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Sample records for powered lift conference

  1. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  2. International Powered Lift Conference and Exposition, Santa Clara, CA, Dec. 7-10, 1987, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The present conference on VTOL, STOVL and V/STOL fixed-wing aircraft powered lift discusses hot gas recirculation in V/STOL, flight testing of a single-engine powered lift aircraft, RAF experience with VTOL, near-term improvements of the AV-8B Harrier II, recent advancements in thrust augmentation, lift ejectors for STOVL combat aircraft, the correlation of entrainment and lift enhancement for a two-dimensional propulsive wing, the thrust efficiency of powered lift systems, and flight propulsion control integration for V/STOL aircraft. Also discussed are VSTOL design implications for tactical transports, the numerical investigation of a jet in ground effect with a cross flow, the NASA supersonic STOVL propulsion technology program, the aeroacoustics of advanced STOVL aircraft plumes, powered lift transport aircraft certification criteria status, the application of vectored thrust V/STOL experience in supersonic designs, wave drag and high speed performance of supersonic STOVL fighter configurations, and the impact of bypass ratio on thrust-to-weight for V/STOL.

  3. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  4. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  5. Quiet powered-lift propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Latest results of programs exploring new propulsion technology for powered-lift aircraft systems are presented. Topics discussed include results from the 'quiet clean short-haul experimental engine' program and progress reports on the 'quiet short-haul research aircraft' and 'tilt-rotor research aircraft' programs. In addition to these NASA programs, the Air Force AMST YC 14 and YC 15 programs were reviewed.

  6. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Moulden, Steve

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  7. Design of a portable powered seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    People suffering from degenerative hip or knee joints find sitting and rising from a seated position very difficult. These people can rely on large stationary chairs at home, but must ask others for assistance when rising from any other chair. An orthopedic surgeon identified to the MSFC Technology Utilization Office the need for development of a portable device that could perform a similar function to the stationary lift chairs. The MSFC Structural Development Branch answered the Technology Utilization Office's request for design of a portable powered seat lift. The device is a seat cushion that opens under power, lifting the user to near-standing positions. The largest challenge was developing a mechanism to provide a stable lift over the large range of motion needed, and fold flat enough to be comfortable to sit on. CAD 3-D modeling was used to generate complete drawings for the prototype, and a full-scale working model of the Seat lift was made based on the drawings. The working model is of low strength, but proves the function of the mechanism and the concept.

  8. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Woodrow L.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller powered high lift semispan wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takallu, M. A.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the engine/airframe integration aerodynamics for potential high-lift aircraft configurations. The model consisted of a semispan wing with a double-isolated flap system and a Krueger leading edge device. The advanced propeller and the powered nacelle were tested and aerodynamic characteristics of the combined system are presented. It was found that the lift coefficient of the powered wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Moving the nacelle/propeller closer to the wing in the vertical direction indicated higher lift augmentation than a shift in the longitudinal direction. A pitch-down nacelle inclination enhanced the lift performance of the system much better than vertical and horizontal variation of the nacelle locations and showed that the powered wing can sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance.

  10. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or other required position from one place to another, as from a bed to a bath. The device includes straps and slings to support the patient. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt...

  11. Lift and power requirements of hovering insect flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Sun; Gang, Du

    2003-10-01

    Lift and power requirements for hovering flight of eight species of insects are studied by solving the Navier-Stokes equation numerically. The solution provides velocity and pressure fields, from which unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments are obtained. The inertial torque of wing mass are computed analytically. The wing length of the insects ranges from 2 mm (fruit fly) to 52mm (hawkmoth); Reynolds numbers Re (based on mean flapping speed and mean chord length) ranges from 75 to 3 850. The primary findings are shown in the following: (1) Either small ( R=2mm, Re=75), medium ( R≈10mm, Re≈500) or large ( R≈50 mm, Re≈4000) insects mainly employ the same high-lift mechanism, delayed stall, to produce lift in hovering flight. The midstroke angle of attack needed to produce a mean lift equal to the insect weight is approximately in the range of 25° to 45°, which is approximately in agreement with observation. (2) For the small insect (fruit fly) and for the medium and large insects with relatively small wingbeat frequency (cranefly, ladybird and hawkmoth), the specific power ranges from 18 to 39 W·kg-1, the major part of the power is due to aerodynamic force, and the elastic storage of negatige work does not change the specific power greatly. However for medium and large insects with relatively large wingbeat frequency (hoverfly, dronefly, honey bee and bumble bee), the specific power ranges from 39 to 61 W·kg-1, the major part of the power is due to wing inertia, and the elastic storage of negative work can decrease the specific power by approximately 33%. (3) For the case of power being mainly contributed by aerodynamic force (fruit fly, cranefly, ladybird and hawkmoth), the specific power is proportional to the product of the wingbeat frequency, the stroke amplitude, the wing length and the drag-to-lift ratio. For the case of power being mainly contributed by wing inertia (hoverfly, dronefly, honey bee and bumble bee), the specific power (without

  12. Airworthiness criteria development for powered-lift aircraft: A program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Stapleford, R. L.; Rumold, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A four-year simulation program to develop airworthiness criteria for powered-lift aircraft is summarized. All flight phases affected by use of powered lift (approach, landing, takeoff) are treated with regard to airworthiness problem areas (limiting flight conditions and safety margins: stability, control, and performance; and systems failure). The general features of powered-lift aircraft are compared to conventional aircraft.

  13. Power lifting: people meeting the population challenge.

    PubMed

    Dillon, L

    1994-12-01

    Whereas population pressures are usually associated with developing countries, developed countries like the US also suffer from population-associated problems. For example, in some US cities the infant mortality rate is worse than in the developing world. US policy-makers have found it useful to apply some of the programs used successfully in the developing world to problems at home. Efforts to increase the availability of health care services and education have led to the creation of the Healthy Start program in Baltimore, Maryland, which uses community residents to motivate their peers and provides counseling on family planning, education, and employment. In Oregon, an AIDS-prevention program, which makes condoms more accessible to teenagers, has been transplanted from Zaire. Chattanooga, Tennessee, has used techniques from Brazil to design public transportation systems and improve air quality. In communities across the country, activists are working to instill power in local residents as they seek ways to improve the environment and promote economic health. Modeled on an initiative in Bangladesh, community-run loan programs allow the development of microenterprises which help people develop self-employment opportunities. When women take part in these activities and become successfully employed, their children are given what is usually their first example of parental employment and a reason to hope for a better future. PMID:12318954

  14. Tentative civil airworthiness flight criteria for powered-lift transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hynes, C. S.; Scott, B. C.

    1976-01-01

    Representatives of the U.S., British, French, and Canadian airworthiness authorities participated in a NASA/FAA program to formulate tentative civil airworthiness flight criteria for powered-lift transports. The ultimate limits of the flight envelope are defined by boundaries in the airspeed/path-angle plane. Angle of attack and airspeed margins applied to these ultimate limits provide protection against both atmospheric disturbances and disturbances resulting from pilot actions or system variability, but do not ensure maneuvering capability directly, as the 30% speed margin does for conventional transports. Separate criteria provide for direct demonstration of adequate capability for approach path control, flare and landing, and for go-around. Demonstration maneuvers are proposed, and appropriate abuses and failures are suggested. Taken together, these criteria should permit selection of appropriate operating points within the flight envelopes for the approach, landing, and go-around flight phases which are likely to be most critical for powered-lift aircraft.

  15. Lift and Power Requirements in Flight in a Dragonfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mao; Wang, Ji Kang

    The lift and power requirements of a model dragonfly in forward flight are studied, using the method of numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The graph of power against flight speed is U-shaped, suggesting that a dragonfly might have a preferred cruising speed. Considerable variation in the relative phase between fore- and hindwings results in only very small change in power requirement. This suggests theat the forewing-hingwing interaction is weak and furthermore, might explain why phase angles ranging from to are employed by dragonflies in hovering and forward flight.

  16. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing, tracking flow features using overset grids, and simulation of high lift devices on a fighter-lift-and-control wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chawla, Kalpana

    1993-01-01

    Attached as appendices to this report are documents describing work performed on the simulation of a landing powered-lift delta wing, the tracking of flow features using overset grids, and the simulation of flaps on the Wright Patterson Lab's fighter-lift-and-control (FLAC) wing. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing includes the computation of flow about a delta wing at four fixed heights as well as a simulated landing, in which the delta wing descends toward the ground. Comparison of computed and experimental lift coefficients indicates that the simulations capture the qualitative trends in lift-loss encountered by thrust-vectoring aircraft operating in ground effect. Power spectra of temporal variations of pressure indicate computed vortex shedding frequencies close to the jet exit are in the experimentally observed frequency range; the power spectra of pressure also provide insights into the mechanisms of lift oscillations. Also, a method for using overset grids to track dynamic flow features is described and the method is validated by tracking a moving shock and vortices shed behind a circular cylinder. Finally, Chimera gridding strategies were used to develop pressure coefficient contours for the FLAC wing for a Mach no. of 0.18 and Reynolds no. of 2.5 million.

  17. Calculations and experiments concerning lifting force and power in TEMPUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zong, J. H.; Szekely, J.; Lohofer, G.

    1993-01-01

    A critical comparison is reported between the theoretically predicted and experimentally measured values for the electromagnetic lifting force and the heating rates which may be achieved, under simulated microgravity conditions, using the TEMPUS electromagnetic levitation device. The experiments involved the suspending of a metallic sample from one arm of a recording balance, such that it was carefully positioned between the heating and the positioning coils of the levitation device. The net force exerted by the sample was measured as a function of position, the coil currents, and the nature of the sample. Some calculations are also reported regarding the power absorption by the sample. The theoretical predictions, based on the numerical solution of Maxwell's equations using the volume integral technique, were found to be in excellent agreement with the measurements. For the idealized case of a spherical sample, analytical solutions describing the lifting force were also found to agree very well with the computed results.

  18. Approach path control for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clymer, D. J.; Flora, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    A flight control system concept is defined for approach flightpath control of an augmentor wing (or similar) powered-lift STOL configuration. The proposed STOL control concept produces aircraft transient and steady-state control responses that are familiar to pilots of conventional jet transports, and has potential for good handling qualities ratings in all approach and landing phases. The effects of trailing-edge rate limits, real-engine dynamics, and atmospheric turbulence are considered in the study. A general discussion of STOL handling qualities problems and piloting techniques is included.

  19. Conference Report: Power and Energy Society Annual Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Hayao; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    The 17th Power & Energy Society Annual Conference was held on September 13-15, 2006 at University of the Ryukyus. There were 52 technical sessions and 453 papers. A panel discussion, technical exhibitions and technical tours were also organized. In this article, the outline of the conference is reported.

  20. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, James J

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  1. The lift-fan powered-lift aircraft concept: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1993-01-01

    This is one of a series of reports on the lessons learned from past research related to lift-fan aircraft concepts. An extensive review is presented of the many lift-fan aircraft design studies conducted by both government and industry over the past 45 years. Mission applications and design integration including discussions on manifolding hot gas generators, hot gas dusting, and energy transfer control are addressed. Past lift-fan evaluations of the Avrocar are discussed. Lessons learned from these past efforts are identified.

  2. Interior noise considerations for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    Powered-lift configurations which are currently under development for future use on STOL aircraft involve impingement of the jet engine exhaust onto wing and flap surfaces. Previous studies have suggested that the impinging jet produces higher noise levels at lower frequencies than does the jet alone. These higher levels, together with the close proximity of the engine and flap noise sources to the fuselage sidewall, suggest that the noise levels in these aircraft may be high enough to interfere with passenger comfort. To investigate this possibility, interior noise levels were estimated for both an upper surface blown (USB) and an externally blown flap (EBF) configuration. This paper describes the procedure used to estimate the interior noise levels and compares these levels with levels on existing jet aircraft and on ground transportation vehicles. These estimates indicate high levels in the STOL aircraft; therefore, areas of possible improvements in technology for control of STOL interior noise are also discussed.

  3. Conference Report: 21st Power and Energy Society Annual Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goda, Tadahiro; Iba, Kenji

    The 21st Power and Energy Society Annual Conference was held on September 1-3, 2010 at Kyushu University. The total number of technical papers was 376, and technical sessions were 53 (52 oral sessions and 1 poster session). An invited lecture, a panel discussion, technical exhibitions and two technical tours were organized. All events were very well attended and the final enrollment attained to 969 registrations. The conference was successfully closed by the great contribution of all participants. The outline of the conference is reported in this article.

  4. Conference Report: 20th Power and Energy Society Annual Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Takao, Tomoaki

    The 20th Power and Energy Society Annual Conference was held on August 18-20, 2009 at Shibaura Institute of Technology. The total number of technical papers was 352, and technical sessions were 47 (46 oral sessions and 1 poster session). An invited lecture, a panel discussion, technical exhibitions and two technical tours were organized. All events were very well attended and the final enrollment attained to 881 registrations. The conference was successfully closed by the great contribution of all participants. The outline of the conference is reported in this article.

  5. Conference Report: Power and Energy Society Annual Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorino, Naoto; Mori, Hiroyuki

    The 19th Power & Energy Society Annual Conference was held on September 24-26, 2008 at Hiroshima University. The total number of technical papers was 415 and 53 sessions (52 oral sessions and 1 poster session) were organized. A panel discussion, a special lecture, technical exhibitions and technical tours were also organized. All events were very well attended and the final enrollment attained to 954 registrations. The conference has been successfully closed by the great contribution of all participants. In this article, the outline of the conference is reported.

  6. Power affects performance when the pressure is on: evidence for low-power threat and high-power lift.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sonia K; Galinsky, Adam D; Kray, Laura J; Shirako, Aiwa

    2015-05-01

    The current research examines how power affects performance in pressure-filled contexts. We present low-power-threat and high-power-lift effects, whereby performance in high-stakes situations suffers or is enhanced depending on one's power; that is, the power inherent to a situational role can produce effects similar to stereotype threat and lift. Three negotiations experiments demonstrate that role-based power affects outcomes but only when the negotiation is diagnostic of ability and, therefore, pressure-filled. We link these outcomes conceptually to threat and lift effects by showing that (a) role power affects performance more strongly when the negotiation is diagnostic of ability and (b) underperformance disappears when the low-power negotiator has an opportunity to self-affirm. These results suggest that stereotype threat and lift effects may represent a more general phenomenon: When the stakes are raised high, relative power can act as either a toxic brew (stereotype/low-power threat) or a beneficial elixir (stereotype/high-power lift) for performance. PMID:25888684

  7. Application of powered-lift concepts for improved cruise efficiency of long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Fournier, P. G.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies conducted to explore the use of powered lift concepts for improved low speed performance of long range subsonic and supersonic cruise vehicles are summarized. It is indicated that powered lift can provide significant improvements in low speed performance, as well as substantial increases in cruise efficiency and range for both subsonic and supersonic cruise configurations.

  8. 14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category rating. 61.163 Section 61.163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Transport Pilots § 61.163 Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. (a) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

  9. 14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... category rating. 61.163 Section 61.163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Transport Pilots § 61.163 Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. (a) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

  10. 14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... category rating. 61.163 Section 61.163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Transport Pilots § 61.163 Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. (a) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

  11. 14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... category rating. 61.163 Section 61.163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Transport Pilots § 61.163 Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. (a) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

  12. "Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, Thomas J.

    2011-11-29

    fleets. As a long-standing lift truck dealership, LiftOne was able to introduce the fuel cells to such companies in the demanding applications. Accomplishments vs Objectives: We were successful in respect to the stated objectives. The Education Segment's H2 Education Sessions were able to introduce fuel cell technology to many companies and reached the intended broad audience. Also, demos of the lift truck at the sessions as well as the conferences; expos and area events provided great additional exposure. The Deployments were successful in allowing the 6 participating companies to test the 2 fuel cell powered lift trucks in their demanding applications. One of the 6 sites (BMW) eventually adopted over 80 fuel cells from Plug Power. LiftOne was one of the 3 fuel cell demonstrators at BMW for this trial and played a major role in helping to prove the viability and efficiency of this alternative form of energy for BMW. The other 5 companies that participated in the project's deployments were encouraged by the trials and while not converting over to fuel cell power at this time, expressed the desire to revisit acquisition scenarios in the near future as the cost of fuel cells and infrastructure continue to improve. The Education sessions began in March of 2009 at the 7 LiftOne Branches and continued throughout the duration of the project. Attendees came from a large base of lift truck users in North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. The sessions were free and invitations were sent out to potential users and companies with intrigue. In addition to the Education content at the sessions (which was offered in a 'H2 101' format), LiftOne was able to demonstrate a working fuel cell powered lift truck, which proved to be a big draw with the 'hands on' experience. LiftOne also demo'd the fuel cell lift trucks at many conferences, expos, professional association meetings, trade shows and 'Green' events in major cities region including Charlotte, Greenville, and Columbia. Such

  13. Fuel-Conservation Guidance System for Powered-Lift Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; McLean, John D.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is described for the design of fuel-conservative guidance systems and is applied to a system that was flight tested on board NASA's sugmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. An important operational feature of the system is its ability to rapidly synthesize fuel-efficient trajectories for a large set of initial aircraft positions, altitudes, and headings. This feature allows the aircraft to be flown efficiently under conditions of changing winds and air traffic control vectors. Rapid synthesis of fuel-efficient trajectories is accomplished in the airborne computer by fast-time trajectory integration using a simplified dynamic performance model of the aircraft. This technique also ensures optimum flap deployment and, for powered-lift STOL aircraft, optimum transition to low-speed flight. Also included in the design is accurate prediction of touchdown time for use in four-dimensional guidance applications. Flight test results have demonstrated that the automatically synthesized trajectories produce significant fuel savings relative to manually flown conventional approaches.

  14. 2005 clean coal and power conference. Conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    The theme of the conference was 'The paradox: today's coal technologies versus tomorrow's promise'. The sessions covered: today's technologies, tomorrow's potential; economic stability; energy security; transition to sustainable energy future; new coal power technologies leading to zero emission coal; existing power plants - improved performance through use of new technology; and carbon capture and storage R & D - challenges and opportunities. Some of the papers only consist of the viewgraphs/overheads.

  15. Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller-powered high-lift semispan wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Takallu, M. A.; Applin, Zachary T.

    1994-01-01

    A small-scale semispan high-lift wing-flap system equipped under the wing with a turboprop engine assembly was tested in the LaRC 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. Experimental data were obtained for various propeller rotational speeds, nacelle locations, and nacelle inclinations. To isolate the effects of the high lift system, data were obtained with and without the flaps and leading-edge device. The effects of the propeller slipstream on the overall longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-propeller assembly were examined. Test results indicated that the lift coefficient of the wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Decreasing the nacelle inclination (increased pitch down) enhanced the lift performance of the system much more than varying the vertical or horizontal location of the nacelle. Furthermore, decreasing the nacelle inclination led to higher lift curve slope values, which indicated that the powered wing could sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance. Any lift augmentation was accompanied by a drag penalty due to the increased wing lift.

  16. Knowledge, Power, and Freud's Clark Conference Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martha; Makay, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines Freud's Clark Conference Lectures in which he offers a case in point of the intersection among knowledge, power, and discourse. Argues that Freud's rhetorical action constituted the "new" knowledge of psychoanalysis, while simultaneously forging relationships between the scientific and medical communities that endowed the psychoanalyst…

  17. 77 FR 11109 - Reactive Power Resources; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reactive Power Resources; Notice of Technical Conference The Federal Energy... docket highlights potential issues regarding the need for reactive power capability among newly... technical conference to examine whether the Commission should reconsider or modify the reactive...

  18. Power method for calculating the far acoustic field of the helicopter lift rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samokhin, V. F.

    2011-05-01

    A semiempirical method for calculating the far acoustic field of the lift rotor of a helicopter operating in the regime of oblique flow over it is described. The basic parametric relations for the acoustic radiation power of rotor noise components have been obtained on the basis of the Lamb idea that vortex-free motion arises under the action of a periodic force on an infinitely small volume of the medium. All sources of lift rotor noise are subdivided into two groups pertaining, respectively, to the inductive and profile parts of the total power supplied to the rotor. A comparison has been made between the results of calculation of the harmonic components of lift rotor noise made on the basis of the power method and the experimental data for the Mi-28 helicopter.

  19. Development of pneumatic thrust-deflecting powered-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, R. J.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.; Harris, M. J.; Eppel, J. C.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    Improvements introduced into the Circulation Control Wing/Upper Surface Blowing (CCW/USB) STOL concept (Harris et al., 1982) are described along with results of the full-scale static ground tests and model-scale wind tunnel investigations. Tests performed on the full-scale pneumatic thrust-deflecting system installed on the NASA QSRA aircraft have demonstrated that, relative to the original baseline configuration, a doubling of incremental thrust deflection due to blowing resulted from improvements that increased the blowing span and momentum, as well as from variations in blowing slot height and geometry of the trailing edge. A CCW/Over the Wing model has been built and tested, which was shown to be equivalent to the CCW/USB system in terms of pneumatic thrust deflection and lift generation, while resolving the problem of cruise thrust loss due to exhaust scrubbing on the wing upper surface.

  20. Wind Tunnel Testing of Powered Lift, All-Wing STOL Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Scott W.; Westra, Bryan W.; Lin, John C.; Jones, Gregory S.; Zeune, Cal H.

    2008-01-01

    Short take-off and landing (STOL) systems can offer significant capabilities to warfighters and, for civil operators thriving on maximizing efficiencies they can improve airspace use while containing noise within airport environments. In order to provide data for next generation systems, a wind tunnel test of an all-wing cruise efficient, short take-off and landing (CE STOL) configuration was conducted in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel. The test s purpose was to mature the aerodynamic aspects of an integrated powered lift system within an advanced mobility configuration capable of CE STOL. The full-span model made use of steady flap blowing and a lifting centerbody to achieve high lift coefficients. The test occurred during April through June of 2007 and included objectives for advancing the state-of-the-art of powered lift testing through gathering force and moment data, on-body pressure data, and off-body flow field measurements during automatically controlled blowing conditions. Data were obtained for variations in model configuration, angles of attack and sideslip, blowing coefficient, and height above ground. The database produced by this effort is being used to advance design techniques and computational tools for developing systems with integrated powered lift technologies.

  1. 21 CFR 880.5510 - Non-AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hydraulic, battery, or mechanically powered device, either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport a.... The device includes straps and a sling to support the patient. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G...—Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating... following ratings: (a) Flight Instructor Instrument—Airplane. (b) Flight Instructor...

  3. Development and evaluation of automatic landing control laws for power lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinreich, B.; Gevaert, G.

    1981-01-01

    A series of investigations were conducted to generate and verify through ground bases simulation and flight research a data base to aid in the design and certification of advanced propulsive lift short takeoff and landing aircraft. Problems impacting the design of powered lift short haul aircraft that are to be landed automatically on STOL runways in adverse weather were examined. An understanding of the problems was gained by a limited coverage of important elements that are normally included in the certification process of a CAT 3 automatic landing system.

  4. The ground effects of a powered-lift STOL aircraft during landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Victor C.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of ground proximity on a powered lift STOL aircraft are presented. The data are from NASA's Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) flown at landing approach airspeeds of less than 60 knots with an 80 lb/sq ft wing loading. These results show that the ground effect change in lift is positive and does significantly reduce the touchdown sink rate. These results are compared to those of the YC-14 and YC-15. The change in drag and pitching moment caused by ground effects is also presented.

  5. Experimental Development and Evaluation of Pneumatic Powered-Lift Super-STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.; Campbell, Bryan A.

    2005-01-01

    The powered-lift Channel Wing concept has been combined with pneumatic Circulation Control aerodynamic and propulsive technology to generate a Pneumatic Channel Wing (PCW) configuration intended to have Super-STOL or VSTOL capability while eliminating many of the operational problem areas of the original Channel Wing vehicle. Wind-tunnel development and evaluations of a PCW powered model conducted at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) have shown substantial lift capabilities for the blown configuration (CL values of 10 to 11). Variation in blowing of the channel was shown to be more efficient than variation in propeller thrust in terms of lift generation. Also revealed was the ability to operate unstalled at very high angles of attack of 40 deg - 45 deg, or to achieve very high lift at much lower angle of attack to increase visibility and controllability. In order to provide greater flexibility in Super-STOL takeoffs and landings, the blown model also displayed the ability to interchange thrust and drag by varying blowing without any moving parts. A preliminary design study of this pneumatic vehicle based on the two technologies integrated into a simple Pneumatic Channel Wing configuration showed very strong Super-STOL potential. This paper presents these experimental results, discusses variations in the configuration geometry under development, and addresses additional considerations to extend this integrated technology to advanced design studies of PCW-type vehicles.

  6. Development of Pneumatic Channel Wing Powered-Lift Advanced Super-STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.; Campbell, Bryan A.

    2002-01-01

    The powered-lift Channel Wing concept has been combined with pneumatic Circulation Control aerodynamic and propulsive technology to generate a Pneumatic Channel Wing configuration intended to have Super-STOL or VSTOL capability while eliminating many of the operational problem areas of the original Channel Wing vehicle. A preliminary design study of this pneumatic vehicle based on previous wind-tunnel and flight-test data for the two technologies integrated into a simple Pneumatic Channel Wing (PCW) configuration showed very strong Super-STOL potential. Wind-tunnel development and evaluations of a PCW powered model conducted at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) have shown substantial lift capabilities for the blown configuration (C(sub L) values of 8.5 to 9.0). Variation in blowing of the channel was shown to be more efficient than variation in propeller thrust. Also revealed was the ability to operate unstalled at very high angles of attack of 40 deg-45 deg, or to achieve very high lift at much lower angle of attack to increase visibility and controllability. In order to provide greater flexibility in Super-STOL takeoffs and landings, the blown model also displayed the ability to interchange thrust and drag by varying blowing without any moving parts. This paper presents these experimental results, discusses variations in the configuration geometry under development, and extends this integrated technology to advanced design studies of PCW-type vehicles.

  7. Leading edge embedded fan airfoil concept -- A new powered high lift technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Nhan Huu

    A new powered-lift airfoil concept called Leading Edge Embedded Fan (LEEF) is proposed for Extremely Short Take-Off and Landing (ESTOL) and Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) applications. The LEEF airfoil concept is a powered-lift airfoil concept capable of generating thrust and very high lift-coefficient at extreme angles-of attack (AoA). It is designed to activate only at the take-off and landing phases, similar to conventional flaps or slats, allowing the aircraft to operate efficiently at cruise in its conventional configuration. The LEEF concept consists of placing a crossflow fan (CFF) along the leading-edge (LE) of the wing, and the housing is designed to alter the airfoil shape between take-off/landing and cruise configurations with ease. The unique rectangular cross section of the crossflow fan allows for its ease of integration into a conventional subsonic wing. This technology is developed for ESTOL aircraft applications and is most effectively applied to General Aviation (GA) aircraft. Another potential area of application for LEEF is tiltrotor aircraft. Unlike existing powered high-lift systems, the LEEF airfoil uses a local high-pressure air source from cross-flow fans, does not require ducting, and is able to be deployed using distributed electric power systems throughout the wing. In addition to distributed lift augmentation, the LEEF system can provide additional thrust during takeoff and landing operation to supplement the primary cruise propulsion system. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of a conventional airfoil/wing using the NACA 63-3-418 section, commonly used in GA, and a LEEF airfoil/wing embedded into the same airfoil section were carried out to evaluate the advantages of and the costs associated with implementing the LEEF concept. Computational results show that significant lift and augmented thrust are available during LEEF operation while requiring only moderate fan power

  8. Application of powered lift and mechanical flap concepts for civil short-haul transport aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlon, J. A.; Bowles, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine various design and performance parameters, including wing loading and thrust loading requirements, for powered-lift and mechanical flap conceptual aircraft constrained by field length and community noise impact. Mission block fuel and direct operating costs (DOC) were found for optimum designs. As a baseline, the design and performance parameters were determined for the aircraft using engines without noise suppression. The constraint of the 90 EPNL noise contour being less than 2.6 sq km (1.0 sq mi) in area was then imposed. The results indicate that for both aircraft concepts the design gross weight, DOC, and required mission block fuel decreased with field length. At field lengths less than 1100 m (3600 ft) the powered lift aircraft had lower DOC and block fuel than the mechanical flap aircraft but produced higher unsuppressed noise levels. The noise goal could easily be achieved with nacelle wall treatment only and thus resulted in little or no performance or weight penalty for all studied aircraft.

  9. Longitudinal handling qualities during approach and landing of a powered lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Longitudinal handling qualities evaluations were conducted on the Ames Research Center Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA) for the approach and landing tasks of a powered lift STOL research aircraft. The test vehicle was a C-8A aircraft modified with a new wing incorporating internal blowing over an augmentor flap. The investigation included: (1) use of various flight path and airspeed control techniques for the basic vehicle; (2) assessment of stability and command augmentation schemes for pitch attitude and airspeed control; (3) determination of the influence of longitudinal and vertical force coupling for the power control; (4) determination of the influence of pitch axis coupling with the thrust vector control; and (5) evaluations of the contribution of stability and command augmentation to recovery from a single engine failure. Results are presented in the form of pilot ratings and commentary substantiated by landing approach time histories.

  10. The STOL performance of a two-engine, USB powered-lift aircraft with cross-shafted fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, V. C.; Wilson, S. B., III; Zola, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The short takeoff and landing capabilities that characterize the performance of powered-lift aircraft are dependent on engine thrust and are, therefore, severely affected by loss of an engine. This paper shows that the effects of engine loss on the short takeoff and landing performance of powered-lift aircraft can be effectively mitigated by cross-shafting the engine fans in a twin-engine configuration. Engine-out takeoff and landing performances are compared for three powered-lift aircraft configurations: one with four engines, one with two engines, and one with two engines in which the fans are cross-shafted. The results show that the engine-out takeoff and landing performance of the cross-shafted two-engine configuration is significantly better than that of the two-engine configuration without cross-shafting.

  11. Application of empirical and linear methods to VSTOL powered-lift aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margason, Richard; Kuhn, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Available prediction methods applied to problems of aero/propulsion interactions for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft are critically reviewed and an assessment of their strengths and weaknesses provided. The first two problems deal with aerodynamic performance effects during hover: (1) out-of-ground effect, and (2) in-ground effect. The first can be evaluated for some multijet cases; however, the second problem is very difficult to evaluate for multijets. The ground-environment effects due to wall jets and fountain flows directly affect hover performance. In a related problem: (3) hot-gas ingestion affects the engine operation. Both of these problems as well as jet noise affect the ability of people to work near the aircraft and the ability of the aircraft to operate near the ground. Additional problems are: (4) the power-augmented lift due to jet-flap effects (both in- and out-of-ground effects), and (5) the direct jet-lift effects during short takeoff and landing (STOL) operations. The final problem: (6) is the aerodynamic/propulsion interactions in transition between hover and wing-borne flight. Areas where modern CFD methods can provide improvements to current computational capabilities are identified.

  12. Lift truck safety review

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  13. Conference Report: 22nd Annual Conference of Power and Energy Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Junya; Iwao, Toru

    The 22nd Power and Energy Society Annual Conference was held on August 30 - September 1, 2011 at University of Fukui. The total number of technical papers was 346, and technical sessions were 43 (42 oral sessions and 1 poster session). An invited lecture, a panel discussion, technical exhibitions and two technical tours were organized. All events were very well attended and the final enrollment attained to 888 registrations. The conference was successfully closed by the great contribution of all participants. The outline of the conference is reported in this article.

  14. NASA powered lift facility internally generated noise and its transmission to the acoustic far field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1988-01-01

    Noise tests of NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility (PLF) were performed to determine the frequency content of the internally generated noise that reaches the far field. The sources of the internally generated noise are the burner, elbows, valves, and flow turbulence. Tests over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.2 to 3.5 using coherence analysis revealed that low frequency noise below 1200 Hz is transmitted through the nozzle. Broad banded peaks at 240 and 640 Hz were found in the transmitted noise. Aeroacoustic excitation effects are possible in this frequency range. The internal noise creates a noise floor that limits the amount of jet noise suppression that can be measured on the PLF and similar facilities.

  15. A VLSI architecture for lifting-based wavelet transform with power efficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chengyi; Zheng, Sheng; Tian, Jinwen; Liu, Jian

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, an efficient VLSI architecture for biorthogonal 9/7 wavelet transform by lifting scheme is presented. The proposed architecture has many advantages including, symmetrical forward and inverse wavelet transform as a result of adopting pipeline parallel technique, as well as area and power efficient because of the decrease in the amount of memory required together with the reduction in the number of read/write accesses on account of using embedded boundary data-extension technique. We have developed a behavioral Verilog HDL model of the proposed architecture, which simulation results match exactly that of the Matlab code simulations. The design has been synthesized into XILINX xcv50e-cs144-8, and the estimated frequency is 100MHz.

  16. Fluctuating pressures on aircraft wing and flap surfaces associated with powered-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, J. S.; Schoenster, J. A.; Willis, C. M.

    1975-01-01

    The present work presents results from two research studies that provide information on the fluctuating pressures generated by the use of powered-lift systems in STOL aircraft. Data are given for several chordwise and spanwise locations on large-scale models of an externally blown flap (EBF) configuration and an upper surface blown flap (USB) configuration in which actual jet engines were used. Pressure levels were high enough to indicate that special design effort will be required to avoid acoustic fatigue failures of wing and flap sturctures. The observation that pressure levels did not decrease very much with increased distance from the engine exhaust center line suggests that a STOL aircraft fuselage, which is in relatively close proximity to the engines for aerodynamic reasons, will be subjected to unusually high external overall fluctuating pressure levels (OAFPLs) that may cause difficulty in control of the cabin noise level.

  17. A simulator investigation of engine failure compensation for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwenhuijse, A. W.; Franklin, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A piloted simulator investigation of various engine failure compensation concepts for powered-lift STOL aircraft was carried out at the Ames Research Center. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of engine failure compensation on recovery from an engine failure during the landing approach and on the precision of the STOL landing. The various concepts include: (1) cockpit warning lights to cue the pilot of an engine failure, (2) programmed thrust and roll trim compensation, (3) thrust command and (4) flight-path stabilization. The aircraft simulated was a 150 passenger four-engine, externally blown flap civil STOL transport having a 90 psf wing loading and a .56 thrust to weight ratio. Results of the simulation indicate that the combination of thrust command and flight-path stabilization offered the best engine-out landing performance in turbulence and did so over the entire range of altitudes for which engine failures occurred.

  18. A practical concept for powered or tethered weight-lifting LTA vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balleyguier, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    A concept for a multi-hull weightlifting airship is presented. The concept is based upon experience in the design and handling of gas-filled balloons for commercial purposes, it was first tested in April, 1972. In the flight test, two barrage balloons were joined side-by-side, with an intermediate frame, and launched in captive flight. The success of this flight test led to plans for a development program calling for a powered, piloted prototype, a follow-on 40 ton model, and a 400 ton transport model. All of these airships utilize a tetrehedric three-line tethering method for loading and unloading phases of flight, which bypasses many of the difficulties inherent in the handling of a conventional airship near the ground. Both initial and operating costs per ton of lift capability are significantly less for the subject design than for either helicopters or airships of conventional mono-hull design.

  19. Study of a safety margin system for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Jewell, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the feasibility of a safety margin system for powered-lift aircraft which require a backside piloting technique. The objective of the safety margin system was to present multiple safety margin criteria as a single variable which could be tracked manually or automatically and which could be monitored for the purpose of deriving safety margin status. The study involved a pilot-in-the-loop analysis of several safety margin system concepts and a simulation experiment to evaluate those concepts which showed promise of providing a good solution. A system was ultimately configured which offered reasonable compromises in controllability, status information content, and the ability to regulate the safety margin at some expense of the allowable low speed flight path envelope.

  20. A safety margin and flight reference system and display for powered-lift aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Hardy, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the feasibility of a safety margin and flight reference system for those powered-lift aircraft which require a backside piloting technique. The main objective was to display multiple safety margin criteria as a single variable which could be tracked both manually and automatically and which could be monitored in order to derive safety margin status. The study involved a pilot-in-the-loop analysis of several system concepts and a simulator experiment to evaluate those concepts showing promise. A system was ultimately configured which yielded reasonable compromises in controllability, status information content, and the ability to regulate safety margins at some expense of the allowable low speed flight path envelope.

  1. A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields is based on the coupling of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code to a potential flow code. By minimizing the extent of the viscous Navier-Stokes zones the zonal method can be a cost effective flow analysis tool. The successful coupling of the zonal solutions provides the viscous/inviscid interations that are necessary to achieve convergent and unique overall solutions. The feasibility of coupling the two vastly different codes is demonstrated. The interzone boundaries were overlapped to facilitate the passing of boundary condition information between the codes. Routines were developed to extract the normal velocity boundary conditions for the potential flow zone from the viscous zone solution. Similarly, the velocity vector direction along with the total conditions were obtained from the potential flow solution to provide boundary conditions for the Navier-Stokes solution. Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the overlap of the interzone boundaries and the convergence of the zonal solutions on the convergence of the overall solution. The zonal method was applied to a jet impingement problem to model the suckdown effect that results from the entrainment of the inviscid zone flow by the viscous zone jet. The resultant potential flow solution created a lower pressure on the base of the vehicle which produces the suckdown load. The feasibility of the zonal method was demonstrated. By enhancing the Navier-Stokes code for powered-lift flow fields and optimizing the convergence of the coupled analysis a practical flow analysis tool will result.

  2. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G Appendix G to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. G Appendix G to Part...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G Appendix G to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. G Appendix G to Part...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G Appendix G to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. G Appendix G to Part...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G Appendix G to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. G Appendix G to Part...

  6. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Packs and Hydrogen Refueling for Lift Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Block, Gus

    2011-07-31

    HEB Grocery Company, Inc. (H-E-B) is a privately-held supermarket chain with 310 stores throughout Texas and northern Mexico. H-E-B converted 14 of its lift reach trucks to fuel cell power using Nuvera Fuel Cells’ PowerEdge™ units to verify the value proposition and environmental benefits associated with the technology. Issues associated with the increasing power requirements of the distribution center operation, along with high ambient temperature in the summer and other operating conditions (such as air quality and floor surface condition), surfaced opportunities for improving Nuvera’s PowerEdge fuel cell system design in high-throughput forklift environments. The project included on-site generation of hydrogen from a steam methane reformer, called PowerTap™ manufactured by Nuvera. The hydrogen was generated, compressed and stored in equipment located outside H-E-B’s facility, and provided to the forklifts by hydrogen dispensers located in high forklift traffic areas. The PowerEdge fuel cell units logged over 25,300 operating hours over the course of the two-year project period. The PowerTap hydrogen generator produced more than 11,100 kg of hydrogen over the same period. Hydrogen availability at the pump was 99.9%. H-E-B management has determined that fuel cell forklifts help alleviate several issues in its distribution centers, including truck operator downtime associated with battery changing, truck and battery maintenance costs, and reduction of grid electricity usage. Data collected from this initial installation demonstrated a 10% productivity improvement, which enabled H-E-B to make economic decisions on expanding the fleet of PowerEdge and PowerTap units in the fleet, which it plans to undertake upon successful demonstration of the new PowerEdge reach truck product. H-E-B has also expressed interst in other uses of hydrogen produced on site in the future, such as for APUs used in tractor trailers and refrigerated transport trucks in its fleet.

  7. The power induced effects module: A FORTRAN code which estimates lift increments due to power induced effects for V/STOL flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Howard, Kipp E.

    1991-01-01

    A user friendly FORTRAN code that can be used for preliminary design of V/STOL aircraft is described. The program estimates lift increments, due to power induced effects, encountered by aircraft in V/STOL flight. These lift increments are calculated using empirical relations developed from wind tunnel tests and are due to suckdown, fountain, ground vortex, jet wake, and the reaction control system. The code can be used as a preliminary design tool along with NASA Ames' Aircraft Synthesis design code or as a stand-alone program for V/STOL aircraft designers. The Power Induced Effects (PIE) module was validated using experimental data and data computed from lift increment routines. Results are presented for many flat plate models along with the McDonnell Aircraft Company's MFVT (mixed flow vectored thrust) V/STOL preliminary design and a 15 percent scale model of the YAV-8B Harrier V/STOL aircraft. Trends and magnitudes of lift increments versus aircraft height above the ground were predicted well by the PIE module. The code also provided good predictions of the magnitudes of lift increments versus aircraft forward velocity. More experimental results are needed to determine how well the code predicts lift increments as they vary with jet deflection angle and angle of attack. The FORTRAN code is provided in the appendix.

  8. Development of an Upper Limb Power Assist System Using Pneumatic Actuators for Farming Lift-up Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Eiichi; Harada, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Masaaki

    A power assist system has lately attracted considerable attention to lifting-up an object without low back pain. We have been developing power assist systems with pneumatic actuators for the elbow and shoulder to farming support of lifting-up a bag of rice weighing 30kg. This paper describes the mechanism and control method of this power assist system. The pneumatic rotary actuator supports shoulder motion, and the air cylinder supports elbow motion. In this control method, the surface electromyogram(EMG) signals are used as input information of the controller. The joint support torques of human are calculated based on the antigravity term of necessary joint torques, which are estimated on the dynamics of a human approximated link model. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism and control method of the power assist system.

  9. Thirty-Third Annual Power Distribution Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Oerting, J.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of how the Gulf Power Company which serves 10 westernmost counties of Florida deals with hurricanes. Gulf's hurricane procedures currently contain 661 pages of detailed information for each area of responsibility, including the general concept for restoration of damage, as well as details describing how this will be accomplished. Included are area storm center locations, personnel assignments, material allocations, vehicle assignments, radio frequencies, news media contacts, special priorities for restoration of service, details of logistics associated with lodging and feeding, telephone center operation to take incoming calls from customers and all of the other functions.

  10. Flight evaluation of configuration management system concepts during transition to the landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted to evaluate two control concepts for configuration management during the transition to landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft. NASA Ames' augmentor wing research aircraft was used in the program. Transitions from nominal level-flight configurations at terminal area pattern speeds were conducted along straight and curved descending flightpaths. Stabilization and command augmentation for attitude and airspeed control were used in conjunction with a three-cue flight director that presented commands for pitch, roll, and throttle controls. A prototype microwave system provided landing guidance. Results of these flight experiments indicate that these configuration management concepts permit the successful performance of transitions and approaches along curved paths by powered-lift STOL aircraft. Flight director guidance was essential to accomplish the task.

  11. CO2 Fixation, Lipid Production, and Power Generation by a Novel Air-Lift-Type Microbial Carbon Capture Cell System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xia; Liu, Baojun; Zhou, Jiti; Jin, Ruofei; Qiao, Sen; Liu, Guangfei

    2015-09-01

    An air-lift-type microbial carbon capture cell (ALMCC) was constructed for the first time by using an air-lift-type photobioreactor as the cathode chamber. The performance of ALMCC in fixing high concentration of CO2, producing energy (power and biodiesel), and removing COD together with nutrients was investigated and compared with the traditional microbial carbon capture cell (MCC) and air-lift-type photobioreactor (ALP). The ALMCC system produced a maximum power density of 972.5 mW·m(-3) and removed 86.69% of COD, 70.52% of ammonium nitrogen, and 69.24% of phosphorus, which indicate that ALMCC performed better than MCC in terms of power generation and wastewater treatment efficiency. Besides, ALMCC demonstrated 9.98- and 1.88-fold increases over ALP and MCC in the CO2 fixation rate, respectively. Similarly, the ALMCC significantly presented a higher lipid productivity compared to those control reactors. More importantly, the preliminary analysis of energy balance suggested that the net energy of the ALMCC system was significantly superior to other systems and could theoretically produce enough energy to cover its consumption. In this work, the established ALMCC system simultaneously achieved the high level of CO2 fixation, energy recycle, and municipal wastewater treatment effectively and efficiently. PMID:26270956

  12. Training for lifting; an unresolved ergonomic issue?

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, A W; Gormley, J T

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes a nine year project on lifting training which included nine trans-Australia consensus conferences attended by more than 900 health professionals. Major outcomes were: (1) The essence of lifting work is the need for the performer to cope with variability in task, environment, and self, and the essence of lifting skill is therefore adaptability; (2) the semi-squat approach provides the safest and most effective basis for lifting training; (3) for lifting training to be effective, the basic principles of skill learning must be systematically applied, with adaptability as a specific goal; (4) physical work capacity (aerobic power, strength, endurance, joint mobility) is a decisive ingredient of safe and effective lifting and, in addition to skill learning, should be incorporated in the training of people engaging regularly in heavy manual work; (5) if effective compliance with recommended skilled behaviour is to be achieved, then training must apply the principles and methods appropriate to adult learning and behaviour modification. PMID:9703354

  13. The development of advanced automatic flare and decrab for powered lift short haul aircraft using a microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevaert, G.; Feinreich, B.

    1977-01-01

    Advanced automatic flare and decrab control laws were developed for future powered lift STOL aircraft using the NASA-C-8A augmentor wing vehicle as the aircraft model. The longitudinal control laws utilize the throttle for flight path control and use the direct lift augmentor flap chokes for flight path augmentation. The elevator is used to control airspeed during the approach phase and to enhance path control during the flare. The forward slip maneuver was selected over the flat decrab technique for runway alignment because it can effectively handle the large crab angles obtained at STOL approach speeds. Performance evaluation of selected system configurations were obtained over the total landing environment. Limitations were defined and critical failure modes assessed. Pilot display concepts are discussed.

  14. Flight experiments using the front-side control technique during piloted approach and landing in a powered lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindson, W. S.; Hardy, G. H.; Innis, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The essential features of using pitch attitude for glidepath control in conjunction with longitudinal thrust modulation for speed control are described, using a simple linearized model for a powered-lift STOL aircraft operating on the backside of the drag curve and at a fixed setting of propulsive lift. It is shown that an automatic speed-hold system incorporating heave-damping augmentation can allow use of the front-side control technique with satisfactory handling qualities, and the results of previous flight investigations are reviewed. Manual control considerations, as they might be involved following failure of the automatic system, are emphasized. The influence of alternative cockpit controller configurations and flight-director display features were assessed for their effect on the control task, which consisted of a straight-in steep approach flown at constant speed in simulated instrument conditions.

  15. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  16. Breast lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. A breast lift, or mastopexy, is cosmetic breast surgery to lift the breasts. The surgery ... the position of the areola and nipple. Description Cosmetic breast surgery can be done at an outpatient ...

  17. Eyelid lift

    MedlinePlus

    Eyelid lift surgery is done to repair sagging or drooping upper eyelids ( ptosis ). The surgery is called blepharoplasty. Sagging ... An eyelid lift is needed when eyelid drooping reduces your vision. You may be asked to have your eye doctor test ...

  18. Forehead lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... both sides even. If you have already had plastic surgery to lift your upper eyelids, a forehead lift ... Managing the cosmetic patient. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  19. Flight-test of the glide-slope track and flare-control laws for an automatic landing system for a powered-lift STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, D. M.; Hardy, G. H.; Warner, D. N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An automatic landing system was developed for the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Airplane to establish the feasibility and examine the operating characteristics of a powered-lift STOL transport flying a steep, microwave landing system (MLS) glide slope to automatically land on a STOL port. The flight test results address the longitudinal aspects of automatic powered lift STOL airplane operation including glide slope tracking on the backside of the power curve, flare, and touchdown. Three different autoland control laws were evaluated to demonstrate the tradeoff between control complexity and the resulting performance. The flight test and simulation methodology used in developing conventional jet transport systems was applied to the powered-lift STOL airplane. The results obtained suggest that an automatic landing system for a powered-lift STOL airplane operating into an MLS-equipped STOL port is feasible. However, the airplane must be provided with a means of rapidly regulation lift to satisfactorily provide the glide slope tracking and control of touchdown sink rate needed for automatic landings.

  20. EPRI electric vehicle conference

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleeger, D.

    1999-10-01

    Lower operating and maintenance costs, quiet and clean operation appear the main factors in choosing electric over the typical internal combustion powered equipment. The Conference was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI is a cooperative effort by major electric companies across the USA, founded in 1973 and headquartered in Palo Alto, CA. Featured at the Conference were presentations on regulatory issues, lift truck technologies, automotive advances and other industrial applications to include automated guided vehicles, personnel carriers and electric bicycles. Approximately 25 exhibitors displayed components, subassemblies and complete vehicles.

  1. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221.152 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power...

  2. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221.152 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power...

  3. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221.152 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power...

  4. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221.152 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power...

  5. Results of static tests of a 1/4 scale model of the Boeing YC-14 powered-lift system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassell, J. L., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    One quarter scale static ground tests of the Boeing YC-14 powered lift system were conducted for correlation with full scale test results. The 1/4 scale model utilized a JT-15D turbofan engine to represent the CF6-50D engine employed on the YC-14 advanced medium STOL transport prototype aircraft. The tests included evaluation of static turning performance, static surface pressure and temperature distributions, fluctuating loads, and accelerations of portions of the wing, flaps, and fuselage. Results are presented for the landing flap configuration over an appropriate range of fan pressure ratio as affected by several variables including ground height and vortex generator modifications. Static turning angles of the order of 60 deg were obtained. The highest surface pressures and temperatures were concentrated over the upper surface of the flaps in the region immediately aft of the upper surface blown nozzle.

  6. Pitch attitude, flight path, and airspeed control during approach and landing of a powered lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical investigations and piloted moving base simulator evaluations were conducted for manual control of pitch attitude, flight path, and airspeed for the approach and landing of a powered lift jet STOL aircraft. Flight path and speed response characteristics were described analytically and were evaluated for the simulation experiments which were carried out on a large motion simulator. The response characteristics were selected and evaluated for a specified path and speed control technique. These charcteristics were: (1) the initial pitch response and steady pitch rate sensitivity for control of attitude with a pitch rate command/ attitude hold system, (2) the initial flight path response, flight path overshoot, and flight path-airspeed coupling in response to a change in thrust, and (3) the sensitivity of airspeed to pitch attitude changes. Results are presented in the form of pilot opinion ratings and commentary, substantiated where appropriate by response time histories and aircraft states at the point of touchdown.

  7. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  8. Wind tunnel and ground static tests of a .094 scale powered model of a modified T-39 lift/cruise fan V/STOL research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, D.; Clinglan, J.; Salemann, V.; Omar, E.

    1977-01-01

    Ground static and wind tunnel test of a scale model modified T-39 airplane are reported. The configuration in the nose and replacement of the existing nacelles with tilting lift/cruise fans. The model was powered with three 14 cm diameter tip driven turbopowered simulators. Forces and moments were measured by an internal strain guage balance. Engine simulator thrust and mass flow were measured by calibrated pressure and temperature instrumentation mounted downstream of the fans. The low speed handling qualities and general aerodynamic characteristics of the modified T-39 were defined. Test variables include thrust level and thrust balance, forward speed, model pitch and sideslip angle at forward speeds, model pitch, roll, and ground height during static tests, lift/cruise fan tilt angle, flap and aileron deflection angle, and horizonal stabilizer angle. The effects of removing the landing gear, the lift/cruise fans, and the tail surfaces were also investigated.

  9. Kindergartners Use PowerPoint to Lead Their Own Parent-Teacher Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dianne; Behounek, Lynn M.

    2006-01-01

    Student-led parent-teacher conferences help young children make sense of what hey know and what they need to learn at school. Just ask them! For the past two years, the kindergarten children at Seymour Elementary School in Ralston, Nebraska, have used PowerPoint to tell their parents how they are doing in school, and the conferences have been a…

  10. Vertical axis wind turbine power regulation through centrifugally pumped lift spoiling

    SciTech Connect

    Klimas, P.C.; Sladky, J.F. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for lowering the rated windspeeds of Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) whose blades are hollow aluminum extrusions. The blades, which when rotating act as centrifugal pumps, are fitted with a series of small perforations distributed along a portion of the blades' span. By valving the ends of the hollow blades, flow into the blade ends and out of the perforations may be controlled. This flow can induce premature aerodynamic stall on the blade elements, thereby reducing both the rated power of the turbine and its cost-of-energy. The concept has been proven on the Sandia National Laboratories 5-m diameter research VAWT and force balance and flow visualization wind tunnel tests have been conducted using a blade section designed for the VAWT application.

  11. 77 FR 22312 - Geomagnetic Disturbances to the Bulk-Power System; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Geomagnetic Disturbances to the Bulk-Power System; Notice of Technical... Conference on Geomagnetic Disturbances to the Bulk-Power System on Monday, April 30, 2012, from 11 a.m. to 4... issues related to reliability of the Bulk-Power System as affected by geomagnetic disturbances....

  12. 77 FR 24952 - Staff Technical Conference on Geomagnetic Disturbances to the Bulk-Power System; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Staff Technical Conference on Geomagnetic Disturbances to the Bulk-Power.... to 4:00 p.m. to discuss issues related to the reliability of the Bulk-Power System as affected by... currents to transformers and other equipment on the Bulk-Power System, as well as, options for...

  13. A flight-test evaluation of a go-around control system for a twin engine powered-lift STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, D. M.; Hardy, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    An automatic go-around control system was evaluated on the Augmentor Wing Jet Short Takeoff and Landing (STOL) Research Airplane (AWJSRA) as part of a study of an automatic landing system for a powered-lift STOL airplane. The results of the evaluation indicate that the go-around control system can successfully transition the airplane to a climb configuration from any initiation point during the glide-slope track or the flare maneuver prior to touchdown.

  14. 1982 engineering conference on reliability for the electrical power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.J.; Arendt, J.S.; Battle, R.E.; Baranowsky, P.W.

    1982-01-01

    Emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants are a major concern in plant risk assessments because of the relatively large frequency of loss of offsite power and the dependence of most other safety systems on ac power. Detailed reviews of onsite ac power system designs and reviews of experience with diesel generators at US nuclear power plants form the basis of system reliability analyses that show significant improvements in reliability can be obtained at moderate cost for some plants. Onsite ac power system modifications analyzed include procedural modifications, minor equipment modifications and major equipment additions. Relative costs of various modifications are compared with associated system reliability improvements.

  15. Power Relationships on the Unionized Campus. Proceedings, Annual Conference (17th, April 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    Papers from the 17th Annual Conference present observations and analysis of how the power equation has, or has not, been altered by the introduction of faculty and support staff unionism. The first section on power relationships between professors and senates contains: "The Academic as Political Man or Woman" (Seymour Lipset); "Governance: Senates…

  16. 75 FR 30392 - York Haven Power Company, LLC; Notice of Dispute Resolution Panel Meeting and Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission York Haven Power Company, LLC; Notice of Dispute Resolution Panel Meeting and Technical Conference May 24, 2010. On May 19, 2010, Commission staff, in response to the filing of... Panel will hold a technical conference at the time and place noted below. The technical conference...

  17. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the 14th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2014, in Awaji Island, Japan. The aim of PowerMEM is to present the latest research results in the field of miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference will also- give us the opportunity to exchange informations and new ideas in the field of Power MEMS/NEMS. The current status of the field of PowerMEMS spans the full spectrum from basic research to practical applications. We will enjoy valuable discussions not only from the viewpoint of academia but from commercial and industrial perspectives. In the conference, three invited speakers lead the technical program. We received 172 abstracts and after a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 133 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organized into 16 Oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions including some late-news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are published by the Institute of Physics (IOP). We have also organized a PowerMEMS School in Kobe-Sannomiya contiguous to the main conference. This two-day school will cover various topics of energy harvesting. World leading experts will give invited lectures on their main topics. This is a new experiment to broaden the technology remit of our conference by organizing mini symposiums that aim to gather the latest research on the following topics by the organizers: Microscale Combustion, Wideband Vibration Energy Harvesting, RF Energy Transfer and Industrial Application. We hope this, and other activities will make PowerMEMS2014 a memorable success. One of the important programs in an international conference is the social program, and we prepare the PowerMEMS2014 banquet in the banquet room at the Westin Awaji Island Hotel. This will provide an opportunity to

  18. Development of a Publications and Conferences Data Base in the Mexican Electric Power Research Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripoll, C. Lopez Cerdan; And Others

    This paper describes the development by the Mexican Electric Power Research Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas or IIE) over a 10-year period of a publications and conferences database (PCDB) of research and development output of the institute. The paper begins by listing the objectives of the database and describing data coverage…

  19. Total Facelift: Forehead Lift, Midface Lift, and Neck Lift

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients with thick skin mainly exhibit the aging processes of sagging, whereas patients with thin skin develop wrinkles or volume loss. Asian skin is usually thicker than that of Westerners; and thus, the sagging of skin due to aging, rather than wrinkling, is the chief problem to be addressed in Asians. Asian skin is also relatively large in area and thick, implying that the weight of tissue to be lifted is considerably heavier. These factors account for the difficulties in performing a facelift in Asians. Facelifts can be divided into forehead lift, midface lift, and lower face lift. These can be performed individually or with 2-3 procedures combined. PMID:25798381

  20. 1996 international conference on power electronics, drives and energy systems for industrial growth: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, S.S.; Roy, S.; Divan, D.; Doradla, S.R.; Murthy, B.V.

    1995-12-31

    This book contains Volume 1 of the proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems for Industrial Growth held January, 1996, in New Delhi. The topics of the papers include resonant and soft switching converters, induction motor drives, solar power generation, control aspects of power generation, PWM and DC/DC converters, field oriented control of AC machines, wind power generation, analysis of electrical machines, topology and control of power electronic converters, switched reluctance and permanent magnet motor drives, active filters and VAR compensation schemes, analysis and design of induction generators/motors, simulation of power electronics converters and drive, brushless and special electrical machines, UPS and battery energy storage systems.

  1. Report of workshop on clean and inexhaustible space solar power at unispace III conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, N.; Mankins, J.; Erb, B.; Vassaux, D.; Pignolet, G.; Kassing, D.; Collins, P.

    2001-12-01

    The third United Nations Global Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) was held from 19 to 30 July, 1999 at Vienna, Austria. The theme of the Conference was "Space Benefits for Humanity in the Twenty-first Century". The IAF Power Committee organized the Workshop on Clean and Inexhaustible Space Solar Power (SSP) as a part of the Technical Forum. At the beginning of the workshop, current research and potential interactions of SSP with the environment were presented, together with the outlook for worldwide energy requirements. The feasibility, benefits and disadvantages of SSP were discussed for different countries, especially developing countries. Presentations included reports on field research in equatorial countries and China. Useful findings and recommendations were submitted to the relevant committees at UNISPACE concerning international cooperation and collaboration on both political and technical issues in order to realize SSP in the near future.

  2. The 13th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitcheson, Paul; Beeby, Steve

    2013-12-01

    It is a pleasure to welcome you to The Royal Society in London and the 13th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2013. The objective of PowerMEMS 2013 is to catalyse innovation in miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, and the development of new ideas in the Power MEMS/NEMS field as well as at the meso-scale. It will allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering. The technical program is led by four invited speakers covering inductive power transfer, chip scale power sources, thermal energy harvesting and implantable biofuel cells. We received 177 abstracts and following a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 137 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organised into 16 oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions that have been augmented by 10 late news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are, for the first time, being published by the Institute of Physics. We have made every effort to make PowerMEMS 2013 the busiest yet and have included for the first time the PowerMEMS School. This two-day school held at Imperial College London covered a wide range of power-MEMS topics including technologies for power generation, power transmission, energy storage, power electronics interfaces and metrology. Registrations for the School exceeded our expectations and it was full by early November. We hope this, and other activities such as the Discussion Panel and the inclusion of late news papers, will make PowerMEMS 2013 a memorable success. We have also reached out to new communities, such as those working in wireless power transfer and RF harvesting to broaden the technology remit of

  3. The 13th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitcheson, Paul; Beeby, Steve

    2013-12-01

    It is a pleasure to welcome you to The Royal Society in London and the 13th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2013. The objective of PowerMEMS 2013 is to catalyse innovation in miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, and the development of new ideas in the Power MEMS/NEMS field as well as at the meso-scale. It will allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering. The technical program is led by four invited speakers covering inductive power transfer, chip scale power sources, thermal energy harvesting and implantable biofuel cells. We received 177 abstracts and following a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 137 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organised into 16 oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions that have been augmented by 10 late news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are, for the first time, being published by the Institute of Physics. We have made every effort to make PowerMEMS 2013 the busiest yet and have included for the first time the PowerMEMS School. This two-day school held at Imperial College London covered a wide range of power-MEMS topics including technologies for power generation, power transmission, energy storage, power electronics interfaces and metrology. Registrations for the School exceeded our expectations and it was full by early November. We hope this, and other activities such as the Discussion Panel and the inclusion of late news papers, will make PowerMEMS 2013 a memorable success. We have also reached out to new communities, such as those working in wireless power transfer and RF harvesting to broaden the technology remit of

  4. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  5. New and expected developments in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    Artificial lift is a broad subject. This paper discusses some of the new developments in the major areas of artificial lift. These are (1) beam lift, (2) electrical submersible pumping, (3) gas lift, (4) hydraulic pumping and (5) miscellaneous topics. The beam lift discussion concerns a new rod material, downhole measurements for rod loading, unit design and some miscellaneous topics. The ESP (Electrical Submersible Pump) section includes a discussion on solids handling, downhole sensor technology, new motor temperature limitations, motor efficiency, and other topics. The gas lift discussion includes mention of coiled tubing with gas lift valves internal, a surface controlled gas lift valve concept, and gas lift valve testing and modeling. Hydraulic pumping is used in many locations with deep pay and fairly small production rates. New hydraulic developments include a wider availability of power fluid pumps other than positive displacement pumps, and small jet pumps specifically designed for de-watering gas wells. Some miscellaneous developments include an insertable PC (progressing cavity) pump and improved plunger lift algorithms and equipment.

  6. Flight-test evaluation of STOL control and flight director concepts in a powered-lift aircraft flying curved decelerating approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindson, W. S.; Hardy, G. H.; Innis, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Flight tests were carried out to assess the feasibility of piloted steep curved, and decelerating approach profiles in powered lift STOL aircraft. Several STOL control concepts representative of a variety of aircraft were evaluated in conjunction with suitably designed flight directions. The tests were carried out in a real navigation environment, employed special electronic cockpit displays, and included the development of the performance achieved and the control utilization involved in flying 180 deg turning, descending, and decelerating approach profiles to landing. The results suggest that such moderately complex piloted instrument approaches may indeed be feasible from a pilot acceptance point of view, given an acceptable navigation environment. Systems with the capability of those used in this experiment can provide the potential of achieving instrument operations on curved, descending, and decelerating landing approaches to weather minima corresponding to CTOL Category 2 criteria, while also providing a means of realizing more efficient operations during visual flight conditions.

  7. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high-speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  8. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed, by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  9. Lifting Bodies on Lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The wingless, lifting body aircraft sitting on Rogers Dry Lake at what is now NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from left to right are the X-24A, M2-F3 and the HL-10.The lifting body aircraft studied the feasibility of maneuvering and landing an aerodynamic craft designed for reentry from space. These lifting bodies were air launched by a B-52 mother ship, then flew powered by their own rocket engines before making an unpowered approach and landing. They helped validate the concept that a space shuttle could make accurate landings without power. The X-24A flew from April 17, 1969 to June 4, 1971. The M2-F3 flew from June 2, 1970 until December 22, 1972. The HL-10 flew from December 22, 1966 until July 17, 1970, and logged the highest and fastest records in the lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC-now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19

  10. 5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increase demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains technical papers on: advanced coal process systems; advanced industrial systems; advanced cleanup systems; and advanced power generation systems. In addition, there are poster session abstracts. Selected papers from this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  11. Integrated lift/drag controller for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.; Seckel, E.; Ellis, D. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for altering the lift/drag characteristics of powered aircraft to provide a safe means of glide path control includes a control device integrated for coordination action with the aircraft throttle. Such lift/drag alteration devices as spoilers, dive brakes, and the like are actuated by manual operation of a single lever coupled with the throttle for integrating, blending or coordinating power control. Improper operation of the controller is inhibited by safety mechanisms.

  12. High lift selected concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The benefits to high lift system maximum life and, alternatively, to high lift system complexity, of applying analytic design and analysis techniques to the design of high lift sections for flight conditions were determined and two high lift sections were designed to flight conditions. The influence of the high lift section on the sizing and economics of a specific energy efficient transport (EET) was clarified using a computerized sizing technique and an existing advanced airplane design data base. The impact of the best design resulting from the design applications studies on EET sizing and economics were evaluated. Flap technology trade studies, climb and descent studies, and augmented stability studies are included along with a description of the baseline high lift system geometry, a calculation of lift and pitching moment when separation is present, and an inverse boundary layer technique for pressure distribution synthesis and optimization.

  13. Power Effects on High Lift, Stability and Control Characteristics of the TCA Model Tested in the LaRC 14 x 22 Ft Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glessner, Paul T.

    1999-01-01

    The TCA-2 wind-tunnel test was the second in a series of planned tests utilizing the 5% Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) model. Each of the tests was planned to utilize the unique capabilities of the NASA Langley 14'x22' and the NASA Ames 12' test facilities, in order to assess specific aspects of the high lift and stability and control characteristics of the TCA configuration. However, shortly after the completion of the TCA-1 test, an early projection of the Technology Configuration (TC) identified the need for several significant changes to the baseline TCA configuration. These changes were necessary in order to meet more stringent noise certification levels, as well as, to provide a means to control dynamic structural modes. The projected changes included a change to the outboard wing (increased aspect ratio and lower sweep) and a reconfiguration of the longitudinal control surfaces to include a medium size canard and a reduced horizontal tail. The impact of these proposed changes did not affect the TCA-2 test, because it was specifically planned to address power effects on the empennage and a smaller horizontal tail was in the plan to be tested. However, the focus of future tests was reevaluated and the emphasis was shifted away from assessment of TCA specific configurations to a more general assessment of configurations that encompass the projected design space for the TC.

  14. Proceedings of the 1999 international joint power generation conference (PWR-Vol. 34). Volume 2: Power

    SciTech Connect

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Hayes, R.H.; McMullen, R.

    1999-07-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Benefits of software application in plant optimization; Combined cycle power plants; Recent improvements in power generation operations; Efficiency and capacity improvements for steam turbines; Condenser and heat exchange performance and fouling; Performance testing, monitoring and evaluation; Steam turbine/generator system--maintance, life assesments and upgrades; System design evaluations; Steam generators; Turbines for combined cycle and cogeneration; Case studies on steam turbine/generator problems and solutions; Condenser and feedwater heater operation and maintenance; Risked based and reliability programs for plant applications; Improving operating flexibility of steam turbine/generators (minimizing startup time, load changing, etc.); New techniques and innovations in heat transfer systems; Case studies in reliability based maintenance; and Risk analysis applied to steam turbine/generator systems. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  15. Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

  16. Lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, H. C.; Franklin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the technology related to lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft, covering propulsion systems, thrust deflection, flight dynamics, controls, displays, aerodynamics, and configurations. Piloting problems are discussed, and the need for integration of power management and thrust-vector controls is pointed out. Major components for a high-bypass-ratio lift/cruise fan propulsion system for VTOL aircraft have been tested.

  17. Understanding Wing Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky…

  18. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  19. Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking northwest. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Samus Counter Lifting Fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Stredde, H.; /Fermilab

    1998-05-27

    A lifting fixture has been designed to handle the Samus counters. These counters are being removed from the D-zero area and will be transported off site for further use at another facility. This fixture is designed specifically for this particular application and will be transferred along with the counters. The future use of these counters may entail installation at a facility without access to a crane and therefore a lift fixture suitable for both crane and/or fork lift usage has been created The counters weigh approximately 3000 lbs. and have threaded rods extended through the counter at the top comers for lifting. When these counters were first handled/installed these rods were used in conjunction with appropriate slings and handled by crane. The rods are secured with nuts tightened against the face of the counter. The rod thread is M16 x 2({approx}.625-inch dia.) and extends 2-inch (on average) from the face of the counter. It is this cantilevered rod that the lift fixture engages with 'C' style plates at the four top comers. The strongback portion of the lift fixture is a steel rectangular tube 8-inch (vertical) x 4-inch x .25-inch wall, 130-inch long. 1.5-inch square bars are welded perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular tube at the appropriate lift points and the 'C' plates are fastened to these bars with 3/4-10 high strength bolts -grade 8. Two short channel sections are positioned-welded-to the bottom of the rectangular tube on 40 feet centers, which are used as locators for fork lift tines. On the top are lifting eyes for sling/crane usage and are rated at 3500 lbs. safe working load each - vertical lift only.

  1. Dubai gas lift automation

    SciTech Connect

    Coltharp, E.D.; Khokhar, M.

    1984-09-01

    Dubai Petroleum Company has recently installed a computer gas lift surveillance and gas lift gas injection control system in the Fateh and S.W. Fateh Fields located in the southern part of the Arabian Gulf. This system is the fourth generation of the computer control system installed in California in 1971 by Conoco, Inc. This paper describes the advantages and problems in this system to monitor and control the gas lift operation of 116 wells through 30 intelligent remote terminal units (RTU). In addition, this system monitors the condition of critical operational

  2. Understanding wing lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky (2003 Phys. Educ. 38 497-503). However, in Babinsky's explanation, the air friction forces are ignored and the flow-field curvature introduced by the aerofoil shape is understood intuitively. In this article, a simple analysis of the lift with friction forces incorporated is presented to give a more precise qualitative explanation.

  3. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  4. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  5. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  6. Heavy Lift for Exploration: Options and Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve; Sumrall, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Every study of exploration capabilities since the Apollo Program has recommended the renewal of a heavy lift launch capability for the United States. NASA is aggressively pursuing that capability. This paper will discuss several aspects of that effort and the potential uses for that heavy lift capability. The need for heavy lift was cited most recent in the findings of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee. Combined with considerations of launch availability and on-orbit operations, the Committee finds that exploration will benefit from the availability of a heavy-lift vehicle, the report said. In addition, heavy lift would enable the launching of large scientific observatories and more capable deep-space missions. It may also provide benefit in national security applications. The most recent focus of NASA s heavy lift effort is the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which is part of the Constellation Program architecture for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The most recent point-of-departure configuration of the Ares V was approved during the Lunar Capabilities concept Review (LCCR) in 2008. The Ares V first stage propulsion system consists of a core stage powered by six commercial liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen (LH2/LOX) RS-68 engines, flanked by two 5.5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) based on the 5-segment Ares I first stage. The boosters use the same Polybutadiene Acrylonitrile (PBAN) propellant as the Space Shuttle. Atop the core stage is the Earth departure stage (EDS), powered by a single J-2X upper stage engine based on the Ares I upper stage engine. The 33-foot-diameter payload shroud can enclose a lunar lander, scientific instruments, or other payloads. Since LCCR, NASA has continued to refine the design through several successive internal design cycles. In addition, NASA has worked to quantify the broad national consensus for heavy lift in ways that, to the extent possible, meet the needs of the user community.

  7. Proceedings of the 2. MIT international conference on the next generation of nuclear power technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The goal of the conference was to try to attract a variety of points of view from well-informed people to debate issues concerning nuclear power. Hopefully from that process a better understanding of what one should be doing will emerge. In organizing the conference lessons learned from the previous one were applied. A continuous effort was made to see to it that the arguments for the alternatives to nuclear power were given abundant time for presentation. This is ultimately because nuclear power is going to have to compete with all of the energy technologies. Thus, in discussing energy strategy all of the alternatives must be considered in a reasonable fashion. The structure the conference used has seven sessions. The first six led up to the final session which was concerned with what the future nuclear power strategy should be. Each session focused upon a question concerning the future. None of these questions has a unique correct answer. Rather, topics are addressed where reasonable people can disagree. In order to state some of the important arguments for each session`s question, the combination of a keynote paper followed by a respondent was used. The respondent`s paper is not necessarily included to be a rebuttal to the keynote; but rather, it was recognized that two people will look at a complex question with different shadings. Through those two papers the intention was to get out the most important arguments affecting the question for the session. The purpose of the papers was to set the stage for about an hour of discussion. The real product of this conference was that discussion.

  8. PREFACE: The 15th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livermore, C.; Velásquez-García, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Greetings, and welcome to Boston, MA and PowerMEMS 2015 - the 15th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications! The objective of PowerMEMS 2015 is to catalyze innovation in micro- and nano-scale technologies for the energy domain. The scope of the meeting ranges from basic principles, to materials and fabrication, to devices and systems, to applications. The many applications of Power MEMS range from the harvesting, storage, conversion and conditioning of energy, to integrated systems that manage these processes, to actuation, pumping, and propulsion. Our Conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, as well as the development of new ideas, in the Power MEMS field. Our goal is to allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering, as well as energy, policy, and entrepreneurial specialists interested in the commercialization of Power MEMS technologies. Since the first PowerMEMS in Sendai, Japan in 2000, the Conference has grown in size, reputation, impact, and technical breadth. This continuing growth is evident in this year's technical program, which includes an increasing number of papers on nanomaterials, additive manufacturing for energy systems, actuators, energy storage, harvesting strategies and integrated energy harvesting systems, for example. This year's technical program is highlighted by six plenary talks from prominent experts on piezoelectrics, robotic insects, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, nanocomposite cathodes, and thermal energy conversion systems. The contributed program received a large number of abstract submissions this year, 169 in total. After careful review by the 34-member Technical Program Committee, a total of 135 papers were selected for presentation. The 60 contributed oral presentations are arranged in two parallel sessions. The 75 posters

  9. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  10. Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, showing trunion gears at left and right, and counterweight above. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span looking south, showing trunion gears at left and right, and counterweight above. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Three Lifting Bodies on Lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The wingless, lifting body aircraft sitting on Rogers Dry Lake at what is now NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from left to right are the X-24A, M2-F3 and the HL-10.The lifting body aircraft studied the feasibility of maneuvering and landing an aerodynamic craft designed for reentry from space. These lifting bodies were air launched by a B-52 mother ship, then flew powered by their own rocket engines before making an unpowered approach and landing. They helped validate the concept that a space shuttle could make accurate landings without power. The X-24A flew from April 17, 1969 to June 4, 1971. The M2-F3 flew from June 2, 1970 until December 20, 1972. The HL-10 flew from December 22, 1966 until July 17, 1970 and logged the highest and fastest records in the lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC--now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19

  13. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Transportation and operations analysis. [heavy lift launch and orbit transfer vehicles for orbital assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of transportation systems to support the operations required for the orbital assembly of a 5-gigawatt satellite is discussed as well as the construction of a ground receiving antenna (rectenna). Topics covered include heavy lift launch vehicle configurations for Earth-to LEO transport; the use of chemical, nuclear, and electric orbit transfer vehicles for LEO to GEO operations; personnel transport systems; ground operations; end-to-end analysis of the construction, operation, and maintenance of the satellite and rectenna; propellant production and storage; and payload packaging.

  14. JWST Lifting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolleson, William

    2012-01-01

    A document describes designing, building, testing, and certifying a customized crane (Lifting Device LD) with a strong back (cradle) to facilitate the installation of long wall panels and short door panels for the GHe phase of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The LD controls are variable-frequency drive controls designed to be adjustable for very slow and very-short-distance movements throughout the installation. The LD has a lift beam with an electric actuator attached at the end. The actuator attaches to a rectangular strong back (cradle) for lifting the long wall panels and short door panels from a lower angle into the vertical position inside the chamber, and then rotating around the chamber for installation onto the existing ceiling and floor. The LD rotates 360 (in very small increments) in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. Eight lifting pads are on the top ring with 2-in. (.5-cm) eye holes spaced evenly around the ring to allow for the device to be suspended by three crane hoists from the top of the chamber. The LD is operated by remote controls that allow for a single, slow mode for booming the load in and out, with slow and very slow modes for rotating the load.

  15. Lifting as You Climb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  16. [Subperiosteal midface lifting].

    PubMed

    Bonnefon, A

    2006-04-01

    Since 1990, when we had found the solutions about the oval of the face and the neck problems by the vertical lift, our whole attention was focused on the midface. We have been through the "cheek lift", high SMAS incision. We followed Oscar Ramirez and Richard Anderson in the subperiosteal undermining of the mid face under endoscopic control by a buccal and temporal incision. The actual technic made possible by Paul Tessier's work who initiated the subperiosteal undermining and Oscar Ramirez who initiated the endoscopy. The endoscopy allowed us to go through this technic, but now we don't use it anymore. We have to credit Thierry Besins who mixed these concepts alltogether to obtain a complete and effective technic. The idea is to move up the centrofacial structures and to secure them reliably because of the perioste strengh. This technic solve in an unparallel way, all the stigmata of the centrofacial aging; so, we have a scarless lifting. For the one who have a neck problem, we associate the deep vertical lift. PMID:16631299

  17. Hydraulic lifting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, Kyle (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A piston and cylinder assembly is disclosed which is constructed of polyvinyl chloride that uses local water pressure to perform small lifting tasks. The chamber is either pressurized to extend the piston or depressurized to retract the piston. The present invention is best utilized for raising and lowering toilet seats.

  18. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-05-01

    A1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight.

  19. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  20. [Subperiosteal face-lift].

    PubMed

    Tessier, P

    1989-01-01

    The "facial mask" is composed of all of the tissues lying on top of the skeleton: periosteum, deep adipose tissue, superficial musculo-aponeurotic tissue and skin. The periosteum is the intermediate zone between the skeleton, responsible for the shape of the face, and the more superficial tissues which complete the shapes and, most importantly, represent the mobile part of the face and consequently the site of facial expression. The secret of an effective "mask-lift" depends on complete subperiosteal dissection of the malar bones, zygomatic arches and orbital margins. This dissection can be performed via a coronal approach, but it is easier to start the subperiosteal dissection via a short vestibular incision. Subperiosteal dissection via a coronal incision is not only useful to lift the facial mask; it is also useful for remodelling the orbital margins and to obtain bone grafts from the parietal area in order to reinforce the glabella, check bones and nasogenial folds. PMID:2473674

  1. Lifting Body Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1998-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

  2. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  3. High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1996-01-01

    The early breed of slow commercial airliners did not require high-lift systems because their wing loadings were low and their speed ratios between cruise and low speed (takeoff and landing) were about 2:1. However, even in those days the benefit of high-lift devices was recognized. Simple trailing-edge flaps were in use, not so much to reduce landing speeds, but to provide better glide-slope control without sideslipping the airplane and to improve pilot vision over the nose by reducing attitude during low-speed flight. As commercial-airplane cruise speeds increased with the development of more powerful engines, wing loadings increased and a real need for high-lift devices emerged to keep takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits. The high-lift devices of that era were generally trailing-edge flaps. When jet engines matured sufficiently in military service and were introduced commercially, airplane speed capability had to be increased to best take advantage of jet engine characteristics. This speed increase was accomplished by introducing the wing sweep and by further increasing wing loading. Whereas increased wing loading called for higher lift coefficients at low speeds, wing sweep actually decreased wing lift at low speeds. Takeoff and landing speeds increased on early jet airplanes, and, as a consequence, runways worldwide had to be lengthened. There are economical limits to the length of runways; there are safety limits to takeoff and landing speeds; and there are speed limits for tires. So, in order to hold takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits, more powerful high-lift devices were required. Wing trailing-edge devices evolved from plain flaps to Fowler flaps with single, double, and even triple slots. Wing leading edges evolved from fixed leading edges to a simple Krueger flap, and from fixed, slotted leading edges to two- and three-position slats and variable-camber (VC) Krueger flaps. The complexity of high-lift systems probably

  4. Frequency response of lift control in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Graetzel, Chauncey F; Nelson, Bradley J; Fry, Steven N

    2010-11-01

    The flight control responses of the fruitfly represent a powerful model system to explore neuromotor control mechanisms, whose system level control properties can be suitably characterized with a frequency response analysis. We characterized the lift response dynamics of tethered flying Drosophila in presence of vertically oscillating visual patterns, whose oscillation frequency we varied between 0.1 and 13 Hz. We justified these measurements by showing that the amplitude gain and phase response is invariant to the pattern oscillation amplitude and spatial frequency within a broad dynamic range. We also showed that lift responses are largely linear and time invariant (LTI), a necessary condition for a meaningful analysis of frequency responses and a remarkable characteristic given its nonlinear constituents. The flies responded to increasing oscillation frequencies with a roughly linear decrease in response gain, which dropped to background noise levels at about 6 Hz. The phase lag decreased linearly, consistent with a constant reaction delay of 75 ms. Next, we estimated the free-flight response of the fly to generate a Bode diagram of the lift response. The limitation of lift control to frequencies below 6 Hz is explained with inertial body damping, which becomes dominant at higher frequencies. Our work provides the detailed background and techniques that allow optomotor lift responses of Drosophila to be measured with comparatively simple, affordable and commercially available techniques. The identification of an LTI, pattern velocity dependent, lift control strategy is relevant to the underlying motion computation mechanisms and serves a broader understanding of insects' flight control strategies. The relevance and potential pitfalls of applying system identification techniques in tethered preparations is discussed. PMID:20462877

  5. Frequency response of lift control in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Graetzel, Chauncey F.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Fry, Steven N.

    2010-01-01

    The flight control responses of the fruitfly represent a powerful model system to explore neuromotor control mechanisms, whose system level control properties can be suitably characterized with a frequency response analysis. We characterized the lift response dynamics of tethered flying Drosophila in presence of vertically oscillating visual patterns, whose oscillation frequency we varied between 0.1 and 13 Hz. We justified these measurements by showing that the amplitude gain and phase response is invariant to the pattern oscillation amplitude and spatial frequency within a broad dynamic range. We also showed that lift responses are largely linear and time invariant (LTI), a necessary condition for a meaningful analysis of frequency responses and a remarkable characteristic given its nonlinear constituents. The flies responded to increasing oscillation frequencies with a roughly linear decrease in response gain, which dropped to background noise levels at about 6 Hz. The phase lag decreased linearly, consistent with a constant reaction delay of 75 ms. Next, we estimated the free-flight response of the fly to generate a Bode diagram of the lift response. The limitation of lift control to frequencies below 6 Hz is explained with inertial body damping, which becomes dominant at higher frequencies. Our work provides the detailed background and techniques that allow optomotor lift responses of Drosophila to be measured with comparatively simple, affordable and commercially available techniques. The identification of an LTI, pattern velocity dependent, lift control strategy is relevant to the underlying motion computation mechanisms and serves a broader understanding of insects' flight control strategies. The relevance and potential pitfalls of applying system identification techniques in tethered preparations is discussed. PMID:20462877

  6. Development and flight testing of the HL-10 lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Painter, Weneth D.

    1993-01-01

    The Horizontal Lander 10 (HL-10) lifting body successfully completed 37 flights, achieved the highest Mach number and altitude of this class of vehicle, and contributed to the technology base used to develop the space shuttle and future generations of lifting bodies. Design, development, and flight testing of this low-speed, air-launched, rocket-powered, lifting body was part of an unprecedented effort by NASA and the Northrop Corporation. This paper describes the evolution of the HL-10 lifting body from theoretical design, through development, to selection as one of two low-speed flight vehicles chosen for fabrication and piloted flight testing. Interesting and unusual events which occurred during the program and flight tests, review of significant problems encountered during the first flight, and discussion of how these problems were solved are presented. In addition, impressions of the pilots who flew the HL-10 lifting body are given.

  7. A perspective on 15 years of proof-of-concept aircraft development and flight research at Ames-Moffett by the Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division, 1970-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Few, David D.

    1987-01-01

    A proof-of-concept (POC) aircraft is defined and the concept of interest described for each of the six aircraft developed by the Ames-Moffet Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division from 1970 through 1985; namely, the OV-10, the C-8A Augmentor Wing, the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft (TRRA), the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)-compound, and the yet-to-fly RSRA/X-Wing Aircraft. The program/project chronology and most noteworthy features of the concepts are reviewed. The paper discusses the significance of each concept and the project demonstrating it; it briefly looks at what concepts are on the horizon as potential POC research aircraft and emphasizes that no significant advanced concept in aviation technology has ever been accepted by civilian or military users without first completing a demonstration through flight testing.

  8. Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at southeast corner. Note rope-adjustment turnbuckle with strap keepers to prevent its rotation, which could pull the bridge out of alignment. A single rope and light-gauge attachment at each corner were adequate for lifting the span because most of its weight was balanced by the two counterweights. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  9. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers... be revoked by issuing and filing a Notice of Revocation of Power of Attorney in a form acceptable...

  10. A contrarotative aircraft lifting concept for a future Titan mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duquesnay, P.; Coustenis, A.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Tavel, J.

    2008-09-01

    Titan has a thick and cold atmosphere (surface pressure 1.5 bar and surface temperature 94 K) and the surface gravity is about 1/7 of Earth's. Surface wind velocities are low. These unique characteristics make Titan's atmosphere an ideal place for an helicopter type of aircraft with vertical lift capability. Here we present a conceptual idea of a Titan helicopter designed as a student project. Two cases have been considered: a 100-kg helicopter and a 2-kg one. The concept is based on a contra-rotating double rotor. The device would be powered by a combination of rechargeable batteries and a low-power radioisotope source. The double rotor and the body of the helicopter would be protected by a mesh structure. It would carry a science payload at its base that would allow surface sampling and analysis each time it would land. During landing, it would also recharge its batteries to allow flying to the next stop. The concept has been inspired by studying modelaircraft- making devices. Various concepts developed for industrial and military applications have also been a source of inspiration. The following web sites were consulted: • www.onera.fr/conferences/drones • www.aurora.aero • www.sikorsky.com/sik/index.asp • www.microdrones.com The poster will present a preliminary design of the device. Its capability to contribute to the exploration of Titan's surface will be illustrated.

  11. PESC '91 - Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 22nd, MIT, Cambridge, MA, June 24-27, 1991, Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    The present conference discusses a novel microtransformer for use in microswitching converters, a high torque/low-speed switched-reluctance machine, parameter and state estimation in power electronics, a general circuit topology for a multilevel inverter, dc/dc-conversion via saturable induction commutation, a self-oscillating and synchronously rectified dc/dc converter, an HF quasi-square-wave converter, a new family of isolated zero-voltage switched converters, the dual-flow pulse-trimming concept, solid-state reactive power modulation, the harmonic interaction of power systems with static switching, power MOSFETs for reverse conduction, repetitive switching using thyristors, voltage-mode resonant converters, thermal optimization in power electronics, a MOS gate drive with resonant transitions, a real-time estimation of induction-motor rotor time constant, short circuit impedance and leakage in transformer windings, the miniaturization of isolated gate drive circuitry, and one-cycle control of switching converters. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  12. LiftingWiSe: a lifting-based efficient data processing technique in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Aboelela, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring thousands of objects which are deployed over large-hard-to-reach areas, is an important application of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Such an application requires disseminating a large amount of data within the WSN. This data includes, but is not limited to, the object's location and the environment conditions at that location. WSNs require efficient data processing and dissemination processes due to the limited storage, processing power, and energy available in the WSN nodes. The aim of this paper is to propose a data processing technique that can work under constrained storage, processing, and energy resource conditions. The proposed technique utilizes the lifting procedure in processing the disseminated data. Lifting is usually used in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) operations. The proposed technique is referred to as LiftingWiSe, which stands for Lifting-based efficient data processing technique for Wireless Sensor Networks. LiftingWiSe has been tested and compared to other relevant techniques from the literature. The test has been conducted via a simulation of the monitored field and the deployed wireless sensor network nodes. The simulation results have been analyzed and discussed. PMID:25116902

  13. LiftingWiSe: A Lifting-Based Efficient Data Processing Technique in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Aboelela, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring thousands of objects which are deployed over large-hard-to-reach areas, is an important application of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Such an application requires disseminating a large amount of data within the WSN. This data includes, but is not limited to, the object's location and the environment conditions at that location. WSNs require efficient data processing and dissemination processes due to the limited storage, processing power, and energy available in the WSN nodes. The aim of this paper is to propose a data processing technique that can work under constrained storage, processing, and energy resource conditions. The proposed technique utilizes the lifting procedure in processing the disseminated data. Lifting is usually used in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) operations. The proposed technique is referred to as LiftingWiSe, which stands for Lifting-based efficient data processing technique for Wireless Sensor Networks. LiftingWiSe has been tested and compared to other relevant techniques from the literature. The test has been conducted via a simulation of the monitored field and the deployed wireless sensor network nodes. The simulation results have been analyzed and discussed. PMID:25116902

  14. Exploration of Titan using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; remote-site sample return to lander platforms; precision placement of scientific probes; soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles.

  15. Propulsion integration for a hybrid propulsive-lift system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, M. K.; Renshaw, J. H.; Sweet, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    In a discussion of STOL vehicles with conventional high-lift devices, the need for efficient power-augmented lift systems is presented, and the implications of quiet operation are noted. The underlying philosophy of a promising hybrid lift system with major interactions between aerodynamic, thermodynamic, acoustic, and configuration design technologies is derived. The technique by which engine and airframe-related characteristics for this application may be matched in an optimum manner is described and illustrated by describing the features of a particular short-haul commercial STOL vehicle.

  16. Endoscopic brow lifts: have they replaced coronal lifts?

    PubMed

    Javidnia, Hedyeh; Sykes, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    This article describes the use of the endoscopic brow-lifting technique in addressing periorbital aging. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantage of the endoscopic versus traditional techniques of brow lifting and gives our treatment algorithm depending on patient needs. PMID:23731581

  17. NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

  18. NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

  19. Noise of fan designed to reduce stator lift fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Woodward, R. P.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    An existing fan stage was redesigned to reduce stator lift fluctuations and was acoustically tested at three nozzle sizes for reduced noise generation. The lift fluctuations on the stator were reduced by increasing the stator cord, adjusting incidence angles, and adjusting the rotor velocity diagrams. Broadband noise levels were signficantly reduced in the middle to high frequencies. Blade passage tone sound power was not lessened, but decreases in the harmonics were observed. Aerodynamic improvements in both performance and efficiency were obtained.

  20. Civil markets for buoyant heavy-lift vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettam, P. J.; Hansen, D.; Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide civil markets for heavy lift airships were investigated. Substantial potential market demand was identified for payloads of from 13 to 800 tons. The largest markets appear to be in applications to relieve port congestion, construction of power generating plants, and, most notably, logging. Because of significant uncertainties both in vehicle and market characteristics, further analysis will be necessary to verify the identified market potential of heavy lift airship concepts.

  1. Effects of range and mode on lifting capability and lifting time.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 3 lifting ranges and 3 lifting modes on maximum lifting capability and total lifting time. The results demonstrated that the maximum lifting capability for FK (from floor to knuckle height) was greater than that for KS (from knuckle height to shoulder height) or FS (from floor to shoulder height). Additionally, asymmetric lifting with initial trunk rotation decreased maximum lifting capability compared with symmetric lifting or asymmetric lifting with final trunk rotation. The difference in total lifting time between KS and FS was not significant, while FK increased total lifting time by ~20% compared with FS even though the travel distance was 50% shorter. PMID:22995136

  2. Biomechanical exploration on dynamic modes of lifting.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, M; Smyth, G

    1992-03-01

    Whatever the lifting method used, dynamic factors appear to have an effect on the safe realization of movement, and NIOSH guidelines recommend smooth lifting with no sudden acceleration effects. On the other hand, inertial forces may play an important role in the process of transfer of momentum to the load. The direction by which these inertial forces may affect the loadings on body structures and processes of energy transfers cannot be determined a priori. A biomechanical experiment was performed to examine if there were differences in the execution processes between a slow-continuous lift and an accelerated-continuous lift, and also between accelerated lifts either executed continuously or interrupted with a pause. The lifts were executed from a height of 15 cm to a height of 185 cm above the head and with two different loads (6.4 and 11.6 kg). Five experienced workers in manual materials handling were used as subjects. Films and force platforms recordings supplied the data; dynamic segmental analyses were performed to calculate net muscular moments at each joint; a planar single-muscle equivalent was used to estimate compression loadings at L5/S1; total mechanical work, joint work distribution, and energy transfers were determined from a kinetic approach based on the integration of joint power as a function of time. Analyses of variance with repeated measures were applied to the three treatments. The results showed that joint muscular moments, spinal loadings, mechanical work, and muscular utilization ratios were generally increased by the presence of acceleration without inducing benefits of improved energy transfers; therefore slower lifts with reduced acceleration may be safer when handling moderately heavy loads. The maximum values of kinematic and kinetic factors were generally not affected by the pause, but the occurrence of jerks in the movement (acceleration, ground forces, and muscular moments) suggests that the pause may not be indicated when

  3. Lifting Loads With Two Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Kanning, G.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses theoretical equilibrium characteristics of dual-helicopter lifting system. Analysis presented provides mathematical basis for selection of lifting configurations and flight parameters. Force-balance equations serve as basis for coordination in flight. Employed in both military and civilian sectors to deliver weapons, vehicles, and construction materials.

  4. Pneumatic Spoiler Controls Airfoil Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, D.; Krauss, T.

    1991-01-01

    Air ejection from leading edge of airfoil used for controlled decrease of lift. Pneumatic-spoiler principle developed for equalizing lift on helicopter rotor blades. Also used to enhance aerodynamic control of short-fuselage or rudderless aircraft such as "flying-wing" airplanes. Leading-edge injection increases maneuverability of such high-performance fixed-wing aircraft as fighters.

  5. Lift enhancing tabs for airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A tab deployable from the trailing edge of a main airfoil element forces flow onto a following airfoil element, such as a flap, to keep the flow attached and thus enhance lift. For aircraft wings with high lift systems that include leading edge slats, the slats may also be provided with tabs to turn the flow onto the following main element.

  6. Project LIFT: Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  7. Investigation of Maximum Blade Loading Capability of Lift-Offset Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Maximum blade loading capability of a coaxial, lift-offset rotor is investigated using a rotorcraft configuration designed in the context of short-haul, medium-size civil and military missions. The aircraft was sized for a 6600-lb payload and a range of 300 nm. The rotor planform and twist were optimized for hover and cruise performance. For the present rotor performance calculations, the collective pitch angle is progressively increased up to and through stall with the shaft angle set to zero. The effects of lift offset on rotor lift, power, controls, and blade airloads and structural loads are examined. The maximum lift capability of the coaxial rotor increases as lift offset increases and extends well beyond the McHugh lift boundary as the lift potential of the advancing blades are fully realized. A parametric study is conducted to examine the differences between the present coaxial rotor and the McHugh rotor in terms of maximum lift capabilities and to identify important design parameters that define the maximum lift capability of the rotor. The effects of lift offset on rotor blade airloads and structural loads are also investigated. Flap bending moment increases substantially as lift offset increases to carry the hub roll moment even at low collective values. The magnitude of flap bending moment is dictated by the lift-offset value (hub roll moment) but is less sensitive to collective and speed.

  8. 76 FR 64083 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice... reliability of the Bulk-Power System. The conference will explore the progress made on the priorities for addressing risks to reliability that were identified in earlier Commission technical conferences....

  9. Induction factor optimization through variable lift control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooney, John; Corke, Thomas; Nelson, Robert; Williams, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    Due to practical design limitations coupled with the detrimental effects posed by complex wind regimes, modern wind turbines struggle to maintain or even reach ideal operational states. With additional gains through traditional approaches becoming more difficult and costly, active lift control represents a more attractive option for future designs. Here, plasma actuators have been explored experimentally in trailing edge applications for use in attached flow regimes. This authority would be used to drive the axial induction factor toward the ideal given by the Betz limit through distributed lift control thereby enhancing energy capture. Predictions of power improvement achievable by this methodology are made with blade - element momentum theory but will eventually be demonstrated in the field at the Laboratory for Enhanced Wind Energy Design, currently under construction at the University of Notre Dame.

  10. 77 FR 21555 - Reactive Power Resources; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Interconnection Studies. This panel will discuss: Methods used to determine the reactive power requirements for a... Robert Jenkins, Director--Utility Interconnection, First Solar Kris Zadlo, Vice President, Invenergy..., Director--Utility Interconnection, First Solar Michael Jacobs, Director Market and Regulatory...

  11. CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J. Ph.; Gulden, W.; Kolbasov, B.; Louzeiro-Malaquias, A.-J.; Petti, D.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.

    2008-01-01

    Reports were presented covering a selection of topics on the safety of fusion power plants. These included a review on licensing studies developed for ITER site preparation surveying common and non-common issues (i.e. site dependent) as lessons to a broader approach for fusion power plant safety. Several fusion power plant models, spanning from accessible technology to more advanced-materials based concepts, were discussed. On the topic related to fusion-specific technology, safety studies were reported on different concepts of breeding blanket modules, tritium handling and auxiliary systems under normal and accident scenarios' operation. The testing of power plant relevant technology in ITER was also assessed in terms of normal operation and accident scenarios, and occupational doses and radioactive releases under these testings have been determined. Other specific safety issues for fusion have also been discussed such as availability and reliability of fusion power plants, dust and tritium inventories and component failure databases. This study reveals that the environmental impact of fusion power plants can be minimized through a proper selection of low activation materials and using recycling technology helping to reduce waste volume and potentially open the route for its reutilization for the nuclear sector or even its clearance into the commercial circuit. Computational codes for fusion safety have been presented in support of the many studies reported. The on-going work on establishing validation approaches aiming at improving the prediction capability of fusion codes has been supported by experimental results and new directions for development have been identified. Fusion standards are not available and fission experience is mostly used as the framework basis for licensing and target design for safe operation and occupational and environmental constraints. It has been argued that fusion can benefit if a specific fusion approach is implemented, in particular

  12. Energetics of oscillating lifting surfaces using integral conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, Ali R.; Widnall, Sheila E.

    1987-01-01

    The energetics of oscillating flexible lifting surfaces in two and three dimensions is calculated by the use of integral conservation laws in inviscid incompressible flow for general and harmonic transverse oscillations. Total thrust is calculated from the momentum theorem and energy loss rate due to vortex shedding in the wake from the principle of conservation of mechanical energy. Total power required to maintain the oscillations and hydrodynamic efficiency are also determined. In two dimensions, the results are obtained in closed form. In three dimensions, the distribution of vorticity on the lifting surface is also required as input to the calculations. Thus, unsteady lifting-surface theory must be used as well. The analysis is applicable to oscillating lifting surfaces of arbitrary planform, aspect ratio, and reduced frequency and does not require calculation of the leading-edge thrust.

  13. Wind tunnel study of slot spoilers for direct lift control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrisani, D., II; Gentry, G. L., Jr.; Stickle, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a 300-mph 7- by 10- foot tunnel to obtain data for a slot spoiler direct lift control system. Slot spoilers are believed to have advantages over flap-type direct lift control (DLC) systems because of the small amount of power required for actuation. These tests, run at a Reynolds number of 1,400,000 showed that up to 78 percent of the lift due to flap deflection could be spoiled by opening several spanwise slots within the flaps. For a given lift change the drag change was significantly less than that which would be obtained by a variable flap DLC system. A nozzle-shaped slot was the most effective of the slot shapes tested.

  14. Lift force of delta wings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Ho, Chihming )

    1990-09-01

    On a delta wing, the separation vortices can be stationary due to the balance of the vorticity surface flux and the axial convection along the swept leading edge. These stationary vortices keep the wing from losing lift. A highly swept delta wing reaches the maximum lift at an angle of attack of about 40, which is more than twice as high as that of a two-dimensional airfoil. In this paper, the experimental results of lift forces for delta wings are reviewed from the perspective of fundamental vorticity balance. The effects of different operational and geometrical parameters on the performance of delta wings are surveyed.

  15. 10. CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE TRASH RAKES, THEIR LIFTING MECHANISM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF THE TRASH RAKES, THEIR LIFTING MECHANISM (RIGHT FOREGROUND), AND CLUTCHES THAT OPEN AND CLOSE THE SIX INTAKE GATES ON THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE, LOOKING WEST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  16. Ground effects and control effectiveness tests of a .095 scale powered model of a modified T-39 lift/cruise fan V/STOL research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, C. R.; Omar, E.

    1977-01-01

    Wind tunnel test data are analysed to determine ground effects and the effectiveness of the aerodynamic control surfaces to provide a technology base for a Navy type A V/STOL airplane. Three 14CM (5.5 inch) turbopowered simulators were used to power the model which was tested primarily in the following configurations: (1) VTOL with flaps deployed, gear down, and engines tilted to 80 deg, 90 deg, and 95 deg, (2) STOL with flap and gear down and engines tilted to 50 deg; and (3) Loiter with flaps and gear up and L/C nacelles off. Data acquired during the tests are included as an appendix.

  17. Air-cushion lift pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaise, H. T.; Dane, D. H.

    1969-01-01

    Mathematical model is formulated for an air pad which is capable of lifting a structure to a height of 0.125 inch. Design is superior to conventional air cushion devices because it eliminates flutter, vibration, heaving, and pitching.

  18. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle development phase, Marshall plarners concluded a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) would be needed for successful Space Industrialization. Shown here in this 1976's artist's conception is an early version of the HLLV during launch.

  19. Boundary-layer transition and displacement thickness effects on zero-lift drag of a series of power-law bodies at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, G. C., Jr.; Harris, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Wave and skin-friction drag have been numerically calculated for a series of power-law bodies at a Mach number of 6 and Reynolds numbers, based on body length, from 1.5 million to 9.5 million. Pressure distributions were computed on the nose by the inverse method and on the body by the method of characteristics. These pressure distributions and the measured locations of boundary-layer transition were used in a nonsimilar-boundary-layer program to determine viscous effects. A coupled iterative approach between the boundary-layer and pressure-distribution programs was used to account for boundary-layer displacement-thickness effects. The calculated-drag coefficients compared well with previously obtained experimental data.

  20. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what I have studied and experienced, mainly regarding the control and prediction of the postoperative edema; how to achieve an agreeable recovery and give positive support to the patient, who in turn will receive pleasant sensations that neutralize the negative consequences of the surgery.After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determines the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema. To study the lymphatic drainage, the day before an extended face lift (FL) a woman was infiltrated in the cheek skin with lynfofast (solution of tecmesio) and the absorption was observed by gamma camera. Seven days after the FL she underwent the same study; we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged. To study the venous return during surgery, a fine catheter was introduced into the external jugular vein up to the mandibular border to measure the peripheral pressure. Following platysma plication the pressure rose, and again after a simple bandage, but with an elastic bandage it increased even further, diminishing considerably when it was released. Hence, platysma plication and the elastic bandage on the neck augment the venous congestion of the face. There are diseases that produce and can prolong the surgical edema: cardiac, hepatic, and renal insufficiencies, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, etc. According to these factors, the post-op edema can be predicted, the surgeon can choose between a wide dissection or a medial surgery, depending on the social or employment compromises the patient has, or the patient must accept a prolonged recovery if a complex surgery is necessary. Operative

  1. Lift enhancement in flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John; Vlachos, Pavlos; Barba, Lorena

    2013-11-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. We present a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. We performed two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi, which show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at an angle of attack of 35 degrees, for Reynolds numbers 2000 and above. Previous experiments on physical models also demonstrated an increased lift and at the same angle of attack. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift. In physical experiments, the flow is inherently 3-D due to fluid instabilities, and it is intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations.

  2. Moving base simulation of an ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W. Y.; Borchers, Paul F.; Franklin, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Using a generalized simulation model, a moving-base simulation of a lift-fan short takeoff/vertical landing fighter aircraft was conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator at Ames Research Center. Objectives of the experiment were to (1) assess the effects of lift-fan propulsion system design features on aircraft control during transition and vertical flight including integration of lift fan/lift/cruise engine/aerodynamic controls and lift fan/lift/cruise engine dynamic response, (2) evaluate pilot-vehicle interface with the control system and head-up display including control modes for low-speed operational tasks and control mode/display integration, and (3) conduct operational evaluations of this configuration during takeoff, transition, and landing similar to those carried out previously by the Ames team for the mixed-flow, vectored thrust, and augmentor-ejector concepts. Based on results of the simulation, preliminary assessments of acceptable and borderline lift-fan and lift/cruise engine thrust response characteristics were obtained. Maximum pitch, roll, and yaw control power used during transition, hover, and vertical landing were documented. Control and display mode options were assessed for their compatibility with a range of land-based and shipboard operations from takeoff to cruise through transition back to hover and vertical landing. Flying qualities were established for candidate control modes and displays for instrument approaches and vertical landings aboard an LPH assault ship and DD-963 destroyer. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, Boeing, Lockheed, McDonnell Douglas, and the British Defence Research Agency participated in the program.

  3. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  4. Subperiosteal brow lifts without fixation.

    PubMed

    Troilius, Carl

    2004-11-01

    Most surgeons today advocate an endoscopic subperiosteal brow lift for surgical correction of the upper third of the face. At the author's clinic, this operation has been performed since 1994 and the subgaleal bicoronal brow lift is no longer used. In earlier investigations, the author showed that the subperiosteal approach (n = 60) gives a better result than the subgaleal method (n = 60) when compared 1 year after surgery. In the literature, however, there are no published data regarding the long-term results of subperiosteal brow lifts. The author took material from his earlier investigations and looked at the same patients 5 years postoperatively. He compared the subperiosteal approach (n = 30) with the subgaleal brow lift (n = 15) and found that after 5 years the brows of the subgaleal patients were on the same level as they were before surgery, but in the group of subperiosteal brow lifts, almost all of the brows were higher 5 years after surgery than they were 1 year after surgery, with a mean increase in height of 2.5 mm. These findings led the author to the question whether scalp fixation was necessary at all when performing a subperiosteal brow lift. He performed 20 subperiosteal endoscopic brow lifts where scalp fixation was not used at all, relying only on changing the balance of muscle vectors around the eyebrows. Using a computerized instrument, measurements were made of the distance between the medial canthus and the top of the eyebrow, the midpupil and the top of the eyebrow, and the lateral canthus and the top of the eyebrow. All patients were measured before and 1 year after surgery. The author found an increase of the vertical height from the midpupil to the top of the brow, with an average increase of 3.9 mm. There were no differences between patients who had only a brow lift and those who had a brow lift and an upper blepharoplasty at the same time. The author concludes that for most cases where an increased vertical height of the brows of more

  5. Normalized Lift: An Energy Interpretation of the Lift Coefficient Simplifies Comparisons of the Lifting Ability of Rotating and Flapping Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient CL to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders. This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran. The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings. PMID:22629326

  6. Mist lift analysis summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The mist flow open-cycle OTEC concept proposed by S.L. Ridgway has much promise, but the fluid mechanics of the mist flow are not well understood. The creation of the mist and the possibility of droplet growth leading to rainout (when the vapor can no longer support the mist) are particularly troublesome. This report summarizes preliminary results of a numerical analysis initiated at SERI in FY79 to study the mist-lift process. The analysis emphasizes the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the steady-state mist flow and is based on one-dimensional models of the mist flow developed for SERI by Graham Wallis. One of Wallis's models describes a mist composed of a single size of drops and another considers several drop sizes. The latter model, further developed at SERI, considers a changing spectrum of discrete drop sizes and incorporates the mathematics describing collisions and growth of the droplets by coalescence. The analysis results show that under conditions leading to maximum lift in the single-drop-size model, the multigroup model predicts significantly reduced lift because of the growth of droplets by coalescence. The predicted lift height is sensitive to variations in the mass flow rate and inlet pressure. Inclusion of a coasting section, in which the drops would rise ballistically without change in temperature, may lead to increased lift within the existing range of operation.

  7. Development of an integrated staircase lift for home access

    PubMed Central

    Mattie, Johanne L.; Borisoff, Jaimie F.; Leland, Danny; Miller, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Stairways into buildings present a significant environmental barrier for those with mobility impairments, including older adults. A number of home access solutions that allow users to safely enter and exit the home exist, however these all have some limitations. The purpose of this work was to develop a novel, inclusive home access solution that integrates a staircase and a lift into one device. Method The development of an integrated staircase lift followed a structured protocol with stakeholders providing feedback at various stages in the design process, consistent with rehabilitation engineering design methods. Results A novel home access device was developed. The integrated staircase-lift has the following features: inclusivity, by a universal design that provides an option for either use of stairs or a lift; constant availability, with a lift platform always ready for use on either level; and potential aesthetic advantages when integrating the device into an existing home. The potential also exists for emergency descent during a power outage, and self-powered versions. Conclusions By engaging stakeholders in a user centred design process, insight on the limitations of existing home access solutions and specific feedback on our design guided development of a novel home access device. PMID:26793318

  8. A Simple Method for High-Lift Propeller Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael; Borer, Nick; German, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple method for designing propellers that are placed upstream of the leading edge of a wing in order to augment lift. Because the primary purpose of these "high-lift propellers" is to increase lift rather than produce thrust, these props are best viewed as a form of high-lift device; consequently, they should be designed differently than traditional propellers. We present a theory that describes how these props can be designed to provide a relatively uniform axial velocity increase, which is hypothesized to be advantageous for lift augmentation based on a literature survey. Computational modeling indicates that such propellers can generate the same average induced axial velocity while consuming less power and producing less thrust than conventional propeller designs. For an example problem based on specifications for NASA's Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology and Operations Research (SCEPTOR) flight demonstrator, a propeller designed with the new method requires approximately 15% less power and produces approximately 11% less thrust than one designed for minimum induced loss. Higher-order modeling and/or wind tunnel testing are needed to verify the predicted performance.

  9. Serrated-Planform Lifting-Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Brian E. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A novel set of serrated-planform lifting surfaces produce unexpectedly high lift coefficients at moderate to high angles-of-attack. Each serration, or tooth, is designed to shed a vortex. The interaction of the vortices greatly enhances the lifting capability over an extremely large operating range. Variations of the invention use serrated-planform lifting surfaces in planes different than that of a primary lifting surface. In an alternate embodiment, the individual teeth are controllably retractable and deployable to provide for active control of the vortex system and hence lift coefficient. Differential lift on multiple serrated-planform lifting surfaces provides a means for vehicle control. The important aerodynamic advantages of the serrated-planform lifting surfaces are not limited to aircraft applications but can be used to establish desirable performance characteristics for missiles, land vehicles, and/or watercraft.

  10. Slug bucket lifting yoke analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McElfresh, A.J.

    1994-11-14

    There are baskets of fuel in the storage pools in the Purex facility (202-A). These baskets (called slug buckets) need to be removed from Purex and taken to the K-Basins. The current slug bucket lifting yoke is of sufficient age to be in question structurally. Therefore new yokes need to be fabricated. Prior to fabricating new yokes, the slug bucket lifting yoke DWG needs to be updated for fabrication. However, the design needs to be refined so that the yoke will be easier to fabricate. These calculations are prepared to demonstrate the adequacy of the new design. The objective of these calculations is to select appropriately sized structural members and weld sizes to serve as components in the slug bucket lifting yoke.

  11. European Space Power Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Flood, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent, rapid advances in a variety of solar cell technologies offer the potential for significantly enhancing, or enabling entirely new, mission capabilities. Thin film solar cells are of particular interest in that regard. A review is provided of the status of those thin film cell technologies of interest for space applications, and the issues to be resolved before mission planners can consider them. A short summary is also given of recent developments in concentrator and multijunction space solar cell and array technology.

  12. Lifting hydro's potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihach, N.

    1980-12-01

    The advantages of hydroelectric power, in terms of capital, operating and maintenance costs and in terms of fuel and environmental considerations, are causing an upgrading of existing installations to provide more generating capacity. Hydrocapacity supplies 1/8 of the U.S. electric energy and will probably increase from 50 to 100% by the early 2000's as the price of other forms of energy rises. Ways of increasing output are: better water control, uprating of hydrogenerators, standardization of turbines, and methods of pumped hydro, an energy storage technique. An obstacle to this aim is the cumbersome licensing process of competing federal agencies which places a particular burden on small projects.

  13. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  14. Exploration of Titan Using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: (1) low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; (2) remote-site sample return to lander platforms; (3) precision placement of scientific probes; (4) soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; (5) greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; and (6) greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Wing rotation and lift in SUEX flapping wing mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateti, Kiron; Byrne-Dugan, Rory A.; Tadigadapa, Srinivas A.; Rahn, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    This research presents detailed modeling and experimental testing of wing rotation and lift in the LionFly, a low cost and mass producible flapping wing mechanism fabricated monolithically from SUEX dry film and powered by piezoelectric bimorph actuators. A flexure hinge along the span of the wing allows the wing to rotate in addition to flapping. A dynamic model including aerodynamics is developed and validated using experimental testing with a laser vibrometer in air and vacuum, stroboscopic photography and high definition image processing, and lift measurement. The 112 mg LionFly produces 46° flap and 44° rotation peak to peak with 12° phase lag, which generates a maximum average lift of 71 μN in response to an applied sinusoidal voltage of 75 V AC and 75 V DC at 37 Hz. Simulated wing trajectories accurately predict measured wing trajectories at small voltage amplitudes, but slightly underpredict amplitude and lift at high voltage amplitudes. By reducing the length of the actuator, reducing the mechanism amplification and tuning the rotational hinge stiffness, a redesigned device is simulated to produce a lift to weight ratio of 1.5.

  16. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lift, except in case of emergency. (x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  17. Lift distribution in a rectangular jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A.

    1971-01-01

    Computer programs predict effect of slipstream-wing flow interaction on aerodynamic characteristics of deflected slipstream and tilt aircraft. One program calculates lift distribution, lift, and drag of wing in wide slipstream. Results permit development of simplified lifting surface theory for circular jet.

  18. Protect Your Back: Guidelines for Safer Lifting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Carolyn O.

    2002-01-01

    Examines back injury in teachers and child care providers; includes statistics, common causes of back pain (improper alignment, improper posture, improper lifting, and carrying), and types of back pain (acute and chronic). Focuses on preventing back injury, body mechanics for lifting and carrying, and proper lifting and carrying of children. (SD)

  19. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are...

  20. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A

    2000-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift vehicles hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. This paper discusses several technical aspects of vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles in general, and specifically addresses technical challenges and work to date examining notional vertical lift vehicles for Mars, Titan, and Venus exploration.

  1. 30 CFR 57.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 57.16016 Section 57.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 57.16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the:...

  2. 30 CFR 56.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 56.16016 Section 56.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the— (a)...

  3. Serrated trailing edges for improving lift and drag characteristics of lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijgen, Paul M. H. W. (Inventor); Howard, Floyd G. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An improvement in the lift and drag characteristics of a lifting surface is achieved by attaching a serrated panel to the trailing edge of the lifting surface. The serrations may have a saw-tooth configuration, with a 60 degree included angle between adjacent serrations. The serrations may vary in shape and size over the span-wise length of the lifting surface, and may be positioned at fixed or adjustable deflections relative to the chord of the lifting surface.

  4. CHRONICLE: Twelfth International Symposium on Gas and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference (GCL/HPL '98)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreysho, A. S.; Koretskii, Ya P.; Mashendzhinov, Viktor I.; Morozov, A. V.; Rotinyan, Mikhail A.

    1999-03-01

    A review is given of the papers presented at the GCL/HPL'98 Meeting held on August 31 — September 5, 1998 in St Petersburg. A brief account is given of the associated exhibition and a satellite conference held at the All-Russia Scientific-Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federal Nuclear Centre) in the city of Sarov.

  5. Blending Support and Social Action: The Power of a Gay-Straight Alliance and PrideWorks Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman-Nimz, Reva; Altman, Jennifer; Cain, Spencer; Korn, Shira; Karger, Mary Jane; Witsch, Michael J.; Muffly, Sarah; Weiss, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    The role of a Gay-Straight Alliance as a force for social justice, as well as for support in a school community, is highlighted in one GSA's story. The GSA and an annual countywide conference, PrideWorks, have as their key goals education and advocacy. Their focus on making schools an inclusive and respectful place where all are welcome and valued…

  6. [Lifting procedures in cosmetic facial surgery].

    PubMed

    Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Vissink, A

    2014-10-01

    A prominent characteristic of the aging face is the descent of skin and subcutaneous tissues. In order to reduce this and create a more youthful appearance, several lifting procedures can be employed. In the forehead and eyebrow region the transblepharoplastic brow lift, the direct brow lift, the temporal brow lift, the coronal brow lift and the endoscopic brow lift can be distinguished. For the mid-face, the facelift is known to be an effective treatment for aging characteristics. Classic facelifts can be divided into the one layer-, two layer- and the deep plane facelift. Nowadays the minimal access cranial suspension lift is popular. The lifting capacity of this lift may be less, but the risk of complications is lower and the result is often more natural. A neck lift improves the chin-neck angle and a submental liposuction/lipectomy can contribute to this. Complications in lifting procedures are rare. Hematoma is the most frequent complication. Skin necrosis of the wound edges and laceration of the end branches of the facial nerve can also occur. There is a tendency towards minimally invasive procedures with smaller risk of complications and shorter recovery periods. PMID:26185994

  7. Relationship between ignition processes and the lift-off length of diesel fuel jets.

    SciTech Connect

    Siebers, Dennis L.; Idicheria, Cherian A.; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2005-06-01

    a previous power-law fit of the No.2 diesel lift-off length database.

  8. Lift enhancement by bats' dynamically changing wingspan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the aerodynamic role of the dynamically changing wingspan in bat flight. Based on direct numerical simulations of the flow over a slow-flying bat, it is found that the dynamically changing wingspan can significantly enhance the lift. Further, an analysis of flow structures and lift decomposition reveal that the elevated vortex lift associated with the leading-edge vortices intensified by the dynamically changing wingspan considerably contributed to enhancement of the time-averaged lift. The nonlinear interaction between the dynamically changing wing and the vortical structures plays an important role in the lift enhancement of a flying bat in addition to the geometrical effect of changing the lifting-surface area in a flapping cycle. In addition, the dynamically changing wingspan leads to the higher efficiency in terms of generating lift for a given amount of the mechanical energy consumed in flight. PMID:26701882

  9. Generalised Eisenhart lift of the Toda chain

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco; Gibbons, Gary

    2014-02-15

    The Toda chain of nearest neighbour interacting particles on a line can be described both in terms of geodesic motion on a manifold with one extra dimension, the Eisenhart lift, or in terms of geodesic motion in a symmetric space with several extra dimensions. We examine the relationship between these two realisations and discover that the symmetric space is a generalised, multi-particle Eisenhart lift of the original problem that reduces to the standard Eisenhart lift. Such generalised Eisenhart lift acts as an inverse Kaluza-Klein reduction, promoting coupling constants to momenta in higher dimension. In particular, isometries of the generalised lift metric correspond to energy preserving transformations that mix coordinates and coupling constants. A by-product of the analysis is that the lift of the Toda Lax pair can be used to construct higher rank Killing tensors for both the standard and generalised lift metrics.

  10. The relationship between maximal lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift in strength-based soldiering tasks.

    PubMed

    Savage, Robert J; Best, Stuart A; Carstairs, Greg L; Ham, Daniel J

    2012-07-01

    Psychophysical assessments, such as the maximum acceptable lift, have been used to establish worker capability and set safe load limits for manual handling tasks in occupational settings. However, in military settings, in which task demand is set and capable workers must be selected, subjective measurements are inadequate, and maximal capacity testing must be used to assess lifting capability. The aim of this study was to establish and compare the relationship between maximal lifting capacity and a self-determined tolerable lifting limit, maximum acceptable lift, across a range of military-relevant lifting tasks. Seventy male soldiers (age 23.7 ± 6.1 years) from the Australian Army performed 7 strength-based lifting tasks to determine their maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift. Comparisons were performed to identify maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity for each individual task. Linear regression was used to identify the relationship across all tasks when the data were pooled. Strong correlations existed between all 7 lifting tasks (rrange = 0.87-0.96, p < 0.05). No differences were found in maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity across all tasks (p = 0.46). When data were pooled, maximum acceptable lift was equal to 84 ± 8% of the maximum lifting capacity. This study is the first to illustrate the strong and consistent relationship between maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift for multiple single lifting tasks. The relationship developed between these indices may be used to help assess self-selected manual handling capability through occupationally relevant maximal performance tests. PMID:22643137

  11. Research on speed control of secondary regulation lifting system of parking equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Faye

    2005-12-01

    Hydrostatic transmission with secondary regulation is a new kind of hydrostatic transmission that can regenerate inertial and gravitational energy of load. On the basis of an in-depth analysis of the working principles and energy-saving mechanisms of the parking equipment lifting systems with, secondary regulating technology, this paper proposes a method of regenerating a lifting system's inertial energy by controlling rotational speed and reclaiming the gravitational energy by use of a constant rotational speed. Considering large changes of the parameters of lifting systems and then non-linearity, a fuzzy control was adopted to control the lifting system, and a mathematical model of the system was established. By simulation and experiment of the lifting system, the conclusion was reached a lifting system's braking achieved by controlling rotational speed is reliable and stable at a definite speed. It also permits changing the efficiency of recovery by changing the rotational speed. The design power of the lifting system can be chosen in terms of the system's average power, so the system's power can be reduced and energy savings achieved.

  12. Latent fingerprints analysis using tape-lift, Raman microscopy, and multivariate data analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Effendi

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes the use of combined techniques, i.e. Raman spectral mapping, tape-lift, and multivariate data analysis, to extract chemical information of latent fingerprint and/or trace amounts of materials deposited in fingerprints. The tape-lift method was employed to lift trace particles, extrinsic materials, or sebum deposited on the finger of an individual after recent handling of such materials. The analysis of the tape-lifted materials was performed by Raman spectral mapping at a specific area. The collected mixture Raman spectra containing signals from lifting media and lifted materials was then deconvoluted using a powerful multivariate technique, namely band-target entropy minimization (BTEM). Three cases, i.e. a sebum-rich fingerprint after touching the forehead, a drug model comprising ibuprofen, L-arginine, and sodium bicarbonate, and an additive model comprising sucrose and aspartame were investigated. BTEM could recover all pure component spectra of both lifting media and tape-lifted materials. As such, all these test substances can be correctly identified using their unique pure Raman spectral signatures. In addition, the spatial distributions of all these identified components could also be determined. These combined three techniques hold promise as a new tool in forensic applications. PMID:19305929

  13. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  14. Simulated lift testing using computerized isokinetics.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, J A; Mostardi, R A; King, S; Ariki, P; Moats, E; Noe, D

    1987-09-01

    Eighty-four volunteer asymptomatic men between 18 and 40 years of age were evaluated as to their ability to lift. An innovative isokinetic device was used to measure lifting force. This device does not isolate any specific body part, yet it measures the muscular force of lifting an object whose speed of ascent is controlled. Two lifting methods (bent knee, straight leg) and two foot positions were used. The results indicate the bent-knee lift method and forward-foot position was the position of optimal force production. Force production increase was inversely proportional to age. The authors concluded that the isokinetic lift device has promising capabilities to produce repeatable data and may be advantageous in generating standards for rehabilitation and specific job criteria. PMID:3686220

  15. Overview of NASA HSR high-lift program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William P.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of the NASA High-Speed Research (HSR) Program being conducted to develop the technologies essential for the successful U.S. development of a commercial supersonic air transport in the 2005 timeframe are provided. The HSR program is being conducted in two phases, with the first phase stressing technology to ensure environmental acceptability and the second phase stressing technology to make the vehicle economically viable (in contrast to the current Concorde design). During Phase 1 of the program, a key element of the environmental emphases is minimization of community noise through effective engine nozzle noise suppression technology and through improving the performance of high-lift systems. An overview of the current Phase 1 High-Lift Program, directed at technology for community noise reduction, is presented. The total target for takeoff engine noise reduction to meet expected regulations is believed to be about 20 EPNdB. The high-lift research is stressing the exploration of innovative high-lift concepts and advanced flight operations procedures to achieve a substantial (approximately 6 EPNdB) reduction in community noise to supplement the reductions expected from engine nozzle noise suppression concepts; primary concern is focused on the takeoff and climbout operations where very high engine power settings are used. Significant reductions in aerodynamic drag in this regime will allow substantial reductions in the required engine thrust levels and therefore reductions in the noise generated.

  16. Tethered lifting systems for measurements in the lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Michael Lamar

    2000-10-01

    This work defines a Tethered Lifting System for measurements in the lower atmosphere, its design and development, and applications for its use. Using historical kite research and the unique capabilities of tethered lifting platforms as motivation, a complete system has been created offering the complementary benefits of parafoil kites and tethered balloons as lifting platforms. Support systems including tethers, winching systems and payload data collection and telemetry systems round out the Tethered Lifting System to provide a complete atmospheric measurement system. The kite platforms have been enhanced by the invention and development of a wind-powered Tether Rover for Atmospheric Research (WindTRAM), providing rapid profiling and precise positioning capabilities. Design of the WindTRAM and implementation of onboard feedback control are covered in detail, as they comprise the most novel contribution of this research. The breadth of possible applications for these technologies is touched upon by examination of some of the specific research applications undertaken by the researchers at the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences during the last decade.

  17. Auxiliary lift propulsion system with oversized front fan

    SciTech Connect

    Castells, O.T.; Johnson, J.E.; Rundell, D.J.

    1980-09-16

    A propulsion system for use primarily in V/STOL aircraft is provided with a variable cycle, double bypass gas turbofan engine and a remote augmenter to produce auxiliary lift. The fan is oversized in air-pumping capability with respect to the cruise flight requirements of the remainder of the engine and a variable area, low pressure turbine is capable of supplying varying amounts of rotational energy to the oversized fan, thereby modulating its speed and pumping capability. During powered lift flight, the variable cycle engine is operated in the single bypass mode with the oversized fan at its maximum pumping capability. In this mode, substantially all of the bypass flow is routed as an auxiliary airstream to the remote augmenter where it is mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted through a vectorable nozzle to produce thrust for lifting. Additional lift is generated by the high energy products of combustion of the variable cycle engine which are further energized in an afterburner and exhausted through a thrust vectorable nozzle at the rear of the engine.

  18. On the Estimation of Time Dependent Lift of a European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) during Flapping Flight.

    PubMed

    Stalnov, Oksana; Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam J; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Kopp, Gregory A; Liberzon, Alexander; Gurka, Roi

    2015-01-01

    We study the role of unsteady lift in the context of flapping wing bird flight. Both aerodynamicists and biologists have attempted to address this subject, yet it seems that the contribution of unsteady lift still holds many open questions. The current study deals with the estimation of unsteady aerodynamic forces on a freely flying bird through analysis of wingbeat kinematics and near wake flow measurements using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The aerodynamic forces are obtained through two approaches, the unsteady thin airfoil theory and using the momentum equation for viscous flows. The unsteady lift is comprised of circulatory and non-circulatory components. Both approaches are presented over the duration of wingbeat cycles. Using long-time sampling data, several wingbeat cycles have been analyzed in order to cover both the downstroke and upstroke phases. It appears that the unsteady lift varies over the wingbeat cycle emphasizing its contribution to the total lift and its role in power estimations. It is suggested that the circulatory lift component cannot assumed to be negligible and should be considered when estimating lift or power of birds in flapping motion. PMID:26394213

  19. On the Estimation of Time Dependent Lift of a European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) during Flapping Flight

    PubMed Central

    Stalnov, Oksana; Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam J.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Kopp, Gregory A.; Liberzon, Alexander; Gurka, Roi

    2015-01-01

    We study the role of unsteady lift in the context of flapping wing bird flight. Both aerodynamicists and biologists have attempted to address this subject, yet it seems that the contribution of unsteady lift still holds many open questions. The current study deals with the estimation of unsteady aerodynamic forces on a freely flying bird through analysis of wingbeat kinematics and near wake flow measurements using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The aerodynamic forces are obtained through two approaches, the unsteady thin airfoil theory and using the momentum equation for viscous flows. The unsteady lift is comprised of circulatory and non-circulatory components. Both approaches are presented over the duration of wingbeat cycles. Using long-time sampling data, several wingbeat cycles have been analyzed in order to cover both the downstroke and upstroke phases. It appears that the unsteady lift varies over the wingbeat cycle emphasizing its contribution to the total lift and its role in power estimations. It is suggested that the circulatory lift component cannot assumed to be negligible and should be considered when estimating lift or power of birds in flapping motion. PMID:26394213

  20. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  1. Artificial lift: Many new developments are emerging

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.

    1984-03-01

    Methods of artificially lifting oil production are almost countless, testifying to the ingenuity of inventors, engineers, technicians, etc., that have worked in this area. And, artificial lift improvements continue to be important, especially now that product prices are nearly constant and production costs are under closer scruitiny. Some methods of artificial lift thought to be new to industry are mentioned in this article, including: Aluminum sucker rods, Graphite composite lift system, Unique pumping unit geometry, Chain drive pumping unit, Two types of pump-off control, Downhole gas pump, Hydraulic-centrifugal pump, Improvements in submersible pumps, and Submersible pump gas separators.

  2. Facial emphysema after sinus lift.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants.Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  3. Facial emphysema after sinus lift

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants. Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  4. New life for heavy lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeis, Richard

    1991-03-01

    The advisory committee to NASA on overall approaches for implementing the U.S. space program in the years ahead has concluded that Shuttle missions should only be flown when a human presence is necessary. It was noted that reducing the number of missions would extend the life of the existing fleet and retain the number of orbiters required at the presently planned four and any funding for a fifth orbiter should be utilized instead for the development of a new heavy lift launch vehicle. These recommendations have led to increased design proposals under the Advanced Launch Development (ADLP) Program such as the Shuttle C (cargo), an unmanned version that could orbit 100,00 to 150,000 lb for two- and three-engine versions, respectively, and would make maximum utilization of present Shuttle processing and pad facilities. Other concepts under investigation by ADLP include electromechanical actuators to replace hydraulic systems, advanced modular avionics and common avionics/payload interfaces, and laser-initiated ordnance for component separation and staging. It is noted that the drive to evolve a heavy lift system will fully employ the total quality management approach, with producibility and operability built into the system from the start.

  5. Flow Control Research at NASA Langley in Support of High-Lift Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, William L., III; Jones, Gregory S.; Moore, Mark D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the efforts at NASA Langley to apply active and passive flow control techniques for improved high-lift systems, and advanced vehicle concepts utilizing powered high-lift techniques. The development of simplified high-lift systems utilizing active flow control is shown to provide significant weight and drag reduction benefits based on system studies. Active flow control that focuses on separation, and the development of advanced circulation control wings (CCW) utilizing unsteady excitation techniques will be discussed. The advanced CCW airfoils can provide multifunctional controls throughout the flight envelope. Computational and experimental data are shown to illustrate the benefits and issues with implementation of the technology.

  6. Factors affecting handling qualities of a lift-fan aircraft during steep terminal area approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, R. M.; Hynes, C. S.

    1975-01-01

    The XV-5B lift-fan aircraft was used to explore the factors affecting handling qualities in the terminal area. A 10 deg ILS approach task was selected to explore these problems. Interception of the glide slope at 457.2 m, glide slope tracking, deceleration along the glide slope to a spot hover were considered. Variations in airplane deck angle, deceleration schedule, and powered-lift management were studied. The overall descent performance envelope was identified on the basis of fan stall, maximum comfortable descent rate, and controllability restrictions. The collective-lift stick provided precise glide slope tracking capability. The pilot preferred a deck-parallel attitude for which he used powered lift to control glide slope and pitch attitude to keep the angle of attack near zero. Workload was reduced when the deceleration schedule was delayed until the aircraft was well established on the glide slope, since thrust vector changes induced flight path disturbances.

  7. PESC '84 - Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 15th, Gaithersburg, MD, June 18-21, 1984, Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on power electronics are presented. The general topics addressed include: converter circuits, converter systems, motor drives, power components, modelling and analysis techniques, and converter control. Some individual papers discuss: snubber configuration for both power transistors and GTO PWM inverters, high-voltage high-frequency class-E converter suitable for miniaturization, parallel running of GTO PWM inverters, series parallel connected composite amplifiers, spacecraft ac power system for auxiliary equipment. Also covered are: multimotor drive with a current source inverter, switching performance of a power MOSFET circuit, computer model of magnetic saturation and hysteresis for use on SPICE2, general approach to sampled data modelling for power electronic circuits, PWM control techniques for rectifier filter minimization, and measurement of loop gain with the digital modulator.

  8. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... vehicles with lift systems must comply with objective safety requirements in order to be sold. \\1\\ 67 FR... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift Installations in Motor Vehicles AGENCY:...

  9. PESC '83; Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 14th, Albuquerque, NM, June 6-9, 1983, Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consideration is given to such topics as dc-dc converter synthesis and analysis, motor drives and power systems, power devices, power supplies, converter modeling and control, and converter circuit techniques. Particular papers are presented on the synthesis of switched-mode converters, a MOSFET converter-fed position servo system with sliding mode control, design considerations for FET-gated high voltage transistors, a magnetic trickle-charge regulator for a solar cell/battery space power system, a unified SCR model for continuous topology CADA, and ferroresonant converters with high-frequency drive. For individual items see A84-18410 to A84-18426

  10. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  11. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  12. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  13. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  14. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  15. The Selection of a Van Lift or a Scooter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes 3-wheeled scooters and van lifts that can assist a person with a disability to drive independently or have access to transportation. The section on van lifts compares hydraulic lifts and electric lifts, lists manufacturers, and offers an "assessment quiz" outlining factors to consider in selecting a van lift. In the…

  16. Mathematical model for lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft simulator programming data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, M. P.; Fajfar, B.; Konsewicz, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    Simulation data are reported for the purpose of programming the flight simulator for advanced aircraft for tests of the lift/cruise fan V/STOL Research Technology Aircraft. These simulation tests are to provide insight into problem areas which are encountered in operational use of the aircraft. A mathematical model is defined in sufficient detail to represent all the necessary pertinent aircraft and system characteristics. The model includes the capability to simulate two basic versions of an aircraft propulsion system: (1) the gas coupled configuration which uses insulated air ducts to transmit power between gas generators and fans in the form of high energy engine exhaust and (2) the mechanically coupled power system which uses shafts, clutches, and gearboxes for power transmittal. Both configurations are modeled such that the simulation can include vertical as well as rolling takeoff and landing, hover, powered lift flight, aerodynamic flight, and the transition between powered lift and aerodynamic flight.

  17. Future Roles for Autonomous Vertical Lift in Disaster Relief and Emergency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2006-01-01

    System analysis concepts are applied to the assessment of potential collaborative contributions of autonomous system and vertical lift (a.k.a. rotorcraft, VTOL, powered-lift, etc.) technologies to the important, and perhaps underemphasized, application domain of disaster relief and emergency response. In particular, an analytic framework is outlined whereby system design functional requirements for an application domain can be derived from defined societal good goals and objectives.

  18. OCT-based quantification of flow velocity, shear force, and power generated by a biological ciliated surface (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Brendan K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Loewenberg, Michael; Choma, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    In cilia-driven fluid flow physiology, quantification of flow velocity, shearing force, and power dissipation is important in defining abnormal ciliary function. The capacity to generate flow can be robustly described in terms of shearing force. Dissipated power can be related to net ATP consumption by ciliary molecular motors. To date, however, only flow velocity can be routinely quantified in a non-invasive, non-contact manner. Additionally, traditional power-based metrics rely on metabolic consumption that reflects energy consumption not just from cilia but also from all active cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the estimation of all three of these quantities (flow velocity, shear force, and power dissipation) using only optical coherence tomography (OCT). Specifically, we develop a framework that can extract force and power information from vectorial flow velocity fields obtained using OCT-based methods. We do so by (a) estimating the viscous stress tensor from flow velocity fields to estimate shearing force and (b) using the viscous stress tensor to estimate the power dissipation function to infer total mechanical power. These estimates have the advantage of (a) requiring only a single modality, (b) being non-invasive in nature, and (c) being reflective of only the net power work generated by a ciliated surface. We demonstrate our all-optical approach to the estimation of these parameters in the Xenopus animal model system under normal and increased viscous loading. Our preliminary data support the hypothesis that the Xenopus ciliated surface can increase force output under loading conditions.

  19. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a) General requirements. (1) Unless otherwise provided...

  20. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

  1. Training Guidelines: Fork Lift Truck Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual of operative training guidelines for fork lift truck driving has been developed by the Ceramics, Glass and Mineral Products Industry Training Board (Great Britain) in consultation with a number of firms which manufacture fork lift trucks or which already have training--programs for their use. The purpose of the guidelines is to assist…

  2. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  3. Heavy-lift airship dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.

  4. Air Bearing Lift Pad (ABLP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, Dan H.; Blaise, Herman T.

    1968-01-01

    Typical air bearings float on air films of only a few thousandths of an inch and so will only operate above very smooth, even surfaces. For the mechanical simulation of space, the small drag of the bladder type air pads is much more than can be coped with, and the practicality of large floor areas being machined for precision air bearings is nonexistent. To enable operation above surfaces that undulate slightly or feature cracks and discontinuities, an ABLP has been developed. It consists of a rigid pad beneath which an inflatable bladder is mounted. The bladder is inflated with air which then escapes through passages into a cavity in the center of the bladder to produce the lifting energy. As the air escapes about the perimeter of the bladder, a certain degree of balance and equilibrium is imparted to the pad as it is able to move a limited weight across slightly uneven surfaces.

  5. Prompting correct lifting posture using signs.

    PubMed

    Burt, C D; Henningsen, N; Consedine, N

    1999-08-01

    The use of a symbol to prompt the adoption of correct lifting posture was examined in three studies. Study 1 used an Appropriateness Test to evaluate nine symbols designed to encourage the adoption of correct lifting posture. Four symbols met the appropriateness criteria and were tested for comprehension in Study 2. Study 3 examined the effect of the best performing symbol from Study 2 in a field setting which involved subjects lifting a small box. Results indicate significant increases in the adoption of the use of correct lifting posture when the symbol was present compared to a control condition. The study also identified the placement of a lifting criterion symbol onto packaging as a useful technique for communicating safety information. PMID:10416848

  6. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing web brace of lift girder superstructure, looking west - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  7. Got Languages? Powerful Skills for the 21st Century. Dimension 2011. Selected Proceedings of the 2011 Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching, the Louisiana Foreign Language Teachers' Association, and the Southeastern Association of Language Learning Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Carol, Ed.; Swanson, Peter B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Southern Conference on Language Teaching (SCOLT) held its annual conference March 10-12, 2011, at the Crowne Plaza in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in collaboration with the Louisiana Foreign Language Teachers Association (LFLTA) and the Southeastern Association of Language Learning Technology (SEALLT). Those individuals whose proposals were…

  8. Design Considerations for Artificial Lifting of Enhanced Geothermal System Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Xina Xie; K. K. Bloomfield; G. L. Mines; G. M. Shook

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluates the effect of production well pumping requirements on power generation. The amount of work that can be extracted from a geothermal fluid and the rate at which this work is converted to power increase as the reservoir temperature increases. Artificial lifting is an important issue in this process. The results presented are based on a configuration comprising one production well and one injection well, representing an enhanced geothermal system. The effects of the hydraulic conductivity of the geothermal reservoir, the flow rate, and the size of the production casing are considered in the study. Besides submersible pumps, the possibility of using lineshaft pumps is also discussed.

  9. Impact of the A18.1 ASME Standard on platform lifts and stairway chairlifts on accessibility and usability.

    PubMed

    Balmer, David C

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article summarizes the effect of the ASME A18.1 Standard concerning accessibility and usability of Platform Lifts and their remaining technological challenges. While elevators are currently the most effective means of vertical transportation related to speed, capacity, rise and usability, their major drawbacks for accessibility are cost and space. Platform lifts and stairway chairlifts remain the "devices of choice" for small elevation changes in existing buildings. ADAAG limits them to very specific circumstances in new construction. The ASME A18.1 Standard addresses the safety requirements of inclined stairway chairlifts (which are not ADA compliant) and inclined and vertical platform lifts (which are ADA Compliant). Chairlifts do not provide access for wheeled mobility devices. Restricting access by means of keys is eliminated, inclined platform lift designs that do not interfere with stairway traffic, promoting new ideas for the design of vertical lifts, increasing the allowable vertical travel of a lift and strengthening lift ramps to improve their safety. Despite design advances inherent in the A18.1, significant platform lift usability issues continue to exist. Increased sizes and weights of powered mobility devices indicate that the permitted lift platform area be modified and that permitted weight capacities be codified as minimums instead of maximums. PMID:20402046

  10. An experimental study of the lift, drag and static longitudinal stability for a three lifting surface configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostowari, C.; Naik, D.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental procedure and aerodynamic force and moment measurements for wind tunnel testing of the three lifting surface configuration (TLC) are described. The influence of nonelliptical lift distributions on lift, drag, and static longitudinal stability are examined; graphs of the lift coefficient versus angle of attack, the pitching moment coefficient, drag coefficient, and lift to drag ratio versus lift coefficient are provided. The TLC data are compared with the conventional tail-aft configuration and the canard-wing configuration; it is concluded that the TLC has better lift and high-lift drag characteristics, lift to drag ratio, and zero-lift moments than the other two configurations. The effects of variations in forward and tail wind incidence angles, gap, stagger, and forward wind span on the drag, lift, longitudinal stability, and zero-lift moments of the configuration are studied.

  11. Education as Power. Report of Americans for Indian Opportunity Title IV, Part A, Technical Assistance Conference (Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 4-6, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Americans for Indian Opportunity, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    Included in this report on the 1977 Title IV Part A Technical Assistance conference held in Albuquerque are: (1) a descriptive narrative of conference events; (2) a summary of the 120 evaluation responses; and (3) the resolutions adopted by conference participants as a specific vehicle to make their concerns known to the Office of Indian Education…

  12. Rotating cylinder design as a lifting generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrokin, Azharrudin; Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Halim Ahmad, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The airfoil shape of a wing has always been the design to generate lift. But few realized that a simple rotating cylinder can also create lift. However, the explanation and study of how a rotating cylinder creates lift are still complex. In remote area where it is difficult for air vehicle to access, the exploration and discovery of different configuration for design concept is rather important. Due to this reason, there is a need to think of a lift generator that can produce better lift (few fold better than conventional airfoil) at lower speed to take off in a short distance of time. This paper will explain the conditions and the design of such a wing using the rotating cylinder concept that will take off in a short time and requires little takeoff and landing strip. Spokes will be attached to the cylinder to force the surrounding air to rotate along with the cylinder. This will create a vortex that hastens the speed of the air on top of the cylinder and at the same time retarding the speed of air below the cylinder. From the results, the rougher surface cylinder produces more lift when rotating and also, higher speed rotation of the cylinder greatly changes the speed of the surrounding air, thus better lift.

  13. Lift-Enhancing Tabs on Multielement Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Carrannanto, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The use of flat-plate tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) to enhance the lift of multielement airfoils is extended here by placing them on the pressure side and near the trailing edge of the main element rather than just on the furthest downstream wing element. The tabs studied range in height from 0.125 to 1.25% of the airfoil reference chord. In practice, such tabs would be retracted when the high-lift system is stowed. The effectiveness of the concept was demonstrated experimentally and computationally on a two-dimensional NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a single-slotted, 30%-chord flap. Both the experiments and computations showed that the tabs significantly increase the lift at a given angle of attack and the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil. The computational results showed that the increased lift was a result of additional turning of the flow by the tab that reduced or eliminated now separation on the flap. The best configuration tested, a 0.5%-chord tab placed 0.5% chord upstream of the trailing edge of the main element, increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil by 12% and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio by 40%.

  14. Dynamic ECA lift-off compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, Benoit; Brillon, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Good control on lift-off is crucial in Eddy Current Testing (ECT) as the signal amplitude, directly affected by lif-toff changes, can potentially lead to reduced detection performance and/or false positives. This is especially true in automated inspections with Eddy Current Array (ECA) technology, where lift-off cannot be mechanically compensated for at each coil position. Here, we report on a novel method for compensating sensitivity variations induced by varying lift-off for an ECA probe. This method makes use of a single ECA probe operated in two different ways: One is to create a set of detection channels and the other is to create a set of lift-off measurement channels. Since a simple relationship exists between the two measurements, an improved calibration process can be used which combines the calibration of both detection and lift-off measurement channels on a simple calibration block exhibiting a reference indication, thus eliminating the need for a predefined lift-off condition. In this work, we will show results obtained on a weld cap, where lift-off condition is known to vary significantly over the scanning area.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of oscillating wings and comparison to lifting-line theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddington, Megan

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed in order to compare the solutions of oscillating wings with Prandtl's lifting-line theory. Quasi-steady and steady-periodic simulations were completed using the CFD software Star-CCM+. The simulations were performed for a number of frequencies in a pure plunging setup. Additional simulations were then completed using a setup of combined pitching and plunging at multiple frequencies. Results from the CFD simulations were compared to the quasi-steady lifting-line solution in the form of the axial-force, normal-force, power, and thrust coefficients, as well as the efficiency obtained for each simulation. The mean values were evaluated for each simulation and compared to the quasi-steady lifting-line solution. It was found that as the frequency of oscillation increased, the quasi-steady lifting-line solution was decreasingly accurate in predicting solutions.

  16. Secondary lift for magnetically levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Richard K.

    1976-01-01

    A high-speed terrestrial vehicle that is magnetically levitated by means of magnets which are used to induce eddy currents in a continuous electrically conductive nonferromagnetic track to produce magnetic images that repel the inducing magnet to provide primary lift for the vehicle. The magnets are arranged so that adjacent ones have their fields in opposite directions and the magnets are spaced apart a distance that provides a secondary lift between each magnet and the adjacent magnet's image, the secondary lift being maximized by optimal spacing of the magnets.

  17. Remote lift fan study program, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study program to select and conduct preliminary design of advanced technology lift fan systems to meet low noise goals of future V/STOL transport aircraft is discussed. This volume contains results of additional studies conducted to support the main preliminary design effort done under the Remote Lift Fan Study Program (Contract NAS3-14406) and a companion effort, the Integral Lift Fan Study (NAS3-14404). These results cover engine emission study, a review of existing engines for research aircraft application and support data for aircraft studies.

  18. Airfoil Lift with Changing Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Elliott G

    1927-01-01

    Tests have been made in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the effects of pitching oscillations upon the lift of an airfoil. It has been found that the lift of an airfoil, while pitching, is usually less than that which would exist at the same angle of attack in the stationary condition, although exceptions may occur when the lift is small or if the angle of attack is being rapidly reduced. It is also shown that the behavior of a pitching airfoil may be qualitatively explained on the basis of accepted aerodynamic theory.

  19. Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. Dale; Lister, Darlene (Editor); Huntley, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Wingless Flight tells the story of the most unusual flying machines ever flown, the lifting bodies. It is my story about my friends and colleagues who committed a significant part of their lives in the 1960s and 1970s to prove that the concept was a viable one for use in spacecraft of the future. This story, filled with drama and adventure, is about the twelve-year period from 1963 to 1975 in which eight different lifting-body configurations flew. It is appropriate for me to write the story, since I was the engineer who first presented the idea of flight-testing the concept to others at the NASA Flight Research Center. Over those twelve years, I experienced the story as it unfolded day by day at that remote NASA facility northeast of los Angeles in the bleak Mojave Desert. Benefits from this effort immediately influenced the design and operational concepts of the winged NASA Shuttle Orbiter. However, the full benefits would not be realized until the 1990s when new spacecraft such as the X-33 and X-38 would fully employ the lifting-body concept. A lifting body is basically a wingless vehicle that flies due to the lift generated by the shape of its fuselage. Although both a lifting reentry vehicle and a ballistic capsule had been considered as options during the early stages of NASA's space program, NASA initially opted to go with the capsule. A number of individuals were not content to close the book on the lifting-body concept. Researchers including Alfred Eggers at the NASA Ames Research Center conducted early wind-tunnel experiments, finding that half of a rounded nose-cone shape that was flat on top and rounded on the bottom could generate a lift-to-drag ratio of about 1.5 to 1. Eggers' preliminary design sketch later resembled the basic M2 lifting-body design. At the NASA Langley Research Center, other researchers toyed with their own lifting-body shapes. Meanwhile, some of us aircraft-oriented researchers at the, NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards Air

  20. Geometry program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medan, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program that provides the geometry and boundary conditions appropriate for an analysis of a lifting, thin wing with control surfaces in linearized, subsonic, steady flow is presented. The kernel function method lifting surface theory is applied. The data which is generated by the program is stored on disk files or tapes for later use by programs which calculate an influence matrix, plot the wing planform, and evaluate the loads on the wing. In addition to processing data for subsequent use in a lifting surface analysis, the program is useful for computing area and mean geometric chords of the wing and control surfaces.

  1. Midface lift: our current approaches.

    PubMed

    Botti, G; Botti, C

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years, surgery of the ageing face seems to have shifted from tissue uplifting and tightening to mere filling. We do not agree with this trend. We are positive that ageing brings about 2 basic phenomena: on one hand bone and fat volume reduction, whilst on the other a deterioration of the skin lining (elastosis) leading to an increase in its compliance and extension. We therefore deem of the utmost importance to couple soft tissue filling with indispensable tightening and repositioning together with resection of overabundant skin. For what concerns the mid-face area in particular, we suggest to resort to 3 different lifting techniques, according to the kind of defect to be treated. It is important to take the right pulling vector into consideration as well as the need of skin excess removal. The procedures can be tailored to suit any peculiar need such as malar bag, lower lid border malposition, tear trough deformity, etc. Different cases will be taken into consideration as examples of the various indications and techniques. PMID:25162240

  2. 18 CFR 300.2 - Informal conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informal conference. 300.2 Section 300.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... RATES OF FEDERAL POWER MARKETING ADMINISTRATIONS General Provisions § 300.2 Informal conference....

  3. Experimental assessment of thermal effects of high power density light stimulation for optogenetics control of deep brain structures (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senova, Suhan; Scisniak, Ilona; Chiang, Chih Chieh; Doignon, Isabelle; Martin, Claire; Palfi, Stephane; Chaillet, Antoine; Pain, Frederic

    2016-03-01

    2D surface maps of light distribution and temperature increase were recorded in wild type anesthetized rats brains during 90s light stimulation at 478nm (blue) and 638nm (red) with continuous or pulsed optical stimulations with corresponding power ranging from 100 up to 1200 mW/mm² at the output of an optical fiber. Post mortem maps were recorded in the same animals to assess the cooling effect of blood flow. Post mortem histological analysis were carried out to assess whether high power light stimulations had phototoxic effects or could trigger non physiological functional activation. Temperature increase remains below physiological changes (0,5 -1°) for stimulations up to 400mW/mm² at 40Hz. . Histology did not show significant irreversible modifications or damage to the tissues. The spatial profile of light distribution and heat were correlated and demonstrate as expected a rapid attenuation with diatnce to the fiber.

  4. Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cris Guidi delivers a presentation from the Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of ...

  5. Bernoulli's Law and Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Explains the lifting force based on Bernoulli's law and as a reaction force. Discusses the interrelation of both explanations. Considers accelerations in line with stream lines and perpendicular to stream lines. (YP)

  6. How good is jet lift VTOL technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.; Petersen, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The status of technologies for jet-lift V/STOL aircraft is examined, and a critical review of the performance of jet-lift VTOL aircraft built to date is made. Most jet-lift aircraft have suffered from adverse propulsion-induced effects during takeoff and landing. Flight dynamics of jet-lift aircraft have suffered from shortcomings in static and dynamic stability, control characteristics, and flight path control. Some of the main problems to be considered during the selection of a propulsion system arrangement for a V/STOL fighter are discussed. At present, experimental and analytical data on supersonic V/STOL configurations are insufficient to permit evaluating propulsion system arrangements.

  7. More Americans Opting for Butt Implants, Lifts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overall, the number of U.S. plastic surgery procedures rose 115 percent between 2000 and 2015, and the ... example, the rate of people undergoing buttock lifts rose 252 percent between 2000 and 2015 -- from 1, ...

  8. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370

  9. Lifted Partially Premixed Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Andrew J.; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suesh K.; Hegde, Uday

    2004-01-01

    Lifted Double and Triple flames are established in the UIC-NASA Partially Premixed microgravity rig. The flames examined in this paper are established above a coannular burner because its axisymmetric geometry allows for future implementation of other non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques easily. Both burner-attached stable flames and lifted flames are established at normal and microgravity conditions in the drop tower facility.

  10. Numerical modeling of the gas lift process in gas lift wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temirbekov, N. M.; Turarov, A. K.; Baigereyev, D. R.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, one-dimensional and two-dimensional axisymmetric motion of gas, liquid and a gas-liquid mixture in a gas-lift well is studied. Numerical simulation of the one-dimensional model of gas-lift process is considered where the movement in a gas-lift well is described by partial differential equations of hyperbolic type. Difference schemes for the gas-lift model of the process are developed on a nonuniform grid condensing in subdomains with big gradients of the solution. The results of the proposed algorithm are illustrated on the example of a real well.

  11. A Method for Calculation of Hydrodynamic Lift for Submerged and Planing Rectangular Lifting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadlin, Kenneth L; Christopher, Kenneth W

    1958-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of lift coefficients for rectangular lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 operating at finite depths beneath the water surface, including the zero depth or planing condition. Theoretical values are compared with experimental values obtained at various depths of submergence with lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10. The method can also be applied to hydrofoils with dihedral. Lift coefficients computed by this method are in good agreement with existing experimental data for aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 and dihedral angles up to 10 degrees.

  12. Biomedical Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    As a result of Biomedical Conferences, Vivo Metric Systems Co. has produced cardiac electrodes based on NASA technology. Frequently in science, one highly specialized discipline is unaware of relevant advances made in other areas. In an attempt to familiarize researchers in a variety of disciplines with medical problems and needs, NASA has sponsored conferences that bring together university scientists, practicing physicians and manufacturers of medical instruments.

  13. Lift and wakes of flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Barba, L. A.

    2014-03-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies, and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. Two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at a 35° angle of attack, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift.

  14. 49 CFR 178.1050 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.1050 Section 178.1050... Containers § 178.1050 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Flexible Bulk Containers design types to be lifted from the top. (b) Special...

  15. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  16. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  17. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  18. 49 CFR 178.1050 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.1050 Section 178.1050... Containers § 178.1050 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Flexible Bulk Containers design types to be lifted from the top. (b) Special...

  19. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  20. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  1. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  2. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  3. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Testing of IBCs § 178.812 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the...

  4. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  5. Lifting Safety: Tips To Help Prevent Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Have you checked the object before you try to lift it? Test every load before you lift by pushing the object lightly with your hands or feet to see how easily ...

  6. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  7. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  8. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  9. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  10. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  11. Analog time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing inside scattering media with high power gain (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cheng; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Focusing light deep inside scattering media plays a key role in such biomedical applications as high resolution optical imaging, control, and therapy. In recent years, wavefront shaping technologies have come a long way in controlling light propagation in complex media. A prominent example is time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing, which allows noninvasive introduction of "guide stars" inside biological tissue to guide light focusing. By measuring the optical wavefront emanating from an ultrasound focus created at the target location, TRUE determines the desired wavefront non-iteratively, and achieves focusing at the target position via a subsequent optical time reversal. Compared to digital counterparts that employ slow electronic spatial light modulators and cameras, analog TRUE focusing relies on nonlinear photorefractive crystals that inherently accommodate more spatial modes and eliminate the troublesome alignment and data transfer required by digital approaches. However, analog TRUE focusing suffers from its small gain, defined as the energy or power ratio between the focusing and probing beams in the focal volume. Here, by implementing a modified analog TRUE focusing scheme that squeezes the duration of the time-reversed photon packet below the carrier-recombination-limited hologram decay time of the crystal, we demonstrated a photon flux amplification much greater than unity at a preset focal voxel in between two scattering layers. Although the energy gain was still below unity, the unprecedented power gain will nevertheless benefit new biomedical applications.

  12. Aerospace technology and commercial nuclear power; Proceedings of the Workshop Conference, Williamsburg, VA, November 18-20, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, J.

    An attempt has been made to compare the technologies, institutions and procedures of the aerospace and commercial nuclear power industries, in order to characterize similarities and contrasts as well as to identify the most fruitful means by which to transfer information, technology, and procedures between the two industries. The seven working groups involved in this study took as their topics powerplant design formulation and effectiveness, plant safety and operations, powerplant control technology and integration, economic and financial analyses, public relations, and the management of nuclear waste and spent fuel. Consequential differences are noted between the two industries in matters of certification and licencing procedures, assignment of responsibility for both safety and financial performance, and public viewpoint. Areas for beneficial interaction include systems management and control and safety system technology. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  13. Aerospace technology and commercial nuclear power; Proceedings of the Workshop Conference, Williamsburg, VA, November 18-20, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grey, J. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    An attempt has been made to compare the technologies, institutions and procedures of the aerospace and commercial nuclear power industries, in order to characterize similarities and contrasts as well as to identify the most fruitful means by which to transfer information, technology, and procedures between the two industries. The seven working groups involved in this study took as their topics powerplant design formulation and effectiveness, plant safety and operations, powerplant control technology and integration, economic and financial analyses, public relations, and the management of nuclear waste and spent fuel. Consequential differences are noted between the two industries in matters of certification and licencing procedures, assignment of responsibility for both safety and financial performance, and public viewpoint. Areas for beneficial interaction include systems management and control and safety system technology. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  14. Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) Avionics Flight Computing Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.; Chen, Yuan; Morgan, Dwayne R.; Butler, A. Marc; Sdhuh, Joseph M.; Petelle, Jennifer K.; Gwaltney, David A.; Coe, Lisa D.; Koelbl, Terry G.; Nguyen, Hai D.

    2011-01-01

    A NASA multi-Center study team was assembled from LaRC, MSFC, KSC, JSC and WFF to examine potential flight computing architectures for a Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) to better understand avionics drivers. The study examined Design Reference Missions (DRMs) and vehicle requirements that could impact the vehicles avionics. The study considered multiple self-checking and voting architectural variants and examined reliability, fault-tolerance, mass, power, and redundancy management impacts. Furthermore, a goal of the study was to develop the skills and tools needed to rapidly assess additional architectures should requirements or assumptions change.

  15. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Turnquist, Norman; Qi, Xuele; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Salas, Ken; Samudrala, Omprakash; Shah, Manoj; Van Dam, Jeremy; Yin, Weijun; Zia, Jalal

    2013-12-20

    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  16. Voluntarism: The Real and Emerging Power. A Report of the International Conference on Volunteer Service (Vienna, Austria, June 27-July 2, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Colin; And Others

    The principal objective of the international conference reported here was to bring together people involved with the promotion, development, support, coordination, and funding of volunteer programs to exchange ideas and experiences. Part I is a short paper on the historical perspective of voluntarism. Part II, a summary of conference proceedings,…

  17. Noise impact of advanced high lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Kevin R.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of advanced high lift systems on aircraft size, performance, direct operating cost and noise were evaluated for short-to-medium and medium-to-long range aircraft with high bypass ratio and very high bypass ratio engines. The benefit of advanced high lift systems in reducing noise was found to be less than 1 effective-perceived-noise decibel level (EPNdB) when the aircraft were sized to minimize takeoff gross weight. These aircraft did, however, have smaller wings and lower engine thrusts for the same mission than aircraft with conventional high lift systems. When the advanced high lift system was implemented without reducing wing size and simultaneously using lower flap angles that provide higher L/D at approach a cumulative noise reduction of as much as 4 EPNdB was obtained. Comparison of aircraft configurations that have similar approach speeds showed cumulative noise reduction of 2.6 EPNdB that is purely the result of incorporating advanced high lift system in the aircraft design.

  18. Experimental Study of Lift-Generated Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The flow fields of vortices, whether bouyancy-driven or lift-generated, are fascinating fluid-dynamic phenomena which often possess intense swirl velocities and complex time-dependent behavior. As part of the on-going study of vortex behavior, this paper presents a historical overview of the research conducted on the structure and modification of the vortices generated by the lifting surfaces of subsonic transport aircraft. It is pointed out that the characteristics of lift-generated vortices are related to the aerodynamic shapes that produce them and that various arrangements of surfaces can be used to produce different vortex structures. The primary purpose of the research to be described is to find a way to reduce the hazard potential of lift-generated vortices shed by subsonic transport aircraft in the vicinity of airports during landing and takeoff operations. It is stressed that lift-generated vortex wakes are so complex that progress towards a solution requires application of a combined theoretical and experimental research program because either alone often leads to incorrect conclusions. It is concluded that a satisfactory aerodynamic solution to the wake-vortex problem at airports has not yet been found but a reduction in the impact of the wake-vortex hazard on airport capacity may become available in the foreseeable future through wake-vortex avoidance concepts currently under study. The material to be presented in this overview is drawn from aerospace journals that are available publicly.

  19. Testing Claims for On-Line Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfe, Cynthia L.; Meyer, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an exploratory study of gender and power relationships on Megabyte University, one particular on-line conference. Finds that, although results of the study are not definite, they do suggest that gender and power are present to some extent even in on-line conferences. (MG)

  20. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    PubMed

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects. PMID:25871040

  1. Unsteady lifting-line theory with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, A. R.; Widnall, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    Unsteady lifting-line theory is developed for a flexible unswept wing of large aspect ratio oscillating at low frequency in inviscid incompressible flow. The theory is formulated in terms of the acceleration potential and treated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The wing displacements are prescribed and the pressure field, airloads, and unsteady induced downwash are obtained in closed form. Sample numerical calculations are presented. The present work identifies and resolves errors in the unsteady lifting-line theory of James and points out a limitation in that of Van Holten. Comparison of the results of Reissner's approximate unsteady lifting-surface theory with those of the present work shows favorable agreement. The present work thus provides some formal justification for Reissner's ad hoc theory. For engineering purposes, the region of applicability of the theory in the reduced frequency-aspect ratio domain is identified approximately and found to cover most cases of practical interest.

  2. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardin, T.; David, L.

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  3. NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  4. Conference Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Cait

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes an original conference, organised by the Child Care Research Forum (http://www.qub.ac.uk/sites/ccrf/), which brought together experts from all over Northern Ireland to showcase some of the wealth of research with children and young people that is going on in the country today. Developed around the six high-level outcomes of…

  5. [Anesthetic maintenance during circular face lifting].

    PubMed

    Parshin, V I; Pastukhova, N K

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the specific features of anesthetic maintenance (ketamine, diprivan, dormicum, perfalgan, promedol) during circular face lifting without artificial ventilation. All intravenous anesthesia procedures have yielded good results. Narcotic analgesics may be removed from the anesthetic maintenance scheme, ruling out the necessity of their licensing, storing, and recording. The use of perfalgan causes no hallucinogenic reactions and offers the optimum level of anesthesia. During face lifting, 2.3 +/- 0.6-hour anesthesia with spontaneous breathing is possible, safe, and warranted. PMID:20524331

  6. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John Eric; Carré, Matt J.

    2010-07-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  7. Lift and Drag of Wings with Small Span

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinig, F.

    1947-01-01

    The lift coefficient of!a wing of small span at first shows a linear increase for the increasing angle of attack, but to a lesser degree then was to be expected according to the theory of the lifting line; thereafter the lift coefficient increases more rapidly than linearity, as contrasted with the the theory of the lifting line. The induced drag coefficient for a given lift coefficient, on the other hand, is obviously much smaller than it would be according to the theory. A mall change in the theory of the lifting line will cover these deviations.

  8. Simulation test results for lift/cruise fan research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, M. P.; Konsewicz, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    A flight simulation program was conducted on the flight simulator for advanced aircraft (FSAA). The flight simulation was a part of a contracted effort to provide a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft mathematical model for flight simulation. The simulated aircraft is a configuration of the Lift/Cruise Fan V/STOL research technology aircraft (RTA). The aircraft was powered by three gas generators driving three fans. One lift fan was installed in the nose of the aircraft, and two lift/cruise fans at the wing root. The thrust of these fans was modulated to provide pitch and roll control, and vectored to provide yaw, side force control, and longitudinal translation. Two versions of the RTA were defined. One was powered by the GE J97/LF460 propulsion system which was gas-coupled for power transfer between fans for control. The other version was powered by DDA XT701 gas generators driving 62 inch variable pitch fans. The flight control system in both versions of the RTA was the same.

  9. Ontogeny of lift and drag production in ground birds

    PubMed Central

    Heers, Ashley M.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Dial, Kenneth P.

    2011-01-01

    The juvenile period is often a crucial interval for selective pressure on locomotor ability. Although flight is central to avian biology, little is known about factors that limit flight performance during development. To improve understanding of flight ontogeny, we used a propeller (revolving wing) model to test how wing shape and feather structure influence aerodynamic performance during development in the precocial chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar, 4 to >100 days post hatching). We spun wings in mid-downstroke posture and measured lift (L) and drag (D) using a force plate upon which the propeller assembly was mounted. Our findings demonstrate a clear relationship between feather morphology and aerodynamic performance. Independent of size and velocity, older wings with stiffer and more asymmetrical feathers, high numbers of barbicels and a high degree of overlap between barbules generate greater L and L:D ratios than younger wings with flexible, relatively symmetrical and less cohesive feathers. The gradual transition from immature feathers and drag-based performance to more mature feathers and lift-based performance appears to coincide with ontogenetic transitions in locomotor capacity. Younger birds engage in behaviors that require little aerodynamic force and that allow D to contribute to weight support, whereas older birds may expand their behavioral repertoire by flapping with higher tip velocities and generating greater L. Incipient wings are, therefore, uniquely but immediately functional and provide flight-incapable juveniles with access to three-dimensional environments and refugia. Such access may have conferred selective advantages to theropods with protowings during the evolution of avian flight. PMID:21307057

  10. Lift forces on colloidal particles in combined electroosmotic and Poiseuille flow.

    PubMed

    Cevheri, Necmettin; Yoda, Minami

    2014-11-25

    Colloidal particles suspended in aqueous electrolyte solutions flowing through microchannels are subject to lift forces that repel the particles from the wall due to the voltage and pressure gradients commonly used to drive flows in microfluidic devices. There are very few studies that have considered particles subject to both an electric field and a pressure gradient, however. Evanescent-wave particle tracking velocimetry was therefore used to investigate the near-wall dynamics of a dilute suspension of 245 nm radius polystyrene particles in a monovalent electrolyte solution in Poiseuille and combined electroosmotic (EO) and Poiseuille flow through 30-μm-deep fused-silica channels. The lift force observed in Poiseuille flow, which is estimated from the near-wall particle distribution, appears to be proportional to the shear rate, a scaling consistent with hydrodynamic lift forces previously reported in field-flow fractionation studies. The estimates of the lift force observed in combined flow suggest that the force magnitude exceeds the sum of the lift forces observed in EO flow at the same electric field or in Poiseuille flow at the same shear rate. Moreover, the force magnitude appears to be proportional to the electric field magnitude and have a power law dependence on the shear rate with an exponent between 0.4 and 0.5. This unexpected scaling suggests that the repulsive lift force observed in combined electroosmotic and Poiseuille flow is a new phenomenon, distinct from previously reported electroviscous, hydrodynamic lift, or dielectrophoretic-like forces, and warrants further study. PMID:25343853

  11. Aerodynamics model for a generic ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Mcneil, Walter E.; Wardwell, Douglas A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the aerodynamics model used in a simulation model of an advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL) lift-fan fighter aircraft. The simulation model was developed for use in piloted evaluations of transition and hover flight regimes, so that only low speed (M approximately 0.2) aerodynamics are included in the mathematical model. The aerodynamic model includes the power-off aerodynamic forces and moments and the propulsion system induced aerodynamic effects, including ground effects. The power-off aerodynamics data were generated using the U.S. Air Force Stability and Control Digital DATCOM program and a NASA Ames in-house graphics program called VORVIEW which allows the user to easily analyze arbitrary conceptual aircraft configurations using the VORLAX program. The jet-induced data were generated using the prediction methods of R. E. Kuhn et al., as referenced in this report.

  12. Literature for American Power Conference

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Recent experimental work of the Toulouse-Argonne collaboration has opened the perspective of a focusing gamma-ray telescope operating in the energy range of nuclear transitions, featuring unprecedented sensitivity, angular and energy resolution. The instrument consists of a tunable crystal diffraction lens situated on a stabilized spacecraft, focusing gamma-rays onto a small array of Germanium detectors perched on an extendible boom. While the weight of such an instrument is less than 500 kg, it features an angular resolution of 15 in., an energy resolution of 2 keV and a 3 {sigma} narrow line sensitivity of a few times 10 {sup {minus}7} photons s{sup {minus}2} cm {sup {minus}2} (10 {sup 6} sec observation). This instrumental concept permits observation of any identified source at any selected line-energy ;in a range of typically 200 keV to 1300 keV. The resulting ``sequential`` operation mode makes sites of explosive nucleosynthesis natural scientific objectives for such a telescope: The nuclear lines of extragalactic supernovae ({sup 56}Ni, {sup 44}Ti, {sup 60}Fe) and galactic novac (p{sup {minus}}p{sup +} line, {sup 7}Be) are accessible to observation, one at a time, due to the erratic appearance and the sequence of half-lifes of these events Other scientific objective include the narrow 511 keV line from galactic broad class annihilators (such as 1E1740-29, nova musca) and possible redshifted annihilation lines from AGN`s.

  13. Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights…

  14. Evaluation of hydraulic lift in cotton germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydraulic lift (HL) in plants is defined as the redistribution of water from wetter to drier soil through the plant roots in response to soil water potential gradients. Water is released from the roots into the dry soil when transpiration is low (night) and reabsorbed by the plant when higher transp...

  15. The Monoplane as a Lifting Vortex Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blenk, Hermann

    1947-01-01

    In Prandtl's airfoil theory the monoplane was replaced by a single lifting vortex line and yielded fairly practical results. However, the theory remained restricted to the straight wing. Yawed wings and those curved in flight direction could not be computed with this first approximation; for these the chordwise lift distribution must be taken into consideration. For the two-dimensional problem the transition from the lifting line to the lifting surface has been explained by Birnbaum. In the present report the transition to the three-dimensional problem is undertaken. The first fundamental problem involves the prediction of flow, profile, and drag for prescribed circulation distribution on the straight rectangular wing, the yawed wing for lateral boundaries parallel to the direction of flight, the swept-back wing, and the rectangular wing in slipping, with the necessary series developments for carrying through the calculations, the practical range of convergence of which does not comprise the wing tips or the break point of the swept-back wing. The second problem concerns the calculation of the circulation distribution with given profile for a slipping rectangular monoplane with flat profile and aspect ratio 6, and a rectangular wing with cambered profile and variable aspect ratio-the latter serving as check of the so-called conversion formulas of the airfoil theory.

  16. Computation of Lifting Wing-Flap Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian; Kwak, Dochan

    1996-01-01

    Research has been carried out on the computation of lifting wing-flap configurations. The long term goal of the research is to develop improved computational tools for the analysis and design of high lift systems. Results show that state-of-the-art computational methods are sufficient to predict time-averaged lift and overall flow field characteristics on simple high-lift configurations. Recently there has been an increased interest in the problem of airframe generated noise and experiments carried out in the 7 x 10 wind tunnel at NASA Ames have identified the flap edge as an important source of noise. A follow-on set of experiments will be conducted toward the end of 1995. The computations being carried out under this project are coordinated with these experiments. In particular, the model geometry being used in the computations is the same as that in the experiments. The geometry consists of a NACA 63-215 Mod B airfoil section which spans the 7 x lO tunnel. The wing is unswept and has an aspect ratio of two. A 30% chord Fowler flap is deployed modifications of the flap edge geometry have been shown to be effective in reducing noise and the existing code is currently being used to compute the effect of a modified geometry on the edge flow.

  17. Complications of lower blepharoplasty and midface lifting.

    PubMed

    Schwarcz, Robert M; Kotlus, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Lower eyelid blepharoplasty and midface lifting share a complex anatomy, which should be mastered before attempting these types of surgeries. In recent years, there have been significant contributions to rejuvenating this area. A thorough understanding of the rejuvenative approaches and their outcomes is imperative. Thus, the problem must be preoperatively evaluated to offer the appropriate technique and minimize complications. PMID:25440742

  18. 18 CFR 385.1111 - Conferences (Rule 1111).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Conferences (Rule 1111). 385.1111 Section 385.1111 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Under the NGPA § 385.1111 Conferences (Rule 1111). Staff may direct that a conference be convened....

  19. 18 CFR 385.1111 - Conferences (Rule 1111).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conferences (Rule 1111). 385.1111 Section 385.1111 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Under the NGPA § 385.1111 Conferences (Rule 1111). Staff may direct that a conference be convened....

  20. 18 CFR 385.1111 - Conferences (Rule 1111).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conferences (Rule 1111). 385.1111 Section 385.1111 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Under the NGPA § 385.1111 Conferences (Rule 1111). Staff may direct that a conference be convened....

  1. 18 CFR 385.1111 - Conferences (Rule 1111).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conferences (Rule 1111). 385.1111 Section 385.1111 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Under the NGPA § 385.1111 Conferences (Rule 1111). Staff may direct that a conference be convened....

  2. 18 CFR 385.1111 - Conferences (Rule 1111).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conferences (Rule 1111). 385.1111 Section 385.1111 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Under the NGPA § 385.1111 Conferences (Rule 1111). Staff may direct that a conference be convened....

  3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE LARGE SQUARES VISIBLE ABOVE BRIDGE - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE LARGE SQUARES VISIBLE ABOVE BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 6. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN AND FIXED SPAN IMMEDIATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN AND FIXED SPAN IMMEDIATELY NORTH OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Shippingsport Bridge, Spanning Illinois River at State Route 51, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  6. Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking back from center of span, toward lift mechanism area. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES AND BEARINGS WITH HOUSING AND SHEAVE HOODS REMOVED - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  8. View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing support girders for life house, looking east - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  9. Rural Energy Conference Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer; Shannon Watson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska remains, even at the beginning of the 21st century, a place with many widely scattered, small, remote communities, well beyond the end of both the road system and the power grid. These communities have the highest energy costs of any place in the United States, despite the best efforts of the utilities that service them. This is due to the widespread dependence on diesel electric generators, which require small capital investments, but recent increases in crude oil prices have resulted in dramatic increases in the cost of power. In the enabling legislation for the Arctic Energy Office in 2001, specific inclusion was made for the study of ways of reducing the cost of electrical power in these remote communities. As part of this mandate, the University of Alaska has, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, the Denali Commission and the Alaska Energy Authority, organized a series of rural energy conferences, held approximately every 18 months. The goal of these meeting was to bring together rural utility operators, rural community leaders, government agency representatives, equipment suppliers, and researchers from universities and national laboratories to discuss the current state of the art in rural power generation, to discuss current projects, including successes as well as near successes. Many of the conference presenters were from industry and not accustomed to writing technical papers, so the typical method of organizing a conference by requesting abstracts and publishing proceedings was not considered viable. Instead, the organizing committee solicited presentations from appropriate individuals, and requested that (if they were comfortable with computers) prepare Power point presentations that were collected and posted on the web. This has become a repository of many presentations, and may be the best single source of information about current projects in the state of Alaska.

  10. Performance of Advanced Heavy-Lift, High-Speed Rotorcraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of rotorcraft designed for heavy-lift and high-speed cruise is examined. Configurations considered include the tiltrotor, the compound helicopter, and the lift-offset rotor. Design conditions are hover and 250-350 knot cruise, at 5k/ISA+20oC (civil) or 4k/95oF (military); with cruise conditions at 4000 or 30,000 ft. The performance was calculated using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II, emphasizing rotor optimization and performance, including wing-rotor interference. Aircraft performance was calculated using estimates of the aircraft drag and auxiliary propulsion efficiency. The performance metric is total power, in terms of equivalent aircraft lift-to-drag ratio L/D = WV/P for cruise, and figure of merit for hover.

  11. Wind tunnel investigation of rotor lift and propulsive force at high speed: Data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchugh, F.; Clark, R.; Soloman, M.

    1977-01-01

    The basic test data obtained during the lift-propulsive force limit wind tunnel test conducted on a scale model CH-47b rotor are analyzed. Included are the rotor control positions, blade loads and six components of rotor force and moment, corrected for hub tares. Performance and blade loads are presented as the rotor lift limit is approached at fixed levels of rotor propulsive force coefficients and rotor tip speeds. Performance and blade load trends are documented for fixed levels of rotor lift coefficient as propulsive force is increased to the maximum obtainable by the model rotor. Test data is also included that defines the effect of stall proximity on rotor control power. The basic test data plots are presented in volumes 2 and 3.

  12. Lift-Off Instability During the Impact of a Drop on a Solid Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolinski, John M.; Mahadevan, L.; Rubinstein, Shmuel M.

    2014-04-01

    We directly measure the rapid spreading dynamics succeeding the impact of a droplet of fluid on a solid, dry surface. Upon impact, the air separating the liquid from the solid surface fails to drain and wetting is delayed as the liquid rapidly spreads outwards over a nanometer thin film of air. We show that the approach of the spreading liquid front toward the surface is unstable and the spreading front lifts off away from the surface. Lift-off ensues well before the liquid contacts the surface, in contrast with prevailing paradigm where lift-off of the liquid is contingent on solid-liquid contact and the formation of a viscous boundary layer. Here we investigate the dynamics of liquid spreading over a thin film of air and its lift-off away from the surface over a large range of fluid viscosities and find that the lift-off instability is dependent on viscosity and occurs at a time that scales with the viscosity to the power of one half.

  13. Fish's Muscles Distortion and Pectoral Fins Propulsion of Lift-Based Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. B.; Han, X. Y.; Qiu, J.

    As a sort of MPF(median and/or paired fin propulsion), pectoral fins propulsion makes fish easier to maneuver than other propulsion, according to the well-established classification scheme proposed by Webb in 1984. Pectoral fins propulsion is classified into oscillatory propulsion, undulatory propulsion and compound propulsion. Pectoral fins oscillatory propulsion, is further ascribable to two modes: drag-based mode and lift-based mode. And fish exhibits strong cruise ability by using lift-based mode. Therefore to robot fish design using pectoral fins lift-based mode will bring a new revolution to resources exploration in blue sea. On the basis of the wave plate theory, a kinematic model of fish’s pectoral fins lift-based mode is established associated with the behaviors of cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus) in the present work. In view of the power of fish’s locomotion from muscle distortion, it would be helpful benefit to reveal the mechanism of fish’s locomotion variation dependent on muscles distortion. So this study puts forward the pattern of muscles distortion of pectoral fins according to the character of skeletons and muscles of cownose ray in morphology and simulates the kinematics of lift-based mode using nonlinear analysis software. In the symmetrical fluid field, the model is simulated left-right symmetrically or asymmetrically. The results qualitatively show how muscles distortion determines the performance of fish locomotion. Finally the efficient muscles distortion associated with the preliminary dynamics is induced.

  14. Three-dimensional flow and lift characteristics of a hovering ruby-throated hummingbird.

    PubMed

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-09-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation is performed for a ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) in hovering flight. Realistic wing kinematics are adopted in the numerical model by reconstructing the wing motion from high-speed imaging data of the bird. Lift history and the three-dimensional flow pattern around the wing in full stroke cycles are captured in the simulation. Significant asymmetry is observed for lift production within a stroke cycle. In particular, the downstroke generates about 2.5 times as much vertical force as the upstroke, a result that confirms the estimate based on the measurement of the circulation in a previous experimental study. Associated with lift production is the similar power imbalance between the two half strokes. Further analysis shows that in addition to the angle of attack, wing velocity and surface area, drag-based force and wing-wake interaction also contribute significantly to the lift asymmetry. Though the wing-wake interaction could be beneficial for lift enhancement, the isolated stroke simulation shows that this benefit is buried by other opposing effects, e.g. presence of downwash. The leading-edge vortex is stable during the downstroke but may shed during the upstroke. Finally, the full-body simulation result shows that the effects of wing-wing interaction and wing-body interaction are small. PMID:25008082

  15. Three-dimensional flow and lift characteristics of a hovering ruby-throated hummingbird

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation is performed for a ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) in hovering flight. Realistic wing kinematics are adopted in the numerical model by reconstructing the wing motion from high-speed imaging data of the bird. Lift history and the three-dimensional flow pattern around the wing in full stroke cycles are captured in the simulation. Significant asymmetry is observed for lift production within a stroke cycle. In particular, the downstroke generates about 2.5 times as much vertical force as the upstroke, a result that confirms the estimate based on the measurement of the circulation in a previous experimental study. Associated with lift production is the similar power imbalance between the two half strokes. Further analysis shows that in addition to the angle of attack, wing velocity and surface area, drag-based force and wing–wake interaction also contribute significantly to the lift asymmetry. Though the wing–wake interaction could be beneficial for lift enhancement, the isolated stroke simulation shows that this benefit is buried by other opposing effects, e.g. presence of downwash. The leading-edge vortex is stable during the downstroke but may shed during the upstroke. Finally, the full-body simulation result shows that the effects of wing–wing interaction and wing–body interaction are small. PMID:25008082

  16. Analysis of lifting beam and redesigned lifting lugs for 241-AZ-01A decant pump

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-11-29

    This supporting document details calculations for the proper design of a lifting beam and redesigned lifting lugs for the 241AZO1A decant pump. This design is in accordance with Standard Architectural-Civil Design Criteria, Design Loads for Facilities (DOE-RL 1989) and is safety class three. The design and fabrication is in accordance with American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel Construction, (AISC, 1989) and the Hanford Hoisting and Rigging Manual (DOE-RL 1993).

  17. Effects of box size, frequency of lifting, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift and heart rate for male university students in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, Ali Salehi Sahl; Mazlomi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Zeraati, Hojjat; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Amir Homayoun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In spite of the widespread use of automation in industry, manual material handling (MMH) is still performed in many occupational settings. The emphasis on ergonomics in MMH tasks is due to the potential risks of workplace accidents and injuries. This study aimed to assess the effect of box size, frequency of lift, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) on the heart rates of male university students in Iran. Methods This experimental study was conducted in 2015 with 15 male students recruited from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each participant performed 18 different lifting tasks that involved three lifting frequencies (1lift/min, 4.3 lifts/min and 6.67 lifts/min), three lifting heights (floor to knuckle, knuckle to shoulder, and shoulder to arm reach), and two box sizes. Each set of experiments was conducted during the 20 min work period using the free-style lifting technique. The working heart rates (WHR) were recorded for the entire duration. In this study, we used SPSS version 18 software and descriptive statistical methods, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the t-test for data analysis. Results The results of the ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.02). Tukey’s post hoc test indicated that there was a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0. 01). There was a significant difference between the mean heart rates in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.006), and Tukey’s post hoc test indicated a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0.004). But, there was no significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of lifting heights (p > 0.05). The results of the t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of the sizes of the two boxes (p

  18. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift and securement use. 37.165 Section 37.165... DISABILITIES (ADA) Provision of Service § 37.165 Lift and securement use. (a) This section applies to public... with disabilities with the use of securement systems, ramps and lifts. If it is necessary for...

  19. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC... IBC must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. All IBC design types must be raised and lowered twice by a lift truck with the...

  20. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  1. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  2. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  3. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  4. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  5. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand— (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand— (a)...

  7. Advanced Model for Extreme Lift and Improved Aeroacoustics (AMELIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtwardt, Jonathan; Paciano, Eric; Jameson, Tina; Fong, Robert; Marshall, David

    2012-01-01

    With the very recent advent of NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project (ERA), which is dedicated to designing aircraft that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment, there is a need for research and development of methodologies to minimize fuel burn, emissions, and reduce community noise produced by regional airliners. ERA tackles airframe technology, propulsion technology, and vehicle systems integration to meet performance objectives in the time frame for the aircraft to be at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 4-6 by the year of 2020 (deemed N+2). The proceeding project that investigated similar goals to ERA was NASA's Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW). SFW focused on conducting research to improve prediction methods and technologies that will produce lower noise, lower emissions, and higher performing subsonic aircraft for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. The work provided in this investigation was a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) contract #NNL07AA55C funded by Subsonic Fixed Wing. The project started in 2007 with a specific goal of conducting a large-scale wind tunnel test along with the development of new and improved predictive codes for the advanced powered-lift concepts. Many of the predictive codes were incorporated to refine the wind tunnel model outer mold line design. The large scale wind tunnel test goal was to investigate powered lift technologies and provide an experimental database to validate current and future modeling techniques. Powered-lift concepts investigated were Circulation Control (CC) wing in conjunction with over-the-wing mounted engines to entrain the exhaust to further increase the lift generated by CC technologies alone. The NRA was a five-year effort; during the first year the objective was to select and refine CESTOL concepts and then to complete a preliminary design of a large-scale wind tunnel model for the large scale test. During the second, third, and fourth years the large-scale wind

  8. Discoveries, financial strength lift Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1996-07-15

    Colombia plans to play a growing role in international oil markets while expanding and privatizing its domestic gas and electricity industries. Officials intend to curb the government`s spending on energy development while increasing its energy revenues. Their plans imply growing participation in energy projects by private companies. Also certain to help attract investment capital is the country`s new standing as a world-class oil and gas province. Discovery of Cusiana oil field in 1989 and of Cupiagua oil field in 1992 added 2 billion bbl of oil and 3 tcf of gas reserves, effectively doubling Colombia`s totals. Exploration near the giant Cusiana-Cupiagua complex, in the eastern foothills of the Andes about 100 miles northeast of Bogota, has turned up an estimated 10 tcf of gas and 1 billion bbl of oil in Volcanera field and two discoveries overlying it, Florena and Pauto Sur. Colombia`s critics say that, despite its laudable economic stability and improving oil and gas prospectivity, political impediments could interfere with progress toward its lofty energy goals. The paper discusses the heightened political risks, unequal pace of reform, gas pipeline construction, gas regulations, tying gas to power, reform in the oil sector, achieving sustainable change, and the appeal to investors.

  9. Simulation model of the integrated flight/propulsion control system, displays, and propulsion system for ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W. Y. William; Borchers, Paul F.; Franklin, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed for use in piloted evaluations of takeoff, transition, hover, and landing characteristics of an advanced, short takeoff, vertical landing lift fan fighter aircraft. The flight/propulsion control system includes modes for several response types which are coupled to the aircraft's aerodynamic and propulsion system effectors through a control selector tailored to the lift fan propulsion system. Head-up display modes for approach and hover, tailored to their corresponding control modes are provided in the simulation. Propulsion system components modeled include a remote lift and a lift/cruise engine. Their static performance and dynamic response are represented by the model. A separate report describes the subsonic, power-off aerodynamics and jet induced aerodynamics in hover and forward flight, including ground effects.

  10. Next conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hexemer, Alexander; Toney, Michael F.

    2010-11-01

    After the successful conference on Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science (SRPS) in Rolduc Abbey (the Netherlands), we are now looking forward to the next meeting in this topical series started in 1995 by H G Zachmann, one of the pioneers of the use of synchrotron radiation techniques in polymer science. Earlier meetings were held in Hamburg (1995), Sheffield (2002), Kyoto (2006), and Rolduc (2009). In September of 2012 the Synchrotron Radiation and Polymer Science V conferences will be organized in a joint effort by the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Advanced Light Source at LBL Advanced Light Source at LBL The conference will be organised in the heart of beautiful San Francisco. The program will consist of invited and contributed lectures divided in sessions on the use of synchrotron SAXS/WAXD, imaging and tomography, soft x-rays, x-ray spectroscopy, GISAXS and reflectivity, micro-beams and hyphenated techniques in polymer science. Poster contributions are more than welcome and will be highlighted during the poster sessions. Visits to both SLAC as well as LBL will be organised. San Francisco can easily be reached. It is served by two major international airports San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport. Both are being served by most major airlines with easy connections to Europe and Asia as well as national destinations. Both also boast excellent connections to San Francisco city centre. We are looking forward to seeing you in the vibrant city by the Bay in September 2012. Golden gate bridge Alexander Hexemer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Michael F Toney Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Pk, CA 94025, USA E-mail: ahexemer@lbl.gov, mftoney@slac.stanford.edu

  11. Conferences revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radcliffe, Jonathan

    2008-08-01

    Way back in the mid-1990s, as a young PhD student, I wrote a Lateral Thoughts article about my first experience of an academic conference (Physics World 1994 October p80). It was a peach of a trip - most of the lab decamped to Grenoble for a week of great weather, beautiful scenery and, of course, the physics. A whole new community was there for me to see in action, and the internationality of it all helped us to forget about England's non-appearance in the 1994 World Cup finals.

  12. Conference Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, James, Jr.; Thomas, Valerie

    2000-01-01

    The MU-SPIN conference focused on showcasing successful experiences with information technology to enhance faculty and student development in areas of scientific and technical research and education. And it provided a forum for discussing increased participation of MU-SPIN schools in NASA Flight Missions and NASA Educational and Public Outreach activities. Opportunities for Involvement sessions focused on Space Science, Earth Science, Education, and Aeronautics. These sessions provided insight into the missions of NASA's enterprises and NASA's Education program. Presentations by NASA scientists, university Principal Investigators, and other affiliates addressed key issues for increased minority involvement.

  13. Method for the determination of the spanwise lift distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippisch, A

    1935-01-01

    The method for determination of the spanwise lift distribution is based on the Fourier series for the representation of the lift distribution. The lift distribution, as well as the angle of attack, is split up in four elementary distributions. The insertion of the angle-of-attack distribution in the Fourier series for the lift distribution gives a compound third series which is of particular advantage for the determination of the lift distribution. The method is illustrated in an example and supplemented by a graphical method. Lastly, the results of several comparative calculations with other methods are reported.

  14. Drag and lift forces in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillard, F.; Forterre, Y.; Pouliquen, O.

    2013-09-01

    Forces exerted on obstacles moving in granular media are studied. The experiment consists in a horizontal cylinder rotating around the vertical axis in a granular medium. Both drag forces and lift forces experienced by the cylinder are measured. The first striking result is obtained during the first half rotation, before the cylinder crosses its wake. Despite the symmetry of the object, a strong lift force is measured, about 20 times the buoyancy. The scaling of this force is studied experimentally. The second remarkable observation is made after several rotations. The drag force dramatically drops and becomes independent of depth, showing that it no longer scales with the hydrostatic pressure. The rotation of the cylinder induces a structure in the packing, which screens the weight of the grains above

  15. Static Thrust Analysis of the Lifting Airscrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Hefner, Ralph A

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of a combined theoretical and experimental investigation conducted at the Georgia School of Technology on the static thrust of the lifting air screw of the type used in modern autogiros and helicopters. The theoretical part of this study is based on Glauert's analysis but certain modifications are made that further clarify and simplify the problem. Of these changes the elimination of the solidity as an independent parameter is the most important. The experimental data were obtained from tests on four rotor models of two, four, and five blades and, in general, agree quite well with the theoretical calculations. The theory indicates a method of evaluating scale effects on lifting air screws, and these corrections have been applied to the model results to derive general full-scale static thrust, torque, and figure-of-merit curves for constant-chord, constant-incidence rotors. Convenient charts are included that enable hovering flight performance to be calculated rapidly.

  16. [Face lift--indications, contraindications and operation].

    PubMed

    Tschopp, H

    1999-04-01

    The face lift procedure is often performed in aesthetic plastic surgery. It corrects the stigmata of age, i.e. the multiple facial wrinkles and the sagging of the atrophic soft tissues by undermining and retensioning the superficial and deeper facial and cervical structures. Since the public can not fully appreciate the extent and the inconveniences involved with this operation, emphasis must be laid on an exact preoperative information of the patient with regards to possible complications, the pros and cons of this procedure and the results to be expected. In this paper the face lift operation is explained in detail and the indications and contraindications given. The most frequent postoperative complications are outlined and the preventive measures and modalities of treatment discussed. From the medico-legal point of view it is important that such an operation is performed by a certified and well experienced plastic surgeon. PMID:10330880

  17. Clamp usable as jig and lifting clamp

    DOEpatents

    Tsuyama, Yoshizo

    1976-01-01

    There is provided a clamp which is well suited for use as a lifting clamp for lifting and moving materials of assembly in a shipyard, etc. and as a pulling jig in welding and other operations. The clamp comprises a clamp body including a shackle for engagement with a pulling device and a slot for receiving an article, and a pair of jaws provided on the leg portions of the clamp body on the opposite sides of the slot to grip the article in the slot, one of said jaws consisting of a screw rod and the other jaw consisting of a swivel jaw with a spherical surface, whereby when the article clamped in the slot by the pair of jaws tends to slide in any direction with respect to the clamp body, the article is more positively gripped by the pair of jaws.

  18. LIFT Tenant Is Off and Running

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT) tenant, Analiza Inc., graduated from the incubator July 2000. Analiza develops technology and products for the early diagnosis of diseases, quality control of bio-pharmaceutical therapeutics, and other applications involving protein analyses. Technology links with NASA from existing and planned work are in areas of microfluidics and laser light scattering. Since their entry in LIFT in May, 1997, Analiza has: Received a $750,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health. Collaborated with a Nobel Prize winner on drug design. Collaborated with Bristol-Myers Squibb on the characterization of biological therapeutics. Added a Ph.D. senior scientist and several technicians. Received significant interest from major pharmaceutical companies about collaborating and acquiring Analiza technology.

  19. High-Lift Separated Flow About Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    TRANSEP Calculates flow field about low-speed single-element airfoil at high-angle-of-attack and high-lift conditions with massive boundary-layer separation. TRANSEP includes effects of weak viscous interactions and can be used for subsonic/transonic airfoil design and analysis. The approach used in TRANSEP is based on direct-inverse method and its ability to use either displacement surface or pressure as airfoil boundary condition.

  20. Heating Analysis of the Lockheed Lifting Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Henline, Bill; Olynick, Dave; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is performed on the Lockheed Lifting Body Single-Stage-to-Orbit vehicle to determine the heat transfer to the vehicle during its descent trajectory. Seven species, chemical nonequilibriurn computations using the GASP code will be completed at several trajectory points to assess the thermal protection requirements of the vehicle. Sophisticated surface boundary conditions including in-depth conduction, catalycity, and a variable temperature wall have been incorporated into the flow solver.

  1. Pressure Roller For Tape-Lift Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Eve

    1991-01-01

    Rolling device applies nearly constant, uniform pressure to surface. Simple tool exerts nearly constant pressure via compression of sheath by fixed amount. Pins hold wheels on cylinder and cylinder on tangs of handle. Cylinder and handle made of metal or plastic. Sheath press-fit or glued to cylinder. End pins attached to cylinder by adhesive or screw threads. Device intended for use in taking tape-lift samples of particulate contamination on surface.

  2. Heavy-lift launch vehicle propulsion considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordway, Wayne L.

    1991-01-01

    Information on heavy-lift launch vehicle (HLLV) propulsion is given in viewgraph form. The objective was to investigate Earth to orbit options which minimize on-orbit operations and impacts to Space Station Freedom, have a reasonable capability to support Mars missions, and minimize mass in low Earth orbit. Potential synergism with the Space Transportation System is considered. Launch vehicle sizing results, HLLV thrust requirements, and propulsion system reliability are covered.

  3. Lift production in the hovering hummingbird

    PubMed Central

    Warrick, Douglas R.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Powers, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    Aerodynamic theory and empirical observations of animals flying at similar Reynolds numbers (Re) predict that airflow over hummingbird wings will be dominated by a stable, attached leading edge vortex (LEV). In insects exhibiting similar kinematics, when the translational movement of the wing ceases (as at the end of the downstroke), the LEV is shed and lift production decreases until the energy of the LEV is re-captured in the subsequent half-cycle translation. We here show that while the hummingbird wing is strongly influenced by similar sharp-leading-edge aerodynamics, leading edge vorticity is inconsistent, varying from 0.7 to 26 per cent (mean 16%) of total lift production, is always generated within 3 mm of the dorsal surface of the wing, showing no retrograde (trailing to leading edge) flow, and does not increase from proximal to distal wing as would be expected with a conical vortex (class III LEV) described for hawkmoths. Further, the bound circulation is not shed as a vortex at the end of translation, but instead remains attached and persists after translation has ceased, augmented by the rotation (pronation, supination) of the wing that occurs between the wing-translation half-cycles. The result is a near-continuous lift production through wing turn-around, previously unknown in vertebrates, able to contribute to weight support as well as stability and control during hovering. Selection for a planform suited to creating this unique flow and nearly-uninterrupted lift production throughout the wingbeat cycle may help explain the relatively narrow hummingbird wing. PMID:19656789

  4. Unified treatment of lifting atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, P. R.; Lehman, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a unified treatment of the effect of lift on peak acceleration during atmospheric entry. Earlier studies were restricted to different regimes because of approximations invoked to solve the same transcendental equation. This paper shows the connection between the earlier studies by employing a general expression for the peak acceleration and obtains solutions to the transcendental equation without invoking the earlier approximations. Results are presented and compared with earlier studies where appropriate.

  5. Aerodynamic principles of the direct lifting propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrenk, Martin

    1934-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to make the complicated processes on the direct-lift propeller amenable to analysis and observation. This is accomplished by placing the physical phenomena, starting with the most elementary process, in the foreground, while limiting the mathematical treatment to the most essential in view of the fundamental defects of the theorems. Comparison with model experiments supplements and corroborates the theoretical results.

  6. Hanger-lifting procedure in knee arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Daijo; Otani, Toshiro; Masumoto, Ko; Matsumoto, Hideo; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Niki, Yasuo; Yuzawa, Itsuki; Fukui, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Masashi

    2008-12-01

    We propose a unique arthroscopic technique, the "hanger-lifting procedure." Unlike conventional arthroscopy, the space in which the arthroscope is placed is not a joint space filled with water but a subcutaneous space filled with air. The space is kept lifted by a semi-loop-shaped hanger and a retraction system by use of a wire. In general, arthroscopes are unable to be applied outside the joint because of the lack of a cavity. However, this method can provide extra-articular visualization of the knee in addition to standard intra-articular visualization. This approach is useful for lateral release of the knee extensor and bipartite patellae, allowing direct vision from both outside and inside the joint. One possible complication is subcutaneous effusion or interstitial edema. Compressive dressings should be applied to prevent subcutaneous effusion after surgery. However, the combination of conventional arthroscopy by use of saline solution and the hanger-lifting technique by use of air arthroscopy can provide an excellent view inside and outside the joint. This technique may continue to evolve, and although some points in the technique can be improved, this method is useful in joint surgeries. PMID:19038715

  7. Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

    2014-09-01

    Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

  8. Progress in high-lift aerodynamic calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stuart E.

    1993-01-01

    The current work presents progress in the effort to numerically simulate the flow over high-lift aerodynamic components, namely, multi-element airfoils and wings in either a take-off or a landing configuration. The computational approach utilizes an incompressible flow solver and an overlaid chimera grid approach. A detailed grid resolution study is presented for flow over a three-element airfoil. Two turbulence models, a one-equation Baldwin-Barth model and a two equation k-omega model are compared. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for the lift coefficient at all angles of attack, including the prediction of maximum lift when using the two-equation model. Results for two other flap riggings are shown. Three-dimensional results are presented for a wing with a square wing-tip as a validation case. Grid generation and topology is discussed for computing the flow over a T-39 Sabreliner wing with flap deployed and the initial calculations for this geometry are presented.

  9. The subperiosteal, drill hole, midface lift.

    PubMed

    Perry, C Blake; Allen, Richard C

    2016-10-01

    This article describes a surgical technique using drill holes through the inferior orbital rim and fixation with permanent sutures as a functional subperiosteal midface lift and compares it to other standard midface elevation techniques. This was a retrospective, comparative, non-randomized study. Charts of all patients undergoing midface elevation between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed. Pre- and post-operative photos were graded on a scale 0 to 3 with 0 representing normal lower lid position and lid/cheek junction and 3 representing the most severe malposition. Twenty-seven patients (35 sides) underwent midface lift. Twelve sides had the subperiosteal drill hole midface lift; 9 preperiosteal with Vicryl suture fixation to periosteum; 14 subperiosteal with Endotine midface B device. All groups had similar demographics and indications for surgery. Average follow-up time was greater than 4 months in all groups. No significant complications were seen in any of the patients. The average post-operative grade of the drill hole group was 0.65 compared to 0.75 of the preperiosteal Vicryl group and 0.7 of the Endotine group. The drill hole group had the most severe pre-operative malposition. Overall, the drill hole group demonstrated the largest improvement score. The subperiosteal drill hole technique proved to be an effective method for functional midface elevation. This technique achieves adequate and durable vertical elevation without relying on the strength of the periosteum or use of a commercial device. PMID:27486865

  10. SPA face lift: SMAS plication-anchoring.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2011-08-01

    A variation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) plication called SPA face lift is here described. An axial line and then two medial and lateral parallel lines are penciled on the skin from the lateral canthus to the earlobe to show the future plication area. The undermining zone is delimited 1 cm beyond the medial line. In face- and neck-lifting, such marks extend vertically to the neck. Once the skin is undermined up to the delimiting marks, the three lines are penciled again on the fat layer, and a running lock suture is used for plication, with big superficial bites between the two distal lines. In fatty faces, a strip of fat is removed along the axial line to avoid bulging that can be seen through the skin. Because the undermining is limited, minor swelling occurs, and the postoperative recovery is shorter and faster. The same three lines can be marked in the contralateral side or can differ in cases of asymmetry. This report describes 244 face-lifts without any facial nerve problems. The author managed five hematoma cases in which surgery to the neck was performed. Three patients had to be touched up for insufficient skin tension. The SPA technique is consistent and easy to learn. PMID:21298514

  11. Dynamic response of Hovercraft lift fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, D. D.

    1981-08-01

    Hovercraft lift fans are subjected to varying back pressure due to wave action and craft motions when these vehicles are operating in a seaway. The oscillatory back pressure causes the fans to perform dynamically, exhibiting a hysteresis type of response and a corresponding degradation in mean performance. Since Hovercraft motions are influenced by variations in lift fan pressure and discharge, it is important to understand completely the nature of the dynamic performance of lift fans in order to completely solve the Hovercraft seakeeping problem. The present study was performed to determine and classify the instabilities encountered in a centrifugal fan operating against time-varying back pressure. A model-scale experiment was developed in which the fan discharge was directed into a flow-measuring device, terminating in a rotating valve which produced an oscillatory back pressure superimposed upon a mean aerodynamic resistance. Pressure and local velocity were measured as functions of time at several locations in the fan volute. The measurements permitted the identification of rotating (or propagating) stall in the impeller. One cell and two cell configurations were classified and the transient condition connecting these two configurations was observed. The mechanisms which lead to rotating stall in a centrifugal compressor are presented and discussed with specific reference to Hovercraft applications.

  12. Lift and Drag Measurements of Superhydrophobic Hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Samrat; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    For several years, superhydrophobic surfaces which are chemically hydrophobic with micron or nanometer scale surface features have been considered for their ability to reduce drag and produce slip in microfluidic devices. More recently it has been demonstrated that superhydrophobic surfaces reduce friction coefficient in turbulent flows as well. In this talk, we will consider that modifying a hydrofoil's surface to make it superhydrophobic has on the resulting lift and drag measurements over a wide range of angles of attack. Experiments are conducted over the range of Reynolds numbers between 10,000lift coefficients along with changes to separation point at high angles of attack are observed when the hydrofoil is made superhydrophobic. The hydrofoils are coated Teflon that has been hot embossed with a 325grit stainless steel woven mesh to produce a regular pattern of microposts. In addition to fully superhydrophobic hydrofoils, selectively coated symmetrical hydrofoils will also be examined to study the effect that asymmetries in the surface properties can have on lift and drag. Partially funded by NSF CBET-1334962.

  13. The Conference Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolls, Blanche; Hartman, Linda; Corey, Linda; Marcoux, Betty; Jay, M. Ellen; England, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Includes five articles on conference experiences: preplanning for a library conference; top ten reasons to attend an AASL (American Association of School Librarians) national conference; why should you bother to fill out a conference evaluation form; a case for conferences; and AASL tours. (LRW)

  14. PREFACE: Wake Conference 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The 44 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the 2015 Wake Conference, held in Visby on the island of Gotland in Sweden. It is the fourth time this conference has been held. The Wake Conference series started in Visby, where it was held in 2009 and 2011. In 2013 it took place in Copenhagen where it was combined with the International Conference on Offshore Wind Energy and Ocean Energy. In 2015 it is back where it started in Visby, where it takes place at Uppsala University Campus Gotland, June 9th-11th. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown tremendously in the past decade and it now comprises more than 3% of the global electrical power consumption. Today the wind power industry has a global annual turnover of more than 50 billion USD and an annual average growth rate of more than 20%. State-of-the-art wind turbines have rotor diameters of up to 150 m and 8 MW installed capacity. These turbines are often placed in large wind farms that have a total production capacity corresponding to that of a nuclear power plant. In order to make a substantial impact on one of the most significant challenges of our time, global warming, the industry's growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research into the physics of wind turbine wakes and wind farms. Modern wind turbines are today clustered in wind farms in which the turbines are fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream turbines. As a consequence, the wake behind the wind turbines has a lower mean wind speed and an increased turbulence level, as compared to the undisturbed flow outside the farm. Hence, wake interaction results in decreased total production of power, caused by lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. Therefore, understanding the physical nature of the vortices and their dynamics in the wake of a turbine is important for the optimal design of a wind farm. This conference is aimed

  15. Maximum acceptable weights for asymmetric lifting of Chinese females.

    PubMed

    Wu, Swei-Pi

    2003-05-01

    This study used the psychophysical approach to evaluate the effects of asymmetric lifting on the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) and the resulting heart rate, oxygen uptake and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). A randomized complete block factorial design was employed. Twelve female college students lifted weights at three different lifting frequencies (one-time maximum, 1 and 4 lifts/min) in the sagittal plane and at three different asymmetric angles (30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees ) from the floor to a 68-cm height pallet. This lifting experiment was conducted for a 1-h work period using a free-style lifting technique. The MAWLs for asymmetric lifting were significantly lower than those for symmetric lifting in the sagittal plane. The MAWL decreased with the increase in the angle of asymmetry. However, the heart rate, oxygen uptake and RPE remained unchanged. Though the MAWL decreased significantly with lifting frequency, both the physiological costs (heart rate and oxygen uptake) and rating of perceived exertion increased with the increase in lift frequency. The most stressed body part was the arm. Lifting frequency had no significant effect on the percentage decrease in MAWL from the sagittal plane values. On average, decreases of 5%, 9% and 14% for MAWL at 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees asymmetric lifting, respectively, were revealed. This result was in agreement with the findings of Chinese males studied by Wu [Int. J. Ind. Ergonom. 25 (2000) 675]. The percentage decrease in MAWL with twisting angle for the Chinese participants was somewhat lower than those for Occidental participants. In addition, even though there was an increase in heart rate and RPE with the increase in the symmetrical lift angle for Occidental participants, it was different from the Chinese participants. Lastly, the 1991 NIOSH equation asymmetry multiplier is more conservative in comparison with the results of the present study. PMID:12737921

  16. Report of the National Invitational Working Conference on Holding Power and Dropouts (New York, New York, February 13-15, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale

    The conference summarized here brought together participants from 12 public school districts and 34 observers from government agencies, foundations and community organizations. The attendees addressed the concern that the reform agenda of American public schooling is insufficiently sensitive to needy children who have dropped out of school or who…

  17. Childhood Powered Mobility: Developmental, Technical and Clinical Perspectives. Proceedings of the RESNA Northwest Regional Conference (1st, Seattle, Washington, March 6, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Kenneth M., Ed.

    The eight papers presented at the conference stress the importance of self-produced locomotion for the normal development of cognitive processes, particularly spatial understanding. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Childhood Motor Impairments: Clinical Overview and Scope of the Problem" (Ross Hays); "Locomotion and Psychological…

  18. The 60th ASCD Annual Conference and Exhibit Show 2005, 2-4 April 2005: "Voices of Education--Unleashing the Power, Passion and Promise"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to report on the 60th ASCD Annual Conference and Exhibit Show 2005, held in Orlando Florida, 2-4 April 2005 by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses the presentations such as the obesity epidemic in children, educational progress in schools, creating capacity for learning,…

  19. Wind tunnel and ground static investigation of a large scale model of a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a 40 foot by 80 foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic/propulsion characteristics of a large scale powered model of a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft. The model was equipped with three 36 inch diameter turbotip X376B fans powered by three T58 gas generators. The lift fan was located forward of the cockpit area and the two lift/cruise fans were located on top of the wing adjacent to the fuselage. The three fans with associated thrust vectoring systems were used to provide vertical, and short, takeoff and landing capability. For conventional cruise mode operation, only the lift/cruise fans were utilized. The data that were obtained include lift, drag, longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics, and control effectiveness. Data were obtained up to speeds of 120 knots at one model height of 20 feet for the conventional aerodynamic lift configuration and at several thrust vector angles for the powered lift configuration.

  20. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, I: Uniqueness Of Lifting Factorizations

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) perfect reconstruction filter banks. The connection between filter banks and wavelet transforms is well-known and will not be treated here. Figure 1 depicts the polyphase-with-advance representation of a filter bank [6]. A lifting factorization, is a factorization of polyphase matrices into upper and lower triangular lifting matrices. The existence of such decompositions via the Euclidean algorithm was shown for general FIR perfect reconstruction filter banks in [9] and was subsequently refined for linear phase filter banks in [10], [6]. These latter works were motivated by the ISO JPEG 2000 image coding standard [11], [12], [10], which specifies whole-sample symmetric (WS, or FIR type 1 linear phase) filter banks, as in Figure 2(a), in terms of half-sample symmetric (RS, or FIR type 2) lifting filters.

  1. Measurement of the Shear Lift Force on a Bubble in a Channel Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Motil, Brian; Skor, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Two-phase flow systems play vital roles in the design of some current and anticipated space applications of two-phase systems which include: thermal management systems, transfer line flow in cryogenic storage, space nuclear power facilities, design and operation of thermal bus, life support systems, propulsion systems, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), and space processes for pharmaceutical applications. The design of two-phase flow systems for space applications requires a clear knowledge of the behaviors of the dispersed phase (bubble), its interaction with the continuous phase (liquid) and its effect on heat and mass transfer processes, The need to understand the bubble generation process arises from the fact that for all space applications, the size and distribution of bubbles are extremely crucial for heat and mass transfer control. One important force in two-phase flow systems is the lift force on a bubble or particle in a liquid shear flow. The shear lift is usually overwhelmed by buoyancy in normal gravity, but it becomes an important force in reduced gravity. Since the liquid flow is usually sheared because of the confining wall, the trajectories of bubbles and particles injected into the liquid flow are affected by the shear lift in reduced gravity. A series of experiments are performed to investigate the lift force on a bubble in a liquid shear flow and its effect on the detachment of a bubble from a wall under low gravity conditions. Experiments are executed in a Poiseuille flow in a channel. An air-water system is used in these experiments that are performed in the 2.2 second drop tower. A bubble is injected into the shear flow from a small injector and the shear lift is measured while the bubble is held stationary relative to the fluid. The trajectory of the bubble prior, during and after its detachment from the injector is investigated. The measured shear lift force is calculated from the trajectory of the bubble at the detachment point. These

  2. Kinematic analysis of the snatch lift with elite female weightlifters during the 2010 World Weightlifting Championship.

    PubMed

    Akkuş, Hasan

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the mechanical work, the power output, and the angular kinematics of the lower limb and the linear kinematics of the barbell during the first and second pulls in the snatch lift event of the 2010 Women's World Weightlifting Championship, an Olympic qualifying competition, and to compare the snatch performances of the women weightlifters to those reported in the literature. The heaviest successful snatch lifts of 7 female weightlifters who won gold medals were analyzed. The snatch lifts were recorded using 2 Super-Video Home System cameras (50 fields·s), and points on the body and the barbell were manually digitized using the Ariel Performance Analysis System. The results revealed that the duration of the first pull was significantly greater than the duration of the transition phase, the second pull, and the turnover under the barbell (p < 0.05). The maximum extension velocities of the lower limb in the second pull were significantly greater than the maximum extension velocities in the first pull. The fastest extensions were observed at the knee joint during the first pull and at the hip joint during the second pull (p < 0.05). The barbell trajectories for the heaviest snatch lifts of these elite female weightlifters were similar to those of men. The maximum vertical velocity of the barbell was greater during the second pull than in the first pull (p < 0.05). The mechanical work performed in the first pull was greater than the second pull, and the power output during the second pull was greater than that of the first pull (p < 0.05). Although the magnitudes of the barbell's linear kinematics, the angular kinematics of the lower limb, and other energy characteristics did not exactly reflect those reported in the literature, the snatch lift patterns of the elite women weightlifters were similar to those of male weightlifters. PMID:22450233

  3. The Lifting Body Legacy...X-33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1999-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to enable the development of a next generation Reusable Launch Vehicle that will carry our future payloads into orbit at a much-reduced cost. The VentureStar, Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle, is one of the potential reusable launch vehicle configurations being studied. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines the flight stability and control aspects of our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the VentureStar LB and its test version, the X-33. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. In the initial LB Program, eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technolocy: the M2-F; the HL-10; and the X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the U. S. Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today with the X- 33, X-38, and VentureStar.

  4. Circulation control lift generation experiment: Hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panontin, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    A circulation control airfoil and its accompanying hardware were developed to allow the investigation of lift generation that is independent of airfoil angle of attack and relative flow velocity. The test equipment, designed for use in a water tunnel, includes the blown airfoil, the support systems for both flow visualization and airfoil load measurement, and the fluid control system, which utilizes hydraulic technology. The primary design tasks, the selected solutions, and the unforseen problems involved in the development of these individual components of hardware are described.

  5. Lifting and wound closure with barbed sutures.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, R Stephen; Paul, Malcolm D

    2011-07-01

    The advent of barbed sutures has been a novel and useful adjunct for the aesthetic plastic surgeon in properly selected patients. The deployment of a barbed suture minimizes the risks of cheese wiring and stress relaxation, facilitating the minimally invasive repositioning of soft tissue in the head and neck, as well as optimizing and enhancing traditionally long and potentially tedious procedures in body contouring. This article highlights the advances, advantages, and efficacy associated with the use of barbed sutures in lifting and wound closure. PMID:21824547

  6. Labyrinth seal testing for lift fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobek, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    An abradable buffered labyrinth seal for the control of turbine gas path leakage in a tip-turbine driven lift fan was designed, tested, and analyzed. The seal configuration was not designed to operate in any specific location but was sized to be evaluated in an existing test rig. The final sealing diameter selected was 28 inches. Results of testing indicate that the flow equations predicted seal air flows consistent with measured values. Excellent sealing characteristics of the abradable coating on the stator land were demonstrated when a substantial seal penetration of .030 inch into the land surface was encountered without appreciable wear on the labyrinth knife edges.

  7. Variable-Compliance Couplings For Heavy Lifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James; Eklund, Wayne; Burkhardt, Raymond; Richardson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    New coupling devices contain manual or electronically controlled, motorized drives that vary stiffnesses. Short, clamped lengths of cable provide compliance. Using threaded rods, cables stretched, relaxed, or folded to make coupling more or less stiff. In more-advanced device, brackets holding cables moved by stepping motor via gearbox and ball screw. Motor operates under computer control with position feedback. Control computer commands greater stiffness during operations requiring precise positioning, and greater compliance to accommodate manufacturing tolerances. Intended for use in wrist joints of robotic manipulators and other industrial equipment that must lift heavy objects.

  8. Catalytic Generation of Lift Gases for Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A lift-gas cracker (LGC) is an apparatus that generates a low-molecular-weight gas (mostly hydrogen with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide) at low gauge pressure by methanol reforming. LGCs are undergoing development for use as sources of buoyant gases for filling zero-gauge-pressure meteorological and scientific balloons in remote locations where heavy, high-pressure helium cylinders are not readily available. LGCs could also be used aboard large, zero-gauge-pressure, stratospheric research balloons to extend the duration of flight.

  9. APOLLO 14: Lift off from lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The lunar module 'Falcon' lifts off from the lunar surface From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  10. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    PubMed

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker. PMID:12846457

  11. Determining safe limits for significant task parameters during manual lifting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravindra Pratrap; Batish, Ajay; Singh, Tejinder Pal

    2014-04-01

    This experimental study investigated the effect of lifting task parameters (i.e., lifting weight, frequency, coupling, asymmetric angle, and vertical, horizontal, and travel distances) for various dynamic human lifting activities on the ground reaction forces of workers. Ten male workers loaded containers from different levels asymmetrically during experimental trials. The experimental design evolved using Taguchi's Fractional Factorial Experiments. Three factors (lifting weight, frequency, and vertical distance) were observed to be significant. The results showed that vertical reaction forces increase when workers lift weight from floor to shoulder height frequently. It was also observed that instantaneous loading rate increases with more weight, vertical distance, and frequency; a significant extra loading rate is required to change the lower level of load, frequency, and vertical distance to higher levels. Safe limits for significant factors were determined to result in optimal performance of the manual lifting task. PMID:24702682

  12. A Note about Self-Induced Velocity Generated by a Lifting-Line Wing or Rotor Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an elementary analysis of the induced velocity created by a field of vortices that reside in the wake of a rotor blade. Progress achieved by other researchers in the last 70 years is briefly reviewed. The present work is presented in four stages of complexity that carry a lifting-line representation of a fixed wing into a single-blade rotor. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the lifting rotor's spiraling vortex wake structure has very high induced power when compared to the ideal wing. For an advanced ratio of one-half, induced power is on the order of 10 times that of the wing when the comparison is made at wingspan equal to rotor diameter and wing and rotor having equal lift.

  13. Conference Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, David B.

    2014-07-01

    This conference on ``Multi-wavelength AGN Surveys and Studies'' has provided a detailed look at the explosive growth over the past decade, of available astronomical data from a growing list of large scale sky surveys, from radio-to-gamma rays. We are entering an era were multi-epoch (months to weeks) surveys of the entire sky, and near-instantaneous follow-up observations of variable sources, are elevating time-domain astronomy to where it is becoming a major contributor to our understanding of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). While we can marvel at the range of extragalactic phenomena dispayed by sources discovered in the original ``Markarian Survey'' - the first large-scale objective prism survey of the Northern Sky carried out at the Byurakan Astronomical Observtory almost a half-century ago - it is clear from the talks and posters presented at this meeting that the data to be be obtained over the next decade will be needed if we are to finally understand which phase of galaxy evolution each Markarian Galaxy represents.

  14. Parametric Powered-Lift Navier-Stokes Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Murman, Scott; Pandya, Shishir; Ahmad, Jasim

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this work is to enable the computation of large numbers of unsteady high-fidelity flow simulations for a YAV-8B Harrier aircraft in ground effect by improving the solution process and taking advantage of NASA parallel supercomputers. The YAV-8B Harrier aircraft can take off and land vertically, or utilize short runways by directing its four exhaust nozzles toward the ground. Transition to forward flight is achieved by rotating these nozzles into a horizontal position.

  15. Acoustic-loads research for powered-lift configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenster, J. A.; Willis, C. M.; Schroeder, J. C.; Mixson, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Data presented from large-scale model tests with jet engines having thrusts of 9 kN (2000 lb) and 36 kN (8000 lb) include acoustic loads for an externally blown wing and flap induced by a TF34 jet engine, an upper surface blown (USB) aircraft model in a wind tunnel, and two USB models in static tests. Comparisons of these results with results from acoustic loads studies on configurations of other sizes are made and the implications of these results on interior noise and acoustic fatigue are discussed.

  16. Numerical analysis of a variable camber rotor blade as a lift control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awani, A. O.; Stroub, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    A new rotor configuration called the variable camber rotor was numerically investigated as a lift control device. This rotor differs from a conventional (baseline) rotor only in the blade aft section. In this configuration, the aft section or flap is attached to the forward section by pin joint arrangement, and also connected to the rotor control system for the control of rotor thrust level and vectoring. Pilot action to the flap deflection controls rotor lift and tip path plane tilt. The drag due to flaps is presented and the theoretical result correlated with test data. The assessment of payoff for the variable camber rotor in comparison with conventional (baseline) rotor was examined in hover. The variable camber rotor is shown to increase hover power required by 1.35%, but such a minimal power penalty is not significant enough to be considered a negative result. In forward flight, the control needs of the variable camber rotor were evaluated.

  17. [Effect of gas-lift device on the morphology and performance of ANAMMOX sludge].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Huang, Yong; Yuan, Yi; Zhou, Cheng; Chen, Zong-Heng; Zhang, Da-Lin

    2014-12-01

    The upflow reactor with gas-lift device was started up by inoculating ANAMMOX sludge granules of less than 0.9 mm. The effects of gas lift device system on the morphology and performance of ANAMMOX sludge were studied by using the nitrogen gas produced in ANAMMOX to drive the effluent circulation in the reactor. The results showed that, the airlift circulation function was not clear in the startup stage of the reactor, because the nitrogen gas production was very low. At the same time, the ANAMMOX granular sludge was easy to condensate. When the load rate of nitrogen removal reached 3.4 kg x (m3 x d)(-1), the function of gas lift was significant, resulting in gradually increased effluent self-circulation, and the granules were dispersed and grew gradually. After 183d of operation, the granular sludge was dominated by the granules with sizes of 1.6-2.5 mm, which accounted for 53.2% of the total sludge volume. The MLVSS content increased with the increase of sludge particle size. The gas lift device had the same function as the external reflux pump, and was helpful for sludge granulation in the ANAMMOX reactor, while reducing power consumption and the cost of the equipment. PMID:25826935

  18. Control and quantitation of voluntary weight-lifting performance of rats.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Oliver; Gregory, Erik W; Cutlip, Robert G; Miller, G Roger

    2003-07-01

    The present paper describes an exercise model that produces a voluntary hindlimb weight-lifting response. Each rat was operantly conditioned to enter a vertical tube, insert its head into a weighted ring (either 70 g or 700 g), lift the ring until its nose interrupted an infrared detector, and then lower the ring. Load cells measured the external force generated, and displacement transducers measured the vertical displacement of the ring during each lifting and lowering movement. The apparatus and training procedures were computer automated. Peak force, velocity, work, and power were calculated for each movement. Rats in both groups easily acquired the task after 12-15 training sessions, on average, conducted 5 days/wk. Once rats were trained, the lifting patterns were quite stable during several more weeks of posttraining exercise; however, the lighter 70-g load gave rise to more variable performances across rats. Results demonstrate the utility of quantitating the biomechanics of volitional movements and suggest that the present model can establish and maintain controlled repetitive movements necessary for studies of adaptation and/or injury in muscles, tendon, and bone. PMID:12665538

  19. Incremental dynamic analysis of concrete gravity dams including base and lift joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alembagheri, Mohammad; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2013-03-01

    The growth in computer processing power has made it possible to use time-consuming analysis methods such as incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) with higher accuracy in less time. In an IDA study, a series of earthquake records are applied to a structure at successively increasing intensity levels, which causes the structure to shift from the elastic state into the inelastic state and finally into collapse. In this way, the limit-states and capacity of a structure can be determined. In the present research, the IDA of a concrete gravity dam considering a nonlinear concrete behavior, and sliding planes within the dam body and at the dam-foundation interface, is performed. The influence of the friction angle and lift joint slope on the response parameters are investigated and the various limit-states of the dam are recognized. It is observed that by introducing a lift joint, the tensile damage can be avoided for the dam structure. The lift joint sliding is essentially independent of the base joint friction angle and the upper ligament over the inclined lift joint slides into the upstream direction in strong earthquakes.

  20. Intelligent gearbox diagnosis methods based on SVM, wavelet lifting and RBR.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lixin; Ren, Zhiqiang; Tang, Wenliang; Wang, Huaqing; Chen, Peng

    2010-01-01

    Given the problems in intelligent gearbox diagnosis methods, it is difficult to obtain the desired information and a large enough sample size to study; therefore, we propose the application of various methods for gearbox fault diagnosis, including wavelet lifting, a support vector machine (SVM) and rule-based reasoning (RBR). In a complex field environment, it is less likely for machines to have the same fault; moreover, the fault features can also vary. Therefore, a SVM could be used for the initial diagnosis. First, gearbox vibration signals were processed with wavelet packet decomposition, and the signal energy coefficients of each frequency band were extracted and used as input feature vectors in SVM for normal and faulty pattern recognition. Second, precision analysis using wavelet lifting could successfully filter out the noisy signals while maintaining the impulse characteristics of the fault; thus effectively extracting the fault frequency of the machine. Lastly, the knowledge base was built based on the field rules summarized by experts to identify the detailed fault type. Results have shown that SVM is a powerful tool to accomplish gearbox fault pattern recognition when the sample size is small, whereas the wavelet lifting scheme can effectively extract fault features, and rule-based reasoning can be used to identify the detailed fault type. Therefore, a method that combines SVM, wavelet lifting and rule-based reasoning ensures effective gearbox fault diagnosis. PMID:22399894

  1. Lift system and fan performance of air cushion supported vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, D. D.; Jennings, A. N.

    1982-02-01

    An analysis of the AALC JEFF lift systems and fans from the viewpoints of performance and structural design is performed. A summary of performance data related to the JEFF lift systems is presented, and suggested approaches for JEFF (A) lift fan design, for which these data provided the baseline information, are provided. Published methods of scaling fan performance data from model to full-scale are evaluated. Finally, the structural design characteristics of the JEFF fans are discussed.

  2. Interference of multiplane wings having elliptical lift distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Sanden, H

    1924-01-01

    In calculating the self-induction of a wing surface, elliptical lift distribution is assumed, while in calculating the mutual induction or interference of two wing surfaces, a uniform distribution of the lift along the wing has hitherto been assumed. Whether the results of these calculations are substantially altered by assuming an elliptical lift distribution (which is just as probable as uniform distribution) is examined here.

  3. HSR High Lift Program and PCD2 Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.; Coen, Peter; Meredith, Paul; Clark, Roger; Hahne, Dave; Smith, Brian

    1999-01-01

    The mission of High-Lift Technology is to develop technology allowing the design of practical high lift concepts for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) in order to: 1) operate safely and efficiently; and 2) reduce terminal control area and community noise. In fulfilling this mission, close and continuous coordination will be maintained with other High-Speed Research (HSR) technology elements in order to support optimization of the overall airplane (rather than just the high lift system).

  4. Experiences with optimizing airfoil shapes for maximum lift over drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doria, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    The goal was to find airfoil shapes which maximize the ratio of lift over drag for given flow conditions. For a fixed Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack, the lift and drag depend only on the airfoil shape. This then becomes a problem in optimization: find the shape which leads to a maximum value of lift over drag. The optimization was carried out using a self contained computer code for finding the minimum of a function subject to constraints. To find the lift and drag for each airfoil shape, a flow solution has to be obtained. This was done using a two dimensional Navier-Stokes code.

  5. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Boundary Layer Relaminarization and High-Lift Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourassa, Corey; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

    1998-11-01

    Modern high-lift devices are complicated systems that exhibit a variety of complex flow physics phenomena. Thomas( Thomas, F.O., Liu, X., & Nelson, R.C., 1997, ``Experimental Investigation of the Confluent Boundary Layer of a High-Lift System,'' AIAA Paper 97-1934.) outlines several critical flow phenomena, dubbed ``high-lift building block flows'', that can be found in a typical multi-element high-lift system. One such high-lift building block flow is turbulent boundary layer relaminarization, which may be responsible for such phenomena as ``inverse Reynolds number effects.'' Flight test experiments on leading edge transition and relaminarization conducted by Yip, et al(Yip, et al), ``The NASA B737-100 High-Lift Flight Research Program--Measurements and Computations,'' Aeronautical Journal, Paper No. 2125, Nov. 1995. using the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle, a Boeing 737-100, have provided tantalizing evidence but not proof of the existence of relaminarization in high-lift systems. To investigate the possibility of boundary layer relaminarization occuring on a high-lift system, a joint wind tunnel/flight test program is in progress with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center to determine the role, if any, that turbulent boundary layer relaminarization plays in high-lift aerodynamics. Sponsored under NASA grant No. NAG4-123

  7. Development of High-Efficiency Low-Lift Vapor Compression System - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Fernandez, Nicholas; Cho, Heejin; Goetzler, W.; Burgos, J.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Ahlfeldt, C.

    2010-03-31

    PNNL, with cofunding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Building Technologies Program, conducted a research and development activity targeted at addressing the energy efficiency goals targeted in the BPA roadmap. PNNL investigated an integrated heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system option referred to as the low-lift cooling system that potentially offers an increase in HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  8. Does Malleolus non-Lifting Tympanoplasty have any Advantage Over Malleus Lifting Techniques?

    PubMed Central

    Vahidi, Mohammad Reza; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Shahbazian, Honeyeh; Behniafard, Nasim; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In order to achieve a higher success rate for tympanoplasty, different techniques have been developed, and a wide variety of grafting materials have been developed. One of the techniques currently receiving considerable attention involves not lifting the remaining of eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft underneath in order to repair the eardrum correctly in its original position, as well as minimizing graft lateralization leading to progression of hearing rehabilitation. We compared the effects of tympanoplasty with and without malleus lifting on hearing loss in patients with chronic otitis media. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 consecutive patients diagnosed as having chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma were randomly assigned to two tympanoplasty groups; with or without malleus lifting. Air and bone conduction thresholds were recorded before and 45 days after the intervention. Results: In groups, except for 8000 Hz, the air conduction was significantly improved following surgery. According to air conduction there was no difference between the groups before surgery at different frequencies, although it was improved to a greater degree in the group without lifting at 250 Hz postoperatively. The average post-operative air-bone gap (ABG) gain was significantly higher in all study frequencies in the target group. One of the effects of this technique is inner-ear protection from physical trauma to the ossicular chain, and prevention of damage to bone conduction. Conclusion: A higher hearing threshold and also higher ABG gain can be achieved by not lifting the remaining eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft undereath it, especially at lower frequencies. PMID:26877998

  9. Modification of integrated partial payload lifting assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groah, Melodie; Haddock, Michael; Woodworth, Warren

    1986-01-01

    The Integrated Partial Payload Lifting Assembly (IPPLA) is currently used to transport and load experimental payloads into the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. It is unable to carry the astronaut/passenger tunnel without a structural modification. The purpose of this design is to create a removalbe modification that will allow the IPPLA to lift and carry the passenger tunnel. Modifications evaluated were full-length insert beams which would extend through the existing strongback arms. These beam proposals were eliminated because of high cost and weight. Other proposals evaluated were attachments of cantilever beams to the existing strongback areas. The cantilever proposals reduced cost and weight compared to the full-length modifications. A third method evaluated was to simply make modifications to one side of the IPPLA therefore reducing the materials of the cantilever proposals by 40 percent. The design of the modification selected was completed with two channel beams jointly welded to a centered steel plate. The extension arm modification is inserted into the existing strongback channel beams and bolted into place. Two extension arms are added to one side of the IPPLA to provide the extra length needed to accommodate the passenger tunnel. The center counterbalance will then be offset about 20 inches to center gravity and therefore maintain horizontal status. The extension arm modification was selected because of minimum cost, low weight, and minimal installation time.

  10. The Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swingarm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until lift-off. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center.

  11. Lifting Mechanism for the Mars Explorer Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melko, Joseph; Iskenderian, Theodore; Harrington, Brian; Voorhees, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    A report discusses the design of a rover lift mechanism (RLM) -- a major subsystem of each of the Mars Exploration Rover vehicles, which were landed on Mars in January 2004. The RLM had to satisfy requirements to (1) be foldable as part of an extremely dense packing arrangement and (2) be capable of unfolding itself in a complex, multistep process for disengaging the rover from its restraints in the lander, lifting the main body of the rover off its landing platform, and placing the rover wheels on the platform in preparation for driving the rover off the platform. There was also an overriding requirement to minimize the overall mass of the rover and lander. To satisfy the combination of these and other requirements, it was necessary to formulate an extremely complex design that integrated components and functions of the RLM with those of a rocker-bogie suspension system, the aspects of which have been described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. In this design, suspension components also serve as parts of a 4- bar linkage in the RLM.

  12. Lifting wavelet method of target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jun; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Xu; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jin

    2009-11-01

    Image target recognition plays a very important role in the areas of scientific exploration, aeronautics and space-to-ground observation, photography and topographic mapping. Complex environment of the image noise, fuzzy, all kinds of interference has always been to affect the stability of recognition algorithm. In this paper, the existence of target detection in real-time, accuracy problems, as well as anti-interference ability, using lifting wavelet image target detection methods. First of all, the use of histogram equalization, the goal difference method to obtain the region, on the basis of adaptive threshold and mathematical morphology operations to deal with the elimination of the background error. Secondly, the use of multi-channel wavelet filter wavelet transform of the original image de-noising and enhancement, to overcome the general algorithm of the noise caused by the sensitive issue of reducing the rate of miscarriage of justice will be the multi-resolution characteristics of wavelet and promotion of the framework can be designed directly in the benefits of space-time region used in target detection, feature extraction of targets. The experimental results show that the design of lifting wavelet has solved the movement of the target due to the complexity of the context of the difficulties caused by testing, which can effectively suppress noise, and improve the efficiency and speed of detection.

  13. Method for calculating lift distributions for unswept wings with flaps or ailerons by use of nonlinear section lift data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivells, James C; Westrick, Gertrude C

    1952-01-01

    A method is presented which allows the use of nonlinear section lift data in the calculation of the spanwise lift distribution of unswept wings with flaps or ailerons. This method is based upon lifting line theory and is an extension to the method described in NACA rep. 865. The mathematical treatment of the discontinuity in absolute angle of attack at the end of the flap or aileron involves the use of a correction factor which accounts for the inability of a limited trigonometric series to represent adequately the spanwise lift distribution. A treatment of the apparent discontinuity in maximum section lift coefficient is also described. Simplified computing forms containing detailed examples are given for both symmetrical and asymmetrical lift distributions. A few comparisons of calculated characteristics with those obtained experimentally are also presented.

  14. Conference Scene

    PubMed Central

    Leeder, J Steven; Lantos, John; Spielberg, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge for clinicians, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies is to better understand the relative contributions of ontogeny and genetic variation to observed variability in drug disposition and response across the pediatric age spectrum from preterm and term newborns, to infants, children and adolescents. Extrapolation of adult experience with pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine to pediatric patients of different ages and developmental stages, is fraught with many challenges. Compared with adults, pediatric pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics involves an added measure of complexity as variability owing to developmental processes, or ontogeny, is superimposed upon genetic variation. Furthermore, some pediatric diseases have no adult correlate or are more prevalent in children compared with adults, and several adverse drug reactions are unique to children, or occur at a higher frequency in children. The primary objective of this conference was to initiate an ongoing series of annual meetings on ‘Pediatric Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine’ organized by the Center for Personalized Medicine and Therapeutic Innovation and Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Medical Therapeutics at Children’s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics in Kansas City, MO, USA. The primary goals of the inaugural meeting were: to bring together clinicians, basic and translational scientists and allied healthcare practitioners, and engage in a multi- and cross-disciplinary dialog aimed at implementing personalized medicine in pediatric settings; to provide a forum for the presentation and the dissemination of research related to the application of pharmacogenomic strategies to investigations of variability of drug disposition and response in children; to explore the ethical, legal and societal implications of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine that are unique to children; and finally, to create networking opportunities for stimulating discussion

  15. Sensorimotor Memory Biases Weight Perception During Object Lifting

    PubMed Central

    van Polanen, Vonne; Davare, Marco

    2015-01-01

    When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory) and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in a proportional manner

  16. Levator plate upward lift and levator muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Peck, Jennifer; Quiroz, Lieschen; Shobeiri, S. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of study was to compare digital palpation with the levator plate lift measured by endovaginal and transperineal dynamic ultrasound. Methods Dynamic transperineal and endovaginal ultrasound were performed as part of multicompartmental pelvic floor functional assessment. Patients were instructed to perform Kegels while a probe captured the video clip of the levator plate movement at rest and during contraction in 2D mid-sagittal posterior view. We measured the distance between the levator plate and the probe on endovaginal ultrasound as well as the distance between the levator plate and the gothic arch of the pubis in transperineal ultrasound. The change in diameter (lift) and a levator plate lift ratio (lift / rest) x 100) were calculated. Pelvic floor muscle strength was assessed by digital palpation and divided into functional and non-functional groups using the Modified Oxford Scale (MOS). Mean differences in levator plate upward lifts were compared by MOS score using student t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results 74 women were available for analysis. The mean age was 55 (SD±11.9). When measured by vaginal dynamic ultrasound, mean values of the lift and lift/rest ratio increased with increasing MOS score (ANOVA p=0.09 and p=0.04, respectively). When MOS scores were categorized to represent non-functional (MOS 0-1) and functional (MOS 2-5) muscle strength groups, the mean values of the lift (3.2 mm vs. 4.6 mm, p=0.03) and lift/rest ratio (13% vs 20%, p=0.01) were significantly higher in women with functional muscle strength. All patients with ≥ 30% lift detected by vaginal ultrasound had functional muscle strength. Conclusions Greater levator plate lift ratio detected by dynamic endovaginal ultrasound was associated with higher muscle strength as determined by MOS. This novel measurement can be incorporated into ultrasound evaluation of the levator ani function. PMID:26333568

  17. AFC-Enabled Simplified High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Dickey, Eric D.; Sclafani, Anthony J.; Camacho, Peter; Gonzales, Antonio B.; Lawson, Edward L.; Mairs, Ron Y.; Shmilovich, Arvin

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this trade study report is to explore the potential of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for achieving lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift systems for transonic commercial transport aircraft. This assessment was conducted in four steps. First, based on the Common Research Model (CRM) outer mold line (OML) definition, two high-lift concepts were developed. One concept, representative of current production-type commercial transonic transports, features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. The other CRM-based design relies on drooped leading edges and simply hinged trailing edge flaps for high-lift generation. The relative high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for steady flow. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. Conceptual design integration studies for the AFC-enhanced high-lift systems were conducted with a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. These design trades identify AFC performance targets that need to be met to produce economically feasible ERA-0003-like concepts with lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift designs that match the performance of conventional high-lift systems. Finally, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled highlift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

  18. Current Status of NASA's Heavy Lift Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies since the Apollo Program of the 1960s have highlighted the benefits of - and the need for - a national heavy lift launch capability to support human exploration, science, national security, and commercial development of space. NASA's most recent and most refined effort to develop that heavy lift capability is the Ares V. Ares V is a key element of NASA's Constellation Program. It s overall goal s part of approved national space policy is to retire the Space Shuttle and develop its successor, complete the International Space Station, and resume human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), beginning with exploration of the Moon as a step to other destinations in the Solar System. Ares V s first role is that of cargo vehicle to carry a lunar lander into Earth orbit, rendezvous with astronauts launched on the smaller Ares I crew launch vehicle, and perform the trans lunar injection (TLI) mission to send the mated crew and lander vehicles to the Moon. The design reference missions (DRMs) envisioned for it also include direct lunar cargo flights and a human Mars mission. Although NASA's priority from the start of the Constellation Program to the present has been development of the Ares I and Orion crew vehicle to replace the retiring Shuttle fleet, the Ares team has made significant progress in understanding the performance, design trades, technology needs, mission scenarios, ground and flight operations, cost, and other factors associated with heavy lift development. The current reference configuration was selected during the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) in fall 2008. That design has served since then as a point of departure for further refinements and trades among five participating NASA field centers. Ares V development to date has benefited from progress on the Ares I due to commonality between the vehicles. The Ares I first stage completed a successful firing of a 5-segment solid rocket motor. The Ares I-X launch Numerous studies

  19. Developing and flight testing the HL-10 lifting body: A precursor to the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Painter, Weneth D.; Thompson, Milton O.

    1994-01-01

    The origins of the lifting-body idea are traced back to the mid-1950's, when the concept of a manned satellite reentering the Earth's atmosphere in the form of a wingless lifting body was first proposed. The advantages of low reentry deceleration loads, range capability, and horizontal landing of a lifting reentry vehicle (as compared with the high deceleration loads and parachute landing of a capsule) are presented. The evolution of the hypersonic HL-10 lifting body is reviewed from the theoretical design and development process to its selection as one of two low-speed flight vehicles for fabrication and piloted flight testing. The design, development, and flight testing of the low-speed, air-launched, rocket-powered HL-10 was part of an unprecedented NASA and contractor effort. NASA Langley Research Center conceived and developed the vehicle shape and conducted numerous theoretical, experimental, and wind-tunnel studies. NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden Flight Research Center) was responsible for final low-speed (Mach numbers less than 2.0) aerodynamic analysis, piloted simulation, control law development, and flight tests. The prime contractor, Northrop Corp., was responsible for hardware design, fabrication, and integration. Interesting and unusual events in the flight testing are presented with a review of significant problems encountered in the first flight and how they were solved. Impressions by the pilots who flew the HL-10 are included. The HL-10 completed a successful 37-flight program, achieved the highest Mach number and altitude of this class vehicle, and contributed to the technology base used to develop the space shuttle and future generations of lifting bodies.

  20. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the snatch technique for lifting different barbell weights.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Gökhan; Akkuş, Hasan; Harbili, Erbil

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increased barbell loads on barbell and body kinematics of the snatch lifts at 60, 80, and 100% of 1 repetition maximum and to evaluate the biomechanics of snatch technique. The study was performed on 7 elite male weightlifters of the Turkish national team. Four cameras operating at 50 fields per second were used to record the lifts. For 3D kinematic analysis of center of gravity (CG) and barbell movement, the points on the body and the barbell were digitized by using an Ariel Performance Analysis System. There were significant differences between the vertical work values (p < 0.05). The power values of the 3 snatch lifts were also found to be significantly different (p < 0.05). Another significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between maximum vertical displacement of the barbell, maximum vertical velocity of the barbell, maximum vertical displacement of CG, the vertical velocity of CG during the turnover under the barbell. The results demonstrated that vertical and horizontal kinematics of the barbell and body decreased at the pull phase of the snatch technique as the barbell load increased. The power output during the second pull increased although the work done did not change, whereas work and power output increased during the first pull phase depending on the increase in the barbell weight. The finding of this study suggested that weightlifters had to perform the turnover under the barbell and the catch phase faster, because when the barbell weight was increased at snatch lift, vertical kinematics of the barbell decreased. PMID:22614145

  1. UF{sub 6} cylinder lifting equipment enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Hortel, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents numerous enhancements that have been made to the Portsmouth lifting equipment to ensure the safe handling of cylinders containing liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The basic approach has been to provide redundancy to all components of the lift path so that any one component failure would not cause the load to drop or cause any undesirable movement.

  2. Optimization of the lithographic performance for lift-off processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wenyan; Fillmore, Ward; Dempsey, Kevin J.

    1999-06-01

    Shipley MICROPOSIT LOL lift-off technology exploits a develop rate difference in a resist, LOL1000 bi-layer system to generate retrograde profiles. This is an enabling technology for 'additive' processing. Deposition follows lithography and the resist is then 'lifted off' to generate a patterned layer.

  3. Fuel effects on flame lift-off under diesel conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, Helena; Andersson, Oeivind; Egnell, Rolf

    2011-01-15

    An apparent relation between the lift-off length under diesel conditions and the ignition quality of a fuel has previously been reported. To cast light on the underlying mechanism, the current study aims to separate flame lift-off effects of the chemical ignition delay from those of other fuel properties under diesel conditions. Flame lift-off was measured in an optical diesel engine by high-speed video imaging of OH-chemiluminescence. Fuel and ambient-gas properties were varied during the experiment. Only a weak correlation was found between ignition delay and lift-off length. The data indicate that this correlation is due to a common, stronger correlation with the ambient oxygen concentration. The chemical ignition delay and the fuel type had similar, weak effects on the lift-off length. A recently proposed mechanism for lift-off stabilization was used to interpret the results. It assumes that reactants approaching the lift-off position of the jet are mixed with high-temperature products found along the edges of the flame, which trigger autoignition. In this picture, the fuel effect is most likely due to differences in the amount of mixing with high-temperature products that is required for autoignition. In the current experiment, all lift-off effects seem to arise from variations in the reactant and product temperatures, induced by fuel and ambient properties. (author)

  4. 662-E solid waste silo-plug lifting analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.E.

    1993-03-01

    The Intermediate Level Tritium Vault No. 1, 662-E, Cell No. 1 contains 140 waste silos. Each silo is approximately 25 feet deep, 30 inches in diameter at the top and covered by a reinforced concrete plug. Two No. 4 reinforcing bars project from the top of each plug for lifting. During lifting operations, the 1.5 inch concrete cover over the lifting bars spelled off 16% of the silo plugs. The No. 4 reinforcing bars were also distorted on many of the silo plugs. Thirteen of the plugs have been repaired to date. The existing silo plug lifting bars have a safe working load of 480 pounds per plug, which is less than 1/3 of the dead weight of the silo plug. The safe working load was calculated using the minimum design factor of 3 based on the yield strength or 5 based on the ultimate strength of the material, as per the Savannah River Site Hoisting and Rigging Manual. The existing design calculations were reviewed, and the following items are noted: (1) Adequate concrete cover was not provided over the horizontal portion of the lifting bars. (2) The lifting bars were allowed to yield in bending, which violates the requirements of the Savannah River Site Hoisting and Rigging Manual. (3) The ultimate strain of the lifting bars would be exceeded before the calculated ultimate strength was achieved. Alternative lifting devices are also identified.

  5. 34. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING BATTERED AND UNSHEATHED LIFT TOWERS, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING BATTERED AND UNSHEATHED LIFT TOWERS, WITH DEEPENED TRUSS ON LIFT SPAN. Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  6. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conducted for the qualification of all Large Packagings design types designed to be lifted from the base. (b) Special preparation for the bottom lift test. The Large Packaging must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. All Large Packaging design...

  7. The Lift Distribution of Swept-Back Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissinger, J.

    1947-01-01

    Two procedures for calculating the lift distribution along the span are given in which a better account is taken of the distribution of circulation over te area than in the Prandtl lifting-line theory. The methods are also applicable to wing sweepback. Calculated results for the two methods were in agreement.

  8. A Lighter-Than-Air System Enhanced with Kinetic Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid airship system is proposed in which the buoyant lift is enhanced with kinetic lift. The airship would consist of twin hulls in which the buoyant gas is contained. The twin hulls would be connected in parallel by a wing having an airfoil contour. In forward flight, the wing would provide kinetic lift that would add to the buoyant lift. The added lift would permit a greater payload/altitude combination than that which could be supported by the buoyant lift alone. The buoyant lift is a function of the volume of gas and the flight altitude. The kinetic lift is a function of the airfoil section, wing area, and the speed and altitude of flight. Accordingly there are a number of factors that can be manipulated to arrive at a particular design. Particular designs could vary from small, lightweight systems to very large, heavy-load systems. It will be the purpose of this paper to examine the sensitivity of such a design to the several variables. In addition, possible uses made achievable by such a hybrid system will be suggested.

  9. Does hydraulic lift or nighttime transpiration facilitate nitrogen acquistion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been proposed that plant species that hydraulically lift water to dry shallow soil layers should have improved nutrient relations. Yet, this idea has not been adequately tested. We choose ten Sarcobatus vermiculatus plants with different magnitudes of hydraulic lift to examine the hypothesis...

  10. 14 CFR 23.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High lift devices. 23.345 Section 23.345 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.345 High lift devices. (a) If flaps or...

  11. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the base. (b) Special preparation for the bottom lift test. The IBC must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. All IBC design types must be raised and lowered twice by a...

  12. Status of LaRC HSCT high-lift research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs for a status report of the NASA Langley Reseach Center High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) High-Lift Research Program are provided. A listing of available models and previous wind tunnel studies are presented. Objectives and approach of the piloted simulation program are given. The HSCT High-Lift Research plans are listed and briefly described.

  13. Obesity-related changes in prolonged repetitive lifting performance.

    PubMed

    Ghesmaty Sangachin, Mahboobeh; Cavuoto, Lora A

    2016-09-01

    Despite the rising prevalence of obesity, little is known about its moderating effects on injury risk factors, such as fatigue, in occupational settings. This study investigated the effect of obesity, prolonged repetitive lifting and their interaction on lifting performance of 14 participants, 7 obese (mean body mass index (BMI): 33.2 kg m(-2)) and 7 non-obese (mean BMI: 22.2 kg m(-2)) subjects. To present a physically challenging task, subjects performed repetitive lifting for 1 h at 120% of their maximum acceptable weight of lift. Generalized linear mixed models were fit to posture and acceleration data. The obese group bent to a ∼10° lower peak trunk sagittal flexion angle, had 17% lower root mean square (RMS) jerk and took 0.8 s longer per lift. Over time, the obese group increased their trunk transverse and sagittal posterior accelerations while the non-obese maintained theirs. Although the majority of lifting variables were unaffected by BMI or its interaction with prolonged lifting duration, the observed differences, combined with a greater upper body mass, necessitate a more cautious use of existing psychophysical lifting limits for individuals who are obese, particularly when fatigued. PMID:27184307

  14. Atlantis is lifted from its transporter in the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- This closeup shows the workers, standing on lifts, who are checking the bolts on the apparatus holding the orbiter Atlantis. The orbiter will be rotated and lifted into high bay 1 where it will be stacked with its external tank and solid rocket boosters. Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to launch on mission STS-104 in early July.

  15. Solid state lift for micrometering in a fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Milam, David M.; Carroll, Thomas S.; Lee, Chien-Chang; Miller, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector performs main fuel injection by raising fuel pressure in a nozzle chamber to lift a check valve member to a fully open position, and performs preinjection or microinjection by operating a solid state motor to lift the check valve member a much smaller distance.

  16. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Flexible Large Packaging design types must be filled to six times the maximum permissible gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. (1) A Large Packaging must be lifted in the manner for... minutes. (2) Rigid plastic Large Packaging design types must be: (i) Lifted by each pair of...

  17. Transport properties of epitaxial lift off films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mena, R. A.; Schacham, S. E.; Young, P. G.; Haugland, E. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Transport properties of epitaxially lifted-off (ELO) films were characterized using conductivity, Hall, and Shubnikov-de Haas measurements. A 10-15 percent increase in the 2D electron gas concentration was observed in these films as compared with adjacent conventional samples. We believe this result to be caused by a backgating effect produced by a charge build up at the interface of the ELO film and the quartz substrate. This increase results in a substantial decrease in the quantum lifetime in the ELO samples, by 17-30 percent, but without a degradation in carrier mobility. Under persistent photoconductivity, only one subband was populated in the conventional structure, while in the ELO films the population of the second subband was clearly visible. However, the increase of the second subband concentration with increasing excitation is substantially smaller than anticipated due to screening of the backgating effect.

  18. Offshore desulfurization unit permits gas lift operations

    SciTech Connect

    Cabes, A.; Elgue, J.; Tournier-Lasserve, J. )

    1992-01-13

    This paper reports on the installation of a desulfurization unit for the Tchibouela oil field, offshore Congo, which allowed produced low-pressure associated gas containing CO{sub 2} to be kept for gas lift operations while, for safety reasons, the large volume of H{sub 2}S at low pressure was removed prior to compression. Since October 1989, the world's first offshore amine sweetening unit has worked satisfactorily and continues to prove that it is an attractive production alternative. For desulfurization, a selective methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) process, developed by Elf Aquitaine, was chosen because it was the only process that met the required specifications at a low pressure of 3.5 bar (51 psi).

  19. Optimum reentry trajectories of a lifting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, J. S.; Vinh, N. X.

    1978-01-01

    The optimum maneuver of a space shuttle vehicle reentering a spherical, stationary, and locally exponential atmosphere was investigated. The use of Chapman's modified variables and a rescaled lift-drag polar leads to the formulation of a set of dimensionless equations of motion for flight analysis. The resulting equations are exact in the sense that they are also valid for flight in the vacuum. For planar flight several typical optimum maneuvers are investigated at different altitude ranges, low, moderate and very high. For three-dimensional flight, the procedure to solve the optimum trajectory for maximum cross range is discussed. Finally, using the equilibrium glide condition the maximum cross ranges for entry from circular speed, for several values of E*, and the footprint for E* = 1.5 are computed in this reduced problem.

  20. Force-controlled lifting of molecular wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, N.; Wagner, C.; Weiss, C.; Temirov, R.; Tautz, F. S.

    2011-07-01

    Lifting a single molecular wire off the surface with a combined frequency-modulated atomic force and tunneling microscope it is possible to monitor the evolution of both the wire configuration and the contacts simultaneously with the transport conductance experiment. In particular, critical points where individual bonds to the surface are broken and instabilities where the wire is prone to change its contact configuration can be identified in the force gradient and dissipation responses of the junction. This additional mechanical information can be used to unambiguously determine the conductance of a true molecular wire, that is, of a molecule that is contacted via a pointlike “crocodile clip” to each of the electrodes but is otherwise free.

  1. Oblique waves lift the flapping flag.

    PubMed

    Hœpffner, Jérôme; Naka, Yoshitsugu

    2011-11-01

    The flapping of the flag is a classical model problem for the understanding of fluid-structure interaction: How does the flat state lose stability? Why do the nonlinear effects induce hysteretic behavior? We show in this Letter that, in contrast with the commonly studied model, the full three-dimensional flag with gravity has no stationary state whose stability can be formally studied: The waves are oblique and must immediately be of large amplitude. The remarkable structure of these waves results from the interplay of weight, geometry, and aerodynamic forces. This pattern is a key element in the force balance which allows the flag to hold and fly in the wind: Large amplitude oblique waves are responsible for lift. PMID:22181612

  2. Correlation of Puma airloads: Lifting-line and wake calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.; Young, Colin; Gilbert, Neil; Toulmay, Francois; Johnson, Wayne; Riley, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative program undertaken by organizations in the United States, England, France, and Australia has assessed the strengths and weaknesses of four lifting-line/wake methods and three CFD methods by comparing their predictions with the data obtained in flight trials of a research Puma. The Puma was tested in two configurations: a mixed bladed rotor with instrumented rectangular tip blades, and a configuration with four identical swept tip blades. The results are examined of the lifting-line predictions. The better lifting-line methods show good agreement with lift at the blade tip for the configuration with four swept tips; the moment is well predicted at 0.92 R, but deteriorates outboard. The predictions for the mixed bladed rotor configuration range from fair to good. The lift prediction is better for the swept tip blade than for the rectangular tip blade, but the reasons for this cannot be determined because of the unmodeled effects of the mixed bladed rotor.

  3. Refined AFC-Enabled High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Shmilovich, Arvin; Lacy, Douglas S.; Dickey, Eric D.; Scalafani, Anthony J.; Sundaram, P.; Yadlin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    A prior trade study established the effectiveness of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for reducing the mechanical complexities associated with a modern high-lift system without sacrificing aerodynamic performance at low-speed flight conditions representative of takeoff and landing. The current technical report expands on this prior work in two ways: (1) a refined conventional high-lift system based on the NASA Common Research Model (CRM) is presented that is more representative of modern commercial transport aircraft in terms of stall characteristics and maximum Lift/Drag (L/D) ratios at takeoff and landing-approach flight conditions; and (2) the design trade space for AFC-enabled high-lift systems is expanded to explore a wider range of options for improving their efficiency. The refined conventional high-lift CRM (HL-CRM) concept features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. For the current AFC-enhanced high lift system trade study, the refined conventional high-lift system is simplified by substituting simply-hinged trailing edge flaps for the slotted single-element flaps with Fowler motion. The high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. In parallel to the conventional high-lift concept development, parametric studies using CFD guided the development of an effective and efficient AFC-enabled simplified high-lift system. This included parametric trailing edge flap geometry studies addressing the effects of flap chord length and flap deflection. As for the AFC implementation, scaling effects (i.e., wind-tunnel versus full-scale flight conditions) are addressed

  4. Mathematical analysis of actuator forces in a scissor lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, H.

    1994-05-01

    In 1985, NCCOSC began development of a tele-operated vehicle as part of the U.S. Marine Corps' Ground-Air Tele-Robotics Systems Program. One of the required vehicle components was a rigid, light-weight, and compact lift mechanism capable of deploying a surveillance package 10 feet above the vehicle bed. The lift mechanism that was eventually built and implemented was a 3-level scissor lift. In order to analyze the forces throughout the lift structure, a set of mathematical equations was derived. From these equations it was discovered that prudent placement of a lift's actuator can significantly reduce the forces required of the actuator and the stress levels in the adjacent scissor members. The purpose of this paper is to present the equations that were derived for analyzing the actuator forces. Using these equations, a designer can quickly determine the optimal locations for mounting an actuator and the resulting forces.

  5. Conference Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binney, J.

    2004-07-01

    The competition between CDM and MOND to account for the `missing mass' phenomenon is asymmetric. MOND has clearly demonstrated that a characteristic acceleration a_0 underlies the data and understanding what gives rise to a_0 is an important task. The reason for MOND's success may lie in either the details of galaxy formation, or an advance in fundamental physics that reduces to MOND in a suitable limit. CDM has enjoyed great success on large scales. The theory cannot be definitively tested on small scales until galaxy formation has been understood because baryons either are, or possibly have been, dominant in all small-scale objects. MOND's predictive power is seriously undermined by its isolation from the rest of physics. In view of this isolation, the way forward is probably to treat CDM as an established theory to be used alongside relativity and electromagnetism in efforts to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  6. In-Flight Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics Unique to Blunt-Based Lifting Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2007-01-01

    Lift and drag measurements have been analyzed for subsonic flight conditions for seven blunt-based reentry-type vehicles. Five of the vehicles are lifting bodies (M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B) and two are wing-body configurations (the X-15 and the Space Shuttle Enterprise). Base pressure measurements indicate that the base drag for full-scale vehicles is approximately three times greater than predicted by Hoerner's equation for three-dimensional bodies. Base drag and forebody drag combine to provide an optimal overall minimum drag (a drag "bucket") for a given configuration. The magnitude of this optimal drag, as well as the associated forebody drag, is dependent on the ratio of base area to vehicle wetted area. Counter-intuitively, the flight-determined optimal minimum drag does not occur at the point of minimum forebody drag, but at a higher forebody drag value. It was also found that the chosen definition for reference area for lift parameters should include the projection of planform area ahead of the wing trailing edge (i.e., forebody plus wing). Results are assembled collectively to provide a greater understanding of this class of vehicles than would occur by considering them individually.

  7. [Effect of gas-lift device on nitrogen removal efficiency of ANAMMOX reactor ].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li; Zhang, Da-lini; Huang, Yong; Chen, Zong-heng; Yuan, Yi

    2014-09-01

    The effect of air-lift device on the nitrogen removal efficiency of ANAMMOX reactor was studied by increasing the substrate concentration to improve nitrogen load rate and inoculate ANAMMOX sludge. The results showed that the effluent recirculation was achieved by using nitrogen gas produced from the ANAMMOX process as power in the air-lift room. With the increase of nitrogen removal rate, the rate of effluent recirculation was increased, which diluted influent substrate concentration and alleviated the inhibition of ANAMMOX bacteria,. After 183 d operation, the effluent NH4+ -N and NO2- -N concentrations were increased to 46. 3 mg L-1 and 53.21 mg.L-1, and the nitrogen removal rate was kept stable at 28.3 kg (m3.d)-1, when the influent NH4+ -N and NO2- -N concentrations were increased to 700 mg.L-1 and 840 mgL-1, respectively. The effluent recirculation system formed by gas-lift devices is an economic and effective solution to the inhibition caused by high substrate concentration in traditional reactor, meanwhile, the power consumption of the external reflux pump was reduced. PMID:25518664

  8. 75 FR 31803 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    .... Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') has issued a final determination concerning the country of origin... in the final determination that Sweden is the country of origin of the lift unit for purposes of U.S... issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of the lift unit which may be offered...

  9. Towards all-optical quantification of force- and power-based performance metrics in cilia-driven fluid flow physiology (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Brendan K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Loewenberg, Michael; Choma, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    In pulmonary ciliary physiology, most tissue-level measures of performance focus on flow velocity. However, as with the heart, fluid transport performance requires an understanding of force and power generation under various loading conditions. Here, we present our initial work in quantifying shearing force and net power dissipation from OCT-based cilia-driven fluid flow velocimetry. Typical measurements of force require invasive contact with the ciliated surface, while measurements of power rely on metabolic consumption that reflect energy consumption not just from cilia, but from the entirety of cellular processes. We will present two different approaches to non-contact, all-optical shear force and power dissipation physiology. First, we developed a lumped-parameter model of flow driven by a ciliated surface. The lumped-parameter model yields semi-quantitative, Ohm's law-type relationships (F=U*R and P=U*F) between flow velocity (U), shear force (F), viscous resistance (R), and power dissipation (P). This model allows a lumped (spatially averaged) approach to evaluate force and power performance under viscous loading, an approach we demonstrated using ciliated Xenopus embryos. Second, we numerically estimate shear force and power dissipation using flow velocity fields acquired using OCT. Specifically, the velocity gradient tensor estimated from the flow velocity field contains the required information to estimate both shear force and net power dissipation. We have preliminary data using this numerical approach in Xenopus. Our results support the feasibility of an all-optical approach to estimating mesoscopic measures of force and power in ciliary physiology.

  10. Lift cruise fan V/STOL aircraft conceptual design study T-39 modification. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The conversion of two T-39 aircraft into lift cruise fan research and technology vehicles is discussed. The concept is based upon modifying the T-39A (NA265-40) Sabreliner airframe into a V/STOL configuration by incorporating two LCF-459 lift cruise fans and three YJ-97 gas generators. The propulsion concept provides the thrust for horizontal flight or lift for vertical flight by deflection of bifurcated nozzles while maintaining engine out safety throughout the flight envelope. The configuration meets all the study requirements specified for the design with control powers in VTOL and conversion in excess of the requirement making it an excellent vehicle for research and development. The study report consists of two volumes; Volume 1 (Reference a) contains background data detailed description and technical substantiation of the aircraft. Volume 2 includes cost data, scheduling and program planning not addressed in Volume 1.

  11. Proceedings of the 1998 international joint power generation conference (FACT-Vol.22). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; Environmental engineering; Nuclear engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.; Natole, R.; Sanyal, A.; Veilleux, J.

    1998-07-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Fuels and combustion technologies; Low NOx burner applications; Low cost solutions to utility NOx compliance issues; Coal combustion--Retrofit experiences, low NOx, and efficiency; Highly preheated air combustion; Combustion control and optimization; Advanced technology for gas fuel combustion; Spray combustion and mixing; Efficient power generation using gas turbines; Safety issues in power industry; Efficient and environmentally benign conversion of wastes to energy; Artificial intelligence monitoring, control, and optimization of power plants; Combustion modeling and diagnostics; Advanced combustion technologies and combustion synthesis; Aero and industrial gas turbine presentations IGTI gas turbine division; NOx/SO{sub 2}; Plant cooling water system problems and solutions; Issues affecting plant operations and maintenance; and Costs associated with operating and not operating a nuclear power plant. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  12. Weight Training for Strength and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This paper begins by defining the terms "weight training,""weight lifting,""strength,""power," and "muscular endurance.""Weight training" is differentiated from "weight lifting" and defined as a systematic series of resistance exercises designed to promote physical development and conditioning or to rehabilitate persons who have suffered injury or…

  13. 18 CFR 401.77 - Informal conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informal conference. 401.77 Section 401.77 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Appeals or Objections to Decisions of the...

  14. Splitting of liftings in products of probability spaces II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macheras, N. D.; Musial, K.; Strauss, W.

    2007-11-01

    For a probability measure R on a product of two probability spaces that is absolutely continuous with respect to the product measure we prove the existence of liftings subordinated to a regular conditional probability and the existence of a lifting for R with lifted sections which satisfies in addition a rectangle formula. These results improve essentially some of the results from the former work of the authors [W. Strauss, N.D. Macheras, K. Musial, Splitting of liftings in products of probability spaces, Ann. ProbabE 32 (2004) 2389-2408], by weakening considerably the assumptions and by presenting more direct and shorter proofs. In comparison with [W. Strauss, N.D. Macheras, K. Musial, Splitting of liftings in products of probability spaces, Ann. Probab. 32 (2004) 2389-2408] it is crucial for applications intended that we can now prescribe one of the factor liftings completely freely. We demonstrate the latter by applications to [tau]-additive measures, transfer of strong liftings, and stochastic processes.

  15. Lift Enhancement Using Pulsed Blowing At Compressible Flow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hites, Michael; Nagib, Hassan; Sytsma, Brian; Wygnanski, Israel; Seifert, Avi; Bachar, Tomer

    1997-11-01

    Oscillatory wall-jets were introduced through spanwise slots along a NACA 0015 airfoil to establish lift augmentation by the unsteady forcing of the wall layer. Pressure coefficients, lift coefficients, and wake velocity profiles were measured for experiments where the oscillatory blowing momentum coefficient was held constant at various frequencies up to M=0.4. At high angles of attack, it was observed that lift coefficient increased by as much as 80% due to the pulsed blowing and that supercritical flow was detected near the leading edge. Measurements at low angles of attack with the flap set at 20^o (an aft loaded airfoil near cruise conditions) showed that low amplitude pulsed forcing from the flap provided a 27% increasing in lift while steady blowing from the flap reduced lift by as much as 15% even at blowing coefficients as high as 3.5%. Wake profiles showed that not only was the lift enhanced due to the oscillatory blowing, but the drag was reduced, demonstrating the effectiveness of pulsed blowing as a tool to increase lift and reduce drag, especially when compared to the relative ineffectiveness of steady blowing under similar conditions.

  16. Early Postoperative Pain After Keyless Abdominal Rope-Lifting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hüseyınoğlu, Ürfettin; Çıçek, Melek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery is a novel, gasless, single-incision laparoscopic surgical technique. In this study we aimed to compare the postoperative pain from keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery with carbon dioxide laparoscopy performed for benign ovarian cysts. Methods: During a 20-month period, 77 women underwent surgery for a benign ovarian cyst. Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery and conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy techniques were used for the operations in 32 women and 45 women, respectively. The 2 operative techniques were compared with regard to demographic characteristics; preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data including early postoperative pain scores; and frequency of shoulder pain and analgesic requirements. Results: Data regarding demographic characteristics, preoperative findings, cyst diameters and rupture rates, intra-abdominal adhesions, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay did not differ between groups (P > .05). However, the mean operative and abdominal access times were significantly longer in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Visual analog scale pain scores at initially and at the second, fourth, and 24th hours of the postoperative period were significantly lower in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Similarly, keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery caused significantly less shoulder pain and additional analgesic use (P < .05). Conclusion: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery seems to cause less pain in the management of benign ovarian cysts in comparison with conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy. PMID:25848177

  17. Isokinetic lifting strength and occupational injury. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, R A; Noe, D A; Kovacik, M W; Porterfield, J A

    1992-02-01

    One hundred seventy-one nurses had their back strength evaluated on an isokinetic lifting device and filled out an epidemiologic questionnaire. They were then followed prospectively for 2 years to determine the incidence of job-related low-back injuries. The data were analyzed to determine if the injury incidence correlated with any of the strength or epidemiologic variables collected during the original evaluation. Average peak force measured during the isokinetic lift was 63.8 kg + 13.6 kg at a lift speed of 30.5 cm/sec and 59.1 kg + 14.9 kg at a lift speed of 45.7 cm/sec. Sixteen nurses reported an occurrence of job-related low-back pain or injury during the 2-year prospective period. Discriminate statistical techniques showed that none of the strength or epidemiologic variables correlated with the incidence of pain or injury or explained significant amounts of variance when the variables were regressed on strength or work calculated from the lift force/lift height data. It was concluded that in this high risk population, in which loads are heavy and lifting postures are variable, the use of low-back strength or prior history of pain or injury are poor predictors as to subsequent low-back pain or injury. PMID:1532461

  18. The Liquid Lift: Looking Natural Without Lumps

    PubMed Central

    de Felipe, Iñigo; Redondo, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Context: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the most common filler used to rejuvenate. Today, a three-dimensional approach prevails over previous techniques in which this material was used in specific areas of the face such as the nasolabial fold, the marionette line, and the eye trough giving a strange appearance that does not look natural. Even with a volumizing purpose, the injection of HA can sometimes produce clinically detectable nodules or lumps where the filler is deposited. Aims: To develop a new technique of injecting HA that can provide more natural results and avoid the lumpiness and nodular appearance that sometimes occurs with the injection of HA. To detect whether mixing HA with diluted anesthetic agent modifies its behavior. Settings and Design: Prospective, case control, single-center study on a private clinic setting. Materials and Methods: Eighty six patients were enrolled in this study. All of them had a previous treatment with nondiluted HA using a needle at least a year before. Patients were injected with 8 mL of reticulated HA (RHA) mixed with 6 mL of saline and 2 mL of anesthetic agent. The mixture was administered through a cannula inserted in the face, one at mid-cheek and another at frontal-temporal point of entry. Owing to the lifting effect of this mixture we called this procedure liquid lift (LL). Patients were evaluated 1 month, 6 months, and a year later and asked to compare the LL with previous experiences in terms of natural look, pain, and appearance of nodules. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test. Results: One month after the treatment, 83 out of 86 patients (96.5%) thought LL produced a more natural look than the previous treatment with the needle. Sixty two (72%) considered LL less painful than the previous treatment and only eight (9.3%) could detect lumps or nodules 1 month after LL was performed compared with 46 (53.5%) that described this problem with previous needle injections. The incidence of bruising was also clearly lower

  19. The General Conference Mennonites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    General Conference Mennonites and Old Order Amish are compared and contrasted in the areas of physical appearance, religious beliefs, formal education, methods of farming, and home settings. General Conference Mennonites and Amish differ in physical appearance and especially in dress. The General Conference Mennonite men and women dress the same…

  20. Parent Conferences. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Roslyn; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents six workshop sessions on parent conferences: (1) "Parents' Perspectives on Conferencing" (R. Duffy); (2) "Three Way Conferences" (G. Zeller); (3) "Conferencing with Parents of Infants" (K. Albrecht); (4) "Conferencing with Parents of School-Agers" (L. G. Miller); (5) "Cross Cultural Conferences" (J. Gonzalez-Mena); and (6) "Working with…

  1. HBCUs Research Conference agenda and abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  2. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  3. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUS) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUS. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  4. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked to define the thrust requirement of a new liquid oxygen rich staged combustion cycle hydrocarbon engine that could be utilized in a launch vehicle to meet NASA s future heavy lift needs. Launch vehicle concepts were sized using this engine for different heavy lift payload classes. Engine out capabilities for one of the heavy lift configurations were also analyzed for increased reliability that may be desired for high value payloads or crewed missions. The applicability for this engine in vehicle concepts to meet military and commercial class payloads comparable to current ELV capability was also evaluated.

  5. Lifting surface theory for a helicopter rotor in forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Runyan, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A lifting surface theory was developed for a helicopter rotor in forward flight for compressible and incompressible flow. The method utilizes the concept of the linearized acceleration potential and makes use of the vortex lattice procedure. Calculations demonstrating the application of the method are given in terms of the lift distribution on a single rotor, a two-bladed rotor, and a rotor with swept-forward and swept-back tips. In addition, the lift on a rotor which is vibrating in a pitching mode at 4/rev is given. Compressibility effects and interference effects for a two-bladed rotor are discussed.

  6. Two-dimensional unsteady lift problems in supersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Lomax, Harvard

    1949-01-01

    The variation of pressure distribution is calculated for a two-dimensional supersonic airfoil either experiencing a sudden angle-of-attack change or entering a sharp-edge gust. From these pressure distributions the indicial lift functions applicable to unsteady lift problems are determined for two cases. Results are presented which permit the determination of maximum increment in lift coefficient attained by an unrestrained airfoil during its flight through a gust. As an application of these results, the minimum altitude for safe flight through a specific gust is calculated for a particular supersonic wing of given strength and wing loading.

  7. Drag and lift coefficients evolution of a Savonius rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, A.; Benghrib, D.

    1989-10-01

    The lift and drag coefficients of the rotating Savonius wind machine are determined from the pressure difference measured between the upper plane and the lower plane of a blade. Pressure measurements have been performed for two sets of experiments; the first one for U ∞ = 10 m/s and the second one for U ∞ = 12.5 m/s. In each case it is to be noted that a negative lift effect is present for low values of the tip speed ratio λ. The lift coefficient becomes positive when λ increases. The drag coefficient is of course always negative.

  8. Moderate lift-to-drag aeroassist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florence, D. E.; Fischer, G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant performance benefits are realized via aerodynamic braking and/or aerodynamic maneuvering on return from higher altitude orbits to low Earth orbit. This approach substantially reduces the mission propellant requirements by using the aerodynamic drag, D, to brake the vehicle to near circular velocity and the aerodynamic lift, L, to null out accumulated errors as well as change the orbital inclination to that required for rendezvous with the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Broad concept evaluations were performed and the technology requirements and sensitivities for aeroassisted OTV's over a range of vehicle hypersonic L/D from 0.75 to 1.5 were systematically identified and assessed. The aeroassisted OTV is capable of evolving from an initial delivery only system to one eventually capable of supporting manned roundtrip missions to geosynchronous orbit. Concept screening was conducted on numerous configurations spanning the L/D = 0.75 to 1.5 range, and several with attractive features were identified. Initial payload capability was evaluated for a baseline of delivery to GEO, six hour polar, and Molniya (12 hours x 63.4 deg) orbits with return and recovery of the aeroassist orbit transfer vehicle (AOTV) at LEO. Evolutionary payload requirements that were assessed include a GEO servicing mission (6K up and 2K return) and a manned GEO mission (14K roundtrip).

  9. Analysis of Stabilization Mechanisms in Lifted Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Martinez, S.; Kronenburg, A.

    2009-12-01

    Flame stabilization and the mechanisms that govern the dynamics at the flame base have been subject to numerous studies in recent years. Recent results using a combined Large Eddy Simulation-Conditional Moment Closure (LES-CMC) approach to model the turbulent flow field and the turbulence-chemistry interactions has been successful in predicting flame ignition and stabilization by auto-ignition, but LES-CMCs capability of the accurate modelling of the competition between turbulent quenching and laminar and turbulent flame propagation at the anchor point has not been resolved. This paper will consolidate LES-CMC results by analysing a wide range of lifted flame geometries with different prevailing stabilization mechanisms. The simulations allow a clear distinction of the prevailing stabilization mechanisms for the different flames, LES-CMC accurately predicts the competition between turbulence and chemistry during the auto-ignition process, however, the dynamics of the extinction process and turbulent flame propagation are not well captured. The averaging process inherent in the CMC methods does not allow for an instant response of the transported conditionally averaged reactive species to the changes in the flow conditions and any response of the scalars will therefore be delayed. Stationary or quasi-stationary conditions, however, can be well predicted for all flame configurations.

  10. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust fill Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  11. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust seem to fill the marsh near Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  12. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust and blazing light fill Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  13. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Thousands of gallons of water released as part of the sound suppression system at the launch pad create clouds of steam and exhaust as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  14. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Against a curtain of blue sky, the Space Shuttle Discovery spews clouds of exhaust as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on the 9-day mission STS-95. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  15. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As if sprung from the rolling exhaust clouds below, Space Shuttle Discovery shoots into the heavens over the blue Atlantic Ocean from Launch Pad 39B on mission STS-95. Lifting off at 2:19 p.m. EST, Discovery carries a crew of six, including Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, who is making his second voyage into space after 36 years. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  16. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Framed by the foliage of the Canaveral National Sea Shore, Space Shuttle Discovery soars through bright blue skies as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National agency for Space Development (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  17. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery clears Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 as it lifts off on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  18. Insulation Test Cryostat with Lift Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Dokos, Adam G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-purpose, cylindrical thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials and systems of materials using a liquid boil-off calorimeter system for absolute measurement of the effective thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux of a specimen material at a fixed environmental condition (cold-side temperature, warm-side temperature, vacuum pressure level, and residual gas composition). The apparatus includes an inner vessel for receiving a liquid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including the upper and lower guard chambers and a middle test vessel, is suspended from a lid of the vacuum canister. Each of the three chambers is filled and vented through a single feedthrough. All fluid and instrumentation feedthroughs are mounted and suspended from a top domed lid to allow easy removal of the cold mass. A lift mechanism allows manipulation of the cold mass assembly and insulation test article.

  19. Vertical Lift Aircraft Design Conference, San Francisco, CA, Jan. 17-19, 1990, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include an overview of the NASA High Speed Rotorcraft Technology Development Program, propulsion system design for supersonic STOVL aircraft, NASA studies on hot gas ingestion and ground effects on STOVL aircraft, and the V/STOL transport concepts for special operations. Also presented are fault-tolerant architecture for a fly-by-light flight control computer, the servo flap in an advanced rotor control system, the high-speed rotorcraft V/STOL, and the improvement to interactive two-dimensional rotor section design. Also contributed are the experimental investigation of wingtip aerodynamic loading, the performance of an optimized rotor blade at off-design flight conditions, an unmanned air vehicle concept with tipjet drive, and AH-64A Apache hydraulic flight control system survivability design concepts.

  20. Advanced natural laminar flow airfoil with high lift to drag ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeffrey K.; Pfenninger, Werner; Mcghee, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental verification of a high performance natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoil for low speed and high Reynolds number applications was completed in the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT). Theoretical development allowed for the achievement of 0.70 chord laminar flow on both surfaces by the use of accelerated flow as long as tunnel turbulence did not cause upstream movement of transition with increasing chord Reynolds number. With such a rearward pressure recovery, a concave type deceleration was implemented. Two-dimensional theoretical analysis indicated that a minimum profile drag coefficient of 0.0026 was possible with the desired laminar flow at the design condition. With the three-foot chord two-dimensional model constructed for the LTPT experiment, a minimum profile drag coefficient of 0.0027 was measured at c sub l = 0.41 and Re sub c = 10 x 10 to the 6th power. The low drag bucket was shifted over a considerably large c sub l range by the use of the 12.5 percent chord trailing edge flap. A two-dimensional lift to drag ratio (L/D) was 245. Surprisingly high c sub l max values were obtained for an airfoil of this type. A 0.20 chort split flap with 60 deg deflection was also implemented to verify the airfoil's lift capabilities. A maximum lift coefficient of 2.70 was attained at Reynolds numbers of 3 and 6 million.

  1. Adaptive Redundant Lifting Wavelet Transform Based on Fitting for Fault Feature Extraction of Roller Bearings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zijing; Cai, Ligang; Gao, Lixin; Wang, Huaqing

    2012-01-01

    A least square method based on data fitting is proposed to construct a new lifting wavelet, together with the nonlinear idea and redundant algorithm, the adaptive redundant lifting transform based on fitting is firstly stated in this paper. By variable combination selections of basis function, sample number and dimension of basis function, a total of nine wavelets with different characteristics are constructed, which are respectively adopted to perform redundant lifting wavelet transforms on low-frequency approximate signals at each layer. Then the normalized lP norms of the new node-signal obtained through decomposition are calculated to adaptively determine the optimal wavelet for the decomposed approximate signal. Next, the original signal is taken for subsection power spectrum analysis to choose the node-signal for single branch reconstruction and demodulation. Experiment signals and engineering signals are respectively used to verify the above method and the results show that bearing faults can be diagnosed more effectively by the method presented here than by both spectrum analysis and demodulation analysis. Meanwhile, compared with the symmetrical wavelets constructed with Lagrange interpolation algorithm, the asymmetrical wavelets constructed based on data fitting are more suitable in feature extraction of fault signal of roller bearings. PMID:22666035

  2. 51. FRONT VIEW OF ELEVATOR LIFT IN 'CATFISH' SILO Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. FRONT VIEW OF ELEVATOR LIFT IN 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Status of NASA advanced LFC airfoil high-lift study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Z. T.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a high lift system for the NASA advanced LFC airfoil designed by Pfenninger is described. The high lift system consists of both leading and trailing edge flaps. A 3 meter semispan, 1 meter chord wing model using the above airfoil and high lift system is under construction and will be tested in the NASA Langley 4 by 7 meter tunnel. This model will have two separate full span leading edge flaps (0.10c and 0.12c) and one full span trailing edge flap (0.25c). The performance of this high lift system was predicted by the NASA two dimensional viscous multicomponent airfoil program. This program was also used to predict the characteristics of the LFC airfoils developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company and Lockheed-Georgia Aircraft Company.

  4. Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift platform segments away from the Shuttle assembly during testing. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  6. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFTING GEAR ON MULE AND RACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFTING GEAR ON MULE AND RACK ATTACHMENT BOOKS, LOOKING EAST - Nine Mile Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, State Highway 291 along Spokane River, Nine Mile Falls, Spokane County, WA

  7. Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock into the receiving room housed in the 1965 concrete block addition. - J.C. Lore Oyster House, 14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  8. 53. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SHEAVES FOR LIFT SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SHEAVES FOR LIFT SPAN OF SHOOFLY BRIDGE, January 10, 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. 19. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFT CABLES ON INSIDE FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFT CABLES ON INSIDE FACE OF YOLO COUNTY TOWER, LOOKING NORTH - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. 15. OVERALL VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF LIFT GATE SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OVERALL VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF LIFT GATE SECTION WITH TAINTER GATE SECTION OF SPILLWAY TO THE LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  11. 20. Vertical lift span, north tower, bascule span, and Warren ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Vertical lift span, north tower, bascule span, and Warren truss spans, facing north - Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge, Spanning Soo Locks at St. Marys Falls Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  12. Transonic wind-tunnel tests of a lifting parachute model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foughner, J. T., Jr.; Reed, J. F.; Wynne, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests have been made in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel on a 0.25-scale model of Sandia Laboratories' 3.96-meter (13-foot), slanted ribbon design, lifting parachute. The lifting parachute is the first stage of a proposed two-stage payload delivery system. The lifting parachute model was attached to a forebody representing the payload. The forebody was designed and installed in the test section in a manner which allowed rotational freedom about the pitch and yaw axes. Values of parachute axial force coefficient, rolling moment coefficient, and payload trim angles in pitch and yaw are presented through the transonic speed range. Data are presented for the parachute in both the reefed and full open conditions. Time history records of lifting parachute deployment and disreefing tests are included.

  13. 3. VIEW OF MOVEABLE SPAN IN LIFT POSITION, FROM SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF MOVEABLE SPAN IN LIFT POSITION, FROM SOUTH SIDE OF RIVER LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Pennsylvania Railroad, South Branch Chicago River Bridge, Spanning South Branch of Chicago River Bridge east of Canal Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  14. Unsteady transonic flow calculations for interfering lifting surface configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    Unsteady transonic flow calculations are presented for aerodynamically interfering lifting surface configurations. Calculations are performed by extending the XTRAN3S (Version 1.5) unsteady transonic small-disturbance code to allow the treatment of an additional lifting surface. The research was conducted as a first-step toward developing the capability to treat a complete flight vehicle. Grid generation procedures for swept tapered interfering lifting surface applications of XTRAN3S are described. Transonic calculations are presented for wing-tail and canard-wing configurations for several values of mean angle of attack. The effects of aerodynamic interference on transonic steady pressure distributions and steady and oscillatory spanwise lift distributions are demonstrated. Results due to wing, tail, or canard pitching motions are presented and discussed in detail.

  15. Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal truss work. River visible below through chain-link fence. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and gas generators. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal truss work. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Low cost lift-off process optimization for MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Shilpi; Bansal, Deepak; Panwar, Deepak; Shukla, Neha; Kumar, Arvind; Kothari, Prateek; Verma, Seema; Rangra, K. J.

    2016-04-01

    The patterning of thin films play major role in the performance of MEMS devices. The wet etching gives an isotropic profile and etch rate depends on the temperature, size of the microstructures and repetitive use of the solution. Even with the use of selective etchants, it significantly attacks the underlying layer. On the other side, dry etching is expensive process. In this paper, double layer of photoresist is optimized for lift-off process. Double layer lift-off technique offers process simplicity, low cost, over conventional single layer lift-off or bilayer lift-off with LOR. The problem of retention and flagging is resolved. The thickness of double coat photoresist is increased by 2.3 times to single coat photo resist.

  19. Control of turbofan lift engines for VTOL aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. F.; Szuch, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analytical study of the dynamics and control of turbofan lift engines, and proposes methods of meeting the response requirements imposed by the VTOL aircraft application. Two types of lift fan engines are discussed: the integral and remote. The integral engine is a conventional two-spool, high bypass ratio turbofan designed for low noise and short length. The remote engine employs a gas generator and a lift fan which are separated by a duct, and which need not be coaxial. For the integral engine, a control system design is presented which satisfies the VTOL response requirements. For the remote engine, two unconventional methods of control involving flow transfer between lift units are discussed.

  20. The unsteady lift of a wing of finite aspect ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert T

    1940-01-01

    Unsteady-lift functions for wings of finite aspect ratio have been calculated by correcting the aerodynamic inertia and the angle of attack of the infinite wing. The calculations are based on the operational method.