdoor Power Equipment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (2) service, maintain, repair and rebuild outdoor power equipment and outdoor power equipment accessories; (3) communicate clearly with customers, staff, suppliers, as required;…

  12. Three-phase power factor controller with induced EMF sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A power factor controller for an ac induction motor is provided which is of the type comprising thyristor switches connected in series with the motor, phase detectors for sensing the motor current and voltage and providing an output proportional to the phase difference between the motor voltage and current, and a control circuit, responsive to the output of the phase detector and to a power factor command signal, for controlling switching of the thyristor. The invention involves sensing the induced emf produced by the motor during the time interval when the thyristor is off and for producing a corresponding feedback signal for controlling switching of the thyristor. The sensed emf is also used to enhance soft starting of the motor.

  13. Three-phase power factor controller with induced EMF sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1984-09-01

    A power factor controller for an ac induction motor is provided which is of the type comprising thyristor switches connected in series with the motor, phase detectors for sensing the motor current and voltage and providing an output proportional to the phase difference between the motor voltage and current, and a control circuit, responsive to the output of the phase detector and to a power factor command signal, for controlling switching of the thyristor. The invention involves sensing the induced emf produced by the motor during the time interval when the thyristor is off and for producing a corresponding feedback signal for controlling switching of the thyristor. The sensed emf is also used to enhance soft starting of the motor.

  14. Trimode optimizes hybrid power plants. Final report: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    O`Sullivan, G.A.; O`Sullivan, J.A.

    1998-07-01

    In the Phase 2 project, Abacus Controls Inc. did research and development of hybrid systems that combine the energy sources from photovoltaics, batteries, and diesel-generators and demonstrated that they are economically feasible for small power plants in many parts of the world. The Trimode Power Processor reduces the fuel consumption of the diesel-generator to its minimum by presenting itself as the perfect electrical load to the generator. A 30-kW three-phase unit was tested at Sandia National Laboratories to prove its worthiness in actual field conditions. The use of photovoltaics at remote locations where reliability of supply requires a diesel-generator will lower costs to operate by reducing the run time of the diesel generator. The numerous benefits include longer times between maintenance for the diesel engine and better power quality from the generator. 32 figs.

  15. On the Spike Train Variability Characterized by Variance-to-Mean Power Relationship.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shinsuke

    2015-07-01

    We propose a statistical method for modeling the non-Poisson variability of spike trains observed in a wide range of brain regions. Central to our approach is the assumption that the variance and the mean of interspike intervals are related by a power function characterized by two parameters: the scale factor and exponent. It is shown that this single assumption allows the variability of spike trains to have an arbitrary scale and various dependencies on the firing rate in the spike count statistics, as well as in the interval statistics, depending on the two parameters of the power function. We also propose a statistical model for spike trains that exhibits the variance-to-mean power relationship. Based on this, a maximum likelihood method is developed for inferring the parameters from rate-modulated spike trains. The proposed method is illustrated on simulated and experimental spike trains. PMID:25973546

  16. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Additional Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.120 Training and qualification of nuclear...

  17. High power compatible internally sensed optical phased array.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lyle E; Ward, Robert L; Francis, Samuel P; Sibley, Paul G; Fleddermann, Roland; Sutton, Andrew J; Smith, Craig; McClelland, David E; Shaddock, Daniel A

    2016-06-13

    The technical embodiment of the Huygens-Fresnel principle, an optical phased array (OPA) is an arrangement of optical emitters with relative phases controlled to create a desired beam profile after propagation. One important application of an OPA is coherent beam combining (CBC), which can be used to create beams of higher power than is possible with a single laser source, especially for narrow linewidth sources. Here we present an all-fiber architecture that stabilizes the relative output phase by inferring the relative path length differences between lasers using the small fraction of light that is back-reflected into the fiber at the OPA's glass-air interface, without the need for any external sampling optics. This architecture is compatible with high power continuous wave laser sources (e.g., fiber amplifiers) up to 100 W per channel. The high-power compatible internally sensed OPA was implemented experimentally using commercial 15 W fiber amplifiers, demonstrating an output RMS phase stability of λ/194, and the ability to steer the beam at up to 10 kHz. PMID:27410363

  18. Optimizing Soft Magnetic Composites for Power Frequency Applications and Power-Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Patrick; Guthrie, Roderick; Isac, Mihaiela

    2012-03-01

    A new approach, together with a new family of soft magnetic composites (SMCs), has been developed and optimized for power alternating-current applications. The different technological and economic restrictions needed to maximize a composite's performance-to-cost ratio are presented. The experimental procedures to produce sintered lamellar SMCs are reported, together with magnetic results and the effects of different processing parameters on their performance. The present results are compared with corresponding data available for soft magnetic materials available on the market (laminations and composites). Data on the mechanical strength of these new SMC structures are also given. The new process results in magnetic and mechanical properties of different alloy systems that are better than those of any of the SMCs available. The present materials' energetic losses can be under 2 W/kg at 60 Hz, at 1 T, whilst their permeability exceeds 2000, while maintaining maximum induction above 1.7 T. These properties are very close to the best results for standard laminations on the market. The present process has the potential to be very inexpensive, owing to its simplicity. Even though not fully isotropic, recent three-dimensional machine designs and process advantages conferred by powder metallurgy techniques can be applied to this new family of lamellar particle composites. Through theoretical calculations and modeling exercises, it is briefly shown that this new kind of material can result in an improvement to the transportation sector where weight and efficiency of newly emerging electrical and hybrid power-trains are of prime importance.

  19. Combined Analysis of Phase I and Phase II Data to Enhance the Power of Pharmacogenetic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, J; Chenel, M; Comets, E

    2016-01-01

    We show through a simulation study how the joint analysis of data from phase I and phase II studies enhances the power of pharmacogenetic tests in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. PK profiles were simulated under different designs along with 176 genetic markers. The null scenarios assumed no genetic effect, while under the alternative scenarios, drug clearance was associated with six genetic markers randomly sampled in each simulated dataset. We compared penalized regression Lasso and stepwise procedures to detect the associations between empirical Bayes estimates of clearance, estimated by nonlinear mixed effects models, and genetic variants. Combining data from phase I and phase II studies, even if sparse, increases the power to identify the associations between genetics and PK due to the larger sample size. Design optimization brings a further improvement, and we highlight a direct relationship between η‐shrinkage and loss of genetic signal. PMID:27069775

  20. Combined Analysis of Phase I and Phase II Data to Enhance the Power of Pharmacogenetic Tests.

    PubMed

    Tessier, A; Bertrand, J; Chenel, M; Comets, E

    2016-03-01

    We show through a simulation study how the joint analysis of data from phase I and phase II studies enhances the power of pharmacogenetic tests in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. PK profiles were simulated under different designs along with 176 genetic markers. The null scenarios assumed no genetic effect, while under the alternative scenarios, drug clearance was associated with six genetic markers randomly sampled in each simulated dataset. We compared penalized regression Lasso and stepwise procedures to detect the associations between empirical Bayes estimates of clearance, estimated by nonlinear mixed effects models, and genetic variants. Combining data from phase I and phase II studies, even if sparse, increases the power to identify the associations between genetics and PK due to the larger sample size. Design optimization brings a further improvement, and we highlight a direct relationship between η-shrinkage and loss of genetic signal. PMID:27069775

  1. Technology verification phase. Dynamic isotope power system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, D.G.

    1982-03-10

    The Phase I requirements of the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) program were to make a detailed Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) for an isotope fueled organic Rankine cycle power system and to build and test a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) which simulated as closely as possible the operational characteristics of the FSCD. The activities and results of Phase II, the Technology Verification Phase, of the program are reported. The objectives of this phase were to increase system efficiency to 18.1% by component development, to demonstrate system reliability by a 5000 h endurance test and to update the flight system design. During Phase II, system performance was improved from 15.1% to 16.6%, an endurance test of 2000 h was performed while the flight design analysis was limited to a study of the General Purpose Heat Source, a study of the regenerator manufacturing technique and analysis of the hardness of the system to a laser threat. It was concluded from these tests that the GDS is basically prototypic of a flight design; all components necessary for satisfactory operation were demonstrated successfully at the system level; over 11,000 total h of operation without any component failure attested to the inherent reliability of this type of system; and some further development is required, specifically in the area of performance. (LCL)

  2. Critical assessment of power trains with fuel-cell systems and different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhlein, B.; von Andrian, S.; Grube, Th; Menzer, R.

    Legal regulations (USA, EU) are a major driving force for intensifying technological developments with respect to the global automobile market. In the future, highly efficient vehicles with very low emission levels will include low-temperature fuel-cell systems (PEFC) as units of electric power trains. With alcohols, ether or hydrocarbons used as fuels for these new electric power trains, hydrogen as PEFC fuel has to be produced on board. These concepts including the direct use of methanol in fuel-cell systems, differ considerably in terms of both their development prospects and the results achieved so far. Based on process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains, as well as on assumptions for electric power trains and vehicle configurations, different fuel-cell performances and fuel processing units for octane, diesel, methanol, ethanol, propane and dimethylether have been evaluated as fuels. The possible benefits and key challenges for different solutions of power trains with fuel-cell systems/on-board hydrogen production and with direct methanol fuel-cell (DMFC) systems have been assessed. Locally, fuel-cell power trains are almost emission-free and, unlike battery-powered vehicles, their range is comparable to conventional vehicles. Therefore, they have application advantages cases of particularly stringent emission standards requiring zero emission. In comparison to internal combustion engines, using fuel-cell power trains can lead to clear reductions in primary energy demand and global, climate-relevant emissions providing the advantage of the efficiency of the hydrogen/air reaction in the fuel cell is not too drastically reduced by additional conversion steps of on-board hydrogen production, or by losses due to fuel supply provision.

  3. Phased Array Technology with Phase and Amplitude Controlled Magnetron for Microwave Power Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, N.; Matsumoto, H.

    2004-12-01

    We need a microwave power transmitter with light weight and high DC-RF conversion efficiency for an economical SSPS (Space Solar Power System). We need a several g/W for a microwave power transmission (MPT) system with a phased array with 0.0001 degree of beam control accuracy (=tan-1 (100m/36,000km)) and over 80 % of DC-RF conversion efficiency when the weight of the 1GW-class SPS is below a several thousand ton - a several tens of thousand ton. We focus a microwave tube, especially magnetron by economical reason and by the amount of mass-production because it is commonly used for microwave oven in the world. At first, we have developed a phase controlled magnetron (PCM) with different technologies from what Dr. Brown developed. Next we have developed a phase and amplitude controlled magnetron (PACM). For the PACM, we add a feedback to magnetic field of the PCM with an external coil to control and stabilize amplitude of the microwave. We succeed to develop the PACM with below 10-6 of frequency stability and within 1 degree of an error in phase and within 1% of amplitude. We can control a phase and amplitude of the PACM and we have developed a phased array the PCMs. With the PCM technology, we have developed a small light weight MPT transmitter COMET (Compact Microwave Energy Transmitter) with consideration of heat radiation for space use and with consideration of mobility to space.

  4. High-speed power training in older adults: A shift of the external resistance at which peak power is produced

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Stephen P.; Gibson, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that power training increases peak power in older adults. Evaluating the external resistance (% one repetition-maximum [1RM]) at which peak power is developed is critical given that changes in the components of peak power (force and velocity) are dependent on the %1RM at which peak power occurs. The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in peak power (and the external resistance at which peak power occurred) after 12 weeks of high-speed power training versus traditional slow-speed strength training. Seventy-two older men and women were randomized to high-speed power training at 40% of the one-repetition maximum (1RM) (HSPT: n=24 [70.8±6.8 yrs]); traditional RT at 80% 1RM (STR: n=22 [68.6±7.8 yrs]); or control (CON: n=18 [71.5±6.1 yrs]). Measures of muscle performance were obtained at baseline and after the 12-week training intervention. Changes in muscle power and 1RM strength improved similarly with both HSPT and SSST, but HSPT shifted the external resistance at which peak power was produced to a lower external resistance (from 67%1RM to 52%1RM) compared to SSST (from 65%1RM to 62%1RM)(p<0.05), thus increasing the velocity component of peak power (change: HSPT=0.18±0.21m/s; SSST=−0.03±0.15 m/s)(p<0.05). Because sufficient speed of the lower limb is necessary for functional tasks related to safety (crossing a busy intersection, fall prevention), HSPT should be implemented in older adults to improve power at lower external resistances, thus increasing the velocity component of power and making older adults safer in their environment. These data provide clinicians with the necessary information to tailor exercise programs to the individual needs of the older adult, affecting the components of power. PMID:23897022

  5. Power in Staff Development through Research on Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Bruce R.; Showers, Beverly

    Mastering alternative models of teaching helps build competence and effectiveness in the repertoire of classroom teachers. However, because the attainment of new skills does not by itself ensure transfer to classroom use, teacher training programs should incorporate study of the transfer process itself, reinforced by team effort. Accordingly,…

  6. Neuromuscular Characteristics of Endurance--And Power-Trained Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koceja, David M.; Davison, Edwin; Robertson, Christopher T.

    2004-01-01

    In response to chronic physical training, the human neuromuscular system undergoes significant and specific adaptations. More importantly, these influences are the result of the type and quantity of physical activity. One of the simplest neuromuscular mechanisms is the spinal stretch reflex. The reflex system was previously viewed as inflexible,…

  7. Development of Analytical Algorithm for the Performance Analysis of Power Train System of an Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Lee, Kee-Man; Lee, Sang-Heon

    Power train system design is one of the key R&D areas on the development process of new automobile because an optimum size of engine with adaptable power transmission which can accomplish the design requirement of new vehicle can be obtained through the system design. Especially, for the electric vehicle design, very reliable design algorithm of a power train system is required for the energy efficiency. In this study, an analytical simulation algorithm is developed to estimate driving performance of a designed power train system of an electric. The principal theory of the simulation algorithm is conservation of energy with several analytical and experimental data such as rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, mechanical efficiency of power transmission etc. From the analytical calculation results, running resistance of a designed vehicle is obtained with the change of operating condition of the vehicle such as inclined angle of road and vehicle speed. Tractive performance of the model vehicle with a given power train system is also calculated at each gear ratio of transmission. Through analysis of these two calculation results: running resistance and tractive performance, the driving performance of a designed electric vehicle is estimated and it will be used to evaluate the adaptability of the designed power train system on the vehicle.

  8. Emerging Two-Phase Cooling Technologies for Power Electronic Inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.

    2005-08-17

    In order to meet the Department of Energy's (DOE's) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FVCT) goals for volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost, the cooling of the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical. Currently the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are primarily cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG) mixture. The cooling fluid operates as a single-phase coolant as the liquid phase of the WEG does not change to its vapor phase during the cooling process. In these single-phase systems, two cooling loops of WEG produce a low temperature (around 70 C) cooling loop for the power electronics and motor/generator, and higher temperature loop (around 105 C) for the internal combustion engine. There is another coolant option currently available in automobiles. It is possible to use the transmission oil as a coolant. The oil temperature exists at approximately 85 C which can be utilized to cool the power electronic and electrical devices. Because heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference between the device's hot surface and the coolant, a device that can tolerate higher temperatures enables the device to be smaller while dissipating the same amount of heat. Presently, new silicon carbide (SiC) devices and high temperature direct current (dc)-link capacitors, such as Teflon capacitors, are available but at significantly higher costs. Higher junction temperature (175 C) silicon (Si) dies are gradually emerging in the market, which will eventually help to lower hardware costs for cooling. The development of high-temperature devices is not the only way to reduce device size. Two-phase cooling that utilizes the vaporization of the liquid to dissipate heat is expected to be a very effective cooling method. Among two-phase cooling methods, different technologies such as spray, jet impingement, pool boiling and submersion, etc. are being developed. The Oak Ridge

  9. Phase synchronized quasiperiodicity in power electronic inverter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Mosekilde, Erik; Andriyanov, Alexey I.; Shein, Vladimir V.

    2014-02-01

    The development of switch-mode operated power electronic converter systems has provided a broad range of new effective approaches to the conversion of electric power. In this paper we describe the transitions from regular periodic operation to quasiperiodicity and high-periodic resonance behavior that can be observed in a pulse-width modulated DC/AC converter operating with high feedback gain. We demonstrate the occurrence of two different types of torus birth bifurcations and present a series of phase portraits illustrating the appearance of phase-synchronized quasiperiodicity. Our numerical findings are verified through comparison with an experimental inverter system. The results shed light on the transitions to quasiperiodicity and to various forms of three-frequency dynamics in non-smooth systems.

  10. High power l-band fast phase shifter

    SciTech Connect

    Terechkine, I.; Khabiboulline, T.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    Following successful testing of a concept prototype of a waveguide-based high power phase shifter, a design of a fast, high power device has been developed. The shifter uses two magnetically biased blocks of Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) positioned along the side walls of a rectangular waveguide. The cross-section of the waveguide is chosen to suppress unwanted RF modes that could otherwise compromise performance of the phase shifter. Static bias field in the YIG blocks is created by employing permanent magnets. Low inductance coils in the same magnetic circuit excite fast component of the bias field. Design of the device ensures effective heat extraction from the YIG blocks and penetration of the fast magnetic field inside the waveguide with minimum delay. This paper summarizes main steps in this development and gives brief description of the system.

  11. Effectiveness of a Wheelchair Skills Training Program for Powered Wheelchair Users: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, R. Lee; Miller, William C.; Routhier, Francois; Demers, Louise; Mihailidis, Alex; Polgar, Jan Miller; Rushton, Paula W.; Titus, Laura; Smith, Cher; McAllister, Mike; Theriault, Chris; Thompson, Kara; Sawatzky, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that powered wheelchair users who receive the Wheelchair Skills Training Program (WSTP) improve their wheelchair skills in comparison with a Control group that receives standard care. Our secondary objectives were to assess goal achievement, satisfaction with training, retention, injury rate, confidence with wheelchair use and participation. Design Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Setting Rehabilitation centers and communities. Participants 116 powered wheelchair users. Intervention Five 30-minute WSTP training sessions. Main Outcome Measures Assessments were done at baseline (T1), post-training (T2) and 3 months post-training (T3) using the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire (WST-Q 4.1), Goal Attainment Score (GAS), Satisfaction Questionnaire, Injury Rate, Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Power Wheelchair Users (WheelCon) and Life Space Assessment (LSA). Results There was no significant T2-T1 difference between the groups for WST-Q capacity scores (p = 0.600) but the difference for WST-Q performance scores was significant (p = 0.016) with a relative (T2/T1 x 100%) improvement of the median score for the Intervention group of 10.8%. The mean (SD) GAS for the Intervention group after training was 92.8% (11.4) and satisfaction with training was high. The WST-Q gain was not retained at T3. There was no clinically significant difference between the groups in injury rate and no statistically significant differences in WheelCon or LSA scores at T3. Conclusions Powered wheelchair users who receive formal wheelchair skills training demonstrate modest transient post-training improvements in their WST-Q performance scores, they have substantial improvements on individualized goals and they are positive about training. PMID:26232684

  12. Single-phase power distribution system power flow and fault analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    Alternative methods for power flow and fault analysis of single-phase distribution systems are presented. The algorithms for both power flow and fault analysis utilize a generalized approach to network modeling. The generalized admittance matrix, formed using elements of linear graph theory, is an accurate network model for all possible single-phase network configurations. Unlike the standard nodal admittance matrix formulation algorithms, the generalized approach uses generalized component models for the transmission line and transformer. The standard assumption of a common node voltage reference point is not required to construct the generalized admittance matrix. Therefore, truly accurate simulation results can be obtained for networks that cannot be modeled using traditional techniques.

  13. Does Powerful Language Training Affect Student Participation, Impression Formation, and Gender Communication in Online Discussions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Crystal Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate whether powerful language training affected student participation, impression formation, and gender communication style in online discussions. Powerful language was defined as a lack of the use of powerless language. Participants in this study were 507 freshmen taking a first-year college…

  14. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  15. The Effects of POWER Training in Young and Older Adults after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hunnicutt, Jennifer L; Aaron, Stacey E; Embry, Aaron E; Cence, Brian; Morgan, Patrick; Bowden, Mark G; Gregory, Chris M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Approximately 35,000 strokes occur annually in adults below the age of 40, and there is disappointingly little data describing their responses to rehabilitation. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the effects of Poststroke Optimization of Walking using Explosive Resistance (POWER) training in young (<40 years) and older (>60 years) adults and to describe relationships between training-induced improvements in muscular and locomotor function. Methods. Data was analyzed from 16 individuals with chronic stroke who participated in 24 sessions of POWER training. Outcomes included muscle power generation, self-selected walking speed (SSWS), 6-minute walk test, Fugl-Meyer motor assessment, Berg Balance Scale, and Dynamic Gait Index. Results. There were no significant differences between groups at baseline. Within-group comparisons revealed significant improvements in paretic and nonparetic knee extensor muscle power generation in both groups. Additionally, young participants significantly improved SSWS. Improvements in SSWS were more strongly associated with improvements in power generation on both sides in young versus older participants. Conclusions. Younger adults after stroke seem to preferentially benefit from POWER training, particularly when increasing gait speed is a rehabilitation goal. Future research should aim to further understand age-related differences in response to training to provide optimal treatments for all individuals following stroke. PMID:27493828

  16. The Effects of POWER Training in Young and Older Adults after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Stacey E.; Embry, Aaron E.; Cence, Brian; Morgan, Patrick; Gregory, Chris M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Approximately 35,000 strokes occur annually in adults below the age of 40, and there is disappointingly little data describing their responses to rehabilitation. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the effects of Poststroke Optimization of Walking using Explosive Resistance (POWER) training in young (<40 years) and older (>60 years) adults and to describe relationships between training-induced improvements in muscular and locomotor function. Methods. Data was analyzed from 16 individuals with chronic stroke who participated in 24 sessions of POWER training. Outcomes included muscle power generation, self-selected walking speed (SSWS), 6-minute walk test, Fugl-Meyer motor assessment, Berg Balance Scale, and Dynamic Gait Index. Results. There were no significant differences between groups at baseline. Within-group comparisons revealed significant improvements in paretic and nonparetic knee extensor muscle power generation in both groups. Additionally, young participants significantly improved SSWS. Improvements in SSWS were more strongly associated with improvements in power generation on both sides in young versus older participants. Conclusions. Younger adults after stroke seem to preferentially benefit from POWER training, particularly when increasing gait speed is a rehabilitation goal. Future research should aim to further understand age-related differences in response to training to provide optimal treatments for all individuals following stroke. PMID:27493828

  17. 76 FR 22729 - Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant #1, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... December 18, 2008 (73 FR 77067). In order to avoid an overlap in worker group coverage, the Department is... Employment and Training Administration Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant 1..., LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant 1, including on-site leased workers of...

  18. Conducting Effective Simulator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerling, Kenneth D.

    This paper describes the simulator phase of Commonwealth Edison's program for training and licensing operators of nuclear power stations. Topics covered include (1) preparing the students before starting the simulator phase; (2) the simulator schedule and the number of students that can be trained effectively in a class; (3) format and structure…

  19. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    PubMed

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  20. An examination of training on the VertiMax resisted jumping device for improvements in lower body power in highly trained college athletes .

    PubMed

    Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark D; Oliverson, Jeff R; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio; Potenziano, Ben J

    2008-05-01

    Training to develop superior muscular power has become a key component to most progressive sport conditioning programs. Conventional resistance training, plyometrics, and speed/agility modalities have all been employed in an effort to realize superlative combinations of training stimuli. New training devices such as the VertiMax resisted jump trainer are marketed as a means of improving lower body reactive power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the VertiMax, in combination with traditional training modalities, for improvements in lower body power among highly trained athletes. Forty men and women Division I collegiate athletes representing the sports of baseball, basketball, soccer, gymnastics, and track completed a 12-week mixed-methods training program. Two groups were constructed with both groups performing the same conventional resistance training and strength training exercises. The training control group performed traditional plyometric exercises while the experimental group performed similar loaded jump training on the VertiMax. Lower body power was measured before and after the training program by the TENDO FiTROdyne Powerlizer and statistically compared for differences between groups. Data analyses identified a significant (p < 0.05) and meaningful difference between power development among the 2 groups, with the VertiMax eliciting a greater treatment effect (effect size = 0.54) over conventional resistance and plyometric training alone (effect size = 0.09). These data convincingly demonstrate that the VertiMax represents an effective strategy for developing lower body power among trained college athletes, when combined with traditional strength and conditioning approaches. PMID:18438246

  1. Zero-static-power phase-change optical modulator.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohsen; Rais-Zadeh, Mina

    2016-03-15

    This Letter presents an innovative design of an electro-optical modulator using germanium telluride (GeTe) phase change material with an integrated nano-heater. The refractive index and the electrical conductivity of GeTe significantly change as the GeTe goes though the crystallographic phase change. Amorphization and crystallization of GeTe is achieved using the Joule heating method by passing current through an array of metal gratings, where GeTe fills the slits between the metal lines. These metal slits also increase the contrast between the amorphous (on) and crystalline (off) phases of the modulator by having extraordinary transmission and reflection response based on interactions of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the incoming light. The modulator is designed for 1550 nm wavelength, where GeTe is transparent in the amorphous phase and provides high optical on/off contrast. The metal-insulator-metal (MIM) is designed in such a way to only support SPP excitation when GeTe is crystalline and slit resonance when it is amorphous to increase the modulation index. The modulator is stable in both phases with higher than 12 dB change in transmission with zero static power consumption at room temperature. PMID:26977663

  2. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply, Phase 1 Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-17

    This Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Boeing Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System (MSNPS). The Boeing Multimegawatt Space Power System is part of the DOE/SDIO Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power Program. The purpose of this program is to provide a space-based nuclear power system to meet the needs of SDIO missions. The Boeing MSNPS is a category 1 concept which is capable of delivering 10's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds with effluent permitted. A design goal is for the system to have growth or downscale capability for other power system concepts. The growth objective is to meet the category 3 capability of 100's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds, also with effluent permitted. The purpose of this preliminary document is to guide the conceptual design effort throughout the Phase 1 study effort. This document will be updated through out the study. It will thus result in a record of the development of the design effort.

  3. Solar Power Satellite antenna phase control system hardware simulation, phase 4. Volume 2: Analytical simulation of SPS system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.; Chie, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The pilot signal parameter optimization and power transponder analyses are presented. The SPS antenna phase control system is modeled and the hardware simulation study described. Ionospheric and system phase error effects and the effects of high power amplifier phase and amplitude jitters are considered. Parameter optimization of the spread spectrum receiver, consisting of the carrier tracking loop and the code tracking loop, is described.

  4. Subpicosecond electron bunch train production using a phase-space exchange technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.-E.; Piot, P.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Our recent experimental demonstration of a photoinjector electron bunch train with sub-picosecond structures is reported in this paper. The experiment is accomplished by converting an initially horizontal beam intensity modulation into a longitudinal phase space modulation, via a beamline capable of exchanging phase-space coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. The initial transverse modulation is produced by intercepting the beam with a multislit mask prior to the exchange. We also compare our experimental results with numerical simulations.

  5. Traditional versus functional strength training: effects on muscle strength and power in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Torstveit, Monica K; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderly. Sixty-three subjects (69.9 ± 4.1 yr) were randomized to a high-power strength group (HPSG), a functional strength group (FSG), or a nonrandomized control group (CG). Data were collected using a force platform and linear encoder. The training dose was 2 times/wk, 3 sets × 8 reps, for 11 wk. There were no differences in effect between HPSG and FSG concerning sit-to-stand power, box-lift power, and bench-press maximum force. Leg-press maximum force improved in HPSG (19.8%) and FSG (19.7%) compared with CG (4.3%; p = .026). Bench-press power improved in HPSG (25.1%) compared with FSG (0.5%, p = .02) and CG (2%, p = .04). Except for bench-press power there were no differences in the effect of the training interventions on functional power and maximal body strength. PMID:22832419

  6. Enhanced INL Power Grid Test Bed Infrastructure – Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Carol Ann; West, Grayson Shawn; McBride, Scott Alan

    2014-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory, owns, operates, and maintains transmission and distribution power grid infrastructure to support the INL multi program mission. Sections of this power infrastructure, known as the INL Power Grid Test Bed, have been and are being used by government and industry to develop, demonstrate, and validate technologies for the modern grid, including smart grid, on a full scale utility test bed. INL’s power grid includes 61 miles of 140 MW, 138 kV rated electrical power transmission supplying seven main substations, each feeding a separate facility complex (or ‘city’) within the INL’s 890 square mile Site. This power grid is fed by three commercial utilities into the INL’s main control substation, but is operated independently from the commercial utility through its primary substation and command and control center. Within the INL complex, one of the seven complexes, the Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (CITRC), has been designated as the INL complex for supporting critical infrastructure research and testing. This complex includes its own substation and 13.8kV distribution network, all configurable and controlled by the INL research and development programs. Through investment partnership with the DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE OE), INL is enhancing its existing distribution infrastructure to expand the types of testing that can be conducted and increase flexibility for testing configurations. The enhancement of the INL Power Grid Test Bed will enable development and full scale testing of smart-grid-related technologies and smart devices including testing interoperability, operational performance, reliability, and resiliency contribution at multiple distribution voltage classes, specifically 15kV, 25kV, and 35kV. The expected time frame for completion of the Phase I portion of the enhancement would be 4th quarter fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  7. Anaerobic power in road cyclists is improved after 10 weeks of whole-body vibration training.

    PubMed

    Oosthuyse, Tanja; Viedge, Alison; McVeigh, Joanne; Avidon, Ingrid

    2013-02-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has previously improved muscle power in various athletic groups requiring explosive muscle contractions. To evaluate the benefit of including WBV as a training adjunct for improving aerobic and anaerobic cycling performance, road cyclists (n = 9) performed 3 weekly, 10-minute sessions of intermittent WBV on synchronous vertical plates (30 Hz) while standing in a static posture. A control group of cyclists (n = 8) received no WBV training. Before and after the 10-week intervention period, lean body mass (LBM), cycling aerobic peak power (Wmax), 4 mM lactate concentration (OBLA), VO2peak, and Wingate anaerobic peak and mean power output were determined. The WBV group successfully completed all WBV sessions but reported a significant 30% decrease in the weekly cycling training time (pre: 9.4 ± 3.3 h·wk(-1); post: 6.7 ± 3.7 h·wk(-1); p = 0.01) that resulted in a 6% decrease in VO2peak and a 4% decrease in OBLA. The control group reported a nonsignificant 6% decrease in cycling training volume (pre: 9.5 ± 3.6 h·wk(-1); 8.6 ± 2.9 h·wk(-1); p = 0.13), and all measured variables were maintained. Despite the evidence of detraining in the WBV group, Wmax was maintained (pre: 258 ± 53 W; post: 254 ± 57 W; p = 0.43). Furthermore, Wingate peak power increased by 6% (668 ± 189 to 708 ± 220 W; p = 0.055), and Wingate mean power increased by 2% (553 ± 157 to 565 ± 157 W; p = 0.006) in the WBV group from preintervention to postintervention, respectively, without any change to LBM. The WBV training is an attractive training supplement for improving anaerobic power without increasing muscle mass in road cyclists. PMID:22531614

  8. Effect of inspiratory muscle training with an intermediate load on inspiratory power output in COPD.

    PubMed

    Villafranca, C; Borzone, G; Leiva, A; Lisboa, C

    1998-01-01

    There is very little information about the effect of inspiratory muscle training on inspiratory flow (V'I) and thus on power output (PO) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study we aimed to evaluate the changes induced by training on the determinants of PO. Thirty one patients with severe COPD were randomly divided into: Group 1, trained with 30% maximal inspiratory pressure (PI,max); Group 2, with 10% PI,max; and Group 3 also trained with 30% PI,max, but the breathing pattern was evaluated while performing the training manoeuvres along inspiratory muscle training (IMT). All groups used a threshold device for 10 weeks. The PO for each of the loads during an incremental threshold test was evaluated prior to and after training. Maximal PO (POmax) increased in all groups, but the increment was higher in groups trained with 30% PI,max (p<0.005), mainly due to an increase in V'I. Group 3 showed a progressive increase in V'I (p<0.001) during the training manoeuvres in spite of an increase in load along IMT. In addition, the load after IMT was overcome with a shorter inspiratory time (tI) (p<0.02), a smaller tI/total duration of the respiratory cycle (t(tot)), (p<0.001) with no change in tidal volume or t(tot). The increment in POmax in this group correlated with the V'I generated while training (r=0.85; p<0.0001). We conclude that in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the use of an intermediate threshold load for training improves power output mainly by increasing inspiratory flow, an effect consistent with an increase in shortening velocity of inspiratory muscles. PMID:9543266

  9. Effects of PECS Phase III Application Training on Independent Mands in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica June

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PECS phase III application training on independent mands in young children with autism. Participants were five children with autism ranging from ages 2 to 4 years old. A multiple baseline across participants was used to evaluate acquisition of independent correct mands across baseline and…

  10. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    Phase two of the Orthopaedic Training Study was designed to examine time, sequence, and content requirements of existing orthopaedic programs. Specifically, the proposal was designed to achieve the following objectives: (1) to provide a model of individualized graduate education in medicine in which the demonstration of individual competence marks…

  11. Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with segmented pulse trains

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Hiroki; Inoue, Kyo

    2011-06-15

    We present a modified scheme of differential-phase-shift (DPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) for improving its performance. A transmitter sends a weak coherent pulse train segmented with vacant pulses. Then, a receiver can find eavesdropping by monitoring the photon detection rate at particular time slots. Simulations show that the proposed scheme is robust against a sequential attack and a general individual attack.

  12. Time Course of Improvements in Power Characteristics in Elite Development Netball Players Entering a Full-Time Training Program.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Ian; Chapman, Dale W; Taylor, Kristie Lee; Ball, Nick B

    2016-05-01

    McKeown, I, Chapman, DW, Taylor, KL, and Ball, NB. Time course of improvements in power characteristics in elite development netball players entering a full-time training program. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1308-1315, 2016-We describe the time course of adaptation to structured resistance training on entering a full-time high-performance sport program. Twelve international caliber female netballers (aged 19.9 ± 0.4 years) were monitored for 18 weeks with countermovement (CMJ: performed with body weight and 15 kg) and drop jumps (0.35-m box at body weight) at the start of each training week. Performance did not improve linearly or concurrently with loaded CMJ power improving 11% by Week 5 (effect size [ES] 0.93 ± 0.72) in contrast, substantial positive changes were observed for unloaded CMJ power (12%; ES 0.78 ± 0.39), and CMJ velocity (unloaded: 7.1%; ES 0.66 ± 0.34; loaded: 7.5%; ES 0.90 ± 0.41) by week 7. Over the investigation duration, large improvements were observed in unloaded CMJ power (24%; ES 1.45 ± 1.11) and velocity (12%; ES 1.13 ± 0.76). Loaded CMJ power also showed a large improvement (19%; ES 1.49 ± 0.97) but only moderate changes were observed for loaded CMJ velocity (8.4%; ES 1.01 ± 0.67). Jump height changes in either unloaded or loaded CMJ were unclear over the 18-week period. Drop jump performance improved throughout the investigation period with moderate positive changes in reactive strength index observed (35%; ES 0.97 ± 0.69). The adaptation response to a structured resistance training program does not occur linearly in young female athletes. Caution should be taken if assessing jump height only, as this will provide a biased observation to a training response. Frequently assessing CMJ performance can aid program design coaching decisions to ensure improvements are seen past the initial neuromuscular learning phase in performance training. PMID:26439781

  13. Baseline tests of the power-train electric delivery van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumannick, S.; Dustin, M. O.; Bozek, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics were determined for a modified utility van powered by sixteen 6-volt batteries connected in series. A chopper controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal changes the voltage applied to the 22-kilowatt (30-hp) series-wound drive motor. In addition to the conventional hydraulic braking system, the vehicle has hydraulic regenerative braking. Cycle tests and acceleration tests were conducted with and without hydraulic regeneration.

  14. Interaction of an Ultrarelativistic Electron Bunch Train with a W-Band Accelerating Structure: High Power and High Gradient.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Antipov, S; Jing, C; Power, J G; Conde, M; Wisniewski, E; Liu, W; Qiu, J; Ha, G; Dolgashev, V; Tang, C; Gai, W

    2016-02-01

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to the interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. Measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method. PMID:26894715

  15. Interaction of an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train with a W-band accelerating structure: High power and high gradient

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, D.; Antipov, S.; Jing, C.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Wisniewski, E.; Liu, W.; Qiu, J.; Ha, G.; Dolgashev, V.; et al

    2016-02-05

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to themore » interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. As a result, measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method.« less

  16. Interaction of an Ultrarelativistic Electron Bunch Train with a W -Band Accelerating Structure: High Power and High Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Antipov, S.; Jing, C.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Wisniewski, E.; Liu, W.; Qiu, J.; Ha, G.; Dolgashev, V.; Tang, C.; Gai, W.

    2016-02-01

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to the interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. Measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method.

  17. Methods of Upper Body Training to Increase Overhand Throwing Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura; Tonkin, Shea

    2009-01-01

    Those who have taught motor skills would most likely agree that the overhand throw may be the most difficult skill for students to master and for instructors or coaches to teach. The timing involved when generating power to performing the overhand throw begins in the toes/feet and moves up the leg, hip, thorax (core muscles), arm, and ends in the…

  18. Utilization of the Philippine Research Reactor as a training facility for nuclear power plant operators

    SciTech Connect

    Palabrica, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Philippines has a 1-MW swimming-pool reactor facility operated by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). The reactor is light-water moderated and cooled, graphite reflected, and fueled with 90% enriched uranium. Since it became critical in 1963 it has been utilized for research, radioisotope production, and training. It was used initially in the training of PAEC personnel and other research institutions and universities. During the last few years, however, it has played a key role in training personnel for the Philippine Nuclear Power Project (PNPP).

  19. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mighdoll, P.; Hahn, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Power train designs which can be implemented within the current state-of-the-art were identified by means of a review of existing electric vehicles and suitable off-the-shelf components. The affect of various motor/transmission combinations on vehicle range over the SAE J227a schedule D cycle was evaluated. The selected, state-of-the-art power train employs a dc series wound motor, SCR controller, variable speed transmission, regenerative braking, drum brakes and radial ply tires. Vehicle range over the SAE cycle can be extended by approximately 20% by the further development of separately excited, shunt wound DC motors and electrical controllers. Approaches which could improve overall power train efficiency, such as AC motor systems, are identified. However, future emphasis should remain on batteries, tires and lightweight structures if substantial range improvements are to be achieved.

  20. Feasibility of eyes open alpha power training for mental enhancement in elite gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Marian K J; van den Berg, Berber R; Denissen, Ad J M; Sitskoorn, Margriet M; van Boxtel, Geert J M

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on a novel, easy to use and instruction-less method for mental training in athletes. Previous findings suggest that particular mental capacities are needed for achieving peak performance; including attentional control, focus, relaxation and positive affect. Electroencephalography (EEG) alpha brain activity has been associated with neural inhibition during processes of selective attention, for improving efficiency in information processing. Here we hypothesised that eyes open alpha power training by music teaches athletes to (1) learn to self-regulate their brain activity, and (2) learn to increase their baseline alpha power, herewith improving mental capacities such as focusing the allocation of attention. The study was double-blind and placebo-controlled. Twelve elite gymnasts were either given eyes open alpha power training or random beta power training (controls). Results indicate small improvements in sleep quality, mental and physical shape. In our first attempt at getting a grip on mental capacities in athletes, we think this novel training method can be promising. Because gymnastics is one of the most mentally demanding sports, we value even small benefits for the athlete and consider them indicative for future research. PMID:24784756

  1. A ground based phase control system for the solar power satellite. Executive summary, volume 1, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept and the reference phase control system investigated in earlier efforts are reviewed. A summary overview of the analysis and selection of the pilot signal and power transponder design is presented along with the SOLARSIM program development and the simulated SPS phase control performance. Evaluations of the ground based phase control system as an alternate phase control concept are summarized.

  2. Power train analysis for the DOE/NASA 100-kW wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, R. C.; Gold, H.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in explaining variations of power experienced in the on-line operation of a 100 kW experimental wind turbine-generator is reported. Data are presented that show the oscillations tend to be characteristic of a wind-driven synchronous generator because of low torsional damping in the power train, resonances of its large structure, and excitation by unsteady and nonuniform wind flow. The report includes dynamic analysis of the drive-train torsion, the generator, passive driveline damping, and active pitch control as well as correlation with experimental recordings. The analysis assumes one machine on an infinite bus with constant generator-field excitation.

  3. Digital regulation of a phase controlled power converter

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, C.; Haque, T.

    1995-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, now in construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, will use phase controlled power converters for the main dipole and quadrupole magnet strings. The rectifiers in these power supplies will be controlled by a digital regulator based on the TI 320C30 Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The DSP implements the current loop, the voltage loop, and a system to actively reduce the sub-harmonic ripple components. Digital firing circuits consisting of a phase locked lop and counters are used to fire the SCRs. Corrections for the sub-harmonic reduction are calculated by the DSP and stored in registers in the firing circuit. These corrections are added in hardware, to the over-all firing count provided by the DSP. the resultant count is compared to a reference counter to fire the SCRs. This combination of a digital control system and the digital firing circuits allows the correction of the sub-harmonics in a real-time sense. A prototype of the regulator has been constructed, and the preliminary testing indicates a sub-harmonic reduction of 60 dB.

  4. Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal component of the aquatic community. The study investigated various environmental factors that affect Legionella profiles in power plant cooling waters. The results indicate that each of the four factors investigated (incubation temperature, water quality, the presence and type of associated biota, and the nature of the indigenous Legionella population) is important in determining the Legionella profile of these waters. Simple predictive relationships were not found. At incubation temperatures of 32/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/C, waters from a power plant where infectious Legionella were not observed stimulated the growth of stock Legionella cultures more than did waters from plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent. This observation is consistent with Phase I results, which showed that densities of Legionella were frequently reduced in closed-cycle cooling systems despite the often higher infectivity of Legionella in closed-cycle waters. In contrast, water from power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent supported the growth of indigenous Legionella pneumophila at 42/sup 0/C, while water from a power plant where infectious Legionella were absent did not support growth of indigenous Legionella. Some Legionella are able to withstand a water temperature of 85/sup 0/C for several hours, thus proving more tolerant than was previously realized. Finally, the observation that water from two power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent usually supported the growth of Group A Legionella at 45/sup 0/C indicates the presence, of soluble Legionella growth promoters in these waters. This test system could allow for future identification and control of these growth promoters and, hence, of Legionella. 25 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Phase diagram of power law and Lennard-Jones systems: Crystal phases

    SciTech Connect

    Travesset, Alex

    2014-10-28

    An extensive characterization of the low temperature phase diagram of particles interacting with power law or Lennard-Jones potentials is provided from Lattice Dynamical Theory. For power law systems, only two lattice structures are stable for certain values of the exponent (or softness) (A15, body centered cube (bcc)) and two more (face centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp)) are always stable. Among them, only the fcc and bcc are equilibrium states. For Lennard-Jones systems, the equilibrium states are either hcp or fcc, with a coexistence curve in pressure and temperature that shows reentrant behavior. The hcp solid never coexists with the liquid. In all cases analyzed, for both power law and Lennard-Jones potentials, the fcc crystal has higher entropy than the hcp. The role of anharmonic terms is thoroughly analyzed and a general thermodynamic integration to account for them is proposed.

  6. Effects of Stable and Unstable Resistance Training in an Altered-G Environment on Muscle Power.

    PubMed

    Zemková, E; Oddsson, L

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluated the effect of 4 weeks of combined resistance-balance training and resistance training alone in a 90° tilted environment on muscle power. Two groups of healthy young subjects performed leg extensions while in a supine position, either on a firm surface along a linear track or on an unstable surface requiring mediolateral balancing movements. Power and force during squats were measured at isokinetic velocities of 10 and 35 deg/s. Results showed significantly greater gains in peak force (44.1%; F(1,21)=8.876, p=0.026), mean force (58.6%; F(1,21)=16.136, p=0.013), peak power (58.7%; F(1,21)=18.754, p=0.009), and mean power (59.2%; F(1,21)=23.114, p=0.007) at the velocity of 35 deg/s after stable than unstable resistance training. However, there were no significant between-groups differences in pre-post training gains in peak force (10.4%; F(1,21)=1.965, p=0.74), mean force (10.3%; F(1,21)=1.889, p=0.80), peak power (12.9%; F(1,21)=2.980, p=0.49), and mean power (19.1%; F(1,21)=3.454, p=0.36) during squats at the velocity of 10 deg/s. Resistance exercises under stable conditions performed in a 90° tilted environment are more effective in the improvement of high velocity muscle power than their use in combination with balance exercises. Such training may be applicable in pre- and in-flight exercise regimens for astronauts and in functional rehabilitation of bed-ridden patients. PMID:26667929

  7. Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

    2014-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  8. Resistin, visfatin and insulin sensitivity in selected phases of annual training cycle of triathletes.

    PubMed

    Sliwicka, Ewa; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, L; Nowak, A; Zieliński, J

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of sport training on carbohydrate metabolic indices and adipokines concentrations in young male triathletes (n=10). Athletes performed the incremental running test in two periods of the training cycle: in the transitory and preparatory phases. In both analyzed terms, physical exercise was reflected by a significant increase in lactate (p≤0.01), insulin (p≤0.01), visfatin concentrations (p≤0.01, p<0.05, respectively) and only during transitory phase in glucose (p≤0.01) and resistin concentrations (p<0.05). Significant inter-period differences were noted in the pre-exercise insulin (p≤0.01) and also in pre- and post-exercise visfatin concentrations (p<0.05). Additionally, the differences (Δ) between post- and pre-exercise values of glucose (p<0.05) and visfatin (p≤0.01) significantly decreased in the preparatory phase comparing to the transitory phase. The inverse correlations between pre-exercise concentrations of visfatin and peak oxygen uptake (p<0.05) in the transitory phase and between post- and pre-exercise differences (Δ) of visfatin and lactate concentrations (p<0.05) in the preparatory phase were noted. During preparatory phase, pre-exercise visfatin concentrations inversely correlated with pre-exercise resistin, insulin and glucose levels (p<0.05). In conclusion, systematic training in elite triathletes modulates basal adipokine concentrations only to a small extent, however, influences on these molecules response on the acute exercise. PMID:22425808

  9. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) power-train system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Johnson, R. A.; Gibson, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    Technical work on the design and component testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) advanced automotive gas turbine is described. Selected component ceramic component design, and procurement were tested. Compressor tests of a modified rotor showed high speed performance improvement over previous rotor designs; efficiency improved by 2.5%, corrected flow by 4.6%, and pressure ratio by 11.6% at 100% speed. The aerodynamic design is completed for both the gasifier and power turbines. Ceramic (silicon carbide) gasifier rotors were spin tested to failure. Improving strengths is indicated by burst speeds and the group of five rotors failed at speeds between 104% and 116% of engine rated speed. The emission results from combustor testing showed NOx levels to be nearly one order of magnitude lower than with previous designs. A one piece ceramic exhaust duct/regenerator seal platform is designed with acceptable low stress levels.

  10. Effects of Instability Versus Traditional Resistance Training on Strength, Power and Velocity in Untrained Men

    PubMed Central

    Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J. Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05) in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%), CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%), 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%), 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%), AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%), AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%), PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%), PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%), AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%), and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%). Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM), power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Key Points Similar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs. Both the stability and instability approaches

  11. Dynamic behaviour of Li batteries in hydrogen fuel cell power trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneri, O.; Migliardini, F.; Capasso, C.; Corbo, P.

    A Li ion polymer battery pack for road vehicles (48 V, 20 Ah) was tested by charging/discharging tests at different current values, in order to evaluate its performance in comparison with a conventional Pb acid battery pack. The comparative analysis was also performed integrating the two storage systems in a hydrogen fuel cell power train for moped applications. The propulsion system comprised a fuel cell generator based on a 2.5 kW polymeric electrolyte membrane (PEM) stack, fuelled with compressed hydrogen, an electric drive of 1.8 kW as nominal power, of the same typology of that installed on commercial electric scooters (brushless electric machine and controlled bidirectional inverter). The power train was characterized making use of a test bench able to simulate the vehicle behaviour and road characteristics on driving cycles with different acceleration/deceleration rates and lengths. The power flows between fuel cell system, electric energy storage system and electric drive during the different cycles were analyzed, evidencing the effect of high battery currents on the vehicle driving range. The use of Li batteries in the fuel cell power train, adopting a range extender configuration, determined a hydrogen consumption lower than the correspondent Pb battery/fuel cell hybrid vehicle, with a major flexibility in the power management.

  12. A Cost-Effective Virtual Environment for Simulating and Training Powered Wheelchairs Manoeuvres.

    PubMed

    Headleand, Christopher J; Day, Thomas; Pop, Serban R; Ritsos, Panagiotis D; John, Nigel W

    2016-01-01

    Control of a powered wheelchair is often not intuitive, making training of new users a challenging and sometimes hazardous task. Collisions, due to a lack of experience can result in injury for the user and other individuals. By conducting training activities in virtual reality (VR), we can potentially improve driving skills whilst avoiding the risks inherent to the real world. However, until recently VR technology has been expensive and limited the commercial feasibility of a general training solution. We describe Wheelchair-Rift, a cost effective prototype simulator that makes use of the Oculus Rift head mounted display and the Leap Motion hand tracking device. It has been assessed for face validity by a panel of experts from a local Posture and Mobility Service. Initial results augur well for our cost-effective training solution. PMID:27046566

  13. Evaluation of training programs and entry-level qualifications for nuclear-power-plant control-room personnel based on the systems approach to training

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P M; Selby, D L; Hanley, M J; Mercer, R T

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes results of research sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to initiate the use of the Systems Approach to Training in the evaluation of training programs and entry level qualifications for nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. Variables (performance shaping factors) of potential importance to personnel selection and training are identified, and research to more rigorously define an operationally useful taxonomy of those variables is recommended. A high-level model of the Systems Approach to Training for use in the nuclear industry, which could serve as a model for NRC evaluation of industry programs, is presented. The model is consistent with current publically stated NRC policy, with the approach being followed by the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations, and with current training technology. Checklists to be used by NRC evaluators to assess training programs for NPP control-room personnel are proposed which are based on this model.

  14. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  15. A Long-Term Model for the Curriculum of Training for an Electric-Power Specialist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venikov, V. A.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term planning for professional training of electric-power specialists in Russia will have to (1) recognize the need for specialists to adapt to unforeseen developments in the field, (2) include new mathematics, physics, and computer technology, and (3) be prepared for changes in methods of production and transformation of energy. (AV)

  16. Effect of Vibration Training on Anaerobic Power and Quardroceps Surface EMG in Long Jumpers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Bin; Luo, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anaerobic power and surface EMG (sEMG) of quardrocep muscle in lower extremities after single vibration training intervention. Methods: 8 excellent male long jumpers voluntarily participated in this study. Four intervention modes were devised, including high frequency high amplitude (HFHA,30Hz,6mm), low frequency low…

  17. A Meta-Analysis of Periodized Versus Nonperiodized Strength and Power Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Matthew R.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively combine and examine the results of studies examining the effectiveness of periodized (PER) compared to nonperiodized (Non-PER) training programs for strength and/or power development. Two analyses were conducted to (a) examine the magnitude of treatment effect elicited by PER strength training…

  18. The Formation of Phase Structure in the Creation of Soliton Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Jason; Luo, De; Hulet, Randall

    2016-05-01

    Matter-wave soliton trains were initially observed following an interaction quench in a condensate of 7Li atoms. The relative phase between neighboring solitons was inferred to differ by π, giving the appearance of a repulsive interaction between them. The process by which this phase structure is formed is unknown. Starting with a condensate of 7Li atoms in the | 1 , 1 > state, we study the initial formation of soliton trains by quenching the magnetic field to rapidly vary the interaction from repulsive to attractive in a quasi-1-D system. We study the dynamics of the system shortly after the quench, using multiple in situ images. We previously used this technique to study soliton-soliton collisions. Work supported by the NSF, an ARO MURI Grant, and the Welch Foundation.

  19. Attenuated increase in maximal force of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle after concurrent peak power and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Regula; Jaspers, Richard T; Baggerman, Hein L; Bravenboer, Nathalie; Lips, Paul; de Haan, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of muscle peak power and oxidative capacity are generally presumed to be mutually exclusive. However, this may not be valid by using fibre type-specific recruitment. Since rat medial gastrocnemius muscle (GM) is composed of high and low oxidative compartments which are recruited task specifically, we hypothesised that the adaptive responses to peak power training were unaffected by additional endurance training. Thirty rats were subjected to either no training (control), peak power training (PT), or both peak power and endurance training (PET), which was performed on a treadmill 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Maximal running velocity increased 13.5% throughout the training and was similar in both training groups. Only after PT, GM maximal force was 10% higher than that of the control group. In the low oxidative compartment, mRNA levels of myostatin and MuRF-1 were higher after PT as compared to those of control and PET groups, respectively. Phospho-S6 ribosomal protein levels remained unchanged, suggesting that the elevated myostatin levels after PT did not inhibit mTOR signalling. In conclusion, even by using task-specific recruitment of the compartmentalized rat GM, additional endurance training interfered with the adaptive response of peak power training and attenuated the increase in maximal force after power training. PMID:23509812

  20. Phase 1 results from the Stirling-powered vehicle project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Technology Utilization (TU) Office is sponsoring a multiyear, multiphase demonstration program to assess the technology developed under the DOE/NASA automotive Stirling engine (ASE) program with engines installed in various Air Force vehicles while being evaluated by independent third parties under realistic conditions. This paper reviews the operational history of Phase 1 with a Mod 1 Stirling engine installed in an Air Force multistop van in a variety of missions. Ten months of operation were with Air Force personnel at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia, where over 1100 hr and 4000 mi were logged on the Langley flight line. The Stirling-powered van operated on unleaded gasoline, JP-4 aircraft fuel, and diesel fuel at Langley Air Force Base. Two months of operation were completed with Deere and Company personnel in the Moline, Illinois area where over 175 hr and 2650 mi were logged on a Deere mail delivery route.

  1. Phased laser array for generating a powerful laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2004-02-17

    A first injection laser signal and a first part of a reference laser beam are injected into a first laser element. At least one additional injection laser signal and at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are injected into at least one additional laser element. The first part of a reference laser beam and the at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are amplified and phase conjugated producing a first amplified output laser beam emanating from the first laser element and an additional amplified output laser beam emanating from the at least one additional laser element. The first amplified output laser beam and the additional amplified output laser beam are combined into a powerful laser beam.

  2. A training method for locomotion mode prediction using powered lower limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Young, Aaron J; Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-05-01

    Recently developed lower-limb prostheses are capable of actuating the knee and ankle joints, allowing amputees to perform advanced locomotion modes such as step-over-step stair ascent and walking on sloped surfaces. However, transitions between these locomotion modes and walking are neither automatic nor seamless. This study describes methods for construction and training of a high-level intent recognition system for a lower-limb prosthesis that provides natural transitions between walking, stair ascent, stair descent, ramp ascent, and ramp descent. Using mechanical sensors onboard a powered prosthesis, we collected steady-state and transition data from six transfemoral amputees while the five locomotion modes were performed. An intent recognition system built using only mechanical sensor data was 84.5% accurate using only steady-state training data. Including training data collected while amputees performed seamless transitions between locomotion modes improved the overall accuracy rate to 93.9%. Training using a single analysis window at heel contact and toe off provided higher recognition accuracy than training with multiple analysis windows. This study demonstrates the capability of an intent recognition system to provide automatic, natural, and seamless transitions between five locomotion modes for transfemoral amputees using powered lower limb prostheses. PMID:24184753

  3. Effectiveness of the Power Dry-Land Training Programmes in Youth Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Jerzy; Mastalerz, Andrzej; Gromisz, Wilhelm; NiŸnikowski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the dry-land power training on swimming force, swimming performance and strength in youth swimmers. Twenty six male swimmers, free from injuries and training regularly at least 6 times a week, were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to one of two groups: experimental (n=14, mean age 14.0 ± 0.5 yrs, mean height 1.67±0.08 m and mean body mass 55.71 ±9.55 kg) and control (n=12, mean age 14.1 ± 0.5 yrs, mean height 1.61±0.11 m and mean body mass 49.07 ±8.25 kg). The experimental group took part in a combined swimming and dry-land power training. The control group took part in swimming training only. The training programmes in water included a dominant aerobic work in front crawl. In this research the experimental group tended to present slightly greater improvements in sprint performance. However, the stroke frequency insignificantly decreased (−4.30%, p>0.05) in the experimental group and increased (6.28%, p>0.05) in the control group. The distance per stroke insignificantly increased in the experimental group (5.98%, p>0.05) and insignificantly decreased in the control group (−5.36%, p>0.05). A significant improvement of tethered swimming force for the experimental group (9.64%, p<0.02) was found, whereas the increase was not statistically significant in the control group (2.86%, p>0.05). The main data cannot clearly state that power training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve swimming performance in tethered swimming was noticed. PMID:23486353

  4. Reducing resistance training volume during Ramadan improves muscle strength and power in football players.

    PubMed

    Rebaï, H; Chtourou, H; Zarrouk, N; Harzallah, A; Kanoun, I; Dogui, M; Souissi, N; Tabka, Z

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of maintaining or reducing resistance training volume during Ramadan-intermittent-fasting (RIF) on short-term maximal performances. 20 footballers (age: 18.4 ± 0.8 years; body-mass: 72.4 ± 4.1 kg; height: 183.4 ± 4.6 cm) were matched and randomly assigned to a normal-training-group (G1) or a tapering-group (G2). They were tested for muscular strength (maximal-voluntary-contraction) and power (squat-jump and counter-movement-jump) 1 month before RIF (T0), 1 week before RIF (T1), after 2 weeks of fasting (T2) and at the end of RIF (T3). From T1 to T2, subjects performed a whole-body resistance training program (8-repetitions × 4-sets with 4-min recovery in-between). During RIF, G1 maintained the same training program, while G2 performed a period of reduced training volume (3 sets/exercise; - 22%). Muscle strength and power increased significantly from T0 to T1, from T0 to T2 and from T0 to T3 in G1 and G2 and from T1 to T2 and from T1 to T3 only in G2 (p<0.05). Performance was higher in G2 than G1 during T2 (p<0.01). Moreover, the ∆-change of performance between T0 and T2 and T3 was significantly higher in G2 than G1 (p<0.05). For young soccer players, a tapering period characterized by a reduced training volume during RIF may lead to significant improvement in muscle strength and power. PMID:24048913

  5. Artificial Intelligence Based Control Power Optimization on Tailless Aircraft. [ARMD Seedling Fund Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank; Vicroy, Dan D.; Mulani, Sameer B.; Chhabra, Rupanshi; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Schetz, Joseph A.; Brown, Derrell; Princen, Norman H.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods of control allocation optimization have shown difficulties in exploiting the full potential of controlling large arrays of control devices on innovative air vehicles. Artificial neutral networks are inspired by biological nervous systems and neurocomputing has successfully been applied to a variety of complex optimization problems. This project investigates the potential of applying neurocomputing to the control allocation optimization problem of Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft concepts to minimize control power, hinge moments, and actuator forces, while keeping system weights within acceptable limits. The main objective of this project is to develop a proof-of-concept process suitable to demonstrate the potential of using neurocomputing for optimizing actuation power for aircraft featuring multiple independently actuated control surfaces. A Nastran aeroservoelastic finite element model is used to generate a learning database of hinge moment and actuation power characteristics for an array of flight conditions and control surface deflections. An artificial neural network incorporating a genetic algorithm then uses this training data to perform control allocation optimization for the investigated aircraft configuration. The phase I project showed that optimization results for the sum of required hinge moments are improved by more than 12% over the best Nastran solution by using the neural network optimization process.

  6. Interaction of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate Free Acid and Adenosine Triphosphate on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Power in Resistance Trained Individuals.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Rathmacher, John A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Shelley, Mack C; Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-07-01

    Lowery, RP, Joy, JM, Rathmacher, JA, Baier, SM, Fuller, JC Jr, Shelley, MC II, Jäger, R, Purpura, M, Wilson, SMC, and Wilson, JM. Interaction of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid and adenosine triphosphate on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1843-1854, 2016-Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation helps maintain performance under high fatiguing contractions and with greater fatigue recovery demands also increase. Current evidence suggests that the free acid form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) acts by speeding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity or prolonged exercise. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 12 weeks of HMB-FA (3 g) and ATP (400 mg) administration on lean body mass (LBM), strength, and power in trained individuals. A 3-phase double-blind, placebo-, and diet-controlled study was conducted. Phases consisted of an 8-week periodized resistance training program (phase 1), followed by a 2-week overreaching cycle (phase 2), and a 2-week taper (phase 3). Lean body mass was increased by a combination of HMB-FA/ATP by 12.7% (p < 0.001). In a similar fashion, strength gains after training were increased in HMB-FA/ATP-supplemented subjects by 23.5% (p < 0.001). Vertical jump and Wingate power were increased in the HMB-FA/ATP-supplemented group compared with the placebo-supplemented group, and the 12-week increases were 21.5 and 23.7%, respectively. During the overreaching cycle, strength and power declined in the placebo group (4.3-5.7%), whereas supplementation with HMB-FA/ATP resulted in continued strength gains (1.3%). In conclusion, HMB-FA and ATP in combination with resistance exercise training enhanced LBM, power, and strength. In addition, HMB-FA plus ATP blunted the typical response to overreaching, resulting in a further increase in strength during that period. It seems that the combination of HMB-FA/ATP could benefit those who

  7. Electrical heating of soils using high efficiency electrode patterns and power phases

    DOEpatents

    Buettner, Harley M.

    1999-01-01

    Powerline-frequency electrical (joule) heating of soils using a high efficiency electrode configuration and power phase arrangement. The electrode configuration consists of several heating or current injection electrodes around the periphery of a volume of soil to be heated, all electrodes being connected to one phase of a multi-phase or a single-phase power system, and a return or extraction electrode or electrodes located inside the volume to be heated being connected to the remaining phases of the multi-phase power system or to the neutral side of the single-phase power source. This electrode configuration and power phase arrangement can be utilized anywhere where powerline frequency soil heating is applicable and thus has many potential uses including removal of volatile organic compounds such as gasoline and tricholorethylene (TCE) from contaminated areas.

  8. Effects of speed, agility, quickness training method on power performance in elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Mario; Sporis, Goran; Omrcen, Darija; Fiorentini, Fredi

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the speed, agility, quickness (SAQ) training method on power performance in soccer players. Soccer players were assigned randomly to 2 groups: experimental group (EG; n = 50) and control group (n = 50). Power performance was assessed by a test of quickness--the 5-m sprint, a test of acceleration--the 10-m sprint, tests of maximal speed--the 20- and the 30-m sprint along with Bosco jump tests--squat jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), maximal CMJ, and continuous jumps performed with legs extended. The initial testing procedure took place at the beginning of the in-season period. The 8-week specific SAQ training program was implemented after which final testing took place. The results of the 2-way analysis of variance indicated that the EG improved significantly (p < 0.05) in 5-m (1.43 vs. 1.39 seconds) and in 10-m (2.15 vs. 2.07 seconds) sprints, and they also improved their jumping performance in countermovement (44.04 vs. 4.48 cm) and continuous jumps (41.08 vs. 41.39 cm) performed with legs extended (p < 0.05). The SAQ training program appears to be an effective way of improving some segments of power performance in young soccer players during the in-season period. Soccer coaches could use this information in the process of planning in-season training. Without proper planning of the SAQ training, soccer players will most likely be confronted with decrease in power performance during in-season period. PMID:21522073

  9. Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Songgang

    2013-05-15

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop and validate an innovative, scalable phase change salt thermal energy storage (TES) system that can interface with Infinia’s family of free-piston Stirling engines (FPSE). This TES technology is also appropriate for Rankine and Brayton power converters. Solar TES systems based on latent heat of fusion rather than molten salt temperature differences, have many advantages that include up to an order of magnitude higher energy storage density, much higher temperature operation, and elimination of pumped loops for most of Infinia’s design options. DOE has funded four different concepts for solar phase change TES, including one other Infinia awarded project using heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the salt. The unique innovation in this project is an integrated TES/pool boiler heat transfer system that is the simplest approach identified to date and arguably has the best potential for minimizing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The Phase 1 objectives are to design, build and test a 1-hour TES proof-of-concept lab demonstrator integrated with an Infinia 3 kW Stirling engine, and to conduct a preliminary design of a 12-hour TES on-sun prototype.

  10. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1986-06-01

    As part of the Component Fragility Research Program, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, BNL is involved in establishing seismic fragility levels for various nuclear power plant equipment by identifying, collecting and analyzing existing test data from various sources. In Phase I of this program, BNL has reviewed approximately seventy test reports to collect fragility or high level test data for switchgears, motor control centers and similar electrical cabinets, valve actuators and numerous electrical devices of various manufacturers and models. This report provides an assessment and evaluation of the data collected in Phase I. The fragility data for medium voltage and low voltage switchgears and motor control centers are analyzed using the test response spectra (TRS) as a measure of the fragility level. The analysis reveals that fragility levels can best be described by a group of TRS curves corresponding to various failure modes. The lower-bound curve indicates the initiation of malfunctioning or structural damage; whereas, the upper-bound curve corresponds to overall failure of the equipment based on known failure modes. High level test data for some components are included in the report. These data indicate that some components are inherently strong and do not exhibit any failure mode even when tested at the vibration limit of a shake table. The common failure modes are identified in the report. The fragility levels determined in this report have been compared with those used in the PRA and Seismic Margin Studies. It appears that the BNL data better correlate with the HCLPF (High Confidence of a Low Probability of Failure) level used in Seismic Margin Studies and can improve this level as high as 60% for certain applications. Specific recommendations are provided for proper application of BNL fragility data to other studies.

  11. Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Unit for Fission Power System, Phase II Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. Gary; Stanley, John

    2016-01-01

    In Phase II, the manufacture and testing of two 6-kW(sub e)Stirling engines was completed. The engines were delivered in an opposed 12-kW(sub e) arrangement with a common expansion space heater head. As described in the Phase I report, the engines were designed to be sealed both hermetically and with a bolted O-ring seal. The completed Phase II convertor is in the bolted configuration to allow future disassembly. By the end of Phase II, the convertor had passed all of the final testing requirements in preparation for delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center. The electronic controller also was fabricated and tested during Phase II. The controller sets both piston amplitudes and maintains the phasing between them. It also sets the operating frequency of the machine. Details of the controller are described in the Phase I final report. Fabrication of the direct-current to direct-current (DC-DC) output stage, which would have stepped down the main controller output voltage from 700 to 120 V(sub DC), was omitted from this phase of the project for budgetary reasons. However, the main controller was successfully built, tested with the engines, and delivered. We experienced very few development issues with this high-power controller. The project extended significantly longer than originally planned because of yearly funding delays. The team also experienced several hardware difficulties along the development path. Most of these were related to the different thermal expansions of adjacent parts constructed of different materials. This issue was made worse by the large size of the machine. Thermal expansion problems also caused difficulties in the brazing of the opposed stainless steel sodium-potassium (NaK) heater head. Despite repeated attempts Sunpower was not able to successfully braze the opposed head under this project. Near the end of the project, Glenn fabricated an opposed Inconel NaK head, which was installed prior to delivery for testing at Glenn. Engine

  12. Influence of power and aerobic exercise training on haemostatic factors after coronary artery surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wosornu, D; Allardyce, W; Ballantyne, D; Tansey, P

    1992-01-01

    Objectives—To determine the effects of aerobic and power exercise training on haemostatic factors after coronary artery surgery and to compare the effect of the two exercise programmes. Design—A prospective randomised controlled study of six months aerobic and power exercise training in men after coronary artery surgery. Setting—Exercise rehabilitation classes in a teaching hospital in Glasgow. Patients—55 men within 12 months of coronary artery surgery recruited from surgical centres and medical clinics and asked to participate in the study. Interventions—Assessments, including a treadmill test, measurements of haemoglobin, platelet, fibrinogen, factor VIIc, and fibrinopeptide A concentrations, and packed cell volume, done at baseline, three months, and six months. Patients in the two exercise groups attended training sessions three times weekly for six months. Control patients had no formal exercise training but continued with their leisure time activities. Main outcome measures—Exercise performance on a treadmill, haematology, and haemostatic factor assays at baseline, three months, and six months. Results—In the aerobic trained group exercise performance increased significantly over baseline at three months (interval change 146·7, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 52·5 to 240·9 s, p = 0·003) and was maintained at six months (interval change 172·1, 95% CI 63·3 to 280·9 s, p = 0·002). In the power trained groups significant improvement in exercise performance was delayed until six months (interval change 99·9 s, 95% CI 20·3 to 170·5 s, p = 0·01). Exercise performance in the control did not change significantly. Haemoglobin, concentration, packed cell volume, and platelet counts did not change significantly at any time. Fibrinogen concentration was significantly lower in the aerobic group than the other two groups at three months (2·96 g/dl compared with 3·3 g/dl and 3·87 g/dl in the power and control groups, p = 0·01). The power group

  13. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals. PMID:26808852

  14. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C.; Gee, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05) were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors. PMID:26859381

  15. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C; Gee, Thomas I

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05) were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors. PMID:26859381

  16. The Effects of Cold Water Immersion after Rugby Training on Muscle Power and Biochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Masaki; Sato, Takashi; Hasegawa, Tatsushi; Shintaku, Hiroto; Kato, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiko; Radak, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    During rugby game, or intensive rugby training there are many high intensity explosive exercises and eccentric muscle contractions, therefore adequate recovery is very important to rugby players. In the present study we have tested the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) after game-simulated (80 min.) rugby training on muscle power recovery and blood markers of muscle damage. Twenty well-trained collegiate male rugby players (age: 20.3 ± 0.6 years old, body height: 1.74 ± 0.05 m, body weight: 85.4 ± 2.0 kg, body fat: 18.2 ± 1.4 %) volunteered for this study. This study was conducted as a cross-over design; i.e., the subjects were randomly assigned either to CWI (n = 10) or passive rest condition (n = 10) for the 1st trial and 1 week later the subjects were switched conditions for the 2nd trial. After the simulated rugby training, including tackles and body contacts, muscle functional ability and blood markers of muscle damage were tested immediately, after CWI or passive rest, and again 24 hours later. Statistical analysis of all muscle functional tests (10 m dash, counter movement jump, reaction time, side steps) except for 10 seconds maximal pedaling power and blood makers of muscle damage (aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and creatinine) revealed significant main effects for time (p < 0.05). However, no statistically significant interactions were found in any of the muscle functional tests and blood markers between groups and time courses. Our results suggest that a rugby game induces muscle damage and reduces muscle function. However, CWI has no significant restorative effect after an 80-minute rugby game in terms of muscle damage. Key Points Cold water immersion study for the recovery of rugby players Muscle strength and muscle power were mainly evaluated as well as muscle enzymes of muscle break down Subjects were highly trained rugby players with control group PMID:25177190

  17. Apros-based Kola 1 nuclear power plant compact training simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Porkholm, K.; Kontio, H.; Nurmilaukas, P.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima Oy`s subsidiary IVO International Ltd (IVO IN) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in co-operation with Kola staff supplies the Kola Nuclear Power Plant in the Murmansk region of Russia with a Compact Training Simulator. The simulator will be used for the training of the plant personnel in managing the plant disturbance and accident situations. By means of the simulator is is also possible to test how the planned plant modifications will affect the plant operation. The simulator delivery is financed by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The delivery is part of the aid program directed to Russia for the improvement of the nuclear power plant safety.

  18. Rule Extracting based on MCG with its Application in Helicopter Power Train Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Hu, N. Q.; Qin, G. J.

    2011-07-01

    In order to extract decision rules for fault diagnosis from incomplete historical test records for knowledge-based damage assessment of helicopter power train structure. A method that can directly extract the optimal generalized decision rules from incomplete information based on GrC was proposed. Based on semantic analysis of unknown attribute value, the granule was extended to handle incomplete information. Maximum characteristic granule (MCG) was defined based on characteristic relation, and MCG was used to construct the resolution function matrix. The optimal general decision rule was introduced, with the basic equivalent forms of propositional logic, the rules were extracted and reduction from incomplete information table. Combined with a fault diagnosis example of power train, the application approach of the method was present, and the validity of this method in knowledge acquisition was proved.

  19. Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 4, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of an overall evaluation of the solar power satellite concept are reported. Specific topics covered include: solid state sandwich configuration; parametric development of reliability design; power distribution system for solid state solar power satellites; multibeam transmission; GEO base system configuration; suppression of the heavy lift launch vehicle trajectory; conceptual design of an offshore space center facility; solar power satellite development and operations scenario; and microwave power transmission technology, advancement, development, and facility requirements.

  20. Power Source Status Estimation and Drive Control Method for Autonomous Decentralized Hybrid Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Takemasa; Ogawa, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    A hybrid control system has two main functions: power sharing and equipment protection. In this paper, we discuss the design, construction and testing of a drive control method for an autonomous decentralized hybrid train with 100-kW-class fuel cells (FC) and 36-kWh lithium-ion batteries (Li-Batt). The main objectives of this study are to identify the operation status of the power sources on the basis of the input voltage of the traction inverter and to estimate the maximum traction power control basis of the power-source status. The proposed control method is useful in preventing overload operation of the onboard power sources in an autonomous decentralized hybrid system that has a flexible main circuit configuration and a few control signal lines. Further, with this method, the initial cost of a hybrid system can be reduced and the retrofit design of the hybrid system can be simplified. The effectiveness of the proposed method is experimentally confirmed by using a real-scale hybrid train system.

  1. Experimental study of a fuel cell power train for road transport application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbo, P.; Corcione, F. E.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    The development of fuel cell electric vehicles requires the on-board integration of fuel cell systems and electric energy storage devices, with an appropriate energy management system. The optimization of performance and efficiency needs an experimental analysis of the power train, which has to be effected in both stationary and transient conditions (including standard driving cycles). In this paper experimental results concerning the performance of a fuel cell power train are reported and discussed. In particular characterization results for a small sized fuel cell system (FCS), based on a 2.5 kW PEM stack, alone and coupled to an electric propulsion chain of 3.7 kW are presented and discussed. The control unit of the FCS allowed the main stack operative parameters (stoichiometric ratio, hydrogen and air pressure, temperature) to be varied and regulated in order to obtain optimized polarization and efficiency curves. Experimental runs effected on the power train during standard driving cycles have allowed the performance and efficiency of the individual components (fuel cell stack and auxiliaries, dc-dc converter, traction batteries, electric engine) to be evaluated, evidencing the role of output current and voltage of the dc-dc converter in directing the energy flows within the propulsion system.

  2. Influence of the cubic spectral phase of high-power laser pulses on their self-phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, V. N.; Kochetkov, A. A.; Yakovlev, I. V.; Mironov, S. Yu; Shaykin, A. A.; Khazanov, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    Spectral broadening of high-power transform-limited laser pulses under self-phase modulation in a medium with cubic nonlinearity is widely used to reduce pulse duration and to increase its power. It is shown that the cubic spectral phase of the initial pulse leads to a qualitatively different broadening of its spectrum: the spectrum has narrow peaks and broadening decreases. However, the use of chirped mirrors allows such pulses to be as effectively compressed as transform-limited pulses.

  3. Generation of femtosecond bunch trains using a longitudinal-to-transverse phase space exchange technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yin-e; Piot, Philippe; /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U.

    2008-10-01

    We demonstrate analytically and via numerical simulations, how a longitudinal-to-transverse phase space manipulation can be used to produce a train of femtosecond electron bunches. The technique uses an incoming transversely-modulated electron beam obtained via destructive (e.g. using a multislits mask) methods. A transverse-to-longitudinal exchanger is used to map this transverse modulation into a temporal modulation. Limitation of the proposed method and scalability to the femtosecond regime are analyzed analytically and with the help of numerical simulation. Finally, a proof-of-principle experiment is discussed in the context of the Fermilab's A0 photoinjector.

  4. Acute negative effect of a hypertrophy-oriented training bout on subsequent upper-body power output.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    Athletes regularly combine maximal strength, power, and hypertrophy-oriented training within the same workout. Traditionally, it has been suggested that power-oriented exercises precede strength and hypertrophy-oriented training within a workout to avoid the possible negative effects that the latter types of training may have on power output. However, with regard to upper-body training, little study has been performed to verify this commonly held belief. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent, if any, of a high-repetition, short-rest-period, hypertrophy-oriented training dose on upper-body power output. Twenty-seven college-aged rugby league players were tested for average power output during bench press throws with a resistance of 40 kg (BT P40). The experimental group (Hyp, n = 15) then performed a typical hypertrophy-oriented work bout (3 x 10 at 65% 1 repetition maximum bench press, 1RM BP) before being retested for power output with the same resistance. In comparison with the control group (Con, n = 12), whose power output remained unchanged between the pre- and posttest periods, the Hyp group experienced a large, significant decrease in BT P40 power output. Even after further passive rest of 7 minutes, power output remained suppressed from the pretest values. Furthermore, the strongest 5 subjects experienced significantly larger percentage declines in power output than did the 5 less strong subjects. This study shows that a high-repetition, short-rest-period training can acutely decrease power output. Coaches should plan the order of exercises carefully when combining power and hypertrophy training. PMID:12930181

  5. SPS pilot signal design and power transponder analysis, volume 2, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Scholtz, R. A.; Chie, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of pilot signal parameter optimization and the related problem of power transponder performance analysis for the Solar Power Satellite reference phase control system are addressed. Signal and interference models were established to enable specifications of the front end filters including both the notch filter and the antenna frequency response. A simulation program package was developed to be included in SOLARSIM to perform tradeoffs of system parameters based on minimizing the phase error for the pilot phase extraction. An analytical model that characterizes the overall power transponder operation was developed. From this model, the effects of different phase noise disturbance sources that contribute to phase variations at the output of the power transponders were studied and quantified. Results indicate that it is feasible to hold the antenna array phase error to less than one degree per power module for the type of disturbances modeled.

  6. Optimal sliding guidance algorithm for Mars powered descent phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibben, Daniel R.; Furfaro, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Landing on large planetary bodies (e.g. Mars) with pinpoint accuracy presents a set of new challenges that must be addressed. One such challenge is the development of new guidance algorithms that exhibit a higher degree of robustness and flexibility. In this paper, the Zero-Effort-Miss/Zero-Effort-Velocity (ZEM/ZEV) optimal sliding guidance (OSG) scheme is applied to the Mars powered descent phase. This guidance algorithm has been specifically designed to combine techniques from both optimal and sliding control theories to generate an acceleration command based purely on the current estimated spacecraft state and desired final target state. Consequently, OSG yields closed-loop trajectories that do not need a reference trajectory. The guidance algorithm has its roots in the generalized ZEM/ZEV feedback guidance and its mathematical equations are naturally derived by defining a non-linear sliding surface as a function of the terms Zero-Effort-Miss and Zero-Effort-Velocity. With the addition of the sliding mode and using Lyapunov theory for non-autonomous systems, one can formally prove that the developed OSG law is globally finite-time stable to unknown but bounded perturbations. Here, the focus is on comparing the generalized ZEM/ZEV feedback guidance with the OSG law to explicitly demonstrate the benefits of the sliding mode augmentation. Results show that the sliding guidance provides a more robust solution in off-nominal scenarios while providing similar fuel consumption when compared to the non-sliding guidance command. Further, a Monte Carlo analysis is performed to examine the performance of the OSG law under perturbed conditions.

  7. Sideband separation experiments in NMR with phase incremented echo train acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walder, Brennan J.; Dey, Krishna K.; Kaseman, Derrick C.; Baltisberger, Jay H.; Grandinetti, Philip J.

    2013-05-01

    A general approach for enhancing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance sideband separation experiments, such as Two-Dimensional One Pulse (TOP), Magic-Angle Turning (MAT), and Phase Adjust Spinning Sidebands (PASS) experiments, with phase incremented echo-train acquisition (PIETA) is described. This approach is applicable whenever strong inhomogeneous broadenings dominate the unmodulated frequency resonances, such as in non-crystalline solids or in samples with large residual frequency anisotropy. PIETA provides significant sensitivity enhancements while also eliminating spectral artifacts would normally be present with Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill acquisition. Additionally, an intuitive approach is presented for designing and processing echo train acquisition magnetic resonance experiments on rotating samples. Affine transformations are used to relate the two-dimensional signals acquired in TOP, MAT, and PASS experiments to a common coordinate system. Depending on sequence design and acquisition conditions two significant artifacts can arise from truncated acquisition time and discontinuous damping in the T2 decay. Here we show that the former artifact can always be eliminated through selection of a suitable affine transformation, and give the conditions in which the latter can be minimized or removed entirely.

  8. Low power low phase noise phase locked loop frequency synthesizer with fast locking mode for 2.4 GHz applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Feng, Peng; Liu, Liyuan; Wu, Nanjian

    2014-01-01

    We designed a low power low phase noise phase locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer for 2.4 GHz wireless communication applications. Current reusing technique and triple-well NMOS transistors are applied to reduce power consumption and improve phase noise performance of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), respectively. The synthesizer has a fast locking mode that uses frequency presetting technique to greatly shorten the locking time. The synthesizer was implemented in 0.18 µm CMOS process. The chip core area is 1.49 mm2. Measured results show that the output frequency tuning range is 2.16-2.55 GHz. The phase noise is -124.18 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz from a 2.4 GHz carrier. The power consumption is 4.98 mW and the locking time in fast locking mode is about 4 µs.

  9. A preliminary study of solar powdered aircraft and associated power trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. W.; Fortenbach, C. D.; Dimiceli, E. V.; Parks, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of regeneratively powered solar high altitude powered platform (HAPP) remotely piloted vehicles was assessed. Those technologies which must be pursued to make long duration solar HAPPs feasible are recommended. A methodology which involved characterization and parametric analysis of roughly two dozen variables to determine vehicles capable of fulfilling the primary mission are defined. One of these vehicles was then conceptually designed. Variations of each major design parameter were investigated along with state-of-the-art changes in power train component capabilities. The midlatitude mission studied would be attainable by a solar HAPP if fuel cell, electrolyzer and photovoltaic technologies are pursued. Vehicles will be very large and have very lightweight structures in order to attain the combinations of altitude and duration required by the primary mission.

  10. Concurrent neuromechanical and functional gains following upper-extremity power training post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitive task practice is argued to drive neural plasticity following stroke. However, current evidence reveals that hemiparetic weakness impairs the capacity to perform, and practice, movements appropriately. Here we investigated how power training (i.e., high-intensity, dynamic resistance training) affects recovery of upper-extremity motor function post-stroke. We hypothesized that power training, as a component of upper-extremity rehabilitation, would promote greater functional gains than functional task practice without deleterious consequences. Method Nineteen chronic hemiparetic individuals were studied using a crossover design. All participants received both functional task practice (FTP) and HYBRID (combined FTP and power training) in random order. Blinded evaluations performed at baseline, following each intervention block and 6-months post-intervention included: Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT-FAS, Primary Outcome), upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, Ashworth Scale, and Functional Independence Measure. Neuromechanical function was evaluated using isometric and dynamic joint torques and concurrent agonist EMG. Biceps stretch reflex responses were evaluated using passive elbow stretches ranging from 60 to 180º/s and determining: EMG onset position threshold, burst duration, burst intensity and passive torque at each speed. Results Primary outcome: Improvements in WMFT-FAS were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .049), regardless of treatment order. These functional improvements were retained 6-months post-intervention (p = .03). Secondary outcomes: A greater proportion of participants achieved minimally important differences (MID) following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .03). MIDs were retained 6-months post-intervention. Ashworth scores were unchanged (p > .05). Increased maximal isometric joint torque, agonist EMG and peak power were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p < .05) and effects were

  11. The effect of two plyometric training techniques on muscular power and agility in youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin; French, Duncan; Hayes, Philip R

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two plyometric training techniques on power and agility in youth soccer players. Twelve males from a semiprofessional football club's academy (age = 17.3 +/- 0.4 years, stature = 177.9 +/- 5.1 cm, mass = 68.7 +/- 5.6 kg) were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of depth jump (DJ) or countermovement jump (CMJ) training twice weekly. Participants in the DJ group performed drop jumps with instructions to minimize ground-contact time while maximizing height. Participants in the CMJ group performed jumps from a standing start position with instructions to gain maximum jump height. Posttraining, both groups experienced improvements in vertical jump height (p < 0.05) and agility time (p < 0.05) and no change in sprint performance (p > 0.05). There were no differences between the treatment groups (p > 0.05). The study concludes that both DJ and CMJ plyometrics are worthwhile training activities for improving power and agility in youth soccer players. PMID:19002073

  12. 76 FR 27366 - Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plants #1 And #2, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on April 22, 2011 (76 FR 22731). The notice was amended on..., 2011 (76 FR 22729). At the request of a company official, the Department reviewed the certification for... Employment and Training Administration Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plants...

  13. Advanced virtual energy simulation training and research: IGCC with CO2 capture power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.; Liese, E.; Mahapatra, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Provost, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this presentation, we highlight the deployment of a real-time dynamic simulator of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture at the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTARTM) Center. The Center was established as part of the DOE's accelerating initiative to advance new clean coal technology for power generation. IGCC systems are an attractive technology option, generating low-cost electricity by converting coal and/or other fuels into a clean synthesis gas mixture in a process that is efficient and environmentally superior to conventional power plants. The IGCC dynamic simulator builds on, and reaches beyond, conventional power plant simulators to merge, for the first time, a 'gasification with CO{sub 2} capture' process simulator with a 'combined-cycle' power simulator. Fueled with coal, petroleum coke, and/or biomass, the gasification island of the simulated IGCC plant consists of two oxygen-blown, downward-fired, entrained-flow, slagging gasifiers with radiant syngas coolers and two-stage sour shift reactors, followed by a dual-stage acid gas removal process for CO{sub 2} capture. The combined cycle island consists of two F-class gas turbines, steam turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator with three-pressure levels. The dynamic simulator can be used for normal base-load operation, as well as plant start-up and shut down. The real-time dynamic simulator also responds satisfactorily to process disturbances, feedstock blending and switchovers, fluctuations in ambient conditions, and power demand load shedding. In addition, the full-scope simulator handles a wide range of abnormal situations, including equipment malfunctions and failures, together with changes initiated through actions from plant field operators. By providing a comprehensive IGCC operator training system, the AVESTAR Center is poised to develop a

  14. Influence of length-restricted strength training on athlete's power-load curves of knee extensors and flexors.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Kleinöder, Heinz; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated whether different length-restricted strength training regimens affect voluntary explosive concentric power-load curves of the quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstring (HAM) muscles. Thirty-two athletes were divided into 3 different training groups (G1-G3): G1 performed isometric training at knee joint angles corresponding to long muscle-tendon unit (MTU) length for QF and HAM; G2 conducted concentric-eccentric contraction cycles that were restricted to a knee joint range of motion corresponding to predominantly long MTU length for QF and HAM; and G3 combined the protocols of G1 and G2. Knee joint angle-dependent power-load curves during maximal voluntary explosive concentric knee extensions and flexions were measured for loads corresponding to 40, 60, and 80% of individual 1 repetition maximum at 5 different occasions: 2 times before, after 5 and 8 weeks of training, and 4 weeks post training. Power values of each subject were normalized to the largest value produced at any knee joint position (percent maximum). Obtained by curve fitting, the optimal knee joint angle for power production of QF and HAM remained unaltered throughout the course of the study for all testing loads and training groups. Therefore, different strength training regimens with a common restriction to long MTU lengths failed to induce length-dependent alterations in athlete's voluntary concentric power-load curves of knee extensors and flexors. The approach to develop strength training programs that induce systematic shifts in length-dependent power production of QF and HAM is of direct practical relevance for athletic activities such as cycling, ice skating, and skiing. However, restricting the muscle excursion range during loading seems to be an inappropriate trigger to cause length-dependent alterations in athlete's voluntary concentric power-load curves. PMID:20145573

  15. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Frost, DM, Bronson, S, Cronin, JB, and Newton, RU. Changes in maximal strength, velocity, and power after 8 weeks of training with pneumatic or free weight resistance. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 934-944, 2016-Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands. PMID:26418368

  16. Preliminary training of a self-pumped loop phase-conjugate mirror based on a photorefractive crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Mogaddam, Mehran Wahdani; Shuvalov, Vladimir V

    2006-03-31

    It is shown by the example of a loop self-pumped phase-conjugate (SPPC) mirror based on a photorefractive crystal (PRC) BaTiO{sub 3} that formation of a phase-conjugate (PC) wave in a SPPC mirror can be considerably accelerated by using a preliminary training of the mirror. For this purpose, it is necessary to direct preliminary an auxiliary (training) optical field on the SPPC mirror, which contains some information on the properties of the input signal whose wave front will be conjugated later. This procedure provides the writing of static refractive-index gratings in the PRC already at the training stage. The presence of these gratings ensures a much more rapid (by 6-20 times) production of volume refractive-index gratings required for the efficient conjugation of the signal radiation. Several variants of static and dynamic SPPC mirror training procedures are simulated and their efficiencies are compared. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  17. Manifestations of power and control: training as the catalyst for scandal at the United States Air Force Academy.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Jamie L

    2009-10-01

    This article explores the role of training practices at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) in perpetuating power and control issues and the potential consequences of those practices. This article also includes an overview of the training practices at the USAFA, issues of power and control manifested in the training process, and gendered reactions to the loss of personal control experienced during the initial socialization training.The author argues that cadet responses to control deprivation may have resulted in the (alleged) sexual assaults by male cadets and the eating disorders manifested by female cadets, both of which ultimately represent violence against women. The article concludes with implications for research and practice, including a call for recognizing the strategic role of training in forming organizational culture. PMID:19710298

  18. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply: Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-17

    The Phase 2 program objectives are to (1) demonstrate concept feasibility, (2) develop a preliminary design, and (3) complete Phase 3 engineering development and ground test plans. The approach to accomplish these objectives is to prove technical feasibility of our baseline design early in the program while maintaining flexibility to easily respond to changing requirements and advances in technology. This approach recognizes that technology is advancing rapidly while the operational phase MSNPS is 15 to 20 years in the future. This plan further recognizes that the weapons platform and Advanced Launch System (ALS) are in very early program definition stages; consequently, their requirements, interfaces, and technological basis will evolve. This document outlines the Phase 2 plan along with task scheduling of the various program aspects.

  19. FC vehicle hybridisation: an affordable solution for an energy-efficient FC powered drive train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pede, G.; Iacobazzi, A.; Passerini, S.; Bobbio, A.; Botto, G.

    Fuel cells (FCs) have potential as clean and efficient energy sources for automotive applications without sacrifice in performance or driving range. However, the complete FC system must operate as efficiently as possible over the range of driving conditions that may be encountered while maintaining a low cost. To achieve this target, a storage unit can be introduced in the FC system to reduce the size of the fuel cell that is the most expensive component. This "hybrid" concept would not only reduce the drive train total cost but it also allow the recover of the braking energy and the operation at the voltage-current point of maximum efficiency for the FC system. Pro-and-cons of the "full-power" versus the "hybrid" configuration are shown in this work. The "Hybridisation rate" or "Hybridisation degree", a parameter expressed by the relationship between two installed powers, the generation power and the traction power, is also introduced and it is demonstrated that for each category of hybrid vehicles there is an optimal value of hybridisation degree. The storage systems considered are based on high power batteries or ultra capacitors (UCs) or a combination of them. A preliminary design of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) using a combined storage system and a FC energy source (called Triple Hybrid), is proposed. Finally, the experience of the Italian industry in this field is also reviewed.

  20. Space shuttle auxiliary power unit study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binsley, R. L.; Krause, A. A.; Maddox, R. D.; Marcy, R. D.; Siegler, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    A study was performed to establish the preliminary design of the space shuttle auxiliary power unit. Details of the analysis, optimizations, and design of the components, subsystems and systems are presented.

  1. Satisfying winter peak-power demand with phased gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.H.; Moss, T.E.; Ravikumar, R.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study, commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration, was to investigate application of this concept to the Pacific Northwest. Coal gasification combined-cycle (GCC) plants are receiving serious attention from eastern utilities. Potomac Electric (PEPCO) has engaged Fluor Technology to perform conceptual and preliminary engineering for a nominal 375-MW coal GCC power generation facility to be located in northern Montgomery County, Maryland. Other eastern utilities are engaged in site-specific investigations of satisfying future power requirements employing this alternative, which involves an environmentally superior method of using coal. Coal is combined with oxygen to produce a medium-heating-value fuel gas as an alternative to natural gas. The fuel gas, cleaned to remove sulfur compounds, is burned in gas turbine-generator sets. The hot exhaust gas is used to generate steam for additional power generation. The gasification combined cycle plant is highly efficient and has a high level of flexibility to meet power demands. This study provided background for consideration of one alternative for satisfying winter peak-load demand. The concept is feasible, depending on the timing of the installation of the gasification system, projections of the cost and the availability of natural gas, and restrictions on the use of natural gas. It has the advantage of deferring capacity addition and capital outlay until power is needed and economics are favorable.

  2. Dynamic Comparison of Three- and Four-Equation Reactor Core Models in a Full-Scope Power Plant Training Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Nunez-Carrera, Alejandro; Garcia-Gutierrez, Alfonso; Martinez-Mendez, Elizabeth Jeannette

    2004-02-15

    A comparative analysis of the dynamic behavior of a boiling water reactor in a full-scope power plant simulator for operator training is presented. Three- and four-equation reactor core models were used to examine three transients following tests described in acceptance test procedures: scram, loss of feedwater flow, and closure of main isolation valves. The three-equation model consists of water and steam mixture momentum, including mass and energy balances. The four-equation model is based on liquid and gas phase mass balances, together with a drift-flux approach for the analysis of phase separation. Analysis of the models showed that the scram transient was slightly different for three- and four-equation models. The drift-flux effects can explain such differences. Regarding the loss-of-feedwater transient, the predicted steam flow after scram is larger for the three-equation model. Finally, for the transient related to the closure of main steam isolation valves, the three-equation model provides slightly different results for the pressure change, which affects reactor level behavior.

  3. A flexible Mth power carrier phase estimation algorithm for coherent optical receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yulong

    2016-05-01

    Although Mth power carrier phase estimation (PE) algorithm has been investigated intensively in coherent optical phase-shift-keying (PSK) system, block length effect impacts system performance and increases hardware complexity. In this paper, a flexible Mth power carrier PE algorithm is proposed to remove the effect of block length on system performance. We take into account the time-varying phase noise, instead of the assumption of constant phase noise over the entire observation interval. The weighted factors obtained from maximum likelihood method are introduced to eliminate the block length effect. Furthermore, we derive the analytical expression of phase error variance for the performance prediction of coherent receiver with the flexible Mth power. Bit error ratio (BER) performance of coherent receiver is evaluated and compared through both theoretical derivation and Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that by using the flexible Mth power algorithm, signal noise ratio (SNR) improvement over conventional Mth power algorithm with fixed block length of 20 and 40 at BER of 10-5 is 0.47 dB and 2.18 dB, when the linewidth per laser is 2 MHz. By employing our flexible Mth power algorithm, SNR improvement over conventional Mth power algorithm with optimum block length will be larger as increasing laser linewidth . It means our flexible Mth algorithm is more effective for mitigating phase noise than the conventional Mth power algorithm.

  4. Temporal Aspects of the V[o.sub.2] Response at the Power Output Associated with V[o.sub.2]peak in Well Trained Cyclists-Implications for Interval Training Prescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Paul B.; Shing, Cecilia M.; Jenkins, David G.

    2004-01-01

    The power output achieved at peak oxygen consumption (V[O.sub.2]peak) and the time this power can be maintained (i.e., Tmax) have been used in prescribing high-intensity interval training. In this context, the present study examined temporal aspects of the V[O.sub.2] response to exercise at the cycling power that output well trained cyclists…

  5. Power Electronic Transformer based Three-Phase PWM AC Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Kaushik

    A Transformer is used to provide galvanic isolation and to connect systems at different voltage levels. It is one of the largest and most expensive component in most of the high voltage and high power systems. Its size is inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The central idea behind a power electronic transformer (PET) also known as solid state transformer is to reduce the size of the transformer by increasing the frequency. Power electronic converters are used to change the frequency of operation. Steady reduction in the cost of the semiconductor switches and the advent of advanced magnetic materials with very low loss density and high saturation flux density implies economic viability and feasibility of a design with high power density. Application of PET is in generation of power from renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar. Other important application include grid tied inverters, UPS e.t.c. In this thesis non-resonant, single stage, bi-directional PET is considered. The main objective of this converter is to generate adjustable speed and magnitude pulse width modulated (PWM) ac waveforms from an ac or dc grid with a high frequency ac link. The windings of a high frequency transformer contains leakage inductance. Any switching transition of the power electronic converter connecting the inductive load and the transformer requires commutation of leakage energy. Commutation by passive means results in power loss, decrease in the frequency of operation, distortion in the output voltage waveform, reduction in reliability and power density. In this work a source based partially loss-less commutation of leakage energy has been proposed. This technique also results in partial soft-switching. A series of converters with novel PWM strategies have been proposed to minimize the frequency of leakage inductance commutation. These PETs achieve most of the important features of modern PWM ac drives including 1) Input power factor correction, 2) Common

  6. Coax-to-channelised coplanar waveguide in-phase N-way, radial power divider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, R. N.; Ponchak, G. E.

    1990-01-01

    A novel nonplanar, wideband power divider which makes use of a coax-to-CCPW transition is demonstrated. The transition utilizes a coaxial transformer whose outer conductor is slotted along the length for RF power division and also for exciting the CCPWs in equal amplitude and phase at the radial junction. The measured (8-16 GHz) excess insertion loss at the output ports is 0.5 dB for a four-way divider. The amplitude and phase balance are within 0.5 dB and 5 deg, respectively. The power divider should find applications in the feed network of phased arrays.

  7. A novel technique for electronic phasing of high power fiber amplifier arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, T. M.; Baker, J. T.; Sanchez, Anthony D.; Robin, C. A.; Vergien, C. L.; Zeringue, C.; Gallant, D.; Lu, Chunte A.; Pulford, Benjamin; Bronder, T. J.; Lucero, Arthur

    2009-06-01

    We report high power phase locked fiber amplifier array using the Self-Synchronous Locking of Optical Coherence by Single-detector Electronic-frequency Tagging technique. We report the first experimental results for a five element amplifier array with a total locked power of more than 725-W. We will report on experimental measurements of the phase fluctuations versus time when the control loop is closed. The rms phase error was measured to be λ/60. Recent results will be reported. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the highest fiber laser power to be coherently combined.

  8. Enhanced power quality based single phase photovoltaic distributed generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Aurobinda; Pathak, M. K.; Srivastava, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents a novel control strategy for a 1-ϕ 2-level grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) inverter to enhance the power quality (PQ) of a PV distributed generation (PVDG) system. The objective is to obtain the maximum benefits from the grid-tie PV inverter by introducing current harmonics as well as reactive power compensation schemes in its control strategy, thereby controlling the PV inverter to achieve multiple functions in the PVDG system such as: (1) active power flow control between the PV inverter and the grid, (2) reactive power compensation, and (3) grid current harmonics compensation. A PQ enhancement controller (PQEC) has been designed to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The issue of underutilisation of the PV inverter in nighttime has also been addressed in this article and for the optimal use of the system; the PV inverter is used as a shunt active power filter in nighttime. A prototype model of the proposed system is developed in the laboratory, to validate the effectiveness of the control scheme, and is tested with the help of the dSPACE DS1104 platform.

  9. Performance test results for the Eaton dc development power train in an electric test bed vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumley, R. L.; Donaldson, M. R.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of the tests performed on a direct current (dc) power train in a test bed vehicle developed by the Eaton Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The tests were performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the INEL testing was to provide test results from which an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the Eaton dc power train could be made and compared with other vehicle propulsion systems. The planned tests were primarily oriented toward road testing, chassis dynamometer testing, and associated dynamometer coastdown tests for road loss determination. Range tests of the Eaton dc test bed vehicle using an ALCO 2200 lead acid battery pack, produced ranges of 97 km at 56 km/h (60 miles at 35 mph), 79 km at 72 km/h (49 miles at 45 mph), and 47 km at 88 km/h (29 miles at 55 mph). The corresponding net dc energy consumptions are 135 Wh/km (217 Wh/mile), 145 Wh/km (233 Wh/mile), and 178 Wh/km (287 Wh/mile). The energy consumption for the D-cycle test was 241 Wh/km (387 Wh/mile).

  10. Power Systems Development Facility: Performance and development of components in the transport reactor train

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, C.A.; Vimalchand, P.; Leonard, R.F.

    1998-12-31

    The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) will develop and demonstrate advanced power generation technologies and system components needed to improve process reliability. This paper will provide an introduction to the PSDF and discuss in detail the operation and performance of the M.W. Kellogg Company`s (MWK) Transport reactor train system components. There will also be brief discussions on the operation and performance of the Transport reactor and the Particulate Collection Device (PCD). Discussions will focus on the major operational challenges faced during the commissioning and operation of various components and the significant equipment modifications that were made to improve the reliability and performance. These include: modifications to the pulverizers, corrective actions taken to the transport air and recycle gas systems, improvements to the process gas analysis system, and changes to the steam generation package. Also included are operational findings of the particle disengagement and collection system, experiences with solids handling systems, and continued development of the reactor`s startup burner, pressure letdown valve, process air systems and impacts of corrosion downstream of the PCD. Much can be inferred from the experiences gained at the PSDF as to the impact each component or system had on the successful operation of the MWK Transport reactor train and similar technologies in the future.

  11. Free-space microwave power transmission study, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the technology of free-space power transmission by microwave beam are presented. A description of the steps that were taken to increase the overall dc to dc efficiency of microwave power transmission from 15 percent to over 50 percent is given. Included in this overall efficiency were the efficiencies of the dc to microwave conversion, the microwave transmission itself, and the microwave to dc conversion. Improvements in launching the microwave beam with high efficiency by means of a dual mode horn resulted in 95 percent of the output of the microwave generator reaching the receiving area. Emphasis was placed upon successive improvements in reception and rectification of the microwave power, resulting in the design of a rectenna device for this purpose whose efficiency was 75 percent. The procedures and the hardware developed were the basis for tests certified by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which an overall dc to dc efficiency of 54 percent was achieved.

  12. The effects of incline and level-grade high-intensity interval treadmill training on running economy and muscle power in well-trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Ferley, Derek D; Osborn, Roy W; Vukovich, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Despite a paucity of evidence, uphill running has been touted as a sport-specific resistance-to-movement training tactic capable of enhancing metabolic, muscular, and neuromuscular processes in distance runners in ways similar to previously established resistance-to-movement training methods, such as heavy and/or explosive strength training and plyometric training. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included documenting the effects of incline and level-grade interval treadmill training on indices of running economy (RE) (i.e., oxygen consumption [VO2] and blood lactate [BLa] responses of submaximal running) and muscle power. Thirty-two well-trained distance runners (age, 27.4 ± 3.8 years; body mass, 64.8 ± 8.9 kg; height, 173.6 ± 6.4 cm; and VO2max, 60.9 ± 8.5 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) received assignment to an uphill (GHill = 12), level-grade (GFlat = 12), or control (GCon = 8) group. GHill and GFlat completed 12 interval and 12 continuous run sessions over 6 weeks, whereas GCon maintained their normal training. Dependent variables measured before and after training were VO2 and BLa at 2 separate velocities associated with lactate threshold (VLT) (VO2-60% and VO2-80%; and BLa-60% and BLa-80%, respectively); percentage of VO2max at lactate threshold (%VO2max at VLT); muscle power as assessed through a horizontal 5-jump test (5Jmax); and isokinetic knee extension and flexion at 3 angular velocities (90, 180, and 300°·s(-1)). Statistical significance was set to p ≤ 0.05. All groups significantly improved 5Jmax, VO2-60%, VO2-80%, BLa-60%, and BLa-80%. Additionally, GHill and GFlat significantly improved %VO2max at VLT. Other indices of RE and muscle power did not improve. We conclude incline treadmill training effective for improving the components of RE, but insufficient as a resistance-to-movement exercise for enhancing muscle power output. PMID:24172721

  13. Training Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Ambulate Using a Powered Exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Asselin, Pierre K.; Avedissian, Manuel; Knezevic, Steven; Kornfeld, Stephen; Spungen, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Powered exoskeletons have become available for overground ambulation in persons with paralyses due to spinal cord injury (SCI) who have intact upper extremity function and are able to maintain upright balance using forearm crutches. To ambulate in an exoskeleton, the user must acquire the ability to maintain balance while standing, sitting and appropriate weight shifting with each step. This can be a challenging task for those with deficits in sensation and proprioception in their lower extremities. This manuscript describes screening criteria and a training program developed at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY to teach users the skills needed to utilize these devices in institutional, home or community environments. Before training can begin, potential users are screened for appropriate range of motion of the hip, knee and ankle joints. Persons with SCI are at an increased risk of sustaining lower extremity fractures, even with minimal strain or trauma, therefore a bone mineral density assessment is performed to reduce the risk of fracture. Also, as part of screening, a physical examination is performed in order to identify additional health-related contraindications. Once the person has successfully passed all screening requirements, they are cleared to begin the training program. The device is properly adjusted to fit the user. A series of static and dynamic balance tasks are taught and performed by the user before learning to walk. The person is taught to ambulate in various environments ranging from indoor level surfaces to outdoors over uneven or changing surfaces. Once skilled enough to be a candidate for home use with the exoskeleton, the user is then required to designate a companion-walker who will train alongside them. Together, the pair must demonstrate the ability to perform various advanced tasks in order to be permitted to use the exoskeleton in their home/community environment. PMID:27340808

  14. Training Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Ambulate Using a Powered Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Asselin, Pierre K; Avedissian, Manuel; Knezevic, Steven; Kornfeld, Stephen; Spungen, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Powered exoskeletons have become available for overground ambulation in persons with paralyses due to spinal cord injury (SCI) who have intact upper extremity function and are able to maintain upright balance using forearm crutches. To ambulate in an exoskeleton, the user must acquire the ability to maintain balance while standing, sitting and appropriate weight shifting with each step. This can be a challenging task for those with deficits in sensation and proprioception in their lower extremities. This manuscript describes screening criteria and a training program developed at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY to teach users the skills needed to utilize these devices in institutional, home or community environments. Before training can begin, potential users are screened for appropriate range of motion of the hip, knee and ankle joints. Persons with SCI are at an increased risk of sustaining lower extremity fractures, even with minimal strain or trauma, therefore a bone mineral density assessment is performed to reduce the risk of fracture. Also, as part of screening, a physical examination is performed in order to identify additional health-related contraindications. Once the person has successfully passed all screening requirements, they are cleared to begin the training program. The device is properly adjusted to fit the user. A series of static and dynamic balance tasks are taught and performed by the user before learning to walk. The person is taught to ambulate in various environments ranging from indoor level surfaces to outdoors over uneven or changing surfaces. Once skilled enough to be a candidate for home use with the exoskeleton, the user is then required to designate a companion-walker who will train alongside them. Together, the pair must demonstrate the ability to perform various advanced tasks in order to be permitted to use the exoskeleton in their home/community environment. PMID:27340808

  15. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Che-Li; Wei, Li; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chin-Hsung

    2016-01-01

    Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and uric acid (UA) were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training. PMID:26907336

  16. The effect of ephedra and caffeine on maximal strength and power in resistance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew D; Cribb, Paul J; Cooke, Matthew B; Hayes, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and ephedrine-related alkaloids recently have been removed from International Olympic Committee banned substances lists, whereas ephedrine itself is now permissible at urinary concentrations less than 10 mug.mL. The changes to the list may contribute to an increased use of caffeine and ephedra as ergogenic aids by athletes. Consequently, we sought to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine (C) or a combination of ephedra and caffeine (C + E) on muscular strength and anaerobic power using a double-blind, crossover design. Forty-five minutes after ingesting a glucose placebo (P: 300 mg), C (300 mg) or C + E (300 mg + 60 mg), 9 resistance-trained male participants were tested for maximal strength by bench press [BP; 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and latissimus dorsi pull down (LP; 1RM). Subjects also performed repeated repetitions at 80% of 1RM on both BP and LP until exhaustion. After this test, subjects underwent a 30-second Wingate test to determine peak anaerobic cycling power, mean power, and fatigue index. Although subjects reported increased alertness and enhanced mood after supplementation with caffeine and ephedra, there were no significant differences between any of the treatments in muscle strength, muscle endurance, or peak anaerobic power. Our results do not support the contention that supplementation with ephedra or caffeine will enhance either muscle strength or anaerobic exercise performance. PMID:18550961

  17. GPS-Like Phasing Control of the Space Solar Power System Transmission Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psiaki, Mark L.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of phasing of the Space Solar Power System's transmission array has been addressed by developing a GPS-like radio navigation system. The goal of this system is to provide power transmission phasing control for each node of the array that causes the power signals to add constructively at the ground reception station. The phasing control system operates in a distributed manner, which makes it practical to implement. A leader node and two radio navigation beacons are used to control the power transmission phasing of multiple follower nodes. The necessary one-way communications to the follower nodes are implemented using the RF beacon signals. The phasing control system uses differential carrier phase relative navigation/timing techniques. A special feature of the system is an integer ambiguity resolution procedure that periodically resolves carrier phase cycle count ambiguities via encoding of pseudo-random number codes on the power transmission signals. The system is capable of achieving phasing accuracies on the order of 3 mm down to 0.4 mm depending on whether the radio navigation beacons operate in the L or C bands.

  18. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase II-Air Training Command, Military Airlift Command, and Strategic Air Command [and] Phase III-Electronic Warfare Trainers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; Hubbard, David C.

    This document consists of an interim report and a final report which describe the second and third phases of a project designed to determine the utility and utilization of sophisticated hardware and software capabilities known as advanced instructional features (AIFs). Used with an aircrew training device (ATD), AIFs permit a simulator instructor…

  19. Biomass power for rural development: Phase 2. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.

    1998-11-01

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase-1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and agreements necessary to demonstrate commercial willow production in Phase-2. The Phase-1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boilers, developing fuel supply plans for the project, obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase-2, obtaining construction and environmental permits, and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase-1 requirements the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and developed the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. This past summer 105 acres were prepared in advance for the spring planting in 1998. Having completed the above tasks, the Consortium is well positioned to begin Phase-2. In phase-2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase-2 is to transition the work performed under the Rural Energy for the Future project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  20. Flow simulation of the Component Development Integration Facility magnetohydrodynamic power train system

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report covers application of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) computer codes to simulation and analysis of components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train system at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF). Major components of the system include a 50-MWt coal-fired, two-stage combustor and an MHD channel. The combustor, designed and built by TRW, includes a deswirl section between the first and the second-stage combustor and a converging nozzle following the second-stage combustor, which connects to the MHD channel. ANL used computer codes to simulate and analyze flow characteristics in various components of the MHD system. The first-stage swirl combustor was deemed a mature technology and, therefore, was not included in the computer simulation. Several versions of the ICOMFLO computer code were used for the deswirl section and second-stage combustor. The MGMHD code, upgraded with a slag current leakage submodel, was used for the MHD channel. Whenever possible data from the test facilities were used to aid in calibrating parameters in the computer code, to validate the computer code, or to set base-case operating conditions for computations with the computer code. Extensive sensitivity and parametric studies were done on cold-flow mixing in the second-stage combustor, reacting flow in the second-stage combustor and converging nozzle, and particle-laden flow in the deswirl zone of the first-stage combustor, the second-stage combustor, and the converging nozzle. These simulations with subsequent analysis were able to show clearly in flow patterns and various computable measures of performance a number of sensitive and problematical areas in the design of the power train. The simulations of upstream components also provided inlet parameter profiles for simulation of the MHD power generating channel. 86 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. A Master-Oscillator-Power-Amplifier 2-micron Laser Using Fiber Phase-conjugate Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin; Shkunov, V.; Rockwell, D.; Betin, A.; Wang, J.; Petros, M.; Petzar, Paul; Trieu, Bo

    2007-01-01

    For the first time, a 2-micron master-oscillator-power-amplifier laser using a fiber based phase conjugation mirror has been demonstrated. The beam quality improvement and 56% of the PCM reflectivity have been achieved.

  2. Optical phase dynamics in mutually coupled diode laser systems exhibiting power synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Vishwa; Prasad, Awadhesh; Ghosh, R.

    2011-12-01

    We probe the physical mechanism behind the known phenomenon of power synchronization of two diode lasers that are mutually coupled via their delayed optical fields. In a diode laser, the amplitude and the phase of the optical field are coupled by the so-called linewidth enhancement factor, α. In this work, we explore the role of optical phases of the electric fields in amplitude (and hence power) synchronization through α in such mutually delay-coupled diode laser systems. Our numerical results show that the synchronization of optical phases drives the powers of lasers to synchronized death regimes. We also find that as α varies for different diode lasers, the system goes through a sequence of in-phase amplitude-death states. Within the windows between successive amplitude-death regions, the cross-correlation between the field amplitudes exhibits a universal power-law behaviour with respect to α.

  3. Phase diagram of softly repulsive systems: the Gaussian and inverse-power-law potentials.

    PubMed

    Prestipino, Santi; Saija, Franz; Giaquinta, Paolo V

    2005-10-01

    We redraw, using state-of-the-art methods for free-energy calculations, the phase diagrams of two reference models for the liquid state: the Gaussian and inverse-power-law repulsive potentials. Notwithstanding the different behaviors of the two potentials for vanishing interparticle distances, their thermodynamic properties are similar in a range of densities and temperatures, being ruled by the competition between the body-centered-cubic (bcc) and face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline structures and the fluid phase. We confirm the existence of a reentrant bcc phase in the phase diagram of the Gaussian-core model, just above the triple point. We also trace the bcc-fcc coexistence line of the inverse-power-law model as a function of the power exponent n and relate the common features in the phase diagrams of such systems to the softness degree of the interaction. PMID:16238377

  4. Formation of visual memories controlled by gamma power phase-locked to alpha oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jiang, Haiteng; Gross, Joachim; Jensen, Ole

    2016-06-01

    Neuronal oscillations provide a window for understanding the brain dynamics that organize the flow of information from sensory to memory areas. While it has been suggested that gamma power reflects feedforward processing and alpha oscillations feedback control, it remains unknown how these oscillations dynamically interact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data was acquired from healthy subjects who were cued to either remember or not remember presented pictures. Our analysis revealed that in anticipation of a picture to be remembered, alpha power decreased while the cross-frequency coupling between gamma power and alpha phase increased. A measure of directionality between alpha phase and gamma power predicted individual ability to encode memory: stronger control of alpha phase over gamma power was associated with better memory. These findings demonstrate that encoding of visual information is reflected by a state determined by the interaction between alpha and gamma activity.

  5. Formation of visual memories controlled by gamma power phase-locked to alpha oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jiang, Haiteng; Gross, Joachim; Jensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations provide a window for understanding the brain dynamics that organize the flow of information from sensory to memory areas. While it has been suggested that gamma power reflects feedforward processing and alpha oscillations feedback control, it remains unknown how these oscillations dynamically interact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data was acquired from healthy subjects who were cued to either remember or not remember presented pictures. Our analysis revealed that in anticipation of a picture to be remembered, alpha power decreased while the cross-frequency coupling between gamma power and alpha phase increased. A measure of directionality between alpha phase and gamma power predicted individual ability to encode memory: stronger control of alpha phase over gamma power was associated with better memory. These findings demonstrate that encoding of visual information is reflected by a state determined by the interaction between alpha and gamma activity. PMID:27306959

  6. Formation of visual memories controlled by gamma power phase-locked to alpha oscillations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jiang, Haiteng; Gross, Joachim; Jensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations provide a window for understanding the brain dynamics that organize the flow of information from sensory to memory areas. While it has been suggested that gamma power reflects feedforward processing and alpha oscillations feedback control, it remains unknown how these oscillations dynamically interact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data was acquired from healthy subjects who were cued to either remember or not remember presented pictures. Our analysis revealed that in anticipation of a picture to be remembered, alpha power decreased while the cross-frequency coupling between gamma power and alpha phase increased. A measure of directionality between alpha phase and gamma power predicted individual ability to encode memory: stronger control of alpha phase over gamma power was associated with better memory. These findings demonstrate that encoding of visual information is reflected by a state determined by the interaction between alpha and gamma activity. PMID:27306959

  7. Effects of isokinetic training of the knee extensors on isometric strength and peak power output during cycling.

    PubMed

    Mannion, A F; Jakeman, P M; Willan, P L

    1992-01-01

    Isokinetic training of right and left quadriceps femoris was undertaken three times per week for 16 weeks. One group of subjects (n = 13) trained at an angular velocity of 4.19 rad.s-1 and a second group (n = 10) at 1.05 rad.s-1. A control group (n = 10) performed no training. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the quadriceps, and peak pedal velocity nu p,peak) and peak power output (Wpeak) during all-out cycling (against loads equivalent to 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14% MVC) were assessed before and after training. The two training groups did not differ significantly from each other in their training response to any of the performance variables (P > 0.05). No significant difference in MVC was observed for any group after the 16-week period (P = 0.167). The post-training increases in average Wpeak (7%) and nu p,peak (6%) during the cycle tests were each significantly different from the control group response (P = 0.018 and P = 0.008, respectively). It is concluded that 16 weeks of isokinetic strength training of the knee extensors is able to significantly improve nu p, peak and Wpeak during spring cycling, an activity which demands considerable involvement of the trained muscle group but with its own distinct pattern of coordination. PMID:1425638

  8. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, Phase 2, July 1--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.

    1999-01-01

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase 1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and forging the necessary agreements to demonstrate commercial willow production. The Phase 1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boiler for 20 MW of biopower capacity; developing fuel supply plans for the project with a goal of establishing 365 ha (900 ac) of willow; obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase 2; obtaining construction and environmental permits; and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase 1 requirements, the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and has initiated development of the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. In Phase 2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow biomass will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase 2 is to transition the work performed under the Biomass Power for Rural Development project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  9. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Combined with Vibration Training on Balance Control and Lower Extremity Muscle Power

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Pao-Hung; Lin, Guan-Lun; Liu, Chiang; Chuang, Long-Ren; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV), a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC) or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm) three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods. Key points Eight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control for an untrained young population. The positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli during Tai Chi Chuan movements still remains significant because of SSC mechanism. Combining Tai Chi Chuan with vibration training is more efficient and does not decrease the overall training effects due to a cross-interaction of each other

  10. Naturalistic Decision Making in Power Grid Operations: Implications for Dispatcher Training and Usability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin

    2008-11-17

    The focus of the present study is on improved training approaches to accelerate learning and improved methods for analyzing effectiveness of tools within a high-fidelity power grid simulated environment. A theory-based model has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The theoretical foundation for the method is based on the concepts of situation awareness, the methods of cognitive task analysis, and the naturalistic decision making (NDM) approach of Recognition Primed Decision Making. The method has been systematically explored and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine NDM processes, we analyzed transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations during the simulated scenario to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. The results of the analysis indicate that the proposed framework can be used constructively to map or assess the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify the mental models and mental simulations that the operators employ at different points in the scenario. This report documents the method, describes elements of the model, and provides appendices that document the simulation scenario and the associated mental models used by operators in the scenario.

  11. [Communication in the context of phase I clinical trials in oncology: implementation and evaluation of training programs].

    PubMed

    Rouby, Pascal; Hollebecque, Antoine; Bahleda, Ratislav; Deutsch, Eric; Gomez-Rocca, Carlos; Angevin, Eric; de La Motte Rouge, Thibault; Soria, Jean-Charles; Dauchy, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Communication training programs in oncology have demonstrated some efficacy to improve doctors' communication skills. The goal of our study was to evaluate the impact of such training in the particular context of phase I clinical trials. Self-satisfaction and self-efficacy scales evaluating doctor-patient communication was completed by 6 medical oncologists (3 juniors and 3 seniors) before and after their communication training for a total of sixty visits. Two types of visit have been distinguished: the visits between the oncologist and the patient alone (a dual situation) and those with a third party (a trilateral situation). For all the doctors in dual and trialateral situations, self-efficacy scores improved significantly after training. This improvement was more pronounced for juniors oncologists in trilateral situations. Before training, satisfactory scores were worst in duel versus trilateral situations (P=0.01). This was particularly pronounced for junior compared to senior doctors (P=0.035). After training, in trilateral situations, the satisfaction scores of junior doctors matched that of the senior doctors. The communication training programs appear to benefit junior oncologists to a greater extent in trilateral situations. PMID:25609484

  12. Adaptations in upper-body maximal strength and power output resulting from long-term resistance training in experienced strength-power athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel G; Newton, Robert U

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to observe changes in maximal upper-body strength and power and shifts in the load-power curve across a multiyear period in experienced resistance trainers. Twelve professional rugby league players who regularly performed combined maximal strength and power training were observed across a 4-year period with test data reported every 2 years (years 1998, 2000, and 2002). Upper-body strength was assessed by the 1 repetition maximum bench press and maximum power during bench press throws (BT Pmax) with various barbell resistances of 40-80 kg. During the initial testing, players also were identified as elite (n = 6) or subelite (n = 6), depending upon whether they participated in the elite first-division national league or second-division league. This subgrouping allowed for a comparison of the scope of changes dependent upon initial strength and training experience. The subelite group was significantly younger, less strong, and less powerful than the elite group, but no other difference existed in height or body mass in 1998. Across the 4-year period, significant increases in strength occurred for the group as a whole and larger increases were observed for the subelite than the elite group, verifying the limited scope that exists for strength gain in more experienced, elite resistance-trained athletes. A similar trend occurred for changes in BT Pmax. This long-term observation confirms that the rate of progress in strength and power development diminishes with increased strength levels and resistance training experience. Furthermore, it also indicates that strength and power can still be increased despite a high volume of concurrent resistance and endurance training. PMID:16937966

  13. Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Unit for Fission Surface Power Phase I Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    A Closed Brayton cycle power conversion system has been developed to support the NASA fission surface power program. The goal is to provide electricity from a small nuclear reactor heat source for surface power production for lunar and Mars environments. The selected media for a heat source is NaK 78 with water as a cooling source. The closed Brayton cycle power was selected to be 12 kWe output from the generator terminals. A heat source NaK temperature of 850 K plus or minus 25 K was selected. The cold source water was selected at 375 K plus or minus 25 K. A vacuum radiation environment of 200 K is specified for environmental operation. The major components of the system are the power converter, the power controller, and the top level data acquisition and control unit. The power converter with associated sensors resides in the vacuum radiation environment. The power controller and data acquisition system reside in an ambient laboratory environment. Signals and power are supplied across the pressure boundary electrically with hermetic connectors installed on the vacuum vessel. System level analyses were performed on working fluids, cycle design parameters, heater and cooling temperatures, and heat exchanger options that best meet the needs of the power converter specification. The goal is to provide a cost effective system that has high thermal-to-electric efficiency in a compact, lightweight package.

  14. Effect of cycling position on oxygen uptake and preferred cadence in trained cyclists during hill climbing at various power outputs.

    PubMed

    Harnish, Chris; King, Deborah; Swensen, Tom

    2007-03-01

    Numerous researchers have studied the physiological responses to seated and standing cycling, but actual field data are sparse. One open issue is the preferred cadence of trained cyclists while hill climbing. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the affect of cycling position on economy and preferred cadence in trained cyclists while they climbed a moderate grade hill at various power outputs. Eight trained cyclists (25.8 +/- 7.2 years, [Formula: see text] 68.8 +/- 5.0 ml kg(-1) min(-1), peak power 407.6 +/- 69.0 W) completed a seated and standing hill climb at approximately 50, 65 and 75% of peak power output (PPO) in the order shown, although cycling position was randomized, i.e., half the cyclists stood or remained seat on their first trial at each power output. Cyclists also performed a maximal trial unrestricted by position. Heart rate, power output, and cadence were measured continuously with a power tap; ventilation [Formula: see text], BF and cadence were significantly higher with seated climbing at all intensities; there were no other physiological differences between the climbing positions. These data support the premise that trained cyclists are equally economical using high or low cadences, but may face a limit to benefits gained with increasing cadence. PMID:17165053

  15. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Job Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Conway, T. J.; Tobey, D. H.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Dalton, Angela C.; Pusey, Portia K.

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Job Profiles. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  16. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Individual and Team Performance Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Conway, T. J.; Tobey, D. H.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Dalton, Angela C.; Pusey, Portia K.

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Individual and Team Performance Guidelines. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  17. The DC-DC conversion power system of the CMS Phase-1 pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Schmitz, St.; Wlochal, M.

    2015-01-01

    The pixel detector of the CMS experiment will be exchanged during the year-end technical stop in 2016/2017, as part of the experiment's Phase-1 upgrade. The new device will feature approximately twice the number of readout channels, and consequently the power consumption will be doubled. By moving to a DC-DC conversion powering scheme, it is possible to power the new pixel detector with the existing power supplies and cable plant. The power system of the Phase-1 pixel detector is described and the performance of the new components, including DC-DC converters, DC-DC converter motherboards and various power distribution boards, is detailed. The outcome of system tests in terms of electrical behaviour, thermal management and pixel module performance is discussed.

  18. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Miller, John M; Tang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  19. Dynamic Power Flow Controller: Compact Dynamic Phase Angle Regulators for Transmission Power Routing

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-03

    GENI Project: Varentec is developing compact, low-cost transmission power controllers with fractional power rating for controlling power flow on transmission networks. The technology will enhance grid operations through improved use of current assets and by dramatically reducing the number of transmission lines that have to be built to meet increasing contributions of renewable energy sources like wind and solar. The proposed transmission controllers would allow for the dynamic control of voltage and power flow, improving the grid’s ability to dispatch power in real time to the places where it is most needed. The controllers would work as fail-safe devices whereby the grid would be restored to its present operating state in the event of a controller malfunction instead of failing outright. The ability to affordably and dynamically control power flow with adequate fail-safe switchgear could open up new competitive energy markets which are not possible under the current regulatory structure and technology base.

  20. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase IV--Summary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; And Others

    Modern aircrew training devices (ATDs) are equipped with sophisticated hardware and software capabilities, known as advanced instructional features (AIFs), that permit a simulator instructor to prepare briefings, manage training, vary task difficulty/fidelity, monitor performance, and provide feedback for flight simulation training missions. The…

  1. A Linear Model of Phase-Dependent Power Correlations in Neuronal Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, David; Vicente, Raul; Schmidt, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that effective interactions between two neuronal populations are supported by the phase difference between the oscillations in these two populations, a hypothesis referred to as “communication through coherence” (CTC). Experimental work quantified effective interactions by means of the power correlations between the two populations, where power was calculated on the local field potential and/or multi-unit activity. Here, we present a linear model of interacting oscillators that accounts for the phase dependency of the power correlation between the two populations and that can be used as a reference for detecting non-linearities such as gain control. In the experimental analysis, trials were sorted according to the coupled phase difference of the oscillators while the putative interaction between oscillations was taking place. Taking advantage of the modeling, we further studied the dependency of the power correlation on the uncoupled phase difference, connection strength, and topology. Since the uncoupled phase difference, i.e., the phase relation before the effective interaction, is the causal variable in the CTC hypothesis we also describe how power correlations depend on that variable. For uni-directional connectivity we observe that the width of the uncoupled phase dependency is broader than for the coupled phase. Furthermore, the analytical results show that the characteristics of the phase dependency change when a bidirectional connection is assumed. The width of the phase dependency indicates which oscillation frequencies are optimal for a given connection delay distribution. We propose that a certain width enables a stimulus-contrast dependent extent of effective long-range lateral connections. PMID:21808618

  2. Microscale phase change of fuels for MEMS power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haendler, Brenda

    As portable electronics technology advances, systems are becoming smaller and more energy intensive. While batteries are currently the only commercial power source for these applications, work is being done to create liquid fuel based portable power packs. These systems would leverage the higher energy density (W-hr/l) and specific energy (W-hr/kg) of liquid hydrocarbon fuels over available battery chemistries. For micro engines and small fuels cells there are advantages to preheating and vaporizing the fuel in a microchannel. The work presented in this dissertation focuses on understanding and characterizing the temperature and pressure signatures that result from microscale boiling of fuels in etched silicon channels approximately 100 mm in diameter. Building on previous microscale boiling work which used water as the working fluid for electronics cooling applications, the studies presented in this dissertation use both water and fuels including methanol, ethanol, and octane. Results are presented in the form of pressure and temperature measurements for a range of working fluids, volumetric flow rates, superheat temperatures and channel geometries. From a Fourier transform analysis of the pressure signatures, it was found that the frequency of the pressure fluctuations increases with superheat for ethanol as the working fluid while for methanol the frequency increases with volumetric flow rate. Tests were also conducted with sudden expansion geometries, which reduce the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations and create a localized cooling in the working fluid. Results are compared using fluid properties, including surface tension and heat of vaporization, and non-dimensional numbers including the Weber and the Jakob number. This study presents a significant contribution to the body of knowledge on microscale boiling. One application of microscale boiling for portable power technologies is also presented. Fuel cracking, breaking apart of long hydrocarbon chain

  3. Training the powerful: issues that emerged during the evaluation of a communication skills training programme for senior cancer care professionals.

    PubMed

    Bibila, S; Rabiee, F

    2014-07-01

    'Connected' is the name of the national advanced communication skills training programme developed in 2008 for cancer care professionals in the NHS. A 3-day training course combining didactic and experiential learning elements is run by two facilitators with course participants expected to engage fully in simulated consultations with trained actors. In 2011, and as a result of participant feedback on the length of the course and increasing pressures on budgets and clinical time, the Connected team developed and piloted an alternative 2-day training course. Before its roll-out in 2012, Birmingham City University was commissioned to evaluate the effectiveness and quality of the 2-day course vis-à-vis the 'traditional' 3-day one. This article is written by the two evaluators and it discusses some of the issues that emerged during the evaluation. We broadly grouped these issues into two overlapping categories: the mandatory nature of the course and the different professional background and seniority of participants. In our discussion we consider the implications these issues have for communication skills training policy and practice and put forward suggestions for further research. PMID:24373021

  4. High-speed electro-thermal modelling of a three-phase insulated gate bipolar transistor inverter power module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhongfu; Igic, Petar

    2010-02-01

    In this article, a high-speed electro-thermal (ET) modelling strategy to predict the junction temperature of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) devices of a three-phase inverter power module is presented. The temperature-dependent power loss characteristics of IGBT and diode devices are measured and stored in lookup tables, which replace the conventional complicated physics-based compact models. An inverter is modelled as a voltage controlled voltage source, which allows the inverter-based power train simulation to be carried out in the continuous time domain with a large simulation time-step (1 ms). Using the simulated sinusoidal voltage and current components of the inverter output, the given pulse width modulation mode, the conduction time (duty ratio) and the current of the devices are extracted. Based on the lookup tables, on-times and conduction currents of devices, the average power loss over each simulation time-step is calculated, which is then fed into the inverter thermal model to predict the devices' temperatures. The advantage of the proposed model is that an accurate ET simulation of inverter for long real-time (many minutes) operation can be carried out within an acceptable computational time using a standard modern personal computer. Both simulation and experimental validation have been carried out, and an excellent agreement has been achieved between the simulation and experimental data.

  5. Solar Power Satellite antenna phase control system hardware simulation, phase 4. Volume 3: SOLARSIM users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.; Chie, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Documentation of the interactive software package designed to predict the effect of certain electrical and mechanical imperfections on the performance of the SPS system is presented. The capabilities of the SOLARSIM program to quantify the spacetenna performance parameter values are described. The SOLARSIM package can compute the RMS pointing error, title effects, MPTX code tracking loop performance, MPTX carrier tracking loop performance, averaged power pattern, and the power transfer efficiency.

  6. Salton Sea Project, Phase 1. [solar pond power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

  7. Cortical Low-Frequency Power and Progressive Phase Synchrony Precede Successful Memory Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Rafi U.; Wittig, John H.; Damera, Srikanth R.; Inati, Sara K.

    2015-01-01

    Neural activity preceding an event can influence subsequent memory formation, yet the precise cortical dynamics underlying this activity and the associated cognitive states remain unknown. We investigate these questions here by examining intracranial EEG recordings as 28 participants with electrodes placed for seizure monitoring participated in a verbal paired-associates memory task. We found that, preceding successfully remembered word pairs, an orientation cue triggered a low-frequency 2–4 Hz phase reset in the right temporoparietal junction with concurrent increases in low-frequency power across cortical regions that included the prefrontal cortex and left temporal lobe. Regions that exhibited a significant increase in 2–4 Hz power were functionally bound together through progressive low-frequency 2–4 Hz phase synchrony. Our data suggest that the interaction between power and phase synchrony reflects the engagement of attentional networks that in large part determine the extent to which memories are successfully encoded. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here we investigate the spatiotemporal cortical dynamics that precede successful memory encoding. Using intracranial EEG, we observed significant changes in oscillatory power, intertrial phase consistency, and pairwise phase synchrony that predict successful encoding. Our data suggest that the interaction between power and phase synchrony reflects the engagement of attentional networks that in large part determine the extent to which memories are successfully encoded. PMID:26446212

  8. EFFECTS OF STRENGTH TRAINING ON PHYSICAL FUNCTION: INFLUENCE OF POWER, STRENGTH, AND BODY COMPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Erik D.; Srivatsan, Sindhu R.; Agrawal, Siddhartha; Menon, Kalapurakkal S.; Delmonico, Matthew J.; Wang, Min Q.; Hurley, Ben F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the effects of strength training (ST) on physical function and (b) the influence of strength, power, muscle volume (MV), and body composition on physical function. Healthy, inactive adults (n = 50) aged 65 years and older underwent strength, power, total body composition (% fat and fat free mass [FFM]), and physical function testing before and after 22 weeks of ST. Physical function testing consisted of tasks designed to mimic common physical activities of daily living (ADL). To improve internal validity of the assessment of mid-thigh intermuscular fat, subcutaneous fat, and knee extensors MV, a 10-week unilateral ST program using the untrained leg as an internal control preceded 12 weeks of whole-body ST. Strength, power, and FFM increased significantly with ST (all p < 0.05), whereas rapid walk, 5 chair stands, and get up and go time decreased significantly with ST in the overall group (all p < 0.05). Women improved significantly in both walking test times (both p < 0.05) but not in the stair climb test, whereas men improved in the stair climb test (p < 0.05) but not in walking test times. Multiple regression analysis revealed the highest R2 (0.28) for the change in chair stands time, followed by stair climb and usual walk at 0.27 and 0.21, respectively. ST improves performance in functional tasks important for ADLs. Changes in strength, power, and FFM are predictors of ST-induced improvements in these tasks. PMID:19910811

  9. Maximal strength on different resistance training rowing exercises predicts start phase performance in elite kayakers.

    PubMed

    Ualí, Ismael; Herrero, Azael J; Garatachea, Nuria; Marín, Pedro J; Alvear-Ordenes, Ildefonso; García-López, David

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship existing between maximum strength values in 2 common resistance training row exercises (bilateral bench pull [BBP] and one-arm cable row [OACR]) and short sprint performance in elite kayakers. Ten junior kayakers (5 women and 5 men) were tested on different days for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction in both exercises. Moreover, a 12-m sprint kayak was performed in a dew pond to record split times (2, 5, and 10 m), peak velocity, distance completed considering the first 8 strokes, and mean acceleration induced by right blade and left blade strokes. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed when right and left arms were compared in sprint testing or strength testing variables. Maximal strength values in BBP and OACR were significantly correlated with short sprint performance variables, showing the bilateral exercise with slightly stronger correlation coefficients than the unilateral seated row. Moreover, the relationship between strength testing and sprint testing variables is stronger when maximal force is measured through a dynamic approach (1RM) in comparison with an isometric approach. In conclusion, maximal strength in BBP and OACR is a good predictor of the start phase performance in elite sprint kayakers, mainly the 1RM value in BBP. PMID:22446667

  10. RF peak power reduction in CAIPIRINHA excitation by interslice phase optimization.

    PubMed

    Sbrizzi, Alessandro; Poser, Benedikt A; Tse, Desmond H Y; Hoogduin, Hans; Luijten, Peter R; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to show that the overall peak power of RF pulses for CAIPIRINHA excitation can be substantially reduced by applying interslice phase relaxation. The optimal phases are scan dependent and can be quickly calculated by the proposed method. The multi-band RF pulse design is implemented as the minimization of a linear objective function with quadratic constraints. The interslice phase is considered to be a variable for optimization. In the case of a phase cycling scheme (CAIPIRINHA), the peak power is considered over all pulses. The computation time (about 1 s) is compatible with online RF pulse design. It is shown that the optimal interslice phases depend on the CAIPIRINHA scheme used and that RF peak power is reduced when the CAIPIRINHA phase cycling is taken into account in the optimization. The proposed method is extremely fast and results in RF pulses with low peak power for CAIPIRINHA excitation. The MATLAB implementation is given in the appendix; it allows for online determination of scan-dependent phase parameters. Furthermore, the method can be easily extended to pTx shimming systems in the context of multi-slice excitations, and this possibility is included in the software. PMID:26387856

  11. Real Power and Reactive Power Control of a Three-Phase Single-Stage-PV System and PV voltage Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Adhikari, Sarina; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Irminger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with power electronic interfaces can provide both real and reactive power to meet power system needs with appropriate control algorithms. This paper presents the control algorithm design for a three-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverter to achieve either maximum power point tracking (MPPT) or a certain amount of real power injection, as well as the voltage/var control. The switching between MPPT control mode and a certain amount of real power control mode is automatic and seamless. Without the DC-to-DC booster stage, PV DC voltage stability is an important issue in the control design especially when the PV inverter is operating at maximum power point (MPP) with voltage/var control. The PV DC voltage collapse phenomenon and its reason are discussed. The method based on dynamic correction of the PV inverter output is proposed to ensure PV DC voltage stability. Simulation results of the single-stage PV system during system disturbances and fast solar irradiation changes confirm that the proposed control algorithm for single-stage PV inverters can provide appropriate real and reactive power services and ensure PV DC voltage stability during dynamic system operation and atmospheric conditions.

  12. Influence of beam-loaded effects on phase-locking in the high power microwave oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhenghong; Zhou, Zhigang; Qiu, Rong

    2014-06-15

    Owing to the power limitation of a single device, much more attentions are focused on developing high power microwave (HPM) oscillators that can be phase-locked to the external signal in the recent HPM researches. Although the phase-locking is proved to be feasible in the conventional devices (such as magnetrons), challenges still exist in the HPM devices due to beam-loaded effects, which are more obvious in HPM devices because of its high current and the low Q-factor of the device. A simple structured HPM oscillator (Bitron) is introduced to study such effects on the phase-locking in the HPM oscillator. The self-consistent analysis is carried out to study such effects together with particle in cell simulations. Then the modified Adler equation is established for the phase-locking HPM oscillator. Finally, conditions for the phase-locking in the HPM oscillator are given.

  13. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C; Tang, Lixin; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L; Miller , John M.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  14. Interpreting Power-Force-Velocity Profiles for Individualized and Specific Training.

    PubMed

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have brought new insights into the evaluation of power-force-velocity profiles in both ballistic push-offs (eg, jumps) and sprint movements. These are major physical components of performance in many sports, and the methods the authors developed and validated are based on data that are now rather simple to obtain in field conditions (eg, body mass, jump height, sprint times, or velocity). The promising aspect of these approaches is that they allow for more individualized and accurate evaluation, monitoring, and training practices, the success of which is highly dependent on the correct collection, generation, and interpretation of athletes' mechanical outputs. The authors therefore wanted to provide a practical vade mecum to sports practitioners interested in implementing these power-force-velocity-profiling approaches. After providing a summary of theoretical and practical definitions for the main variables, the authors first detail how vertical profiling can be used to manage ballistic push-off performance, with emphasis on the concept of optimal force-velocity profile and the associated force-velocity imbalance. Furthermore, they discuss these same concepts with regard to horizontal profiling in the management of sprinting performance. These sections are illustrated by typical examples from the authors' practice. Finally, they provide a practical and operational synthesis and outline future challenges that will help further develop these approaches. PMID:26694658

  15. Phase coded, micro-power impulse radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-05-21

    A motion sensing, micro-power impulse radar MIR impresses on the transmitted signal, or the received pulse timing signal, one or more frequencies lower than the pulse repetition frequency, that become intermediate frequencies in a ``IF homodyne`` receiver. Thus, many advantages of classical RF receivers can be thereby be realized with ultra-wide band radar. The sensor includes a transmitter which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal at a nominal pulse repetition frequency. A receiver samples echoes of the sequence of electromagnetic pulses from objects within the field with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The relative timing of the transmit timing signal and the receive timing signal is modulated between a first relative delay and a second relative delay at an intermediate frequency, causing the receiver to sample the echoes such that the time between transmissions of pulses in the sequence and samples by the receiver is modulated at the intermediate frequency. Modulation may be executed by modulating the pulse repetition frequency which drives the transmitter, by modulating the delay circuitry which controls the relative timing of the sample strobe, or by modulating amplitude of the transmitted pulses. The electromagnetic pulses will have a nominal center frequency related to pulse width, and the first relative delay and the second relative delay between which the timing signals are modulated, differ by less than the nominal pulse width, and preferably by about one-quarter wavelength at the nominal center frequency of the transmitted pulses. 5 figs.

  16. Phase coded, micro-power impulse radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A motion sensing, micro-power impulse radar MIR impresses on the transmitted signal, or the received pulse timing signal, one or more frequencies lower than the pulse repetition frequency, that become intermediate frequencies in a "IF homodyne" receiver. Thus, many advantages of classical RF receivers can be thereby be realized with ultra-wide band radar. The sensor includes a transmitter which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal at a nominal pulse repetition frequency. A receiver samples echoes of the sequence of electromagnetic pulses from objects within the field with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The relative timing of the transmit timing signal and the receive timing signal is modulated between a first relative delay and a second relative delay at an intermediate frequency, causing the receiver to sample the echoes such that the time between transmissions of pulses in the sequence and samples by the receiver is modulated at the intermediate frequency. Modulation may be executed by modulating the pulse repetition frequency which drives the transmitter, by modulating the delay circuitry which controls the relative timing of the sample strobe, or by modulating amplitude of the transmitted pulses. The electromagnetic pulses will have a nominal center frequency related to pulse width, and the first relative delay and the second relative delay between which the timing signals are modulated, differ by less than the nominal pulse width, and preferably by about one-quarter wavelength at the nominal center frequency of the transmitted pulses.

  17. Open-phase operating modes of power flow control topologies in a Smart Grid Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Remizevich, T. V.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The power flow regulating circuit node in an alternating current system is reviewed. The circuit node is accomplished based on a thyristor controlled phase angle regulator (TCPAR) with controlled thyristor switch. Research results of the individual phase control of the output voltage for the TCPAR are presented. Analytical expressions for the overvoltage factor calculation in the thyristor switch circuit for open-phase operating modes are received. Based on evaluation of overvoltage in operational and emergency modes, the implementability conditions of the individual phase control of the output voltage are determined. Under these conditions, maximal performance and complete controllability are provided.

  18. Magnetic field simulation of magnetic phase detection sensor for steam generator tube in nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Kwon-sang; Son, Derac; Park, Duck-gun; Kim, Yong-il

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic phases and defects are partly produced in steam generator tubes by stress and heat, because steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants are used under high temperature, high pressure, and radioactivity. The magnetic phases induce an error in the detection of the defects in steam generator tubes by the conventional eddy current method. So a new method is needed for detecting the magnetic phases in the steam generator tubes. We designed a new U-type yoke which has two kinds of coils and simulated the signal by the magnetic phases and defects in the Inconnel 600 tube.

  19. NASA satellite communications application research. Phase 2: Efficient high power, solid state amplifier for EFH communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benet, James

    1993-01-01

    The final report describes the work performed from 9 Jun. 1992 to 31 Jul. 1993 on the NASA Satellite Communications Application Research (SCAR) Phase 2 program, Efficient High Power, Solid State Amplifier for EHF Communications. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate the feasibility of high-efficiency, high-power, EHF solid state amplifiers that are smaller, lighter, more efficient, and less costly than existing traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifiers by combining the output power from up to several hundred solid state amplifiers using a unique orthomode spatial power combiner (OSPC).

  20. Validation of Inter-Subject Training for Hidden Markov Models Applied to Gait Phase Detection in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Taborri, Juri; Scalona, Emilia; Palermo, Eduardo; Rossi, Stefano; Cappa, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Gait-phase recognition is a necessary functionality to drive robotic rehabilitation devices for lower limbs. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) represent a viable solution, but they need subject-specific training, making data processing very time-consuming. Here, we validated an inter-subject procedure to avoid the intra-subject one in two, four and six gait-phase models in pediatric subjects. The inter-subject procedure consists in the identification of a standardized parameter set to adapt the model to measurements. We tested the inter-subject procedure both on scalar and distributed classifiers. Ten healthy children and ten hemiplegic children, each equipped with two Inertial Measurement Units placed on shank and foot, were recruited. The sagittal component of angular velocity was recorded by gyroscopes while subjects performed four walking trials on a treadmill. The goodness of classifiers was evaluated with the Receiver Operating Characteristic. The results provided a goodness from good to optimum for all examined classifiers (0 < G < 0.6), with the best performance for the distributed classifier in two-phase recognition (G = 0.02). Differences were found among gait partitioning models, while no differences were found between training procedures with the exception of the shank classifier. Our results raise the possibility of avoiding subject-specific training in HMM for gait-phase recognition and its implementation to control exoskeletons for the pediatric population. PMID:26404309

  1. Validation of Inter-Subject Training for Hidden Markov Models Applied to Gait Phase Detection in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Taborri, Juri; Scalona, Emilia; Palermo, Eduardo; Rossi, Stefano; Cappa, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Gait-phase recognition is a necessary functionality to drive robotic rehabilitation devices for lower limbs. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) represent a viable solution, but they need subject-specific training, making data processing very time-consuming. Here, we validated an inter-subject procedure to avoid the intra-subject one in two, four and six gait-phase models in pediatric subjects. The inter-subject procedure consists in the identification of a standardized parameter set to adapt the model to measurements. We tested the inter-subject procedure both on scalar and distributed classifiers. Ten healthy children and ten hemiplegic children, each equipped with two Inertial Measurement Units placed on shank and foot, were recruited. The sagittal component of angular velocity was recorded by gyroscopes while subjects performed four walking trials on a treadmill. The goodness of classifiers was evaluated with the Receiver Operating Characteristic. The results provided a goodness from good to optimum for all examined classifiers (0 < G < 0.6), with the best performance for the distributed classifier in two-phase recognition (G = 0.02). Differences were found among gait partitioning models, while no differences were found between training procedures with the exception of the shank classifier. Our results raise the possibility of avoiding subject-specific training in HMM for gait-phase recognition and its implementation to control exoskeletons for the pediatric population. PMID:26404309

  2. The fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system for space power systems: AMPERES, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. C.

    1989-01-01

    The objective is to develop a real time fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system (KBS) for space power systems which can save costly operational manpower and can achieve more reliable space power system operation. The proposed KBS was developed using the Autonomously Managed Power System (AMPS) test facility currently installed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), but the basic approach taken for this project could be applicable for other space power systems. The proposed KBS is entitled Autonomously Managed Power-System Extendible Real-time Expert System (AMPERES). In Phase 1 the emphasis was put on the design of the overall KBS, the identification of the basic research required, the initial performance of the research, and the development of a prototype KBS. In Phase 2, emphasis is put on the completion of the research initiated in Phase 1, and the enhancement of the prototype KBS developed in Phase 1. This enhancement is intended to achieve a working real time KBS incorporated with the NASA space power system test facilities. Three major research areas were identified and progress was made in each area. These areas are real time data acquisition and its supporting data structure; sensor value validations; development of inference scheme for effective fault monitoring and diagnosis, and its supporting knowledge representation scheme.

  3. Tunable subpicosecond electron bunch train generation using a transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.-E; Piot, P.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    We report on the experimental generation of a train of subpicosecond electron bunches. The bunch train generation is accomplished using a beamline capable of exchanging the coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. An initial beam consisting of a set of horizontally-separated beamlets is converted into a train of bunches temporally separated with tunable bunch duration and separation. The experiment reported in this Letter unambiguously demonstrates the conversion process and its versatility.

  4. Low phase noise high power handling InGaAs photodiodes for precise timing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Shubhashish; Joshi, Abhay; Becker, Don

    2009-05-01

    Time is the most precisely measured physical quantity. Such precision is achieved by optically probing hyperfine atomic transitions. These high Q-factor resonances demonstrate frequency instability of ~10-18 over 1 s observation time. Conversion of such a stable optical clock signal to an electrical clock through photodetection introduces additional phase noise, thereby resulting in a significant degradation in the frequency stability. This excess phase noise is primarily caused by the conversion of optical intensity noise into electrical phase noise by the phase non-linearity of the photodetector, characterized by its power-to-phase conversion factor. It is necessary to minimize this phase nonlinearity in order to develop the next generation of ultra-high precision electronic clocks. Reduction in excess phase noise must be achieved while ensuring a large output RF signal generated by the photodetector. The phase linearity in traditional system designs that employ a photoreceiver, namely a photodiode followed by a microwave amplifier, is limited by the phase non-linearity of the amplifier. Utilizing high-power handling photodiodes eliminates the need of microwave amplifiers. In this work, we present InGaAs p-i-n photodiodes that display a power-to-phase conversion factor <6 rad/W at a peak-to-peak RF output amplitude of 2 V. In comparison, the photodiode coupled to a transimpedance amplifier demonstrates >44 rad/W at a peak-to-peak RF output amplitude of 0.5 V. These results are supported by impulse response measurements at 1550 nm wavelength at 1 GHz repetition rate. These photodiodes are suitable of applications such as optical clock distribution networks, photonic analog-to-digital converters, and phased array radars.

  5. Single Phase Passive Rectification Versus Active Rectification Applied to High Power Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, Walter; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2006-01-01

    Stirling engine converters are being considered as potential candidates for high power energy conversion systems required by future NASA explorations missions. These types of engines typically contain two major moving parts, the displacer and the piston, in which a linear alternator is attached to the piston to produce a single phase sinusoidal waveform at a specific electric frequency. Since all Stirling engines perform at low electrical frequencies (less or equal to 100 Hz), space explorations missions that will employ these engines will be required to use DC power management and distribution (PMAD) system instead of an AC PMAD system to save on space and weight. Therefore, to supply such DC power an AC to DC converter is connected to the Stirling engine. There are two types of AC to DC converters that can be employed, a passive full bridge diode rectifier and an active switching full bridge rectifier. Due to the inherent line inductance of the Stirling Engine-Linear Alternator (SE-LA), their sinusoidal voltage and current will be phase shifted producing a power factor below 1. In order to keep power the factor close to unity, both AC to DC converters topologies will implement power factor correction. This paper discusses these power factor correction methods as well as their impact on overall mass for exploration applications. Simulation results on both AC to DC converters topologies with power factor correction as a function of output power and SE-LA line inductance impedance are presented and compared.

  6. Power, Control, and Gender: Training as Catalyst for Dysfunctional Behavior at the United States Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Jamie L.

    2005-01-01

    I explore the role of training practices at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) in perpetuating power and control issues and the potential consequences of those practices. I argue that trainee responses to control deprivation may have resulted in alleged sexual assaults by male cadets and the eating disorders manifested by female cadets.…

  7. The resemblance of an autocorrelation function to a power spectrum density for a spike train of an auditory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, Y. V.; Dubkov, A. A.; Spagnolo, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we develop an analytical approach for calculation of the all-order interspike interval density (AOISID), show its connection with the autocorrelation function, and try to explain the discovered resemblance of AOISID to the power spectrum of the same spike train.

  8. Effects of Two Instructional Techniques Used with the Ford Power Train Simulator on the Performance of Mississippi Vocational Agriculture Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perritt, Roger Dale; Shinn, Glen C.

    A Mississippi study examined the effects of two instructional techniques using the Ford power train unit as an instructional aid. Eight schools were randomly selected from a population of 33 vocational agricultural departments. Three schools with 10 students from each school were randomly selected and assigned to treatment A, traditional…

  9. The Influence of Training and Position Power on Leader Behavior. Organizational Research. Technical Report 75-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai-Dalton, Renate

    Using Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness, which postulates that the behavior of a leader depends on the interaction between leadership style and the degree to which the environment gives the leader control and influence, a study investigated the effects of training and changes in position power on the behavior of three types…

  10. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness. PMID:23439334

  11. Investigations of SBS and laser gain competition in high-power phase modulated fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Angel; Dajani, Iyad; Hult, Dane; Robin, Craig

    2014-02-01

    We present experimental results of SBS suppression in high power, monolithic, Yb-doped fiber amplifiers via phase modulated laser gain competition. To narrow the linewidth, two-tone laser gain competition between broad (1036 nm) and narrow linewidth (1064 nm) laser signals is investigated in conjunction with phase modulation and yields pump limited output powers of 600 W. Here integration of both two-tone and pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) phase modulation concepts, generated SBS enhancement factors of greater than 17x at a modulation frequency of 500 MHz, without reaching the SBS threshold. Significantly, the results represent a near order of magnitude reduction in linewidth over current high-power, monolithic, Yb-doped fiber amplifiers.

  12. Transient stability enhancement of electric power generating systems by 120-degree phase rotation

    DOEpatents

    Cresap, Richard L.; Taylor, Carson W.; Kreipe, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    A method and system for enhancing the transient stability of an intertied three-phase electric power generating system. A set of power exporting generators (10) is connected to a set of power importing generators (20). When a transient cannot be controlled by conventional stability controls, and imminent loss of synchronism is detected (such as when the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets exceeds a predetermined value, such as 150 degrees), the intertie is disconnected by circuit breakers. Then a switch (30) having a 120-degree phase rotation, or a circuit breaker having a 120-degree phase rotation is placed in the intertie. The intertie is then reconnected. This results in a 120-degree reduction in the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets, making the system more stable and allowing more time for the conventional controls to stabilize the transient.

  13. Role of Muscle Morphology in Jumping, Sprinting, and Throwing Performance in Participants With Different Power Training Duration Experience.

    PubMed

    Methenitis, Spyridon K; Zaras, Nikolaos D; Spengos, Konstantinos M; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta E; Karampatsos, Giorgos P; Georgiadis, Giorgos V; Terzis, Gerasimos D

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between muscle morphology and jumping, sprinting, and throwing performance in participants with different power training duration experience. Thirty-six power-trained young men were assigned to 3 groups according to the length of their power training: less experienced (<1 year), moderately experienced (1-3 years), and experienced (4-7 years). All participants performed countermovement and squat jumps, 60-m sprint, and shot throws twice. Lean body mass (LBM) was evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) with anthropometry. The vastus lateralis architecture and fiber type composition were evaluated with ultrasonography and muscle biopsies, respectively. When all subjects were considered as 1 group (n = 36), jumping performance was correlated with LBM, fascicle length, and type II fiber CSA; sprinting performance was correlated with estimated thigh muscle CSA alone; and shot throwing was correlated with LBM and type I, IIA fiber CSA. In the least experienced group, the LBM of the lower extremities was the most significant contributor for power performance, whereas in the moderately experienced group, the LBM, architectural properties, and type II fiber percentage CSA were the most significant contributors. For the experienced group, fascicle length and type II fiber percentage CSA were the most significant factors for power performance. These data suggest that jumping performance is linked with muscle morphology, regardless of strength or power training. The vastus lateralis muscle morphology could only partially explain throwing performance, whereas it cannot predict sprinting performance. Power performance in experienced participants rely more on the quality of the muscle tissue rather than the quantity. PMID:26907845

  14. Computation of inflationary cosmological perturbations in the power-law inflationary model using the phase-integral method

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, Clara; Villalba, Victor M.

    2007-03-15

    The phase-integral approximation devised by Froeman and Froeman, is used for computing cosmological perturbations in the power-law inflationary model. The phase-integral formulas for the scalar and tensor power spectra are explicitly obtained up to ninth-order of the phase-integral approximation. We show that, the phase-integral approximation exactly reproduces the shape of the power spectra for scalar and tensor perturbations as well as the spectral indices. We compare the accuracy of the phase-integral approximation with the results for the power spectrum obtained with the slow-roll and uniform-approximation methods.

  15. Switching speed effect of phase shift keying in SLED for generating high power microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zheng-Feng; Cheng, Cheng; Yu, Jian; Chen, Huai-Bi; Ning, Hui

    2016-01-01

    SLAC energy doubler (SLED) type radio-frequency pulse compressors are widely used in large-scale particle accelerators for converting long-duration moderate-power input pulses into short-duration high-power output pulses. Phase shift keying (PSK) is one of the key components in SLED pulse compression systems. Performance of the PSK will influence the output characteristics of the SLED, such as the rise-time of the output pulse, maximal peak power gain, and energy efficiency. In this paper, a high power microwave source based on power combining and pulse compression of conventional klystrons is introduced. The effects of nonideal PSK with slow switching speed and PSK without power output during the switching process are investigated, and the experimental results with nonideal PSK agree well with the analytical results.

  16. Assessment of a WIN Quality Training Demonstration Project. Phase 1 Report: Characteristics of Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard N.

    A group of interested and academically qualified female Aid to Families with Dependent Children recipients was identified to participate in the assessment of a demonstration program to train female Work incentive Program (WIN) participants. Training for electronics technicians was conducted at DeVry Institute of Technology (Chicago) and Ohio…

  17. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Psychomotor Skills, Part B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, presents a discussion of the rationale behind the implementation of a laboratory course in psychomotor skills development for medical students. Medical educators examined resident training in terms of 3 components of cognitive elements of learning: cognitive,…

  18. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TRAINING OF LABORATORY TECHNICIANS (G09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the training for new laboratory technicians at the Harvard School of Public Health/Emory University Trace Metals Laboratory. The training is intended to provide a sound understanding of the tasks for which they are responsible so that they ...

  19. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TRAINING OF FIELD TECHNICIANS (G07)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the method used for training field technicians. The SOP outlines the responsibilities of the Field Technician (FT) and the Field Coordination Center Supervisor (FCC-S) before, during, and after sampling at residences, and the training syste...

  20. Group Problem Solving, Goal-Setting and Decision-Making. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    One of a series of pre-apprenticeship training modules, this self-paced student training module deals with group problem solving, goal setting, and decision making. Included in the module are the following: cover sheet listing module title, goals, and performance indicators; introduction; cover sheet/study guide with directions for module…

  1. Restoring phase coherence in a one-dimensional superconductor using power-law electron hopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobos, Alejandro M.; Tezuka, Masaki; García-García, Antonio M.

    2013-10-01

    In a one-dimensional (1D) superconductor, zero-temperature quantum fluctuations destroy phase coherence. Here we put forward a mechanism which can restore phase coherence: power-law hopping. We study a 1D attractive-U Hubbard model with power-law hopping using Abelian bosonization and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) techniques. The parameter that controls the hopping decay acts as the effective, noninteger spatial dimensionality deff. For real-valued hopping amplitudes we identify analytically a range of parameters for which power-law hopping suppresses fluctuations and restores superconducting long-range order for any deff>1, at zero temperature. A detailed DMRG analysis fully supports these findings. These results are also of direct relevance to quantum magnetism as our model can be mapped onto an S=1/2 XXZ spin chain with power-law decaying couplings, which can be studied experimentally with cold-ion-trap techniques.

  2. Development of a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Fimmers, C.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Rittich, D.; Sammet, J.; Wlochal, M.

    2014-01-01

    A novel powering scheme based on the DC-DC conversion technique will be exploited to power the CMS Phase-1 pixel detector. DC-DC buck converters for the CMS pixel project have been developed, based on the AMIS5 ASIC designed by CERN. The powering system of the Phase-1 pixel detector is described and the performance of the converter prototypes is detailed, including power efficiency, stability of the output voltage, shielding, and thermal management. Results from a test of the magnetic field tolerance of the DC-DC converters are reported. System tests with pixel modules using many components of the future pixel barrel system are summarized. Finally first impressions from a pre-series of 200 DC-DC converters are presented.

  3. Power deposition and focusing in a lossy cylinder by a concentric phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumori, Mikaya L. D.; Wait, James R.; Cetas, Thomas C.

    1989-07-01

    We present an analysis of phased array applicators for heating of torso, limbs, and neck. A homogeneous cylindrical model is adopted for the calculations. Four-, eight-, and 16-horn apertures are considered. Focusing of power is demonstrated for an operation frequency of 915 MHz in a cylindrical phantom of radius 5.2 cm, with a conductivity of 1.28 S/m and a relative permittivity of 51. Experimental verification is shown for the case with four-horn applicators. We thus demonstrate that by controlling the relative phases and amplitudes of the aperture sources, it is possible to focus electromagnetic power at desired locations such as tumors.

  4. Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, Lance G

    2014-07-07

    A variable phase turbine assembly will be designed and manufactured having a turbine, operable with transcritical, two-phase or vapor flow, and a generator – on the same shaft supported by process lubricated bearings. The assembly will be hermetically sealed and the generator cooled by the refrigerant. A compact plate-fin heat exchanger or tube and shell heat exchanger will be used to transfer heat from the geothermal fluid to the refrigerant. The demonstration turbine will be operated separately with two-phase flow and with vapor flow to demonstrate performance and applicability to the entire range of low temperature geothermal resources. The vapor leaving the turbine is condensed in a plate-fin refrigerant condenser. The heat exchanger, variable phase turbine assembly and condenser are all mounted on single skids to enable factory assembly and checkout and minimize installation costs. The system will be demonstrated using low temperature (237F) well flow from an existing large geothermal field. The net power generated, 1 megawatt, will be fed into the existing power system at the demonstration site. The system will demonstrate reliable generation of inexpensive power from low temperature resources. The system will be designed for mass manufacturing and factory assembly and should cost less than $1,200/kWe installed, when manufactured in large quantities. The estimated cost of power for 300F resources is predicted to be less than 5 cents/kWh. This should enable a substantial increase in power generated from low temperature geothermal resources.

  5. The effect of low extremity plyometric training on back muscle power of high school throwing event athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi Duck; Lee, Joong Chul; Lee, Juri

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The physical strength elements required for athletic throwing events include muscle strength, swiftness, agility, speed, flexibility, and physical balance. Although plyometric training and weight training are implemented as representative training methods for improving swiftness and agility, most studies of it have been conducted with players of other sports. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 throwing event athletes attending K physical education high school. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group of five subjects and an experimental group of five subjects. To analyze the body composition, an Inbody 3.0 instrument (Biospace, Korea) was used as experimental equipment to measure heights, weight, body fat percentages, and muscle masses and a Biodex system 4.0 (BIODEX, USA) was used to measure isokinetic muscle-joint and lumbar muscle strengths. The plyometric training consisted of 15 techniques out of the training methods introduced in the 'Power up plyometric training'. The plyometric program was implemented without any training load three times per week during daybreak exercises for the experimental group. The number of times and the number of sets were changed over time as follows: three sets of 10 times in the 1st -4th weeks, three sets of 15 times in the 5th-8th weeks, and five sets of 15 times in the 9th-12th weeks. [Results] According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar extensor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar flexor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. [Conclusion] Plyometric training positively affected high school throwing event athletes. To summarize the study findings, the application of plyometric training with high intensity and loads improved the results of athletes who perform highly intensive exercises at normal times. PMID:24567698

  6. Leaders’ and followers’ individual experiences during the early phase of simulation-based team training: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Meurling, Lisbet; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Wallin, Carl-Johan

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence shows that team training can develop essential team skills and contribute to better patient outcomes. Current simulation-based team training (SBTT) programmes most often include targets and feedback focused on the whole team and/or leader, ignoring the follower as a unique entity. By considering followers’ individual experiences, and tailoring behavioural targets for training and feedback, SBTT could be improved. Our aim was to explore the individual experiences and behaviours of leaders and followers during the early phase of SBTT, and we hypothesised that leaders and followers would show different responses. Methods Medical students (n=54) participated in half-day SBTT including three video-recorded scenarios. Self-efficacy was assessed pretraining and post-training. For each scenario (n=36), the individual teamwork behaviours, concentration, mental strain and the team's clinical performance were recorded. Data were analysed using a mixed model allowing for participants to be their own control in their roles as leader or follower. Results Self-efficacy improved. In the role of leader, participants communicated to a greater extent and experienced higher mental strain and concentration than they did in the role of follower. Discussion The increased self-efficacy enables a positive learning outcome after only three scenarios. Individual experiences and behaviours differed between the role of leader and that of follower. By shedding further light on leaders’ and followers’ individual experiences and behaviours, targets for training and feedback could be specified in order to improve SBTT. PMID:23293119

  7. Design requirements document for the phase 1 privatization electrical power system

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-10-31

    The electrical system for the Phase 1 privatization facilities will support the TWRS mission by providing the electrical power to the Phase 1 privatized facilities. This system will receive power from the Department of Energy-Richland Operations (RL) A4-8 230 kV transmission system powered from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Ashe and Midway 230 kV Substations. The existing RL 230 kV transmission line will be modified and looped 1021 into the new 230 kV substation bus. The new substation will be located in the vicinity of the privatized facilities, approximately 3.2 km (2 mi) south of the existing RL A4-8 230 kV transmission line. The substation will be capable of providing up to 40 MW of electrical power to support the Phase 1 privatization facilities and has space for accommodating future expansions. The substation will require at least two 230-13.8 kV transformers, 13.8 kV split bus switchgear, switchgear building, grounding transformers, instrument transformers, control and monitoring equipment, associated protection and isolation devices, lightning protection, yard lighting, cable and raceways, and infrastructure needed to provide desired availability and reliability. The power from the 13.8 kV switchgear located in the switchgear building will be delivered at the privatization facilities site boundaries. The 13.8 kV distribution system inside the privatization facilities site boundaries is the responsibility of the privatization contract.

  8. Reproducibility of contact lens power measurements using the phase shifting schlieren method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannes, Luc; Hough, Tony; Hutsebaut, Xavier; Dubois, Xavier; Ligot, Renaud; Saoul, Bruno; Van Donink, Philip; De Coninck, Kris

    2009-06-01

    PURPOSE. To assess a new method of power measurement of soft and rigid contact lenses. The method is the phase shifting schlieren method, as embodied in the Nimo TR1504 instrument. MATERIALS and METHODS. Three Nimo TR1504 instruments were used to measure the power related dimensions of: a) a range of custom toric rigid lenses; b) a range of commercially available spherical hydrogel lenses; and c) a commercially available range of toric silicone hydrogel lenses. The measurements were carried out using a standard ISO ring test protocol where independent tests were carried out under conditions of reproducibility. The analysis of the measurements was carried out using ISO methods which enabled the reproducibility standard deviation, SR, of the method to be calculated. RESULTS. The results show that this new method has a reproducibility standard deviation SR of 0.048D for spherical soft (hydrogel) lenses. This means the back vertex power of spherical soft lenses having a power in the range +/-20.0D can be determined to current ISO product tolerances with a single measurement. The method has SR of 0.059D for sphere power and 0.093D for cylinder power for toric soft lenses having powers in the range +/-10.0D and cylinder powers in the range +/-2.0D. A single measurement will determine sphere power to current ISO tolerance limits with 95% confidence while two measurements are required to determine the cylinder power to the same confidence level.

  9. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.; LaClair, Tim J.; Parks, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2016-08-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which hasmore » the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.« less

  10. The relationship of maximal alactacid anaerobic power to somatotype in trained subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Ergen, E; Sardella, F; Dal Monte, A

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between somatotype components and maximal alactacid anaerobic power (MAAP) in trained subjects. The somatotype components (endomorphy: means = 2.66, S.D. = +/- 0.78; mesomorphy: means = 5.45, S.D. = +/- 1.12; ectomorphy: means = 2.46, S.D. = +/- 0.88) and total MAAP were measured in 40 male fencers (aged, means 21.79, S.D. = +/- 3.97) in order to determine the correlations. The results did not show any correlations between the parameters. It can be concluded that the MAAP of an individual does not depend on the somatotype; but it may also be assumed that MAAP show changes with the percentage of fibre type, enzymatic activity in these fibres involved by large muscle groups which are relatively related to musculo-skeletal development (second component of somatotype) and neuro-muscular properties of the subjects, all having a genetic basis. PMID:4092145

  11. Volume and Mass Estimation of Three-Phase High Power Transformers for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft historically have had sub-1kW(sub e), electrical requirements for GN&C, science, and communications: Galileo at 600W(sub e), and Cassini at 900W(sub e), for example. Because most missions have had the same order of magnitude power requirements, the Power Distribution Systems (PDS) use existing, space-qualified technology and are DC. As science payload and mission duration requirements increase, however, the required electrical power increases. Subsequently, this requires a change from a passive energy conversion (solar arrays and batteries) to dynamic (alternator, solar dynamic, etc.), because dynamic conversion has higher thermal and conversion efficiencies, has higher power densities, and scales more readily to higher power levels. Furthermore, increased power requirements and physical distribution lengths are best served with high-voltage, multi-phase AC to maintain distribution efficiency and minimize voltage drops. The generated AC-voltage must be stepped-up (or down) to interface with various subsystems or electrical hardware. Part of the trade-space design for AC distribution systems is volume and mass estimation of high-power transformers. The volume and mass are functions of the power rating, operating frequency, the ambient and allowable temperature rise, the types and amount of heat transfer available, the core material and shape, the required flux density in a core, the maximum current density, etc. McLyman has tabulated the performance of a number of transformers cores and derived a "cookbook" methodology to determine the volume of transformers, whereas Schawrze had derived an empirical method to estimate the mass of single-phase transformers. Based on the work of McLyman and Schwarze, it is the intent herein to derive an empirical solution to the volume and mass estimation of three-phase, laminated EI-core power transformers, having radiated and conducted heat transfer mechanisms available. Estimation of the mounting hardware, connectors

  12. Effects of eccentric training on torque-angular velocity-power characteristics of elbow flexor muscles in older women.

    PubMed

    Valour, D; Rouji, M; Pousson, M

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of eccentric training to improve elbow flexor muscle power in elderly subjects. Fourteen older female volunteers (age range 60-78 years) were randomly assigned into either a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). For the TG, the 21-session 7-week eccentric training program consisted of 5x6 eccentric muscle actions at 60-100% of concentric three maximal repetitions. Before and after training, maximal elbow flexions were performed against increasing inertia. Maximal isokinetic elbow flexions at four angular velocities (eccentric actions, -60 degrees s(-1), -30 degrees rads(-1); concentric actions, 30, 60 degrees s(-1)) and maximal isometric actions were also performed. Maximal power (Pmax) and an index of maximal shortening velocity (VImax)were determined. For all action conditions, the myoelectric activities of the biceps and the triceps brachii muscles were recorded and quantified as a root mean square (RMS) value. In the TG, maximal torque developed under isometric, isokinetic and inertial conditions increased significantly after training (ranging from 11 to 19%). Pmax and VImax also increased significantly (31.3 and 25.9%, respectively). These parameters remained unchanged in the CG. The RMS activity of the biceps and triceps muscles was not affected by eccentric training for all action conditions excepting the eccentric condition at -30 degrees s(-1) where the RMS activity of the biceps increased significantly. The gains in maximal torque, Pmax and VImax observed after training would result more from intramuscular modifications than from changes in muscular activity, except for eccentric condition at -30 degrees s(-1) where the torque gains could also be partly explained by a reduction in inhibition of the motor unit pool. PMID:15036395

  13. Prototype geothermal power plant summary of operation for automatic-run test phase

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, G.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Prototype Power Plant was built to demonstrate and learn the operation of a binary power cycle, and then serve as a test bed for pilot scale components, systems, and/or concepts that have the potential for enhancing the feasibility of power generation from a moderate temperature geothermal fluid resource. The operation to date of the prototype plant is summarized with primary emphasis on the automatic-run phase, during which the plant was operated over a five-month period with minimal operator surveillance.

  14. Effectiveness of a dry-land resistance training program on strength, power, and swimming performance in paralympic swimmers.

    PubMed

    Dingley, Andrew A; Pyne, David B; Youngson, Jamie; Burkett, Brendan

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a dry-land resistance training program in Paralympic swimmers to increase swimming power and strength measures, and how these changes affect swimming performance. Seven elite-level Paralympic swimmers (1 man and 6 women; age: 19.4 ± 6.5 years; body mass: 57 ± 12 kg; height: 1.66 ± 0.21 m) performed a 6-week coach-prescribed strength training intervention program designed to improve power, flexibility, and postural control. Exercises targeted the main swimming movements: the start and turn, postural control in the water, and the pull and kick focusing on the gluteals, upper body, and trunk. Swimming-specific tests, involving a 50-m time trial, and timed dive starts were conducted at baseline and after the 6-week program. A bilateral swim-bench ergometer and jump tests were conducted to quantify arm and leg strength and power. After the 6-week intervention, 50-m time trials improved by 1.2%, ± 1.5% (mean, ± 90% confidence limits). Increases in both mean power (6.1%, ± 5.9%) and acceleration (3.7%, ± 3.7%) generated during the dive start enabled swimmers to substantially improve start times to the 5-m (5.5%, ± 3.2) and 15-m (1.8%, ± 1.1%) marks. The resistance training intervention resulted in a very large (r = 0.78, ± 0.37) correlation between dive start velocity and the counter movement jump mean velocity. The 6-week resistance training program for Paralympic swimmers yielded substantial improvements in dry-land measures that corresponded with improvements in both timed dive starts and 50-m time trial performance, thus highlighting the usefulness of dry-land training for enhancing swimming performance in Paralympic swimming. PMID:25226306

  15. The Effect of Low Extremity Plyometric Training on Back Muscle Power of High School Throwing Event Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gi Duck; Lee, Joong Chul; Lee, Juri

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The physical strength elements required for athletic throwing events include muscle strength, swiftness, agility, speed, flexibility, and physical balance. Although plyometric training and weight training are implemented as representative training methods for improving swiftness and agility, most studies of it have been conducted with players of other sports. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 throwing event athletes attending K physical education high school. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group of five subjects and an experimental group of five subjects. To analyze the body composition, an Inbody 3.0 instrument (Biospace, Korea) was used as experimental equipment to measure heights, weight, body fat percentages, and muscle masses and a Biodex system 4.0 (BIODEX, USA) was used to measure isokinetic muscle-joint and lumbar muscle strengths. The plyometric training consisted of 15 techniques out of the training methods introduced in the ‘Power up plyometric training’. The plyometric program was implemented without any training load three times per week during daybreak exercises for the experimental group. The number of times and the number of sets were changed over time as follows: three sets of 10 times in the 1st −4th weeks, three sets of 15 times in the 5th–8th weeks, and five sets of 15 times in the 9th−12th weeks. [Results] According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar extensor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar flexor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. [Conclusion] Plyometric training positively affected high school throwing event athletes. To summarize the study findings, the application of plyometric training with high intensity and loads improved the results of athletes who perform highly intensive exercises at normal times. PMID:24567698

  16. ULTRA-LOW POWER CO2 SENSOR FOR INTELLIGENT BUILDING CONTROL - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed EPA SBIR Phase I program will create a novel ultra-low power and low-cost microfabricated CO2 sensor. The initial developments of sensor technology will serve the very large Demand Controlled Ventilation market that has been identified by KWJ and its...

  17. One order of magnitude faster phase change at reduced power in Ti-Sb-Te

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Xia, Mengjiao; Rao, Feng; Li, Xianbin; Wu, Liangcai; Ji, Xinglong; Lv, Shilong; Song, Zhitang; Feng, Songlin; Sun, Hongbo; Zhang, Shengbai

    2014-01-01

    To date, slow Set operation speed and high Reset operation power remain to be important limitations for substituting dynamic random access memory by phase change memory. Here, we demonstrate phase change memory cell based on Ti0.4Sb2Te3 alloy, showing one order of magnitude faster Set operation speed and as low as one-fifth Reset operation power, compared with Ge2Sb2Te5-based phase change memory cell at the same size. The enhancements may be rooted in the common presence of titanium-centred octahedral motifs in both amorphous and crystalline Ti0.4Sb2Te3 phases. The essentially unchanged local structures around the titanium atoms may be responsible for the significantly improved performance, as these structures could act as nucleation centres to facilitate a swift, low-energy order-disorder transition for the rest of the Sb-centred octahedrons. Our study may provide an alternative to the development of high-speed, low-power dynamic random access memory-like phase change memory technology. PMID:25001009

  18. One order of magnitude faster phase change at reduced power in Ti-Sb-Te.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Xia, Mengjiao; Rao, Feng; Li, Xianbin; Wu, Liangcai; Ji, Xinglong; Lv, Shilong; Song, Zhitang; Feng, Songlin; Sun, Hongbo; Zhang, Shengbai

    2014-01-01

    To date, slow Set operation speed and high Reset operation power remain to be important limitations for substituting dynamic random access memory by phase change memory. Here, we demonstrate phase change memory cell based on Ti0.4Sb2Te3 alloy, showing one order of magnitude faster Set operation speed and as low as one-fifth Reset operation power, compared with Ge2Sb2Te5-based phase change memory cell at the same size. The enhancements may be rooted in the common presence of titanium-centred octahedral motifs in both amorphous and crystalline Ti0.4Sb2Te3 phases. The essentially unchanged local structures around the titanium atoms may be responsible for the significantly improved performance, as these structures could act as nucleation centres to facilitate a swift, low-energy order-disorder transition for the rest of the Sb-centred octahedrons. Our study may provide an alternative to the development of high-speed, low-power dynamic random access memory-like phase change memory technology. PMID:25001009

  19. Relative Power of Specific EEG Bands and Their Ratios during Neurofeedback Training in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Li, Xiaoli; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F.; Tasman, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is a mode of treatment that is potentially useful for improving self-regulation skills in persons with autism spectrum disorder. We proposed that operant conditioning of EEG in neurofeedback mode can be accompanied by changes in the relative power of EEG bands. However, the details on the change of the relative power of EEG bands during neurofeedback training course in autism are not yet well explored. In this study, we analyzed the EEG recordings of children diagnosed with autism and enrolled in a prefrontal neurofeedback treatment course. The protocol used in this training was aimed at increasing the ability to focus attention, and the procedure represented the wide band EEG amplitude suppression training along with upregulation of the relative power of gamma activity. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed for each session of neurofeedback using wavelet transform to determine the relative power of gamma and theta/beta ratio, and further to detect the statistical changes within and between sessions. We found a linear decrease of theta/beta ratio and a liner increase of relative power of gamma activity over 18 weekly sessions of neurofeedback in 18 high functioning children with autism. The study indicates that neurofeedback is an effective method for altering EEG characteristics associated with the autism spectrum disorder. Also, it provides information about specific changes of EEG activities and details the correlation between changes of EEG and neurofeedback indexes during the course of neurofeedback. This pilot study contributes to the development of more effective approaches to EEG data analysis during prefrontal neurofeedback training in autism. PMID:26834615

  20. Ultra-low-power silicon photonics wavelength converter for phase-encoded telecommunication signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacava, C.; Ettabib, M. A.; Cristiani, I.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Richardson, D. J.; Petropoulos, P.

    2016-03-01

    The development of compact, low power, silicon photonics CMOS compatible components for all-optical signal processing represents a key step towards the development of fully functional platforms for next generation all-optical communication networks. The wavelength conversion functionality at key nodes is highly desirable to achieve transparent interoperability and wavelength routing allowing efficient management of network resources operated with high speed, phase encoded signals. All optical wavelength conversion has already been demonstrated in Si-based devices, mainly utilizing the strong Kerr effect that silicon exhibits at telecommunication wavelengths. Unfortunately, Two Photon Absorption (TPA) and Free Carrier (FC) effects strongly limit their performance, even at moderate power levels, making them unsuitable for practical nonlinear applications. Amorphous silicon has recently emerged as a viable alternative to crystalline silicon (c-Si), showing both an enhanced Kerr as well as a reduced TPA coefficient at telecom wavelengths, with respect to its c-Si counterpart. Here we present an ultra-low power wavelength converter based on a passive, CMOS compatible, 1-mm long amorphous silicon waveguide operated at a maximum pump power level of only 70 mW. We demonstrate TPA-free Four Wave Mixing (FWM)-based wavelength conversion of Binary Phase Shift Keyed (BPSK) and Quadrature Phase Shift Keyed (QPSK) signals at 20 Gbit/s with <1 dB power penalty at BER = 10-5.

  1. Two-phase flow in porous media: power-law scaling of effective permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grøva, Morten; Hansen, Alex

    2011-09-01

    A recent experiment has reported power-law scaling of effective permeability of two-phase flow with respect to capillary number for a two-dimensional model porous medium. In this paper, we consider the simultaneous flow of two phases through a porous medium under steady-state conditions, fixed total flow-rate and saturation, using a two-dimensional network simulator. We obtain power-law exponents for the scaling of effective permeability with respect to capillary number. The simulations are performed both for viscosity matched fluids and for a high viscosity ratio resembling that of air and water. Good power-law behaviour is found for both cases. Different exponents are found, depending on saturation.

  2. No reserve in isokinetic cycling power at intolerance during ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wylde, Lindsey A; Benson, Alan P; Cannon, Daniel T; Rossiter, Harry B

    2016-01-01

    During whole body exercise in health, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) is typically attained at or immediately before the limit of tolerance (LoT). At the V̇o2max and LoT of incremental exercise, a fundamental, but unresolved, question is whether maximal evocable power can be increased above the task requirement, i.e., whether there is a "power reserve" at the LoT. Using an instantaneous switch from cadence-independent (hyperbolic) to isokinetic cycle ergometry, we determined maximal evocable power at the limit of ramp-incremental exercise. We hypothesized that in endurance-trained men at LoT, maximal (4 s) isokinetic power would not differ from the power required by the task. Baseline isokinetic power at 80 rpm (Piso; measured at the pedals) and summed integrated EMG from five leg muscles (ΣiEMG) were measured in 12 endurance-trained men (V̇o2max = 4.2 ± 1.0 l/min). Participants then completed a ramp incremental exercise test (20-25 W/min), with instantaneous measurement of Piso and ΣiEMG at the LoT. Piso decreased from 788 ± 103 W at baseline to 391 ± 72 W at LoT, which was not different from the required ramp-incremental flywheel power (352 ± 58 W; P > 0.05). At LoT, the relative reduction in Piso was greater than the relative reduction in the isokinetic ΣiEMG (50 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10% of baseline; P < 0.05). During maximal ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men, maximum voluntary power is not different from the power required by the task and is consequent to both central and peripheral limitations in evocable power. The absence of a power reserve suggests both the perceptual and physiological limits of maximum voluntary power production are not widely dissociated at LoT in this population. PMID:26565019

  3. Findings of a workshop on developing a methodology for evaluating effectiveness of nuclear power plant training

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, J.A.; Fuller, R.E.; Walker, C.L. ); Mazour, T.J. )

    1992-04-01

    In October 1990, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored a workshop to develop a proposed methodology for use by the NRC in determining the effectiveness of nuclear utility training. The workshop developed a framework on which to base a methodology which draws together current NRC and nuclear industry processes and initiatives in training evaluation and plant performance monitoring. The framework recognizes that utilities, under current NRC and industry guidance, operate closed-loop training systems that incorporate methods for self-correction. The model proposes that by monitoring /sampling indicator data at various points in the utility's closed-loop system, the NRC can determine whether the loop is operating properly to maintain training program effectiveness. This training loop includes the training process, the performance of trained workers, and plant operators. Monitoring/sampling of indicators is planned such that each indicator provides data which complements data derived from other indictors. Agreement between indicators is used to confirm either effective training or to detect training problems. Inconsistency between indicators triggers further investigation.

  4. Findings of a workshop on developing a methodology for evaluating effectiveness of nuclear power plant training

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, J.A.; Fuller, R.E.; Walker, C.L.; Mazour, T.J.

    1992-04-01

    In October 1990, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored a workshop to develop a proposed methodology for use by the NRC in determining the effectiveness of nuclear utility training. The workshop developed a framework on which to base a methodology which draws together current NRC and nuclear industry processes and initiatives in training evaluation and plant performance monitoring. The framework recognizes that utilities, under current NRC and industry guidance, operate closed-loop training systems that incorporate methods for self-correction. The model proposes that by monitoring /sampling indicator data at various points in the utility`s closed-loop system, the NRC can determine whether the loop is operating properly to maintain training program effectiveness. This training loop includes the training process, the performance of trained workers, and plant operators. Monitoring/sampling of indicators is planned such that each indicator provides data which complements data derived from other indictors. Agreement between indicators is used to confirm either effective training or to detect training problems. Inconsistency between indicators triggers further investigation.

  5. High Power Passive Phase Locking of Four Yb-Doped Fiber Amplifiers by an All-Optical Feedback Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yu-Hao; He, Bing; Zhou, Jun; Li, Zhen; Fan, Yuan-Yuan; Qi, Yun-Feng; Liu, Chi; Yuan, Zhi-Jun; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Lou, Qi-Hong

    2011-05-01

    We report the passive phase locking of four high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers with ring cavity. The interference patterns at different output power are observed and the Strehl ratios are measured. The maximum coherent output power of the fiber array is up to 1062 W by multi-stage amplification. The stable beam profiles of various phase relationships are observed by controlling the position of the feedback fiber, in good agreement with the calculated results. By using master oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) architecture and broadband operation of passively phased systems, higher power scaling with high beam quality appears to be feasible.

  6. Self-consistent determination of the spike-train power spectrum in a neural network with sparse connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Dummer, Benjamin; Wieland, Stefan; Lindner, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A major source of random variability in cortical networks is the quasi-random arrival of presynaptic action potentials from many other cells. In network studies as well as in the study of the response properties of single cells embedded in a network, synaptic background input is often approximated by Poissonian spike trains. However, the output statistics of the cells is in most cases far from being Poisson. This is inconsistent with the assumption of similar spike-train statistics for pre- and postsynaptic cells in a recurrent network. Here we tackle this problem for the popular class of integrate-and-fire neurons and study a self-consistent statistics of input and output spectra of neural spike trains. Instead of actually using a large network, we use an iterative scheme, in which we simulate a single neuron over several generations. In each of these generations, the neuron is stimulated with surrogate stochastic input that has a similar statistics as the output of the previous generation. For the surrogate input, we employ two distinct approximations: (i) a superposition of renewal spike trains with the same interspike interval density as observed in the previous generation and (ii) a Gaussian current with a power spectrum proportional to that observed in the previous generation. For input parameters that correspond to balanced input in the network, both the renewal and the Gaussian iteration procedure converge quickly and yield comparable results for the self-consistent spike-train power spectrum. We compare our results to large-scale simulations of a random sparsely connected network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons (Brunel, 2000) and show that in the asynchronous regime close to a state of balanced synaptic input from the network, our iterative schemes provide an excellent approximations to the autocorrelation of spike trains in the recurrent network. PMID:25278869

  7. Performance/Design Requirements and Detailed Technical Description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem for Integration into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, A. K.; And Others

    The performance/design requirements and a detailed technical description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem to be integrated into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System are described. The subsystem may be used for computer-assisted lesson construction and has presentation capability for on-the-job training for data automation, staff, and…

  8. The effect of heart rate controlled low resistance circuit weight training and endurance training on maximal aerobic power in sedentary adults.

    PubMed

    Kaikkonen, H; Yrjämä, M; Siljander, E; Byman, P; Laukkanen, R

    2000-08-01

    The effects of a 12-week low resistance circuit weight training (CWT) on cardiovascular and muscular fitness were studied in 90 healthy sedentary adults. The subjects were randomized into three equally fit groups: CWT, Endurance (END) and Control (CON) according to their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). Both training groups exercised for 12 weeks, 3 days a week in sessions of 40 min, with a heart rate (HR) level of 70-80% HRmax. The CWT group trained with air resistance machines. Heart rate was controlled by setting the speed of movement. The END group walked, jogged, cross-country skied or cycled. The net differences (between pre- and posttraining changes) between the CWT and CON groups was statistically significant for VO2max (2.45 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1), 95% CI 1.1; 3.8), for abdominal muscles (3.7 reps, CI 0.3; 7.1), for push-ups (1.1 reps, CI 0.2; 2.1), and for kneeling (2.25 reps, CI 0.01; 4.5). The net difference (between pre- and posttraining changes) in the END and CON groups was statistically significant for VO2max (2.75 ml(-1) x min(-1) x kg(-1), 95% CI 0.9; 4.6), and kneeling (3.0 reps, CI 0.7; 5.3). Low resistance CWT with moderately hard HR level has effects comparable to an equal amount of endurance training on the cardiovascular fitness of sedentary adults. The CWT model was benefical also on muscular fitness. Based on the results, this type of exercise can be recommended for beginners because of its multilevel effects. PMID:10898265

  9. The Power of the Internet: Training Speech Pathology Assistants on Indian Reservations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, William R.; Tanner, Dennis C.

    This paper describes a pilot project to train rural native American paraprofessional personnel to deliver routine speech-language services to children under the overall supervision of a certified professional. The program had three components: on-site visits, desk-top conferencing, and distance training. The program was implemented at one…

  10. A PWM quadrature-booster phase shifter for ac power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, L.A.C.; Joos, G.; Ooi, B.T.

    1997-01-01

    The conventional structures used for phase shifters employ quadrature voltage injection controlled by means of on-load tap changers that require considerable maintenance. Line-commutated thyristor structures have been proposed to replace tap changers, but problems related to filter requirements or the number of switches have limited their utilization. This paper proposes a pulse width modulation (PWM) quadrature-booster phase shifter based on a force-commutated ac controller. It offers features such as fast dynamic response, continuous variation of the phase angle with low harmonic injection, and it requires a simple power structure and can be controlled by adjusting the duty cycle of the switches. The operating principles of the proposed phase shifter are analyzed and their feasibility is demonstrated through digital simulation and experimental implementation.

  11. The effects of stress on nuclear power plant operational decision making and training approaches to reduce stress effects

    SciTech Connect

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Operational personnel may be exposed to significant levels of stress during unexpected changes in plant state an plant emergencies. The decision making that identifies operational actions, which is strongly determined by procedures, may be affected by stress, and performance may be impaired. ER report analyzes potential effects of stress in nuclear power plant (NPP) settings, especially in the context of severe accident management (SAM). First, potential sources of stress in the NPP setting are identified. This analysis is followed by a review of the ways in which stress is likely to affect performance, with an emphasis on performance of cognitive skills that are linked to operational decision making. Finally, potential training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects are identified. Several training approaches have the potential to eliminate or mitigate stress effects on cognitive skill performance. First, the use of simulated events for training can reduce the novelty and uncertainty that can lead to stress and performance impairments. Second, training to make cognitive processing more efficient and less reliant on attention and memory resources can offset the reductions in these resources that occur under stressful conditions. Third, training that targets crew communications skills can reduce the likelihood that communications will fail under stress.

  12. Design and real time implementation of fuzzy switched controller for single phase active power filter.

    PubMed

    Afghoul, Hamza; Krim, Fateh; Chikouche, Djamel; Beddar, Antar

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel fuzzy switched controller (FSC) integrated in direct current control (DCC) algorithm for single phase active power filter (SPAPF). The controller under study consists of conventional PI controller, fractional order PI controller (FO-PI) and fuzzy decision maker (FDM) that switches between them using reduced fuzzy logic control. The proposed controller offers short response time with low damping and deals efficiently with the external disturbances while preserving the robustness properties. To fulfill the requirements of power quality, unity power factor and harmonics limitations in active power filtering an experimental test bench has been built using dSPACE 1104 to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed controller. The obtained results present high performance in steady and transient states. PMID:26233491

  13. A high-power microwave circular polarizer and its application on phase shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hao; Hu, Yongmei; Chang, Chao; Guo, Letian

    2016-04-01

    A high-power waveguide dual circular polarizer was theoretically designed and proof-of-principle was experimentally tested. It consists of two incident rectangular waveguides with a perpendicular H-plane junction, one circular waveguide with a pair of trapezoidal grooves coupled in E-plane at the top, a spherical crown located at the bottom, and an iris at the perpendicular junction of two rectangular waveguides. When wave incidents at one of the two separated rectangular waveguides, it, respectively, generates a left-hand circular polarized wave or a right-hand circular polarized wave in the circular waveguide. By adding a dumbbell-like metal plug driven with a high speed servomotor, a movable short circuit is formed along the circular waveguide to adjust the output RF phase of the rectangular port, realizing a high-speed high-power phase shifter. The C-band high power microwave (HPM) experiments were carried out, and the power capacity of the HPM polarizer and phase shifter was demonstrated to reach gigawatt level.

  14. Fuzzy Logic Controller Architecture for Water Level Control in Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generator (SG) Using ANFIS Training Method

    SciTech Connect

    Vosoughi, Naser; Naseri, Zahra

    2002-07-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a Fuzzy logic controller architecture is applied to show desired control of the water level in a Nuclear steam generator. with regard to the physics of the system, it is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial member functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generators while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input output mapping based on both human knowledge (in from of Fuzzy if then rules) and stipulated input output data. In this paper with a simple test it has been shown that the architecture fuzzy logic controller has a reasonable response to one step input at a constant power. Through computer simulation, it is found that Fuzzy logic controller is suitable, especially for the water level deviation and abrupt steam flow disturbances that are typical in the existing power plant. (authors)

  15. Hysteresis, phase transitions, and dangerous transients in electrical power distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Duclut, Charlie; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The majority of dynamical studies in power systems focus on the high-voltage transmission grids where models consider large generators interacting with crude aggregations of individual small loads. However, new phenomena have been observed indicating that the spatial distribution of collective, nonlinear contribution of these small loads in the low-voltage distribution grid is crucial to the outcome of these dynamical transients. To elucidate the phenomenon, we study the dynamics of voltage and power flows in a spatially extended distribution feeder (circuit) connecting many asynchronous induction motors and discover that this relatively simple 1+1 (space+time) dimensional system exhibits a plethora of nontrivial spatiotemporal effects, some of which may be dangerous for power system stability. Long-range motor-motor interactions mediated by circuit voltage and electrical power flows result in coexistence and segregation of spatially extended phases defined by individual motor states, a "normal" state where the motors' mechanical (rotation) frequency is slightly smaller than the nominal frequency of the basic ac flows and a "stalled" state where the mechanical frequency is small. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by a perturbation of the voltage or base frequency at the head of the distribution feeder. Such behavior is typical of first-order phase transitions in physics, and this 1+1 dimensional model shows many other properties of a first-order phase transition with the spatial distribution of the motors' mechanical frequency playing the role of the order parameter. In particular, we observe (a) propagation of the phase-transition front with the constant speed (in very long feeders) and (b) hysteresis in transitions between the normal and stalled (or partially stalled) phases. PMID:23848724

  16. Hysteresis, phase transitions, and dangerous transients in electrical power distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclut, Charlie; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The majority of dynamical studies in power systems focus on the high-voltage transmission grids where models consider large generators interacting with crude aggregations of individual small loads. However, new phenomena have been observed indicating that the spatial distribution of collective, nonlinear contribution of these small loads in the low-voltage distribution grid is crucial to the outcome of these dynamical transients. To elucidate the phenomenon, we study the dynamics of voltage and power flows in a spatially extended distribution feeder (circuit) connecting many asynchronous induction motors and discover that this relatively simple 1+1 (space+time) dimensional system exhibits a plethora of nontrivial spatiotemporal effects, some of which may be dangerous for power system stability. Long-range motor-motor interactions mediated by circuit voltage and electrical power flows result in coexistence and segregation of spatially extended phases defined by individual motor states, a “normal” state where the motors’ mechanical (rotation) frequency is slightly smaller than the nominal frequency of the basic ac flows and a “stalled” state where the mechanical frequency is small. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by a perturbation of the voltage or base frequency at the head of the distribution feeder. Such behavior is typical of first-order phase transitions in physics, and this 1+1 dimensional model shows many other properties of a first-order phase transition with the spatial distribution of the motors’ mechanical frequency playing the role of the order parameter. In particular, we observe (a) propagation of the phase-transition front with the constant speed (in very long feeders) and (b) hysteresis in transitions between the normal and stalled (or partially stalled) phases.

  17. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components: Phase 2, Motor control center, switchboard, panelboard and power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Kassir, M.K.; Pepper, S.E.

    1987-12-01

    In Phase I of the Component Fragility Program, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a procedure to establish the seismic fragility of nuclear power plant equipment by use of existing test data and demonstrated its application by considering two equipment pieces. In Phase II of the program, BNL has collected additional test data, and has further advanced and is applying the methodology to determine the fragility levels of selected essential equipment categories. The data evaluation of four equipment families, namely, motor control center, switchboard, panelboard and power supply has been completed. Fragility levels have been determined for various failure modes of each equipment class and the deterministic results are presented in terms of test response spectra. In addition, the test data have been analyzed for determination of the respective probabilistic fragility levels. To this end, a single g-value has been selected to approximately represent the test vibration level and a statistical analysis has been performed with the g-values corresponding to a particular failure mode. The zero period acceleration and the average spectral acceleration over a frequency range of interest are separately used as the single g-value. The resulting parameters are presented in terms of a median value, an uncertainty coefficient and a randomness coefficient. Ultimately, each fragility level is expressed in terms of a single descriptor called an HCLPF value corresponding to a high (95%) confidence of a low (5%) probability of failure. The important observations made in the process of data analysis are included in this report.

  18. Non-power law behavior of the radial profile of phase-space density of halos

    SciTech Connect

    Popolo, A. Del

    2011-07-01

    We study the pseudo phase-space density, ρ(r)/σ{sup 3}(r), of ΛCDM dark matter halos with and without baryons (baryons+DM, and pure DM), by using the model introduced in Del Popolo (2009), which takes into account the effect of dynamical friction, ordered and random angular momentum, baryons adiabatic contraction and dark matter baryons interplay. We examine the radial dependence of ρ(r)/σ{sup 3}(r) over 9 orders of magnitude in radius for structures on galactic and cluster of galaxies scales. We find that ρ(r)/σ{sup 3}(r) is approximately a power-law only in the range of halo radius resolved by current simulations (down to 0.1% of the virial radius) while it has a non-power law behavior below the quoted scale, with inner profiles changing with mass. The non-power-law behavior is more evident for halos constituted both of dark matter and baryons while halos constituted just of dark matter and with angular momentum chosen to reproduce a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile, are characterized by an approximately power-law behavior. The results of the present paper lead to conclude that density profiles of the NFW type are compatible with a power-law behavior of ρ(r)/σ{sup 3}(r), while those flattening to the halo center, like those found in Del Popolo (2009) or the Einasto profile, or the Burkert profile, cannot produce radial profile of the pseudo-phase-space density that are power-laws at all radii. The results argue against universality of the pseudo phase-space density and as a consequence argue against universality of density profiles constituted by dark matter and baryons as also discussed in Del Popolo (2009)

  19. Online Teacher Training: The Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System--Phase 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daytner, Gary; Robinson, Linda; Schneider, Carol; Johanson, Joyce

    2009-01-01

    Legislation, research, and practice support access to technology by young children with disabilities. Yet barriers to technology use--lack of training, inadequate funding, failure to acknowledge technology as a relevant issue, or disbelief that technology can positively impact young children with disabilities--often prevail among many disciplines…

  20. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Part A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, contains the documents considered to be important in providing the background for the study. The materials are organized into four major areas: initial correspondence, instrumentation, special reports, and psychomotor skills. See also HE 003 275 and HE 003 276.…

  1. Bilingual Education Instructional and Training Materials. Field Test Results and Final Phase II Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, Alicia

    The report describes a federally funded project for the development of an innovative approach to bilingual curriculum and instruction and inservice teacher training. A needs assessment and research process resulted in development and field testing of a set of bilingual Spanish-English instructional materials for limited-English-speaking urban…

  2. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING, PHASE I. QUARTERLY REPORTS 2 AND 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STOLUROW, LAWRENCE M.

    PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE TRANSFER OF TRAINING WERE STUDIED BY USE OF PROGRAMED SELF-INSTRUCTION USING TEACHING MACHINES. THIS MEDIUM WAS CHOSEN BECAUSE IT PROVIDES LABORATORY-LIKE CONDITIONS SUCH AS STABILIZED METHODS, AND STIMULUS CONTROL INCLUDING CONTROL OF TEACHER PERSONALITY, PLUS A STEP-BY-STEP RECORD OF THE…

  3. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TRAINING OF PHLEBOTOMISTS (G10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to outline the responsibilities of the phlebotomist before, during, and after sampling at residences; and the training system that teaches phlebotomists what they need to know to handle these responsibilities. The overall responsibilities are to collec...

  4. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TRAINING OF INTERVIEWERS (G08)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to outline the responsibilities of the Field Interviewer (FI) before, during, and after sampling at residences; and the training system that will teach FIs what they need to know to handle these responsibilities. The overall responsibilities of the FIs...

  5. Influence of output power of a spin torque oscillator on phase locked loop operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaru, Shingo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    This work investigates the influence of the output power of a spin torque oscillator (STO) on the operation of a phase locked loop (PLL) circuit. Timing jitter and minimum output power for stable PLL operation determined by Johnson noise and shot noise are first theoretically calculated, and compared with experimental results. The theory and experiment show a reasonably good agreement, indicating that smaller than ‑50 dBm (10 nW), or ‑60 dBm (1 nW) when a low pass filter is used, of output power is sufficient for stable PLL operation if a large timing jitter is acceptable. However, it is also shown that a large output power is needed to suppress timing jitter down to the level comparable to state-of-the-art commercial PLL circuits. The estimate of minimum output power for stable PLL operation is verified by intentionally attenuating the STO output signal down to ‑55 dBm (3.2 nW) and demonstrating a stable phase locked oscillation.

  6. Three phase six-switch PWM buck rectifier with power factor improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafarullah Khan, M.; Mohsin Naveed, M.; Akbar Hussain, D. M.

    2013-06-01

    Conventional Phase Controlled Rectifier injects low order current harmonics into the AC mains. Large size filtering components are required to attenuate these harmonics. In this paper, three phase six-switch PWM buck rectifier is presented which operates at nearly unity power factor and provides variable output voltage. Small size energy storing components are required depending upon switching frequency. MATLAB simulation is performed and modified Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) switching technique is used in 3kW prototype converter to demonstrate low input current THD, nearly unity displacement factor, well regulated output voltage and reduced switching losses compared to conventional SPWM.

  7. Fisher information, Rényi entropy power and quantum phase transition in the Dicke model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Á.; Romera, E.

    2012-07-01

    Fisher information, Rényi entropy power and Fisher-Rényi information product are presented for the Dicke model. There is a quantum phase transition in this quantum optical model. It is pointed out that there is an abrupt change in the Fisher information, Rényi entropy power, the Fisher, Shannon and Rényi lengths at the transition point. It is found that these quantities diverge as the characteristic length: | around the critical value of the coupling strength λc for any value of the parameter β.

  8. Modeling Single-Phase and Boiling Liquid Jet Impingement Cooling in Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S. V. J.; Hassani, V.; Bharathan, D.

    2005-12-01

    Jet impingement has been an attractive cooling option in a number of industries over the past few decades. Over the past 15 years, jet impingement has been explored as a cooling option in microelectronics. Recently, interest has been expressed by the automotive industry in exploring jet impingement for cooling power electronics components. This technical report explores, from a modeling perspective, both single-phase and boiling jet impingement cooling in power electronics, primarily from a heat transfer viewpoint. The discussion is from the viewpoint of the cooling of IGBTs (insulated-gate bipolar transistors), which are found in hybrid automobile inverters.

  9. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Results of a three phase study of the Solar Power Satellite System are summarized. Various options and alternate systems were considered and the following conclusions were reached: antenna mounted solid state transmitters are potentially as cost effective as the klystron approach, althrough limited to 2500 megawatts net output; the free electron laser and optical diode laser appear most promising for laser power transmission; ground antenna siting need not be restricted to below 35 degrees of latitude; and nonrecurring cost reductions attainable by using a smaller Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle are highly attractive.

  10. Propagation of the power-exponent-phase vortex beam in paraxial ABCD system.

    PubMed

    Lao, Guanming; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-08-01

    The general analytical formula for the propagation of the power-exponent-phase vortex (PEPV) beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived. On that basis the evolution of the intensity distribution of such a beam in free space and the focusing system is investigated. In addition, some experiments are carried out, which verify the theoretical predictions. Both of the theoretical and experimental results show that the beam's profile can be modulated by the topological charge and the power order of the PEPV beam. PMID:27505774

  11. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruxi; Wang, Fei; Boroyevich, Dushan; Burgos, Rolando; Lai, Rixin; Ning, Puqi; Rajashekara, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.

  12. Two-phase power-law modeling of pipe flows displaying shear-thinning phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Jianmin; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes work in modeling concentrated liquid-solids flows in pipes. COMMIX-M, a three-dimensional transient and steady-state computer program developed at Argonne National Laboratory, was used to compute velocities and concentrations. Based on the authors` previous analyses, some concentrated liquid-solids suspension flows display shear-thinning rather than Newtonian phenomena. Therefore, they developed a two-phase non-Newtonian power-law model that includes the effect of solids concentration on solids viscosity. With this new two-phase power-law solids-viscosity model, and with constitutive relationships for interfacial drag, virtual mass effect, shear lift force, and solids partial-slip boundary condition at the pipe walls, COMMIX-M is capable of analyzing concentrated three-dimensional liquid-solids flows.

  13. Maximize Learning Time: Powerful Techniques in the Training/Teaching Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBonty, Dennis; Bartholome, Lloyd W.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses various methods for making employee training programs more efficient: spacing practice, memory consolidation, determining the optimum practice period, periodic review, and testing. Presents research evidence on the effectiveness of spaced practice. (JOW)

  14. Simulations and Measurements for a concept of powering CALICE-AHCAL at a train-cycled accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göttlicher, P.

    2013-01-01

    Improving calorimetry by usage of the particle-flow algorithm requires to record the details of the shower development. Therefore a high granularity analogue readout hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) with small sensors and with electronics handling the enormous amount of channels, ≈ 40 000/m3, is required. Homogeneity is maintained by avoiding cooling tubes in the active volume and only cooling at the service end. For this concept low power consumption per channel, 40 μW, is essential. Future linear e+e-- collider designs, ILC or CLIC, foresee duty cycles for the bunch delivery. At ILC bunch trains of 1 ms duration are followed by long breaks of 200 ms. Power cycling the front end electronics with the train structure can reduce power consumption by a factor 100. However for a full scale CALICE-AHCAL switched currents reach magnitudes of kilo-amperes. This paper describes the design chain from front end PCB's through to external power supplies. By simulations a concept is developed, in which effects of electromagnetic interferences are kept small and localized. The goal is to keep current loops small, to limit the switched current to the region near the switched consumer and to allow only small frequency currents to spread out further into the system. By that analogue performance can be kept high and parasitic couplings to the surrounding metal structures and other sub-detectors will be minimized. Measurements with existing prototypes support the validity of the simulations.

  15. Frequency and phase stabilization of a multimode gyrotron with megawatt power by an external signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakunin, V. L.; Denisov, G. G.; Novozhilova, Yu. V.

    2014-05-01

    We have numerically studied capturing of the oscillation frequency and phase of the TE28.12 operating mode by an external monochromatic signal for a multimode gyrotron with a close to real regime of activation. It is shown that, even at a low external-signal power, in a wide range of the magnetic field and voltage, a highly efficient single-mode generating is set at the frequency of the external signal.

  16. NASA Research Announcement Phase 1 Report and Phase 2 Proposal for the Development of a Power Assisted Space Suit Glove Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadogan, Dave; Lingo, Bob

    1996-01-01

    In July of 1996, ILC Dover was awarded Phase 1 of a contract for NASA to develop a prototype Power Assisted Space Suit glove to enhance the performance of astronauts during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). This report summarizes the work performed to date on Phase 1, and details the work to be conducted on Phase 2 of the program. Phase 1 of the program consisted of research and review of related technical sources, concept brainstorming, baseline design development, modeling and analysis, component mock-up testing, and test data analysis. ILC worked in conjunction with the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) to develop the power assisted glove. Phase 2 activities will focus on the design maturation and the manufacture of a working prototype system. The prototype will be tested and evaluated in conjunction with existing space suit glove technology to determine the performance enhancement anticipated with the implementation of the power assisted joint technology in space suit gloves.

  17. The pulling power of chocolate: Effects of approach-avoidance training on approach bias and consumption.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Hugh; Kavanagh, David J; MacLeod, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has shown that action tendencies to approach alcohol may be modified using computerized Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), and that this impacted on subsequent consumption. A recent paper in this journal (Becker, Jostman, Wiers, & Holland, 2015) failed to show significant training effects for food in three studies: Nor did it find effects on subsequent consumption. However, avoidance training to high calorie foods was tested against a control rather than Approach training. The present study used a more comparable paradigm to the alcohol studies. It randomly assigned 90 participants to 'approach' or 'avoid' chocolate images on the AAT, and then asked them to taste and rate chocolates. A significant interaction of condition and time showed that training to avoid chocolate resulted in faster avoidance responses to chocolate images, compared with training to approach it. Consistent with Becker et al.'s Study 3, no effect was found on amounts of chocolate consumed, although a newly published study in this journal (Schumacher, Kemps, & Tiggemann, 2016) did do so. The collective evidence does not as yet provide solid basis for the application of AAT training to reduction of problematic food consumption, although clinical trials have yet to be conducted. PMID:26725150

  18. Free-piston Stirling engine conceptual design and technologies for space power, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penswick, L. Barry; Beale, William T.; Wood, J. Gary

    1990-01-01

    As part of the SP-100 program, a phase 1 effort to design a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a space dynamic power conversion system was completed. SP-100 is a combined DOD/DOE/NASA program to develop nuclear power for space. This work was completed in the initial phases of the SP-100 program prior to the power conversion concept selection for the Ground Engineering System (GES). Stirling engine technology development as a growth option for SP-100 is continuing after this phase 1 effort. Following a review of various engine concepts, a single-cylinder engine with a linear alternator was selected for the remainder of the study. The relationships of specific mass and efficiency versus temperature ratio were determined for a power output of 25 kWe. This parametric study was done for a temperature ratio range of 1.5 to 2.0 and for hot-end temperatures of 875 K and 1075 K. A conceptual design of a 1080 K FPSE with a linear alternator producing 25 kWe output was completed. This was a single-cylinder engine designed for a 62,000 hour life and a temperature ratio of 2.0. The heat transport systems were pumped liquid-metal loops on both the hot and cold ends. These specifications were selected to match the SP-100 power system designs that were being evaluated at that time. The hot end of the engine used both refractory and superalloy materials; the hot-end pressure vessel featured an insulated design that allowed use of the superalloy material. The design was supported by the hardware demonstration of two of the component concepts - the hydrodynamic gas bearing for the displacer and the dynamic balance system. The hydrodynamic gas bearing was demonstrated on a test rig. The dynamic balance system was tested on the 1 kW RE-1000 engine at NASA Lewis.

  19. Enhanced power factor via the control of structural phase transition in SnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hulei; Dai, Shuai; Chen, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Tin selenide has attracted much research interest due to its unprecedentedly high thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). For real applications, it is desirable to increase the ZT value in the lower-temperature range, as the peak ZT value currently exists near the melting point. It is shown in this paper that the structural phase transition plays an important role in boosting the ZT value of SnSe in the lower-temperature range, as the Cmcm phase is found to have a much higher power factor than the Pnma phase. Furthermore, hydrostatic pressure is predicted to be extremely effective in tuning the phase transition temperature based on ab-initio molecular dynamic simulations; a remarkable decrease in the phase transition temperature is found when a hydrostatic pressure is applied. Dynamical stabilities are investigated based on phonon calculations, providing deeper insight into the pressure effects. Accurate band structures are obtained using the modified Becke-Johnson correction, allowing reliable prediction of the electrical transport properties. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the thermal transport properties are also discussed. Hydrostatic pressure is shown to be efficient in manipulating the transport properties via the control of phase transition temperature in SnSe, paving a new path for enhancing its thermoelectric efficiency.

  20. Enhanced power factor via the control of structural phase transition in SnSe

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hulei; Dai, Shuai; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Tin selenide has attracted much research interest due to its unprecedentedly high thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). For real applications, it is desirable to increase the ZT value in the lower-temperature range, as the peak ZT value currently exists near the melting point. It is shown in this paper that the structural phase transition plays an important role in boosting the ZT value of SnSe in the lower-temperature range, as the Cmcm phase is found to have a much higher power factor than the Pnma phase. Furthermore, hydrostatic pressure is predicted to be extremely effective in tuning the phase transition temperature based on ab-initio molecular dynamic simulations; a remarkable decrease in the phase transition temperature is found when a hydrostatic pressure is applied. Dynamical stabilities are investigated based on phonon calculations, providing deeper insight into the pressure effects. Accurate band structures are obtained using the modified Becke-Johnson correction, allowing reliable prediction of the electrical transport properties. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the thermal transport properties are also discussed. Hydrostatic pressure is shown to be efficient in manipulating the transport properties via the control of phase transition temperature in SnSe, paving a new path for enhancing its thermoelectric efficiency. PMID:27193260

  1. Enhanced power factor via the control of structural phase transition in SnSe.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hulei; Dai, Shuai; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Tin selenide has attracted much research interest due to its unprecedentedly high thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). For real applications, it is desirable to increase the ZT value in the lower-temperature range, as the peak ZT value currently exists near the melting point. It is shown in this paper that the structural phase transition plays an important role in boosting the ZT value of SnSe in the lower-temperature range, as the Cmcm phase is found to have a much higher power factor than the Pnma phase. Furthermore, hydrostatic pressure is predicted to be extremely effective in tuning the phase transition temperature based on ab-initio molecular dynamic simulations; a remarkable decrease in the phase transition temperature is found when a hydrostatic pressure is applied. Dynamical stabilities are investigated based on phonon calculations, providing deeper insight into the pressure effects. Accurate band structures are obtained using the modified Becke-Johnson correction, allowing reliable prediction of the electrical transport properties. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the thermal transport properties are also discussed. Hydrostatic pressure is shown to be efficient in manipulating the transport properties via the control of phase transition temperature in SnSe, paving a new path for enhancing its thermoelectric efficiency. PMID:27193260

  2. Design optimizations of phase noise, power consumption and frequency tuning for VCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Chen; Shengxi, Diao; Lu, Huang; Xuefei, Bai; Fujiang, Lin

    2013-09-01

    To meet the requirements of the low power Zigbee system, VCO design optimizations of phase noise, power consumption and frequency tuning are discussed in this paper. Both flicker noise of tail bias transistors and up-conversion of flicker noise from cross-coupled pair are reduced by improved self-switched biasing technology, leading to low close-in phase noise. Low power is achieved by low supply voltage and triode region biasing. To linearly tune the frequency and get constant gain, distributed varactor structure is adopted. The proposed VCO is fabricated in SMIC 0.18-μm CMOS process. The measured linear tuning range is from 2.38 to 2.61 GHz. The oscillator exhibits low phase noise of -77.5 dBc/Hz and -122.8 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz and 1 MHz offset, respectively, at 2.55 GHz oscillation frequency while dissipating 2.7 mA from 1.2 V supply voltage, which well meet design specifications.

  3. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Felix; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Perkins, Steven; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A.; deJong, Bev; Butkowski, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (−20%; p = 0.047) and a decrease of MCP-1 (−17.9%; p = 0.03). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27212809

  4. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Felix; Jelinek, Herbert F; Perkins, Steven; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A; deJong, Bev; Butkowski, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (-20%; p = 0.047) and a decrease of MCP-1 (-17.9%; p = 0.03). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27212809

  5. Limitations of the Conventional Phase Advance Method for Constant Power Operation of the Brushless DC Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J.S.

    2001-10-29

    The brushless dc motor (BDCM) has high-power density and efficiency relative to other motor types. These properties make the BDCM well suited for applications in electric vehicles provided a method can be developed for driving the motor over the 4 to 6:1 constant power speed range (CPSR) required by such applications. The present state of the art for constant power operation of the BDCM is conventional phase advance (CPA) [1]. In this paper, we identify key limitations of CPA. It is shown that the CPA has effective control over the developed power but that the current magnitude is relatively insensitive to power output and is inversely proportional to motor inductance. If the motor inductance is low, then the rms current at rated power and high speed may be several times larger than the current rating. The inductance required to maintain rms current within rating is derived analytically and is found to be large relative to that of BDCM designs using high-strength rare earth magnets. Th us, the CPA requires a BDCM with a large equivalent inductance.

  6. Simulation and Analysis of Three-Phase Rectifiers for Aerospace Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the nature of planned planetary missions, fairly large advanced power systems are required for the spacecraft. These future high power spacecrafts are expected to use dynamic power conversion systems incorporating high speed alternators as three-phase AC electrical power source. One of the early design considerations in such systems is the type of rectification to be used with the AC source for DC user loads. This paper address the issues involved with two different rectification methods, namely the conventional six and twelve pulses. Two circuit configurations which involved parallel combinations of the six and twelve-pulse rectifiers were selected for the simulation. The rectifier s input and output power waveforms will be thoroughly examined through simulations. The effects of the parasitic load for power balancing and filter components for reducing the ripple voltage at the DC loads are also included in the analysis. Details of the simulation circuits, simulation results, and design examples for reducing risk from damaging of spacecraft engines will be presented and discussed.

  7. Development of a single-phase harmonic power flow program to study the 20 kHz AC power system for large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. Alan; Kankam, M. David

    1991-01-01

    The development of software is described to aid in design and analysis of AC power systems for large spacecraft. The algorithm is an important version of harmonic power flow program, HARMFLO, used for the study of AC power quality. The new program is applicable to three-phase systems typified by terrestrial power systems, and single-phase systems characteristic of space power systems. The modified HARMFLO accommodates system operating frequencies ranging from terrestrial 60 Hz to and beyond aerospace 20 kHz, and can handle both source and load-end harmonic distortions. Comparison of simulation and test results of a representative spacecraft power system shows a satisfactory correlation. Recommendations are made for the direction of future improvements to the software, to enhance its usefulness to power system designer and analysts.

  8. Analysis and design of modular three-phase power factor correction schemes for utility interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Jae-Hong

    The extensive use of non-linear and electronically switched loads in power system has lead to higher incidences of harmonic distortion of the voltage and current waveforms. Harmonic currents degrade power quality and are considered the main source of many system malfunctions. Technical guidelines and standards regarding suppressions of system harmonic contents have been enacted. This dissertation proposes several new three-phase power factor correction (PFC) schemes using single-phase PFC modules. An integrated single-switch approach is first proposed. This is essentially an add-on solution to standard ASD's. This approach is based on circulating third harmonic current between neutral and DC mid-point by utilizing a lossless resistor. Single-phase PFC emulates this resistor to control the amplitude of the current, which is implemented by the dynamic breaking chopper available in standard adjustable speed drives (ASD's). This approach is also capable of reducing harmonic distortion in multiple drives. Analysis, design and simulations are conducted to determine the performance of the proposed scheme with different line impedances and with and without dc-link inductance in the ASD. Experimental results are presented using commercial ASD retrofitted with the proposed approach. Second scheme proposes a three-phase PFC using two standard single-phase PFC modules. In this approach, three-phase input is transformed into two-phase by means of 0.14 pu autotransformer. Two standard single-phase PFC modules are employed to process two-phase power to do output. Split inductors and diodes are employed to limit the interaction between the two phases. A method to eliminate the interaction between phases is also described. Due to cascade operation of two PFC stages, low frequency (120Hz) ripple in dc-link is cancelled. An active interphase transformer (IPT) scheme is proposed to draw sinusoidal input line currents, in the third study. This scheme utilizes a unique combination of a

  9. Contributions of force and velocity to improved power with progressive resistance training in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Petrella, John K; Kim, Jeong-Su; Tuggle, S Craig; Bamman, Marcas M

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the effects of age on changes in the force and velocity components of knee extension (KE) power during 16 weeks of traditional progressive resistance training (PRT). Thirty-one young (27 +/- 1 years, 16 men, 15 women) and 30 older (64 +/- 1 years, 14 men, 16 women) adults trained by KE, leg press, and squat 3 days/week. PRT consisted of three sets with an appropriate load for 8-12 repetitions to fatigue. Testing occurred at baseline, 8, and 16 weeks. Thigh lean mass (TLM) was measured by DEXA. KE load-power and load-velocity curves were generated from peak concentric contractions against loads equivalent to 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) force. Quadriceps neural activation relative to maximum was assessed during a sit-to-stand task. Participants increased KE 1RM (P < 0.05) by 8 weeks with young adults also increasing strength from 8 to 16 weeks. Adjusting for TLM, all groups increased KE specific strength (P < 0.05). MVC improved by 8 weeks in older adults and by 16 weeks in young subjects (P < 0.05). Neural activation requirements during standing and sitting declined in older adults by 8 weeks (P < 0.05). The KE load-power curve improved for all groups (P < 0.05) by 8 weeks with only young adults improving from 8 to 16 weeks. Peak concentric velocity increased only in older adults (P < 0.05). Training improvements in power resulted primarily from increases in strength both early and late for young adults while older adults realized early improvements in both strength and peak concentric velocity. PMID:17165058

  10. Turbulence in planetary occultations. IV - Power spectra of phase and intensity fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haugstad, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Power spectra of phase and intensity scintillations during occultation by turbulent planetary atmospheres are significantly affected by the inhomogeneous background upon which the turbulence is superimposed. Such coupling is particularly pronounced in the intensity, where there is also a marked difference in spectral shape between a central and grazing occultation. While the former has its structural features smoothed by coupling to the inhomogeneous background, such features are enhanced in the latter. Indeed, the latter power spectrum peaks around the characteristic frequency that is determined by the size of the free-space Fresnel zone and the ray velocity in the atmosphere; at higher frequencies strong fringes develop in the power spectrum. A confrontation between the theoretical scintillation spectra computed here and those calculated from the Mariner 5 Venus mission by Woo et al. (1974) is inconclusive, mainly because of insufficient statistical resolution. Phase and/or intensity power spectra computed from occultation data may be used to deduce characteristics of the turbulence and to distinguish turbulence from other perturbations in the refractive index. Such determinations are facilitated if observations are made at two or more frequencies (radio occultation) or in two or more colors (stellar occultation).

  11. Absence of amorphous phase in high power femtosecond laser-ablated silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matthew S.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Minor, Andrew M.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2009-01-05

    As femtosecond lasers emerge as viable tools for advanced microscale materials processing, it becomes increasingly important to understand the characteristics of materials resulting from femtosecond laser microablation or micromachining. We conducted transmission electron microscopy experiments to investigate crater structures in silicon produced by repetitive high power femtosecond laser ablation. Comparable experiments of nanosecond laser ablation of silicon were also performed. We found that an amorphous silicon layer that is typically produced in nanosecond laser ablation is absent when the material is irradiated by high power femtosecond laser pulses. Instead, only a defective single crystalline layer was observed in the high power femtosecond laser-ablated silicon crater. Possible mechanisms underlying the formation of the defective single crystalline phase are discussed.

  12. Two-phase low-power analogue CMOS peak detector with high dynamic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malankin, E.

    2016-02-01

    A low-power two-phase peak detector with wide dynamic range was developed. The PD was designed on the basis ofthe CMOS UMC 180 nm process. This block is considered as a part of the read-out electronics of the CBM experiment at upcoming FAIR accelerator (Germany). Peak detector has the following advantages: wide dynamic range of 5 - 1000 mV, low power consumption of 500 µW. The designed PD meets the requirements to the muon chamber read-out electronics of the CBM experiment. Due to the area efficiency (100×90 μm2) and low power consumption it can be used in different applications for high-energy physics read-out electronics.

  13. Concentrating Solar Power - Molten Salt Pump Development, Final Technical Report (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael McDowell; Alan Schwartz

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long shafted pump to operate at high temperatures for the purpose of producing energy with renewable resources. In Phase I of this three phase project we developed molten salt pump requirements, evaluated existing hardware designs for necessary modifications, developed a preliminary design of the pump concept, and developed refined cost estimates for Phase II and Phase III of the project. The decision has been made not to continue the project into Phases II and III. There is an ever increasing world-wide demand for sources of energy. With only a limited supply of fossil fuels, and with the costs to obtain and produce those fuels increasing, sources of renewable energy must be found. Currently, capturing the sun's energy is expensive compared to heritage fossil fuel energy production. However, there are government requirements on Industry to increase the amount of energy generated from renewable resources. The objective of this project is to design, build and test a long-shafted, molten salt pump. This is the type of pump necessary for a molten salt thermal storage system in a commercial-scale solar trough plant. This project is under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program, managed by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and to meet the requirements of 'tomorrows' demand, technical innovations are needed. The DOE is committed to reducing the LCOE to 7-10 cents/kWh by 2015, and to 5-7 cents/kWh by 2020. To accomplish these goals, the performance envelope for commercial use of long-shafted molten salt pumps must be expanded. The intent of this project is to verify acceptable operation of pump components in the type of molten salt (thermal storage medium) used in commercial power plants today. Field testing will be necessary to verify the integrity of the pump design, and thus reduce the risk to industry. While the primary goal is to

  14. Toward a powerful problem-based training tool for harnessing lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    May, W. E.; Richards, R. E.

    2006-07-01

    One of the purposes of this paper is to describe a training method and supporting technologies (tool) to increase personnel awareness of error precursors. This model-centered method may be an effective 'part task training' to precede more expensive fall-blown multimedia scenarios (behavioral simulations). The training is designed to efficiently increase positive transfer from lessons learned case studies. The tool enables developers to take actual instances and inexpensively frame them within an interactive computer learning environment. The learning is engaging and helps model the kind of causal thinking needed to prevent future occurrences. This method and tool could help workers 'see' the problems and feel the need to take action when they are in real settings. Another purpose of this paper is to present the results of research into the process of designing and developing this training software. The benefits for attendees are insights that may enable more rapid proto-typing of software for training the workforce. The authors will present the models, methodologies, and patterns in the participants' design activities. Results show that participants used a cyclical, spiral process that revisited design topics until they were clarified. (authors)

  15. Inspiratory muscle training improves cycling time-trial performance and anaerobic work capacity but not critical power.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael A; Sharpe, Graham R; Brown, Peter I

    2007-12-01

    We examined whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improved cycling time-trial performance and changed the relationship between limit work (W (lim)) and limit time (T (lim)), which is described by the parameters critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity (AWC). Eighteen male cyclists were assigned to either a pressure-threshold IMT or sham hypoxic-training placebo (PLC) group. Prior to and following a 6 week intervention subjects completed a 25-km cycling time-trial and three constant-power tests to establish the W (lim)-T (lim) relationship. Constant-power tests were prescribed to elicit exercise intolerance within 3-10 (Ex1), 10-20 (Ex2), and 20-30 (Ex3) min. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure increased by (mean +/- SD) 17.1 +/- 12.2% following IMT (P < 0.01) and was accompanied by a 2.66 +/- 2.51% improvement in 25-km time-trial performance (P < 0.05); there were no changes following PLC. Constant-power cycling endurance was unchanged following PLC, as was CP (pre vs. post: 249 +/- 32 vs. 250 +/- 32 W) and AWC (30.7 +/- 12.7 vs. 30.1 +/- 12.5 kJ). Following IMT Ex1 and Ex3 cycling endurance improved by 18.3 +/- 15.1 and 15.3 +/- 19.1% (P < 0.05), respectively, CP was unchanged (264 +/- 62 vs. 263 +/- 61 W), but AWC increased from 24.8 +/- 5.6 to 29.0 +/- 8.4 kJ (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data provide novel evidence that improvements in constant-power and cycling time-trial performance following IMT in cyclists may be explained, in part, by an increase in AWC. PMID:17874123

  16. Knowledge Is Power: Empowering the Autism Community through Parent-Professional Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Mary M.; Ackerman-Spain, Karen; Williams, Ellen U.; Ryley, Anderia T.

    2011-01-01

    Partnerships for Autism through Collaborative Community Choice and Empowerment (Project PACE) was developed to empower parents and professionals (e.g., general or special education teachers, therapists, social workers, school counselors, psychologists) through training and education. Project PACE was designed to provide participants with basic…

  17. The Power of ROFO Principle Together with Companywide Training in Executing Lean Production Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Ah Bee; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of the case study conducted at Schaffner Thailand (ST) factory regarding the application of the ROFO principle coupled with companywide training on the execution of Lean Production (LP) strategy. The case study was motivated by 3 main objectives: 1) to examine the effectiveness of the ROFO principle and companywide…

  18. The Power of Cross-Disciplinary Teams for Developing First Responder Training in TBI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Jo L.; Cappiccie, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Misunderstanding of the symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often leaves first responders ill-equipped to handle encounters involving subjects with brain injury. This paper details a cross-disciplinary project to develop and disseminate a training curriculum designed to increase first responders' knowledge of and skills with TBI survivors.…

  19. Evaluation of a Nuclear Power Skill Related Training Program for Job Corps Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitabchi, Gloria; Petry, John R.

    An evaluation of the Nuclear Skill Related Training Program at Memphis State University was conducted to identify possible motivational and attitudinal variables that may contribute to the retention-attrition rates of Job Corps students (40 percent) admitted to the program compared to non-Job Corps students who are migrant workers (2 percent). The…

  20. A grid-connected photovoltaic power conversion system with single-phase multilevel inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Beser, Ersoy; Arifoglu, Birol; Camur, Sabri; Beser, Esra Kandemir

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power conversion system based on a single-phase multilevel inverter. The proposed system fundamentally consists of PV arrays and a single-phase multilevel inverter structure. First, configuration and structural parts of the PV assisted inverter system are introduced in detail. To produce reference output voltage waves, a simple switching strategy based on calculating switching angles is improved. By calculated switching angles, the reference signal is produced as a multilevel shaped output voltage wave. The control algorithm and operational principles of the proposed system are explained. Operating PV arrays in the same load condition is a considerable point; therefore a simulation study is performed to arrange the PV arrays. After determining the number and connection types of the PV arrays, the system is configured through the arrangement of the PV arrays. The validity of the proposed system is verified through simulations and experimental study. The results demonstrate that the system can achieve lower total harmonic distortion (THD) on the output voltage and load current, and it is capable of operating synchronous and transferring power values having different characteristic to the grid. Hence, it is suitable to use the proposed configuration as a PV power conversion system in various applications. (author)

  1. A Standalone Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation using Cuk Converter and Single Phase Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, A. K.; Singh, B.; Kaushika, S. C.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a standalone solar photovoltaic (SPV) power generating system is designed and modeled using a Cuk dc-dc converter and a single phase voltage source inverter (VSI). In this system, a dc-dc boost converter boosts a low voltage of a PV array to charge a battery at 24 V using a maximum power point tracking control algorithm. To step up a 24 V battery voltage to 360 V dc, a high frequency transformer based isolated dc-dc Cuk converter is used to reduce size, weight and losses. The dc voltage of 360 V is fed to a single phase VSI with unipolar switching to achieve a 230 Vrms, 50 Hz ac. The main objectives of this investigation are on efficiency improvement, reduction in cost, weight and size of the system and to provide an uninterruptible power to remotely located consumers. The complete SPV system is designed and it is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulated results are presented to demonstrate its satisfactory performance for validating the proposed design and control algorithm.

  2. Analysis and design of a high power laser adaptive phased array transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mevers, G. E.; Soohoo, J. F.; Winocur, J.; Massie, N. A.; Southwell, W. H.; Brandewie, R. A.; Hayes, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of delivering substantial quantities of optical power to a satellite in low earth orbit from a ground based high energy laser (HEL) coupled to an adaptive antenna was investigated. Diffraction effects, atmospheric transmission efficiency, adaptive compensation for atmospheric turbulence effects, including the servo bandwidth requirements for this correction, and the adaptive compensation for thermal blooming were examined. To evaluate possible HEL sources, atmospheric investigations were performed for the CO2, (C-12)(O-18)2 isotope, CO and DF wavelengths using output antenna locations of both sea level and mountain top. Results indicate that both excellent atmospheric and adaption efficiency can be obtained for mountain top operation with a micron isotope laser operating at 9.1 um, or a CO laser operating single line (P10) at about 5.0 (C-12)(O-18)2um, which was a close second in the evaluation. Four adaptive power transmitter system concepts were generated and evaluated, based on overall system efficiency, reliability, size and weight, advanced technology requirements and potential cost. A multiple source phased array was selected for detailed conceptual design. The system uses a unique adaption technique of phase locking independent laser oscillators which allows it to be both relatively inexpensive and most reliable with a predicted overall power transfer efficiency of 53%.

  3. Impulse Three Phase Power Supply Used for a Gliding Plasma Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar-Torres, J. A.; Pacheco-Sotelo, J.; Valdivia-Barrientos, R.; Pacheco-Pacheco, M.; Ramos-Flores, F.; Soria-Arguello, G.; Ibañez-Olvera, M.

    2015-03-01

    Power sources used for generating plasma have different configurations depending on the particular application; the aim here comprises the maximum energy transfer to the plasma discharge reaching. This work shows the performance and versatility of a simple impulse phase power source, applied to gliding arc plasma discharge. It is capable of changing the operating frequency from 5 kHz up to 150 kHz and the duty cycle from 1% to 33% in all three phases, each one connected to three divergent tungsten electrodes. This allows a soft start plasma ignition until the full load is reached. This converter uses a sequential logic circuits composed by flip-flops, gates drivers, IGBT's and high voltage ferrite transformers. These features facilitate the maximum energy transfer to the plasma without using more complex electronic structures. The effect of frequency, duty cycle, voltage and current wave form signals is here described. This power supply has the adaptability to work whit different type of gas such as Argon, Helium, Air and Nitrogen. A Matlab Simulink simulation validates the experimental results. The main features and advantages of this configuration are also defined.

  4. Phase-field modeling of epitaxial growth: Applications to step trains and island dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhengzheng; Lowengrub, John S.; Wise, Steven M.; Voigt, Axel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new phase-field model including combined effects of edge diffusion, the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier, deposition and desorption to simulate epitaxial growth. A new free energy function together with a correction to the initial phase variable profile is used to efficiently capture the morphological evolution when a large deposition flux is imposed. A formal matched asymptotic analysis is performed to show the reduction of the phase-field model to the classical sharp interface Burton-Cabrera-Frank model for step flow when the interfacial thickness vanishes. The phase-field model is solved by a semi-implicit finite difference scheme, and adaptive block-structured Cartesian meshes are used to dramatically increase the efficiency of the solver. The numerical scheme is used to investigate the evolution of perturbed circularly shaped small islands. The effect of edge diffusion is investigated together with the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier. We also investigate the linear and nonlinear regimes of a step meandering instability. We reproduce the predicted scaling law for the growth of the meander amplitude, which was based on an analysis of a long wavelength regime. New nonlinear behavior is observed when the meander wavelength is comparable to the terrace width. In particular, a previously unobserved regime of coarsening dynamics is found to occur when the meander wavelength is comparable to the terrace width.

  5. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Platz, Thomas; Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard. PMID:27610382

  6. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard. PMID:27610382

  7. Special article: personal protective equipment for care of pandemic influenza patients: a training workshop for the powered air purifying respirator.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Bonnie M; Kerchberger, John P

    2010-10-01

    Virulent respiratory infectious diseases may present a life-threatening risk for health care professionals during aerosol-generating procedures, including endotracheal intubation. The 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) brings this concern to the immediate forefront. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have stated that, when performing or participating in aerosol-generating procedures on patients with virulent contagious respiratory diseases, health care professionals must wear a minimum of the N95 respirator, and they may wish to consider using the powered air purifying respirator (PAPR). For influenza and other diseases transmitted by both respiratory and contact modes, protective respirators must be combined with contact precautions. The PAPR provides 2.5 to 100 times greater protection than the N95, when used within the context of an Occupational Safety and Health Administration-compliant respiratory protection program. The relative protective capability of a respirator is quantified using the assigned protection factor. The level of protection designated by the APF can only be achieved with appropriate training and correct use of the respirator. Face seal leakage limits the protective capability of the N95 respirator, and fit testing does not assure the ability to maintain a tight face seal. The protective capability of the PAPR will be defeated by improper handling of contaminated equipment, incorrect assembly and maintenance, and improper don (put on) and doff (take off) procedures. Stress, discomfort, and physical encumbrance may impair performance. Acclimatization through training will mitigate these effects. Training in the use of PAPRs in advance of their need is strongly advised. "Just in time" training is unlikely to provide adequate preparation for groups of practitioners requiring specialized personal protective equipment during a pandemic. Employee health departments in hospitals may not presently have a PAPR training program in place

  8. Noise tolerance in wavelength-selective switching of optical differential quadrature-phase-shift-keying pulse train by collinear acousto-optic devices.

    PubMed

    Goto, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Yasumitsu

    2014-06-01

    Optical switching of high-bit-rate quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) pulse trains using collinear acousto-optic (AO) devices is theoretically discussed. Since the collinear AO devices have wavelength selectivity, the switched optical pulse trains suffer from distortion when the bandwidth of the pulse train is comparable to the pass bandwidth of the AO device. As the AO device, a sidelobe-suppressed device with a tapered surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) waveguide and a Butterworth-type filter device with a lossy SAW directional coupler are considered. Phase distortion of optical pulse trains at 40 to 100  Gsymbols/s in QPSK format is numerically analyzed. Bit-error-rate performance with additive Gaussian noise is also evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. PMID:24922411

  9. Comparison of In-Season-Specific Resistance vs. A Regular Throwing Training Program on Throwing Velocity, Anthropometry, and Power Performance in Elite Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; van den Tillaar, Roland; Khlifa, Riadh; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Chamari, Karim

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a specific resistance training program (throwing movement with a medicine ball) with that of regular training (throwing with regular balls) on ball velocity, anthropometry, maximal upper-body strength, and power. Thirty-four elite male team handball players (age: 18 ± 0.5 years, body mass: 80.6 ± 5.5 kg, height: 1.80 ± 5.1 m, body fat: 13.4 ± 0.6%) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 groups: control (n = 10), resistance training group (n = 12), or regular throwing training group (n = 12). Over the 8-week in season, the athletes performed 3 times per week according to an assigned training program alongside their normal team handball training. One repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and 1RM pullover scores assessed maximal arm strength. Anthropometry was assessed by body mass, fat percentage, and muscle volumes of upper body. Handball throwing velocity was measured by a standing throw, a throw with run, and a jump throw. Power was measured by measuring total distance thrown by a 3-kg medicine ball overhead throw. Throwing ball velocity, maximal strength, power, and muscle volume increases for the specific resistance training group after the 8 weeks of training, whereas only maximal strength, muscle volume and power and in the jump throw increases were found for the regular throwing training group. No significant changes for the control group were found. The current findings suggest that elite male handball players can improve ball velocity, anthropometrics, maximal upper-body strength, and power during the competition season by implementing a medicine ball throwing program. PMID:25627646

  10. Coherent beam combination using self-phase locked stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors with a rotating wedge for high power laser generation.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangwoo; Cha, Seongwoo; Oh, Jungsuk; Lee, Hwihyeong; Ahn, Heekyung; Churn, Kil Sung; Kong, Hong Jin

    2016-04-18

    The self-phase locking of a stimulated Brillouin scattering-phase conjugate mirror (SBS-PCM) allows a simple and scalable coherent beam combination of existing lasers. We propose a simple optical system composed of a rotating wedge and a concave mirror to overcome the power limit of the SBS-PCM. Its phase locking ability and the usefulness on the beam-combination laser are demonstrated experimentally. A four-beam combination is demonstrated using this SBS-PCM scheme. The relative phases between the beams were measured to be less than λ/24.7. PMID:27137299

  11. Managing the phase-down of amalgam: Part I. Educational and training issues.

    PubMed

    Lynch, C D; Wilson, N H F

    2013-08-01

    Following the recently agreed Minamata Convention, a phase-down in the use of dental amalgam will become a priority for the profession. With a lead-in period of a number of years, important changes in the mind-set of the profession are required to ensure that patient safety is not compromised. Posterior composites have been a viable, and in many cases preferable, alternative to amalgam for many years. However, notwithstanding considerable developments in dental school teaching on the application and placement of posterior composites, growing evidence to support the use of composites in the restoration of posterior teeth and advances in composite systems, many practitioners remain reluctant to place composite rather than amalgam. This paper considers the present and future use of posterior composites and highlights ways in which dental school teaching and continuing professional development (CPD) may contribute to the successful phase-down, and now inevitable discontinuation, in the use of dental amalgam. PMID:23928599

  12. Phase-Noise and Amplitude-Noise Measurement of Low-Power Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubiola, Enrico; Salik, Ertan; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the phase fluctuation between a pair of low-power microwave signals, the signals must be amplified before detection. In such cases the phase noise of the amplifier pair is the main cause of 1/f background noise of the instrument. this article proposes a scheme that makes amplification possible while rejecting the close in 1/f (flicker) noise of the two amplifiers. Noise rejection, which relies upon the understanding of the amplifier noise mechanism does not require averaging. Therefore, our scheme can also be the detector of a closed loop noise reduction system. the first prototype, compared to a traditional saturated mixer system under the same condition, show a 24 dB noise reduction of the 1/f region.

  13. Triphenylmethane dye-doped gelatin films for low-power optical phase-conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geethakrishnan, T.; Sakthivel, P.; Palanisamy, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) based optical phase-conjugation (OPC) in few triphenylmethane (Acid blue 7, Acid blue 9, Acid blue 1 and Methyl green) dye-doped gelatin films using a 633 nm He-Ne laser radiation of total power 35 mW. Phase-conjugate (PC) reflectivity from the dye films was measured by varying the experimental parameters such as incident angle between the pump-probe beams in the DFWM geometry, dopant concentrations of the gelatin film, probe beam intensity and read-out beam intensity. The maximum PC reflectivity was observed in the Acid blue 7, Acid blue 9, Acid blue 1 and Methyl green sensitized gelatin films were 0.22%, 0.24%, 0.07% and 0.13%, respectively. The origin of the mechanism of the PC wave generation from these dye films is also reported.

  14. Power Spectrum of Uplink Array Signals with Random Phase and Delay Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2011-01-01

    Link Array signals emanating from different antennas must be compensated for Doppler and delay in order to achieve the N(sup 2) array gain predicted by theory. However compensation is never perfect, leaving residual errors that cause losses in array gain and degradation in signal quality. Here we develop a mathematical model for Uplink Array signals in the presence of phase and delay errors, similar to well-known multipath analyses but with features unique to this problem. The resulting losses and distortions are described, and the power spectral density of the array signal derived first conditioned on a given error vector, then averaged over distributions deemed suitable for Uplink Array applications. The impact of phase and delay errors on array gain and signal distortion are addressed, and the maximum data throughput is quantified in terms of the assumed error statistics.

  15. Cost and Quality Management: Making fossil power and plants more competitive: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, R.S. . Center for Productivity and Mfg. Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Cost and Quality Management theory is helping to make US corporations profitable again. Summarizing Phase 1 of a three-phase study, this report defines how Cost and Quality Management (also called Total Quality Management) relates to power production plants, the barriers standing in the way, and the concepts needed to overcome them. Major barriers include resistance to change, sparse efforts to grow employee initiative and self-esteem, a lack of understanding the importance of internal customers, and traditional management practices as represented by the top-to-bottom organization chart. Breakthrough concepts include a commitment to making and sustaining quality-based changes, realizing the potential of human assets, focusing on satisfying internal as well as external customers, and treating work as a process that crosses departments. The report ends by describing five other ongoing EPRI projects designed to help utility executives change from a traditional management style to Cost and Quality Management.

  16. Cost and Quality Management: Making fossil power and plants more competitive: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, R.S.

    1992-05-01

    Cost and Quality Management theory is helping to make US corporations profitable again. Summarizing Phase 1 of a three-phase study, this report defines how Cost and Quality Management (also called Total Quality Management) relates to power production plants, the barriers standing in the way, and the concepts needed to overcome them. Major barriers include resistance to change, sparse efforts to grow employee initiative and self-esteem, a lack of understanding the importance of internal customers, and traditional management practices as represented by the top-to-bottom organization chart. Breakthrough concepts include a commitment to making and sustaining quality-based changes, realizing the potential of human assets, focusing on satisfying internal as well as external customers, and treating work as a process that crosses departments. The report ends by describing five other ongoing EPRI projects designed to help utility executives change from a traditional management style to Cost and Quality Management.

  17. HBAR-based 3.6 GHz oscillator with low power consumption and low phase noise.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongyu; Lee, Chuang-yuan; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Brannon, Alan; Kitching, John; Kim, Eun Sok

    2009-02-01

    We have designed and built 2 oscillators at 1.2 and 3.6 GHz based on high-overtone bulk acoustic resonators (HBARs) for application in chip-scale atomic clocks (CSACs). The measured phase noise of the 3.6 GHz oscillator is -67 dBc/Hz at 300 Hz offset and -100 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset. The Allan deviation of the free-running oscillator is 1.5 x 10(-9) at one second integration time and the power consumption is 3.2 mW. The low phase noise allows the oscillator to be locked to a CSAC physics package without significantly degrading the clock performance. PMID:19251528

  18. A Novel Phase-Shift Control of Semibridgeless Active Rectifier for Wireless Power Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Colak, Kerim; Asa, Erdem; Bojarski, Mariusz; Czarkowski, Dariusz; Onar, Omer C.

    2015-05-12

    We investigated a novel phase-shift control of a semibridgeless active rectifier (S-BAR) in order to utilize the S-BAR in wireless energy transfer applications. The standard receiver-side rectifier topology is developed by replacing rectifier lower diodes with synchronous switches controlled by a phase-shifted PWM signal. Moreover, theoretical and simulation results showthat with the proposed control technique, the output quantities can be regulated without communication between the receiver and transmitter. In order to confirm the performance of the proposed converter and control, experimental results are provided using 8-, 15-, and 23-cm air gap coreless transformer which has dimension of 76 cm x 76 cm, with 120-V input and the output power range of 0 to 1kW with a maximum efficiency of 94.4%.

  19. A Novel Phase-Shift Control of Semibridgeless Active Rectifier for Wireless Power Transfer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Colak, Kerim; Asa, Erdem; Bojarski, Mariusz; Czarkowski, Dariusz; Onar, Omer C.

    2015-05-12

    We investigated a novel phase-shift control of a semibridgeless active rectifier (S-BAR) in order to utilize the S-BAR in wireless energy transfer applications. The standard receiver-side rectifier topology is developed by replacing rectifier lower diodes with synchronous switches controlled by a phase-shifted PWM signal. Moreover, theoretical and simulation results showthat with the proposed control technique, the output quantities can be regulated without communication between the receiver and transmitter. In order to confirm the performance of the proposed converter and control, experimental results are provided using 8-, 15-, and 23-cm air gap coreless transformer which has dimension of 76 cm xmore » 76 cm, with 120-V input and the output power range of 0 to 1kW with a maximum efficiency of 94.4%.« less

  20. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign, and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  1. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems phase 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-08-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le}10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; and Task 2.4 Duct Heater and Gas Turbine Integration.

  2. Single and three-phase AC losses in HTS superconducting power transmission line prototype cables

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Boenig, H.J.; Maley, M.P.; Coulter, J.Y.; Fleshler, S.

    1997-11-01

    AC losses in two, one-meter-long lengths of HTS prototype multi-strand conductors (PMC`s) are measured with a temperature-difference calorimeter. Both single-phase and three-phase losses are examined with ac currents up to 1,000 A rms. The calorimeter, designed specifically for these measurements, has a precision of 1 mW. PMC {number_sign}1 has two helically-wound, non-insulated layers of HTS tape (19 tapes per layer), each layer wrapped with opposite pitch. PMC {number_sign}2 is identical except for insulation between the layers. The measured ac losses show no significant effect of interlayer insulation and depend on about the third power of the current--a result in agreement with the Bean-Norris model adapted to the double-helix configuration. The three-phase losses are a factor of two higher than those exhibited by a single isolated conductor, indicating a significant interaction between phases.

  3. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  4. Effect of Reference Scheme on Power and Phase of the Local Field Potential.

    PubMed

    Shirhatti, Vinay; Borthakur, Ayon; Ray, Supratim

    2016-05-01

    Brain signals are often analyzed in the spectral domain, where the power spectral density (PSD) and phase differences and consistency can reveal important information about the network. However, for proper interpretation, it is important to know whether these measures depend on stimulus/behavioral conditions or the reference scheme used to analyze data. We recorded local field potential (LFP) from an array of microelectrodes chronically implanted in area V1 of monkeys under different stimulus/behavioral conditions and computed PSD slopes, coherence, and phase difference between LFPs as a function of frequency and interelectrode distance while using four reference schemes: single wire, average, bipolar, and current source density. PSD slopes were dependent on reference scheme at low frequencies (below 200 Hz) but became invariant at higher frequencies. Average phase differences between sites also depended critically on referencing, switching from 0 degrees for single-wire to 180 degrees for average reference. Results were consistent across different stimulus/behavioral conditions. We were able to account for these results based on the coherence profile across sites and properties of the spectral estimator. Our results show that using different reference schemes can have drastic effects on phase differences and PSD slopes and therefore must be interpreted carefully to gain insights about network properties. PMID:26942748

  5. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase II Power, Energy Storage, and Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research and development needs for Agency programs. This report highlights 21 of the innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007 from 2012 that focus on one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Power, Energy Storage, and Conversion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as multijunction solar cells, roll-out solar arrays, photovoltaic concentrator blanket assemblies, wide bandgap power semiconductor modules, and indium-gallium nitride high temperature photovoltaic cells. Each article describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides as an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  6. Control of fan erosion in coal-fired power plants, Phase 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sverdrup, E.F.; Albertin, L.; Chamberlin, R.M.; D'Amico, N.J.; El Masri, M.A.; Glasser, A.D.; Menguturk, M.; Rane, A.; Racki, R.; Petlevich, W.J.

    1988-11-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute contracted with Westinghouse to address the problems electric utilities experience caused by fan erosion. The objective of this phase of the research program was to understand how to control erosion damage to coal-fired power plant fans by: Developing fan design modifications that raise the tolerance of fans to fly-ash erosion and that simultaneously improve fan performance. Understanding why fly ashes vary in their erosivities and developing the ability to predict the erosivity of the fly ash from core borings of the fuel to be fired; Evaluating the performance of erosion protection systems we have installed on a number of fans suffering severe fly-ash erosion damage; Developing a method to armor centrifugal fans against fly-ash erosion while providing for easy field replacement of the blade liners; and Developing a computer model that calculates particle trajectories through the inlet box of a fan. 18 refs., 74 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. High average power pulsed phase conjugate laser with birefringence correction. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, M.W.; Hankla, A.K.; Jacobson, G.F.

    1994-05-01

    Nd:YAG rod lasers have been plagued with the inability to go to high average powers because of thermally induced birefringence and focusing. Several methods have been employed to correct for the birefringence and the thermal aberrations of such systems, but place stringent constraints on the laser heads and/or the system alignment. They have developed a scalable Nd: YAG master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) laser system which employs a novel phase conjugation scheme to correct both for the material and thermal distortions as well as the thermal birefringence in double pass amplifier systems. This method reduces the double pass depolarization from 42% to less than 2% and is easy to align.

  8. Optical rotatory power of different phases of an antiferroelectric liquid crystal and implications for models of structure.

    PubMed

    Shtykov, N M; Vij, J K; Nguyen, H T

    2001-05-01

    The antiferroelectric liquid crystal (AFLC) under investigation possesses different helical smectic phases. The various phases have been identified through a texture under cross-polarizers with a homeotropic alignment of the AFLC. Measurements of the optical rotatory power (ORP) of these phases have elucidated the ability of this method for finding phase transitions between several phases and for investigating the helical structure of the antiferroelectric phases. The optical rotatory power as a function of temperature at a fixed wavelength of light was measured for different phases of the investigated AFLC material. The values of the pitch for some of the phases have been calculated from the ORP data. The results of the ORP rule out the simple "clock" model or a clock model with a long pitch superimposed on to it. The results can be explained only in terms of biaxial models, either Ising-type models or a highly distorted "clock" model. It is also found that in the SmC*A phase the sense of the helix in the investigated material is left handed, and is opposite to that observed in the SmC* phase. The reversal of the helix from left to right handed occurs during the phase transition from the SmC*FI1(SmC*gamma) to SmC*FI2(AF) phase. This fact also allows for SmC*A and AF phases to be distinguished from each other. PMID:11414922

  9. Transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of Udimet 720 for Stirling power converter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittendorf, Donald L.; Baggenstoss, William G.

    1992-01-01

    Udimet 720 has been selected for use on Stirling power converters for space applications. Because Udimet 720 is generally considered susceptible to strain age cracking if traditional fusion welding is used, other joining methods are being considered. A process for transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of Udimet 720 has been theoretically developed in an effort to eliminate the strain age crack concern. This development has taken into account such variables as final grain size, joint homogenization, joint efficiency related to bonding aid material, bonding aid material application method, and thermal cycle.

  10. Low-power switching of phase-change materials with carbon nanotube electrodes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Feng; Liao, Albert D; Estrada, David; Pop, Eric

    2011-04-29

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) are promising candidates for nonvolatile data storage and reconfigurable electronics, but high programming currents have presented a challenge to realize low-power operation. We controlled PCM bits with single-wall and small-diameter multi-wall carbon nanotubes. This configuration achieves programming currents of 0.5 microampere (set) and 5 microamperes (reset), two orders of magnitude lower than present state-of-the-art devices. Pulsed measurements enable memory switching with very low energy consumption. Analysis of over 100 devices finds that the programming voltage and energy are highly scalable and could be below 1 volt and single femtojoules per bit, respectively. PMID:21393510

  11. A DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Fleck, M.; Friedrichs, M.; Hensch, R.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Sammet, J.; Wlochal, M.

    2013-02-01

    The CMS pixel detector was designed for a nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of 1ṡ1034 cm-2s-1. During Phase-1 of the LHC upgrade, the instantaneous luminosity will be increased to about twice this value. To preserve the excellent performance of the pixel detector despite the increase in particle rates and track densities, the CMS Collaboration foresees the exchange of its pixel detector in the shutdown 2016/2017. The new pixel detector will be improved in many respects, and will comprise twice the number of readout channels. A powering scheme based on DC-DC conversion will be adopted, which will enable the provision of the required power with the present cable plant. The powering scheme of the CMS pixel detector will be described, and the performance of prototype DC-DC buck converters will be presented, including power efficiency, system tests with DC-DC converters and pixel modules, thermal management, reliability at low temperature, and studies of potential frequency locking between DC-DC converters.

  12. The Power of Phase I Studies to Detect Clinical Relevant QTc Prolongation: A Resampling Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferber, Georg; Lorch, Ulrike; Täubel, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Concentration-effect (CE) models applied to early clinical QT data from healthy subjects are described in the latest E14 Q&A document as promising analysis to characterise QTc prolongation. The challenges faced if one attempts to replace a TQT study by thorough ECG assessments in Phase I based on CE models are the assurance to obtain sufficient power and the establishment of a substitute for the positive control to show assay sensitivity providing protection against false negatives. To demonstrate that CE models in small studies can reliably predict the absence of an effect on QTc, we investigated the role of some key design features in the power of the analysis. Specifically, the form of the CE model, inclusion of subjects on placebo, and sparse sampling on the performance and power of this analysis were investigated. In this study, the simulations conducted by subsampling subjects from 3 different TQT studies showed that CE model with a treatment effect can be used to exclude small QTc effects. The number of placebo subjects was also shown to increase the power to detect an inactive drug preventing false positives while an effect can be underestimated if time points around tmax are missed. PMID:26509147

  13. Three-phase power conversion system for utility-interconnected PV applications. Phase 1 technical progress report, 1 October 1995--17 April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D.G.; Meyer, H.; Leang, W.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes work performed by Omnion Power Corporation under Phase 1 of a two-phase subcontract. During this phase, Omnion researchers: designed an advanced product specification to guide prototype design and development; analyzed field failure data with Omnion`s hard-switched insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor technology hardware to better understand where design improvements were needed; presented and reviewed product specifications with key customers/users; drafted a working product specification to serve as a baseline in developing the new power conversion system; developed the core-resonant converter technology in conjunction with Soft Switching Technologies Corp.; designed a 100-kW prototype power conversion system; designed a prototype system package; initiated interaction with vendors to optimize component selection and specifications; initiated the preparation of design documentation; built the prototype core-resonant converter and initiated preliminary testing; and initiated the assembly of a 1-kW prototype power conversion system. This work has demonstrated the potential of the soft-switching resonant DC link (RDCL) inverter and its application to a three-phase utility-interconnected PV power conversion system. The RDCL inverter has demonstrated its advantage over hard-switching pulse-width modulated inverters in terms of efficiency and audible noise. With proper package design and manufacturing process design and implementation, the RDCL power conversion system has the potential to be low-cost and reliable with superior performance.

  14. 75 FR 62530 - Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Laredo Ridge Wind, LLC; RRI Energy West, Inc.; Goshen Phase II LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...; EG10-55-000; EG10-56-000] Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Laredo Ridge Wind, LLC; RRI Energy West, Inc.; Goshen Phase II LLC; Solar Partners I, LLC; Solar Partners II, LLC; Solar Partners VIII, LLC; Notice...

  15. A time-saving method to assess power output at lactate threshold in well-trained and elite cyclists.

    PubMed

    Støren, Øyvind; Rønnestad, Bent R; Sunde, Arnstein; Hansen, Joar; Ellefsen, Stian; Helgerud, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lactate threshold (LT) as a percentage of maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) and power output at LT (LTW) and also to investigate to what extent V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, oxygen cost of cycling (CC), and maximal aerobic power (MAP) determine LTW in cycling to develop a new time-saving model for testing LTW. To do this, 108 male competitive cyclists with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 65.2 ± 7.4 ml·kg·min and an average LTW of 274 ± 43 W were tested for V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, LT %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, LTW, MAP, and CC on a test ergometer cycle. The product of MAP and individual LT in %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was found to be a good determinant of LTW (R = 0.98, p < 0.0001). However, LT in %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was found to be a poor determinant of LTW (R = 0.39, p < 0.0001). Based on these findings, we have suggested a new time-saving method for calculating LTW in well-trained cyclists. The benefits from this model come both from tracking LTW during training interventions and from regularly assessing training status in competitive cyclists. Briefly, this method is based on the present findings that LTW depends on LT in %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and CC and may after an initial test session reduce the time for the subsequent testing of LTW by as much as 50% without the need for blood samples. PMID:23942166

  16. Ultralow-power switching via defect engineering in germanium telluride phase-change memory devices

    PubMed Central

    Nukala, Pavan; Lin, Chia-Chun; Composto, Russell; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Crystal–amorphous transformation achieved via the melt-quench pathway in phase-change memory involves fundamentally inefficient energy conversion events; and this translates to large switching current densities, responsible for chemical segregation and device degradation. Alternatively, introducing defects in the crystalline phase can engineer carrier localization effects enhancing carrier–lattice coupling; and this can efficiently extract work required to introduce bond distortions necessary for amorphization from input electrical energy. Here, by pre-inducing extended defects and thus carrier localization effects in crystalline GeTe via high-energy ion irradiation, we show tremendous improvement in amorphization current densities (0.13–0.6 MA cm−2) compared with the melt-quench strategy (∼50 MA cm−2). We show scaling behaviour and good reversibility on these devices, and explore several intermediate resistance states that are accessible during both amorphization and recrystallization pathways. Existence of multiple resistance states, along with ultralow-power switching and scaling capabilities, makes this approach promising in context of low-power memory and neuromorphic computation. PMID:26805748

  17. Ultralow-power switching via defect engineering in germanium telluride phase-change memory devices.

    PubMed

    Nukala, Pavan; Lin, Chia-Chun; Composto, Russell; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Crystal-amorphous transformation achieved via the melt-quench pathway in phase-change memory involves fundamentally inefficient energy conversion events; and this translates to large switching current densities, responsible for chemical segregation and device degradation. Alternatively, introducing defects in the crystalline phase can engineer carrier localization effects enhancing carrier-lattice coupling; and this can efficiently extract work required to introduce bond distortions necessary for amorphization from input electrical energy. Here, by pre-inducing extended defects and thus carrier localization effects in crystalline GeTe via high-energy ion irradiation, we show tremendous improvement in amorphization current densities (0.13-0.6 MA cm(-2)) compared with the melt-quench strategy (∼50 MA cm(-2)). We show scaling behaviour and good reversibility on these devices, and explore several intermediate resistance states that are accessible during both amorphization and recrystallization pathways. Existence of multiple resistance states, along with ultralow-power switching and scaling capabilities, makes this approach promising in context of low-power memory and neuromorphic computation. PMID:26805748

  18. Ultralow-power switching via defect engineering in germanium telluride phase-change memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukala, Pavan; Lin, Chia-Chun; Composto, Russell; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Crystal-amorphous transformation achieved via the melt-quench pathway in phase-change memory involves fundamentally inefficient energy conversion events; and this translates to large switching current densities, responsible for chemical segregation and device degradation. Alternatively, introducing defects in the crystalline phase can engineer carrier localization effects enhancing carrier-lattice coupling; and this can efficiently extract work required to introduce bond distortions necessary for amorphization from input electrical energy. Here, by pre-inducing extended defects and thus carrier localization effects in crystalline GeTe via high-energy ion irradiation, we show tremendous improvement in amorphization current densities (0.13-0.6 MA cm-2) compared with the melt-quench strategy (~50 MA cm-2). We show scaling behaviour and good reversibility on these devices, and explore several intermediate resistance states that are accessible during both amorphization and recrystallization pathways. Existence of multiple resistance states, along with ultralow-power switching and scaling capabilities, makes this approach promising in context of low-power memory and neuromorphic computation.

  19. Sun Valley Photovoltaic Power Project, Phase 1. Final report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Jr, F R

    1980-03-01

    An application experiment was devised for fabrication, installation, operation, and evaluation of a concentrating photovoltaic system for direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. If the experiment is performed, the photovoltaic system will be connected to an electric motor load and to an electric utility system. Provisions will be made to allow the motor load to be supplied with power from either the photovoltaic system or the utility system. When the demand of the motor load is low, the photovoltaic system will deliver excess power to the utility system for use elsewhere. Thus, the experimental installation has been designed with sufficient flexibility to enable several modes of operation to be evaluated. This type of application is a typical example of on-site power generation at an individual load center involving two-way energy exchange with the adjacent utility system. Because a growing market for photovoltaic systems in this type of application is expected in the 1980's, the experiment will provide needed information in a timely manner. The experiment was devised jointly by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) and its subcontractor, Spectrolab, Inc. LADWP will furnish a site and operate the equipment after installation. The subcontractor will manufacture and furnish a concentrating photovoltaic array with a power rating of approximately 200 kilowatts at one kilowatt per square meter of insolation. Other required equipment will be purchased to specification from appropriate suppliers. The photovoltaic system represents a state-of-the-art design at the time this report was prepared. However, minor design improvements may be made prior to and during system installation. All phases of fabrication, installation and operation will be documented through formal reports. The results of the experiment will contribute to the goals of the National Photovoltaic Conversion Program.

  20. STS-98 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-98 during various phases of their training, including an undocking simulation in the Fixed Bases Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS), bailout training, and extravehicular activity (EVA) training at the NBL.

  1. PowerPlay: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem

    PubMed Central

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. Given a general problem-solving architecture, at any given time, the novel algorithmic framework PowerPlay (Schmidhuber, 2011) searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Newly invented tasks may require to achieve a wow-effect by making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially) re-use previously learned skills. The greedy search of typical PowerPlay variants uses time-optimal program search to order candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time and space) complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. This biases the search toward pairs that can be described compactly and validated quickly. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. Standard problem solver architectures of personal computers or neural networks tend to generalize by solving numerous tasks outside the self-invented training set; PowerPlay’s ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Gödel’s sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing

  2. PowerPlay: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem.

    PubMed

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. Given a general problem-solving architecture, at any given time, the novel algorithmic framework PowerPlay (Schmidhuber, 2011) searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Newly invented tasks may require to achieve a wow-effect by making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially) re-use previously learned skills. The greedy search of typical PowerPlay variants uses time-optimal program search to order candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time and space) complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. This biases the search toward pairs that can be described compactly and validated quickly. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. Standard problem solver architectures of personal computers or neural networks tend to generalize by solving numerous tasks outside the self-invented training set; PowerPlay's ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Gödel's sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing

  3. COMMERCIALIZATION OF AN ATMOSPHERIC IRON-BASED CDCL PROCESS FOR POWER PRODUCTION. PHASE I: TECHNOECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Luis

    2013-11-01

    Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) is an advanced oxy-combustion technology that has potential to enable substantial reductions in the cost and energy penalty associated with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from coal-fired power plants. Through collaborative efforts, the Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and The Ohio State University (OSU) developed a conceptual design for a 550 MWe (net) supercritical CDCL power plant with greater than 90% CO2 capture and compression. Process simulations were completed to enable an initial assessment of its technical performance. A cost estimate was developed following DOE’s guidelines as outlined in NETL’s report “Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance”, (2011/1455). The cost of electricity for the CDCL plant without CO2 Transportation and Storage cost resulted in $ $102.67 per MWh, which corresponds to a 26.8 % increase in cost of electricity (COE) when compared to an air-fired pulverized-coal supercritical power plant. The cost of electricity is strongly depending on the total plant cost and cost of the oxygen carrier particles. The CDCL process could capture further potential savings by increasing the performance of the particles and reducing the plant size. During the techno-economic analysis, the team identified technology and engineering gaps that need to be closed to bring the technology to commercialization. The technology gaps were focused in five critical areas: (i) moving bed reducer reactor, (ii) fluidized bed combustor, (iii) particle riser, (iv) oxygen-carrier particle properties, and (v) process operation. The key technology gaps are related to particle performance, particle manufacturing cost, and the operation of the reducer reactor. These technology gaps are to be addressed during Phase II of project. The project team is proposing additional lab testing to be completed on the particle and a 3MWth pilot facility

  4. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals: Behavioral Interview Guidelines by Job Roles

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Conway, T. J.; Tobey, D. H.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Dalton, Angela C.; Pusey, Portia K.

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Behavioral Interview Guidelines by Job Roles. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  5. A digitally implemented phase-locked loop detection scheme for analysis of the phase and power stability of a calibration tone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Densmore, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    A digital phase-locked loop (PLL) scheme is described which detects the phase and power of a high SNR calibration tone. The digital PLL is implemented in software directly from the given description. It was used to evaluate the stability of the Goldstone Deep Space Station open loop receivers for Radio Science. Included is a derivative of the Allan variance sensitivity of the PLL imposed by additive white Gaussian noise; a lower limit is placed on the carrier frequency.

  6. Development of methods for nuclear power plant personnel qualifications and training

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed additions and revisions to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 50 and 55, and to Regulatory Guides 1.8 and 1.149. ORNL is developing methods and some aspects of the technical basis for the implementation and assessment of training programs, personnel qualifications, and simulation facilities. The paper describes the three methodologies which were developed during the FY-1984 research: a task sort procedure (TSORT); a simulation facility evaluation methodology; and a task analysis profiling system (TAPS).

  7. Optimization of inflow waveform phase-difference for minimized total cavopulmonary power loss.

    PubMed

    Dur, Onur; DeGroff, Curt G; Keller, Bradley B; Pekkan, Kerem

    2010-03-01

    The Fontan operation is a palliative surgical procedure performed on children, born with congenital heart defects that have yielded only a single functioning ventricle. The total cavo-pulmonary connection (TCPC) is a common variant of the Fontan procedure, where the superior vena cava (SVC) and inferior vena cava (IVC) are routed directly into the pulmonary arteries (PA). Due to the limited pumping energy available, optimized hemodynamics, in turn, minimized power loss, inside the TCPC pathway is required for the best optimal surgical outcomes. To complement ongoing efforts to optimize the anatomical geometric design of the surgical Fontan templates, here, we focused on the characterization of power loss changes due to the temporal variations in between SVC and IVC flow waveforms. An experimentally validated pulsatile computational fluid dynamics solver is used to quantify the effect of phase-shift between SVC and IVC inflow waveforms and amplitudes on internal energy dissipation. The unsteady hemodynamics of two standard idealized TCPC geometries are presented, incorporating patient-specific real-time PC-MRI flow waveforms of "functional" Fontan patients. The effects of respiration and pulsatility on the internal energy dissipation of the TCPC pathway are analyzed. Optimization of phase-shift between caval flows is shown to lead to lower energy dissipation up to 30% in these idealized models. For physiological patient-specific caval waveforms, the power loss is reduced significantly (up to 11%) by the optimization of all three major harmonics at the same mean pathway flow (3 L/min). Thus, the hemodynamic efficiency of single ventricle circuits is influenced strongly by the caval flow waveform quality, which is regulated through respiratory dependent physiological pathways. The proposed patient-specific waveform optimization protocol may potentially inspire new therapeutic applications to aid postoperative hemodynamics and improve the well being of the Fontan

  8. Power-efficient hydraulic systems. Volume 2. Hardware demonstration phase. Final report, October 1985-July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hupp, R.V.; Haning, R.K.

    1988-07-01

    Energy-saving concepts for aircraft hydraulic systems were studied in a two-phase program. Task I was an investigation of methods and techniques to reduce overall hydraulic-system power requirements by lowering system demands and increasing component efficiencies. Task II involved hardware demonstration tests on selected concepts. Task I: Study phase. A baseline hydraulic system for an advanced aircraft design was established. Twenty energy-saving techniques were studied as candidates for application to the baseline vehicle. A global systems analysis approach was employed. The candidates were compared on the basis of total fuel consumption and six qualitative factors. Task II: Hardware demonstration phase. Two techniques demonstrated for energy savings were control valves with overlap and dual pressure-level systems. Tests were conducted on control valves, a servo actuator, dual pressure pumps, and a lightweight hydraulic system simulator. Valves with 0.002-in. overlap reduced system energy consumption 18% compared to using valves with zero lap. Operation at 4000 psi reduced system energy consumption 53% compared to operation at 8000 psi. Pressure-level switching was accomplished with excellent results.

  9. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  10. Nematic phase in two-dimensional frustrated systems with power-law decaying interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barci, Daniel G.; Ribeiro, Leonardo; Stariolo, Daniel A.

    2013-06-01

    We address the problem of orientational order in frustrated interaction systems as a function of the relative range of the competing interactions. We study a spin model Hamiltonian with short-range ferromagnetic interaction competing with an antiferromagnetic component that decays as a power law of the distance between spins, 1/rα. These systems may develop a nematic phase between the isotropic disordered and stripe phases. We evaluate the nematic order parameter using a self-consistent mean-field calculation. Our main result indicates that the nematic phase exists, at mean-field level, provided 0<α<4. We analytically compute the nematic critical temperature and show that it increases with the range of the interaction, reaching its maximum near α˜0.5. We also compute a coarse-grained effective Hamiltonian for long wavelength fluctuations. For 0<α<4 the inverse susceptibility develops a set of continuous minima at wave vectors |k⃗|=k0(α) which dictate the long-distance physics of the system. For α→4, k0→0, making the competition between interactions ineffective for greater values of α.

  11. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power

    PubMed Central

    Tibana, Ramires A.; de Almeida, Leonardo M.; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M.; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V. de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A.; de Souza, Vinicius C.; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T. P. L.; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C. L.; Navalta, James W.; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  12. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power.

    PubMed

    Tibana, Ramires A; de Almeida, Leonardo M; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A; de Souza, Vinicius C; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T P L; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C L; Navalta, James W; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  13. In-Phase Power-Combined Frequency Tripler at 300 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrini, Alain; Ward, John; Lin, Robert; Gill, John; Lee, Choonsup; Mehdi, Imran; Javadi, Hamid; Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2009-01-01

    This design starts with commercial 85- to 115-GHz sources that are amplified to as much as 250 mW using power amplifiers developed for the Herschel Space Observatory. The frequency is then tripled using a novel waveguide GaAs Schottky diode frequency tripler. This planar diode produces 26 mW at 318 GHz. Peak conversion efficiency is over 15 percent, and the measured bandwidth of about 265 - 30 GHz is limited more by the driving source than by the tripler itself. This innovation is based on an integrated circuit designed originally for a single-chip 260- to 340-GHz balanced tripler. The power-combined version has two mirror-image tripler chips that are power-combined in-phase in a single waveguide block using a compact Y-junction divider at the input waveguide, and a Y-junction combiner at the output waveguide. The tripler uses a split-block waveguide design with two independent DC bias lines.

  14. On-shot laser beam diagnostics for high-power laser facility with phase modulation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Veetil, S. P.; Liu, C.; Tao, H.; Jiang, Y.; Lin, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.

    2016-05-01

    A coherent-modulation-imaging-based (CMI) algorithm has been employed for on-shot laser beam diagnostics in high-power laser facilities, where high-intensity short-pulsed lasers from terawatt to petawatt are designed to realize inertial confinement fusion (ICF). A single-shot intensity measurement is sufficient for wave-front reconstruction, both for the near-field and far-field at the same time. The iterative reconstruction process is computationally very efficient and was completed in dozens of seconds by the additional use of a GPU device to speed it up. The compact measurement unit—including a CCD and a piece of pre-characterized phase plate—makes it convenient for focal-spot intensity prediction in the target chamber. It can be placed almost anywhere in high-power laser facilities to achieve near-field wave-front diagnostics. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated by conducting a series of experiments with diagnostic beams and seed pulses with deactivated amplifiers in our high-power laser system.

  15. Fuel and power coproduction: The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process demonstration at Kingsport

    SciTech Connect

    Drown, D.P.; Brown, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Schaub, E.S.; Brown, D.M.; Jones, W.C.; Kornosky, R.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert syngas (primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) to methanol. Because of its superior heat management, the process is able to be designed to directly handle the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or of other hydrocarbon feedstocks. When added to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, the LPMEOH{trademark} process converts a portion of the CO-rich syngas produced by the gasifier to methanol, and the remainder of the unconverted gas is used to fuel the gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. The LPMEOH{trademark} process has the flexibility to operate in a daily electricity demand load-following manner. Coproduction of power and methanol via IGCC and the LPMEOH{trademark} process provides opportunities for energy storage for electrical demand peak shaving, clean fuel for export, and/or chemical methanol sales.

  16. Nearly Unity Power-Factor of the Modular Three-Phase AC to DC Converter with Minimized DC Bus Capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunkag, Viboon; Kamnarn, Uthen

    The analysis and design of nearly unity power-factor and fast dynamic response of the modular three-phase ac to dc converter using three single-phase isolated SEPIC rectifier modules with minimized dc bus capacitor is discussed, based on power balance control technique. The averaged small-signal technique is used to obtain the inductor current compensator, thus resulting in the output impedance and audio susceptibility become zero, that is, the output voltage of the converter presented in this paper is independent of the variations of the dc load current and the utility voltage. The proposed system significantly improves the dynamic response of the converter to load steps with minimized dc bus capacitor for Distributed Power System (DPS). A 600W prototype modular three-phase ac to dc converter comprising three 200W single-phase SEPIC rectifier modules with the proposed control scheme has been designed and implemented. The proposed system is confirmed by experimental implementation.

  17. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report Phase-II. Contractual reporting period October-December 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Edward; The Salix Consortium

    2000-03-23

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase 1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and forging the necessary agreements to demonstrate commercial willow production. The Phase 1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing design plans for 2 utility pulverized coal boilers for 20 MW of biopower capacity; developing fuel supply plans for the project with a goal of establishing 365 ha (900 ac) of willow; obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase 2; obtaining construction and environmental permits; and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., service, and assembly; (iv) Diesel-powered equipment fire suppression system tests and maintenance; (v...) Safe fueling procedures and maintenance of the fuel system of the equipment; and (vii) Intake air system maintenance and tests. (4) Include an examination that requires demonstration of the ability...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., service, and assembly; (iv) Diesel-powered equipment fire suppression system tests and maintenance; (v...) Safe fueling procedures and maintenance of the fuel system of the equipment; and (vii) Intake air system maintenance and tests. (4) Include an examination that requires demonstration of the ability...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., service, and assembly; (iv) Diesel-powered equipment fire suppression system tests and maintenance; (v...) Safe fueling procedures and maintenance of the fuel system of the equipment; and (vii) Intake air system maintenance and tests. (4) Include an examination that requires demonstration of the ability...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., service, and assembly; (iv) Diesel-powered equipment fire suppression system tests and maintenance; (v...) Safe fueling procedures and maintenance of the fuel system of the equipment; and (vii) Intake air system maintenance and tests. (4) Include an examination that requires demonstration of the ability...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., service, and assembly; (iv) Diesel-powered equipment fire suppression system tests and maintenance; (v...) Safe fueling procedures and maintenance of the fuel system of the equipment; and (vii) Intake air system maintenance and tests. (4) Include an examination that requires demonstration of the ability...

  3. Leadership Style, Use of Power, and Conflict Management Style: Implications for Supervision and Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Virginia P.; And Others

    A study investigated the degree of association between supervisor and subordinate perceptions of the supervisor's leadership style, use of power, and conflict management style. Subjects were 87 supervisors and 432 subordinates from five service-oriented, publicly supported organizations. The supervisors completed measures of leadership style, use…

  4. Development of Career Opportunities for Technicians in the Nuclear Medicine Field, Phase I. Interim Report Number 1: Survey of Job Characteristics, Manpower Needs and Training Resources, July 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    Phase I of a multiphase research program in progress at the Technical Education Research Center, Inc., was conducted to analyze needs and resources in terms of job performance tasks, career opportunities, and training requirements for nuclear medical technicians. Data were gathered through personal interviews with 203 persons, mostly physicians,…

  5. The Effect of Additional Training on Motor Outcomes at Discharge from Recovery Phase Rehabilitation Wards: A Survey from Multi-Center Stroke Data Bank in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Nariaki; Suzuki, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Jeong, Seungwon; Sugiyama, Motoya; Kondo, Katsunori; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential benefits of additional training in patients admitted to recovery phase rehabilitation ward using the data bank of post-stroke patient registry. Subjects and Methods Subjects were 2507 inpatients admitted to recovery phase rehabilitation wards between November 2004 and November 2010. Participants were retrospectively divided into four groups based upon chart review; patients who received no additional rehabilitation, patients who were added with self-initiated off hours training, patients who were added with off hours training by ward staff, patients who received both self-initiated training and training by ward staff. Parameters for assessing outcomes included length of stay, motor/cognitive subscales of functional independent measures (FIM) and motor benefit of FIM calculated by subtracting the score at admission from that at discharge. Results Participants were stratified into three groups depending on the motor FIM at admission (≦28, 29∼56, 57≦) for comparison. Regarding outcome variables, significant inter-group differences were observed in all items examined within the subgroup who scored 28 or less and between 29 and 56. Meanwhile no such trends were observed in the group who scored 57 or more compared with those who scored less. In a decision tree created based upon Exhaustive Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection method, variables chosen were the motor FIM at admission (the first node) additional training (the second node), the cognitive FIM at admission(the third node). Conclusions Overall the results suggest that additional training can compensate for the shortage of regular rehabilitation implemented in recovery phase rehabilitation ward, thus may contribute to improved outcomes assessed by motor FIM at discharge. PMID:24626224

  6. Experimental study and modelling of overheating of electrical catenary-pantograph interface for trains supplied with power in station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bausseron, Thomas; Baucour, Philippe; Glises, Raynal; Verschelde, Sylvain; Chamagne, Didier

    2015-06-01

    For railroads and trains, there have been many incidents involving catenary overheating at the contact with the pantograph when a train is supplied with power while standing still. The overheating of the catenary-pantograph interface can sometimes cause the contact wire to break. In order to anticipate the occurrence of such costly problems, the FEMTO-ST Institute has carried out theoretical and experimental studies in collaboration with the French National Railway Company (SNCF) to better understand this phenomenon. First, a 2D transient electrical model was developed for the contact wire. This allows the current distribution in the wire to be estimated to obtain an accurate measure of the internal heat generation. The heat produced by the interface was considered and split between the catenary and pantograph with an analytical model. Finally, the heat transfer equation for the wire under particular boundary conditions was solved for the entire finite difference network based on Euler's implicit method. The transient modelling results of the wire heating were compared with earlier experimental values, and a parametric study was performed.

  7. Design and real time implementation of single phase boost power factor correction converter.

    PubMed

    Bouafassa, Amar; Rahmani, Lazhar; Mekhilef, Saad

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a real time implementation of the single-phase power factor correction (PFC) AC-DC boost converter. A combination of higher order sliding mode controller based on super twisting algorithm and predictive control techniques are implemented to improve the performance of the boost converter. Due to the chattering effects, the higher order sliding mode control (HOSMC) is designed. Also, the predictive technique is modified taking into account the large computational delays. The robustness of the controller is verified conducting simulation in MATLAB, the results show good performances in both steady and transient states. An experiment is conducted through a test bench based on dSPACE 1104. The experimental results proved that the proposed controller enhanced the performance of the converter under different parameters variations. PMID:25457043

  8. Modelling the energy future of Switzerland after the phase out of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Paula; Van Vliet, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    In September 2013, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) published the final report of the proposed measures in the context of the Energy Strategy 2050 (ES2050). The ES2050 draws an energy scenario where the nuclear must be substituted by alternative sources. This implies a fundamental change in the energy system that has already been questioned by experts, e.g. [Piot, 2014]. Therefore, we must analyse in depth the technical implications of change in the Swiss energy mix from a robust baseload power such as nuclear, to an electricity mix where intermittent sources account for higher rates. Accomplishing the ES2050 imply difficult challenges, since nowadays nuclear power is the second most consumed energy source in Switzerland. According to the SFOE, nuclear accounts for a 23.3% of the gross production, only surpassed by crude oil products (43.3%). Hydropower is the third source more consumed, representing approximately the half of the nuclear (12.2%). Considering that Switzerland has almost reached the maximum of its hydropower capacity, renewables are more likely to be the alternative when the nuclear phase out takes place. Hence, solar and wind power will play an important role in the future Swiss energy mix, even though currently new renewables account for only 1.9% of the gross energy consumption. In this study we look for realistic and efficient combinations of energy resources to substitute nuclear power. Energy modelling is a powerful tool to design an energy system with high energy security that avoids problems of intermittency [Mathiesen & Lund, 2009]. In Switzerland, energy modelling has been used by the government [Abt et. al., 2012] and also has significant relevance in academia [Mathys, 2012]. Nevertheless, we detected a gap in the study of the security in energy scenarios [Busser, 2013]. This study examines the future electricity production of Switzerland using Calliope, a multi-scale energy systems model, developed at Imperial College, London and

  9. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TRAINING FILE INSPECTIONS (NHX/SOP-815-004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This procedure details the procedure for inspecting training files. Training file inspections are performed primarily to ensure that the program requirements are being met and that a current summary of training and experience is being maintained for each individual engaged in the...

  10. Evaluation of Electronic Counter-Countermeasures Training Using Microcomputer-Based Technology: Phase I. Basic Jamming Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Susan G.; Ellis, Burl D.

    Seven microcomputer-based training systems with videotape players/monitors were installed to provide electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) simulation training, drill and practice, and performance testing for three courses at a fleet combat training center. Narrated videotape presentations of simulated and live jamming followed by a drill and…

  11. Transient liquid phase bonding as a joining technique for high-temperature power electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Nicholas Seth

    Fundamental aspects of transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding in the Cu-Sn system have been studied, with the objective of assessing the utility of the bonding technique in joining high-temperature SiC devices to direct bond copper (DBC) substrates in power electronic packages. This technique can be implemented at relatively low temperatures (in comparison to the melting point of Cu), yet provide bonds that have composition and properties that are similar to those of Cu. The bonding parameters of time, temperature, and interlayer thickness were probed. Additionally, two methods for the introduction of the interlayer were used: one based on the use of foils and the other based on electron beam deposition. The resulting microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Microstructures consisting of the phases Cu6Sn5, Cu3Sn, Cu 41Sn11, and (Cu) were produced. The time required to form a bond with the targeted microstructure, notably that of (Cu), was found to be dominated by the consumption of intermediate phases, as dictated by diffusion, and thus scaled quadratically with initial interlayer thickness. Two types of bonding defects were obtained: one due to surface contamination and the other caused by the consumption of Sn through the formation of the Cu 6Sn5 intermetallic in the solid state during heating. The successful production of samples devoid of such defects was via electron beam deposition of the interlayer material, with sufficient thickness to ensure ample material for the formation of the transient liquid phase following solid state intermetallic formation. The mechanical properties of these bonds were measured and compared with those made with Sn foil. The toughness of the bonds in samples where the Sn interlayer was introduced by electron beam deposition was greater than that of samples that used an interlayer of Sn foil. The difference was attributed to the higher level of porosity and defects in

  12. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV researchers benefited

  13. Phased Array-Based Saft for Defect Sizing on Power Plant Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekow, G.; Brackrock, D.; Boehm, R.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2009-03-01

    Quantitative NDE methods play a key role when it comes to inspect components, which requires high operational safety. UT-SAFT is one of the well-known reconstruction tools, which provides information about the defect size. In this work we studied the use of phased array technique in combination with the SAFT algorithm to inspect power plant components. As a first example we inspected a real-sized mock-up model representing a part of a reactor pressure vessel with a 180 mm-thick ferritic base material followed by a 6 mm-thick austenitic cladding layer. The phased array probe was coupled at the outer ferritic surface. We detected and sized fatigue cracks within the cladding with a depth ranging from 4 mm to 10 mm. Secondly, we investigated a mock-up model resembling a nozzle including a thermo sleeve inlet and a maximum wall thickness of about 37 mm. Artificially inserted notches with a depth of 3 mm could be detected and sized, where the thermo sleeve is welded at the inside of the nozzle.

  14. Nanoblinker: Brownian Motion Powered Bio-Nanomachine for FRET Detection of Phagocytic Phase of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Minchew, Candace L.; Didenko, Vladimir V.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new type of bio-nanomachine which runs on thermal noise. The machine is solely powered by the random motion of water molecules in its environment and does not ever require re-fuelling. The construct, which is made of DNA and vaccinia virus topoisomerase protein, can detect DNA damage by employing fluorescence. It uses Brownian motion as a cyclic motor to continually separate and bring together two types of fluorescent hairpins participating in FRET. This bio-molecular oscillator is a fast and specific sensor of 5′OH double-strand DNA breaks present in phagocytic phase of apoptosis. The detection takes 30 s in solution and 3 min in cell suspensions. The phagocytic phase is critical for the effective execution of apoptosis as it ensures complete degradation of the dying cells’ DNA, preventing release of pathological, viral and tumor DNA and self-immunization. The construct can be used as a smart FRET probe in studies of cell death and phagocytosis. PMID:25268504

  15. The Pilot Training Study: Advanced Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, P. J.

    An overview is presented of advanced pilot training and of the formal advanced pilot training program that constitutes the primary means of providing this training. Section I deals with the various phases of advanced pilot training that a pilot may encounter during his career; Section II deals with the types of aircraft that require some form of…

  16. Controlling the phase locking of stochastic magnetic bits for ultra-low power computation.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Alice; Locatelli, Nicolas; Lebrun, Romain; Cros, Vincent; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji; Querlioz, Damien; Grollier, Julie

    2016-01-01

    When fabricating magnetic memories, one of the main challenges is to maintain the bit stability while downscaling. Indeed, for magnetic volumes of a few thousand nm(3), the energy barrier between magnetic configurations becomes comparable to the thermal energy at room temperature. Then, switches of the magnetization spontaneously occur. These volatile, superparamagnetic nanomagnets are generally considered useless. But what if we could use them as low power computational building blocks? Remarkably, they can oscillate without the need of any external dc drive, and despite their stochastic nature, they can beat in unison with an external periodic signal. Here we show that the phase locking of superparamagnetic tunnel junctions can be induced and suppressed by electrical noise injection. We develop a comprehensive model giving the conditions for synchronization, and predict that it can be achieved with a total energy cost lower than 10(-13) J. Our results open the path to ultra-low power computation based on the controlled synchronization of oscillators. PMID:27457034

  17. Controlling the phase locking of stochastic magnetic bits for ultra-low power computation

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, Alice; Locatelli, Nicolas; Lebrun, Romain; Cros, Vincent; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji; Querlioz, Damien; Grollier, Julie

    2016-01-01

    When fabricating magnetic memories, one of the main challenges is to maintain the bit stability while downscaling. Indeed, for magnetic volumes of a few thousand nm3, the energy barrier between magnetic configurations becomes comparable to the thermal energy at room temperature. Then, switches of the magnetization spontaneously occur. These volatile, superparamagnetic nanomagnets are generally considered useless. But what if we could use them as low power computational building blocks? Remarkably, they can oscillate without the need of any external dc drive, and despite their stochastic nature, they can beat in unison with an external periodic signal. Here we show that the phase locking of superparamagnetic tunnel junctions can be induced and suppressed by electrical noise injection. We develop a comprehensive model giving the conditions for synchronization, and predict that it can be achieved with a total energy cost lower than 10−13 J. Our results open the path to ultra-low power computation based on the controlled synchronization of oscillators. PMID:27457034

  18. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  19. Controlling the phase locking of stochastic magnetic bits for ultra-low power computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahi, Alice; Locatelli, Nicolas; Lebrun, Romain; Cros, Vincent; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji; Querlioz, Damien; Grollier, Julie

    2016-07-01

    When fabricating magnetic memories, one of the main challenges is to maintain the bit stability while downscaling. Indeed, for magnetic volumes of a few thousand nm3, the energy barrier between magnetic configurations becomes comparable to the thermal energy at room temperature. Then, switches of the magnetization spontaneously occur. These volatile, superparamagnetic nanomagnets are generally considered useless. But what if we could use them as low power computational building blocks? Remarkably, they can oscillate without the need of any external dc drive, and despite their stochastic nature, they can beat in unison with an external periodic signal. Here we show that the phase locking of superparamagnetic tunnel junctions can be induced and suppressed by electrical noise injection. We develop a comprehensive model giving the conditions for synchronization, and predict that it can be achieved with a total energy cost lower than 10‑13 J. Our results open the path to ultra-low power computation based on the controlled synchronization of oscillators.

  20. A comparison of traditional and block periodized strength training programs in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Hoffman, Jay R; Merni, Franco; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different periodization models in strength and power athletes. Twenty-four experienced resistance trained men were randomly assigned to either a block periodization training program (BP; age = 24.2 ± 3.1 years, body mass = 78.5 ± 11.0 kg, height = 177.6 ± 4.9 cm) or to a traditional periodization program (TP; age = 26.2 ± 6.0 years, body mass = 80.5 ± 13.3 kg, height = 179.2 ± 4.6). Participants in both training programs performed 4 training sessions per week. Each training program consisted of the same exercises and same volume of training (total resistance lifted per session). The difference between the groups was in the manipulation of training intensity within each training phase. Strength and power testing occurred before training (PRE) and after 15 weeks (POST) of training. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare strength and power performance between the groups. Participants in BP were more likely (79.8%) to increase the area under the force-power curve than TP. Participants in BP also demonstrated a likely positive (92.76%) decrease in the load corresponding to maximal power at the bench press compared with TP group, and a possible improvement (∼60%) in maximal strength and power in the bench press. No significant changes were noted between groups in lower-body strength or jump power performance after the 15-week training period. Results of this study indicate that BP may enhance upper-body power expression to a greater extent than TP with equal volume; however, no differences were detected for lower-body performance and body composition measures. PMID:24476775

  1. Effects of sprint interval training and body weight reduction on power to weight ratio in experienced cyclists.

    PubMed

    Lunn, William R; Finn, Joan A; Axtell, Robert S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supramaximal sprint interval training (SIT), body weight reduction, and a combination of both treatments on peak and average anaerobic power to weight ratio (PPOan:Wt, APOan:Wt) by manipulating peak and average anaerobic power output (PPOan, APOan) and body weight (BW) in experienced cyclists. Participants (N = 34, age = 38.0 +/- 7.1 years) were assigned to 4 groups for a 10-week study. One group performed twice-weekly SIT sessions on a cycle ergometer while maintaining body weight (SIT). A second group did not perform SIT but intentionally reduced body weight (WR). A third group simultaneously performed SIT sessions and reduced body weight (SIT+WR). A control group cycled in their normal routine and maintained body weight (CON). The 30-second Wingate Test assessed pretest and posttest POan:Wt scores. There was a significant mean increase (p < 0.05) from pretest to posttest in PPOan:Wt and APOan:Wt (W x kg(-1)) scores in both SIT (10.82 +/- 1.71 to 11.92 +/- 1.77 and 8.05 +/- 0.64 to 8.77 +/- 0.64, respectively) and WR (10.33 +/- 2.91 to 11.29 +/- 2.80 and 7.04 +/- 1.45 to 7.62 +/- 1.24, respectively). PPOan and APOan (W) increased significantly only in SIT (753.7 +/- 121.0 to 834.3 +/- 150.1 and 561.3 +/- 62.5 to 612.7 +/- 69.0, respectively). Body weight (kg) decreased significantly in WR and SIT + WR (80.3 +/- 13.7 to 75.3 +/- 11.9 and 78.9 +/- 10.8 to 73.4 +/- 10.8, respectively). The results demonstrate that cyclists can use SIT sessions and body weight reduction as singular training interventions to effect significant increases in anaerobic power to weight ratio, which has been correlated to enhanced aerobic cycling performance. However, the treatments were not effective as combined interventions, as there was no significant change in either PPOan:Wt or APOan:Wt in SIT + WR. PMID:19568031

  2. Effect of Exercise Training and +Gz Acceleration Training on Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, Joyce; Knapp, Charles F.; Cowell, Stephenie A.; Pemberton, Kendra N.; Wilson, Heather W.; Vener, Jamie M.; Evetts, Simon N.

    2001-01-01

    Countermeasures for reduction in work capacity (maximal oxygen uptake and strength) during spaceflight and enhanced orthostatic intolerance during re-entry, landing and egress from the return vehicle are continuing problems. The purpose for this study was to test the hypothesis that passive-acceleration training; supine, interval, exercise plus acceleration training and exercise combined with acceleration training would improve orthostatic tolerance in ambulatory men; and that addition of the aerobic exercise conditioning would not alter this improved tolerance from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven men (24-38 yr) underwent "Passive" training on the Ames human-powered centrifuge (HPC) for 30 min, "Exercise" training on the cycle ergometer with constant +Gz acceleration; and "Combined" exercise training at 40% to 90% of the HPC +Gz(max) exercise level. Maximal supine exercise loads increased significant (P<0.05) by 8.3% (Passive), 12.6% (Exercise), and by 15.4% (Combined) after training, but their post-training maximal oxygen uptakes and maximal heart rates were unchanged. Maximal time to fatigue (endurance) was unchanged with Passive was increased (P<0.05) with Exercise and Combined training. Thus, the exercise in the Exercise and Combined training Phases resulted in greater maximal loads and endurance without effect on maximal oxygen uptake or heart rate. There was a 4% to 6% increase (P<0.05) in all four quadriceps muscle volumes (right and left) after post-Combined training. Resting pre-tilt heart rate was elevated by 12.9% (P<0.05) only after Passive training suggesting that the exercise training attenuated the HR response. Plasma volume (% Delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P<0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training indicating essentially no effect of training on the level of hypovolemia. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and heart rate were increased (P<0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus

  3. Use of blade pitch control to provide power train damping for the Mod-2, 2.5-mW wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blissell, W. A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Control System for the Mod-2 wind turbine system is required to provide not only for startup, RPM regulation, maximizing or regulating power, and stopping the rotor, but also for load limiting, especially in the power train. Early operations with above-rated winds revealed an instability which was caused primarily by coupling between the quill shaft and the rotor air loads. This instability caused the first of several major Mod-2 Control System changes which are reviewed in the paper.

  4. Use of blade pitch control to provide power train damping for the Mod-2, 2.5-mW wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blissell, W. A., Jr.

    1995-05-01

    The Control System for the Mod-2 wind turbine system is required to provide not only for startup, RPM regulation, maximizing or regulating power, and stopping the rotor, but also for load limiting, especially in the power train. Early operations with above-rated winds revealed an instability which was caused primarily by coupling between the quill shaft and the rotor air loads. This instability caused the first of several major Mod-2 Control System changes which are reviewed in the paper.

  5. Self-assembled incorporation of modulated block copolymer nanostructures in phase-change memory for switching power reduction.

    PubMed

    Park, Woon Ik; You, Byoung Kuk; Mun, Beom Ho; Seo, Hyeon Kook; Lee, Jeong Yong; Hosaka, Sumio; Yin, You; Ross, C A; Lee, Keon Jae; Jung, Yeon Sik

    2013-03-26

    Phase change memory (PCM), which exploits the phase change behavior of chalcogenide materials, affords tremendous advantages over conventional solid-state memory due to its nonvolatility, high speed, and scalability. However, high power consumption of PCM poses a critical challenge and has been the most significant obstacle to its widespread commercialization. Here, we present a novel approach based on the self-assembly of a block copolymer (BCP) to form a thin nanostructured SiOx layer that locally blocks the contact between a heater electrode and a phase change material. The writing current is decreased 5-fold (corresponding to a power reduction by 1/20) as the occupying area fraction of SiOx nanostructures is increased from a fill factor of 9.1% to 63.6%. Simulation results theoretically explain the current reduction mechanism by localized switching of BCP-blocked phase change materials. PMID:23451771

  6. Experimental research of the interference and phase structure of the power flux from a local source in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belova, N. I.; Kuznetsov, G. N.; Stepanov, A. N.

    2016-05-01

    The paper studies the interference structure of low-frequency tonal and wideband signals in shallow water, received by four-component vector-scalar modules. The spatial amplitudes and phase characteristics of the scalar field are analyzed, as well as three components of the vibration velocity vector and the power flux vector. A relationship is established between the zone of interference maxima and minima and the phase gradient in the horizontal and vertical plane, the change in direction of the vertical and horizontal components of the vibration velocity vector, and the change in the depression angle of the power flux vector in the horizontal plane.

  7. The dc-to-dc converters employing staggered-phase power switches with two-loop control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wester, G. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A switched inductor voltage is coupled to a sense winding in each phase, and all sense windings are connected in series to one of two feedback loops to provide a signal that indicates when one of the power switches is on as the principal determinant of switching instants. A sequencer is triggered each time a pulse generator is triggered to turn on a different power switch in sequence at each switching instant.

  8. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 3: Laser SPS analysis, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential use of lasers for transmitting power to Earth from Solar Power Satellites was examined. Free electron lasers appear most promising and would have some benefits over microwave power transmission. Further research in laser technology is needed.

  9. Anatomical background noise power spectrum in differential phase contrast breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    In x-ray breast imaging, the anatomical noise background of the breast has a significant impact on the detection of lesions and other features of interest. This anatomical noise is typically characterized by a parameter, β, which describes a power law dependence of anatomical noise on spatial frequency (the shape of the anatomical noise power spectrum). Large values of β have been shown to reduce human detection performance, and in conventional mammography typical values of β are around 3.2. Recently, x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) and the associated dark field imaging methods have received considerable attention as possible supplements to absorption imaging for breast cancer diagnosis. However, the impact of these additional contrast mechanisms on lesion detection is not yet well understood. In order to better understand the utility of these new methods, we measured the β indices for absorption, DPC, and dark field images in 15 cadaver breast specimens using a benchtop DPC imaging system. We found that the measured β value for absorption was consistent with the literature for mammographic acquisitions (β = 3.61±0.49), but that both DPC and dark field images had much lower values of β (β = 2.54±0.75 for DPC and β = 1.44±0.49 for dark field). In addition, visual inspection showed greatly reduced anatomical background in both DPC and dark field images. These promising results suggest that DPC and dark field imaging may help provide improved lesion detection in breast imaging, particularly for those patients with dense breasts, in whom anatomical noise is a major limiting factor in identifying malignancies.

  10. Optical Transients Powered by Magnetars: Dynamics, Light Curves, and Transition to the Nebular Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling-Jun; Wang, S. Q.; Dai, Z. G.; Xu, Dong; Han, Yan-Hui; Wu, X. F.; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Millisecond magnetars can be formed via several channels: core collapse of massive stars, accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs (WDs), double WD mergers, double neutron star (NS) mergers, and WD-NS mergers. Because the mass of ejecta from these channels could be quite different, their light curves are also expected to be diverse. We evaluate the dynamic evolution of optical transients powered by millisecond magnetars. We find that the magnetar with a short spin-down timescale converts its rotational energy mostly into the kinetic energy of the transient, while the energy of a magnetar with a long spin-down timescale goes into radiation of the transient. This leads us to speculate that hypernovae could be powered by magnetars with short spin-down timescales. At late times the optical transients will gradually evolve into a nebular phase because of the photospheric recession. We treat the photosphere and nebula separately because their radiation mechanisms are different. In some cases the ejecta could be light enough that the magnetar can accelerate it to a relativistic speed. It is well known that the peak luminosity of a supernova (SN) occurs when the luminosity is equal to the instantaneous energy input rate, as shown by Arnett. We show that photospheric recession and relativistic motion can modify this law. The photospheric recession always leads to a delay of the peak time {t}{pk} relative to the time {t}× at which the SN luminosity equals the instantaneous energy input rate. Relativistic motion, however, may change this result significantly.

  11. Development of simultaneous measurement system of birefringence, optical rotational power, and transmission spectra for chiral liquid crystal phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhengyu; Ishikawa, Ken

    2016-05-01

    A novel experimental setup used to measure the important optical properties of liquid crystal materials is proposed. The setup allows us to measure electric-field-induced birefringence, optical rotational power, and transmission spectra consecutively. This system can be widely applied to characterize liquid crystal materials including blue phases, ferroelectric liquid crystals, and other chiral phases. We adopted this system to study the phase transition behavior of a V-shape switching ferroelectric liquid crystal mixture and made an important correction of experimental results previously reported by Sandhya et al. [ Europhys. Lett. 90, 56005 (2010)]. This finding proves the advantage of this system compared with the measurement method using individual systems.

  12. Adaptive-feedback spectral-phase control for interactions with transform-limited ultrashort high-power laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Shouyuan; Golovin, Gregory; Banerjee, Sudeep; Zhao, Baozhen; Powers, Nathan; Ghebregziabher, Isaac; Umstadter, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Fourier-transform-limited light pulses were obtained at the laser-plasma interaction point of a 100-TW peak-power laser in vacuum. The spectral-phase distortion induced by the dispersion mismatching between the stretcher, compressor, and dispersive materials was fully compensated for by means of an adaptive closed-loop. The coherent temporal contrast on the sub-picosecond time scale was two orders of magnitude higher than that without adaptive control. This novel phase control capability enabled the experimental study of the dependence of laser wakefield acceleration on the spectral phase of intense laser light. PMID:24365827

  13. Early Postmenopausal Phase Is Associated With Reduced Prostacyclin-Induced Vasodilation That Is Reversed by Exercise Training: The Copenhagen Women Study.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup, Camilla M; Nielsen, Mads B; Mogensen, Alexander S; Stallknecht, Bente; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-10-01

    The postmenopausal phase is associated with an accelerated rate of rise in the prevalence of vascular dysfunction and hypertension; however, the mechanisms underlying these adverse vascular changes and whether exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular function remains unclear. We examined the function of the vascular prostanoid system in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1±0.5 [mean±SE] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50±0 versus 54±1) years of age were included. Before the training period, the vasodilator response to intra-arterial infusion of either the prostacyclin analog epoprostenol or acetylcholine was lower (≈13%-41%; P<0.05) in the postmenopausal compared with the premenopausal women. Acetylcholine infusion induced a similar release of prostacyclin (6-keto prostaglandin F1a). To elucidate the role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids, acetylcholine infusion was combined with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ketorolac and here the vascular response to acetylcholine was reduced to a similar extent in pre- and postmenopausal women. Exercise training increased (P<0.05) the vasodilator response to epoprostenol (≈100%-150%) and acetylcholine (≈100%-120%) infusion in the postmenopausal group. These findings demonstrate that the early postmenopausal phase is associated with a marked reduction in vascular function. Despite of a reduced sensitivity to prostacyclin, the overall balance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor prostanoids does not seem to be altered. Exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular sensitivity to epoprostenol and acetylcholine, suggesting that beneficial vascular adaptations with exercise training are preserved in recent postmenopausal women. PMID:27550922

  14. Best-estimate Mark 22 power and temperature limits during the flow instability phase of K Reactor LBLOCAs

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, S.; Steiner, J.; Motley, F.; Morgan, M.

    1992-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been providing independent analyses to the Department of Energy in its endeavor to enhance the safe operation of the K Reactor located at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). LANL has performed neutronic and thermal-hydraulic system simulations to assess the impact of hypothesized accidents in the K Reactor. In particular, the large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) was one of the major transients that was analyzed. The LBLOCA consists of two distinct thermal-hydraulic phases: the flow instability (FI) phase and the emergency coolant system (ECS) phase. Each phase results in reactor temperature and power limits that are determined using different criteria. This document provides a detailed discussion of the simulations of these phases.

  15. Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Kirk T; Tolbert, Leon M; Ayers, Curtis William; Ozpineci, Burak; Campbell, Jeremy B

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant to dissipate the heat energy (loss) generated by power electronics (PE) such as those associated with rectifiers, converters, and inverters for a specific application in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature of PE devices while conserving weight and volume of the heat sink without sacrificing equipment reliability. First, experimental tests that included an extended soak for more than 300 days were performed on a submerged IGBT and gate-controller card to study dielectric characteristics, deterioration effects, and heat flux capability of R134a. Results from these tests illustrate that R134a has high dielectric characteristics, no deterioration on electrical components, and a heat flux of 114 W/cm 2 for the experimental configuration. Second, experimental tests that included simultaneous operation with a mock automotive air-conditioner (A/C) system were performed on the same IGBT and gate controller card. Data extrapolation from these tests determined that a typical automotive A/C system has more than sufficient cooling capacity to cool a typical 30 kW traction inverter. Last, a discussion and simulation of active cooling of the IGBT junction layer with R134a refrigerant is given. This technique will drastically increase the forward current ratings and reliability of the PE device

  16. Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants. Phase 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blahnik, D.E.; Klein, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems of nuclear power plants. Centrifugal chillers in the 75- to 750-ton refrigeration capacity range are the predominant type used. The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant-to-plant. It is crucial to keep chiller internals very clean and to prevent the leakage of water, air, and other contaminants into the refrigerant containment system. Periodic operation on a weekly or monthly basis is necessary to remove moisture and noncondensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. This is especially desirable if a chiller is required to operate only as an emergency standby unit. The primary stressors and aging mechanisms that affect chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. Aging is accelerated by moisture, non-condensable gases (e.g., air), dirt, and other contamination within the refrigerant containment system, excessive start/stop cycling, and operating below the rated capacity. Aging is also accelerated by corrosion and fouling of the condenser and evaporator tubes. The principal cause of chiller failures is lack of adequate monitoring. Lack of performing scheduled maintenance and human errors also contribute to failures.

  17. Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedelsky, Jan; Lizal, Frantisek; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA) is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain - calculation of power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused by seeding density and other factors of the flow and LDA setup. Arbitrary results of LDA measurements are compared with corresponding Hot Wire Anemometry (HWA) data in the frequency domain. Slot correlation (SC) method implemented in software program Kern by Nobach (2006) is used for the PSD estimation. Influence of several input parameters on resulting PSDs is described. Optimum setup of the software for our data of particle-laden air flow in realistic human airway model is documented. Typical character of the flow is described using PSD plots of velocity fluctuations with comments on specific properties of the flow. Some recommendations for improvements of future experiments to acquire better PSD results are given.

  18. An innovative navigation scheme of powered descent phase for Mars pinpoint landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Tong; Zhu, Shengying; Cui, Pingyuan; Gao, Ai

    2014-11-01

    Pinpoint landing (within 100 m from the target) is essential for future Mars exploration missions. This paper deals with one aspect of the pinpoint landing architecture-the navigation performance improvement during the powered descent phase, and proposes an innovative navigation scheme to obtain the vehicle complete and accurate states. On the basis of dead reckoning relying on the Inertial Measurement Unit, measurements of the Integrated Doppler Radar are adopted to correct the vehicle velocity and altitude. Distance between the vehicle and one Mars Orbiter as well as their line-of-sight relative velocity is measured by a radio sensor, and integrated in the filter to correct the vehicle horizontal position. The innovative navigation system is based on an Extend Kalman Filter. Two observation schemes are developed. One considers measurements of the Integrated Doppler Radar and radio range measurement. Another further considers radio velocity measurement. The performance of the innovative navigation scheme is greatly influenced by the position of the Mars Orbiter with respect to the target. Stochastic analyses are performed to obtain optimal locations of Mars Orbiter. Finally, the innovative navigation scheme performances are assessed through stochastic simulations. Its performance improvements are demonstrated by comparison with the Integrated Doppler Radar only navigation scheme.

  19. Using Pre-Melted Phase Change Material to Keep Payloads in Space Warm for Hours without Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Adding phase change material (PCM) to a mission payload can maintain its temperature above the cold survival limit, without power, for several hours in space. For the International Space Station, PCM is melted by heaters just prior to the payload translation to the worksite when power is available. When power is cut off during the six-hour translation, the PCM releases its latent heat to make up the heat loss from the radiator(s) to space. For the interplanetary Probe, PCM is melted by heaters just prior to separation from the orbiter when power is available from the orbiter power system. After the Probe separates from the orbiter, the PCM releases its latent heat to make up the heat loss from the Probe exterior to space. Paraffin wax is a good PCM candidate.

  20. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards.