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1

A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms,…

Phelps, James L.

2011-01-01

2

Methods of analysis of heart rate variability in anesthetic practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation is aimed to estimate preliminarily the efficiency of the VHR-analysis application during operation as one of the methods for determination of the adequacy of anesthetic mean. Particularly, using the procedure of the determination of VNS tension index by Baevsky. Investigations were performed at Research Institute of Oncology and at Tomsk Regional Clinical Hospital. In Figs 1 and

A. V. Maneev; A. N. Rybakov

2002-01-01

3

A practical engineering method for the flutter analysis of long span bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a practical method for the determination of the onset of wind induced Flutter instabilities for long span bridges. The method is illustrated by presenting the results of analyses performed on suspension bridge structures subjected to aerodynamic loading. Finally, the paper presents and discusses the significance of the results obtained to date.

J. G. Beith

1998-01-01

4

Experience of using analysis methods of heart rate variability in anesthesiology practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to develop a means to estimate the practical efficiency of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in the perioperative period to help define the adequacy of anesthesia. By monitoring the patient's status with the help of the indicated agents, the adequacy of anesthesia can be estimated and early diagnostics of complications originating during an anesthesia can be provided.

A. N. Rybakov; A. V. Maneev

2003-01-01

5

Methods and practices used in incident analysis in the Finnish nuclear power industry.  

PubMed

According to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act it is licensee's responsibility to ensure safe use of nuclear energy. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is the regulatory body responsible for the state supervision of the safe use of nuclear power in Finland. One essential prerequisite for the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants is that lessons are learned from the operational experience. It is utility's prime responsibility to assess the operational events and implement appropriate corrective actions. STUK controls licensees' operational experience feedback arrangements and implementation as part of its inspection activities. In addition to this in Finland, the regulatory body performs its own assessment of the operational experience. Review and investigation of operational events is a part of the regulatory oversight of operational safety. Review of operational events is done by STUK basically at three different levels. First step is to perform a general review of all operational events, transients and reactor scram reports, which the licensees submit for information to STUK. The second level activities are related to the clarification of events at site and entering of events' specific data into the event register database of STUK. This is done for events which meet the set criteria for the operator to submit a special report to STUK for approval. Safety significance of operational events is determined using probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques. Risk significance of events and the number of safety significant events are followed by STUK indicators. The final step in operational event assessment performed by STUK is to assign STUK's own investigation team for events deemed to have special importance, especially when the licensee's organisation has not operated as planned. STUK launches its own detail investigation once a year on average. An analysis and evaluation of event investigation methods applied at STUK, and at the two Finnish nuclear power plant operators Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum) was carried out by the Technical Research Centre (VTT) on request of STUK at the end of 1990s. The study aimed at providing a broad overview and suggestions for improvement of the whole organisational framework to support event investigation practices at the regulatory body and at the utilities. The main objective of the research was to evaluate the adequacy and reliability of event investigation analysis methods and practices in the Finnish nuclear power industry and based on the results to further develop them. The results and suggestions of the research are reviewed in the paper and the corrective actions implemented in event investigation and operating experience procedures both at STUK and at utilities are discussed as well. STUK has developed its own procedure for the risk-informed analysis of nuclear power plant events. The PSA based event analysis method is used to assess the safety significance and importance measures associated with the unavailability of components and systems subject to Technical Specifications. The insights from recently performed PSA based analyses are also briefly discussed in the paper. PMID:15231350

Suksi, Seija

2004-07-26

6

A Practical Guide to Practice Analysis for Credentialing Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers recommendations for the conduct of practice analysis (i.e., job analysis) concerning these issues: (1) selecting a method of practice analysis; (2) developing rating scales; (3) determining the content of test plans; (4) using multi-variate procedures for structuring test plans; and (5) determining topic weights for test plans. (SLD)

Raymond, Mark R.

2002-01-01

7

Analysis of the upper massif of the craniofacial with the radial method - practical use  

PubMed Central

Introduction The analysis of the upper massif of the craniofacial (UMC) is widely used in many fields of science. The aim of the study was to create a high resolution computer system based on a digital information record and on vector graphics, that could enable dimension measuring and evaluation of craniofacial shape using the radial method. Material and methods The study was carried out on 184 skulls, in a good state of preservation, from the early middle ages. The examined skulls were fixed into Molisson's craniostat in the author's own modification. They were directed in space towards the Frankfurt plane and photographed in frontal norm with a digital camera. The parameters describing the plane and dimensional structure of the UMC and orbits were obtained thanks to the computer analysis of the function recordings picturing the craniofacial structures and using software combining raster graphics with vector graphics. Results It was compared mean values of both orbits separately for male and female groups. In female skulls the comparison of the left and right side did not show statistically significant differences. In male group, higher values were observed for the right side. Only the circularity index presented higher values for the left side. Conclusions Computer graphics with the software used for analysing digital pictures of UMC and orbits increase the precision of measurements as well as the calculation possibilities. Recognition of the face in the post mortem examination is crucial for those working on identification in anthropology and criminology laboratories.

Lepich, Tomasz; Dabek, Jozefa; Stompel, Daniel; Gielecki, Jerzy S.

2011-01-01

8

A practical method for reliability analysis of phased-mission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS Many practical systems are phased-mission systems where the mission consists of multiple, consecutive, nonoverlapping phases. For the mission to be a success, the system must operate successfully during each of the phases. In each phase, the system has to accomplish a specific task and may be subject to different stresses. Thus, the system configuration, success criteria, and

Suprasad V. Amari; ASQ CRE

2011-01-01

9

Analytical Validation of Quantitative High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Methods in Pharmaceutical Analysis: A Practical Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical validation is an essential component in allowing a laboratory to ensure routine acceptable performance of analytical methods. Despite the considerable amount of important published work on this subject, diversity still prevails in the employed methodologies because validation of an analytical method depends on the specific purpose of that method. This can lead to difficulties in validation approaches and the

Rudy Bonfilio; Edith Cristina Laignier Cazedey; Magali Benjamim de Araújo; Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado

2012-01-01

10

APA's Learning Objectives for Research Methods and Statistics in Practice: A Multimethod Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research methods and statistics courses constitute a core undergraduate psychology requirement. We analyzed course syllabi and faculty self-reported coverage of both research methods and statistics course learning objectives to assess the concordance with APA's learning objectives (American Psychological Association, 2007). We obtained a sample…

Tomcho, Thomas J.; Rice, Diana; Foels, Rob; Folmsbee, Leah; Vladescu, Jason; Lissman, Rachel; Matulewicz, Ryan; Bopp, Kara

2009-01-01

11

Practical Q? analysis method based on the Fermi-Kurie plot for spectra measured with total absorption BGO detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical method based on Fermi-Kurie plots was newly proposed in order to analyze ?-decay energy (Q?) measured with a total absorption BGO detector. The detector has large efficiencies; all ?-rays and subsequent ?-rays can be absorbed simultaneously, and the endpoint energy of the spectrum shows the Q?. In the spectrum, different ?-rays having maximum endpoint energies and forbiddenness are superimposed. To apply this method to the measured spectra, in addition to a simplified decay scheme that has a one-component ?-ray fed to a pseudo-level E?, a mixed transition of the allowed and the unique-type first-forbidden transitions with a ratio of ? was newly taken into account. Using the theoretical ?-ray spectra, we verified that the Q? can be deduced without information about the decay scheme, and described the dependences of the derived Q? on E? and ?. We also checked the reliability of this method by analyzing the spectra of fission products of 91-94Rb, 139-143Cs, 142Ba and 142,144La, which had well-determined Q? up to 11 MeV. Consequently, we proposed that this method was applicable for analyzing spectra with a systematic uncertainty of 60 keV, when the analyzing regions were limited to about 1 MeV below the Q?. Then, this method was also applied for re-analysis of the Q? of neutron-rich rare earth nuclei.

Hayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Yasuaki; Shibata, Michihiro; Kawade, Kiyoshi

2010-01-01

12

A practical method for assessing cadmium levels in soil using the DTPA extraction technique with graphite furnace analysis  

SciTech Connect

Using the DTPA extraction procedure and a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, a practical method for determining soil cadmium levels was developed. Furnace parameters, instrument parameters, solvent dilution factor, and solvent characteristics were determined using experimental field samples and standardized control samples. The DTPA extraction method gave reproducible results and removed approximately 20 to 60% of total soil cadmium. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

Bailey, V.L.; Grant, C.A.; Bailey, L.D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Manitoba (Canada)] [and others

1995-09-01

13

A Critical Analysis of SocINDEX and Sociological Abstracts Using an Evaluation Method for the Practicing Bibliographer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides a database evaluation method for the practicing bibliographer that is more than a brief review yet less than a controlled experiment. The author establishes evaluation criteria in the context of the bibliographic instruction provided to meet the research requirements of undergraduate sociology majors at Queens College, City…

Mellone, James T.

2010-01-01

14

A Critical Analysis of SocINDEX and Sociological Abstracts Using an Evaluation Method for the Practicing Bibliographer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study provides a database evaluation method for the practicing bibliographer that is more than a brief review yet less than a controlled experiment. The author establishes evaluation criteria in the context of the bibliographic instruction provided to meet the research requirements of undergraduate sociology majors at Queens College, City…

Mellone, James T.

2010-01-01

15

Insight into Evaluation Practice: A Content Analysis of Designs and Methods Used in Evaluation Studies Published in North American Evaluation-Focused Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To describe the recent practice of evaluation, specifically method and design choices, the authors performed a content analysis on 117 evaluation studies published in eight North American evaluation-focused journals for a 3-year period (2004-2006). The authors chose this time span because it follows the scientifically based research (SBR)…

Christie, Christina A.; Fleischer, Dreolin Nesbitt

2010-01-01

16

Making Archetypal Analysis Practical  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archetypal analysis represents the members of a set of multivariate data as a convex combination of extremal points of the data. It allows for dimensionality reduction and clustering and is particularly useful whenever the data are superpositions of basic entities. However, since its computation costs grow quadratically with the number of data points, the original algorithm hardly applies to modern pattern recognition or data mining settings. In this paper, we introduce ways of notably accelerating archetypal analysis. Our experiments are the first successful application of the technique to large scale data analysis problems.

Bauckhage, Christian; Thurau, Christian

17

Automotive Marketing Methods and Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a comprehensive examination of the current marketing practices, marketing methodologies, and decision-making processes utilized by the domestic automotive industry. The various marketing elements, such as products, consumer behavior, sales, ...

P. Braden S. Marshak R. Whorf

1979-01-01

18

Recommended practices in global sensitivity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practices for global sensitivity analysis of model output are described in a recent textbook (Saltelli et al., 2007). These include (i) variance based techniques for general use in modelling, (ii) the elementary effect method for\\u000a factor screening for factors-rich models and (iii) Monte Carlo filtering. In the present work we try to put the practices\\u000a into the context of their

Andrea Saltelli; Daniele Vidoni; Massimiliano Mascherini

19

Statistical Analysis of Individual Participant Data Meta-Analyses: A Comparison of Methods and Recommendations for Practice  

PubMed Central

Background Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses that obtain “raw” data from studies rather than summary data typically adopt a “two-stage” approach to analysis whereby IPD within trials generate summary measures, which are combined using standard meta-analytical methods. Recently, a range of “one-stage” approaches which combine all individual participant data in a single meta-analysis have been suggested as providing a more powerful and flexible approach. However, they are more complex to implement and require statistical support. This study uses a dataset to compare “two-stage” and “one-stage” models of varying complexity, to ascertain whether results obtained from the approaches differ in a clinically meaningful way. Methods and Findings We included data from 24 randomised controlled trials, evaluating antiplatelet agents, for the prevention of pre-eclampsia in pregnancy. We performed two-stage and one-stage IPD meta-analyses to estimate overall treatment effect and to explore potential treatment interactions whereby particular types of women and their babies might benefit differentially from receiving antiplatelets. Two-stage and one-stage approaches gave similar results, showing a benefit of using anti-platelets (Relative risk 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97). Neither approach suggested that any particular type of women benefited more or less from antiplatelets. There were no material differences in results between different types of one-stage model. Conclusions For these data, two-stage and one-stage approaches to analysis produce similar results. Although one-stage models offer a flexible environment for exploring model structure and are useful where across study patterns relating to types of participant, intervention and outcome mask similar relationships within trials, the additional insights provided by their usage may not outweigh the costs of statistical support for routine application in syntheses of randomised controlled trials. Researchers considering undertaking an IPD meta-analysis should not necessarily be deterred by a perceived need for sophisticated statistical methods when combining information from large randomised trials.

Stewart, Gavin B.; Altman, Douglas G.; Askie, Lisa M.; Duley, Lelia; Simmonds, Mark C.; Stewart, Lesley A.

2012-01-01

20

Practical method for analysis and design of slender reinforced concrete columns subjected to biaxial bending and axial loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reinforced and concrete-encased composite columns of arbitrarily shaped cross sections subjected to biaxial bending and axial loads are commonly used in many structures. For this purpose, an iterative numerical procedure for the strength analysis and design of short and slender reinforced concrete columns with a square cross section under biaxial bending and an axial load by using an EC2 stress-strain model is presented in this paper. The computational procedure takes into account the nonlinear behavior of the materials (i.e., concrete and reinforcing bars) and includes the second - order effects due to the additional eccentricity of the applied axial load by the Moment Magnification Method. The ability of the proposed method and its formulation has been tested by comparing its results with the experimental ones reported by some authors. This comparison has shown that a good degree of agreement and accuracy between the experimental and theoretical results have been obtained. An average ratio (proposed to test) of 1.06 with a deviation of 9% is achieved.

Bouzid, T.; Demagh, K.

2011-03-01

21

[Practical method for morphometric reliefs].  

PubMed

This morphometric method consists in: - to photograph, during culture's period, with constant magnification, the organ rudiment explanted in vitro; - to place on the single images, in printing, a transparent squared reticle with size unit known; - to compute the size values of the considered image counting the number of reticle's squares comprised in the image. PMID:7295411

Loffredo Sampaolo, C; Sampaolo, G; Gagliardi, P E; Alfano, A

1981-07-30

22

Building environmental assessment methods: assessing construction practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the environmental issues associated with the building construction process and the way in which they are currently represented in building environmental assessment methods. The primary goal is to identify the practical and methodological reasons for their scant inclusion and to offer arguments to redress this situation. Despite the difficulties of assessing management practices, their inclusion within

Raymond J. Cole

2000-01-01

23

Practical method for analysis and design of slender reinforced concrete columns subjected to biaxial bending and axial loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinforced and concrete-encased composite columns of arbitrarily shaped cross sections subjected to biaxial bending and axial loads are commonly used in many structures. For this purpose, an iterative numerical procedure for the strength analysis and design of short and slender reinforced concrete columns with a square cross section under biaxial bending and an axial load by using an EC2 stress-strain

T. Bouzid; K. Demagh

2011-01-01

24

Assessment of management in general practice: validation of a practice visit method.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Practice management (PM) in general practice is as yet ill-defined; a systematic description of its domain, as well as a valid method to assess it, are necessary for research and assessment. AIM: To develop and validate a method to assess PM of general practitioners (GPs) and practices. METHOD: Relevant and potentially discriminating indicators were selected from a systematic framework of 2410 elements of PM to be used in an assessment method (VIP = visit instrument PM). The method was first tested in a pilot study and, after revision, was evaluated in order to select discriminating indicators and to determine validity of dimensions (factor and reliability analysis, linear regression). RESULTS: One hundred and ten GPs were assessed with the practice visit method using 249 indicators; 208 of these discriminated sufficiently at practice level or at GP level. Factor analysis resulted in 34 dimensions and in a taxonomy of PM. Dimensions and indicators showed marked variation between GPs and practices. Training practices scored higher on five dimensions; single-handed and dispensing practices scored lower on delegated tasks, but higher on accessibility and availability. CONCLUSION: A visit method to assess PM has been developed and its validity studied systematically. The taxonomy and dimensions of PM were in line with other classifications. Selection of a balanced number of useful and relevant indicators was nevertheless difficult. The dimensions could discriminate between groups of GPs and practices, establishing the value of the method for assessment. The VIP method could be an important contribution to the introduction of continuous quality improvement in the profession.

van den Hombergh, P; Grol, R; van den Hoogen, H J; van den Bosch, W J

1998-01-01

25

Experiences Applying a Practical Architectural Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Software architecture has come to be recognized as a disci - pline distinct from software design Over the past ve years, we have been developing and testing a practical software architecture method at the MITRE Software Center The method begins with an initial state - ment of system goals, the purchaser's vision for the system, and needs , an

David E. Emery; Richard F. Hilliard II; Timothy B. Rice

1996-01-01

26

Statistical log analysis made practical  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the advantages of a statistical approach to log analysis. Statistical techniques use inverse methods to calculate formation parameters. The use of statistical techniques has been limited, however, by the complexity of the mathematics and lengthy computer time required to minimize traditionally used nonlinear equations.

Mitchell, W.K.; Nelson, R.J. (Oryx Energy Co., Dallas, TX (US))

1991-06-01

27

Exergy analysis: Principles and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of the goal of developing systems that effectively use nonrenewable energy resources such as oil, natural gas, and coal is apparent. The method of exergy analysis is well suited for furthering this goal, for it enables the location, type and true magnitude of waste and loss to be determined. Such information can be used to design new systems

M. J. Moran; E. Sciubba

1994-01-01

28

Exergy analysis: Principles and practice  

SciTech Connect

The importance of the goal of developing systems that effectively use nonrenewable energy resources such as oil, natural gas, and coal is apparent. The method of exergy analysis is well suited for furthering this goal, for it enables the location, type and true magnitude of waste and loss to be determined. Such information can be used to design new systems and to reduce the inefficiency of existing systems. This paper provides a brief survey of both exergy principles and the current literature of exergy analysis with emphasis on areas of application.

Moran, M.J. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Sciubba, E. (Univ. di Roma (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica e Aeronautica)

1994-04-01

29

Practical methods for designing medical training simulators.  

PubMed

We reviewed several approaches in literature used in the design process of medical training simulators. We have collected a set of useful practical methods which should help to efficiently derive a well-founded design for a specific surgical intervention in a structured manner. PMID:21335804

Knott, Thomas; Ullrich, Sebastian; Kuhlen, Torsten

2011-01-01

30

Integral analysis method - IAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the theoretical foundations of the new integral analysis method (IAM), and its application to a facility location problem. This methodology integrates the cardinal and ordinal criteria of combinatorial stochastic optimization problems in four stages: definition of the problem, cardinal analysis, ordinal analysis and integration analysis. The method uses the concepts of stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA), Monte

Rafael Guillermo García Cáceres; Julián Arturo Aráoz Durand; Fernando Palacios Gómez

2009-01-01

31

Generalization practices in qualitative research: a mixed methods case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this mixed methods case study was to examine the generalization practices in qualitative research published\\u000a in a reputable qualitative journal. In order to accomplish this, all qualitative research articles published in Qualitative Report since its inception in 1990 (n =  273) were examined. A quantitative analysis of the all 125 empirical qualitative research articles revealed that a

Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie; Nancy L. Leech

2010-01-01

32

On the Need for Practical Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A controversial issue in the formal methods community is the degree to which mathematical sophistication and theorem proving skills should be needed to apply a formal method. A fundamental assumption of this paper is that formal methods research has produced several classes of analysis that can prove useful in software development. However, to be useful to software practitioners, most of

Constance L. Heitmeyer

1998-01-01

33

Scenario analysis and strategic planning: practical applications for radiology practices.  

PubMed

Modern business science has many tools that can be of great value to radiologists and their practices. One of the most important and underused is long-term planning. Part of the problem has been the pace of change. Making a 5-year plan makes sense only if your develop robust scenarios of possible future conditions you will face. Scenario analysis is one of many highly regarded tools that can improve your predictive capability. However, as with many tools, it pays to have some training and to get practical tips on how to improve their value. It also helps to learn from other people's mistakes rather than your own. The authors discuss both theoretical and practical issues in using scenario analysis to improve your planning process. They discuss actionable ways this set of tools can be applied in a group meeting or retreat. PMID:20439081

Lexa, Frank James; Chan, Stephen

2010-05-01

34

Practical Considerations for Using Exploratory Factor Analysis in Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The uses and methodology of factor analysis are widely debated and discussed, especially the issues of rotational use, methods of confirmatory factor analysis, and adequate sample size. The variety of perspectives and often conflicting opinions can lead to confusion among researchers about best practices for using factor analysis. The focus of…

Beavers, Amy S.; Lounsbury, John W.; Richards, Jennifer K.; Huck, Schuyler W.; Skolits, Gary J.; Esquivel, Shelley L.

2013-01-01

35

Product Line Analysis: A Practical Introduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Product line analysis applies established modeling techniques to engineer the requirements for a product line of software-intensive systems. This report provides a practical introduction to product line requirements modeling. It describes product line ana...

G. Chastek P. Donohoe K. C. Kang S. Thiel

2001-01-01

36

A practical and nontarnishing method for the analysis of trace nickel in hydrogenated cottonseed oil by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry with pressurized PTFE vessel acid digestion.  

PubMed

A practical and nontarnishing method for the determination of trace nickel (Ni) in hydrogenated cottonseed oil by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) was developed. In order to avoid tarnishing in the pretreatment of samples, the technology of pressurized PTFE vessel acid digestion was applied. The temperature and acid content in the digestion were optimized. The results showed that hydrogenated cottonseed oil could be digested completely by the proposed method. Compared with the U.S. Pharmacopeia 28 and British Pharmacopoeia 2003 methods, the developed method avoided the risk of using platinum and the tarnish from silica crucibles. In addition, the analytical cycle of the test solution was shortened by the use of ICP/MS instead of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. PMID:20334194

Zhang, Ni; Ding, Zhiying; Li, Hao; Wang, Xin; Shao, Xiaodong

37

Practical Analysis of Nutritional Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online textbook, created by faculty members at Tulane University, provides information on the statistical analysis of nutritional data. Techniques covered include data cleaning, descriptive statistics, histograms, graphics, scatterplots, outlier identification, regression and correlation, confounding, and interactions. Each chapter includes exercises with real data and self-tests to be used with SPSS. Additionally, the site contains information on using SPSS for statistical testing, the basics of Epi-info, and the basics of Stat Analysis. The programs requires a operating system of Windows 95 or later.

2009-03-12

38

Systemic accident analysis: examining the gap between research and practice.  

PubMed

The systems approach is arguably the dominant concept within accident analysis research. Viewing accidents as a result of uncontrolled system interactions, it forms the theoretical basis of various systemic accident analysis (SAA) models and methods. Despite the proposed benefits of SAA, such as an improved description of accident causation, evidence within the scientific literature suggests that these techniques are not being used in practice and that a research-practice gap exists. The aim of this study was to explore the issues stemming from research and practice which could hinder the awareness, adoption and usage of SAA. To achieve this, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 42 safety experts from ten countries and a variety of industries, including rail, aviation and maritime. This study suggests that the research-practice gap should be closed and efforts to bridge the gap should focus on ensuring that systemic methods meet the needs of practitioners and improving the communication of SAA research. PMID:23542136

Underwood, Peter; Waterson, Patrick

2013-03-13

39

An Online Forum As a Qualitative Research Method: Practical Issues  

PubMed Central

Background Despite positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known about practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical issues that the researchers encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Method Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranged from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of discussions were reviewed and analyzed using the content analysis suggested by Weber. Results Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: a high response and retention rate and automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants’ easy forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. Discussion The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method.

Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

2008-01-01

40

Exploratory and Confirmatory Analysis of the Trauma Practices Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The present study provides psychometric data for the Trauma Practices Questionnaire (TPQ). Method: A nationally randomized sample of 2,400 surveys was sent to self-identified trauma treatment specialists, and 711 (29.6%) were returned. Results: An exploratory factor analysis (N = 319) conducted on a randomly split sample (RSS) revealed…

Craig, Carlton D.; Sprang, Ginny

2009-01-01

41

A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical step-by-step guide to wavelet analysis is given, with examples taken from time series of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The guide includes a comparison to the windowed Fourier transform, the choice of an appropriate wavelet basis function, edge effects due to finite-length time series, and the relationship between wavelet scale and Fourier frequency. New statistical significance tests for

Christopher Torrence; Gilbert P. Compo

1998-01-01

42

PRACTICAL STEREOLOGICAL METHODS FOR MORPHOMETRIC CYTOLOGY  

PubMed Central

Stereological principles provide efficient and reliable tools for the determination of quantitative parameters of tissue structure on sections. Some principles which allow the estimation of volumetric ratios, surface areas, surface-to-volume ratios, thicknesses of tissue or cell sheets, and the number of structures are reviewed and presented in general form; means for their practical application in electron microscopy are outlined. The systematic and statistical errors involved in such measurements are discussed.

Weibel, Ewald R.; Kistler, Gonzague S.; Scherle, Walter F.

1966-01-01

43

Qualitative data analysis: conceptual and practical considerations.  

PubMed

Qualitative inquiry requires that collected data is organised in a meaningful way, and this is referred to as data analysis. Through analytic processes, researchers turn what can be voluminous data into understandable and insightful analysis. This paper sets out the different approaches that qualitative researchers can use to make sense of their data including thematic analysis, narrative analysis, discourse analysis and semiotic analysis and discusses the ways that qualitative researchers can analyse their data. I first discuss salient issues in performing qualitative data analysis, and then proceed to provide some suggestions on different methods of data analysis in qualitative research. Finally, I provide some discussion on the use of computer-assisted data analysis. PMID:19642962

Liamputtong, Pranee

2009-08-01

44

The Feldenkrais Method: application, practice and principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Feldenkrais Method provides an opportunity for neuromucular re-education through sensory-motor awareness. This paper provides a brief description of the application of the Method, discusses the two interrelated modes of instruction (Awareness Through Movement [ATM] and Functional Integration [FI]) and highlights some of the principles used in the Feldenkrais Method. An ATM lesson and a case study using FI are

Tanya S. K. Lyttle

1997-01-01

45

The 5-Step Method: Principles and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article includes a description of the 5-Step Method. First, the origins and theoretical basis of the method are briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the general principles that guide the delivery of the method. Each step is then described in more detail, including the content and focus of each of the five steps that…

Copello, Alex; Templeton, Lorna; Orford, Jim; Velleman, Richard

2010-01-01

46

SCR: A Practical Method for Requirements Specification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A controversial issue in the formal methods research community is the degree to which mathematical sophistication and theorem proving skills should be needed to apply a formal method. A premise of this paper is that formal methods research has produced se...

C. Heitmeyer

1998-01-01

47

Number-theoretic method for practical indexing of crystal directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents new number-theoretic approaches to the solution of orientation problems in single crystal studies. A fast method for indexing any rational crystal lattice direction was developed to be a new 3D generalization of the Euclid algorithm. Based on the latter, a method for indexing directions in any crystal lattice was developed, where the practical problem is reduced to the search of the shortest primitive lattice vector within a certain angular error for the direction in analysis. A multipurpose personal computer system for testing both real and reciprocal lattices of familiar crystals is devised. The compact-in-memory software represents a principally new ``bottomless'' atlas of any crystal stereographic projections, where each point of the projection field is indexed within a desired accuracy.

Sheremetyev, I. A.; Gorfman, S. V.

2001-09-01

48

A practical method of macrophotography in microsurgery.  

PubMed

A simple method to take macrophotographs that show details even in the microsurgical field was discussed. The method uses any single lens up to 80 mm or any zoom lens in the reverse position with a single-lens reflex camera. In this manner, high reproduction ratios larger than the actual size of the object can be achieved. PMID:10809108

Seradjmir, M; Bayramiçli, M

2000-04-01

49

Visionlearning: Research Methods: The Practice of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This instructional module introduces four types of research methods: experimentation, description, comparison, and modeling. It was developed to help learners understand that the classic definition of the "scientific method" does not capture the dynamic nature of science investigation. As learners explore each methodology, they develop an understanding of why scientists use multiple methods to gather data and develop hypotheses. It is appropriate for introductory physics or chemistry courses. This resource is part of Visionlearning, an award-winning set of classroom-tested modules for science education.

Carpi, Anthony; Egger, Anne

2010-10-01

50

Surface analysis methods  

SciTech Connect

This workshop proposes a strategy for improving measurements of dry deposition so that the uncertainty in dry deposition is no longer the dominant uncertainty regarding model predictions of the fate and effects of dry deposition. This near term need of National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program provided guidance for the activities of the group during the workshop. The objectives of the panel on surface analysis methods were as follows: (1) Critique various surface analysis approaches for their capabilities in routine monitoring and research; and determine their limitations, with respect to addressable chemical species, accuracy, and results expected by 1990; (2) develop a program for the remainder of NAPAP to address needs in dry deposition measurements, and an extension of this program beyond NAPAP in the general area of atmosphere/canopy exchange processes.

Lindberg, S.E.; Davidson, C.I.; Bondietti, E.A.; Graustein, W.C.; Livingston, R.; Lovett, G.; Peters, J.

1986-01-01

51

Quality and methods of developing practice guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is not known whether there are differences in the quality and recommendations between evidence-based (EB) and consensus-based (CB) guidelines. We used breast cancer guidelines as a case study to assess for these differences. METHODS: Five different instruments to evaluate the quality of guidelines were identified by a literature search. We also searched MEDLINE and the Internet to locate

Hugh Cruse; Magdalena Winiarek; Jan Marshburn; Otavio Clark; Benjamin Djulbegovic

2002-01-01

52

Generalized Multicoincidence Analysis Methods  

SciTech Connect

The ability to conduct automated trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point would provide a valuable tool for emergency response, nuclear forensics and environmental monitoring. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing systems for this purpose based on dual gamma-ray spectrometers, e.g. NaI(TI) or HPGe, combined with thin organic scintillator sensors to detect light charged particles. Translating the coincident signatures recorded by these systems, which include , and , into the concentration of detectable radionuclides in the sample requires generalized multicoincidence analysis tools. The development and validation of the Coincidence Lookup Library, which currently contains the probabilities of single and coincidence signatures from more than 420 isotopes, is described. Also discussed is a method to calculate the probability of observing a coincidence signature which incorporates true coincidence summing effects. These effects are particularly important for high-geometric-efficiency detection systems. Finally, a process for validating the integrated analysis software package is demonstrated using GEANT 4 simulations of the prototype detector systems.

Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ellis, J. E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Mengesha, Wondwosen

2005-10-01

53

A computationally practical method for stochastic groundwater modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic theories of subsurface flow and transport have changed the way we think about heterogeneity but have not had much impact on practical groundwater modeling. Most numerical models still provide no information on prediction uncertainty. This gap between theory and practice is due largely to the excessive computational demands of available numerical methods for solving stochastic problems. The two primary

Shu-Guang Li; Dennis McLaughlin; Hua-Sheng Liao

2003-01-01

54

Optimizing Distributed Practice: Theoretical Analysis and Practical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than a century of research shows that increasing the gap between study episodes using the same material can enhance retention, yet little is known about how this so-called distributed practice effect unfolds over nontrivial periods. In two three-session laboratory studies, we examined the effects of gap on retention of foreign vocabulary, facts, and names of visual objects, with test

Nicholas J. Cepeda; Noriko Coburn; Doug Rohrer; John T. Wixted; Michael C. Mozer; Harold Pashler

2009-01-01

55

A practical approach for nonlinear analysis of tensegrity systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensegrity systems are lightweight structures composed of cables and struts. The nonlinear behavior of tensegrity systems\\u000a is critical; therefore, the design of these types of structures is relatively complex. In the present study, a practical and\\u000a efficient approach for geometrical nonlinear analysis of tensegrity systems is proposed. The approach is based on the point\\u000a iterative method. Static equilibrium equations are

Ayhan NuhogluKasim; Kasim Armagan Korkmaz

56

Practice-Near and Practice-Distant Methods in Human Services Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses practice-near research in human services, a cluster of methodologies that may include thick description, intensive reflexivity, and the study of emotional and relational processes. Such methods aim to get as near as possible to experiences at the relational interface between institutions and the practice field.…

Froggett, Lynn; Briggs, Stephen

2012-01-01

57

Practical considerations for a method of rapid cardiac function analysis based on three-dimensional speckle tracking in a three-dimensional diagnostic ultrasound system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of our novel 3D speckle tracking method by using numerical data, and\\u000a to demonstrate the rapid processing of this method by using data obtained from human subjects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In order to create a method that can rapidly assess cardiac function in regional heart wall segments, a 3D speckle tracking\\u000a algorithm was

Tomoyuki Takeguchi; Masahide Nishiura; Yasuhiko Abe; Hiroyuki Ohuchi; Tetsuya Kawagishi

2010-01-01

58

Methods of Spectral Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CONTENTS (Translations of Chapters 20 and 21 of 'Analysis of Luminescence', Section 5, Moscow Univ. Pub. House, 1962). Chapter 20, CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LUMINESCENCE: Excitation and recording of radiance during the qualitative and quantitative analysis of ...

V. L. Levshin

1966-01-01

59

Practical Issues in Component Aging Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines practical issues in the statistical analysis of component aging data. These issues center on the stochastic process chosen to model component failures. The two stochastic processes examined are repair same as new, leading to a renewal process, and repair same as old, leading to a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Under the first assumption, times between failures can treated as statistically independent observations from a stationary process. The common distribution of the times between failures is called the renewal distribution. Under the second process, the times between failures will not be independently and identically distributed, and one cannot simply fit a renewal distribution to the cumulative failure times or the times between failures. The paper illustrates how the assumption made regarding the repair process is crucial to the analysis. Besides the choice of stochastic process, other issues that are discussed include qualitative graphical analysis and simple nonparametric hypothesis tests to help judge which process appears more appropriate. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the issues discussed in the paper.

Dana L. Kelly; Andrei Rodionov; Jens Uwe-Klugel

2008-09-01

60

Practical Applications of Student Response Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes teacher usage of the microcomputer programs Test Analysis Package (TAP) and Student Problem Package (SPP) to analyze students' test item responses. These methods of organizing, analyzing, and reporting test results have proven useful to classroom teachers. The TAP consists of four integrated microcomputer programs to edit,…

Switzer, Deborah M.; Connell, Michael L.

61

Multi-criteria decision analysis: Limitations, pitfalls, and practical difficulties  

SciTech Connect

The 2002 Winter Olympics women's figure skating competition is used as a case study to illustrate some of the limitations, pitfalls, and practical difficulties of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). The paper compares several widely used models for synthesizing the multiple attributes into a single aggregate value. The various MCDA models can provide conflicting rankings of the alternatives for a common set of information even under states of certainty. Analysts involved in MCDA need to deal with the following challenging tasks: (1) selecting an appropriate analysis method, and (2) properly interpreting the results. An additional trap is the availability of software tools that implement specific MCDA models that can beguile the user with quantitative scores. These conclusions are independent of the decision domain and they should help foster better MCDA practices in many fields including systems engineering trade studies.

Kujawski, Edouard

2003-02-01

62

Optimizing distributed practice: theoretical analysis and practical implications.  

PubMed

More than a century of research shows that increasing the gap between study episodes using the same material can enhance retention, yet little is known about how this so-called distributed practice effect unfolds over nontrivial periods. In two three-session laboratory studies, we examined the effects of gap on retention of foreign vocabulary, facts, and names of visual objects, with test delays up to 6 months. An optimal gap improved final recall by up to 150%. Both studies demonstrated nonmonotonic gap effects: Increases in gap caused test accuracy to initially sharply increase and then gradually decline. These results provide new constraints on theories of spacing and confirm the importance of cumulative reviews to promote retention over meaningful time periods. PMID:19439395

Cepeda, Nicholas J; Coburn, Noriko; Rohrer, Doug; Wixted, John T; Mozer, Michael C; Pashler, Harold

2009-01-01

63

A simple and practical method for evaluating machine translation quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a simple and cost effective evaluation method based on post-editing. The results of an experiment using this method, to investigate the improvement of an MT system over time are given, along with some practicalities in carrying through the evaluation (time, effort etc.)

Stephen Minnis

1994-01-01

64

Methods of gas analysis  

SciTech Connect

Methods for sampling, calibrating, and analyzing for helium, impurities in helium, and natural gases are described. These methods were developed by the US Bureau of Mines to assist in the processing of natural gas for helium recovery. 35 refs.

Emerson, D.E. (Bureau of Mines, Amarillo, TX (United States))

1993-01-01

65

ANALYSIS OF IMPLICIT LES METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implicit LES methods are numerical methods that capture the energy-containing and inertial ranges of turbulent flows, while relying on their own intrinsic dissi- pation to act as a subgrid model. We present a scheme-dependent Kolmogorov scaling analysis of the solutions produced by such methods. From this analysis we can define an effective Reynolds number for implicit LES simulations of inviscid

ANDREW ASPDEN; NIKOS NIKIFORAKIS; STUART DALZIEL; JOHN B. BELL

2008-01-01

66

That's another story: narrative methods and ethical practice  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the use of case studies in ethics education. While not dismissing their value for specific purposes, the paper shows the limits of their use. While agreeing that case studies are narratives, although rather thin stories, the paper argues that the claim that case studies could represent reality is difficult to sustain. Instead, the paper suggests a way of using stories in ethics teaching that could be more real for students, while also giving them a way of thinking about their own professional practices. The paper shows how the method can be used to develop a more critical and reflective practice for students in the health care professions. Some immediate problems with the method are discussed. Key Words: Case study • narrative • reflexivity • identity • ethical practice

Carson, A.

2001-01-01

67

Communication Network Analysis Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…

Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy

68

Practical challenges in the method of controlled Lagrangians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of controlled Lagrangians is an energy shaping control technique for underactuated Lagrangian systems. Energy shaping control design methods are appealing as they retain the underlying nonlinear dynamics and can provide stability results that hold over larger domain than can be obtained using linear design and analysis. The objective of this dissertation is to identify the control challenges in applying the method of controlled Lagrangians to practical engineering problems and to suggest ways to enhance the closed-loop performance of the controller. This dissertation describes a procedure for incorporating artificial gyroscopic forces in the method of controlled Lagrangians. Allowing these energy-conserving forces in the closed-loop system provides greater freedom in tuning closed-loop system performance and expands the class of eligible systems. In energy shaping control methods, physical dissipation terms that are neglected in the control design may enter the system in a way that can compromise stability. This is well illustrated through the "ball on a beam" example. The effect of physical dissipation on the closed-loop dynamics is studied in detail and conditions for stability in the presence of natural damping are discussed. The control technique is applied to the classic "inverted pendulum on a cart" system. A nonlinear controller is developed which asymptotically stabilizes the inverted equilibrium at a specific cart position for the conservative dynamic model. The region of attraction contains all states for which the pendulum is elevated above the horizontal plane. Conditions for asymptotic stability in the presence of linear damping are developed. The nonlinear controller is validated through experiments. Experimental cart damping is best modeled using static and Coulomb friction. Experiments show that static and Coulomb friction degrades the closed-loop performance and induces limit cycles. A Lyapunov-based switching controller is proposed and successfully implemented to suppress the limit cycle oscillations. The Lyapunov-based controller switches between the energy shaping nonlinear controller, for states away from the equilibrium, and a well-tuned linear controller, for states close to the equilibrium. The method of controlled Lagrangians is applied to vehicle systems with internal moving point mass actuators. Applications of moving mass actuators include certain spacecraft, atmospheric re-entry vehicles, and underwater vehicles. Control design using moving mass actuators is challenging; the system is often underactuated and multibody dynamic models are higher dimensional. We consider two examples to illustrate the application of controlled Lagrangian formulation. The first example is a spinning disk, a simplified, planar version of a spacecraft spin stabilization problem. The second example is a planar, streamlined underwater vehicle.

Chevva, Konda Reddy

69

Meta-Analysis of Family-Centered Helpgiving Practices Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis of 47 studies investigating the relationship between family-centered helpgiving practices and parent, family, and child behavior and functioning is reported. The studies included more than 11,000 participants from seven different countries. Data analysis was guided by a practice-based theory of family-centered helpgiving that…

Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.

2007-01-01

70

Using practice analysis to improve the certifying examinations for PAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

hat do physician assistants (PAs) do, how skilled are they in performing these activities, and how important are these activities? For many pro- fessions, a practice analysis provides the link between examination con- tent and real-world performance. A practice analysis is a systematic plan to study a profession and a critical step in developing a psychometrically sound and realistic credentialing

Scott Arbet; Janet Lathrop; Roderick S. Hooker

71

Practical Teaching Methods K-6: Sparking the Flame of Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides state-of-the-art teaching practices and methods, discussing the elements of good teaching in the content areas and including examples from real classrooms and library media centers. Chapters offer reflection exercises, assessment tips specific to each curriculum, and resource lists. Nine chapters examine: (1) "The Premise"…

Wilkinson, Pamela Fannin.; McNutt, Margaret A.; Friedman, Esther S.

72

Method for Tissue Hemoglobin Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A colorimetric method for analysis of the red cell content of tissues is described, and compared with an independent radioassay method. The introduced method is based upon acid extraction of tissue, treatment with base, and adsorption of the remaining turbidity with lauryl sulfate. Preliminary data are presented on the reproducibility of the colorimetric method on multiple biopsies of the canine

Daniel Andersen; William C. Shoemaker

73

[A method for the implementation and promotion of access to comprehensive and complementary primary healthcare practices].  

PubMed

The rendering of integrated and complementary practices in the Brazilian Unified Health System is fostered to increase the comprehensiveness of care and access to same, though it is a challenge to incorporate them into the services. Our objective is to provide a simple method of implementation of such practices in Primary Healthcare, derived from analysis of experiences in municipalities, using partial results of a master's thesis that employed research-action methodology. The method involves four stages: 1 - defininition of a nucleus responsible for implementation and consolidation thereof; 2 - situational analysis, with definition of the existing competent professionals; 3 - regulation, organization of access and legitimation; and 4 - implementation cycle: local plans, mentoring and ongoing education in health. The phases are described, justified and briefly discussed. The method encourages the development of rational and sustainable actions, sponsors participatory management, the creation of comprehensivenessand the broadening of care provided in Primary Healthcare by offering progressive and sustainable comprehensive and complementary practices. PMID:23175308

Santos, Melissa Costa; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale

2012-11-01

74

Review of Job Analysis Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this IC is to discuss how job analysis methods taken from different disciplines can be used together to form a more complete picture of jobs in the mining industry. The term 'job analysis' can be a method of breaking a job into tasks in ord...

J. K. Kuenzi

1995-01-01

75

Method for Cognitive Task Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for cognitive task analysis is described based on the notion of 'generic tasks'. The method distinguishes three layers of analysis. At the first layer, the task structure, top-level goals of a certain task are identified that have to be fulfilled...

A. M. Schaafstal J. M. Schraagen

1992-01-01

76

Gait analysis methods in rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Brand's four reasons for clinical tests and his analysis of the characteristics of valid biomechanical tests for use in orthopaedics are taken as a basis for determining what methodologies are required for gait analysis in a clinical rehabilitation context. MEASUREMENT METHODS IN CLINICAL GAIT ANALYSIS: The state of the art of optical systems capable of measuring the positions of

Richard Baker; Hugh Williamson; Gait CCRE

2006-01-01

77

Hydraulic fracture analysis method  

SciTech Connect

A method of determining the orientation of a hydraulic fracture plane in the earth is described, consisting of: positioning an array of sensors for measuring seismic ground motion above a region which includes the fracture, providing a well bore having fluid therein communicating with the fracture to be defined, perturbing the fluid to cause transient pressure or flow oscillations in the fluid column in the well bore, measuring seismic ground motion induced by the transient pressure and flow oscillations in the fracture, calculating, using theory of wave propagation, the ground motion expected of fractures of different orientations, comparing the measured ground motion with the calculated ground motion patterns representing fractures of different orientations, selecting the fracture orientation that yields calculated seismic ground motions most closely resembling the measured seismic ground motions as the most probable fracture orientation, and calculating a probable fracture orientation based on the seismic motion of the ground.

Holzhausen, G.R.; St. Lawrence, W.

1989-01-31

78

Practice analysis for infection control and epidemiology in the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Certification Board of Infection Control and Epidemiology appointed an advisory committee to conduct a practice analysis (PA) of infection control professionals (ICPs) to identify current practices of ICPs. Results of the PA would assist in the development of a revised certification examination. Methods: Five thousand seven hundred fifty-three questionnaires were distributed to ICPs in the United States and

Barbara A. Goldrick; Darnell A. Dingle; Gayle K. Gilmore; Ruth M. Curchoe; Christie L. Plackner; Lawrence J. Fabrey

2002-01-01

79

Practical Nursing. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for practical nursing. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

80

Nonclinical dose formulation analysis method validation and sample analysis.  

PubMed

Nonclinical dose formulation analysis methods are used to confirm test article concentration and homogeneity in formulations and determine formulation stability in support of regulated nonclinical studies. There is currently no regulatory guidance for nonclinical dose formulation analysis method validation or sample analysis. Regulatory guidance for the validation of analytical procedures has been developed for drug product/formulation testing; however, verification of the formulation concentrations falls under the framework of GLP regulations (not GMP). The only current related regulatory guidance is the bioanalytical guidance for method validation. The fundamental parameters for bioanalysis and formulation analysis validations that overlap include: recovery, accuracy, precision, specificity, selectivity, carryover, sensitivity, and stability. Divergence in bioanalytical and drug product validations typically center around the acceptance criteria used. As the dose formulation samples are not true "unknowns", the concept of quality control samples that cover the entire range of the standard curve serving as the indication for the confidence in the data generated from the "unknown" study samples may not always be necessary. Also, the standard bioanalytical acceptance criteria may not be directly applicable, especially when the determined concentration does not match the target concentration. This paper attempts to reconcile the different practices being performed in the community and to provide recommendations of best practices and proposed acceptance criteria for nonclinical dose formulation method validation and sample analysis. PMID:20711763

Whitmire, Monica Lee; Bryan, Peter; Henry, Teresa R; Holbrook, John; Lehmann, Paul; Mollitor, Thomas; Ohorodnik, Susan; Reed, David; Wietgrefe, Holly D

2010-08-14

81

Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

82

Encouraging Gender Analysis in Research Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few resources for practical teaching or fieldwork exercises exist which address gender in geographical contexts. This paper adds to teaching and fieldwork resources by describing an experience with designing and implementing a ‘gender intervention’ for a large-scale, multi-university, bilingual research project that brought together a group of (non-gender specialist) researchers and student research assistants. Providing detailed descriptions of a facilitated

Deborah Thien

2009-01-01

83

Practical analysis of welding processes using finite element analysis.  

SciTech Connect

With advances in commercially available finite element software and computational capability, engineers can now model large-scale problems in mechanics, heat transfer, fluid flow, and electromagnetics as never before. With these enhancements in capability, it is increasingly tempting to include the fundamental process physics to help achieve greater accuracy (Refs. 1-7). While this goal is laudable, it adds complication and drives up cost and computational requirements. Practical analysis of welding relies on simplified user inputs to derive important relativistic trends in desired outputs such as residual stress or distortion due to changes in inputs like voltage, current, and travel speed. Welding is a complex three-dimensional phenomenon. The question becomes how much modeling detail is needed to accurately predict relative trends in distortion, residual stress, or weld cracking? In this work, a HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) weld-cracking problem was analyzed to rank two different welding cycles (weld speed varied) in terms of crack susceptibility. Figure 1 shows an aerospace casting GTA welded to a wrought skirt. The essentials of part geometry, welding process, and tooling were suitably captured lo model the strain excursion in the HAZ over a crack-susceptible temperature range, and the weld cycles were suitably ranked. The main contribution of this work is the demonstration of a practical methodology by which engineering solutions to engineering problems may be obtained through weld modeling when time and resources are extremely limited. Typically, welding analysis suffers with the following unknowns: material properties over entire temperature range, the heat-input source term, and environmental effects. Material properties of interest are conductivity, specific heat, latent heat, modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield strength, ultimate strength, and possible rate dependencies. Boundary conditions are conduction into fixturing, radiation and convection to the environment, and any mechanical constraint. If conductivity, for example, is only known at a few temperatures it can be linearly extrapolated from the highest known temperature to the liquidus temperature. Over the liquidus to solidus temperature the conductivity is linearly increased by a factor of three to account for the enhanced heat transfer due to convection in the weld pool. Above the liquidus it is kept constant. Figure 2 shows an example of this type of approximation. Other thermal and mechanical properties and boundary conditions can be similarly approximated, using known physical material characteristics when possible. Sensitivity analysis can show that many assumptions have a small effect on the final outcome of the analysis. In the example presented in this work, simplified analysis procedures were used to model this process to understand why one set of parameters is superior to the other. From Lin (Ref. 8), mechanical strain is expected to drive HAZ cracking. Figure 3 shows a plot of principal tensile mechanical strain versus temperature during the welding process. By looking at the magnitudes of the tensile mechanical strain in the material's Brittle Temperature Region (BTR), it can be seen that on a relative basis the faster travel speed process that causes cracking results in about three times the strain in the temperature range of the BTR. In this work, a series of simplifying assumptions were used in order to quickly and accurately model a real welding process to respond to an immediate manufacturing need. The analysis showed that the driver for HAZ cracking, the mechanical strain in the BTR, was significantly higher in the process that caused cracking versus the process that did not. The main emphasis of the analysis was to determine whether there was a mechanical reason whether the improved weld parameters would consistently produce an acceptable weld, The prediction of the mechanical strain magnitudes confirms the better process.

Cowles, J. H. (John H.); Dave, V. R. (Vivek R.); Hartman, D. A. (Daniel A.)

2001-01-01

84

[Immunochemical methods of mycotoxin analysis (review)].  

PubMed

The review is devoted to comparative characterization of immunochemical methods of detection of mycotoxin, which belongs to one of the priority groups of the food contaminants. It has been shown that the high specificity and the possibility of mycotoxin detection in low concentrations combined with existent diverse equipment allow for considering the immunochemical methods of analysis to be the most promising for wide practical application. The analytical characteristics of the existent developments are presented; the merits and demerits of the different kinds of immunoanalytical systems are compared. PMID:20586280

Urusov, A E; Zherdev, A V; Dzantiev, B B

85

A practical gait analysis system using gyroscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the possibility of using uni-axial gyroscopes to develop a simple portable gait analysis system. Gyroscopes were attached on the skin surface of the shank and thigh segments and the angular velocity for each segment was recorded in each segment. Segment inclinations and knee angle were derived from segment angular velocities. The angular signals from a motion analysis

Kaiyu Tong; Malcolm H Granat

1999-01-01

86

Using discourse analysis to improve extension practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to create awareness of the potential of discourse analysis to be a valuable contribution to agricultural extension. By way of example, it also reports on the discourses about climate change identified as being present in the Tasmanian agricultural community. The paper outlines the theories of discourse analysis and presents the results from interviews with 63 farmers and

Aysha Fleming; Frank Vanclay

87

Comparative Lifecycle Energy Analysis: Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the position that more energy is conserved through recycling secondary materials than is generated from municipal solid waste incineration. Discusses one component of a lifecycle analysis--a comparison of energy requirements for manufacturing competing products. Includes methodological issues, energy cost estimates, and difficulties…

Morris, Jeffrey; Canzoneri, Diana

1992-01-01

88

Comparative Lifecycle Energy Analysis: Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the position that more energy is conserved through recycling secondary materials than is generated from municipal solid waste incineration. Discusses one component of a lifecycle analysis--a comparison of energy requirements for manufacturing competing products. Includes methodological issues, energy cost estimates, and difficulties…

Morris, Jeffrey; Canzoneri, Diana

1992-01-01

89

Practical application of fault tree analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed survey of standard and novel approaches to Fault Tree construction, based on recent developments at Du Pont, covers the effect-to-cause procedure for control systems as in process plants; the effect-to-cause procedure for processes; source-of-hazard analysis, as in pressure vessel rupture; use of the ''fire triangle'' in a Fault Tree; critical combinations of safeguard failures; action points for automatic

Prugh

1980-01-01

90

Adoption of organic farming practices: a theoretical and empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adoption of organic farming practices: a theoretical and empirical analysis (di Raffaele Zanoli, Simona Naspetti) - ABSTRACT: In this paper a theoretical model to analyse and explain the adoption of organic farming techniques at a regional level is presented. Farmers goals and goals structures are used in a means-end analysis of the producer’s behaviour, leading to a representation of the

Simona Naspetti; Raffaele Zanoli

2001-01-01

91

Applied Behavior Analysis for Criminal Justice Practice: Some Current Dimensions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assumptions of applied behavior analysis are presented: (1) good practice should be good research; (2) behavioral goals, procedures, and effects should be socially validated; and (3) a systems perspective should be adopted when focusing on behavior analysis and intervention. (Author/JAC)

Morris, Edward K.

1980-01-01

92

International child care practices study: methods and study population.  

PubMed

The study set out to document child care practices in as many different countries and cultures as possible with the aim of providing baseline child care data and stimulating new hypotheses to explain persisting differences in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) rates between countries. The protocol, piloted in four countries in 1992, was distributed to 80 potential centres in 1995. Data from 19 centres were received. This paper describes the demographic characteristics of the data from the different centres. Comparison showed significant differences for a number of variables including mean age of completion of the study, response rate, mean gestation, mean birth weight, method of delivery and incidence of admission to neonatal intensive care units. High caesarean section rates identified in the Chinese samples (44 and 40%) were unexpected and have important public health implications. This finding warrants further study but may be related to China's one child policy. We consider that international comparison of child care practice is possible using standardised data collection methods that also allow some individual variation according to local circumstances. However, in view of the heterogeneity of the samples, it will be important to avoid over-interpreting differences identified and to view any differences within the qualitative context of each individual sample. Provided there is acknowledgement of limitations, such ecological studies have potential to produce useful information especially for hypothesis generation. PMID:10390090

Nelson, E A; Taylor, B J

1999-06-01

93

Practical application of fault tree analysis  

SciTech Connect

A detailed survey of standard and novel approaches to Fault Tree construction, based on recent developments at Du Pont, covers the effect-to-cause procedure for control systems as in process plants; the effect-to-cause procedure for processes; source-of-hazard analysis, as in pressure vessel rupture; use of the ''fire triangle'' in a Fault Tree; critical combinations of safeguard failures; action points for automatic or operator control of a process; situations involving hazardous reactant ratios; failure-initiating and failure-enabling events and intervention by the operator; ''daisy-chain'' hazards, e.g., in batch processes and ship accidents; combining batch and continuous operations in a Fault Tree; possible future structure-development procedures for fault-tree construction; and the use of quantitative results (calculated frequencies of Top-Event occurrence) to restructure the Fault Tree after improving the process to any acceptable risk level.

Prugh, R.W.

1980-01-01

94

An analysis of remanufacturing practices in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study presents case studies of selected remanufacturing operations in Japan. It investigates Japanese companies' motives\\u000a and incentives for remanufacturing, clarifies the requirements and obstacles facing remanufacturers, itemizes what measures\\u000a companies take to address them, and discusses the influence of Japanese laws related to remanufacturing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study involves case studies of four product areas: photocopiers, single-use cameras, auto parts, and

Mitsutaka Matsumoto; Yasushi Umeda

2011-01-01

95

Practical implementation of nonlinear time series methods: The TISEAN package  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the implementation of methods of nonlinear time series analysis which are based on the paradigm of deterministic chaos. A variety of algorithms for data representation, prediction, noise reduction, dimension and Lyapunov estimation, and nonlinearity testing are discussed with particular emphasis on issues of implementation and choice of parameters. Computer programs that implement the resulting strategies are publicly available

Rainer Hegger; Holger Kantz; Thomas Schreiber

1999-01-01

96

Comparison of four teaching methods on Evidence-based Practice skills of postgraduate nursing students.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare four teaching methods on the evidence-based practice knowledge and skills of postgraduate nursing students. Students enrolled in the Evidence-based Nursing (EBN) unit in Australia and Hong Kong in 2010 and 2011 received education via either the standard distance teaching method, computer laboratory teaching method, Evidence-based Practice-Digital Video Disc (EBP-DVD) teaching method or the didactic classroom teaching method. Evidence-based Practice (EBP) knowledge and skills were evaluated using student assignments that comprised validated instruments. One-way analysis of covariance was implemented to assess group differences on outcomes after controlling for the effects of age and grade point average (GPA). Data were obtained from 187 students. The crude mean score among students receiving the standard+DVD method of instruction was higher for developing a precise clinical question (8.1±0.8) and identifying the level of evidence (4.6±0.7) compared to those receiving other teaching methods. These differences were statistically significant after controlling for age and grade point average. Significant improvement in cognitive and technical EBP skills can be achieved for postgraduate nursing students by integrating a DVD as part of the EBP teaching resources. The EBP-DVD is an easy teaching method to improve student learning outcomes and ensure that external students receive equivalent and quality learning experiences. PMID:23107585

Fernandez, Ritin S; Tran, Duong Thuy; Ramjan, Lucie; Ho, Carey; Gill, Betty

2012-10-26

97

Assessing methods for measurement of clinical outcomes and quality of care in primary care practices  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the appropriateness of potential data sources for the population of performance indicators for primary care (PC) practices. Methods This project was a cross sectional study of 7 multidisciplinary primary care teams in Ontario, Canada. Practices were recruited and 5-7 physicians per practice agreed to participate in the study. Patients of participating physicians (20-30) were recruited sequentially as they presented to attend a visit. Data collection included patient, provider and practice surveys, chart abstraction and linkage to administrative data sets. Matched pairs analysis was used to examine the differences in the observed results for each indicator obtained using multiple data sources. Results Seven teams, 41 physicians, 94 associated staff and 998 patients were recruited. The survey response rate was 81% for patients, 93% for physicians and 83% for associated staff. Chart audits were successfully completed on all but 1 patient and linkage to administrative data was successful for all subjects. There were significant differences noted between the data collection methods for many measures. No single method of data collection was best for all outcomes. For most measures of technical quality of care chart audit was the most accurate method of data collection. Patient surveys were more accurate for immunizations, chronic disease advice/information dispensed, some general health promotion items and possibly for medication use. Administrative data appears useful for indicators including chronic disease diagnosis and osteoporosis/ breast screening. Conclusions Multiple data collection methods are required for a comprehensive assessment of performance in primary care practices. The choice of which methods are best for any one particular study or quality improvement initiative requires careful consideration of the biases that each method might introduce into the results. In this study, both patients and providers were willing to participate in and consent to, the collection and linkage of information from multiple sources that would be required for such assessments.

2012-01-01

98

Uses of multivariate analysis methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The top quark study groups at the Tevatron accelerator use several analysis techniques to extract precision measurements of top quark properties and search for single top quark production. Cut- based analyses and advanced multivariate techniques are used to extract the signal from large backgrounds and to improve the sensitivity of measurements. As an example of the performance gain obtained with multivariate methods, the DØ single top quark search is presented. Likelihood discriminants, neural networks and decision trees have similar sensitivity, much improved over the cut-based analysis. Boosted decision trees may improve results even more.

Coadou, Yann

2006-01-01

99

Comparison of ELISA method versus MEIA method for daily practice in the therapeutic monitoring of tacrolimus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. For the adequate management of trans- plant patients on tacrolimus therapy, it is important to obtain optimal blood concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the most appropriate method for daily practice of tacrolimus determination in whole blood. We compared enzyme-linked immuno- sorbent assay (ELISA) with microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), using European controls and blood samples from

Jonathan Dietemann; Patricia Berthoux; Jean-Pierre Gay-Montchamp; Madeleine Batie; Francois Berthoux

100

SAR/QSAR methods in public health practice.  

PubMed

Methods of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationship ((Q)SAR) modeling play an important and active role in ATSDR programs in support of the Agency mission to protect human populations from exposure to environmental contaminants. They are used for cross-chemical extrapolation to complement the traditional toxicological approach when chemical-specific information is unavailable. SAR and QSAR methods are used to investigate adverse health effects and exposure levels, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetic properties of hazardous chemical compounds. They are applied as a part of an integrated systematic approach in the development of Health Guidance Values (HGVs), such as ATSDR Minimal Risk Levels, which are used to protect populations exposed to toxic chemicals at hazardous waste sites. (Q)SAR analyses are incorporated into ATSDR documents (such as the toxicological profiles and chemical-specific health consultations) to support environmental health assessments, prioritization of environmental chemical hazards, and to improve study design, when filling the priority data needs (PDNs) as mandated by Congress, in instances when experimental information is insufficient. These cases are illustrated by several examples, which explain how ATSDR applies (Q)SAR methods in public health practice. PMID:21034766

Demchuk, Eugene; Ruiz, Patricia; Chou, Selene; Fowler, Bruce A

2010-10-27

101

Multivariate analysis methods for spectroscopic blood analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood tests are an essential tool in clinical medicine with the ability diagnosis or monitor various diseases and conditions; however, the complexities of these measurements currently restrict them to a laboratory setting. P&P Optica has developed and currently produces patented high performance spectrometers and is developing a spectrometer-based system for rapid reagent-free blood analysis. An important aspect of this analysis is the need to extract the analyte specific information from the measured signal such that the analyte concentrations can be determined. To this end, advanced chemometric methods are currently being investigated and have been tested using simulated spectra. A blood plasma model was used to generate Raman, near infrared, and optical rotatory dispersion spectra with glucose as the target analyte. The potential of combined chemometric techniques, where multiple spectroscopy modalities are used in a single regression model to improve the prediction ability was investigated using unfold partial least squares and multiblock partial least squares. Results show improvement in the predictions of glucose levels using the combined methods and demonstrate potential for multiblock chemometrics in spectroscopic blood analysis.

Wood, Michael F. G.; Rohani, Arash; Ghazalah, Rashid; Vitkin, I. Alex; Pawluczyk, Romuald

2012-02-01

102

Methods of Plant Hormone Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The development of sensitive analytical methods1 for determining hormone levels in plant tissues is essential for elucidating the role and function of plant hormones in growth\\u000a and development. During the last decade the trend has been to use mass spectrometry as one of the principal tools in plant\\u000a hormone analysis, thereby increasing the quality of the analyses dramatically. The development

Karin Ljung; Göran Sandberg; Thomas Moritz

103

Improved methods for strategic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a summary description of the research carried out by Science Applications, Inc. (SAI) in 1980–1981 to improve methods of strategic analysis. “People-in-the-loop” gaming, with extensive support from computer simulations, automated data bases, and an interactive computer and display system are at the heart of SAI's methodology. The basic approach proposed for achieving the Department of Defense (DoD)

J. J. Martin; Douglas C. Olin

1982-01-01

104

Fracture Orientation Analysis by the Solid Earth Tidal Strain Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new practical method has been developed to estimate subsurface fracture orientation based on an analysis of solid earth tidal strains. The tidal strain fracture orientation technique is a passive method which has no depth limitation. The orientation of either natural or hydraulically stimulated fractures can be measured using either new or ''old'' static observation wells. Estimates for total compressibility

Jonathan Hanson; Lawrence Owen

1982-01-01

105

Practical evaluation of Mung bean seed pasteurization method in Japan.  

PubMed

The majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Therefore, an effective method for inactivating these organisms on the seeds before sprouting is needed. The current pasteurization method for mung beans in Japan (hot water treatment at 85 degrees C for 10 s) was more effective for disinfecting inoculated E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and nonpathogenic E. coli on mung bean seeds than was the calcium hypochlorite treatment (20,000 ppm for 20 min) recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Hot water treatment at 85 degrees C for 40 s followed by dipping in cold water for 30 s and soaking in chlorine water (2,000 ppm) for 2 h reduced the pathogens to undetectable levels, and no viable pathogens were found in a 25-g enrichment culture and during the sprouting process. Practical tests using a working pasteurization machine with nonpathogenic E. coli as a surrogate produced similar results. The harvest yield of the treated seed was within the acceptable range. These treatments could be a viable alternative to the presently recommended 20,000-ppm chlorine treatment for mung bean seeds. PMID:20377967

Bari, M L; Enomoto, K; Nei, D; Kawamoto, S

2010-04-01

106

A SWOT Analysis of Introducing Practical Assessments in Introductory Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the introduction of practical tests as a new assessment initiative in an Introductory Computer Programming course. Firstly, a description of the background of the initiative, the rationale behind their use, and details of how they were implemented are presented. Then, based on student and staff feedback, an analysis of the initiative is discussed, based on the

Christine Prasad

2003-01-01

107

Practicing oncology in provincial Mexico: A narrative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the discourse of oncologists treating cancer in a provincial capital of southern Mexico. Based on an analysis of both formal interviews and observations of everyday clinical practice, it examines a set of narrative themes they used to maintain a sense of professionalism and possibility as they endeavored to apply a highly technologically dependent biomedical model in a

Linda M. Hunt

1994-01-01

108

Customer portfolio analysis practices in different exchange contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customer relationship management is increasingly important in current marketing research and practice. The customer portfolio models represent one of the few concrete tools proposed for relationship management in business-to-business markets. Yet, knowledge of how companies use customer portfolio analysis (CPA) remains limited. Earlier research adopts a fairly narrow view of CPA and ignores the influence of internal and external company

Harri Terho; Aino Halinen

2007-01-01

109

A Model of Practice in Special Education: Dynamic Ecological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dynamic Ecological Analysis (DEA) is a model of practice which increases a teams' efficacy by enabling the development of more effective interventions through collaboration and collective reflection. This process has proved to be useful in: a) clarifying thinking and problem-solving, b) transferring knowledge and thinking to significant parties,…

Hannant, Barbara; Lim, Eng Leong; McAllum, Ruth

2010-01-01

110

Diagnostic Methods for Bile Acid Malabsorption in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Altered bile acid (BA) concentrations in the colon may cause diarrhea or constipation. BA malabsorption (BAM) accounts for >25% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea and chronic diarrhea in Western countries. As BAM is increasingly recognized, proper diagnostic methods are desired in clinical practice to help direct the most effective treatment course for the chronic bowel dysfunction. This review appraises the methodology, advantages and disadvantages of 4 tools that directly measure BAM: 14C-glycocholate breath and stool test, 75Selenium HomotauroCholic Acid Test (SeHCAT), 7 ?-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and fecal BAs. 14C-glycocholate is a laborious test no longer widely utilized. 75SeHCAT is validated, but not available in the United States. Serum C4 is a simple, accurate method that is applicable to a majority of patients, but requires further clinical validation. Fecal measurements to quantify total and individual fecal BAs are technically cumbersome and not widely available. Regrettably, none of these tests are routinely available in the U.S., and a therapeutic trial with a BA binder is used as a surrogate for diagnosis of BAM. Recent data suggest there is an advantage to studying fecal excretion of the individual BAs and their role in BAM; this may constitute a significant advantage of the fecal BA method over the other tests. Fecal BA test could become a routine addition to fecal fat measurement in patients with unexplained diarrhea. In summary, availability determines the choice of test among C4, SeHCAT and fecal BA; more widespread availability of such tests would enhance clinical management of these patients.

Vijayvargiya, Priya; Camilleri, Michael; Shin, Andrea; Saenger, Amy

2013-01-01

111

Flow methods in chiral analysis.  

PubMed

The methods used for the separation and analytical determination of individual isomers are based on interactions with substances exhibiting optical activity. The currently used methods for the analysis of optically active compounds are primarily high-performance separation methods, such as gas and liquid chromatography using chiral stationary phases or chiral selectors in the mobile phase, and highly efficient electromigration techniques, such as capillary electrophoresis using chiral selectors. Chemical sensors and biosensors may also be designed for the analysis of optically active compounds. As enantiomers of the same compound are characterised by almost identical physico-chemical properties, their differentiation/separation in one-step unit operation in steady-state or dynamic flow systems requires the use of highly effective chiral selectors. Examples of such determinations are reviewed in this paper, based on 105 references. The greatest successes for isomer determination involve immunochemical interactions, enantioselectivity of the enzymatic biocatalytic processes, and interactions with ion-channel receptors or molecularly imprinted polymers. Conducting such processes under dynamic flow conditions may significantly enhance the differences in the kinetics of such processes, leading to greater differences in the signals recorded for enantiomers. Such determinations in flow conditions are effectively performed using surface-plasmon resonance and piezoelectric detections, as well as using common spectroscopic and electrochemical detections. PMID:24139575

Trojanowicz, Marek; Kaniewska, Marzena

2013-09-14

112

A practical guide to bioelectrical impedance analysis using the example of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a simple, inexpensive, quick and non-invasive technique for measuring body composition. The clinical benefit of BIA can be further enhanced by combining it with bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA). However, there is a substantial lack of information on the practical aspects of BIA/BIVA for those primarily interested in learning how to use and interpret this method in practice. The purpose of this article is to provide some guidance on the use of BIA/BIVA with special attention to practical considerations. This report reflects the authors' practical experience with the use of single-frequency BIA in combination with BIVA, particularly in COPD patients. First, the method and principles of BIA/BIVA are briefly described. Then, a practice-oriented approach to the interpretation and analysis of characteristic examples of altered nutritional and fluid status as seen with BIA/BIVA in COPD patients (e.g. malnutrition in obese and underweight patients with COPD, water retention) is presented. As our examples show BIA/BIVA is an attractive and easy-to-learn tool for quick nutritional assessment and is therefore of great clinical benefit in daily practice.

2011-01-01

113

The application of the methods of evidence-based practice to occupational health.  

PubMed

Evidence-based methods of practice are becoming widely used in many areas of healthcare. The techniques of data appraisal, systematic review and meta-analysis and their application to clinical and preventative medicine through clinical guidelines and economic analyses are well established. These methods have only been applied to occupational health risks and interventions in a very limited way and there is considerable scope for wider use, especially in the clinical aspects of practice. This should improve the quality of prevention and would also enable practitioners to give more soundly based advice and to secure their professional positions as providers of quality assured information. Human and financial resources and commitment to the development of evidence-based approaches by the professions and those they work for are pre-requisites for success. PMID:10912373

Carter, T

2000-05-01

114

Beyond method: assessment and learning practices and values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the findings of a survey of 558 teachers in England. It describes how conceptual and empirical insights from the literature informed the construction of questionnaire items to provide answers to questions about the way in which teachers value different classroom assessment practices and how congruent with these values they perceive their practices to be. Results from item,

Mary James; David Pedder

2006-01-01

115

Stated preference analysis of travel choices: the state of practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stated preference (SP) methods are widely used in travel behaviour research and practice to identify behavioural responses to choice situations which are not revealed in the market, and where the attribute levels offered by existing choices are modified to such an extent that the reliability of revealed preference models as predictors of response is brought into question. This paper reviews

David A. Hensher

1994-01-01

116

Practical advanced analysis and design of three-dimensional truss bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new design method of three-dimensional truss bridges using practical advanced analysis is presented. Separate member capacity checks encompassed by the code specifications are not required, because the stability of separate members and the structure as a whole can be rigorously treated in determing the maximum strength of the structures. The geometric nonlinearity is considered using the updated Lagrangian formulation.

Seung-Eock Kim; Moon-Ho Park; Se-Hyu Choi

2001-01-01

117

A Meta-Analysis of Published School Social Work Practice Studies: 1980-2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This systematic review examined the effectiveness of school social work practices using meta-analytic techniques. Method: Hierarchical linear modeling software was used to calculate overall effect size estimates as well as test for between-study variability. Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the final analysis.…

Franklin, Cynthia; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.

2009-01-01

118

A Meta-Analysis of Published School Social Work Practice Studies: 1980-2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This systematic review examined the effectiveness of school social work practices using meta-analytic techniques. Method: Hierarchical linear modeling software was used to calculate overall effect size estimates as well as test for between-study variability. Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the final analysis.…

Franklin, Cynthia; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.

2009-01-01

119

Contracting Practices for Major Weapons Systems in the Chilean Navy: A Case Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the contracting practices for major weapon systems procurement in the Chilean Navy. The case analysis method, with emphasis in risk assessment and management, has been used to analyze the procurement of a ship miss...

E. Troncoso

1995-01-01

120

Principles, methods, and technique of laser application in clinical practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser, being intensely bright, highly directional, monochromatic, and coherent, has a wide application in the future of bio-medical science. As a new therapy, laser in clinical practice is mainly used for certain curing effects through its heat and photochemical effects, respectively, obtained from its four properties acting on human organisms to produce certain desired changes. Laser therapy, according to its bio-chemical effects, can be roughly divided into three categories: laser vaporization, laser solidification, and laser stimulation. Clinical practice has proven that each category has its appropriate symptom in all kinds of diseases. Laser therapy is playing a unique part in clinical practice.

Tian, Zhaobing

1993-03-01

121

A practical and sensitive method of quantitating lymphangiogenesis in vivo.  

PubMed

To address the inadequacy of current assays, we developed a directed in vivo lymphangiogenesis assay (DIVLA) by modifying an established directed in vivo angiogenesis assay. Silicon tubes (angioreactors) were implanted in the dorsal flanks of nude mice. Tubes contained either growth factor-reduced basement membrane extract (BME)-alone (negative control) or BME-containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D (positive control for lymphangiogenesis) or FGF-2/VEGF-A (positive control for angiogenesis) or a high VEGF-D-expressing breast cancer cell line MDA-MD-468LN (468-LN), or VEGF-D-silenced 468LN. Lymphangiogenesis was detected superficially with Evans Blue dye tracing and measured in the cellular contents of angioreactors by multiple approaches: lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (Lyve1) protein (immunofluorescence) and mRNA (qPCR) expression and a visual scoring of lymphatic vs blood capillaries with dual Lyve1 (or PROX-11 or Podoplanin)/Cd31 immunostaining in cryosections. Lymphangiogenesis was absent with BME, high with VEGF-D or VEGF-D-producing 468LN cells and low with VEGF-D-silenced 468LN. Angiogenesis was absent with BME, high with FGF-2/VEGF-A, moderate with 468LN or VEGF-D and low with VEGF-D-silenced 468LN. The method was reproduced in a syngeneic murine C3L5 tumor model in C3H/HeJ mice with dual Lyve1/Cd31 immunostaining. Thus, DIVLA presents a practical and sensitive assay of lymphangiogenesis, validated with multiple approaches and markers. It is highly suited to identifying pro- and anti-lymphangiogenic agents, as well as shared or distinct mechanisms regulating lymphangiogenesis vs angiogenesis, and is widely applicable to research in vascular/tumor biology. PMID:23711825

Majumder, Mousumi; Xin, Xiping; Lala, Peeyush K

2013-05-27

122

Decision Support Integral analysis method - IAM q  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the theoretical foundations of the new integral analysis method (IAM), and its application to a facility location problem. This methodology integrates the cardinal and ordinal criteria of combinatorial stochastic optimization problems in four stages: definition of the problem, cardinal analysis, ordinal analysis and integration analysis. The method uses the concepts of stochastic mul- ticriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA),

Rafael Guillermo; Julian Arturo; Araoz Durand; Fernando Palacios Gomez

2007-01-01

123

A Practical Method for UHF RFID Interrogation Area Measurement Using Battery Assisted Passive Tag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the success of a large deployment of UHF RFID, easyto-use and low-cost engineering tools to facilitate the performance evaluation are demanded particularly in installations and for trouble shooting. The measurement of interrogation area is one of the most typical industrial demands to establish the stable readability of UHF RFID. Exhaustive repetition of tag position change with a read operation and a usage of expensive measurement equipment or special interrogators are common practices to measure the interrogation area. In this paper, a practical method to measure the interrogation area of a UHF RFID by using a battery assisted passive tag (BAP) is presented. After introducing the fundamental design and performances of the BAP that we have developed, we introduce the measurement method. In the method, the target tag in the target installation is continuously traversed either manually or automatically while it is subjected to a repetitive read of a commercial interrogator. During the target tag traversal, the interrogator's commands are continuously monitored by a BAP. With an extensive analysis on interrogator commands, the BAP can differentiate between its own read timings and those of the target tag. The read timings of the target tag collected by the BAP are recorded synchronously with the target tag position, yielding a map of the interrogation area. The present method does not entail a measurement burden. It is also independent of the choice of interrogator and tag. The method is demonstrated in a practical UHF RFID installation to show that the method can measure a 40mm resolution interrogation area measurement just by traversing the target tag at a slow walking speed, 300mm/sec.

Mitsugi, Jin; Tokumasu, Osamu

124

Practical design methods for barrier pillars. Information circular\\/1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective barrier pillar design is essential for safe and productive underground coal mining. This U.S. Bureau of Mines report presents an overview of available barrier pillar design methodologies that incorporate sound engineering principles while remaining practical for everyday usage. Nomographs and examples are presented to assist in the determination of proper barrier pillar sizing. Additionally, performance evaluation techniques and criteria

J. R. Koehler; S. C. Tadolini

1995-01-01

125

Parallel Processable Cryptographic Methods with Unbounded Practical Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressing the problem of protecting confidential information and data stored in computer databases from access by unauthorized parties, this paper details coding schemes which present such astronomical work factors to potential code breakers that security breaches are hopeless in any practical sense. Two procedures which can be used to encode for…

Rothstein, Jerome

126

Teaching the Best Practice Way: Methods That Matter, K-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Everyone talks about "best practice" teaching--what does it actually look like in the classroom? How do working teachers translate complex curriculum standards into simple, workable classroom structures that embody exemplary instruction--and still let kids find joy in learning? In this book, the authors present seven basic teaching structures…

Daniels, Harvey; Bizar, Marilyn

2004-01-01

127

Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

2009-04-01

128

Optometric methods in biomechanical gait analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human movement and its measurement have been of general interest since classical times. Gait analysis is the quantified measurement\\u000a of movement patterns and forces during walking, which comprise kinematics and kinetics. The actual process of performing such\\u000a an analysis involves measurement (kinematic and kinetic), storage, retrieval, processing, analysis and presentation. The practical\\u000a measurement of gait kinematics was not possible until

H. S. Gill; J. Morris; E. Biden; J. J. O’Connor

129

Taxonomic Analysis and Certain Other Taxonomic Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of taxonomic analysis, along with other taxonomic methods (primarily that of simple matching), to concrete biological sets has revealed a number of deficiencies in such analysis. Taxonomic analysis brings together objects which differ shar...

A. P. Rasnitsyn

1973-01-01

130

Efficient methods and practical guidelines for simulating isotope effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shift in chemical equilibria due to isotope substitution is frequently exploited to obtain insight into a wide variety of chemical and physical processes. It is a purely quantum mechanical effect, which can be computed exactly using simulations based on the path integral formalism. Here we discuss how these techniques can be made dramatically more efficient, and how they ultimately outperform quasi-harmonic approximations to treat quantum liquids not only in terms of accuracy, but also in terms of computational cost. To achieve this goal we introduce path integral quantum mechanics estimators based on free energy perturbation, which enable the evaluation of isotope effects using only a single path integral molecular dynamics trajectory of the naturally abundant isotope. We use as an example the calculation of the free energy change associated with H/D and 16O/18O substitutions in liquid water, and of the fractionation of those isotopes between the liquid and the vapor phase. In doing so, we demonstrate and discuss quantitatively the relative benefits of each approach, thereby providing a set of guidelines that should facilitate the choice of the most appropriate method in different, commonly encountered scenarios. The efficiency of the estimators we introduce and the analysis that we perform should in particular facilitate accurate ab initio calculation of isotope effects in condensed phase systems.

Ceriotti, Michele; Markland, Thomas E.

2013-01-01

131

ANALYSIS METHODS FOR COLLABORATIVE MODELS AND ACTIVITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A classification of analysis methods for CSCL systems is presented which uses as one dimension the distinction into summary analysis and structural analysis and as another distinction different types of raw data: either user actions or state descriptions. The Cool Modes environment for collaborative modeling enables us to explore the whole spectrum of analysis methods. Action logging is based on

K. GAßNER; M. JANSEN; A. HARRER; K. HERRMANN; H. U. HOPPE

132

A Practical Face Relighting Method for Directional Lighting Normalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a simplified and practical computational technique for estimating directional lighting in uncalibrated images of faces in frontal pose. We show that this inverse problem can be solved using constrained least-squares and class-specific priors on shape and reflectance. For simplic- ity, the principal illuminant is modeled as a mixture of Lambertian and ambient components. By using a generic 3D

Kuang-chih Lee; Baback Moghaddam

2005-01-01

133

The analysis of athletic performance: some practical and philosophical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a hypothetical dialogue between a notational analyst (NA) recently schooled in the positivistic assessment of athletic performance, an ‘old-school’ traditional coach (TC) who favours subjective analysis, and a pragmatic educator (PE). The conversation opens with NA and TC debating the respective value of quantitative and qualitative methods of performance analysis. Having considered their arguments from a-distance, PE

Lee J. Nelson; Ryan Groom

2011-01-01

134

Canonical Correlation Analysis: An Explanation with Comments on Correct Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper briefly explains the logic underlying the basic calculations employed in canonical correlation analysis. A small hypothetical data set is employed to illustrate that canonical correlation analysis subsumes both univariate and multivariate parametric methods. Several real data sets are employed to illustrate other themes. Three common…

Thompson, Bruce

135

Methods of imparting information to patients in dental practice.  

PubMed

Changes are taking place in dentistry now that we know much more about the causes of caries, periodontal disease and most jaw malformations and that, through education and motivation, our patients can substantially protect themselves from these disorders. In our specialty in particular, it is true that 'prevention is better than cure'! This approach will be successful only if our patients are monitored on a regular recall basis. Attention is drawn to the existence of specific target groups. Successful results can only be achieved if individual efforts are backed by group and population prophylactic measures on the part of national or local authorities using the expertise of the dental profession. A preventively orientated practice must offer much more patient education than one which concentrates on the provision of curative services. Details of the approach to be followed should be thoroughly planned and the members of the dental team to be responsible for the tasks concerned should be identified. Appropriate equipment and working facilities are essential for the effective conduct of preventive measures. It must be emphasized that these measures in dental practice involve high costs. In attending to our patients, we should not forget that not only practical intervention but also the provision of advice is a vitally important health service. PMID:6584401

Hein, W

1984-03-01

136

Practical method to identify orbital anomaly as spacecraft breakup in the geostationary region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying a spacecraft breakup is an essential issue to define the current orbital debris environment. This paper proposes a practical method to identify an orbital anomaly, which appears as a significant discontinuity in the observation data, as a spacecraft breakup. The proposed method is applicable to orbital anomalies in the geostationary region. Long-term orbital evolutions of breakup fragments may conclude that their orbital planes will converge into several corresponding regions in inertial space even if the breakup epoch is not specified. This empirical method combines the aforementioned conclusion with the search strategy developed at Kyushu University, which can identify origins of observed objects as fragments released from a specified spacecraft. This practical method starts with selecting a spacecraft that experienced an orbital anomaly, and formulates a hypothesis to generate fragments from the anomaly. Then, the search strategy is applied to predict the behavior of groups of fragments hypothetically generated. Outcome of this predictive analysis specifies effectively when, where and how we should conduct optical measurements using ground-based telescopes. Objects detected based on the outcome are supposed to be from the anomaly, so that we can confirm the anomaly as a spacecraft breakup to release the detected objects. This paper also demonstrates observation planning for a spacecraft anomaly in the geostationary region.

Hanada, Toshiya; Uetsuhara, Masahiko; Nakaniwa, Yoshitaka

2012-07-01

137

A comparative analysis of the use of work-life balance practices in Europe : Do practices enhance females’ career advancement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objectives of this study are: to identify and compare companies' involvement with work-life balance practices and policies in 14 European countries, and to test whether these practices actually enhance the career advancement of women to senior management positions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A comparative descriptive analysis shows differences in work-life balance practices and policies and women's participation in the

Caroline Straub

2007-01-01

138

On Practical Results of the Differential Power Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes practical differential power analysis attacks. There are presented successful and unsuccessful attack attempts with the description of the attack methodology. It provides relevant information about oscilloscope settings, optimization possibilities and fundamental attack principles, which are important when realizing this type of attack. The attack was conducted on the PIC18F2420 microcontroller, using the AES cryptographic algorithm in the ECB mode with the 128-bit key length. We used two implementations of this algorithm - in the C programming language and in the assembler.

Breier, Jakub; Kleja, Marcel

2012-03-01

139

Coupled inlet-engine dynamic analysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented for unsteady analysis of turbine engine propulsion systems. The method is a coupled analysis of the inlet-compressor combination with multidimensional inlet capability. The method incorporates inviscid, unsteady, computational fluid dynamics in the inlet using an unstructured numerical grid and a one-dimensional dynamic turbomachinery model. The present application of the method is an axisymmetric mixed compression

Keith E. Numbers

1998-01-01

140

Promoting nurses' knowledge in evidence-based practice: do educational methods matter?  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a mandate for nursing practice. Education on EBP has occurred in academic settings, but not all nurses have received this training. The authors describe a randomized controlled pretest/posttest design testing the differences in effectiveness of two educational methods to improve nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and practice of EBP. Results indicated both methods improved self-reported practice. On the basis of the study findings, staff development educators can select the teaching method that best complements their organizational environment. PMID:23877287

Toole, Belinda M; Stichler, Jaynelle F; Ecoff, Laurie; Kath, Lisa

141

Practical method to calculate post-LASIK corneal power: the Actual Ka+p method  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate the accuracy of a practical method (the Actual Ka+p method) of corneal power measurement for post-LASIK eyes undergoing cataract surgery. METHODS Ten eyes of 7 patients (4 male, 3 female, average age 50.10±4.01 years, with -11.01±3.55D mean refraction before LASIK), underwent post-LASIK phaco+IOL cataract surgery. We used the posterior corneal curvature as measured by the Pentacam in a method we named Actual Ka+p to calculate the post-LASIK corneal power for IOL calculation. The refractive outcomes after cataract surgery were evaluated. The Actual Ka+p was compared with the back- calculated corneal power (BCK), which was thought to be the benchmark of true corneal power. The corneal power estimated by other published methods, including Maloney, Shammas, Koch-Maloney, Savini, and McCulley, together with the true net power and equivalent K reading (EKR) as found by the Pentacam were also compared with the BCK. RESULTS All eyes achieved satisfied refractive status after cataract surgery. The difference between the postoperative refraction and the target refraction was 0.04±0.40D, range from -0.63D and +0.85D. Among all the methods we studied, although the Bonferroni multiple comparison tests did not detect significant differences between any two of them, the Actual Ka+p yielded the highest agreement with the BCK, with 80% of the eyes falling within ±0.5D and 100% within ±1.0D from the BCK values. CONCLUSION The Actual Ka+p method can provide encour- aging results in post-LASIK eyes undergoing cataract surgery.

Hu, Yi-Qian; Ye, Xiang-Yu; Zhou, Xiu-Li; Li, Yin; Xu, Cheng-Hui; Tian, Lin-Lu; Zhu, Huang; Sheng, Yao-Hua

2010-01-01

142

Fusing research into practice: The role of research methods education  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted among library and information science (LIS) practitioners to examine the effect of the research methods course on LIS practitioners' work. Findings suggest the research methods course is a valuable component of the master's in library and information science (MLIS) program. Taking the research methods course increases LIS practitioners' research interest and assists them by helping them

Lili Luo

2011-01-01

143

Filtration charaterization methods in MBR systems: A practical comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different methods for fi ltration characterization in Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) systems were compared. These were the Delft Filtration Characterization Method (DFCm), the Berlin Filtration Method (BFM) and an ex situ side-stream fi ltration test cell for the determination of the critical fl ux. The ex situ fi ltration test cell and the DFCm fi lter activated sludge from a

Teresa De la Torre; Vera Iversen; Adrien Moreau; Johan Stüber

2009-01-01

144

Strength-based Supervision: Frameworks, Current Practice, and Future Directions A Wu-wei Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a method of counseling supervision similar to the wu-wei practice in Zen and Taoism. Suggests that this strength-based method and an understanding of isomorphy in supervisory relationships are the preferred practice for the supervision of family counselors. States that this model of supervision potentiates the person-of-the-counselor.…

Edwards, Jeffrey K.; Chen, Mei-Whei

1999-01-01

145

A simple, cost-effective method for practicing phacoemulsification in the cadaveric eye.  

PubMed

The authors describe an inexpensive, reliable method for practicing intraocular surgery using a rigid contact lens as a temporary keratoprosthesis. This method allows clear visualization of the anterior chamber and lenticular structures for practicing modern cataract surgery, including capsulorhexis, hydrodissection, phacoemulsification, cortical aspiration, and intraocular lens insertion. PMID:9547784

Castellano, D; Spraul, J; Whitaker, T E

1998-03-01

146

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF WOMEN TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING METHODS IN TAFILA-JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess women's knowledge, practice, and attitude towards family planning methods, and the factors that could affect their use. Methods: A total of 600 married women (44-60 years.) from Tafila city in the south of Jordan were interviewed and they filled a semi structured interview form consisting of demographic data, questions related to knowledge, attitude and practice of different

Najla Nour Thalji

147

Investigating the Efficacy of Practical Skill Teaching: A Pilot-Study Comparing Three Educational Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…

Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

2013-01-01

148

Teaching Outpatient Procedures: Most Common Settings, Evaluation Methods, and Training Barriers in Family Practice Residencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: The processes of teaching outpatient procedures in the training of primary care physicians have not been widely studied or standardized. This study identified the most widely used teaching settings, methods of evaluation, and barriers to teaching several key procedures in US family practice residencies. Methods: A survey was sent to directors of family practice residency programs. Key

Victor S. Sierpina; Robert J. Volk

149

Assessing Student Perception of Practice Evaluation Knowledge in Introductory Research Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors explored the use of the Practice Evaluation Knowledge Scale (PEKS) to assess student perception of acquisition and retention of practice evaluation knowledge from an undergraduate research methods class. The authors sampled 2 semesters of undergraduate social work students enrolled in an introductory research methods course.…

Baker, Lisa R.; Pollio, David E.; Hudson, Ashley

2011-01-01

150

Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site includes resources for the instrumental analysis class at St Olaf's College. The syllabus, a sample exam, problem sets, a class calendar, and an introduction to the use of role playing in the class are provided.

Walters, John P.

2011-03-22

151

Investigating the efficacy of practical skill teaching: a pilot-study comparing three educational methods.  

PubMed

Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a randomised controlled trial, with concealed allocation and blinded participants and outcome assessment. Each of the three randomly allocated groups were exposed to a different practical skills teaching method (traditional, pre-recorded video tutorial or student self-video) for two specific practical skills during the semester. Clinical performance was assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The students were also administered a questionnaire to gain the participants level of satisfaction with the teaching method, and their perceptions of the teaching methods educational value. There were no significant differences in clinical performance between the three practical skill teaching methods as measured in the OSCE, or for student ratings of satisfaction. A significant difference existed between the methods for the student ratings of perceived educational value, with the teaching approaches of pre-recorded video tutorial and student self-video being rated higher than 'traditional' live tutoring. Alternative teaching methods to traditional live tutoring can produce equivalent learning outcomes when applied to the practical skill development of undergraduate health professional students. The use of alternative practical skill teaching methods may allow for greater flexibility for both staff and infrastructure resource allocation. PMID:22354336

Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

2012-02-22

152

Status of Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique, Theory, and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To provide an historical overview, description, synthesis, and critique of the Activator Adjusting Instrument (AAI) and Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique of clinical assessment. Methods: Online resources were searched including Index to Chiropractic Literature, EBSCO Online, MANTIS, CHIROLARS, CINAHL, eJournals, Ovid, MDConsult, Lane Catalog, SU Catalog, and Pubmed. Relevant peer-reviewed studies, commentaries, and reviews were selected. Studies fell into 2

Arlan W. Fuhr; J. Michael Menke

2005-01-01

153

Homotopy analysis method for heat radiation equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, the homotopy analysis method (HAM), one of the newest analytical methods which is powerful and easy-to-use, is applied to solve heat transfer problems with high nonlinearity order. Also, the results are compared with the perturbation and numerical Runge–Kutta methods and homotopy perturbation method (HPM). Here, homotopy analysis method is used to solve an unsteady nonlinear convective–radiative equation containing two

S. Abbasbandy

2007-01-01

154

Recruitment ad analysis offers new opportunities to attract GPs to short-staffed practices.  

PubMed

As baby-boomer practitioners exit the workforce, physician shortages present new recruitment challenges for practices seeking GPs. This article reports findings from two studies examining GP recruitment practice. GP recruitment ad content analysis (Study 1) demonstrated that both Internet and print ads emphasize job attributes but rarely present family or practice attributes. Contacts at these medical practices reported that their practices offer distinctive family and practice attributes that could be exploited in recruitment advertising (Study 2). Understaffed medical practices seeking to attract GPs may differentiate their job offerings in a crowded market by incorporating family and/or practice attributes into their ads. PMID:23697854

Hemphill, Elizabeth; Kulik, Carol T

2013-01-01

155

Imaging laser analysis of building materials - practical examples  

SciTech Connect

The Laser induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is supplement and extension of standard chemical methods and SEM- or Micro-RFA-applications for the evaluation of building materials. As a laboratory method LIBS is used to gain color coded images representing composition, distribution of characteristic ions and/or ingress characteristic of damaging substances. To create a depth profile of element concentration a core has to be taken and split along the core axis. LIBS was proven to be able to detect all important elements in concrete, e. g. Chlorine, Sodium or Sulfur, which are responsible for certain degradation mechanisms and also light elements like lithium or hydrogen. Practical examples are given and a mobile system for on-site measurements is presented.

Wilsch, G.; Schaurich, D.; Wiggenhauser, H. [BAM, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)

2011-06-23

156

Comparative analysis of methods for evaluation of stabilometry parameters.  

PubMed

Cluster analysis of stabilometry results in 251 subjects (129 men and 122 women, age 20-60 years) was carried out. Four methods were used in the study: European stabilometry variant, Romberg test (European variant), Romberg's test (American variant), and Romberg's test (American Universal variant). Cluster analysis has shown virtually the same diagnostic informative value of all 4 methods. The absolute and relative stabilometry parameters are the most objective, this validating their clinical usefulness. The frequency and amplitude parameters possess no diagnostic significance. The European stabilometry variant is the best fit for practical use and provides information about the function of the ocular, maxillofacial, and other components of the postural system. PMID:22808476

Solovykh, E A; Maksimovskaya, L N; Bugrovetskaya, O G; Bugrovetskaya, E A

2011-12-01

157

Practical Design Method of Spherical Shell Concrete Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the theory of thin shell, a simplified calculation model is raised to conduct the analysis of the internal force of variable cross-section of shell concrete structure reinforced by ring beams under various loads. The model selects one-sixteenth of a sphere as the computing unit and simplifies the node, transmit only shaft and shear instead of moment. The calculation

Wu Yi-li; Jiang Ai-min; Hong Yi-hong

2009-01-01

158

Practice Environments of Nurses in Ambulatory Oncology Settings: A Thematic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The practice environments of nurses have been studied extensively in inpatient settings, but rarely in the ambulatory context. As the majority of cancer care is delivered in ambulatory settings, a better understanding of the nursing practice environment may contribute to quality improvement efforts. Objective We sought to examine the features of nursing practice environments that contribute to quality patient care and nursing job satisfaction. Interventions/Methods In 2009-2010, we conducted focus groups with nurses who cared for adults with cancer outside of inpatient units. A semi-structured moderator guide explored practice environment features that promoted safe, high-quality care, and high job satisfaction. We also asked nurses to identify practice environment features that hindered quality care and reduced job satisfaction. We conducted thematic analysis to report themes, and to construct a conceptual framework. Results From two focus groups, comprised of 13 participants, nurses reported that variability in workloads, support from managers and medical assistants, and the practice's physical resources could facilitate or hinder high-quality care and job satisfaction. High-quality communication across team members improved patient safety and satisfaction. Conclusions Consistent with research findings from inpatient settings, nurses identified staffing and resource adequacy, management support, and collegiality as important inputs to high-quality care. Implications for Practice These findings can inform quality improvement initiatives in ambulatory oncology practices. Strengthening nurse-medical assistant relationships, smoothing patient workload variability, and implementing strategies to strengthen communication, may contribute to quality cancer care. Studies to test our proposed conceptual framework would bridge existing knowledge gaps in ambulatory settings.

Kamimura, Akiko; Schneider, Karin; Lee, Cheryl S.; Crawford, Scott D.; Friese, Christopher R.

2010-01-01

159

General practice-based clinical trials in Germany - a problem analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In Germany, clinical trials and comparative effectiveness studies in primary care are still very rare, while their usefulness has been recognised in many other countries. A network of researchers from German academic general practice has explored the reasons for this discrepancy. Methods Based on a comprehensive literature review and expert group discussions, problem analyses as well as structural and procedural prerequisites for a better implementation of clinical trials in German primary care are presented. Results In Germany, basic biomedical science and technology is more reputed than clinical or health services research. Clinical trials are funded by industry or a single national programme, which is highly competitive, specialist-dominated, exclusive of pilot studies, and usually favours innovation rather than comparative effectiveness studies. Academic general practice is still not fully implemented, and existing departments are small. Most general practitioners (GPs) work in a market-based, competitive setting of small private practices, with a high case load. They have no protected time or funding for research, and mostly no research training or experience. Good Clinical Practice (GCP) training is compulsory for participation in clinical trials. The group defined three work packages to be addressed regarding clinical trials in German general practice: (1) problem analysis, and definition of (2) structural prerequisites and (3) procedural prerequisites. Structural prerequisites comprise specific support facilities for general practice-based research networks that could provide practices with a point of contact. Procedural prerequisites consist, for example, of a summary of specific relevant key measures, for example on a web platform. The platform should contain standard operating procedures (SOPs), templates, checklists and other supporting materials for researchers. Conclusion All in all, our problem analyses revealed that a substantial number of barriers contribute to the low implementation of clinical research in German general practice. Some issues are deeply rooted in Germany’s market-based healthcare and academic systems and traditions. However, new developments may facilitate change: recent developments in the German research landscape are encouraging.

2012-01-01

160

Spectroscopic Methods of Steroid Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern chemical laboratories contain equipment capable of measuring many of the physical properties of single chemical compounds and mixtures of compounds, particularly their spectral properties, which can, if interpreted correctly, provide valuable information about both structure (of single compounds) and composition (of mixtures). Over the past 50 years, the author have witnessed enormous progress in the technical capabilities of this equipment. Automation and speed of analysis have greatly improved the ease of use and the versatility of the technology.

Kasal, Alexander; Budesinsky, Milos; Griffiths, William J.

161

Developing a practical toxicogenomics data analysis system utilizing open-source software.  

PubMed

Comprehensive gene expression analysis has been applied to investigate the molecular mechanism of toxicity, which is generally known as toxicogenomics (TGx). When analyzing large-scale gene expression data obtained by microarray analysis, typical multivariate data analysis methods performed with commercial software such as hierarchical clustering or principal component analysis usually do not provide conclusive outputs by themselves. To best utilize the TGx data for toxicity evaluation in the drug development process, fit-for-purpose customization of the analytical algorithm with user-friendly interface and intuitive outputs are required to practically address the toxicologists' demands. However, commercial software is usually not very flexible in the customization of their functions or outputs. Owing to the recent advancement and accumulation of open-source software contributed by bioinformaticians all over the world, it becomes easier for us to develop practical and fit-for-purpose analytical software by ourselves with fairly low cost and efforts. The aim of this article is to present an example of developing an automated TGx data processing system (ATP system), which implements gene set-level analysis toxicogenomic profiling by D-score method and generates straightforward output that makes it easy to interpret the biological and toxicological significance of the TGx data. Our example will provide basic clues for readers to develop and customize their own TGx data analysis system which complements the function of existing commercial software. PMID:23086850

Hirai, Takehiro; Kiyosawa, Naoki

2013-01-01

162

Dynamic mechanical analysis: A practical introduction to techniques and applications  

SciTech Connect

This book introduces DMA, its history, and its current position as part of thermal analysis on polymers. It discusses major types of instrumentation, including oscillatory rotational, oscillatory axial, and torsional pendulum. It also describes analytical techniques in terms of utility, quality of data, methods of calibration, and suitability for different types of materials and assesses applications for thermoplastics, thermosetting systems, and thermosets.

Menard, K.

1999-01-01

163

Position analysis system and method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method and apparatus for deriving key characteristics for superior performance in a job includes deriving a set of behaviorally-related competencies relevant to most jobs, surveying persons knowledgeable about the job based on the set of competencies, and defining the job in terms of the most significant competencies identified by the surveys.

Bonnstetter; Bill J. (Scottsdale, AZ); Fronk; Susan J. (Anthem, AZ)

2007-02-27

164

Preparing Special Education Teacher Candidates: Extending Case Method to Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Case methodology is receiving more recognition in the field of education as a viable pedagogy for use in the preparation of future educators. In this article, the coauthors explore two examples of case method instruction that extend beyond university classrooms to field sites: case report and case study. Both examples were used in special…

Lengyel, Linda; Vernon-Dotson, Lisa

2010-01-01

165

Methods in Educational Research: From Theory to Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Written for students, educators, and researchers, "Methods in Educational Research" offers a refreshing introduction to the principles of educational research. Designed for the real world of educational research, the book's approach focuses on the types of problems likely to be encountered in professional experiences. Reflecting the importance of…

Lodico, Marguerite G.; Spaulding Dean T.; Voegtle, Katherine H.

2006-01-01

166

Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture  

SciTech Connect

Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Novascone, Stephen R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Jerry P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-09-27

167

Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture  

SciTech Connect

Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Novascone, Stephen R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Jerry P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-05-29

168

Triangle area water supply monitoring project, October 1988 through September 2001, North Carolina -- description of the water-quality network, sampling and analysis methods, and quality-assurance practices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project was initiated in October 1988 to provide long-term water-quality data for six area water-supply reservoirs and their tributaries. In addition, the project provides data that can be used to determine the effectiveness of large-scale changes in water-resource management practices, document differences in water quality among water-supply types (large multiuse reservoir, small reservoir, run-of-river), and tributary-loading and in-lake data for water-quality modeling of Falls and Jordan Lakes. By September 2001, the project had progressed in four phases and included as many as 34 sites (in 1991). Most sites were sampled and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Some sites were already a part of the North Carolina Division of Water Quality statewide ambient water-quality monitoring network and were sampled by the Division of Water Quality. The network has provided data on streamflow, physical properties, and concentrations of nutrients, major ions, metals, trace elements, chlorophyll, total organic carbon, suspended sediment, and selected synthetic organic compounds. Project quality-assurance activities include written procedures for sample collection, record management and archive, collection of field quality-control samples (blank samples and replicate samples), and monitoring the quality of field supplies. In addition to project quality-assurance activities, the quality of laboratory analyses was assessed through laboratory quality-assurance practices and an independent laboratory quality-control assessment provided by the U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Quality Systems through the Blind Inorganic Sample Project and the Organic Blind Sample Project.

Oblinger, Carolyn J.

2004-01-01

169

Evaluating Classroom Practices Using Qualitative Research Methods: Defining and Refining the Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:We describe the evolution of qualitative research practices across several years of field testing the Learning by Design ,curriculum. A variety ,of methods ,have been employed ,for the purpose of developing ,a deeper ,understanding ,of learning ,and the learner. Our ,approach ,to qualitative research has changed over time as our evaluation goals have evolved, as no one practice is appropriate

Barbara Burks Fasse; Janet L. Kolodner

170

Promoting evidence-based practice through anintegrated model ofcare: patient case studiesas a teaching method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper intends to encourage debate on how evidence-based practice may be achieved through developing an integrated approach to teaching clinical practice skills by using case study as a teaching method. This is achieved by examining societal, social, and political changes as well as the changes that have occurred in nurse education over the past 15 years. What evidence-based nursing

Robert McSherry; Tracey Proctor-Childs

2001-01-01

171

A practical method for compliance testing of base stations for mobile communications with exposure limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measurement procedure is explained which makes the combination of simple simulations, broadband and frequency-selective electromagnetic measurements to check in a practical way if a base station site complies with restrictions regarding the exposure to electromagnetic radiation. The measuring method enables the accurate and objective control of a base station site in a practical and reliable way. The procedure provides

C. Olivier; L. Martens

2001-01-01

172

Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to School Social Work Practice: A Mixed-Methods Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding barriers to practice is a growing area within school social work research. Using a convenience sample of 284 school social workers, this study replicates the efforts of a mixed-method investigation designed to identify barriers and facilitators to school social work practice within different geographic locations. Time constraints…

Teasley, Martell; Canifield, James P.; Archuleta, Adrian J.; Crutchfield, Jandel; Chavis, Annie McCullough

2012-01-01

173

Who's in and why? A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stakeholder analysis means many things to different people. Various methods and approaches have been developed in different fields for different purposes, leading to confusion over the concept and practice of stakeholder analysis. This paper asks how and why stakeholder analysis should be conducted for participatory natural resource management research. This is achieved by reviewing the development of stakeholder analysis in

Mark S. Reed; Anil Graves; Norman Dandy; Helena Posthumus; Klaus Hubacek; Joe Morris; Christina Prell; Claire H. Quinn; Lindsay C. Stringer

2009-01-01

174

A signature analysis method for IC failure analysis  

SciTech Connect

A new method of signature analysis is presented and explained. This method of signature analysis can be based on either experiential knowledge of failure analysis, observed data, or a combination of both. The method can also be used on low numbers of failures or even single failures. It uses the Dempster-Shafer theory to calculate failure mechanism confidence. The model is developed in the paper and an example is given for its use. 9 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

Henderson, C.L.; Soden, J.M.

1996-10-01

175

Maximizing Return From Sound Analysis and Design Practices  

SciTech Connect

With today's tightening budgets computer applications must provide "true" long-term benefit to the company. Businesses are spending large portions of their budgets "Re- Engineering" old systems to take advantage of "new" technology. But what they are really getting is simply a new interface implementing the same incomplete or poor defined requirements as before. "True" benefit can only be gained if sound analysis and design practices are used. WHAT data and processes are required of a system is not the same as HOW the system will be implemented within a company. It is the System Analyst's responsibility to understand the difference between these two concepts. The paper discusses some simple techniques to be used during the Analysis and Design phases of projects, as well as the information gathered and recorded in each phase and how it is transformed between these phases. The paper also covers production application generated using Oracle Designer. Applying these techniques to "real world" problems, the applications will meet the needs for today's business and adapt easily to ever-changing business environments.

Bramlette, Judith Lynn

2002-06-01

176

Maximizing Return From Sound Analysis and Design Practices  

SciTech Connect

With today's tightening budgets computer applications must provide ''true'' long-term benefit to the company. Businesses are spending large portions of their budgets ''Re-Engineering'' old systems to take advantage of ''new'' technology. But what they are really getting is simply a new interface implementing the same incomplete or poor defined requirements as before. ''True'' benefit can only be gained if sound analysis and design practices are used. WHAT data and processes are required of a system is not the same as HOW the system will be implemented within a company. It is the System Analyst's responsibility to understand the difference between these two concepts. The paper discusses some simple techniques to be used during the Analysis and Design phases of projects, as well as the information gathered and recorded in each phase and how it is transformed between these phases. The paper also covers production application generated using Oracle Designer. Applying these techniques to ''real world'' problems, the applications will meet the needs for today's business and adapt easily to ever-changing business environments.

Bramlette, J.D.

2002-04-22

177

Practical Methods for Locating Abandoned Wells in Populated Areas  

SciTech Connect

An estimated 12 million wells have been drilled during the 150 years of oil and gas production in the United States. Many old oil and gas fields are now populated areas where the presence of improperly plugged wells may constitute a hazard to residents. Natural gas emissions from wells have forced people from their houses and businesses and have caused explosions that injured or killed people and destroyed property. To mitigate this hazard, wells must be located and properly plugged, a task made more difficult by the presence of houses, businesses, and associated utilities. This paper describes well finding methods conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) that were effective at two small towns in Wyoming and in a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Veloski, G.A.; Hammack, R.W.; Lynn, R.J.

2007-09-01

178

Methods for diagnosis of bile Acid malabsorption in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Altered concentrations of bile acid (BA) in the colon can cause diarrhea or constipation. More than 25% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea or chronic diarrhea in Western countries have BA malabsorption (BAM). As BAM is increasingly recognized, proper diagnostic methods are needed to help direct the most effective course of treatment for the chronic bowel dysfunction. We review the methodologies, advantages, and disadvantages of tools that directly measure BAM: the (14)C-glycocholate breath and stool test, the (75)selenium homotaurocholic acid test (SeHCAT), and measurements of 7 ?-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and fecal BAs. The (14)C-glycocholate test is laborious and no longer widely used. The (75)SeHCAT has been validated but is not available in the United States. Measurement of serum C4 is a simple and accurate method that can be used for most patients but requires further clinical validation. Assays to quantify fecal BA (total and individual levels) are technically cumbersome and not widely available. Regrettably, none of these tests are routinely available in the United States; assessment of the therapeutic effects of a BA binder is used as a surrogate for diagnosis of BAM. Recent data indicate the advantages to studying fecal excretion of individual BAs and their role in BAM; these could support the use of the fecal BA assay, compared with other tests. Measurement of fecal BA levels could become a routine addition to the measurement of fecal fat in patients with unexplained diarrhea. Availability ultimately determines whether the C4, SeHCAT, or fecal BA test is used; more widespread availability of such tests would enhance clinical management of these patients. PMID:23644387

Vijayvargiya, Priya; Camilleri, Michael; Shin, Andrea; Saenger, Amy

2013-05-02

179

Accuracy analysis of Stewart platform based on interval analysis method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Stewart platform is introduced in the 500 m aperture spherical radio telescope(FAST) as an accuracy adjustable mechanism for feed receivers. Accuracy analysis is the basis of accuracy design. However, a rapid and effective accuracy analysis method for parallel manipulator is still needed. In order to enhance solution efficiency, an interval analysis method(IA method) is introduced to solve the terminal error bound of the Stewart platform with detailed solution path. Taking a terminal pose of the Stewart platform in FAST as an example, the terminal error is solved by the Monte Carlo method(MC method) by 4 980 s, the stochastic mathematical method(SM method) by 0.078 s, and the IA method by 2.203 s. Compared with MC method, the terminal error by SM method leads a 20% underestimate while the IA method can envelop the real error bound of the Stewart platform. This indicates that the IA method outperforms the other two methods by providing quick calculations and enveloping the real error bound of the Stewart platform. According to the given structural error of the dimension parameters of the Stewart platform, the IA method gives a maximum position error of 19.91 mm and maximum orientation error of 0.534°, which suggests that the IA method can be used for accuracy design of the Stewart platform in FAST. The IA method presented is a rapid and effective accuracy analysis method for Stewart platform.

Yao, Rui; Zhu, Wenbai; Huang, Peng

2013-01-01

180

Measuring solar reflectance - Part II: Review of practical methods  

SciTech Connect

A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar reflectance is a preferred quantity for estimating solar heat gain. In this study we show that AM1GH solar reflectance R{sub g,0} can be accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer, or an updated edition of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer (version 6). Of primary concern are errors that result from variations in the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight. Neglecting shadow, background and instrument errors, the conventional pyranometer technique can measure R{sub g,0} to within 0.01 for surface slopes up to 5:12 [23 ], and to within 0.02 for surface slopes up to 12:12 [45 ]. An alternative pyranometer method minimizes shadow errors and can be used to measure R{sub g,0} of a surface as small as 1 m in diameter. The accuracy with which it can measure R{sub g,0} is otherwise comparable to that of the conventional pyranometer technique. A solar spectrophotometer can be used to determine R{sub g,0}{sup *}, a solar reflectance computed by averaging solar spectral reflectance weighted with AM1GH solar spectral irradiance. Neglecting instrument errors, R{sub g,0}{sup *} matches R{sub g,0} to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with version 5 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer can differ from R{sub g,0}{sup *} by as much as 0.08, but the AM1GH output of version 6 of this instrument matches R{sub g,0}{sup *} to within about 0.01. (author)

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2010-09-15

181

Trichotillometry: the reliability and practicality of hair pluckability as a method of nutritional assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A nutritional assessment method that is quick and easy to conduct would be extremely useful in a complex emergency, where currently there is no agreed practical and acceptable method. Hair pluckability has been suggested to be a useful method of assessing protein nutritional status. The aim was to investigate the reliability of the trichotillometer and to explore the effects

Laura A Wyness; Geraldine McNeill; Gordon J Prescott

2007-01-01

182

EVALUATION OF PASSENGER TRAIN CONCEPTS - Practical Methods for Measuring Travellers' preferences in Relation to Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents practical methods in these areas; costs, valuation methods and handling of package effects and finally how to trade off passengers' valuations to costs. The methods are used as a toolbox for identifying the measures that would increase the value for rail passengers and the society and increasing the profitability for rail operators. \\

K. Kottenhoffa

183

Four hour ambulation after angioplasty is a safe practice method  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: During the last 3 decades, there were increasing tendency towards angioplasty because of its benefits. But, this procedure has its acute problems like bleeding and formation of hematoma in the removal place of the sheet. Based on researchers’ clinical experiences, patients need a time of 8-12 hours for bed rest after coronary angioplasty. Recognizing desirable time for bed rest after angioplasty and remove the arterial sheet forms the foundation of related researches in the world. Getting out of bed soon after angioplasty, causes more comfortable feelings, less hospitalization period, fewer side effects of prolonged bed rest and less hospitalization expenses. Regarding less time for bed rest after angioplasty, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of the time of getting out of bed after angioplasty on the complications after removing the sheet in coronary angioplasty patients. METHODS: This was an experimental clinical study conducted in one step and two groups. Samples were included 124 angioplasty patients (62 in each group) who were chosen randomly from the CCU of Shahid Chamran hospital of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2007. Data were gathered by observing and evaluating the patients, using a questionnaire and a checklist. After angioplasty, patients from the intervention group were taken out of bed in 4 hours and patients from the control group were taken out of bed in 8 hours. After taking out of bed, patients were examined for bleeding and formation of hematoma in the place of taking out the arterial sheet. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics via SPSS software. RESULTS: Results showed no meaningful difference between the two groups after getting out of bed (p > 0.05) regarding relative frequency of bleeding (p = 0.50), formation of hematoma (p = 0.34) and average diameter of hematoma (p = 0.39). CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study showed that reducing the bed rest time to 4 hours after removing the arterial sheet of size 7 do not increase bleeding and formation of hematoma in the removal place of the sheet. So, those angioplasty patients who do not have critical clinical condition and their vital symptoms are stabilized will be able to get out of bed 4 hours after removing the sheet.

Moeini, Mahin; Moradpour, Fatemeh; Babaei, Sima; Rafieian, Mohsen; Khosravi, Alireza

2010-01-01

184

Crosstalk delay analysis using relative window method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new method to deal with crosstalk effects in timing analysis. The method can handle the timing between victim and signal arrival times and the dynamic changes due to the input-pattern dependence of the arrival times. Solutions for the crosstalk problems using the method are also presented

Y. Sasaki; G. De Micheli

1999-01-01

185

On numerical analysis of conjugate gradient method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to make a trial for evaluating the computational efficiency of the conjugate gradient method and\\u000a to discuss some practical aspects important for the user in solving large and sparse systems of linear equations arising from\\u000a the discretization of boundary value problems for elliptic partial differential equations. The solution efficiency of different\\u000a algorithms of the

Z. I. Wo?nicki

1993-01-01

186

Testing the quasi-absolute method in photon activation analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In photon activation analysis (PAA), relative methods are widely used because of their accuracy and precision. Absolute methods, which are conducted without any assistance from calibration materials, are seldom applied for the difficulty in obtaining photon flux in measurements. This research is an attempt to perform a new absolute approach in PAA - quasi-absolute method - by retrieving photon flux in the sample through Monte Carlo simulation. With simulated photon flux and database of experimental cross sections, it is possible to calculate the concentration of target elements in the sample directly. The QA/QC procedures to solidify the research are discussed in detail. Our results show that the accuracy of the method for certain elements is close to a useful level in practice. Furthermore, the future results from the quasi-absolute method can also serve as a validation technique for experimental data on cross sections. The quasi-absolute method looks promising.

Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Starovoitova, V.; Segebade, C.

2013-04-01

187

Hypothesis analysis methods, hypothesis analysis devices, and articles of manufacture  

SciTech Connect

Hypothesis analysis methods, hypothesis analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a hypothesis analysis method includes providing a hypothesis, providing an indicator which at least one of supports and refutes the hypothesis, using the indicator, associating evidence with the hypothesis, weighting the association of the evidence with the hypothesis, and using the weighting, providing information regarding the accuracy of the hypothesis.

Sanfilippo, Antonio P. (Richland, WA); Cowell, Andrew J. (Kennewick, WA); Gregory, Michelle L. (Richland, WA); Baddeley, Robert L. (Richland, WA); Paulson, Patrick R. (Pasco, WA); Tratz, Stephen C. (Richland, WA); Hohimer, Ryan E. (West Richland, WA)

2012-03-20

188

Beginning secondary science teachers' classroom roles and instructional methods: An exploratory study of conflicts within practical theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a myriad of factors which influence a teacher' s classroom behaviors. Taken together, these factors are referred to as a teacher's practical theory. Some of the elements of practical theories are perceptions regarding classroom role, impressions of student abilities, reflection on experiences, and content knowledge. First-year teachers, or beginning teachers, are faced with many new challenges as they embark on their endeavor to facilitate the learning of their students. The congruence of the elements within their practical theories of teaching can provide the foundation for consistency within their classroom practices. The researcher investigated two aspects of the practical theories of beginning secondary science teachers. The first aspect was teachers' perceptions of their roles in the classroom The second aspect was teachers' intended instructional methods. Interview data from 27 beginning secondary science teachers who earned their teacher certification from one of three institutions were used for the study. The interviews were analyzed for information regarding the aforementioned aspects. An interview theme analysis (Hewson, Kerby, & Cook, 1995) was completed for each teacher. The characterization of each teacher's role was based on three categories outlined by Fenstermacher and Soltis (1986): Executive, Therapist, and Liberationist. In describing their classroom role, most of the teachers alluded to an Executive-type approach to teaching, in which their concerns regarding conveyance of content, processes or skills were paramount. In many cases, they mentioned the use of more than one instructional method; topics and variability in student learning styles accounted for the implementation of multiple methods. Methods usually included activities or hands-on experiences. Some teachers mentioned a certain "feel" of the classroom that was necessary for student learning. More than two-thirds of the teachers either expressed conflicts in their interview or showed evidence of inconsistency within their practical theories. Sources of conflict included difficulty with meeting the individual needs of students and the inability to match views of the nature of science with instruction or content.

Rearden, Kristin Theresa

189

System and Method for Automated Headspace Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system and method for nondestructive automated headspace analysis. The system includes a container conveyor that conveys a plurality of generally optically transparent sealed test containers through a pre-inspection region, an inspection region and a po...

J. R. Veale W. R. Anderson W. M. Griffith G. R. Edwards G. R. Howard

2003-01-01

190

Gas Chromatographic Methods for Liquid Propellant Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines the results of a study to consider the application of gas chromatographic methods for analysis to the three propellant systems, 50:50 unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine-hydrazine, chlorine trifluoride, and nitrogen tetroxide. Polyethyle...

R. A. Hagstrom W. Glowa W. T. Neville W. A. Nichols

1966-01-01

191

Method of zoom lenses aberrations analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proposed method uses aberration coefficients analysis which was in use in the period before computers wide application for optical design. We consider that this method was undeservedly forgotten and in combination with modern software it can provide better maintenance of aberration correction and understanding of zoom lenses aberration analysis and construction. Equations presented were received for the case of different zoom lenses constructions. Single, two and three components zoom lens are analyzed.

Livshits, I.; Ezhova, K.; Zverev, V.; Luen, Nguen Van

2012-10-01

192

Researching "Practiced Language Policies": Insights from Conversation Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In language policy research, "policy" has traditionally been conceptualised as a notion separate from that of "practice". In fact, language practices were usually analysed with a view to evaluate whether a policy is being implemented or resisted to. Recently, however, Spolsky in ("Language policy". Cambridge University press, Cambridge, 2004;…

Bonacina-Pugh, Florence

2012-01-01

193

Situational Analysis: Centerless Systems and Human Service Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bronfenbrenner's ecological model is a conceptual framework that continues to contribute to human service practices. In the current article, the author describes the possibilities for practice made intelligible by drawing from this framework. She then explores White's "Web of Praxis" model as an important extension of this approach, and proceeds…

Newbury, Janet

2011-01-01

194

Situational Analysis: Centerless Systems and Human Service Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bronfenbrenner's ecological model is a conceptual framework that continues to contribute to human service practices. In the current article, the author describes the possibilities for practice made intelligible by drawing from this framework. She then explores White's "Web of Praxis" model as an important extension of this approach, and proceeds…

Newbury, Janet

2011-01-01

195

Characterising human resources management practices in Portugal: an empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of human resources as a fundamental channel towards the competitiveness and sustainability of firms is now theoretically unchallenged. This article provides an overall characterisation of the main human resources management (HRM) practices implemented in Portugal and compares them with the benchmark models proposed in the literature.To evaluate the degree to which HRM practices diverge from these benchmark models,

Pedro Miguel dos Santos Moreira

2008-01-01

196

Multicultural Issues in School Psychology Practice: A Critical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Once thought of largely as a sideline issue, multiculturalism is fast becoming a major topic on the central stage of psychology and practice. That cultural factors permeate the whole of psychological foundations and influence the manner in which the very scope of practice is shaped is undeniable. The rapidly changing face of the U.S. population…

Ortiz, Samuel O.

2006-01-01

197

An exploratory case study analysis of contemporary marketing practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Contemporary Marketing Practice (CMP) research tradition has formulated and investigated a set of different marketing practices or archetypes ranging from transactional to relationship and network approaches. We identify gaps in previous research, and report on a case study in the house-building industry, which begins to fill these gaps. Specifically, we propose some amendments to the definition and detail of

Roger Palmer; Hugh Wilson

2009-01-01

198

Two MIS Analysis Methods: An Experimental Comparison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In China, 24 undergraduate business students applied data flow diagrams (DFD) to a mini-case, and 20 used object-oriented analysis (OOA). DFD seemed easier to learn, but after training, those using the OOA method for systems analysis made fewer errors. (SK)|

Wang, Shouhong

1996-01-01

199

Best practices: applying management analysis of excellence to immunization.  

PubMed

The authors applied business management tools to analyze and promote excellence and to evaluate differences between average and above-average immunization peformers in private practices. The authors conducted a pilot study of 10 private practices in Pennsylvania using tools common in management to assess practices' organizational climate and managerial style. Authoritative and coaching styles of physician leaders were common to both groups. Managerial styles that emphasized higher levels of clarity and responsibility managerial styles were evident in the large practices; and rewards and flexibility styles were higher in the small above-average practices. The findings of this pilot study match results seen in high performers in other industries. It concludes that the authoritative style appears to have the most impact on performance. It has interesting implications for training/behavior change to improve immunization rates, along with traditional medical interventions. PMID:15921143

Wishner, Amy; Aronson, Jerold; Kohrt, Alan; Norton, Gary

200

Lack of agreement of tympanic membrane temperature assessments with conventional methods in a private practice setting.  

PubMed

An infrared tympanic membrane thermometer (FIRST temp) said to approximate core temperature accurately is being marketed as a noninvasive, quick, and easy-to-use clinical instrument. The determination of tympanic membrane temperatures by this device was compared with the determination of oral, rectal, or axillary temperatures by a conventional glass thermometer. Subjects were patients of a pediatric group practice in Houston, Texas. FIRST temp and conventional temperature determinations on individual patients were completed within 5 minutes of each other. The presence or absence of otitis media was noted by the examining physician. Agreement between the two methods of temperature determination was assessed by calculating limits of agreement within which 95% (+/- 2 standard deviations) of individual differences would fall. The location of conventional thermometer (oral, rectal, axillary), time interval between the two separate measures, and the presence or absence of otitis media were entered into a multiple regression analysis to determine whether these factors influenced the observed differences between the two methods. A total of 144 patients were enrolled in the study; oral comparisons were obtained in 92 (57%) patients, rectal in 35 (24%), and axillary in 29 (19%). The upper and lower limits of agreement between temperature methods were 1.12 degrees C and 0.89 degrees C and the mean difference was -0.12 degrees C. Regression analysis revealed that only the site of conventional thermometer location (oral, rectal, axillary) was a significant predictor of FIRST temp/conventional differences. Each site had a range of agreement greater than 1.65% degrees C; axillary temperatures had the greatest range (-0.94 degree C to +1.30 degrees C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1741208

Freed, G L; Fraley, J K

1992-03-01

201

A Dielectric Heating Analysis Method With Accurate Rotational Motion of Stirrer Fan Using Nonconforming Mesh Connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the heating process of the target and the optimal structure of cavity in a furnace for dielectric heating, such as a microwave oven, the coupled analysis method composed of electromagnetic wave and heat conduction is a powerful tool for practical design. In this paper, we proposed the electromagnetic wave analysis method with a nonconforming mesh connection

Yoshifumi Okamoto; Ryutaro Himeno; Kiminori Ushida; Akira Ahagon; Koji Fujiwara

2008-01-01

202

Female genital cutting and other intra-vaginal practices: implications for TwoDay Method use.  

PubMed

This report examines the implications of female genital cutting and other intra-vaginal practices for offering the TwoDay Method® of family planning.This fertility awareness-based method relies on the identification of cervicovaginal secretions to identify the fertile window. Female genital cutting and traditional vaginal practices, such as the use of desiccants, may affect the presence or absence of secretions and therefore the woman’s perception of her fertility. These issues and their implications for service delivery of the method are discussed. PMID:23016158

Aksel, Sarp; Sinai, Irit; Yee, Kimberly Aumack

2012-09-01

203

Quantitative analysis of human immunoregulatory cytokines by electrochemiluminescence method.  

PubMed

Quantitative analysis of human immunoregulatory cytokines in physiological media and cell cultures plays an important role in fundamental and clinical research. Here we describe the quantification of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in human serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-conditioned medium by electrochemiluminescence method (ECL). We demonstrate that this approach allows to detect cytokine concentration from 1 pg/ml. The high sensitivity in combination with accuracy and wide range of determined concentration indicates that ECL meets the standards of quantitative analysis of cytokines. Simplicity and short time of procedure, small assay volume and high reproducibility make ECL method competitive in practical use with conventional quantitative methods of cytokine detection. PMID:12667672

Sennikov, Sergey V; Krysov, Sergey V; Injelevskaya, Tatiana V; Silkov, Alexandr N; Grishina, Lyubov V; Kozlov, Vladimir A

2003-04-01

204

The Blending of Andragogical and Pedagogical Teaching Methods in Advanced Social Work Practice Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many social work educators have endorsed an andragogical appraoch to instruction as a means to reach the diverse student population of today's classroom, without recognizing the larger debate and concerns voiced by adult education detractors. Andrgogical methods provide practical experience-related learning opportunities where self-directed learning is emphasized. Although these methods are effective and have improved social work instruction over the

Betty J. Kramer; Rachel Wrenn

1994-01-01

205

Best Practices in Teaching Statistics and Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences [with CD-ROM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides a showcase for "best practices" in teaching statistics and research methods in two- and four-year colleges and universities. A helpful resource for teaching introductory, intermediate, and advanced statistics and/or methods, the book features coverage of: (1) ways to integrate these courses; (2) how to promote ethical conduct;…

Dunn, Dana S., Ed.; Smith, Randolph A., Ed.; Beins, Barney, Ed.

2007-01-01

206

Evolution of Collective Practices in Design by Integration of New Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the problem of the evolution of collective practices in f terms of design and offers the solution of doing this operation by integrating new methods. In order to guarantee the success of the integration of a new method, the process of change is viewed as evolving from being one that is imposed to one that is participatory.

Flore Perrin; Dominique Millet; Améziane Aoussat

207

Study of saturation effects in brushless DC spindle motors using harmonics analysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In analysis of brushless dc (BLDC) motors, the effect of saturation needs to be appropriately considered especially in the case of small disk format where the housing space is very limited for the spindle. In this paper, we propose a practical method for analysis of saturation effects in BLDC spindle motors. The model is based on the comparative analysis of

J. T. Li; Z. J. Liu; C. Bi

2010-01-01

208

Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy analyst are often referred to as the toolbox or toolkit of

T. E. Van der Lei

2009-01-01

209

A Data Mining Based NTL Analysis Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method of determining which type of data provides maximum accuracy with reference to non-technical loss analysis in the electricity distribution sector. The method is based on two popular classification algorithms, Naive Bayesian and Decision Tree. It involves extracting the patterns of customers' kWh consumption behaviour from historical data and arranging the data in various ways by

A. H. Nizar; Z. Y. Dong; J. H. Zhao; P. Zhang

2007-01-01

210

Hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods  

DOEpatents

A set of hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods in which spectral shapes of components or effects not present in the original calibration step are added in a following estimation or calibration step to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the amount of the original components in the sampled mixture. The "hybrid" method herein means a combination of an initial classical least squares analysis calibration step with subsequent analysis by an inverse multivariate analysis method. A "spectral shape" herein means normally the spectral shape of a non-calibrated chemical component in the sample mixture but can also mean the spectral shapes of other sources of spectral variation, including temperature drift, shifts between spectrometers, spectrometer drift, etc. The "shape" can be continuous, discontinuous, or even discrete points illustrative of the particular effect.

Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

211

The moderating effect of supply chain role on the relationship between supply chain practices and performance : An empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between specific supply chain practices and organizational performance and whether this relationship is moderated by the role that a company assumes in its respective supply chain. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper uses regression analysis and the relative weights method to analyze a set of survey data from respondents within

Lori S. Cook; Daniel R. Heiser; Kaushik Sengupta

2011-01-01

212

Uncoupled numerical method for fracture analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An uncoupled numerical method for the analysis of dynamic crack propagation is proposed. The approach consists of two main\\u000a steps. Firstly, the internal stresses in the intact, unfractured, elastic body are calculated with the use of the finite element\\u000a method. Firstly, the internal stresses in the intact, unfractured, elastic body are calculated with the use of the finite\\u000a element method.

J. c. w. Van Vroonhoven; R. De Borst

1997-01-01

213

Multivariate analysis of management and biosecurity practices in smallholder pig farms in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2005 and 2006 in three geographical areas of Madagascar to investigate and differentiate swine farm management and biosecurity practices in smallholder farming communities. Questionnaire data from a total of 709 pig farms were analysed using multiple factor analysis (MFA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Variables describing management and biosecurity practices were organised into

S. Costard; V. Porphyre; S. Messad; S. Rakotondrahanta; H. Vidon; F. Roger; D. U. Pfeiffer

2009-01-01

214

Applied Behavior Analysis for Criminal Justice PracticeSome Current Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the seven dimensions of applied behavior analysis are related to criminal justice practice. Each of the dimensions is described and examined, and is illustrated by published behavioral literature on crime and delinquency. In addition, three general assumptions of applied behavior analysis are presented: (1) good practice should be good research; (2) behavioral goals, procedures, and effects should

Edward K. Morris

1980-01-01

215

Ratio Analysis and Equity Valuation: From Research to Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial statement analysis has traditionally been seen as part of the fundamental analysis required for equity valuation. But the analysis has typically been ad hoc. Drawing on recent research on accounting-based valuation, this paper outlines a financial statement analysis for use in equity valuation. Standard profitability analysis is incorporated, and extended, and is complemented with an analysis of growth. An

DORON NISSIM; STEPHEN H. PENMAN

2001-01-01

216

Internet Practices of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors and Analysis of Guidelines for Ethical Internet Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Internet has become an integral part of the practice of rehabilitation counseling. To identify potential ethical issues regarding the use of the Internet by counselors, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, we surveyed a national sample of rehabilitation counselors regarding their use of technology in their work and home settings. Results…

Lehmann, Ilana S.; Crimando, William

2011-01-01

217

Identifying Communities of Practice through Ontology Network Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes Ontocopi, a tool for identifying communities of practice by analyzing ontologies of relevant working domains. Ontocopi spots patterns in ontological formal relations, traversing the ontology from instance to instance via selected relations.

Harith Alani; Srinandan Dasmahapatra; Kieron O'hara; Nigel Shadbolt

2003-01-01

218

A Practical, Automated Quality Assurance Method for Measuring Spatial Resolution in PET  

PubMed Central

The use of different scanners, acquisition protocols, and reconstruction algorithms has been identified as a problem that limits the use of PET in multicenter trials. The aim of this project was to aid standardization of data collection by developing a quality assurance method for measuring the spatial resolution achieved with clinical imaging protocols. Methods A commercially available 68Ge cylinder phantom (diameter, 20 cm) with a uniform activity concentration was positioned in the center of the PET field of view, and an image was acquired using typical clinical parameters. Spatial resolution was measured by artificially generating an object function (O) with uniform activity within a 20-cm-diameter cylinder, assuming no noise and perfect spatial resolution, centered on the original image (I); dividing F[I] by F[O], where F indicates a 2-dimensional Fourier transform, to produce a modulation transfer function; and taking the inverse Fourier transform of the modulation transfer function to produce a point-spread function in image space. The method was validated using data acquired on 4 different commercial PET systems. Results Spatial resolution on the Discovery LS was measured at 5.75 ±0.58 mm, compared with 5.54 ±0.19 mm from separate point source measurements. Variability of the resolution measurements differed between scanners and protocols, but the typical SD was approximately 0.15 mm when iterative reconstruction was used. The potential for predicting resolution recovery coefficients for small objects was also demonstrated. Conclusion The proposed method does not require elaborate phantom preparation and is practical to perform, and data analysis is fully automated. This approach is useful for evaluating clinical reconstruction protocols across varying scanners and reconstruction algorithms and should greatly aid standardization of data collection between centers.

Lodge, Martin A.; Rahmim, Arman; Wahl, Richard L.

2011-01-01

219

Redesigning communities of practice using knowledge network analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of many companies in today’s knowledge economy relies on informal\\u000anetworks. Such networks promote the lateral sharing of knowledge between employees, which\\u000aresults in sharing best practices and innovations. Informal networks have received a lot of\\u000aattention in literature and they are referred to as communities of practice. Several authors agree\\u000athat communities make employees more effective in

Remko Helms

2007-01-01

220

Bioanalytical methods for food contaminant analysis.  

PubMed

Foods are complex mixtures of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, organic compounds, and other naturally occurring substances. Sometimes added to this mixture are residues of pesticides, veterinary and human drugs, microbial toxins, preservatives, contaminants from food processing and packaging, and other residues. This milieu of compounds can pose difficulties in the analysis of food contaminants. There is an expanding need for rapid and cost-effective residue methods for difficult food matrixes to safeguard our food supply. Bioanalytical methods are established for many food contaminants such as mycotoxins and are the method of choice for many food allergens. Bioanalytical methods are often more cost-effective and sensitive than instrumental procedures. Recent developments in bioanalytical methods may provide more applications for their use in food analysis. PMID:21313795

Van Emon, Jeanette M

221

A practical algorithm for static analysis of parallel programs  

SciTech Connect

One approach to analyzing the behavior of a concurrent program requires determining the reachable program states. A program state consists of a set of task states, the values of shared variables used for synchronization, and local variables that derive the values directly from synchronization operations. However, the number of reachable states rises exponentially with the number of tasks and becomes intractable for many concurrent programs. A variation of this approach merges a set of related states into a single virtual state. Using this approach, the analysis of concurrent programs becomes feasible as the number of virtual states is often orders of magnitude less than the number of reachable states. This paper presents a method for determining the virtual states that describe the reachable program states, and the reduction in the number of states is analyzed. The algorithms given have been implemented in a state program analyzer for multitasking Fortran, and the results obtained are discussed.

McDowell, C.E. (California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (USA))

1989-06-01

222

The Constrained Interpolation Profile Method for Multiphase Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a review of the constrained interpolation profile (CIP) method that is known as a general numerical solver for solid, liquid, gas, and plasmas. This method is a kind of semi-Lagrangian scheme and has been extended to treat incompressible flow in the framework of compressible fluid. Since it uses primitive Euler representation, it is suitable for multiphase analysis. The recent version of this method guarantees the exact mass conservation even in the framework of a semi-Lagrangian scheme. We provide a comprehensive review of the strategy of the CIP method, which has a compact support and subcell resolution, including a front-capturing algorithm with functional transformation, a pressure-based algorithm, and other miscellaneous physics such as the elastic-plastic effect and surface tension. Some practical applications are also reviewed, such as milk crown or coronet, laser-induced melting, and turbulent mixing layer of liquid-gas interface.

Yabe, Takashi; Xiao, Feng; Utsumi, Takayuki

2001-05-01

223

Discourse analysis: what is it and why is it relevant to family practice?  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to illustrate what discourse analysis is and how it can contribute to our understanding of family practice. Firstly, we describe what ‘discourse analysis’ is, mapping the discourse analysis terrain by discussing four studies relevant to primary care to illustrate different methodological approaches and key concepts. We then address the practicalities of how to actually do discourse analysis, providing readers with a worked example using one particular approach. Thirdly, we touch on some common debates about discursive research. We conclude by advocating that researchers and practitioners take up the challenge of understanding, utilizing and extending the field of discourse studies within family practice.

Bailey, Julia

2009-01-01

224

Lateralization of speech production using verbal\\/manual dual tasks: meta-analysis of sex differences and practice effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper reviews the findings of 30 years of verbal\\/manual dual task studies, the method most commonly used to assess lateralization of speech production in non-clinical samples. Meta-analysis of 64 results revealed that both the type of manual task used and the nature of practice that is given influence the size of the laterality effect. A meta-analysis of 36

S. E. Medland; G. Geffen; K. McFarland

2002-01-01

225

Root selection methods in flood analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1970s, de Laine developed a root-matching procedure for estimating unit hydrograph ordinates from estimates of the fast component of the total runoff from multiple storms. Later, Turner produced a root selection method which required only data from one storm event and was based on recognising a pattern typical of unit hydrograph roots. Both methods required direct runoff data, i.e. prior separation of the slow response. This paper introduces a further refinement, called root separation, which allows the estimation of both the unit hydrograph ordinates and the effective precipitation from the full discharge hydrograph. It is based on recognising and separating the quicker component of the response from the much slower components due to interflow and/or baseflow. The method analyses the z-transform roots of carefully selected segments of the full hydrograph. The root patterns of these separate segments tend to be dominated by either the fast response or the slow response. This paper shows how their respective time-scales can be distinguished with an accuracy sufficient for practical purposes. As an illustration, theoretical equations are derived for a conceptual rainfall-runoff system with the input split between fast and slow reservoirs in parallel. These are solved analytically to identify the reservoir constants and the input splitting parameter. The proposed method, called "root separation", avoids the subjective selection of rainfall roots in the Turner method as well as the subjective matching of roots in the original de Laine method.

Parmentier, Benoît; Dooge, James C. I.; Bruen, Michael

226

Computer methods in electric network analysis  

SciTech Connect

The computational algorithms utilized in power system analysis have more than just a minor overlap with those used in electronic circuit computer aided design. This paper describes the computer methods that are common to both areas and highlights the differences in application through brief examples. Recognizing this commonality has stimulated the exchange of useful techniques in both areas and has the potential of fostering new approaches to electric network analysis through the interchange of ideas.

Saver, P.; Hajj, I.; Pai, M.; Trick, T.

1983-06-01

227

Application of Stacking Technique in ANA: Method and Practice with PKU Seismological Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross correlation of ambient noise records is now routinely used to get dispersion curve and then do seismic tomography; however little attention has been paid to array techniques. We will present a spacial-stacking method to get high resolution dispersion curves and show practices with the observation data of PKU seismological array. Experiential Green Functions are generally obtained by correlation between two stations, and then the dispersion curves are obtained from the analysis of FTAN. Popular method to get high resolution dispersion curves is using long time records. At the same time, if we want to get effectual signal, the distance between the two stations must be at least 3 times of the longest wavelength. So we need both long time records and appropriate spaced stations. Now we use a new method, special-stacking, which allows shorter observation period and utilizes observations of a group of closely distributed stations to get fine dispersion curves. We correlate observations of every station in the station group with those of a far station, and then stack them together. However we cannot just simply stack them unless the stations in the station group at a circle, of which the center is the far station owing to dispersion characteristics of the Rayleigh waves. Thus we do antidispersion on the observation data of every station in the array, then do stacking. We test the method using the theoretical seismic surface wave records which obtained by qseis06 compiled by Rongjiang Wang both with and without noise. For the cases of three imaginary stations (distance is 1 degree) have the same underground structure and without noise, result is that the center station had the same dispersion with and without spacial-stacking. Then we add noise to the theoretical records. The center station's dispersion curves obtained by our method are much closer to the dispersion curve without noise than contaminated ones. We can see that our method has improved the resolution of the dispersion curve. Then we use the real data from PKU array whose interval is about 10 km and the permanent stations of IRIS which is far (more than 200 km) from PKU array, to test the method. Firstly, we compare the stacked correlation results of the three consecutive stations with uncorrelated ones, finding the resolution of the dispersion curve of the former is better. Secondly, we compare the stacked results with the results of center station's traditional correlation in one year, and find the two fit very well.

Liu, J.; Tang, Y.; Ning, J.; Chen, Y. J.

2010-12-01

228

An Overview of Longitudinal Data Analysis Methods for Neurological Research  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to provide a concise, broad and readily accessible overview of longitudinal data analysis methods, aimed to be a practical guide for clinical investigators in neurology. In general, we advise that older, traditional methods, including (1) simple regression of the dependent variable on a time measure, (2) analyzing a single summary subject level number that indexes changes for each subject and (3) a general linear model approach with a fixed-subject effect, should be reserved for quick, simple or preliminary analyses. We advocate the general use of mixed-random and fixed-effect regression models for analyses of most longitudinal clinical studies. Under restrictive situations or to provide validation, we recommend: (1) repeated-measure analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), (2) ANCOVA for two time points, (3) generalized estimating equations and (4) latent growth curve/structural equation models.

Locascio, Joseph J.; Atri, Alireza

2011-01-01

229

Simplified Analysis Methods for Primary Load Designs at Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The use of simplified (reference stress) analysis methods is discussed and illustrated for primary load high temperature design. Elastic methods are the basis of the ASME Section III, Subsection NH primary load design procedure. There are practical drawbacks with this approach, particularly for complex geometries and temperature gradients. The paper describes an approach which addresses these difficulties through the use of temperature-dependent elastic-perfectly plastic analysis. Correction factors are defined to address difficulties traditionally associated with discontinuity stresses, inelastic strain concentrations and multiaxiality. A procedure is identified to provide insight into how this approach could be implemented but clearly there is additional work to be done to define and clarify the procedural steps to bring it to the point where it could be adapted into code language.

Carter, Peter [Stress Engineering Services Inc.; Jetter, Robert I [Consultant; Sham, Sam [ORNL

2011-01-01

230

Multiobjective risk-impact analysis method  

SciTech Connect

This paper integrates two methodologies of risk and impact analysis - the partitioned multiobjective risk method (PMRM) and the multiobjective, multistage impact analysis method (MMIAM). The PMRM, in an effort to overcome the difficulties created by commensurating extreme events that have catastrophic impacts with those that have more frequent but less harmful consequences, introduces the use of conditional expectations for different regimes of probabilities and damages. The MMIAM is a multiobjective decision-making method for impact analysis which explicitly develops trade-offs among different objectives at different stages or periods. Decision makers who must act under conditions of extreme risk and uncertainty often find that they are more interested in knowing what not to do than they are in optimizing their current objectives (the more traditional aim of decision-making methodologies). This paper focuses on a way to answer their needs, in which major elements of both the PMRM and the MMIAM are combined in a new, integrated methodology, termed here the multiobjective risk-impact analysis method (MRIAM). The new methodology incorporates risk and impact analysis within a dynamic multiobjective decision-making framework. To demonstrate the usefulness of the integrated methodology, an example problem concerning the environmental effects of pollutant emissions over a number of years is formulated, solved, and analyzed.

Leach, M.R.; Haimes, Y.Y.

1987-06-01

231

NOA: a novel Network Ontology Analysis method  

PubMed Central

Gene ontology analysis has become a popular and important tool in bioinformatics study, and current ontology analyses are mainly conducted in individual gene or a gene list. However, recent molecular network analysis reveals that the same list of genes with different interactions may perform different functions. Therefore, it is necessary to consider molecular interactions to correctly and specifically annotate biological networks. Here, we propose a novel Network Ontology Analysis (NOA) method to perform gene ontology enrichment analysis on biological networks. Specifically, NOA first defines link ontology that assigns functions to interactions based on the known annotations of joint genes via optimizing two novel indexes ‘Coverage’ and ‘Diversity’. Then, NOA generates two alternative reference sets to statistically rank the enriched functional terms for a given biological network. We compare NOA with traditional enrichment analysis methods in several biological networks, and find that: (i) NOA can capture the change of functions not only in dynamic transcription regulatory networks but also in rewiring protein interaction networks while the traditional methods cannot and (ii) NOA can find more relevant and specific functions than traditional methods in different types of static networks. Furthermore, a freely accessible web server for NOA has been developed at http://www.aporc.org/noa/.

Wang, Jiguang; Huang, Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Yong; Wu, Ling-Yun; Chen, Luonan; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

2011-01-01

232

ATMOS data processing and science analysis methods.  

PubMed

The ATMOS (atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy) instrument, a high speed Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the middle IR (2.2-16 microm), recorded more than 1500 solar spectra at approximately 0.0105-cm(-1) resolution during its first mission onboard the shuttle Challenger in the spring of 1985. These spectra were acquired during high sun conditions for studies of the solar atmosphere and during low sun conditions for studies of the earth's upper atmosphere. This paper describes the steps by which the telemetry data were converted into spectra suitable for analysis, the analysis software and methods developed for the atmospheric and solar studies, and the ATMOS data analysis facility. PMID:20582004

Norton, R H; Rinsland, C P

1991-02-01

233

ATMOS data processing and science analysis methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument, a high-speed Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the middle IR (2.2-16 microns), recorded more than 1500 solar spectra at about 0.0105/cm resolution during its first mission onboard the shuttle Challenger in the spring of 1985. These spectra were acquired during high-sun conditions for studies of the solar atmosphere and during low-sun conditions for studies of the earth's upper atmosphere. This paper describes the steps by which the telemetry data were converted into spectra suitable for analysis, the analysis software and methods developed for the atmospheric and solar studies, and the ATMOS data analysis facility.

Norton, Robert H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.

1991-02-01

234

Design analysis, robust methods, and stress classification  

SciTech Connect

This special edition publication volume is comprised of papers presented at the 1993 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, July 25--29, 1993 in Denver, Colorado. The papers were prepared for presentations in technical sessions developed under the auspices of the PVPD Committees on Computer Technology, Design and Analysis, Operations Applications and Components. The topics included are: Analysis of Pressure Vessels and Components; Expansion Joints; Robust Methods; Stress Classification; and Non-Linear Analysis. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Bees, W.J. (ed.)

1993-01-01

235

A practical reliability-based method for assessing soil liquefaction potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current simplified methods for assessing soil liquefaction potential use a deterministic safety factor in order to judge whether liquefaction will occur or not. However, these methods are unable to determine the liquefaction probability related to a safety factor. An answer to this problem can be found by reliability analysis. This paper presents a reliability analysis method based on the

Jin-Hung Hwang; Chin-Wen Yang; D. S. Juang

2004-01-01

236

Numerical analysis of the orthogonal descent method  

SciTech Connect

The author of the orthogonal descent method has been testing it since 1977. The results of these tests have only strengthened the need for further analysis and development of orthogonal descent algorithms for various classes of convex programming problems. Systematic testing of orthogonal descent algorithms and comparison of test results with other nondifferentiable optimization methods was conducted at TsEMI RAN in 1991-1992 using the results.

Shokov, V.A.; Shchepakin, M.B.

1994-11-01

237

Practical method for evaluating the visibility of moire patterns for CRT design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high resolution CRT displays used for computer monitor and high performance TV often produce a pattern of bright and dark stripes on the screen called a moire pattern. The elimination of the moire is an important consideration in the CRT design. The objective of this study is to provide a practical method for estimating and evaluating a moire pattern considering the visibility by the human vision. On the basis of the mathematical model of a moire generation, precise value of the period and the intensity of a moire are calculated from the actual data of the electron beam profile and the transmittance distribution of apertures of the shadow mask. The visibility of the moire is evaluated by plotting the calculation results on the contrast-period plane, which consists of visible and invisible moire pattern regions based on experimental results of the psychological tests. Not only fundamental design parameters such as a shadow mask pitch and a scanning line pitch but also details of an electron beam profile such as a distortion or an asymmetry can be examined. In addition to the analysis, the image simulation of a moire using the image memory is also available.

Shiramatsu, Naoki; Tanigawa, Masashi; Iwata, Shuji

1995-04-01

238

Acetone preservation: a practical technique for molecular analysis.  

PubMed

In attempts to establish a convenient and reliable method for field collection and archival preservation of insects and their endosymbiotic microorganisms for molecular analysis, acetone, ethanol, and other organic solvents were tested for DNA preservability of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and its intracellular symbiotic bacterium Buchnera sp. After 6 months' storage, not only the band of high-molecular-size DNA but also the bands of rRNA were well preserved in acetone, ethanol, 2-propanol, diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays confirmed that the DNA of both the insects and their symbionts was well preserved in these solvents. In contrast, methanol and chloroform showed poor DNA preservability. When water-containing series of acetone and ethanol were examined for DNA preservability, acetone was apparently more robust against water contamination than ethanol. Considering that most biological materials contain high amounts of water, acetone may be a more recommendable preservative for DNA analysis than ethanol which has been widely used for this purpose. The DNA of various insects could be preserved in acetone at room temperature in good condition for several years. In addition to the DNA of the host insects, the DNA of their endosymbionts, including Buchnera and other mycetocyte symbionts, Wolbachia, and gut bacteria, was amplified by PCR after several years of acetone storage. The RNA and protein of the pea aphid and its endosymbiont were also preserved for several years in acetone. After 2 years' storage in acetone, proteins of A. pisum could be analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting, and the endosymbiotic bacteria were successfully detected by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization on the tissue sections. PMID:10620236

Fukatsu, T

1999-11-01

239

A Survey and Analysis of Receivables Practices in American Corporations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a survey of the receivables practices of 200 large American corporations. The purpose of the survey was to obtain information on whether firms are maximizing the value of their shareholders' wealth in the area of receivables. The survey focused on three areas of receivables management: presale issues, postsale issues, and ongoing issues. (JEL Classifications:

Cecilia Wagner Ricci

240

Sex-Fair Counseling Practices: A Descriptive Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 challenged school counselors to provide sex fair guidance and counseling practices. To determine Connecticut counselors' compliance with the law, and to examine factors affecting their compliance, 147 secondary school counselors completed surveys. The questionnaire was designed to examine counseling…

Griffin, Barbara

241

Incorporating Computer-Aided Language Sample Analysis into Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: During the evaluation of language abilities, the needs of the child are best served when multiple types and sources of data are included in the evaluation process. Current educational policies and practice guidelines further dictate the use of authentic assessment data to inform diagnosis and treatment planning. Language sampling and…

Price, Lisa Hammett; Hendricks, Sean; Cook, Colleen

2010-01-01

242

A Preliminary Analysis of Early Rhythm and Blues Musical Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information on the evolution of rhythm and blues (R & B) from the 1940s to the 1960s: the origin and naming of selected R & B groups, role of instruments in R & B orchestras, soloist/group vocal practices, and the role that independent record labels played in artists' successes and failures. (Author/ML)

Meadows, Eddie S.

1983-01-01

243

Analysis of 10 African Natural Resources Management Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten natural resource management practices/technologies (P/Ts) interventions having a direct physical impact on the natural resource base in use in Africa are analyzed. The P/Ts analyzed are: physical contour barriers (Burkina Faso, Mali, Somalia); home ga...

T. K. Erdmann

1993-01-01

244

Professional Learning in Rural Practice: A Sociomaterial Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper aims to examine the professional learning of rural police officers. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative case study involved interviews and focus groups with 34 police officers in Northern Scotland. The interviews and focus groups were transcribed and analysed, drawing on practice-based and sociomaterial learning…

Slade, Bonnie

2013-01-01

245

Mentoring beginning teachers in secondary schools: An analysis of practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditions that promote best practice in the mentoring of beginning teachers in secondary schools are explored in this paper in relation to the experiential model of learning put forward by Kolb [(1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. New York: Prentice-Hall]. The underpinning processes of this learning cycle include the experience, the reflection, the learning

Jennifer Harrison; Sue Dymoke; Tony Pell

2006-01-01

246

Mentoring Beginning Teachers in Secondary Schools: An Analysis of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conditions that promote best practice in the mentoring of beginning teachers in secondary schools are explored in this paper in relation to the experiential model of learning put forward by Kolb [(1984). "Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development." New York: Prentice-Hall]. The underpinning processes of this…

Harrison, Jennifer; Dymoke, Sue; Pell, Tony

2006-01-01

247

A qualitative analysis of case managers' use of harm reduction in practice.  

PubMed

The harm reduction approach has become a viable framework within the field of addictions, yet there is limited understanding about how this approach is implemented in practice. For people who are homeless and have co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders, the Housing First model has shown promising results in employing such an approach. This qualitative study utilizes ethnographic methods to explore case managers' use of harm reduction within Housing First with a specific focus on the consumer-provider relationship. Analysis of observational data and in-depth interviews with providers and consumers revealed how communication between the two regarding the consumer's substance use interacted with the consumer-provider relationship. From these findings emerged a heuristic model of harm reduction practice that highlighted the profound influence of relationship quality on the paths of communication regarding substance use. This study provides valuable insight into how harm reduction is implemented in clinical practice that ultimately has public health implications in terms of more effectively addressing high rates of addiction that contribute to homelessness and health disparities. PMID:22520277

Tiderington, Emmy; Stanhope, Victoria; Henwood, Benjamin F

2012-04-19

248

Improving the evidence base for practice: a realistic method for appraising evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: To present and discuss a method for the appraisal of evaluations which can be used by the informed practitioner and will facilitate the incorporation of research evidence into every day nursing, midwifery, and health visiting practice.Background: The development of current systems for the appraisal of published studies is described, showing that they still reflect their origin in experimental methodology,

Patricia Lyne; Davina Allen; Christopher Martinsen; Philip Satherley

2002-01-01

249

What Informs Practice and What Is Valued in Corporate Instructional Design? A Mixed Methods Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study used a two-phased explanatory mixed-methods design to explore in-depth what factors are perceived by Instructional Design and Technology (IDT) professionals as impacting instructional design practice, how these factors are valued in the field, and what differences in perspectives exist between IDT managers and non-managers. For phase 1…

Thompson-Sellers, Ingrid N.

2012-01-01

250

Ethical Regulation and Visual Methods: Making Visual Research Impossible or Developing Good Practice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical regulation of social research in the UK has been steadily increasing over the last decade or so and comprises a form of audit to which all researchers in Higher Education are subject. Concerns have been raised by social researchers using visual methods that such ethical scrutiny and regulation will place severe limitations on visual research developments and practice.

Rose Wiles; Amanda Coffey; Judy Robison; Jon Prosser

2012-01-01

251

Combining Project Management Methods: A Case Study of Dlstributed Work Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing complexity of information systems development (ISD) projects call for improved project management practices. This, together with an endeavour to improve the success rate of ISD projects (Lyytinen and Robey 1999; Cooke-Davies 2002; White and Fortune 2002), has served as drivers for various efforts in process improvement such as the introduction of new development methods (Fitzgerald 1997; Iivari and Maansaari 1998).

Backlund, Per; Lundell, Björn

252

19 CFR 12.39 - Imported articles involving unfair methods of competition or practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1337), unfair methods of competition and unfair practices...section 337, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C.1337), excluding, importation of such products. Exclusion...

2013-04-01

253

A Practical Method for Modeling PCB Transmission Lines with Conductor Surface Roughness and Wideband Dielectric Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the modeling techniques to account for transmission line high frequency effects, and proposes a method to integrate these techniques into a practical and design-worthy model generation flow. The frequency tabulated transmission line models are capable of predicting wideband dielectric characteristics and high frequency conductor losses due to skin effect and surface roughness. They can be used to

T. Liang; S. Hall; H. Heck; G. Brist

2006-01-01

254

Preaching History in a Social Studies Methods Course: A Portrait of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a portrait of practice of one social studies methods professor engaged in teaching his course and analyzes the choices the professor makes during the semester. These choices are linked to his philosophy of social studies education with particular attention paid to his passionate belief in the American story as the core of…

Slekar, Timothy D.

2006-01-01

255

A practical method for lifetime estimation of the used mineral oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral oil, with the main roles of insulating and cooling in power transformers, is very similar to the blood in human body. Because of the importance of power transformers in electrical networks, permanent care of the oil quality is indispensable. In this paper, a practical method for estimation of a used transformer oil's lifetime is presented. Different kinds of tests,

M. R. Meshkatoddini

2002-01-01

256

National Survey of Psychologists' Test Feedback Training, Supervision, and Practice: A Mixed Methods Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this empirical, mixed methods study, we explored test feedback training, supervision, and practice among psychologists, focusing specifically on how feedback is provided to clients and whether feedback skills are taught in graduate programs. Based on a 48.5% return rate, this national survey of clinical, counseling, and school psychologists' suggests psychologists provide test feedback to clients but inconsistently. Most respondents,

Kyle T. Curry; William E. Hanson

2010-01-01

257

METHODS FOR MONITORING LEACHATE LOSSES UNDER IRRIGATED CORN BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching of applied agricultural chemicals is a process which must be fully understood if we are to reduce agriculture's impact on the environment. A Best Management Practices (BMP) project was initiated in 1989 near Oakes, ND. A primary objective of the study was to develop and evaluate methods for measuring leachate losses from a corn (Zea mays L.) root zone.

Nathan E. Derby; Raymond E. Knighton; Dean D. Steele; Bruce R. Montgomery

258

Using Spoken and Written Qualitative Methods to Explore Children's and Young People's Food and Eating Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research examining children's and young people's food and eating practices has become more common place in recent years. Qualitative methods can be useful in such sense-making research, where an individual's narrative is likely to involve complexity, contradiction and ambiguity. Speaking and writing about food and eating can offer participants of all ages and most abilities the opportunity to delve into

Wendy J. Wills

2012-01-01

259

Evaluation of Sampling Methods in Research Reported in Selected Clinical Nursing Journals: Implications for Nursing Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standards relating to sampling methodology are summarized, deviations from these standards in a random sample of 30 research reports are identified, and specific recommendations for improving sampling methods to enhance research applicability for practice are made. A high proportion of the studies examined had at least one major sampling…

Selby, Maija L.; And Others

1990-01-01

260

Methods for spherical data analysis and visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic analysis of the localization of objects in extra-personal space requires a three-dimensional method of documenting location. In auditory localization studies the location of a sound source is often reduced to a directional vector with constant magnitude with respect to the observer, data being plotted on a unit sphere with the observer at the origin. This is an attractive

Philip Leong; Simon Carlile

1998-01-01

261

Methods for Chemical Analysis of Fresh Waters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual, one of a series prepared for the guidance of research workers conducting studies as part of the International Biological Programme, contains recommended methods for the analysis of fresh water. The techniques are grouped in the following major sections: Sample Taking and Storage; Conductivity, pH, Oxidation-Reduction Potential,…

Golterman, H. L.

262

Expression Data Analysis Systems and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systems and methods for performing rapid genomic DNA analysis of samples, such as control samples and experimental samples. In one aspect, the system makes use of genomic DNA input, rather than gene expression input such as mRNA and/or cDNA associated wit...

D. Roopenian D. J. Shaffer K. D. Mills S. Akilesh

2006-01-01

263

Identifying indicators of the spatial variation of agricultural practices by a tree partitioning method: The case of weed control practices in a vine growing catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental impact assessments of agricultural practices on a regional scale may be computed by running spatially distributed biophysical models using mapped input data on agricultural practices. In cases of hydrological impact assessments, such as herbicide pollution through runoff, methods for generating these data over the entire water resource catchment and at the plot resolution are needed. In this study, we

A. Biarnès; J. S. Bailly; Y. Boissieux

2009-01-01

264

Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.  

SciTech Connect

The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.

Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

2006-08-01

265

A Practical Test Method for Mode I Fracture Toughness of Adhesive Joints with Dissimilar Substrates  

SciTech Connect

A practical test method for determining the mode I fracture toughness of adhesive joints with dissimilar substrates will be discussed. The test method is based on the familiar Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen geometry, but overcomes limitations in existing techniques that preclude their use when testing joints with dissimilar substrates. The test method is applicable to adhesive joints where the two bonded substrates have different flexural rigidities due to geometric and/or material considerations. Two specific features discussed are the use of backing beams to prevent substrate damage and a compliance matching scheme to achieve symmetric loading conditions. The procedure is demonstrated on a modified DCB specimen comprised of SRIM composite and thin-section, e-coat steel substrates bonded with an epoxy adhesive. Results indicate that the test method provides a practical means of characterizing the mode I fracture toughness of joints with dissimilar substrates.

Boeman, R.G.; Erdman, D.L.; Klett, L.B.; Lomax, R.D.

1999-09-27

266

Practical Implementation of New Particle Tracking Method to the Real Field of Groundwater Flow and Transport  

PubMed Central

Abstract In articles published in 2009 and 2010, Suk and Yeh reported the development of an accurate and efficient particle tracking algorithm for simulating a path line under complicated unsteady flow conditions, using a range of elements within finite elements in multidimensions. Here two examples, an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) example and a landfill leachate migration example, are examined to enhance the practical implementation of the proposed particle tracking method, known as Suk's method, to a real field of groundwater flow and transport. Results obtained by Suk's method are compared with those obtained by Pollock's method. Suk's method produces superior tracking accuracy, which suggests that Suk's method can describe more accurately various advection-dominated transport problems in a real field than existing popular particle tracking methods, such as Pollock's method. To illustrate the wide and practical applicability of Suk's method to random-walk particle tracking (RWPT), the original RWPT has been modified to incorporate Suk's method. Performance of the modified RWPT using Suk's method is compared with the original RWPT scheme by examining the concentration distributions obtained by the modified RWPT and the original RWPT under complicated transient flow systems.

Suk, Heejun

2012-01-01

267

Practical Implementation of New Particle Tracking Method to the Real Field of Groundwater Flow and Transport.  

PubMed

In articles published in 2009 and 2010, Suk and Yeh reported the development of an accurate and efficient particle tracking algorithm for simulating a path line under complicated unsteady flow conditions, using a range of elements within finite elements in multidimensions. Here two examples, an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) example and a landfill leachate migration example, are examined to enhance the practical implementation of the proposed particle tracking method, known as Suk's method, to a real field of groundwater flow and transport. Results obtained by Suk's method are compared with those obtained by Pollock's method. Suk's method produces superior tracking accuracy, which suggests that Suk's method can describe more accurately various advection-dominated transport problems in a real field than existing popular particle tracking methods, such as Pollock's method. To illustrate the wide and practical applicability of Suk's method to random-walk particle tracking (RWPT), the original RWPT has been modified to incorporate Suk's method. Performance of the modified RWPT using Suk's method is compared with the original RWPT scheme by examining the concentration distributions obtained by the modified RWPT and the original RWPT under complicated transient flow systems. PMID:22476629

Suk, Heejun

2012-01-01

268

Amplitude and Phase Fluorescence-Spectroscopy Methods for Dissolved Oxygen Concentration Evaluation: Comparative Practical Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the practical results from a detailed comparative study of amplitude and phase fluorescence-spectroscopy methods for dissolved oxygen concentration evaluation. These results were obtained with an implemented optoelectronic measurement system that guarantees near-optimal operation conditions for both methods and a commercial fluorescence optical-fiber sensor, which is excited by a continuous-regulated sinusoidal-amplitude modulated light beam. The comparison was made

Gustavo J. Grillo; Miguel A. Pérez; Marta Valledor; Rubén Ramos

2005-01-01

269

Practical guidelines to select and scale earthquake records for nonlinear response history analysis of structures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake engineering practice is increasingly using nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) to demonstrate performance of structures. This rigorous method of analysis requires selection and scaling of ground motions appropriate to design hazard levels. Presented herein is a modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) method to scale ground motions for use in nonlinear RHA of buildings and bridges. In the MPS method, the ground motions are scaled to match (to a specified tolerance) a target value of the inelastic deformation of the first-'mode' inelastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) system whose properties are determined by first-'mode' pushover analysis. Appropriate for first-?mode? dominated structures, this approach is extended for structures with significant contributions of higher modes by considering elastic deformation of second-'mode' SDF system in selecting a subset of the scaled ground motions. Based on results presented for two bridges, covering single- and multi-span 'ordinary standard' bridge types, and six buildings, covering low-, mid-, and tall building types in California, the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are established and its superiority over the ASCE/SEI 7-05 scaling procedure is demonstrated.

Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

2010-01-01

270

Cask crush pad analysis using detailed and simplified analysis methods  

SciTech Connect

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST). This facility, located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is a US Department of Energy site. The basis for this study is an analysis by Uldrich and Hawkes. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate various hypothetical cask drop orientations to ensure that the crush pad design was adequate and the cask deceleration at impact was less than 100 g. It is demonstrated herein that a large spent fuel shipping cask, when dropped onto a foam crush pad, can be analyzed by either hand methods or by sophisticated dynamic finite element analysis using computer codes such as ABAQUS. Results from the two methods are compared to evaluate accuracy of the simplified hand analysis approach.

Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

1997-12-31

271

User Needs Analysis and requirements engineering: Theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several comprehensive User Centred Design methodologies have been published in the last decade, but while they all focus on users, they disagree on exactly what activities should take place during the User Needs Analysis, what the end products of a User Needs Analysis should cover, how User Needs Analysis findings should be presented, and how these should be documented and

Gitte Lindgaard; Richard Dillon; Patricia Trbovich; Rachel White; Gary Fernandes; Sonny Lundahl; Anu Pinnamaneni

2006-01-01

272

Final Analysis--Rethinking an Age-Old Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The typical Chemistry final exam is usually a high-stress situation taken under artificially restricted conditions and is often misrepresentative of the course for which it is serving as the ultimate evaluation tool. The author advocates the adoption of an open-book, open-notes, group work, lab-practical final exam format, a combination that has proven quite effective in the high school setting. Sample

Robert Becker

1995-01-01

273

Final Analysis--Rethinking an Age-Old Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The typical Chemistry final exam is usually a high-stress situation taken under artificially restricted conditions and is often misrepresentative of the course for which it is serving as the ultimate evaluation tool. The author advocates the adoption of an open-book, open-notes, group work, lab-practical final exam format, a combination that has proven quite effective in the high school setting. Sample problems are offered and specific exam logistics are described.

Becker, Robert

1995-09-01

274

Methods for the analysis of intestinal function.  

PubMed Central

The intestinal tract, an organ of considerable complexity, requires application of numerous techniques for analysis of its physiology and perturbations by toxicologic agents. This review describes the methodology of importance in analysis of the absorptive function of the intestine and the transit of intestinal contents. Methods for studying absorption are categorized according to the technique for administering the test substance such as inclusion in the diet or by gastric and intestinal placement and the method of quantitating the degree of absorption such as determining the appearance of a test substance in systemic fluids or its disappearance from its site of administration in the intestine. In vitro techniques which have no in vivo analogs, such as the use of the everted sac, are briefly described and their limitations emphasized. Procedures of importance in the clinical diagnosis of malabsorption or in the experimental analysis of absorptive function in man are included and distinguished from techniques used in animal models. In addition, methods for studying aspects of gastrointestinal motility, including the use of luminal markers and analysis of the contractile and electrical activity of intestinal smooth muscle, are reviewed. Images FIGURE 2.

Walsh, C T; Levine, R R

1979-01-01

275

Reporting Practices in Confirmatory Factor Analysis: An Overview and Some Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reporting practices in 194 confirmatory factor analysis studies (1,409 factor models) published in American Psychological Association journals from 1998 to 2006 were reviewed and compared with established reporting guidelines. Three research questions were addressed: (a) how do actual reporting practices compare with published guidelines? (b) how…

Jackson, Dennis L.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur, Jr.; Purc-Stephenson, Rebecca

2009-01-01

276

Intravaginal Practices, Bacterial Vaginosis, and HIV Infection in Women: Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying modifiable factors that increase women's vulnerability to HIV is a critical step in developing effective female-initiated prevention interventions. The primary objective of this study was to pool individual participant data from prospective longitudinal studies to investigate the association between intravaginal practices and acquisition of HIV infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Secondary objectives were to investigate associations between intravaginal practices and disrupted vaginal flora; and between disrupted vaginal flora and HIV acquisition. Methods and Findings We conducted a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 13 prospective cohort studies involving 14,874 women, of whom 791 acquired HIV infection during 21,218 woman years of follow-up. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. The level of between-study heterogeneity was low in all analyses (I2 values 0.0%–16.1%). Intravaginal use of cloth or paper (pooled adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–1.83), insertion of products to dry or tighten the vagina (aHR 1.31, 95% CI 1.00–1.71), and intravaginal cleaning with soap (aHR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01–1.53) remained associated with HIV acquisition after controlling for age, marital status, and number of sex partners in the past 3 months. Intravaginal cleaning with soap was also associated with the development of intermediate vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis in women with normal vaginal flora at baseline (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.24, 95% CI 1.04–1.47). Use of cloth or paper was not associated with the development of disrupted vaginal flora. Intermediate vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis were each associated with HIV acquisition in multivariable models when measured at baseline (aHR 1.54 and 1.69, p<0.001) or at the visit before the estimated date of HIV infection (aHR 1.41 and 1.53, p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions This study provides evidence to suggest that some intravaginal practices increase the risk of HIV acquisition but a direct causal pathway linking intravaginal cleaning with soap, disruption of vaginal flora, and HIV acquisition has not yet been demonstrated. More consistency in the definition and measurement of specific intravaginal practices is warranted so that the effects of specific intravaginal practices and products can be further elucidated. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Low, Nicola; Chersich, Matthew F.; Schmidlin, Kurt; Egger, Matthias; Francis, Suzanna C.; H. H. M. van de Wijgert, Janneke; Hayes, Richard J.; Baeten, Jared M.; Brown, Joelle; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kaul, Rupert; McGrath, Nuala; Morrison, Charles; Myer, Landon; Temmerman, Marleen; van der Straten, Ariane; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Zwahlen, Marcel; Martin Hilber, Adriane

2011-01-01

277

Searching Usenet for Virtual Communities of Practice: Using Mixed Methods to Identify the Constructs of Wenger's Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduction: This research set out to determine whether communities of practice can be entirely Internet-based by formally applying Wenger's theoretical framework to Internet collectives. Method: A model of a virtual community of practice was developed which included the constructs Wenger identified in co-located communities of practice: mutual…

Murillo, Enrique

2008-01-01

278

A PROBABILISTIC APPROACH FOR ANALYSIS OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE EVALUATION OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  

EPA Science Inventory

A computational framework is presented for analyzing the uncertainty in model estimates of water quality benefits of best management practices (BMPs) in two small (2) watersheds in Indiana. The analysis specifically recognizes the significance of the difference b...

279

Making contribution analysis work: A practical framework for handling influencing factors and alternative explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the methodological strengths and weaknesses of contribution analysis. The authors contend that a salient characteristic of contribution analysis is its accounting for influencing factors and alternative explanations. We argue that contribution analysis in its current form needs further methodological and practical elaboration in this respect. Therefore, this article pays particular attention to how the methodology can identify

Sebastian T. Lemire; Steffen Bohni Nielsen; Line Dybdal

2012-01-01

280

Effective visibility analysis method in virtual geographic environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visibility analysis in virtual geographic environment has broad applications in many aspects in social life. But in practical use it is urged to improve the efficiency and accuracy, as well as to consider human vision restriction. The paper firstly introduces a high-efficient 3D data modeling method, which generates and organizes 3D data model using R-tree and LOD techniques. Then a new visibility algorithm which can realize real-time viewshed calculation considering the shelter of DEM and 3D building models and some restrictions of human eye to the viewshed generation. Finally an experiment is conducted to prove the visibility analysis calculation quickly and accurately which can meet the demand of digital city applications.

Li, Yi; Zhu, Qing; Gong, Jianhua

2008-11-01

281

A Fourier method for the analysis of exponential decay curves.  

PubMed Central

A method based on the Fourier convolution theorem is developed for the analysis of data composed of random noise, plus an unknown constant "base line," plus a sum of (or an integral over a continuous spectrum of) exponential decay functions. The Fourier method's usual serious practical limitation of needing high accuracy data over a very wide range is eliminated by the introduction of convergence parameters and a Gaussian taper window. A computer program is described for the analysis of discrete spectra, where the data involves only a sum of exponentials. The program is completely automatic in that the only necessary inputs are the raw data (not necessarily in equal intervals of time); no potentially biased initial guesses concerning either the number or the values of the components are needed. The outputs include the number of components, the amplitudes and time constants together with their estimated errors, and a spectral plot of the solution. The limiting resolving power of the method is studied by analyzing a wide range of simulated two-, three-, and four-component data. The results seem to indicate that the method is applicable over a considerably wider range of conditions than nonlinear least squares or the method of moments.

Provencher, S W

1976-01-01

282

Spatial Analysis: Evolution, Methods, and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In a narrow sense, spatial analysis has been described as a method for analyzing spatial data, while in a broad sense it includes\\u000a revealing and clarifying processes, structures, etc., of spatial phenomena that occur on the Earth’s surface. Ultimately,\\u000a it is designed to support spatial decision-making, and to serve as a tool for assisting with regional planning and the formulation

Yuji Murayama; Rajesh B. Thapa

283

Theoretical aerodynamic methods for VAWT analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peculiarities of vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs), such as simple blade building and the absence of an orientation system, are studied. A comparison is made of three theoretical methods quantified by means of an overall parameter as the average coefficient of power. The importance of advanced-flow analysis media, such as vortex models or finite-difference models, is shown in their ability

Martino Marini; Aristide Massardo; Antonio Satta; Giuseppe Zamparo

1989-01-01

284

Mill's Methods for Complete Intelligent Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

If we are to implement Intelligent Data Analysis into computer systems we must instantiate the essential aspects of scientific\\u000a method. In the quest to systematically unearth hidden information and bring forth knowledge from complex, noisy and incomplete\\u000a data, we must be sure that such systems are first able to determine all possible patterns, which are suggestive of such information\\u000a and

Tremaine A. O. Cornish

1997-01-01

285

Practical method to derive nonlinear response functions of cameras for scientific imaging.  

PubMed

We developed a practical method to derive response functions that convert the amount of incident light to the counts of analog-to-digital conversion (A/D) of cameras for scientific imaging. In this method, we need a mechanism to accurately control the amount of incident light into cameras just within a limited dynamic range and at a limited number of steps. A variable brightness light source, which supplies the incident light into cameras, is also necessary, but we do not need to know its accurate brightness. Thus, this method enables us to derive the nonlinear response functions accurately with such a simple setup. PMID:21629319

Hanaoka, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Isao; Sakurai, Takashi

2011-06-01

286

A Practical Iterative Framework for Qualitative Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of iteration in qualitative data analysis, not as a repetitive mechanical task but as a reflexive process, is key to sparking insight and developing meaning. In this paper the authors presents a simple framework for qualitative data analysis comprising three iterative questions. The authors developed it to analyze qualitative data and to engage with the process of continuous

Prachi Srivastava

287

Boundary element method for axisymmetric thermoelastic analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The axisymmetric structure is common in engineering. Cylindrical and spherical pressure vessels, pipes, turbine and compressor discs to name but a few. In most of these examples the operating conditions include working at high temperatures. In this work an attempt has been made to develop the steady and transient boundary element method for thermoelastic analysis of axisymmetric structures. As the objective of this project is to investigate the coupling effect using the finite element method. Further to develop boundary element programs to solve transient thermoelastic problems in axisymmetric structures and to investigate the validity and accuracy of the boundary element formulation. A finite element program for coupled thermoelastic analysis was developed and it was found that coupling effects were negligible in linear thermoelastic analysis. Boundary element theory and programs for steady state and uncoupled transient thermoelastic analysis of axisymmetric structures with conductive and radiative boundary conditions were developed. Case studies with known solutions, either analytically or by means of ABAQUS FEM package have been analysed and proved that the developed theory and software are accurate and reliable.

Gordon, R. S.

288

Statistical methods in finite element analysis.  

PubMed

Finite element analysis (FEA) is a commonly used tool within many areas of engineering and can provide useful information in structural analysis of mechanical systems. However, most analyses within the field of biomechanics usually take no account either of the wide variation in material properties and geometry that may occur in natural tissues or manufacturing imperfections in synthetic materials. This paper discusses two different methods of incorporating uncertainty in FE models. The first, Taguchi's robust parameter design, uses orthogonal matrices to determine how to vary the parameters in a series of FE models, and provides information on the sensitivity of a model to input parameters. The second, probabilistic analysis, enables the distribution of a response variable to be determined from the distributions of the input variables. The methods are demonstrated using a simple example of an FE model of a beam that is assigned material properties and geometry over a range similar to an orthopaedic fixation plate. In addition to showing how each method may be used on its own, we also show how computational effort may be minimised by first identifying the most important input variables before determining the effects of imprecision. PMID:12163305

Dar, Fazilat H; Meakin, Judith R; Aspden, Richard M

2002-09-01

289

Video tomography: an efficient method for camerawork extraction and motion analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new, efficient and practical way to extract lens zoom, camera pan and camera tilt information using modified motion analysis. The proposed method is called the Video Tomography Method (VTM), in which tomographic techniques are introduced into a motion estimation algorithm. By using the VTM, one is able to visualize motion as a spatiotemporal flow for motion

Akihito Akutsu; Yoshinobu Tonomura

1994-01-01

290

Breastfeeding practices in a public health field practice area in Sri Lanka: a survival analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding up to the completion of the sixth month of age is the national infant feeding recommendation for Sri Lanka. The objective of the present study was to collect data on exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and to describe the association between exclusive breastfeeding and selected socio-demographic factors. METHODS: A clinic based cross-sectional study was conducted in

Suneth B Agampodi; Thilini C Agampodi; Udage Kankanamge D Piyaseeli

2007-01-01

291

Association of intervention outcomes with practice capacity for change: Subgroup analysis from a group randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The relationship between health care practices' capacity for change and the results and sustainability of interventions to improve health care delivery is unclear. METHODS: In the setting of an intervention to increase preventive service delivery (PSD), we assessed practice capacity for change by rating motivation to change and instrumental ability to change on a one to four scale. After

David Litaker; Mary Ruhe; Sharon Weyer; Kurt C Stange

2008-01-01

292

A Method to Estimate Practical Radial Oxygen Loss of Wetland Plant Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of practical radial oxygen loss (ROL) of wetland plant roots was attempted in this study. We have devised a\\u000a new method to measure ROL of wetland plant roots. The whole root system was bathed in an anoxic nutrient solution. Oxygen\\u000a released from the root was removed immediately by introducing oxygen-free nitrogen gas (O2 ?1) to mimic natural habitats

Tomomi Matsui; Takayoshi Tsuchiya

2006-01-01

293

Using Evidence-Based Quality Improvement Methods for Translating Depression Collaborative Care Research Into Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Translating Initiatives in Depression into Effective Solution (TIDES) aimed to translate research-based collaborative care for depression into an approach for the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Sites: Three multistate administrative regions and seven of their medium-sized primary care practices. Intervention: Researchers assisted regional leaders in adapting research-based depression care models using evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) methods. Evaluation: We evaluated model

Lisa V. Rubenstein; Edmund F. Chaney; Scott Ober; Bradford Felker; Scott E. Sherman; Andy Lanto; Susan Vivell

2010-01-01

294

A Practical Method for Reasoning about Distributed Systems in a Theorem Prover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Temporal Language of Transitions is the basis of a formal methodology for the verification of distributed systems. To complement model-checking, which forms an integral part of the methodology, we contribute a proof calculus in a higher-order logic theorem prover. A method for embedding TLA[17] in the system LAMBDA is described. Motivated by the importance of practicality in an industrial

Holger Busch

1995-01-01

295

Accelerometry: providing an integrated, practical method for long-term, ambulatory monitoring of human movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerometry offers a practical and low cost method of objectively monitoring human movements, and has particular applicability to the monitoring of free-living subjects. Accelerometers have been used to monitor a range of different movements, including gait, sit-to-stand transfers, postural sway and falls. They have also been used to measure physical activity levels and to identify and classify movements performed by

Merryn J Mathie; Adelle C F Coster; Nigel H Lovell; Branko G Celler

2004-01-01

296

Practical decoy-state quantum key distribution method considering dark count rate fluctuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering fluctuant dark count rate in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system, a new decoy-state method with one vacuum state and one weak decoy state is presented based on a heralded single photon source (HSPS). The method assumes that the dark count rate of each pulse is random and independent. The lower bound of the count rate and the upper bound of the error rate of a single photon state are estimated. The method is applied to the decoy-state QKD system with and without the fluctuation of dark count rate. Because the estimation of the upper bound of a single photon state's error rate is stricter, the method can obtain better performance than the existing methods under the same condition of implementation.

Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Ying-jian

2012-09-01

297

Simple gas chromatographic method for furfural analysis.  

PubMed

A new, simple, gas chromatographic method was developed for the direct analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2-furfural (2-F) and 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) in liquid and water soluble foods, using direct immersion SPME coupled to GC-FID and/or GC-TOF-MS. The fiber (DVB/CAR/PDMS) conditions were optimized: pH effect, temperature, adsorption and desorption times. The method is simple and accurate (RSD<8%), showed good recoveries (77-107%) and good limits of detection (GC-FID: 1.37 microgL(-1) for 2-F, 8.96 microgL(-1) for 5-MF, 6.52 microgL(-1) for 5-HMF; GC-TOF-MS: 0.3, 1.2 and 0.9 ngmL(-1) for 2-F, 5-MF and 5-HMF, respectively). It was applied to different commercial food matrices: honey, white, demerara, brown and yellow table sugars, and white and red balsamic vinegars. This one-step, sensitive and direct method for the analysis of furfurals will contribute to characterise and quantify their presence in the human diet. PMID:18976770

Gaspar, Elvira M S M; Lopes, João F

2008-10-17

298

Intercomparison of two nowcasting methods: preliminary analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With term nowcasting is intended the description of a weather situation and its consequent extrapolation ahead in the future for few hours. This work gives a brief description of actual nowcasting methods deepening those developed at ARPA-SIM (Emilia-Romagna region, Italy). The methodology used rests on an extrapolation technique that analyses a series of radar reflectivity fields in order to identify areas of precipitation and determine the motion field which allows the tracking of coherent structures from an image to the next one. Motion of individual rainfall structures is extrapolated using two different methods: a linear translation and a semi-Lagrangian advection scheme. In particular semi-Lagrangian advection method is based on a multi-scale recursive cross-correlation analysis, where different targets are tracked at the different scales examined. This means that the motion of precipitation parcels is a function of scale. Description of selected validation tools introduces the numerical analysis of obtained results pointing out limits and limited outcomes of algorithms.

Poli, V.; Alberoni, P. P.; Cesari, D.

2008-10-01

299

Practical applications of nondestructive evaluation for airport pavement analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the equipment and methodologies currently used for nondestructive testing (NDT) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the structural capacity of military and civil airport pavements, including: (1) commonly used equipment and test methods for measuring pavement response to dynamic loads; (2) qualitative and quantitative evaluation of NDT data; (3) methods for back-calculating layer properties from NDT data; (4) layered elastic methods for evaluating pavement performance using processed NDT data; and (5) application of analytical results for developing pavement rehabilitation and management strategies.

McQueen, Roy D.; Guo, Edward

1995-07-01

300

New method for analysis of nonstationary signals  

PubMed Central

Background Analysis of signals by means of symbolic methods consists in calculating a measure of signal complexity, for example informational entropy or Lempel-Ziv algorithmic complexity. For construction of these entropic measures one uses distributions of symbols representing the analyzed signal. Results We introduce a new signal characteristic named sequential spectrum that is suitable for analysis of the wide group of signals, including biosignals. The paper contains a brief review of analyses of artificial signals showing features similar to those of biosignals. An example of using sequential spectrum for analyzing EEG signals registered during different stages of sleep is also presented. Conclusions Sequential spectrum is an effective tool for general description of nonstationary signals and it its advantage over Fourier spectrum. Sequential spectrum enables assessment of pathological changes in EEG-signals recorded in persons with epilepsy.

2011-01-01

301

Entropy Methods For Univariate Distributions in Decision Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important steps in decision analysis practice is the elicitation of the decision-maker's belief about an uncertainty of interest in the form of a representative probability distribution. However, the probability elicitation process is a task that involves many cognitive and motivational biases. Alternatively, the decision-maker may provide other information about the distribution of interest, such as its moments, and the maximum entropy method can be used to obtain a full distribution subject to the given moment constraints. In practice however, decision makers cannot readily provide moments for the distribution, and are much more comfortable providing information about the fractiles of the distribution of interest or bounds on its cumulative probabilities. In this paper we present a graphical method to determine the maximum entropy distribution between upper and lower probability bounds and provide an interpretation for the shape of the maximum entropy distribution subject to fractile constraints, (FMED). We also discuss the problems with the FMED in that it is discontinuous and flat over each fractile interval. We present a heuristic approximation to a distribution if in addition to its fractiles, we also know it is continuous and work through full examples to illustrate the approach.

Abbas, Ali E.

2003-03-01

302

Suspension, Race, and Disability: Analysis of Statewide Practices and Reporting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This analysis of statewide suspension data from 1995 to 2003 in Maryland investigated disproportionate suspensions of minority students and students with disabilities. We found substantial increases in over-all rates of suspensions from 1995 to 2003, as well as disproportionate rates of suspensions for African American students, American Indian…

Krezmien, Michael P.; Leone, Peter E.; Achilles, Georgianna M.

2006-01-01

303

Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

2011-01-01

304

EIA practice in India and its evaluation using SWOT analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been formally introduced in 1994. It relied on the institutional framework that has a strong supporting legislative, administrative and procedural set-up. Both central and state authorities together are sharing the responsibility of its development and management. A Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT) analysis taken up in this article has suggested that there

Ritu Paliwal; Ritu

2006-01-01

305

Continuing Education for General Practice--Analysis of a Programme  

PubMed Central

General practitioners in the Northampton area were asked to assess the various meetings of a programme of continuing education they had attended between May 1969 and May 1970. Analysis of their replies suggests that meetings which depend on previous study and encourage participation are most likely to be successful.

Sever, E. D.; Corbett, J. T.; Dalgleish, P. G.; Elliott-Binns, C. P.; Richards, T. A.; Toby, J. P.

1971-01-01

306

Incorporating Stochastic Demand into Breakeven Analysis: A Practical Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plausibility and usefulness of conventional breakeven analysis is augmented by adding a stochastic linear demand function to the basic breakeven equation. The additional complexity from adding this function is not excessive in a mathematical sense, and the payoff to the additional complexity is considerable. Relatively simple explicit analytical formulas are derived for the determination of the price that maximizes

James A. Yunker

2006-01-01

307

Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

2011-01-01

308

The Analysis of Athletic Performance: Some Practical and Philosophical Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a hypothetical dialogue between a notational analyst (NA) recently schooled in the positivistic assessment of athletic performance, an "old-school" traditional coach (TC) who favours subjective analysis, and a pragmatic educator (PE). The conversation opens with NA and TC debating the respective value of quantitative and…

Nelson, Lee J.; Groom, Ryan

2012-01-01

309

Strategic planning for public health practice using macroenvironmental analysis.  

PubMed Central

Macroenvironmental analysis is the initial stage in comprehensive strategic planning. The authors examine the benefits of this type of analysis when applied to public health organizations and present a series of questions that should be answered prior to committing resources to scanning, monitoring, forecasting, and assessing components of the macroenvironment. Using illustrations from the public and private sectors, each question is examined with reference to specific challenges facing public health. Benefits are derived both from the process and the outcome of macroenvironmental analysis. Not only are data acquired that assist public health professionals to make decisions, but the analytical process required assures a better understanding of potential external threats and opportunities as well as an organization's strengths and weaknesses. Although differences exist among private and public as well as profit and not-for-profit organizations, macroenvironmental analysis is seen as more essential to the public and not-for-profit sectors than the private and profit sectors. This conclusion results from the extreme dependency of those areas on external environmental forces that cannot be significantly influenced or controlled by public health decision makers.

Ginter, P M; Duncan, W J; Capper, S A

1991-01-01

310

Scanning methods applied to bitemark analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2009 National Academy of Sciences report on forensics focused criticism on pattern evidence subdisciplines in which statements of unique identity are utilized. One principle of bitemark analysis is that the human dentition is unique to the extent that a perpetrator may be identified based on dental traits in a bitemark. Optical and electron scanning methods were used to measure dental minutia and to investigate replication of detail in human skin. Results indicated that being a visco-elastic substrate, skin effectively reduces the resolution of measurement of dental detail. Conclusions indicate caution in individualization statements.

Bush, Peter J.; Bush, Mary A.

2010-06-01

311

Which method of breastfeeding supplementation is best? The beliefs and practices of paediatricians and nurses  

PubMed Central

The aims of the present study were to assess the practices of breastfeeding supplementation methods, and to explore the opinions and beliefs of health professionals with regard to breastfeeding supplementation methods and the nipple confusion phenomenon. The study was cross-sectional in design, and participants were recruited from five hospitals in Toronto, Ontario. All of the nurses and attending paediatricians in postpartum floors and level II nurseries were invited to participate in the study. A total of 87 nurses and 16 paediatricians completed the survey questionnaire. Bottle feeding was the most common breastfeeding supplementation method used in the nurseries followed by cup feeding. Only 15.0% of the level II nurses agreed that frequent bottle feeds lead to the nipple confusion phenomenon, compared with 44.4% of the postpartum nurses and 56.2% of the paediatricians. Findings demonstrated considerable variation in the practices and beliefs surrounding supplementation methods. A randomized controlled trial comparing the safety, efficiency and subsequent breastfeeding rates of different breastfeeding supplementation methods is warranted.

Al-Sahab, Ban; Feldman, Mark; Macpherson, Alison; Ohlsson, Arne; Tamim, Hala

2010-01-01

312

Practical method for PCB degradation using Pd/C-H2-Mg system.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were mainly used as lubricants and coolants in electrical equipment. However, their chemical stabilities as well as hydrophobic properties caused persistent environmental pollution and damage to human health based on their bioaccumulative property. PCBs are currently targeted for worldwide elimination and should be disposed by 2028 based on the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. The conventional PCB degradation methods require high-heat, high-pressure or/and strongly basic conditions. The development of a safer and more practical method, therefore, is desired. We have reported a catalytic degradation method of PCBs based on a palladium on carbon (Pd/C)-catalyzed dechlorination in the presence of Et(3)N under ambient hydrogen pressure and temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a more practical system using magnesium metal instead of Et(3)N for the dechlorination of a variety of aromatic chlorides. The method was applicable for the complete degradation of a variety of PCB mixtures, such as Aroclor 1242, 1248, 1254 and PCBs removed from a capacitor to produce only biphenyl and magnesium chloride as the maritime component, both of which are less toxic and easily separable. Moreover, the Pd/C could be recovered and reused at least five times without any loss of catalytic activity. The present Pd/C-Mg-H(2) system is a simple, safe, inexpensive, and environmentally-benign degradation method of PCBs. PMID:22939897

Ido, Akiko; Ishihara, Shinji; Kume, Akira; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao; Nagase, Hisamitsu

2012-08-31

313

Selective spectroscopic methods for water analysis  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation explores in large part the development of a few types of spectroscopic methods in the analysis of water. Methods for the determination of some of the most important properties of water like pH, metal ion content, and chemical oxygen demand are investigated in detail. This report contains a general introduction to the subject and the conclusions. Four chapters and an appendix have been processed separately. They are: chromogenic and fluorogenic crown ether compounds for the selective extraction and determination of Hg(II); selective determination of cadmium in water using a chromogenic crown ether in a mixed micellar solution; reduction of chloride interference in chemical oxygen demand determination without using mercury salts; structural orientation patterns for a series of anthraquinone sulfonates adsorbed at an aminophenol thiolate monolayer chemisorbed at gold; and the role of chemically modified surfaces in the construction of miniaturized analytical instrumentation.

Vaidya, B.

1997-06-24

314

C1XS Spectral Analysis Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach to analyzing X-ray fluorescence spectra from the lunar surface obtained using the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS: Grande et al. (2009), Howe et al. (2009)). The method employed is based on a self calibrating forward model using first order predictions of the fluorescence spectrum. The initial conditions are taken as a featureless thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum generated using measurements from the GOES X-ray monitors. An iterative best fit approach is then applied allowing the abundance of each element as a free parameter in turn. The overall model spectrum is normalized to the intensity of the silicon K-? line with the abundance of Si fixed to the lunar average. In this way the method self calibrates removing the uncertainty inherent in using data from separate spacecraft for the analysis.

Swinyard, B.; Kellett, B.; Weider, S.; Joy, K.; Crawford, I.; C1XS Team

2010-03-01

315

Safeguards systems analysis research and development and the practice of safeguards at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos Safeguards Systems Group personnel interact with Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear materials processing facilities in a number of ways. Among them are training courses, formal technical assistance such as developing information management or data analysis software and informal ad hoc assistance especially in reviewing and commenting on existing facility safeguards technology and procedures. These activities are supported by the DOE Office of Safeguards and Security, DOE Operations Offices, and contractor organizations. Because of the relationships with the Operations Office and facility personnel, the Safeguards Systems Group research and development (R D) staff have developed an understanding of the needs of the entire complex. Improved safeguards are needed in areas such as materials control activities, accountability procedures and techniques, systems analysis and evaluation methods, and material handling procedures. This paper surveys the generic needs for efficient and cost effective enhancements in safeguards technologies and procedures at DOE facilities, identifies areas where existing safeguards R D products are being applied or could be applied, and sets a direction for future systems analysis R D to address practical facility safeguards needs.

Zack, N.R.; Thomas, K.E.; Markin, J.T.; Tape, J.W.

1991-01-01

316

A rapid method for airborne tritium analysis  

SciTech Connect

Tritium is one of the principal radionuclides released to the environment from nuclear fuel and target reprocessing, heavy-water production, and other nuclear industry operations. For example, the majority of the off-site dose to the public at the Savannah River site (SRS) in 1988 was from tritium oxide (HTO). The absorbed dose is highly dependent on chemical form; HTO is 10,000 more hazardous than the elemental form (HT). Commercially available tritium monitors do not discriminate between chemical form and have high detection limits. Consequently, tedious laboratory methods must be used to analyze HTO in air. Desiccants are used to remove all the water from an air sample. The tritiated water is then desorbed and analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The method is complex and takes several hours to complete. During an unplanned release, present-time atmospheric tritium concentrations are never available. To improve emergency response capabilities, a rapid sampling and analysis method was developed for measuring low-level HTO concentrations in air. Standard desiccant sampling and water desorption procedure was modified for use in the SRS mobile laboratory, which is equipped with a liquid scintillation counter. These tests indicate that an HTO concentration of 0.2% DCG (7 Bq/m{sup 3}) can be detected by this method with a 10-min sample collection time and a 10-min count.

Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

1991-11-01

317

Methods and systems for medical sequencing analysis  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed are methods of identifying elements associated with a trait, such as a disease. The methods can comprise, for example, identifying the association of a relevant element (such as a genetic variant) with a relevant component phenotype (such as a disease symptom) of the trait, wherein the association of the relevant element with the relevant component phenotype identifies the relevant element as an element associated with the trait, wherein the relevant component phenotype is a component phenotype having a threshold value of severity, age of onset, specificity to the trait or disease, or a combination, wherein the relevant element is an element having a threshold value of importance of the element to homeostasis relevant to the trait, intensity of the perturbation of the element, duration of the effect of the element, or a combination. The disclosed methods are based on a model of how elements affect complex diseases. The disclosed model is based on the existence of significant genetic and environmental heterogeneity in complex diseases. Thus, the specific combinations of genetic and environmental elements that cause disease vary widely among the affected individuals in a cohort. The disclosed model is an effective, general experimental design and analysis approach for the identification of causal variants in common, complex diseases by medical sequencing. The disclosed model and the disclosed methods based on the model can be used to generate valuable and useful information.

2012-03-20

318

Practical guidance for statistical analysis of operational event data  

SciTech Connect

This report presents ways to avoid mistakes that are sometimes made in analysis of operational event data. It then gives guidance on what to do when a model is rejected, a list of standard types of models to consider, and principles for choosing one model over another. For estimating reliability, it gives advice on which failure modes to model, and moment formulas for combinations of failure modes. The issues are illustrated with many examples and case studies.

Atwood, C.L.

1995-10-01

319

Structural analysis of drama: Practical and theoretical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the process of transforming into a computer analysis a hand procedure used to study three plays produced in Quebec in the 1970s, during the height of the nationalist sentiment there. The elements of one of the plays, Les Belles-Soeurs by Michael Tremblay, have been encoded and a retrieval system, written in Fortran for the VAX 11\\/780 at

Elaine Nardocchio

1985-01-01

320

Principles and practical application of the receiver-operating characteristic analysis for diagnostic tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the principles and practical application of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for diagnostic tests. ROC analysis can be used for diagnostic tests with outcomes measured on ordinal, interval or ratio scales. The dependence of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity on the selected cut-off value must be considered for a full test evaluation and for test comparison. All possible combinations

M. Greiner; D. Pfeiffer; R. D. Smith

2000-01-01

321

Waiting lists, waiting times and admissions: an empirical analysis at hospital and general practice level  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an empirical analysis of the responses of the supply and demand for secondary care to waiting list size and waiting times. Whereas previous empirical analyses have used data aggregated to area level, our analysis is novel in that it focuses on the supply responses of a single hospital and the demand responses of the GP practices it serves,

Frank Windmeijer; Hugh Gravell; Pierre Hoonhout

2004-01-01

322

Waiting lists, waiting times and admissions: an empirical analysis at hospital and general practice level  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an empirical analysis of the responses of the supply and demand for secondary care to waiting list size and waiting times. Whereas previous empirical analyses have used data aggregated to area level, our analysis focuses on the supply responses of a single hospital and the demand responses of the GP practices it serves, and distinguishes between first outpatient

Frank Windmeijer; Hugh Gravelle; Pierre Hoonhout

2005-01-01

323

Best practice analysis of bank branches: An application of DEA in a large Canadian bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a best practice analysis of the Ontario based branches of a large Canadian bank. Consistent with managerial goals, the analysis focuses on the performance of branch personnel; it considers as outputs both transactions and maintenance work. To sharpen our efficiency estimates, we use DEA AR models with output multiplier constraints based on standard transaction and maintenance times.

Claire Schaffnit; Dan Rosen; Joseph C. Paradi

1997-01-01

324

Situational analysis of antenatal care practices in rural Punjab.  

PubMed

In India, interviews with 104 mothers living in 16 villages of Ludhiana district were conducted to determine prenatal care practices among women of low and middle socioeconomic classes. Just 4 women (5.4%), who were of the middle socioeconomic group, had their pregnancy medically confirmed. Most women (64.9%) knew that they were pregnant because of amenorrhea. Middle class women believed there was no need to visit a physician during pregnancy, while poverty and no need were reasons for no prenatal care among the low income group. Middle class women were more likely to report medical/health problems and use home remedies to treat those problems throughout pregnancy than did low income women (e.g., 21 vs. 2 women and 6 women vs. 0 women). Low income women were more likely to seek treatments for illness from a physician, especially for complaints of pain in the lower abdomen (33.9% vs. 23%). Perhaps a tendency among the low income mothers to ignore symptoms until they became serious enough to require a doctor accounted for this difference. Even though middle class women were more likely to deliver at a hospital or maternity home (47.9% vs. 13.1%), low income women were more likely to have trained assistance during home deliveries than middle class women (83.9% vs. 20.8%; home deliveries without trained assistance 0 vs. 31.3%). None of the women improved their nutrition intake during pregnancy. The reason for any incidental intakes of special foods among low income and middle income women was strong liking for these foods. Poverty and ignorance contributed to the reason for not consuming enough good quality food during pregnancy among the low income women. Among the middle class group, ignorance was instrumental. These findings will be used to plan a parent and community education program in child care and development in rural areas. PMID:12318655

Jaswal, S; Gulati, J

325

/sup 252/Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method  

SciTech Connect

The /sup 252/Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method has been tested in a wide variety of experiments that have indicated the broad range of applicability of the method. The neutron multiplication factor k/sub eff/ has been satisfactorily detemined for a variety of materials including uranium metal, light water reactor fuel pins, fissile solutions, fuel plates in water, and interacting cylinders. For a uranyl nitrate solution tank which is typical of a fuel processing or reprocessing plant, the k/sub eff/ values were satisfactorily determined for values between 0.92 and 0.5 using a simple point kinetics interpretation of the experimental data. The short measurement times, in several cases as low as 1 min, have shown that the development of this method can lead to a practical subcriticality monitor for many in-plant applications. The further development of the method will require experiments oriented toward particular applications including dynamic experiments and the development of theoretical methods to predict the experimental observables.

Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

1985-01-01

326

Transits of Extrasolar Planets and Analysis Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Wittenberg's 10-inch refracting telescope housed in Elgar Weaver Observatory, and an ST-8XE CCD camera, the egress of the transit of planet HD209458 `b' was observed on the night of December 18^th, 2006. This transit occurs when the planet passes directly between its host star and the telescope on Earth, and the brightness of the star decreases by about 1.5%. The brightness of the stars is measured by the number of counts in pixels in images taken as 30 second exposures over a period of 64 minutes. Data analysis techniques using Diffraction Limited's MaxImDL^TM yield a standard deviation of less than .004 magnitudes using a sliding box averaging method. This means that a change in brightness can be measured of about .4% and much dimmer transits of other planets may be recorded from this telescope. Analysis methods using MathWork's MATLAB^ are being developed to gain more control over how pixels are combined to determine the brightness of stars and more effective modes of combining images.

Fritchman, Joseph

2007-10-01

327

Chemical equilibria studies using multivariate analysis methods.  

PubMed

Chemical multiequilibria systems can be monitored efficiently with the aid of spectroscopic techniques. Both hard- and soft-modeling are effective and powerful tools to extract chemical information from spectroscopic data. Recently, hybrid approaches that combine the flexibility of soft-modeling with the precise solutions provided by hard-modeling have been proposed. Here, we tested the performance of these three chemometric approaches for the analysis of several simulated data sets. In addition, experimental data recorded during the study of the acid-base equilibria of two DNA structures (G-quadruplex and i-motif) corresponding to two short sequences of the k-ras oncogene were studied. Finally, we also analyzed the interaction of the two DNA sequences with the model ligand TMPyP4. The results obtained from the analysis of these data sets may be useful to determine the most appropriate use of each approach. Whenever the presence of optically active interferences or unknown drifts can be neglected and a chemical model can easily be proposed and fitted, the hard-modeling method shows the best performance. If any of these conditions is not fulfilled, a hybrid-modeling approach may be a better option because all the contributions (chemical and unknown) can be modeled and the ambiguities inherent to soft-modeling methods show minor effects. PMID:21046087

Jaumot, Joaquim; Eritja, Ramon; Gargallo, Raimundo

2010-10-28

328

Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods  

SciTech Connect

Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

2010-05-01

329

APPLYING NEW METHODS TO RESEARCH REACTOR ANALYSIS.  

SciTech Connect

Detailed reactor physics and safety analyses are being performed for the 20 MW D{sub 2}O-moderated research reactor at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analyses employ state-of-the-art calculational methods and will contribute to an update to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Three-dimensional MCNP Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport calculations are performed to determine power and reactivity parameters, including feedback coefficients and control element worths. The core depletion and determination of the fuel compositions are performed with MONTEBURNS to model the reactor at the beginning, middle, and end-of-cycle. The time-dependent analysis of the primary loop is determined with a RELAP5 transient analysis model that includes the pump, heat exchanger, fuel element geometry, and flow channels. A statistical analysis used to assure protection from critical heat flux (CHF) is performed using a Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertainties contributing to the CHF calculation. The power distributions used to determine the local fuel conditions and margin to CHF are determined with MCNP. Evaluations have been performed for the following accidents: (1) the control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) the maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow resulting from loss of electrical power, (4) loss-of-flow resulting from a primary pump seizure, (5) loss-of-flow resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve, (6) loss-of-flow resulting from failure of both shutdown cooling pumps and (7) misloading of a fuel element. These analyses are significantly more rigorous than those performed previously. They have provided insights into reactor behavior and additional assurance that previous analyses were conservative and the reactor was being operated safely.

DIAMOND,D.J.CHENG,L.HANSON,A.XU,J.CAREW,J.F.

2004-02-05

330

Practical Application of Parallel Coordinates for Climate Model Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The determination of relationships between climate variables and the identification of the most significant associations between them in various geographic regions is an important aspect of climate model evaluation. The EDEN visual analytics toolkit has been developed to aid such analysis by facilitating the assessment of multiple variables with respect to the amount of variability that can be attributed to specific other variables. EDEN harnesses the parallel coordinates visualization technique and is augmented with graphical indicators of key descriptive statistics. A case study is presented in which the focus on the Harvard Forest site (42.5378N Lat, 72.1715W Lon) and the Community Land Model Version 4 (CLM4) is evaluated. It is shown that model variables such as land water runoff are more sensitive to a particular set of environmental variables than a suite of other inputs in the 88 variable analysis conducted. The approach presented here allows climate-domain scientists to focus on the most important variables in the model evaluations.

Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Ricciuto, Daniel M [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL; Branstetter, Marcia L [ORNL

2012-01-01

331

Genetic analysis of sudden cardiac death victims: a survey of current forensic autopsy practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autopsy-negative sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) seen in forensic practice are most often thought to be the result of sudden arrhythmic\\u000a death syndrome. Postmortem genetic analysis is recommended in such cases, but is currently performed in only a few academic\\u000a centers. In order to determine actual current practice, an on-line questionnaire was sent by e-mail to members of various\\u000a forensic medical

Katarzyna Michaud; Patrice Mangin; Bernice S. Elger

2011-01-01

332

Crystallography of Powdered Samples at High Pressure: Practical Aspects of Diffraction Data Collection and Analysis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation we will give an overview of some typical techniques used to collect, and to analyse, angle- dispersive x-ray diffraction data from powdered samples under high-pressure (and temperature) conditions. The presentation will have a practical basis, using data collected from samples at high-pressure and temperature conditions using large-volume presses and diamond-anvil cells that have been either resistively or laser-heated. We will show how these experiments have been optimised to obtain a variety of different experimental results (phase identification and phase diagram mapping, EoS measurement, structure solution, etc). We will demonstrate different analysis procedures, explain their methodology and, as often as possible, present these analyses with software that is freely available. Demonstration of the techniques will take the audience though basic elements of diffraction data collection and methods of phase identification to indexing and unit-cell refinement, though some common structure solution methods and Rietveld refinement strategies. We will also discuss methods for collecting better data and maximising the information that can be gleaned from powdered samples (of minerals, ceramics, element, glasses, liquids and other materials) at high pressure.

Crichton, W. A.

2006-12-01

333

Responder analysis for pain relief and numbers needed to treat in a meta-analysis of etoricoxib osteoarthritis trials: bridging a gap between clinical trials and clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Population mean changes from clinical trials are difficult to apply to individuals in clinical practice. Responder analysis may be better, but needs validating for level of response and treatment duration.Methods:The numbers of patients with pain relief over baseline (?15%, ?30%, ?50%, ?70%) at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment were obtained using the WOMAC 100 mm visual analogue

R A Moore; O A Moore; S Derry; P M Peloso; A R Gammaitoni; H Wang

2010-01-01

334

EIA practice in India and its evaluation using SWOT analysis  

SciTech Connect

In India Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been formally introduced in 1994. It relied on the institutional framework that has a strong supporting legislative, administrative and procedural set-up. Both central and state authorities together are sharing the responsibility of its development and management. A Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT) analysis taken up in this article has suggested that there are several issues that need to be readdressed. It highlights several constraints, ranging from improper screening and scoping guidelines to ineffective monitoring and post project evaluation. The opportunities are realised as increasing public awareness, initiatives of environmental groups and business community and forward thinking to integrate environmental consideration into plans and policies. Poor governance, rapid economic reforms, and favours to small-scale units are some of the foreseen threats to the system. This article concludes with some suggestions to improve EIA process in India.

Paliwal, Ritu [Centre for Regulatory and Policy Research, TERI School of Advanced Studies, Habitat Centre, Lodhi Road, Delhi-110003 (India)]. E-mail: ritup@terischool.ac.in

2006-07-15

335

Computer-aided analysis of conditions for optimizing practical electrorotation.  

PubMed

Previous studies have indicated that the variations in torque induced in particles in electrorotation electrode arrays are sufficiently large to cause errors in electrorotation measurements. In order to avoid this, experimenters usually study particles bounded by an arbitrary region near the centre of the electrodes. By simulating the time-dependent electric field for polynomial electrodes, we have assessed the variation in torque across the centre of the array. By considering both the variation in applied torque and the dielectrophoretic force in the electrode chamber, the optimal conditions for electrorotation experiments have been determined. Further to this, by comparing the torque variation across the electrode chamber for a number of common electrode designs, a comparison of the suitability of each electrode design for multiparticle electrorotation analysis has been made. PMID:9869038

Hughes, M P

1998-12-01

336

A Method and Its Practice for Teaching the Fundamental Technology of Communication Protocols and Coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The education of information and communication technologies is important for engineering, and it includes terminals, communication media, transmission, switching, software, communication protocols, coding, etc. The proposed teaching method for protocols is based on the HDLC (High-level Data Link Control) procedures using our newly developed software “HDLC trainer” , and includes the extensions for understanding other protocols such as TCP/IP. As for teaching the coding theory that is applied for the error control in protocols, we use both of a mathematical programming language and a general-purpose programming language. We have practiced and evaluated the proposed teaching method in our college, and it is shown that the method has remarkable effects for understanding the fundamental technology of protocols and coding.

Kobayashi, Tetsuji

337

Preventing childhood obesity during infancy in UK primary care: a mixed-methods study of HCPs' knowledge, beliefs and practice  

PubMed Central

Background There is a strong rationale for intervening in early childhood to prevent obesity. Over a quarter of infants gain weight more rapidly than desirable during the first six months of life putting them at greater risk of obesity in childhood. However, little is known about UK healthcare professionals' (HCPs) approach to primary prevention. This study explored obesity-related knowledge of UK HCPs and the beliefs and current practice of general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses in relation to identifying infants at risk of developing childhood obesity. Method Survey of UK HCPs (GPs, practice nurses, health visitors, nursery, community and children's nurses). HCPs (n = 116) rated their confidence in providing infant feeding advice and completed the Obesity Risk Knowledge Scale (ORK-10). Semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 12 GPs and 6 practice nurses were audio recorded, taped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results GPs were less confident about giving advice about infant feeding than health visitors (p = 0.001) and nursery nurses (p = 0.009) but more knowledgeable about the health risks of obesity (p < 0.001) than nurses (p = 0.009). HCPs who were consulted more often about feeding were less knowledgeable about the risks associated with obesity (r = -0.34, n = 114, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between HCPs' ratings of confidence in their advice and their knowledge of the obesity risk. Six main themes emerged from the interviews: 1) Attribution of childhood obesity to family environment, 2) Infant feeding advice as the health visitor's role, 3) Professional reliance on anecdotal or experiential knowledge about infant feeding, 4) Difficulties with recognition of, or lack of concern for, infants "at risk" of becoming obese, 5) Prioritising relationship with parent over best practice in infant feeding and 6) Lack of shared understanding for dealing with early years' obesity. Conclusions Intervention is needed to improve health visitors and nursery nurses' knowledge of obesity risk and GPs and practice nurses' capacity to identify and manage infants' at risk of developing childhood obesity. GPs value strategies that maintain relationships with vulnerable families and interventions to improve their advice-giving around infant feeding need to take account of this. Further research is needed to determine optimal ways of intervening with infants at risk of obesity in primary care.

2011-01-01

338

A qualitative analysis of immigrant population health practices in the Girona Healthcare Region  

PubMed Central

Background The research we present here forms part of a two-phase project - one quantitative and the other qualitative - assessing the use of primary health care services. This paper presents the qualitative phase of said research, which is aimed at ascertaining the needs, beliefs, barriers to access and health practices of the immigrant population in comparison with the native population, as well as the perceptions of healthcare professionals. Moroccan and sub-Saharan were the immigrants to who the qualitative phase was specifically addressed. The aims of this paper are as follows: to analyse any possible implications of family organisation in the health practices of the immigrant population; to ascertain social practices relating to illness; to understand the significances of sexual and reproductive health practices; and to ascertain the ideas and perceptions of immigrants, local people and professionals regarding health and the health system. Methods Qualitative research based on discursive analysis. Data gathering techniques consisted of discussion groups with health system users and semi-structured individual interviews with healthcare professionals. The sample was taken from the Basic Healthcare Areas of Salt and Banyoles (belonging to the Girona Healthcare Region), the discussion groups being comprised of (a) 6 immigrant Moroccan women, (b) 7 immigrant sub-Saharan African women and (c) 6 immigrant and native population men (2 native men, 2 Moroccan men and 2 sub-Saharan men); and the semi-structured interviews being conducted with the following healthcare professionals: (a) 3 gynaecologists, (b) 3 nurses and 1 administrative staff. Results Use of the healthcare system is linked to the perception of not being well, knowledge of the healthcare system, length of time resident in Spain and interiorization of traditional Western medicine as a cure mechanism. The divergences found among the groups of immigrants, local people and healthcare professionals with regard to healthcare education, use of the healthcare service, sexual and reproductive healthcare and reticence with regard to being attended by healthcare personnel of the opposite sex demonstrate a need to work with the immigrant population as a heterogeneous group. Conclusions The results we have obtained support the idea that feeling unwell is a psycho-social process, as it takes place within a specific socio-cultural situation and spans a range of beliefs, perceptions and ideas regarding symptomology and how to treat it.

2010-01-01

339

A practical hypertext categorization method using links and incrementally available class information  

Microsoft Academic Search

As WWW grows at an increasing speed, a classifier\\u000a targeted at hypertext has become in high demand. While\\u000a document categorization is quite a mature, the issue of\\u000a utilizing hypertext structure and hyperlinks has been\\u000a relatively unexplored. In this paper, we propose a\\u000a practical method for enhancing both the speed and the\\u000a quality of hypertext categorization using hyperlinks. In\\u000a comparison against

Hyo-Jung Oh; Sung-Hyon Myaeng; Mann-Ho Lee

2000-01-01

340

Mapping Cigarettes Similarities using Cluster Analysis Methods  

PubMed Central

The aim of the research was to investigate the relationship and/or occurrences in and between chemical composition information (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide), market information (brand, manufacturer, price), and public health information (class, health warning) as well as clustering of a sample of cigarette data. A number of thirty cigarette brands have been analyzed. Six categorical (cigarette brand, manufacturer, health warnings, class) and four continuous (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide concentrations and package price) variables were collected for investigation of chemical composition, market information and public health information. Multiple linear regression and two clusterization techniques have been applied. The study revealed interesting remarks. The carbon monoxide concentration proved to be linked with tar and nicotine concentration. The applied clusterization methods identified groups of cigarette brands that shown similar characteristics. The tar and carbon monoxide concentrations were the main criteria used in clusterization. An analysis of a largest sample could reveal more relevant and useful information regarding the similarities between cigarette brands.

Bolboaca, Sorana D.; Jantschi, Lorentz

2007-01-01

341

Method and tool for network vulnerability analysis  

DOEpatents

A computer system analysis tool and method that will allow for qualitative and quantitative assessment of security attributes and vulnerabilities in systems including computer networks. The invention is based on generation of attack graphs wherein each node represents a possible attack state and each edge represents a change in state caused by a single action taken by an attacker or unwitting assistant. Edges are weighted using metrics such as attacker effort, likelihood of attack success, or time to succeed. Generation of an attack graph is accomplished by matching information about attack requirements (specified in "attack templates") to information about computer system configuration (contained in a configuration file that can be updated to reflect system changes occurring during the course of an attack) and assumed attacker capabilities (reflected in "attacker profiles"). High risk attack paths, which correspond to those considered suited to application of attack countermeasures given limited resources for applying countermeasures, are identified by finding "epsilon optimal paths."

Swiler, Laura Painton (Albuquerque, NM); Phillips, Cynthia A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-03-14

342

Proteomics methods for subcellular proteome analysis.  

PubMed

The elucidation of the subcellular distribution of proteins under different conditions is a major challenge in cell biology. This challenge is further complicated by the multicompartmental and dynamic nature of protein localization. To address this issue, quantitative proteomics workflows have been developed to reliably identify the protein complement of whole organelles, as well as for protein assignment to subcellular location and relative protein quantification based on different cell culture conditions. Here, we review quantitative MS-based approaches that combine cellular fractionation with proteomic analysis. The application of these methods to the characterization of organellar composition and to the determination of the dynamic nature of protein complexes is improving our understanding of protein functions and dynamics. PMID:24034475

Drissi, Romain; Dubois, Marie-Line; Boisvert, François-Michel

2013-09-20

343

A survey of castration methods and associated livestock management practices performed by bovine veterinarians in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Castration of male calves destined for beef production is a common management practice performed in the United States amounting to approximately 15 million procedures per year. Societal concern about the moral and ethical treatment of animals is increasing. Therefore, production agriculture is faced with the challenge of formulating animal welfare policies relating to routine management practices such as castration. To enable the livestock industry to effectively respond to these challenges there is a need for more data on management practices that are commonly used in cattle production systems. The objective of this survey was to describe castration methods, adverse events and husbandry procedures performed by U.S. veterinarians at the time of castration. Invitations to participate in the survey were sent to email addresses of 1,669 members of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners and 303 members of the Academy of Veterinary Consultants. Results After partially completed surveys and missing data were omitted, 189 responses were included in the analysis. Surgical castration with a scalpel followed by testicular removal by twisting (calves <90 kg) or an emasculator (calves >90 kg) was the most common method of castration used. The potential risk of injury to the operator, size of the calf, handling facilities and experience with the technique were the most important considerations used to determine the method of castration used. Swelling, stiffness and increased lying time were the most prevalent adverse events observed following castration. One in five practitioners report using an analgesic or local anesthetic at the time of castration. Approximately 90% of respondents indicated that they vaccinate and dehorn calves at the time of castration. Over half the respondents use disinfectants, prophylactic antimicrobials and tetanus toxoid to reduce complications following castration. Conclusions The results of this survey describe current methods of castration and associated management practices employed by bovine veterinarians in the U.S. Such data are needed to guide future animal well-being research, the outcomes of which can be used to develop industry-relevant welfare guidelines.

2010-01-01

344

Sequential methods of analysis for genome scans.  

PubMed

As the preceding chapters illustrate, now that whole-genome scan analyses are becoming more common, there is considerable disagreement about the best way to balance between false positives and false negatives (traditionally called type I and type II errors in the statistical parlance). Type I and type II errors can be simultaneously controlled, if we are willing to let the sample size of analysis vary. This is the secret that Wald (1947) discovered in the 1940s that led to the theory of sequential sampling and was the inspiration for Newton Morton in developing the lod score method. We can exploit this idea further and capitalize on an old, but nearly forgotten theory: sequential multiple decision procedures (SMDP) (Bechhoffer, et al., 1968), which generalizes the standard "two-hypotheses" tests to consider multiple alternative hypotheses. Using this theory, we can develop a single, genome-wide test that simultaneously partitions all markers into "signal" and "noise" groups, with tight control over both type I and type II errors (Province, 2000). Conceiving this approach as an analysis tool for fixed sample designs (instead of a true sequential sampling scheme), we can let the data decide at which point we should move from the hypothesis generation phase of a genome scan (where multiple comparisons make the interpretation of p values and significance levels difficult and controversial), to a true hypothesis-testing phase (where the problem of multiple comparisons has been all but eliminated so that p values may be accepted at face value). PMID:11037338

Province, M A

2001-01-01

345

Best Practices for Finite Element Analysis of Spent Nuclear Fuel Transfer, Storage, and Transportation Systems  

SciTech Connect

Storage casks and transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are designed to confine SNF in sealed canisters or casks, provide structural integrity during accidents, and remove decay through a storage or transportation overpack. The transfer, storage, and transportation of SNF in dry storage casks and transport packages is regulated under 10 CFR Part 72 and 10 CFR Part 71, respectively. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used with increasing frequency in Safety Analysis Reports and other regulatory technical evaluations related to SNF casks and packages and their associated systems. Advances in computing power have made increasingly sophisticated FEA models more feasible, and as a result, the need for careful review of such models has also increased. This paper identifies best practice recommendations that stem from recent NRC review experience. The scope covers issues common to all commercially available FEA software, and the recommendations are applicable to any FEA software package. Three specific topics are addressed: general FEA practices, issues specific to thermal analyses, and issues specific to structural analyses. General FEA practices covers appropriate documentation of the model and results, which is important for an efficient review process. The thermal analysis best practices are related to cask analysis for steady state conditions and transient scenarios. The structural analysis best practices are related to the analysis of casks and associated payload during standard handling and drop scenarios. The best practices described in this paper are intended to identify FEA modeling issues and provide insights that can help minimize associated uncertainties and errors, in order to facilitate the NRC licensing review process.

Bajwa, Christopher S.; Piotter, Jason; Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Fort, James A.; Suffield, Sarah R.

2010-08-11

346

Geometric moire method of strain analysis with displacement discontinuities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prediction of the deformation behavior of large engineering structures in jointed rock under a specified loading history requires the extensive use of numerical simulation. For example, the evaluation of the stability of the openings for the Exploratory Studies Facility and a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will require computer codes capable of predicting slip on rock joints resulting from changes in thermal stresses. The testing and ultimate validation of these complex finite element computer codes is an important step in their development before their use as a design tool for an engineering structure or for the study of some other practical problem. While field tests may be ultimately necessary, the authors propose a different and more thorough approach where early tests are done on a bench scale with easily characterized materials and geometries. For these bench-scale tests, the basic approach is to construct a laboratory specimen with a known geometry from an easily characterized material. Digital video imaging combined with the geometric moire fringe method of strain analysis is used to measure and derive the displacements on the sample under load. Here the authors present the method of acquiring and analyzing the moire data and give an analysis of its problems and benefits.

Brown, S. R.; Hardy, R. D.

1994-08-01

347

Methods for spectral image analysis by exploiting spatial simplicity  

SciTech Connect

Several full-spectrum imaging techniques have been introduced in recent years that promise to provide rapid and comprehensive chemical characterization of complex samples. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful chemical information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution, have proven effective for extracting the essential chemical information from high dimensional spectral image data sets into a limited number of components that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the chemical species comprising the sample. There are many cases, however, in which those constraints are not effective and where alternative approaches may provide new analytical insights. For many cases of practical importance, imaged samples are "simple" in the sense that they consist of relatively discrete chemical phases. That is, at any given location, only one or a few of the chemical species comprising the entire sample have non-zero concentrations. The methods of spectral image analysis of the present invention exploit this simplicity in the spatial domain to make the resulting factor models more realistic. Therefore, more physically accurate and interpretable spectral and abundance components can be extracted from spectral images that have spatially simple structure.

Keenan, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-23

348

Critical analysis of biomarkers in the current periodontal practice.  

PubMed

Periodontal disease is a chronic microbial infection that triggers inflammation-mediated loss of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone that supports the teeth. Because of the increasing prevalence and associated comorbidities, there is a need for the development of new diagnostic tests that can detect the presence of active disease, predict future disease progression, and evaluate the response to periodontal therapy, thereby improving the clinical management of periodontal patients. The diagnosis of active phases of periodontal disease and the identification of patients at risk for active disease represent challenges for clinical investigators and practitioners. Advances in diagnostic research are moving toward methods whereby the periodontal risk can be identified and quantified by objective measures using biomarkers. Patients with periodontitis may have elevated circulating levels of specific inflammatory markers that can be correlated to the severity of the disease. Advances in the use of oral fluids as possible biological samples for objective measures of the current disease state, treatment monitoring, and prognostic indicators have boosted saliva- and other oral-based fluids to the forefront of technology. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is an inflammatory exudate that can be collected at the gingival margin or within the gingival crevice. This article highlights recent advances in the use of biomarker-based disease diagnostics that focus on the identification of active periodontal disease from plaque biofilms, GCF, and saliva. PMID:21976831

Khiste, Sujeet V; Ranganath, V; Nichani, Ashish S; Rajani, V

2011-04-01

349

Prescription Analysis of Pediatric Outpatient Practice in Nagpur City  

PubMed Central

Background: Medication errors are probably one of the most common types of medical errors, as medication is the most common health-care intervention. Knowing where and when errors are most likely to occur is generally felt to be the first step in trying to prevent these errors. Objective: To study prescribing patterns and errors in pediatric OPD prescriptions presenting to four community pharmacies across Nagpur city and to compare the prescription error rates across prescriber profiles. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 1376 valid pediatric OPD prescriptions presenting to four randomly selected community pharmacies in Nagpur, collected over a period of 2 months. Confirmed errors in the prescriptions were reviewed and analyzed. The core indicators for drug utilization studies, mentioned by WHO, were used to define errors. Results: The 1376 prescriptions included in the study were for a total of 3435 drugs, prescribed by 41 doctors. Fixed dose formulations dominated the prescribing pattern, many of which were irrational. Prescribing by market name was almost universal and generic prescriptions were for merely 254 (7.4%) drugs. The prescribing pattern also indicated polypharmacy with the average number of drugs per encounter of 2.5. Antibiotics were included in 1087 (79%) prescriptions, while injectable drugs were prescribed in 22 (1.6%) prescriptions. The prescription error score varied significantly across prescriber profiles. Conclusion: The findings of our study highlight the continuing crisis of the irrational drug prescribing in the country.

Pandey, Anuja A; Thakre, Subhash B; Bhatkule, Prakash R

2010-01-01

350

A NEW METHOD OF POLARIZATION MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

A new method of polarized light analysis is described in which a highly sensitive electronic detector specific for birefringence is used to identify the crystalline axes of an object and then measure its phase retardation due to birefringence. The microscopic system employed in the method consists of an electronic birefringence detection system (BDS), a microscope with strain-free lenses, and a driven stage for passing the specimen at appropriate velocities across the image of an aperture placed at the field stop and imaged in the specimen plane by the condenser. The detector registers retardations directly as voltage at a constant deflection sensitivity of ca. 1.1 v per angstrom unit over a range of 120 angstrom units. The basal rms noise level is 0.002 A for a spot 36 µ in diameter formed by a 95 x, N. A. 1.25 objective pair, and increases in proportion to the reciprocal of the diameter of the scanning spot. The increase in noise with high resolution scanning can be offset by increasing the instrumental time constant, which is adjustable in decades between 0.004 and 0.4 seconds. A number of difficult problems in high extinction polarization microscopy are avoided by the use of modulated light and a rapid electronic detector. For example: (a) The measured distribution of birefringence is unaffected by the usual diffraction anomaly; therefore polarization rectifiers are not required. (b) The detector is selective for birefringence, so that there is no problem in separating contrast due to different optical properties (e.g. dichroism, light scattering). (c) The speed and sensitivity are both increased by between one and two orders of magnitude over that attainable by visual or photographic methods, thereby rendering a vast number of weakly birefringent, light-scattering, and motile objects readily analyzable for the first time with polarized light.

Allen, Robert D.; Brault, James; Moore, Robert D.

1963-01-01

351

Analysing parent-child interactions in clinical practice: the development of a procedure and method of reporting.  

PubMed

Research in child developmental psychology is concerning itself increasingly with the fine-grain study of infant-caregiver interactions and as a result awareness of the importance of early interaction patterns in the development of children has grown very rapidly. The research has been based on an observational approach made possible by the use of video-recording and the development of sophisticated methods of interaction analysis. The methods employed and the research findings have important implications for those working clinically with young handicapped children and their parents, but as yet the research methods have been too complex and time-consuming to be used directly in practice. This paper describes the development of a procedure which can be used to observe and analyse the interactions of pre-school handicapped children with their caregivers in a clinical setting, using modifications of existing research methods and based on current findings. Examples of the coding procedure, transcript sheet and reporting methods are given in the context of a pilot application. It is suggested that the approach is valuable as a conceptual framework which the observer can use to improve his observational skills, provides a sound base for assessment and remediation work and can incorporate new research findings as they become available. PMID:455588

Gaussen, T

352

Cattle manure quality in Maragua District, Central Kenya: effect of management practices and development of simple methods of assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hundred mixed, smallholder farms in Kariti location, Kandara Division, Maragua District, Central Kenya, were surveyed. Dairy cattle management practices, including type of animal enclosure, roofing, floor type, drainage, use of bedding, feeding of concentrates; and manure management practices, including methods of manure handling and storage prior to utilization, and the addition of urine and organic materials to manure were

J. K. Lekasi; J. C. Tanner; S. K. Kimani; P. J. C. Harris

2003-01-01

353

Delivering stepped care: an analysis of implementation in routine practice  

PubMed Central

Background In the United Kingdom, clinical guidelines recommend that services for depression and anxiety should be structured around a stepped care model, where patients receive treatment at different 'steps,' with the intensity of treatment (i.e., the amount and type) increasing at each step if they fail to benefit at previous steps. There are very limited data available on the implementation of this model, particularly on the intensity of psychological treatment at each step. Our objective was to describe patient pathways through stepped care services and the impact of this on patient flow and management. Methods We recorded service design features of four National Health Service sites implementing stepped care (e.g., the types of treatments available and their links with other treatments), together with the actual treatments received by individual patients and their transitions between different treatment steps. We computed the proportions of patients accessing, receiving, and transiting between the various steps and mapped these proportions visually to illustrate patient movement. Results We collected throughput data on 7,698 patients referred. Patient pathways were highly complex and very variable within and between sites. The ratio of low (e.g., self-help) to high-intensity (e.g., cognitive behaviour therapy) treatments delivered varied between sites from 22:1, through 2.1:1, 1.4:1 to 0.5:1. The numbers of patients allocated directly to high-intensity treatment varied from 3% to 45%. Rates of stepping up from low-intensity treatment to high-intensity treatment were less than 10%. Conclusions When services attempt to implement the recommendation for stepped care in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines, there were significant differences in implementation and consequent high levels of variation in patient pathways. Evaluations driven by the principles of implementation science (such as targeted planning, defined implementation strategies, and clear activity specification around service organisation) are required to improve evidence on the most effective, efficient, and acceptable stepped care systems.

2012-01-01

354

A practical method to determine the light source distribution in bioluminescent imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical signatures of tumor cells may be generated by expression of reporter genes encoding bioluminescent/fluorescent proteins. Bioluminescent imaging is a novel technique that identifies such light sources from the light flux detected on the surface of a small animal. This technique can effectively evaluate tumor cell growth and regression in response to various therapies in medical research, drug development and gene therapy. In this paper, the diffusion approximation is employed to describe the propagation of photons through biological tissues. Then, a practical method is proposed for localizing and quantifying bioluminescent sources from external bioluminescent signals. This method incorporates prior knowledge on permissible source regions, and transforms the inverse bioluminescent problem into a finite element-based constrained optimization procedure. This approach is validated and evaluated with ideal and noise data in numerical simulation.

Cong, Wenxiang; Kumar, Durairaj; Liu, Yi; Cong, Alexander; Wang, Ge

2004-10-01

355

Bearing capacity analysis using the method of characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the method of characteristics, the bearing capacity for a strip footing is analyzed. The method of characteristics leads to an exact true limit load when the calculations of the three terms in the bearing capacity formula are consistent with one collapse mechanism and the soil satisfies the associated flow rule. At the same time, the method of characteristics avoids the assumption of arbitrary slip surfaces, and produces zones within which equilibrium and plastic yield are simultaneously satisfied for given boundary stresses. The exact solution without superposition approximation can still be expressed by Terzaghi's equation of bearing capacity, in which the bearing capacity factor N ?? is dependent on the dimensionless parameter ? and the friction angle ?. The influence of groundwater on the bearing capacity of the shallow strip footing is considered, which indicates that when the groundwater effect is taken into account, the error induced by the superposition approximation can be reduced as compared with dry soil condition. The results are presented in the form of charts which give the modified value (N_{? ^{? _c } }^W /N_{? ^{? _c } } ) of bearing capacity factor. Finally, an approximated analytical expression, which provides results in close agreement with those obtained by numerical analysis in this paper, has been suggested for practical application purposes.

Sun, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Zhi-Ye; Cheng, Yi-Pik

2013-04-01

356

Chromium speciation by different methods of practical use for routine in situ measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple, sensitive, low-cost, and relatively rapid methods for the detection of Cr (111) and Cr (VI) species in natural waters are needed for monitoring and regulatory purposes. Conventional acidification and storage of filtered samples can be a major cause of chromium losses from the `dissolved' phase. In situ monitoring is thus of paramount importance. The practical usefulness of selected chromium speciation methods was assessed in the laboratory and in the field. Significant discrepancies were found in the Cr (VI) detection efficiency by a selective ion meter based on the diphenylcarbazide method when compared with conventional Zeeman graphite fumace AAS. The efficiency of the DGT (Diffusion gradients in thin films) method, based on the deployment in situ of gel/resin units capable of separating labile species of Cr (III) and Cr (VI), looks promising, but is limited by cost considerations and by potential complications in the presence of complexing substances. The method based on the Sephadex DEAE A-25 ion exchange resins is quite effective in the separation of Cr species, though it requires on-site facilities, is relatively time-consuming and is potentially affected by complexing substances.

Barakat, S.; Giusti, L.

2003-05-01

357

A practical method of predicting the loudness of complex electrical stimuli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The output of speech processors for multiple-electrode cochlear implants consists of current waveforms with complex temporal and spatial patterns. The majority of existing processors output sequential biphasic current pulses. This paper describes a practical method of calculating loudness estimates for such stimuli, in addition to the relative loudness contributions from different cochlear regions. The method can be used either to manipulate the loudness or levels in existing processing strategies, or to control intensity cues in novel sound processing strategies. The method is based on a loudness model described by McKay et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 1514-1524 (2001)] with the addition of the simplifying approximation that current pulses falling within a temporal integration window of several milliseconds' duration contribute independently to the overall loudness of the stimulus. Three experiments were carried out with six implantees who use the CI24M device manufactured by Cochlear Ltd. The first experiment validated the simplifying assumption, and allowed loudness growth functions to be calculated for use in the loudness prediction method. The following experiments confirmed the accuracy of the method using multiple-electrode stimuli with various patterns of electrode locations and current levels.

McKay, Colette M.; Henshall, Katherine R.; Farrell, Rebecca J.; McDermott, Hugh J.

2003-04-01

358

Communication: Quantum polarized fluctuating charge model: A practical method to include ligand polarizability in biomolecular simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple and practical method to include ligand electronic polarization in molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of biomolecular systems. The method involves periodically spawning quantum mechanical (QM) electrostatic potential (ESP) calculations on an extra set of computer processors using molecular coordinate snapshots from a running parallel MD simulation. The QM ESPs are evaluated for the small-molecule ligand in the presence of the electric field induced by the protein, solvent, and ion charges within the MD snapshot. Partial charges on ligand atom centers are fit through the multi-conformer restrained electrostatic potential (RESP) fit method on several successive ESPs. The RESP method was selected since it produces charges consistent with the AMBER/GAFF force-field used in the simulations. The updated charges are introduced back into the running simulation when the next snapshot is saved. The result is a simulation whose ligand partial charges continuously respond in real-time to the short-term mean electrostatic field of the evolving environment without incurring additional wall-clock time. We show that (1) by incorporating the cost of polarization back into the potential energy of the MD simulation, the algorithm conserves energy when run in the microcanonical ensemble and (2) the mean solvation free energies for 15 neutral amino acid side chains calculated with the quantum polarized fluctuating charge method and thermodynamic integration agree better with experiment relative to the Amber fixed charge force-field.

Roy Kimura, S.; Rajamani, Ramkumar; Langley, David R.

2011-12-01

359

A practical method for depth of interaction determination in monolithic scintillator PET detectors.  

PubMed

Several new methods for determining the depth of interaction (DOI) of annihilation photons in monolithic scintillator detectors with single-sided, multi-pixel readout are investigated. The aim is to develop a DOI decoding method that allows for practical implementation in a positron emission tomography system. Specifically, calibration data, obtained with perpendicularly incident gamma photons only, are being used. Furthermore, neither detector modifications nor a priori knowledge of the light transport and/or signal variances is required. For this purpose, a clustering approach is utilized in combination with different parameters correlated with the DOI, such as the degree of similarity to a set of reference light distributions, the measured intensity on the sensor pixel(s) closest to the interaction position and the peak intensity of the measured light distribution. The proposed methods were tested experimentally on a detector comprised of a 20 mm × 20 mm × 12 mm polished LYSO:Ce crystal coupled to a 4 × 4 multi-anode photomultiplier. The method based on the linearly interpolated measured intensities on the sensor pixels closest to the estimated (x, y)-coordinate outperformed the other methods, yielding DOI resolutions between ?1 and ?4.5 mm FWHM depending on the DOI, the (x, y) resolution and the amount of reference data used. PMID:21693789

van Dam, Herman T; Seifert, Stefan; Vinke, Ruud; Dendooven, Peter; Löhner, Herbert; Beekman, Freek J; Schaart, Dennis R

2011-06-21

360

An Evaluation of EPIC's Analysis of School Practice & Knowledge System. The Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC). Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Established in 2006 by New Leaders for New Schools[TM], the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative rewards high-need urban schools showing significant gains in student achievement. In exchange, schools agree to share the practices helping to drive those gains, which they do through an in-depth study of practice, aided by the…

Sloan, Kay; Pereira-Leon, Maura; Honeyford, Michelle

2012-01-01

361

Skinner Meets Piaget on the Reggio Playground: Practical Synthesis of Applied Behavior Analysis and Developmentally Appropriate Practice Orientations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We focus on integrating developmentally appropriate practices, the project approach of Reggio Emilia, and a behavior analytic model to support a quality preschool environment. While the above practices often are considered incompatible, we have found substantial overlap and room for integration of these perspectives in practical application. With…

Warash, Bobbie; Curtis, Reagan; Hursh, Dan; Tucci, Vicci

2008-01-01

362

Skinner Meets Piaget on the Reggio Playground: Practical Synthesis of Applied Behavior Analysis and Developmentally Appropriate Practice Orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We focus on integrating developmentally appropriate practices, the project approach of Reggio Emilia, and a behavior analytic model to support a quality preschool environment. While the above practices often are considered incompatible, we have found substantial overlap and room for integration of these perspectives in practical application. With the growing number of children with disabilities and challenging behaviors in regular

Bobbie Warash; Reagan Curtis; Dan Hursh; Vicci Tucci

2008-01-01

363

Comprehensive cosmographic analysis by Markov chain method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the possibility of extracting model independent information about the dynamics of the Universe by using cosmography. We intend to explore it systematically, to learn about its limitations and its real possibilities. Here we are sticking to the series expansion approach on which cosmography is based. We apply it to different data sets: Supernovae type Ia (SNeIa), Hubble parameter extracted from differential galaxy ages, gamma ray bursts, and the baryon acoustic oscillations data. We go beyond past results in the literature extending the series expansion up to the fourth order in the scale factor, which implies the analysis of the deceleration q0, the jerk j0, and the snap s0. We use the Markov chain Monte Carlo method (MCMC) to analyze the data statistically. We also try to relate direct results from cosmography to dark energy (DE) dynamical models parametrized by the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder model, extracting clues about the matter content and the dark energy parameters. The main results are: (a) even if relying on a mathematical approximate assumption such as the scale factor series expansion in terms of time, cosmography can be extremely useful in assessing dynamical properties of the Universe; (b) the deceleration parameter clearly confirms the present acceleration phase; (c) the MCMC method can help giving narrower constraints in parameter estimation, in particular for higher order cosmographic parameters (the jerk and the snap), with respect to the literature; and (d) both the estimation of the jerk and the DE parameters reflect the possibility of a deviation from the ?CDM cosmological model.

Capozziello, S.; Lazkoz, R.; Salzano, V.

2011-12-01

364

The experience of implementing evidence-based practice change: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) and ONS Foundation worked together to develop the Institute for Evidence-Based Practice Change (IEBPC) program to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) change in nursing. This analysis describes the experience of 19 teams of nurses from various healthcare settings who participated in the IEBPC program. Qualitative analysis of verbatim narratives of activities and observations during the process of implementing an EBP project was used to identify key themes in the experience. EBP implementation enabled participants to learn about their own practice and to experience empowerment through the evidence, and it ignited the spirit of inquiry, team work, and multidisciplinary collaboration. Experiences and lessons learned from nurses implementing EBP can be useful to others in planning EBP implementation. PMID:24080054

Irwin, Margaret M; Bergman, Rosalie M; Richards, Rebecca

2013-10-01

365

Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods for Space Transportation Propulsion Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on probabilistic structural analysis methods for space propulsion systems is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on deterministic certification methods, probability of failure, component response analysis, stress responses for 2nd st...

C. C. Chamis N. Moore C. Anis J. Newell V. Nagpal

1991-01-01

366

Practical estimates of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity of bedrock outcrops using a modified bottomless bucket method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bottomless bucket (BB) approach (Nimmo et al., 2009a) is a cost-effective method for rapidly characterizing field-saturated hydraulic conductivityKfsof soils and alluvial deposits. This practical approach is of particular value for quantifying infiltration rates in remote areas with limited accessibility. A similar approach for bedrock outcrops is also of great value for improving quantitative understanding of infiltration and recharge in rugged terrain. We develop a simple modification to the BB method for application to bedrock outcrops, which uses a nontoxic, quick-drying silicone gel to seal the BB to the bedrock. These modifications to the field method require only minor changes to the analytical solution for calculatingKfs on soils. We investigate the reproducibility of the method with laboratory experiments on a previously studied calcarenite rock and conduct a sensitivity analysis to quantify uncertainty in our predictions. We apply the BB method on both bedrock and soil for sites on Pahute Mesa, which is located in a remote area of the Nevada National Security Site. The bedrock BB tests may require monitoring over several hours to days, depending on infiltration rates, which necessitates a cover to prevent evaporative losses. Our field and laboratory results compare well to Kfs values inferred from independent reports, which suggests the modified BB method can provide useful estimates and facilitate simple hypothesis testing. The ease with which the bedrock BB method can be deployed should facilitate more rapid in situ data collection than is possible with alternative methods for quantitative characterization of infiltration into bedrock.

Mirus, Benjamin B.; Perkins, Kim S.

2012-09-01

367

[Methods for mortality analysis in SENTIERI Project].  

PubMed

The methods of mortality analysis in Italian polluted sites (IPS) are described. The study concerned 44 IPSs; each one included one or more municipalities. Mortality at municipality level was studied in the period 1995-2002, using the following indicators: crude rate, standardized rate, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and SMR adjusted for an ad hoc deprivation index. Regional populations were used as reference for indirect standardization. The deprivation index was constructed using the 2001 national census variables representing the following socioeconomic domains: education, unemployment, dwelling ownership, overcrowding. Mortality indicators were computed for 63 single or grouped causes. The results for all the 63 analysed causes of death are available for each IPS, and in this Chapter the results for each IPS for causes selected on the basis of a priori evidence of risk from local sources of environmental pollution are presented. The procedures and results of the evidence evaluation have been published in the 2010 Supplement of Epidemiology & Prevention devoted to SENTIERI. PMID:22166294

De Santis, M; Pasetto, R; Minelli, G; Conti, S

368

Pre-service elementary science teaching self-efficacy and teaching practices: A mixed-methods, dual-phase, embedded case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This mixed-method, dual-phase, embedded-case study employed the Social Cognitive Theory and the construct of self-efficacy to examine the contributors to science teaching self-efficacy and science teaching practices across different levels of efficacy in six pre-service elementary teachers during their science methods course and student teaching experiences. Data sources included the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI-B) for pre-service teachers, questionnaires, journals, reflections, student teaching lesson observations, and lesson debriefing notes. Results from the STEBI-B show that all participants measured an increase in efficacy throughout the study. The ANOVA analysis of the STEBI-B revealed a statistically significant increase in level of efficacy during methods course, student teaching, and from the beginning of the study to the end. Of interest in this study was the examination of the participants' science teaching practices across different levels of efficacy. Results of this analysis revealed how the pre-service elementary teachers in this study contextualized their experiences in learning to teach science and its influences on their science teaching practices. Key implications involves the value in exploring how pre-service teachers interpret their learning to teach experiences and how their interpretations influence the development of their science teaching practices.

Sangueza, Cheryl Ramirez

369

Perceptions and Attitudes of Medical Students towards Two Methods of Assessing Practical Anatomy Knowledge  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Traditionally, summative practical examination in anatomy takes the form of ‘spotters’ consisting of a stream of prosections, radiological images and dissections with pins indicating specific structures. Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in Moodle™ (a free, open-source web application for producing modular internet-based courses) in addition to the traditional format. This paper reports on an investigation into students’ perceptions of each assessment environment. Methods: Over a 3-year period, practical assessment in anatomy was conducted either in traditional format or online via learning management software called Moodle™. All students exposed to the two examination formats at the College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, were divided into two categories: junior (Year 3) and senior (Year 4). An evaluation of their perception of both examination formats was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of restricted and free response items. Results: More than half of all students expressed a clear preference for the online environment and believed it was more exam-friendly. This preference was higher amongst senior students. Compared to females, male students preferred the online environment. Senior students were less likely to study on cadavers when the examination was conducted online. Specimen quality, ability to manage time, and seating arrangements were major advantages identified by students who preferred the online format. Conclusion: Computer-based practical examinations in anatomy appeared to be generally popular with our students. The students adopted a different approach to study when the exam was conducted online as compared to the traditional ‘steeplechase’ format.

Inuwa, Ibrahim M; Taranikanti, Varna; Al-Rawahy, Maimouna; Habbal, Omar

2011-01-01

370

Use of conjoint analysis to examine beliefs related to the practice of early literacy instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between teacher beliefs and actual classroom practice in early literacy instruction. Conjoint analysis was used to measure teachers' beliefs on four early literacy factors—phonological awareness, print awareness, graphophonic awareness, and structural awareness. A collective case study format was then used to measure the correspondence of teachers' beliefs with their actual

Maria Victoria Tsalikis

2004-01-01

371

A Longitudinal Analysis of Parenting Practices, Couple Satisfaction, and Child Behavior Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study examined the relationship between couple relationship satisfaction, parenting practices, parent depression, and child problem behaviors. The study partici- pants (n = 148) were part of a larger experimental study that examined the effectiveness of a brief family-centered intervention, the Family Check-Up model. Regression analysis results indicated that our proposed model accounted for 38% of the variance in

Deanna Linville; Krista Chronister; Tom Dishion; Jeff Todahl; John Miller; Daniel Shaw; Francis Gardner; Melvin Wilson

2010-01-01

372

AAMFT Master Series Tapes: An Analysis of the Inclusion of Feminist Principles into Family Therapy Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Content analysis of 23 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Master Series tapes was used to determine how well feminist behaviors have been incorporated into ideal family therapy practice. Feminist behaviors were infrequent, being evident in fewer than 3% of time blocks in event sampling and 10 of 39 feminist behaviors of the…

Haddock, Shelley A.; MacPhee, David; Zimmerman, Toni Schindler

2001-01-01

373

Identifying Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education through High Quality Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine if meta-analysis can be used to enhance efforts to identify evidence-based practices (EBPs). In this study, the quality of included studies acted as the moderating variable. I used the quality indicators for experimental and quasi-experimental research developed by Gersten, Fuchs, Coyne, Greenwood, and…

Friedt, Brian

2012-01-01

374

Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Practices Used by the Michigan Department of Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-cycle cost analysis LCCA has become a common practice in road construction at the state level during the past decade in the United States. It enables pavement engineers to conduct a comprehensive assessment of long-term costs, and ideally agency highway funding can be allocated more optimally. Michigan Department of Transportation MDOT has adopted LCCA in the pavement selection process since

Arthur Chan; Gregory Keoleian; Eric Gabler

2008-01-01

375

Integration of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Analysis: Quality Assessment of Laboratory Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laboratory portions of courses in pharmacy practice and pharmaceutical analysis at the Medical University of South Carolina are integrated and coordinated to provide feedback on student performance in compounding medications. Students analyze the products they prepare, with early exposure to compendia requirements and other references. Student…

McGill, Julian E.; Holly, Deborah R.

1996-01-01

376

Issues management and organizational accounts: An analysis of corporate responses to accusations of unethical business practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

When external groups accuse a business organization of unethical practices, managers of the accused organization usually offer a communicative response to attempt to protect their organization's public image. Even though many researchers readily concur that analysis of these communicative responses is important to our understanding of business and society conflict, few investigations have focused on developing a theoretical framework for

Dennis E. Garrett; Jeffrey L. Bradford; Renee A. Meyers; Joy Becker

1989-01-01

377

Hotel companies' environmental policies and practices: a content analysis of their web pages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental management policies and practices of the top 50 hotel companies as disclosed on their corporate web sites. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study employed content analysis to review the web sites of the top 50 hotel companies as defined herein. Findings – Only 46 per cent of the selected hotel

2012-01-01

378

Interventions for Adolescent Struggling Readers: A Meta-Analysis with Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This meta-analysis offers decision-makers research-based guidance for intervening with adolescent struggling readers. The authors outline major implications for practice: (1) Adolescence is not too late to intervene. Interventions do benefit older students; (2) Older students with reading difficulties benefit from interventions focused at both…

Scammacca, Nancy; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon; Edmonds, Meaghan; Wexler, Jade; Reutebuch, Colleen Klein; Torgesen, Joseph K.

2007-01-01

379

An NCME Instructional Module on Developing and Administering Practice Analysis Questionnaires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of a credentialing examination is to assure the public that individuals who work in an occupation or profession have met certain standards. To be consistent with this purpose, credentialing examinations must be job related, and this requirement is typically met by developing test plans based on an empirical job or practice analysis.…

Raymond, Mark R.

2005-01-01

380

Student teachers' outlook on teaching: a content analysis of their reflective reports on experiences in practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on student teachers' experience-based knowledge regarding teaching and learning to teach in secondary general or vocational (mostly agricultural) schools. Insight into this knowledge has been gained by analyzing the content of their written reflections on experiences in practice. The framework for this content analysis was derived from literature on teachers' professional identity, starting points of the course

D. Beijaard; H. Stellingwerf; N. Verloop

1997-01-01

381

AAMFT Master Series Tapes: An Analysis of the Inclusion of Feminist Principles into Family Therapy Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content analysis of 23 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Master Series tapes was used to determine how well feminist behaviors have been incorporated into ideal family therapy practice. Feminist behaviors were infrequent, being evident in fewer than 3% of time blocks in event sampling and 10 of 39 feminist behaviors of the…

Haddock, Shelley A.; MacPhee, David; Zimmerman, Toni Schindler

2001-01-01

382

Ecotoxicity test methods for engineered nanomaterials: practical experiences and recommendations from the bench.  

PubMed

Ecotoxicology research is using many methods for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), but the collective experience from researchers has not been documented. This paper reports the practical issues for working with ENMs and suggests nano-specific modifications to protocols. The review considers generic practical issues, as well as specific issues for aquatic tests, marine grazers, soil organisms, and bioaccumulation studies. Current procedures for cleaning glassware are adequate, but electrodes are problematic. The maintenance of exposure concentration is challenging, but can be achieved with some ENMs. The need to characterize the media during experiments is identified, but rapid analytical methods are not available to do this. The use of sonication and natural/synthetic dispersants are discussed. Nano-specific biological endpoints may be developed for a tiered monitoring scheme to diagnose ENM exposure or effect. A case study of the algal growth test highlights many small deviations in current regulatory test protocols that are allowed (shaking, lighting, mixing methods), but these should be standardized for ENMs. Invertebrate (Daphnia) tests should account for mechanical toxicity of ENMs. Fish tests should consider semistatic exposure to minimize wastewater and animal husbandry. The inclusion of a benthic test is recommended for the base set of ecotoxicity tests with ENMs. The sensitivity of soil tests needs to be increased for ENMs and shortened for logistics reasons; improvements include using Caenorhabditis elegans, aquatic media, and metabolism endpoints in the plant growth tests. The existing bioaccumulation tests are conceptually flawed and require considerable modification, or a new test, to work for ENMs. Overall, most methodologies need some amendments, and recommendations are made to assist researchers. PMID:22002667

Handy, Richard D; Cornelis, Geert; Fernandes, Teresa; Tsyusko, Olga; Decho, Alan; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Metcalfe, Chris; Steevens, Jeffery A; Klaine, Stephen J; Koelmans, Albert A; Horne, Nina

2011-11-18

383

A practical guide to bioelectrical impedance analysis using the example of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a simple, inexpensive, quick and non-invasive technique for measuring body composition.\\u000a The clinical benefit of BIA can be further enhanced by combining it with bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA). However,\\u000a there is a substantial lack of information on the practical aspects of BIA\\/BIVA for those primarily interested in learning\\u000a how to use and interpret this

Anja Walter-Kroker; Axel Kroker; Muriel Mattiucci-Guehlke; Thomas Glaab

2011-01-01

384

A Quantitative Analysis and Natural History of B. F. Skinner's Coauthoring Practices  

PubMed Central

This paper describes and analyzes B. F. Skinner's coauthoring practices. After identifying his 35 coauthored publications and 27 coauthors, we analyze his coauthored works by their form (e.g., journal articles) and kind (e.g., empirical); identify the journals in which he published and their type (e.g., data-type); describe his overall and local rates of publishing with his coauthors (e.g., noting breaks in the latter); and compare his coauthoring practices with his single-authoring practices (e.g., form, kind, journal type) and with those in the scientometric literature (e.g., majority of coauthored publications are empirical). We address these findings in the context of describing the natural history of Skinner's coauthoring practices. Finally, we describe some limitations in our methods and offer suggestions for future research.

McKerchar, Todd L; Morris, Edward K; Smith, Nathaniel G

2011-01-01

385

Exploratory comparative study of four job analysis methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four job analysis methods––job elements, critical incidents, the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ), and task analysis––were empirically compared to assess their utility for personnel selection. Four job classifications were analyzed with each of the job analysis methods, yielding 16 separate reports. 64 government personnel selection specialists were assigned to each of the cells in the 4 by 4 design. Each S

Edward L. Levine; Ronald A. Ash; Nell Bennett

1980-01-01

386

Nonlinear multivariate and time series analysis by neural network methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods in multivariate statistical analysis are essential for working with large amounts of geophysical data, data from observational arrays, from satellites, or from numerical model output. In classical multivariate statistical analysis, there is a hierarchy of methods, starting with linear regression at the base, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) and finally canonical correlation analysis (CCA). A multivariate time series

William W. Hsieh

2004-01-01

387

Reforming High School Science for Low-Performing Students Using Inquiry Methods and Communities of Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some schools fall short of the high demand to increase science scores on state exams because low-performing students enter high school unprepared for high school science. Low-performing students are not successful in high school for many reasons. However, using inquiry methods have improved students' understanding of science concepts. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to investigate the teachers' lived experiences with using inquiry methods to motivate low-performing high school science students in an inquiry-based program called Xtreem Science. Fifteen teachers were selected from the Xtreem Science program, a program designed to assist teachers in motivating struggling science students. The research questions involved understanding (a) teachers' experiences in using inquiry methods, (b) challenges teachers face in using inquiry methods, and (c) how teachers describe student's response to inquiry methods. Strategy of data collection and analysis included capturing and understanding the teachers' feelings, perceptions, and attitudes in their lived experience of teaching using inquiry method and their experience in motivating struggling students. Analysis of interview responses revealed teachers had some good experiences with inquiry and expressed that inquiry impacted their teaching style and approach to topics, and students felt that using inquiry methods impacted student learning for the better. Inquiry gave low-performing students opportunities to catch up and learn information that moved them to the next level of science courses. Implications for positive social change include providing teachers and school district leaders with information to help improve performance of the low performing science students.

Bolden, Marsha Gail

388

A practical approach for STEM image simulation based on the FFT multislice method.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that a high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) STEM technique gives an image resolving atomic columns. Due to the diffusion of this technique and an improvement of its resolution, a practical procedure for image simulation becomes important for a quantitative interpretation of the HAADF image. In this report a new practical scheme for a STEM image simulation is developed based on the FFT multislice algorithm. Here, a HAADF intensity due to thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) is calculated from the absorptive potential corresponding to high-angle TDS and the wave function equivalent to the propagating probe within the sample. Contrary to the commonly used Bloch wave method, a coherent bright-field intensity and a coherent HAADF intensity are also obtained straightforwardly. The HAADF image contrast calculated for GaAs is not simply proportional to Z2 as expected from the Rutherford scattering at high-angle, and the As/Ga contrast ratio depends on the specimen thickness. This suggests that the generation of the HAADF signal is appreciably affected by the coherent dynamical scattering. The developed procedure here will have a definitive advantage over the Bloch wave approach for simulating the HAADF images expected from a defect and interface or amorphous materials, and also the HAADF image obtained by using a Cs-corrected microscope. This is because the former requires a huge super cell, while the latter needs a large objective aperture including a large number of incident beam directions. PMID:11942640

Ishizuka, K

2001-02-01

389

Peering inside the Clock: Using Success Case Method to Determine How and Why Practice-Based Educational Interventions Succeed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: No educational method or combination of methods will facilitate implementation of clinical practice guidelines in all clinical contexts. To develop an empirical basis for aligning methods to contexts, we need to move beyond "Does it work?" to also ask "What works for whom and under what conditions?" This study employed Success Case…

Olson, Curtis A.; Shershneva, Marianna B.; Brownstein, Michelle Horowitz

2011-01-01

390

The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey: Multilevel survey methods and procedures?  

PubMed Central

The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey provides a comprehensive inquiry into the nature of programs and services provided to adult and juvenile offenders involved in the justice system in the United States. The multilevel survey design covers topics such as the mission and goals of correctional and treatment programs; organizational climate and culture for providing services; organizational capacity and needs; opinions of administrators and staff regarding rehabilitation, punishment, and services provided to offenders; treatment policies and procedures; and working relationships between correctional and other agencies. The methodology generates national estimates of the availability of programs and services for offenders. This article details the methodology and sampling frame for the NCJTP survey, response rates, and survey procedures. Prevalence estimates of juvenile and adult offenders under correctional control are provided with externally validated comparisons to illustrate the veracity of the methodology. Limitations of the survey methods are also discussed.

Taxman, Faye S.; Young, Douglas W.; Wiersema, Brian; Rhodes, Anne; Mitchell, Suzanne

2007-01-01

391

[Methods and applications of population viability analysis (PVA): a review].  

PubMed

With the accelerating human consumption of natural resources, the problems associated with endangered species caused by habitat loss and fragmentation have become greater and more urgent than ever. Conceptually associated with the theories of island biogeography, population viability analysis (PVA) has been one of the most important approaches in studying and protecting endangered species, and this methodology has occupied a central place in conservation biology and ecology in the past several decades. PVA has been widely used and proven effective in many cases, but its predictive ability and accuracy are still in question. Also, its application needs expand. To overcome some of the problems, we believe that PVA needs to incorporate some principles and methods from other fields, particularly landscape ecology and sustainability science. Integrating landscape pattern and socioeconomic factors into PVA will make the approach theoretically more comprehensive and practically more useful. Here, we reviewed the history, basic conception, research methods, and modeling applications and their accuracies of PVA, and proposed the perspective in this field. PMID:21548317

Tian, Yu; Wu, Jian-Guo; Kou, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Tian-Ming; Smith, Andrew T; Ge, Jian-Ping

2011-01-01

392

Breastfeeding Practices among the Old Order Mennonites in Ontario, Canada: A Multiple Methods Study.  

PubMed

Background: The Old Order Mennonites (OOM) of rural Ontario have a lifestyle that is very distinct from the rest of Canada. Breastfeeding practices among this community have not been described previously. Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at 2, 4, and 6 months; to compare the prevalence of EBF among OOM and Canadian women; to investigate factors associated with EBF at 6 months; and to gain qualitative insight into the breastfeeding practices of OOM women. Methods: Data on maternal characteristics, delivery factors, and infant feeding methods at birth and at 2, 4, and 6 months were obtained from medical records at the Elmira Medical Centre for all births to OOM women between January 2006 and December 2011. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 2 lactation consultants working at the Elmira Medical Centre. Results: Complete breastfeeding data were available for 195 of 225 OOM women (77.4%). The majority of OOM women initiated breastfeeding (87.9%); 81.4% continued to breastfeed exclusively at 2 months, 74.0% to 4 months, and 36.8% to 6 months. Women who had a homebirth (12.3%) had 2.6-fold higher odds of EBF at 6 months (odds ratio, 2.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-6.53) compared with women who delivered in a hospital. Cultural and religious influences and community support were suggested as reasons for the relatively high prevalence of EBF. Conclusion: Breastfeeding rates among OOM women are consistently higher in the first 6 months of life compared to the general Canadian population. Homebirth independently predicted increased odds of EBF at 6 months. PMID:23942391

Norris, Sarah; Collin, Simon M; Ingram, Jenny

2013-08-13

393

A new method for torsional critical speed calculation of practical industrial rotors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to calculating the torsional critical speed of rotors is presented. The governing equations for these speeds and the method of solutions differ from existing methods such as Holzer's, and the theory and numerical algorithm are straight forward, without any change in the field variables. The rotor studied has a distributed mass and rigid disks, and consists of many shaft segments of different diameters. The exact solution for undamped torsional motion of a uniform shaft segment is applied to a practical rotor-bearing system to generate the simultaneous governing equations for the torsional critical speeds. Within the framework of the theory, the set of governing equations is completely analytical and explicit, and it does not include any approximations, such as discretization of shaft mass and polynomial approximations. A computer program for the torsional critical speeds and the related mode shapes is developed by introducing a simple recurring numerical algorithm for a 3 by 4 submatrix in calculating the determinant generated by the simultaneous equations. The numerical algorithm essentially eliminates the necessity of constructing a huge matrix. The effectiveness of the new method is demonstrated in analyses of three rotors.

Jun, Oh-Sung; Kim, Paul Y.

1993-07-01

394

[Health risk from ionizing radiation and other harmful sources: assessment methods and practical application].  

PubMed

The modern health risk assessment (HRA) methodology allows the development of the general HRA method applicable to any harmful source (ionizing radiation, harmful chemicals, nanomaterials and others). Specific methods and their simplified versions are developed on the basis of the general method. The main items of this approach to developing HRA methodology (risk indices and calculation formulas, exposure-response dependences, single and extended exposure to a harmful source, risk competition, etc.) are shortly described. The most suitable risk index for elaborating health safety standards (HSSs) and risk comparison on the unique methodological basis in different areas of the human activity are proposed. The approach to the risk standardization (establishment of HSSs and other safety levels) is described. HSSs and other safety levels are sequentially established in this approach according to the scheme: united main universal HSSs --> main branch HSSs --> derivative (secondary) HSSs with practically suitable indices. This approach allows resolution of the actual problem of harmonizing HSSs in different areas of human activity as well as in different countries. The principal role of HRA results in the development and justification of HSSs is shown on the example of developing radiological HSSs. PMID:22568018

Demin, V F; Zakharchenko, I E

395

Economic Analysis Method for Short-Rotation Forestry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for economic analysis of short-rotation forestry is presented; a model that employs linear complementarity optimization is an important component of this method. Given data on biomass production costs and methods for short-rotation forestry, the ...

A. D. Vyas S. Y. Shen

1982-01-01

396

Economic Analysis of Alternative Milk Concentration Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rapidly increasing energy costs dictate a reappraisal of present methods of transporting fluid milk between surplus and deficit regions. Methods which permit transportation of a concentrated product which can be reconstituted to a whole fluid product near...

E. Jesse

1980-01-01

397

Practicing Participatory Teaching Methodology in Western China's Rural Areas: Classroom Teaching Observations and Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We adopted the method of classroom observation and carried out research on five elementary school teachers in western China's rural areas who have shown enormous transformation after receiving training on participatory teaching to investigate the strengths and weaknesses in teachers' practice of participatory teaching. Results indicate that (a)…

Zhao, Decheng; Zhu, Fujian; Liu, Jun

2008-01-01

398

An Analysis of Agricultural Mechanics Safety Practices in Agricultural Science Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North Dakota secondary agricultural mechanics instructors were surveyed regarding instructional methods and materials, safety practices, and equipment used in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. Usable responses were received from 69 of 89 instructors via self-administered mailed questionnaires. Findings were consistent with results of similar…

Swan, Michael K.

399

A Qualitative Analysis of an Advanced Practice Nurse-Directed Transitional Care Model Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe barriers and facilitators to implementing a transitional care intervention for cognitively impaired older adults and their caregivers lead by advanced practice nurses (APNs). Design and Methods: APNs implemented an evidence-based protocol to optimize transitions from hospital to home. An…

Bradway, Christine; Trotta, Rebecca; Bixby, M. Brian; McPartland, Ellen; Wollman, M. Catherine; Kapustka, Heidi; McCauley, Kathleen; Naylor, Mary D.

2012-01-01

400

Derivatography A complex method in thermal analysis.  

PubMed

This review gives a survey of the theoretical considerations which led to the introduction of derivative methods in thennoanalysis, and of the development of complex thennoanalytical methods. The paper introduces the method of derivatography and its development, and surveys the wide field of its application in chemistry, technology, physical chemistry and biology. PMID:18960022

Paulik, F; Paulik, J; Erdey, L

1966-10-01

401

Wave Group Analysis Based on Kimura's Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computer program KIMUR5 was developed to predict wave group run lengths based on Kimura's method. This method, which is based on an assumption of mutual correlation between successive waves, has been demonstrated to be superior to Goda's method. Wave ...

M. J. Briggs

1987-01-01

402

Methods for Mediation Analysis with Missing Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite wide applications of both mediation models and missing data techniques, formal discussion of mediation analysis with missing data is still rare. We introduce and compare four approaches to dealing with missing data in mediation analysis including list wise deletion, pairwise deletion, multiple imputation (MI), and a two-stage maximum…

Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Lijuan

2013-01-01

403

Quantitative basin analysis methods and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative basin analysis has become increasingly important in petroleum exploration. Chapter 1 presents a quantitative basin analysis study from the Georges Bank Basin, East Coast of the USA. By applying a one-dimensional fluid flow\\/compaction model to the well data of the basin, the author obtains a quantitative understanding of the basin's geohistory, geothermal history, and hydrocarbon generation history so that

Jianchang

1990-01-01

404

Methods for Mediation Analysis with Missing Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite wide applications of both mediation models and missing data techniques, formal discussion of mediation analysis with missing data is still rare. We introduce and compare four approaches to dealing with missing data in mediation analysis including list wise deletion, pairwise deletion, multiple imputation (MI), and a two-stage maximum…

Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Lijuan

2013-01-01

405

Nursing Students' Learning in Clinical Nursing Practice at Intensive Care Unit - Through Analysis of Nursing Students' Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to clarify the learning of the nursing students and to examine the educational methods of the clinical nursing practice in incorporating the critical care nursing, by analyzing practical training records written by 48 nursing students who had experienced nursing practical training at the intensive care unit. Extracted phrases and contents from these records, summing

Miyako Oike; Norie Suetsugu

406

Principal component analysis: a method for determining the essential dynamics of proteins.  

PubMed

It has become commonplace to employ principal component analysis to reveal the most important motions in proteins. This method is more commonly known by its acronym, PCA. While most popular molecular dynamics packages inevitably provide PCA tools to analyze protein trajectories, researchers often make inferences of their results without having insight into how to make interpretations, and they are often unaware of limitations and generalizations of such analysis. Here we review best practices for applying standard PCA, describe useful variants, discuss why one may wish to make comparison studies, and describe a set of metrics that make comparisons possible. In practice, one will be forced to make inferences about the essential dynamics of a protein without having the desired amount of samples. Therefore, considerable time is spent on describing how to judge the significance of results, highlighting pitfalls. The topic of PCA is reviewed from the perspective of many practical considerations, and useful recipes are provided. PMID:24061923

David, Charles C; Jacobs, Donald J

2014-01-01

407

RAPID ON-SITE METHODS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The analysis of potentially hazardous air, water and soil samples collected and shipped to service laboratories off-site is time consuming and expensive. This Chapter addresses the practical alternative of performing the requisite analytical services on-site. The most significant...

408

Statistical adjustments for brain size in volumetric neuroimaging studies: Some practical implications in methods  

PubMed Central

Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain data provide a valuable tool for detecting structural differences associated with various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Analysis of such data, however, is not always straightforward, and complications can arise when trying to determine which brain structures are “smaller” or “larger” in light of the high degree of individual variability across the population. Several statistical methods for adjusting for individual differences in overall cranial or brain size have been used in the literature, but critical differences exist between them. Using agreement among those methods as an indication of stronger support of a hypothesis is dangerous given that each requires a different set of assumptions be met. Here we examine the theoretical underpinnings of three of these adjustment methods (proportion, residual, and analysis of covariance) and apply them to a volumetric MRI data set. These three methods used for adjusting for brain size are specific cases of a generalized approach which we propose as a recommended modeling strategy. We assess the level of agreement among methods and provide graphical tools to assist researchers in determining how they differ in the types of relationships they can unmask, and provide a useful method by which researchers may tease out important relationships in volumetric MRI data. We conclude with the recommended procedure involving the use of graphical analyses to help uncover potential relationships the ROI volumes may have with head size and give a generalized modeling strategy by which researchers can make such adjustments that include as special cases the three commonly employed methods mentioned above.

O'Brien, Liam M.; Ziegler, David A.; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Frazier, Jean A.; Herbert, Martha R.; Locascio, Joseph J.

2012-01-01

409

Who's in and why? A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management.  

PubMed

Stakeholder analysis means many things to different people. Various methods and approaches have been developed in different fields for different purposes, leading to confusion over the concept and practice of stakeholder analysis. This paper asks how and why stakeholder analysis should be conducted for participatory natural resource management research. This is achieved by reviewing the development of stakeholder analysis in business management, development and natural resource management. The normative and instrumental theoretical basis for stakeholder analysis is discussed, and a stakeholder analysis typology is proposed. This consists of methods for: i) identifying stakeholders; ii) differentiating between and categorising stakeholders; and iii) investigating relationships between stakeholders. The range of methods that can be used to carry out each type of analysis is reviewed. These methods and approaches are then illustrated through a series of case studies funded through the Rural Economy and Land Use (RELU) programme. These case studies show the wide range of participatory and non-participatory methods that can be used, and discuss some of the challenges and limitations of existing methods for stakeholder analysis. The case studies also propose new tools and combinations of methods that can more effectively identify and categorise stakeholders and help understand their inter-relationships. PMID:19231064

Reed, Mark S; Graves, Anil; Dandy, Norman; Posthumus, Helena; Hubacek, Klaus; Morris, Joe; Prell, Christina; Quinn, Claire H; Stringer, Lindsay C

2009-02-20

410

State Variable Method of Fault Tree Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current technique of Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) generally employs computer codes that calculate the minimal cut sets of the Boolean function, where each cut set comprises basic initiator events (roots) whose intersection implies the occurrence of a TOP...

R. J. Bartholomew H. K. Knudsen G. A. Whan

1984-01-01

411

Practical methods for using vegetation patterns to estimate avalanche frequency and magnitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practitioners working in avalanche terrain may never witness an extreme event, but understanding extreme events is important for categorizing avalanches that occur within a given season. Historical records of avalanche incidents and direct observations are the most reliable evidence of avalanche activity, but patterns in vegetation can be used to further quantify and map the frequency and magnitude of past events. We surveyed published literature to synthesize approaches for using vegetation sampling to characterize avalanche terrain, and developed examples to identify the benefits and caveats of using different practical field methods to estimate avalanche frequency and magnitude. Powerful avalanches can deposit massive piles of snow, rocks, and woody debris in runout zones. Large avalanches (relative to the path) can cut fresh trimlines, widening their tracks by uprooting, stripping, and breaking trees. Discs and cores can be collected from downed trees to detect signals of past avalanche disturbance recorded in woody plant tissue. Signals of disturbance events recorded in tree rings can include direct impact scars from the moving snow and wind blast, development of reaction wood in response to tilting, and abrupt variation in the relative width of annual growth rings. The relative ages of trees in avalanche paths and the surrounding landscape can be an indicator of the area impacted by past avalanches. Repeat photography can also be useful to track changes in vegetation over time. For Colorado, and perhaps elsewhere, several vegetation ecology methods can be used in combination to accurately characterize local avalanche frequency and magnitude.

Simonson, S.; Fassnacht, S. R.

2011-12-01

412

Alternatives to vaginal intercourse practiced during the fertile time among calendar method users in Ireland.  

PubMed

A pilot study was conducted in Ireland to test the effectiveness of the calendar method of contraception. A conservative rule was used, requiring on average 16 days of abstinence per cycle. Among the 19 couples who entered into the study and were followed for up to seven cycles, there were no pregnancies. Since the length of abstinence was relatively long, we collected data to determine how couples expressed love and affection towards each other during those days when the woman was potentially fertile. We also collected data about barrier method use during the fertile time. We found that almost all couples gave each other hugs and kisses to show affection although couples were taught to abstain from vaginal intercourse during the fertile time. About one-third of the couples avoided genital contact, while about half reported using oral sex and/or frottage (body rubbing). Twice as many men reported using masturbation compared to women, although about half of the couples practiced mutual (partner) masturbation. In addition, about one-fifth of the couples used condoms during the fertile time in some cycles. These findings show that a variety of sexual expressions are used by couples when vaginal intercourse is to be avoided. Knowledge about these alternative sexual expressions may be important for couples who wish to engage in sexual activity and to avoid pregnancy. PMID:9288335

Bonnar, J; Lamprecht, V; O'Conner, E

413

COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PANEL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Three different methods of analysis of panels were compared using asthma panel data from a 1970-1971 study done by EPA in Riverhead, New York. The methods were (1) regression analysis using raw attack rates; (2) regression analysis using the ratio of observed attacks to expected ...

414

Multivariate analysis of management and biosecurity practices in smallholder pig farms in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2005 and 2006 in three geographical areas of Madagascar to investigate and differentiate swine farm management and biosecurity practices in smallholder farming communities. Questionnaire data from a total of 709 pig farms were analysed using multiple factor analysis (MFA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Variables describing management and biosecurity practices were organised into five groups: structure of the farm, animal-contacts, person- and vehicle-contacts, feeding, and sanitary aspects. In general, few biosecurity measures were implemented in the pig farms included in the study. Regional differences in management and biosecurity practices emerged from the MFA and were mainly due to, in order of decreasing importance: structure of the farm, sanitary aspects, feeding and animal-contacts and, to a lesser extent, person- and vehicle-contacts. HCA resulted in the differentiation of four distinct types of farms in each of two study areas, Arivonimamo and Marovoay, while no grouping could be identified amongst farms in Ambatondrazaka area. The characterisation of the different types of smallholder pig farms will allow adapting recommendations on husbandry practices and control measures in pig farms of these regions of Madagascar. The development of tailored recommendations is essential for Malagasy smallholders who have limited resources and need to make evidence-based management changes to reduce the risk of contagious diseases in their herds.

Costard, S.; Porphyre, V.; Messad, S.; Rakotondrahanta, S.; Vidon, H.; Roger, F.; Pfeiffer, D.U.

2009-01-01

415

Analysis of microstrip antennas using moment methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of moments is used to analyze microstrip antennas of rectangular and nonrectangular shape. Surface currents are used to model the microstrip patch and volume polarization currents for the dielectric slab. The method requires unusually precise computation of the impedance matrix but is capable of accurately predicting currents, impedance, and resonant frequency of the antenna.

E. H. Newman; P. Tulyathan

1981-01-01

416

Improved method for arc flash hazard analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional arc flash hazard calculators use simple formulae to calculate the flash protection boundary and the incident energy density, but these methods do not represent the effects of the power supply system correctly. A new method is described which models the transient response of a 3-phase power system and its interaction with an arcing fault. The operation of current-limiting fuses

R. Wilkins; M. Allison; M. Lang

2004-01-01

417

Stability Analysis for the Immersed Boundary Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we analyse the stablity of the Immersed Boundary Method applied to a membrane-fluid system with a plasma membrane immersed in an incompressible viscous fluid. For small deformations, the immersed boundary method, using a standard regularization technique for the singular force, is shown to be linearly stable.

Gong, Z. X.; Huang, H. X.; Lu, C. J.

418

METHODS FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF BREATH  

EPA Science Inventory

The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures used to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human breath. Methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well as cost, accuracy, and precision. During the evaluation, a secon...

419

Basic Methods for Sensitivity Analysis of Biases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of systematic errors and biases, quantitative methods that take account of these biases have seen much less development than methods for addressing random error. There are at least two reasons for this. First, until recently, randomized experiments supplied most of the impetus for statistical develop- ments. These experiments were concentrated in agri- culture, manufacturing, and clinical medicine,

SANDER GREENLAND

1996-01-01

420

Linear trend analysis: a comparison of methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an overview of statistical approaches available for detecting and estimating linear trends in environmental data. We evaluate seven methods of trend detection and make recommendations based on a simulation study. We also illustrate the methods using real data.

Ann Hess; Hari Iyer; William Malm

2001-01-01

421

Awareness and practice of family Planning methods in women attending Gyne OPD at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross sectional descriptive study of awareness and practice of family planning methods among 200 women of reproductive age attending gynecology out patient department (GOPD) of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from 14 th May 2008 to 14 th July, 2008 was carried out. Most of the respondents (93.0%) were aware of at least one of family planning methods out

H Tuladhar

422

A distance education case study: A comparison of instructional delivery methods practiced by higher education faculty and emerging standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to compare the delivery methods as practiced by higher education faculty teaching distance courses with recommended or emerging standard instructional delivery methods for distance education. Previous research shows that traditional-type instructional strategies have been used in distance education and that there has been no training to distance teach. Secondary data, however, appear to suggest

Carmeta Agatha Edwards Tate-Blake

1998-01-01

423

RE-WORD CALI: A Method for Practicing Reading Skills with the Aid of a Word Processor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how to use RE-WORD, a method for practicing reading skills with a word processor, and outlines kinds of assignments and examples of tasks. Advantages and disadvantages of the method and student attitudes toward it are discussed. (Author/LMO)|

Schcolnik, Miriam

1987-01-01

424

Enriching Careers and Lives: Introducing a Positive, Holistic, and Narrative Career Counseling Method that Bridges Theory and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|CareerCycles (CC) career counseling framework and method of practice integrates and builds on aspects of positive psychology. Through its holistic and narrative approach, the CC method seeks to collaboratively identify and understand clients' career and life stories. It focuses on their strengths, desires, preferences, assets, future…

Zikic, Jelena; Franklin, Mark

2010-01-01

425

Applying the 5-Step Method to Children and Affected Family Members: Opportunities and Challenges within Policy and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main aim of this article is to consider how the 5-Step Method could be developed to meet the needs of affected family members (AFMs) with children under the age of 18. This would be an entirely new development. This article examines opportunities and challenges within practice and policy and makes suggestions on how the Method could be taken…

Harwin, Judith

2010-01-01

426

Two Different Methods of Assessing Practical Skills at an Advanced Level Examination in Biology: demonstration of construct validity or the appraisal of non?events?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different methods of assessing practical skills in an A?level biology examination were scrutinised for construct validity by correlational and factor analytical examination of the relationships of their scores with those on theory papers. Some evidence was found that teacher assessment of practical skills resulted in greater construct validity than did the terminal practical examination. However both practical procedures showed

C. R. Brown; D. J. Pacini; D. J. Taylor

1992-01-01

427

Post explosion analysis of explosives by mass spectrometric methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Analysis of trace amounts of explosives from post-explosion debris–one of the most difficult problems in forensic chemistry-is still carried out in many laboratories by chromatographic methods only. In recent years several new methods have been applied to the analysis of explosives. These include mass spectrometric methods (GC\\/MS, LC\\/MS and MS\\/MS) and NMR methods. The possible application of these methods

Shmuel Zitrin

1986-01-01

428

Meshfree analysis of softening elastoplastic solids using variational multiscale method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meshfree multiscale method is presented for efficient analysis of elastoplastic solids. In the analysis of softening elastoplastic solids, standard finite element methods or meshfree methods typically yield mesh-dependent results. The reason for this well-known effect is the loss of ellipticity of the boundary value problem. In this work, the scale decomposition is carried out based on a variational form

Jeoung-Heum Yeon; Sung-Kie Youn

2005-01-01

429

A Structural Nonlinear Analysis Workspace (SNAW) based on meshless methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a Structural Nonlinear Analysis Workspace (SNAW) based on meshless methods is presented. Using the meshless methods in SNAW, the modeling of structures for nonlinear analysis is accomplished by a set of particles, and the use of an explicit structured mesh as in the conventional finite element methods is unnecessary. Due to the use of smooth shape functions

Edwin Hardee; Kuang-Hua Chang; Sangpil Yoon; Michimaro Kaneko; Iulian Grindeanu; Jiun-Shyan Chen

1999-01-01

430

Computational methods for creep fracture analysis by damage mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some mechanical problems of the computational method of creep fracture analysis based on continuum damage mechanics are discussed. After brief review of the local approach to creep crack growth analysis by means of finite element analysis and continuum damage mechanics, intrinsic feature of the fracture analysis in the framework of continuum theory and the causes of mesh-dependence of the numerical

S. Murakami; Y. Liu; M. Mizuno

2000-01-01

431

Evaluating the green advertising practices of international firms: a trend analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Consumer scepticism about the credibility of green advertising around the world is growing. The article aims to provide a comprehensive assessment and trend analysis of green advertising practices of international firms over a 20-year period. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study identifies 473 international green advertisements during the 1988-2007 period and content-analyses them on five major axes: advertiser profile, targeting

Leonidas C. Leonidou; Constantinos N. Leonidou; Dayananda Palihawadana; Magnus Hultman

2011-01-01

432

Current practices in cancer spatial data analysis: a call for guidance  

PubMed Central

There has long been a recognition that place matters in health, from recognition of clusters of yellow fever and cholera in the 1800s to modern day analyses of regional and neighborhood effects on cancer patterns. Here we provide a summary of discussions about current practices in the spatial analysis of georeferenced cancer data by a panel of experts recently convened at the National Cancer Institute.

Pickle, Linda Williams; Waller, Lance A; Lawson, Andrew B

2005-01-01

433

Vitamin D Status of Clinical Practice Populations at Higher Latitudes: Analysis and Applications  

PubMed Central

Background: Inadequate levels of vitamin D (VTD) throughout the life cycle from the fetal stage to adulthood have been correlated with elevated risk for assorted health afflictions. The purpose of this study was to ascertain VTD status and associated determinants in three clinical practice populations living in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada - a locale with latitude of 53°30’N, where sun exposure from October through March is often inadequate to generate sufficient vitamin D. Methods: To determine VTD status, 1,433 patients from three independent medical offices in Edmonton had levels drawn for 25(OH)D as part of their medical assessment between Jun 2001 and Mar 2007. The relationship between demographic data and lifestyle parameters with VTD status was explored. 25(OH)D levels were categorized as follows: (1) Deficient: <40 nmol/L; (2) Insufficient (moderate to mild): 40 to <80 nmol/L; and (3) Adequate: 80–250 nmol/L. Any cases <25 nmol/L were subcategorized as severely deficient for purposes of further analysis. Results: 240 (16.75% of the total sample) of 1,433 patients were found to be VTD ‘deficient’ of which 48 (3.35% of the overall sample) had levels consistent with severe deficiency. 738 (51.5% of the overall sample) had ‘insufficiency’ (moderate to mild) while only 31.75% had ‘adequate’ 25(OH)D levels. The overall mean for 25(OH) D was 68.3 with SD=28.95. VTD status was significantly linked with demographic and lifestyle parameters including skin tone, fish consumption, milk intake, sun exposure, tanning bed use and nutritional supplementation. Conclusion: A high prevalence of hypovitaminosis-D was found in three clinical practice populations living in Edmonton. In view of the potential health sequelae associated with widespread VTD inadequacy, strategies to facilitate translation of emerging epidemiological information into clinical intervention need to be considered in order to address this public health issue. A suggested VTD supplemental intake level is presented for consideration.

Genuis, Stephen J.; Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.; Hiltz, Michelle N.; Vaselenak, Sharon A.

2009-01-01

434

A Practical Security Risk Analysis Process and Tool for Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

While conventional business administration-based information technology management methods are applied to the risk analysis of information systems, no security risk analysis techniques have been used in relation to information protection. In particular, given the rapid diffusion of information systems and the demand for information protection, it is vital to develop security risk analysis techniques. Therefore, this paper will suggest an

Yoonjung Chung; Injung Kim; Dohoon Lee

2006-01-01

435

Analysis and Visualization Methods Using Manometry Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system and methods that provide for visualization and/or characterization of manometry data. Visual representations of pressure information represent pressure information measured over time by sensors positioned within an organism. Markers may be provid...

T. R. Parks

2005-01-01

436

Variational Methods for Analysis of Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a summary of research conducted in the application of variational methods in elastic stability. Particular attention is given to the nonexistence of adjacent equilibrium positions at bifurcation points. Resolution of this concept was a...

A. D. Kerr

1973-01-01

437

Data and statistical methods for analysis of trends and patterns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes topics considered at a working meeting on data and statistical methods for analysis of trends and patterns in US commercial nuclear power plants. This meeting was sponsored by the Office of Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Dat...

C. L. Atwood C. D. Gentillon G. E. Wilson

1992-01-01

438

Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn,...

S. M. Vaz

1995-01-01

439

Empirical methods in the analysis of collusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression methods are commonly used in competition lawsuits for, e.g., determining overcharges in price-fixing cases. Technical\\u000a evaluations of these methods’ pros and cons are not necessarily intuitive. Appraisals that are based on case studies are descriptive\\u000a but need not be universally valid. This paper opens up the black box called econometrics for competition cases. This is done\\u000a by complementing theoretical

Johannes Paha

2011-01-01

440

Waveform Moment Methods for Improved Interconnection Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a circuit analysis program aimed at quickly solving linear interconnection circuits with inductance and coupling. It computes circuit responses to varying degrees of detail, varying from a simple Elmore delay to a good waveform estimate. Allowable circuit forms are much more flexible than for existing Elmore delay algorithms. Large networks or distributed lines can be reduced to

Steven Paul Mccormick; Jonathan Allen

1990-01-01

441

Modeling organizational goals: analysis of current methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational change, whether it involves the development of a computerized system or the re-engineering of business processes, is a purposive activity driven by the goals of the involved stakeholders. Its effectiveness depends on being able to make good decisions about what goals to pursue and on selecting the appropriate strategies for achieving the desired goals.This paper presents an analysis of

Evangelia Kavakli

2004-01-01

442

COAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS: METHODS AND MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides information on coal sampling and analysis (CSD) techniques and procedures and presents a statistical model for estimating SO2 emissions. (New Source Performance Standards for large coal-fired boilers and certain State Implementation Plans require operators to ...

443

Image Analysis Using Multigrid Relaxation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image analysis problems, posed mathematically as variational principles or as partial differential equations, are amenable to numerical solution by relaxation algorithms that are local, iterative, and often parallel. Although they are well suited structurally for implementation on massively parallel, locally interconnected computational architectures, such distributed algorithms are seriously handi capped by an inherent inefficiency at propagating constraints between widely separated

Demetri Terzopoulos

1986-01-01

444

[Information method of EEG analysis in anesthesiology].  

PubMed

An information concept of nociceptive impulses is proposed. The device for quantitative analysis of information coming to CNS has been constructed and approved. It is demonstrated that monitoring of informative loading of EEG may be used for evaluation of anesthesia adequacy. Level of this index from 40 to 50% corresponds to effective protection. PMID:12698660

Likhvantsev, V V; Subbotin, V V; Petrov, O V; Sitnikov, A V; Kazanikova, A N; Zhuravel', S V

2003-01-01

445

Overview: Navigation Systems Analysis Methods and Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose this paper is to provide an overview of the inland navigation systems analysis procedures which are being used in the Ohio River Division (ORD). The responsibility for system studies in ORD has been assigned to newly formed navigation planning...

R. Keeney

1982-01-01

446

Analysis Residual Constraint by Eddy Current Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control by eddy current is one of techniques that's very used in nondestructive evaluation of materials .These processes find an application significa nt in the determination of the mechanical and metallurgical parameters of materials. T he object of this work is to carry out an analysis of the residual stresses in the material created by external solicitations and analysed by

M. Zergoug; G. Oussaid; S. Makhlouf

447

Quantitative methods for ecological network analysi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of networks of ecological trophic transfers is a useful complement to simulation modeling in the quest for understanding whole-ecosystem dynamics. Trophic networks can be studied in quantitative and systematic fashion at several levels. Indirect relationships between any two individual taxa in an ecosystem, which often differ in either nature or magnitude from their direct influences, can be assayed

Robert E. Ulanowicz

2004-01-01

448

Analysis of Two Methods to Evaluate Antioxidants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This exercise is intended to introduce undergraduate biochemistry students to the analysis of antioxidants as a biotechnological tool. In addition, some statistical resources will also be used and discussed. Antioxidants play an important metabolic role, preventing oxidative stress-mediated cell and tissue injury. Knowing the antioxidant content…

Tomasina, Florencia; Carabio, Claudio; Celano, Laura; Thomson, Leonor

2012-01-01

449

Decomposition Methods for Fault Tree Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some kinds of fault tree analysis are described for which cut set enumeration is inadequate. Modularization leads to more efficient computer programs, and also identifies subsystems which are intuitively meaningful. The problem of finding all modules of a fault tree is formulated as as extension of the problem of finding all ``cut-points'' of an undirected graph. The major result is

Arnon Rosenthal

1980-01-01

450

Environmental Impact Analysis: Philosophy and Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proceedings of the Conference on Environmental Impact Analysis held in Green Bay, Wisconsin, January 4-5, 1972, are compiled in this report. The conference served as a forum for exchange of information among State and Federal agencies and educators on experiences with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. Hopefully, results of the…

Ditton, Robert B.; Goodale, Thomas L.

451

Time Series Analysis by State Space Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing analyses from both classical and Bayesian perspectives, this book presents a comprehensive treatment of the state space approach to time series analysis. The distinguishing feature of state space time models is that observations are regarded as made up of distinct components such as trend, seasonal, regression elements and disturbance terms, each of which is modelled separately. The techniques that

James Durbin; Siem Jan Koopman

2001-01-01

452

Evaluation Theory Perspective of the Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method (ATAM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evaluation is a key analytical process in all disciplines and intellectual and practical endeavors. Also it is a key process in the software engineering field in which it is possible to apply different types of evaluation methods. The study of diverse eva...

M. Lopez

2000-01-01

453

Portfolio-Analysis Methods for Assessing Capability Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research reported in this monograph is part of RAND's continuing work on practical theory and methods for capabilities-based planning in the Department of Defense (DoD) and other organizations. Its particular contribution is to describe and illustrate...

J. Beck P. K. Davis R. D. Shaver

2008-01-01

454

Comparison of practical vertical ground heat exchanger sizing methods to a Fort Polk data/model benchmark  

SciTech Connect

The results of five practical vertical ground heat exchanger sizing programs are compared against a detailed simulation model that has been calibrated to monitored data taken from one military family housing unit at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The calibration of the detailed model to data is described in a companion paper. The assertion that the data/detailed model is a useful benchmark for practical sizing methods is based on this calibration. The results from the comparisons demonstrate the current level of agreement between vertical ground heat exchanger sizing methods in common use. It is recommended that the calibration and comparison exercise be repeated with data sets from additional sites in order to build confidence in the practical sizing methods.

Thornton, J.W.; McDowell, T.P.; Hughes, P.J.

1997-09-01

455

A practical method to fabricate gold substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We describe a practical method of fabricating surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates based on dip-coating poly-L-lysine derivatized microscope slides in a gold colloidal suspension. The use of only commercially available starting materials in this preparation is particularly advantageous, aimed at both reducing time and the inconsistency associated with surface modification of substrates. The success of colloid deposition has been demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the corresponding SERS response (giving performance comparable to the corresponding traditional colloidal SERS substrates). Reproducibility was evaluated by conducting replicate measurements across six different locations on the substrate and assessing the extent of the variability (standard deviation values of spectral parameters: peak width and height), in response to either Rhodamine 6G or Isoniazid. Of particular interest is the observation of how some peaks in a given spectrum are more susceptible to data variability than others. For example, in a Rhodamine 6G SERS spectrum, spectral parameters of the peak at 775 cm(-1) were shown to have a relative standard deviation (RSD) % of <10%, while the peak at 1573 cm(-1) has a RSD of >or=10%. This observation is best explained by taking into account spectral variations that arise from the effect of a chemisorption process and the local nature of chemical enhancement mechanisms, which affects the enhancement of some spectral peaks but not others (analogous to resonant Raman phenomenon). PMID:18801238

Tantra, Ratna; Brown, Richard J C; Milton, Martin J T; Gohil, Dipak

2008-09-01

456

A practical method of measuring the human ?temporal contrast sensitivity function  

PubMed Central

One of the more significant indicators of neural age-related loss and disease is reduced temporal processing speed. It would, therefore, be useful to have an accurate and practical device that measures the full range of an individual's temporal processing abilities (characterized as the temporal contrast sensitivity function, TCSF). 70 subjects (15-84 yrs) were tested. A small tabletop device utilizing electronic control of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was constructed that delivered a 1-degree, 660 nm test (the modulation depth of which could be adjusted directly by the subject) centered within a 10-degree 660 nm surround. The method provided a TCSF that had a shape consistent with past studies (peaking around 8 Hz). Also consistent with past work, the largest age-decline was found at the highest frequencies and for the central fovea (r = 0.47, p<0.0001, ~2 Hz per decade). Psychophysical assessment of temporal vision offers an easy and dynamic measure of central visual function.

Wooten, Billy R.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Moore, Robert; Hammond, Billy R.

2010-01-01

457

A Mixed Methods Study of Culturally Proficient Practices in an Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problem addressed in this study was that leaders at an urban elementary school had not examined the implementation of culturally proficient practices, nor the challenges, barriers, or support needed for implementation. The purpose of the study was to inform instructional and leadership practices involving culturally proficient instruction.…

Simone, Pamela S.

2012-01-01

458

Interprofessional collaborative practice within cancer teams: Translating evidence into action. A mixed methods study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A regional integrated cancer network has implemented a program (educational workshops, reflective and mentoring activities) designed to support the uptake of evidence-informed interprofessional collaborative practices (referred to in this text as EIPCP) within cancer teams. This research project, which relates to the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario (RNAO) Best Practice Guidelines and other sources of research evidence, represents a

Dominique Tremblay; Danielle Drouin; Ariella Lang; Danièle Roberge; Judith Ritchie; Anne Plante

2010-01-01

459

A Mixed Methods Study of Culturally Proficient Practices in an Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem addressed in this study was that leaders at an urban elementary school had not examined the implementation of culturally proficient practices, nor the challenges, barriers, or support needed for implementation. The purpose of the study was to inform instructional and leadership practices involving culturally proficient instruction.…

Simone, Pamela S.

2012-01-01

460

Recruitment methods in Alzheimer's disease research: general practice versus population based screening by mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Alzheimer's disease (AD) research patients are usually recruited from clinical practice, memory clinics or nursing homes. Lack of standardised inclusion and diagnostic criteria is a major concern in current AD studies. The aim of the study was to explore whether patient characteristics differ between study samples recruited from general practice and from a population based screening by mail

Fred Andersen; Torgeir A Engstad; Bjørn Straume; Matti Viitanen; Dag S. Halvorsen; Samuel Hykkerud; Kjell Sjøbrend

2010-01-01

461

Methods for Evidence-Based Practice: Quantitative Synthesis of Single-Subject Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Good quantitative evidence does not require large, aggregate group designs. The authors describe ground-breaking work in managing the conceptual and practical demands in developing meta-analytic strategies for single subject designs in an effort to add to evidence-based practice. (Contains 2 figures.)|

Shadish, William R.; Rindskopf, David M.

2007-01-01

462

Automatic Selection of Data Analysis Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Modern business face the challenge of to make use of one of there most valuable assets – data about their customers and processes\\u000a – in real time in order to stay ahead of global competition. In order to achieve real time business intelligence it is necessary\\u000a to automate data analysis to address the lack of available experts, empower business users

Detlef D. Nauck; Martin Spott; Behnam Azvine

2005-01-01

463

Solution of Elastic-Plastic Stress Analysis Problems by the p-Version of the Finite Element Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solution of small strain elastic-plastic stress analysis problems by the p-version of the finite element method is discussed. The formulation is based on the deformation theory of plasticity and the displacement method. Practical realization of contro...

B. A. Szabo R. L. Actis S. M. Holzer

1993-01-01

464

SDAR: a practical tool for graphical analysis of two-dimensional data  

PubMed Central

Background Two-dimensional data needs to be processed and analysed in almost any experimental laboratory. Some tasks in this context may be performed with generic software such as spreadsheet programs which are available ubiquitously, others may require more specialised software that requires paid licences. Additionally, more complex software packages typically require more time by the individual user to understand and operate. Practical and convenient graphical data analysis software in Java with a user-friendly interface are rare. Results We have developed SDAR, a Java application to analyse two-dimensional data with an intuitive graphical user interface. A smart ASCII parser allows import of data into SDAR without particular format requirements. The centre piece of SDAR is the Java class GraphPanel which provides methods for generic tasks of data visualisation. Data can be manipulated and analysed with respect to the most common operations experienced in an experimental biochemical laboratory. Images of the data plots can be generated in SVG-, TIFF- or PNG-format. Data exported by SDAR is annotated with commands compatible with the Grace software. Conclusion Since SDAR is implemented in Java, it is truly cross-platform compatible. The software is easy to install, and very convenient to use judging by experience in our own laboratories. It is freely available to academic users at http://www.structuralchemistry.org/pcsb/. To download SDAR, users will be asked for their name, institution and email address. A manual, as well as the source code of the GraphPanel class can also be downloaded from this site.

2012-01-01

465

Sharps-handling practices among junior surgical residents: a video analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Although “universal precautions” are standard for sharps handling, there has been poor compliance among surgeons. We used video analysis to assess sharps handling practices among junior surgical residents. Methods Postgraduate year (PGY)-2 general surgery and PGY-1 plastic surgery residents were videotaped performing pediatric inguinal hernia repairs. For each procedure, the resident was the principal operator, with the attending surgeon assisting. Retrospective assessment of safe and unsafe sharps handling was determined based on published guidelines. We assessed safety performance in personal sharps tasks, passage of sharps and verbal notification regarding sharps. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results Data were collected from 18 residents’ videos (4 plastic surgery, 14 general surgery). Residents safely performed sharps tasks, passed and verbally notified about sharps an average of 69.2%, 93.2% and 9.9% of the time, respectively. Suture needle manipulation was handled safely 56.2% of the time (mean 4.4 safe v. 4.3 unsafe actions). Surgical residents demonstrated a safe suture tying technique in 91.8% of cases, proper tissue retraction in 85.2% and safe handling of injection needles in 72.2% of cases. When assessing the safety performance of the surgical team, attending surgeons acting as surgical assistants safely passed sharps 80.0% of the time, while scrub nurses demonstrated safe passing at all times. Attending surgeons used verbal notification when passing sharps 22.7% of the time, while scrub nurses verbally notified the team 4.3% of the time. Conclusion Junior surgical residents consistently passed sharps safely. Personal sharps tasks were less likely to be performed safely, and only a minority of residents verbally notified the team about sharps placement.

Tso, David; Langer, Monica; Blair, Geoff K.; Butterworth, Sonia

2012-01-01

466

Methods for sampling and inorganic analysis of coal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey for the sampling, comminution, and inorganic analysis of coal are summarized in this bulletin. Details, capabilities, and limitations of the methods are presented.

Edited by Golightly, D. W.; Simon, Frederick Otto.

1989-01-01

467

What "best practice" could be in Palliative Care: an analysis of statements on practice and ethics expressed by the main Health Organizations  

PubMed Central

Background In palliative care it would be necessary to refer to a model. Nevertheless it seems that there are no official statements which state and describe that model. We carried out an analysis of the statements on practice and ethics of palliative care expressed by the main health organizations to show which dimensions of end-of-life care are taken into consideration. Methods The official documents by the most representative health organisations committed to the definition of policies and guidelines for palliative and end-of-life care had been considered. The documents were analysed through a framework of the components of end-of-life care derived from literature, which was composed of 4 main "areas" and of 12 "sub-areas". Results Overall, 34 organizations were identified, 7 international organisations, and 27 organisations operating on the national level in four different countries (Australia, Canada, UK and United States). Up to 56 documents were selected and analysed. Most of them (38) are position statements. Relevant quotations from the documents were presented by "areas" and "sub-areas". In general, the "sub-areas" of symptoms control as well as those referring to relational and social issues are more widely covered by the documents than the "sub-areas" related to "preparation" and to "existential condition". Indeed, the consistency of end-of-life choices with the patient's wishes, as well as completion and meaningfulness at the end of life is given only a minor relevance. Conclusions An integrated model of the best palliative care practice is generally lacking in the documents. It might be argued that the lack of a fixed and coherent model is due to the relevance of unavoidable context issues in palliative care, such as specific cultural settings, patient-centred variables, and family specificity. The implication is that palliative care staff have continuously to adapt their model of caring to the specific needs and values of each patient, more than applying a fixed, although maybe comprehensive, care model.

2010-01-01

468

Practice-related changes in neural activation patterns investigated via wavelet-based clustering analysis.  

PubMed

Objectives: To evaluate brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and specifically, activation changes across time associated with practice-related cognitive control during eye movement tasks. Experimental design: Participants were engaged in antisaccade performance (generating a glance away from a cue) while fMR images were acquired during two separate test sessions: (1) at pre-test before any exposure to the task and (2) at post-test, after 1 week of daily practice on antisaccades, prosaccades (glancing toward a target), or fixation (maintaining gaze on a target). Principal observations: The three practice groups were compared across the two test sessions, and analyses were conducted via the application of a model-free clustering technique based on wavelet analysis. This series of procedures was developed to avoid analysis problems inherent in fMRI data and was composed of several steps: detrending, data aggregation, wavelet transform and thresholding, no trend test, principal component analysis (PCA), and K-means clustering. The main clustering algorithm was built in the wavelet domain to account for temporal correlation. We applied a no trend test based on wavelets to significantly reduce the high dimension of the data. We clustered the thresholded wavelet coefficients of the remaining voxels using PCA K-means clustering. Conclusion: Over the series of analyses, we found that the antisaccade practice group was the only group to show decreased activation from pre-test to post-test in saccadic circuitry, particularly evident in supplementary eye field, frontal eye fields, superior parietal lobe, and cuneus. Hum Brain Mapp 34:2276-2291, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22505290

Lee, Jinae; Park, Cheolwoo; Dyckman, Kara A; Lazar, Nicole A; Austin, Benjamin P; Li, Qingyang; McDowell, Jennifer E

2012-04-16

469

THE ANALYSIS FOR PLUTONIUM BY COUNTING METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LaFâ method for determining plutonium was investigated and ; found to give results below 95% of true value. The self-absorption of alphas in ; Pu sources containing U was measured as a function of U concentration. The ; absorption reaches 5% when the source contains 500 mu g of U. Hence for ; solutions of Pu and U better

A. M. Aikin; T. Bruce

1953-01-01

470

Alternative Ergonomic Job Analysis Methods for Manufacturing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study focused on the development and evaluation of new exposure assessment strategies for non-cyclic as and cyclic manufacturing jobs. New methods for the evaluation of ergonomic problems in special trades work and self-paced assembly work within a f...