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Sample records for practical ofdma system

  1. Self-Organizing OFDMA System for Broadband Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Aloke (Inventor); Anandappan, Thanga (Inventor); Malve, Sharath Babu (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for a self-organizing OFDMA system for broadband communication are provided. In certain embodiments a communication node for a self organizing network comprises a communication interface configured to transmit data to and receive data from a plurality of nodes; and a processing unit configured to execute computer readable instructions. Further, computer readable instructions direct the processing unit to identify a sub-region within a cell, wherein the communication node is located in the sub-region; and transmit at least one data frame, wherein the data from the communication node is transmitted at a particular time and frequency as defined within the at least one data frame, where the time and frequency are associated with the sub-region.

  2. Mutual Amplify-and-Forward Cooperation Using Modified STBC in OFDMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jae-Seon; Kim, Jee-Hoon; Song, Hyoung-Kyu

    Recently, the orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) based wireless communication system is usually used in interactive digital video broadcasting environments or the wireless metropolitan area network (WMAN). Therefore, the relative condition of the inter-user channel can be easily deteriorated. This letter proposes and evaluates the mutual amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperation between two users using modified space time block code (STBC) to provide the reliability for an OFDMA system with a single antenna in an inferior inter-user channel environment. As a result, an OFDMA system adopting the proposed cooperation becomes more robust to inferior inter-user channels than our previously proposed decode-and-forward (DF) cooperation.

  3. Rate Adaptive Based Resource Allocation with Proportional Fairness Constraints in OFDMA Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhendong; Zhuang, Shufeng; Wu, Zhilu; Ma, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), which is widely used in the wireless sensor networks, allows different users to obtain different subcarriers according to their subchannel gains. Therefore, how to assign subcarriers and power to different users to achieve a high system sum rate is an important research area in OFDMA systems. In this paper, the focus of study is on the rate adaptive (RA) based resource allocation with proportional fairness constraints. Since the resource allocation is a NP-hard and non-convex optimization problem, a new efficient resource allocation algorithm ACO-SPA is proposed, which combines ant colony optimization (ACO) and suboptimal power allocation (SPA). To reduce the computational complexity, the optimization problem of resource allocation in OFDMA systems is separated into two steps. For the first one, the ant colony optimization algorithm is performed to solve the subcarrier allocation. Then, the suboptimal power allocation algorithm is developed with strict proportional fairness, and the algorithm is based on the principle that the sums of power and the reciprocal of channel-to-noise ratio for each user in different subchannels are equal. To support it, plenty of simulation results are presented. In contrast with root-finding and linear methods, the proposed method provides better performance in solving the proportional resource allocation problem in OFDMA systems. PMID:26426016

  4. Rate Adaptive Based Resource Allocation with Proportional Fairness Constraints in OFDMA Systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhendong; Zhuang, Shufeng; Wu, Zhilu; Ma, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), which is widely used in the wireless sensor networks, allows different users to obtain different subcarriers according to their subchannel gains. Therefore, how to assign subcarriers and power to different users to achieve a high system sum rate is an important research area in OFDMA systems. In this paper, the focus of study is on the rate adaptive (RA) based resource allocation with proportional fairness constraints. Since the resource allocation is a NP-hard and non-convex optimization problem, a new efficient resource allocation algorithm ACO-SPA is proposed, which combines ant colony optimization (ACO) and suboptimal power allocation (SPA). To reduce the computational complexity, the optimization problem of resource allocation in OFDMA systems is separated into two steps. For the first one, the ant colony optimization algorithm is performed to solve the subcarrier allocation. Then, the suboptimal power allocation algorithm is developed with strict proportional fairness, and the algorithm is based on the principle that the sums of power and the reciprocal of channel-to-noise ratio for each user in different subchannels are equal. To support it, plenty of simulation results are presented. In contrast with root-finding and linear methods, the proposed method provides better performance in solving the proportional resource allocation problem in OFDMA systems. PMID:26426016

  5. An Efficient Resource Allocation Scheme for VoIP Services in the IEEE 802.16e OFDMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Jae-Woo

    In this letter, we propose an efficient resource allocation scheme that improves the system performance by reducing the signaling overhead for voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) services in the IEEE 802.16e OFDMA system. We theoretically analyze the performance of the proposed allocation scheme and carry out a computer simulation to evaluate the FA scheme.

  6. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing access (OFDMA) based wireless visible light communication (VLC) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Jiun-Yu; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Lin, Wan-Feng; Liu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    An orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing access (OFDMA) based visible light communication (VLC) system is proposed in this paper. The architecture of the proposed system is divided into several VLC cells, which is defined in this paper. The deployment and upgrade of the system involve only simple combination of the VLC cells. Hence it is economically advantageous. To guarantee smooth communication, nearly equal data rate is provided at every location within the system with no concern on the system scale. The user location monitor strategy is also discussed to solve the region division issues. The characteristics of the proposed system are analyzed in detail in this paper. A one-dimensional experiment was demonstrated with 13.6 Mb/s data rate.

  7. A novel 3D constellation-masked method for physical security in hierarchical OFDMA system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Bo; Xin, Xiangjun; Liu, Deming

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel 3D constellation-masked method to ensure the physical security in hierarchical optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access (OFDMA) system. The 3D constellation masking is executed on the two levels of hierarchical modulation and among different OFDM subcarriers, which is realized by the masking vectors. The Lorenz chaotic model is adopted for the generation of masking vectors in the proposed scheme. A 9.85 Gb/s encrypted hierarchical QAM OFDM signal is successfully demonstrated in the experiment. The performance of illegal optical network unit (ONU) with different masking vectors is also investigated. The proposed method is demonstrated to be secure and efficient against the commonly known attacks in the experiment. PMID:23842348

  8. Adaptive Subframe Partitioning and Efficient Packet Scheduling in OFDMA Cellular System with Fixed Decode-and-Forward Relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liping; Ji, Yusheng; Liu, Fuqiang

    The integration of multihop relays with orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) cellular infrastructures can meet the growing demands for better coverage and higher throughput. Resource allocation in the OFDMA two-hop relay system is more complex than that in the conventional single-hop OFDMA system. With time division between transmissions from the base station (BS) and those from relay stations (RSs), fixed partitioning of the BS subframe and RS subframes can not adapt to various traffic demands. Moreover, single-hop scheduling algorithms can not be used directly in the two-hop system. Therefore, we propose a semi-distributed algorithm called ASP to adjust the length of every subframe adaptively, and suggest two ways to extend single-hop scheduling algorithms into multihop scenarios: link-based and end-to-end approaches. Simulation results indicate that the ASP algorithm increases system utilization and fairness. The max carrier-to-interference ratio (Max C/I) and proportional fairness (PF) scheduling algorithms extended using the end-to-end approach obtain higher throughput than those using the link-based approach, but at the expense of more overhead for information exchange between the BS and RSs. The resource allocation scheme using ASP and end-to-end PF scheduling achieves a tradeoff between system throughput maximization and fairness.

  9. A QoS Aware Resource Allocation Strategy for 3D A/V Streaming in OFDMA Based Wireless Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young-uk; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Park, Suwon; Lee, Hyukjoon

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) video is expected to be a “killer app” for OFDMA-based broadband wireless systems. The main limitation of 3D video streaming over a wireless system is the shortage of radio resources due to the large size of the 3D traffic. This paper presents a novel resource allocation strategy to address this problem. In the paper, the video-plus-depth 3D traffic type is considered. The proposed resource allocation strategy focuses on the relationship between 2D video and the depth map, handling them with different priorities. It is formulated as an optimization problem and is solved using a suboptimal heuristic algorithm. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme provides a better quality of service compared to conventional schemes. PMID:25250377

  10. A QoS aware resource allocation strategy for 3D A/V streaming in OFDMA based wireless systems.

    PubMed

    Chung, Young-Uk; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Park, Suwon; Lee, Hyukjoon

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) video is expected to be a "killer app" for OFDMA-based broadband wireless systems. The main limitation of 3D video streaming over a wireless system is the shortage of radio resources due to the large size of the 3D traffic. This paper presents a novel resource allocation strategy to address this problem. In the paper, the video-plus-depth 3D traffic type is considered. The proposed resource allocation strategy focuses on the relationship between 2D video and the depth map, handling them with different priorities. It is formulated as an optimization problem and is solved using a suboptimal heuristic algorithm. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme provides a better quality of service compared to conventional schemes. PMID:25250377

  11. Peak-to-Average-Power-Ratio (PAPR) reduction in WiMAX and OFDM/A systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademi, Seyran; Svantesson, Thomas; Viberg, Mats; Eriksson, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    A peak to average power ratio (PAPR) reduction method is proposed that exploits the precoding or beamforming mode in WiMAX. The method is applicable to any OFDM/A systems that implements beamforming using dedicated pilots which use the same beamforming antenna weights for both pilots and data. Beamforming performance depends on the relative phase shift between antennas, but is unaffected by a phase shift common to all antennas. PAPR, on the other hand, changes with a common phase shift and this paper exploits that property. An effective optimization technique based on sequential quadratic programming is proposed to compute the common phase shift. The proposed technique has several advantages compared with traditional PAPR reduction techniques in that it does not require any side-information and has no effect on power and bit-error-rate while providing better PAPR reduction performance than most other methods.

  12. OFDMA-based network-coded cooperation: design and implementation using software-defined radio nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökceli, Selahattin; Alakoca, Hakan; Başaran, Semiha Tedik; Kurt, Güneş Karabulut

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of network coding towards enhancing communication quality, both in terms of robustness or data transmission rates, make it a significant candidate as a future networking technology. Conventionally, network coding is mostly used in wired infrastructures, where transmission errors between nodes are negligible. Capturing the provided benefits of network coding via straightforward extension from wired networks to wireless networks is not trivial. In addition to the challenges introduced through the wireless channel impairments, we can also capture the spatial diversity gain provided by the broadcast nature of the wireless channels. In this work, we design and implement a network-coded cooperation (NCC) system that operates in real time through the use of software-defined radio (SDR) nodes for the first time in the literature. We specifically target wireless networks. Our system is based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) that provides a practical means to enable high transmission rates through the use of narrowband subcarriers. The developed testbed is composed of three source nodes, a relay node and two destination nodes. The transmission of the proposed NCC-OFDMA system is completed in two phases; the broadcast and the relaying phases. Multiplexing of source nodes' signals is achieved through OFDMA technique. In the broadcast phase, an OFDMA signal is transmitted to relay and destination nodes. In the relaying phase, the relay node first detects the OFDMA signal, generates network-coded symbols, and then transmits these symbols to destination nodes. At the end of these two phases, the destination nodes determine the source nodes' signals by using network decoders. The destination nodes make use of both the uncoded and network-coded symbols, which are received in broadcast and relaying phases, respectively. Destination nodes then perform network decoding. Through real-time bit error rate and error vector magnitude measurements, we show

  13. Feedback Allocation for OFDMA Systems With Slow Frequency-Domain Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathy, Harish; Banerjee, Siddhartha; Dimitrov, Nedialko B.; Caramanis, Constantine

    2012-12-01

    We study the problem of allocating limited feedback resources across multiple users in an orthogonal-frequency-division-multiple-access downlink system with slow frequency-domain scheduling. Many flavors of slow frequency-domain scheduling (e.g., persistent scheduling, semi-persistent scheduling), that adapt user-sub-band assignments on a slower time-scale, are being considered in standards such as 3GPP Long-Term Evolution. In this paper, we develop a feedback allocation algorithm that operates in conjunction with any arbitrary slow frequency-domain scheduler with the goal of improving the throughput of the system. Given a user-sub-band assignment chosen by the scheduler, the feedback allocation algorithm involves solving a weighted sum-rate maximization at each (slow) scheduling instant. We first develop an optimal dynamic-programming-based algorithm to solve the feedback allocation problem with pseudo-polynomial complexity in the number of users and in the total feedback bit budget. We then propose two approximation algorithms with complexity further reduced, for scenarios where the problem exhibits additional structure.

  14. Uplink User Signal Separation for OFDMA-Based Cognitive Radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, MustafaE; Guvenc, Ismail; Arslan, Hüseyin

    2009-12-01

    Spectrum awareness of orthogonal frequency division multiple access- (OFDMA-) based cognitive radios (CRs) can be improved by enabling them to separate the primary user signals in the uplink (UL). Assuming availability of information about the basic parameters of the primary system as well as time synchronization to the first arriving user signal, two algorithms are proposed in this paper. The first one targets estimating the size of the frequency allocation block of the primary system. The performance of this algorithm is compared with the results of a Gaussian approximation-based approach that aims to determine the probability of correct block size estimation theoretically. The second one is a semiblind user separation algorithm, which estimates the carrier frequency offsets and time delays of each block by exploiting the cross-correlations over pilot subcarriers. A two-dimensional clustering method is then employed to group the estimates, where each group belongs to a different user. It is shown that the proposed algorithms can improve the spectrum opportunity detection of cognitive radios. Feasibility of the algorithms is proved through practical simulations.

  15. Optical beat interference noise reduction in OFDMA optical access link using self-homodyne balanced detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sang-Min; Won, Yong-Yuk; Han, Sang-Kook

    2013-12-01

    A Novel technique for reducing the OBI noise in optical OFDMA-PON uplink is presented. OFDMA is a multipleaccess/ multiplexing scheme that can provide multiplexing operation of user data streams onto the downlink sub-channels and uplink multiple access by means of dividing OFDM subcarriers as sub-channels. The main issue of high-speed, single-wavelength upstream OFDMA-PON arises from optical beating interference noise. Because the sub-channels are allocated dynamically to multiple access users over same nominal wavelength, it generates the optical beating interference among upstream signals. In this paper, we proposed a novel scheme using self-homodyne balanced detection in the optical line terminal (OLT) to reduce OBI noise which is generated in the uplink transmission of OFDMA-PON system. When multiple OFDMA sub-channels over the same nominal wavelength are received at the same time in the proposed architecture, OBI noises can be removed using balanced detection. Using discrete multitone modulation (DMT) to generate real valued OFDM signals, the proposed technique is verified through experimental demonstration.

  16. Power margin improvement for OFDMA-PON using hierarchical modulation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pan; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhuang, Zhiming; Zhang, Liang; Chang, Qingjiang; Yang, Qi; Hu, Rong; Su, Yikai

    2013-04-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a hierarchical modulation scheme to improve power margin for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-passive optical networks (OFDMA-PONs). In a PON system, under the same launched optical power, optical network units (ONUs) have different power margins due to unequal distribution fiber lengths. The power margin of the PON system is determined by the ONU with the lowest power margin. In our proposed scheme, ONUs with long and short distribution fibers are grouped together, and downstream signals for the paired ONUs are mapped onto the same OFDM subcarriers using hierarchical modulation. In a pair of ONUs, part of the power margin of the ONU with short distribution fiber is re-allocated to the ONU with long distribution fiber. Therefore, the power margin of the ONU with the longest distribution fiber can be increased, leading to the power margin improvement of the PON system. Experimental results show that the hierarchical modulation scheme improves the power margin by 2.7 dB for an OFDMA-PON system, which can be used to support more users or extend transmission distance. PMID:23571916

  17. Linear Receiver for OFDMA Uplink with both CFOs and IQ Imbalances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weile; Yin, Qinye

    In orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFD-MA) uplink, the distortions introduced by both multiple carrier frequency offsets (CFOs) and in-phase and quadrature-phase (IQ) imbalances will severely degrade the system performance. With both CFOs and IQ imbalances, signal detection at the receiver becomes hard, if not impossible. In this letter, a linear receiver is proposed to cope with the distortions at a slight drop in system transmission rate. The analysis and simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. On the Influence of Packet Scheduling on the Trade-Off between System Spectral Efficiency and User Fairness in OFDMA-Based Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Emanuel B.; Walker, Michael L.; Casadevall, Fernando

    System spectral efficiency and user fairness are crucial aspects for resource allocation in multi-user OFDM-based cellular networks. This work intends to investigate the influence of the performance of packet scheduling algorithms on the trade-off between these two objectives in scenarios with non real-time and real-time services. By means of system-level simulations, we were able to create a didactic map of the relation between these two aspects and propose ways to exploit this trade-off efficiently.

  19. A New Subcarrier Allocation Strategy for MIMO-OFDMA Multicellular Networks Based on Cooperative Interference Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Gkonis, Panagiotis K.; Seimeni, Maria A.; Asimakis, Nikolaos P.; Kaklamani, Dimitra I.; Venieris, Iakovos S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the performance of a new subcarrier allocation strategy for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) multicellular networks which employ Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) architecture. For this reason, a hybrid system-link level simulator has been developed executing independent Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in parallel. Up to two tiers of cells around the central cell are taken into consideration and increased loading per cell. The derived results indicate that this strategy can provide up to 12% capacity gain for 16-QAM modulation and two tiers of cells around the central cell in a symmetric 2 × 2 MIMO configuration. This gain is derived when comparing the proposed strategy to the traditional approach of allocating subcarriers that maximize only the desired user's signal. PMID:24683351

  20. Metro-access integrated network based on optical OFDMA with dynamic sub-carrier allocation and power distribution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongfu; Zhang, Qiongli; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Ning; Liu, Deming; Qiu, Kun; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Baojian

    2013-01-28

    We propose and demonstrate a novel optical orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA)-based metro-access integrated network with dynamic resource allocation. It consists of a single fiber OFDMA ring and many single fiber OFDMA trees, which transparently integrates metropolitan area networks with optical access networks. The single fiber OFDMA ring connects the core network and the central nodes (CNs), the CNs are on demand reconfigurable and use multiple orthogonal sub-carriers to realize parallel data transmission and dynamic resource allocation, meanwhile, they can also implement flexible power distribution. The remote nodes (RNs) distributed in the user side are connected by the single fiber OFDMA trees with the corresponding CN. The obtained results indicate that our proposed metro-access integrated network is feasible and the power distribution is agile. PMID:23389228

  1. Localized Mode DFT-S-OFDMA Implementation Using Frequency and Time Domain Interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viholainen, Ari; Ihalainen, Tero; Rinne, Mika; Renfors, Markku

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a novel method to generate a localized mode single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) waveform. Instead of using DFT-spread OFDMA (DFT-S-OFDMA) processing, the new structure called SCiFI-FDMA relies on frequency and time domain interpolation followed by a user-specific frequency shift. SCiFI-FDMA can provide signal waveforms that are compatible to DFT-S-OFDMA. In addition, it provides any resolution of user bandwidth allocation for the uplink multiple access with comparable computational complexity, because the DFT is avoided. Therefore, SCiFI-FDMA allows a flexible choice of parameters appreciated in broadband mobile communications in the future.

  2. Learning Participation as Systems Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ison, Ray; Blackmore, Chris; Armson, Rosalind

    2007-01-01

    Learning participation only makes sense if it is purposeful. From our perspective its primary purpose is to achieve more effective managing in situations of complexity and change. We describe our evolving understandings and practices (a praxeology) for Systems Practice for managing complexity, built on 30 years of developing supported open…

  3. Practical aspects of systems hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of hardening technology in a practical system require a balance between the factors governing affordability, producibility, and survivability of the finished design. Without careful consideration of the top-level system operating constraints, a design engineer may find himself with a survivable but overweight, unproductive, expensive design. This paper explores some lessons learned in applying hardening techniques to several laser communications programs and is intended as an introductory guide to novice designers faced with the task of hardening a space system.

  4. Distributed Synchronization Technique for OFDMA-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Bio-Inspired Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Sung Joon; Cho, Yong Soo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a distributed synchronization technique based on a bio-inspired algorithm is proposed for an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)-based wireless mesh network (WMN) with a time difference of arrival. The proposed time- and frequency-synchronization technique uses only the signals received from the neighbor nodes, by considering the effect of the propagation delay between the nodes. It achieves a fast synchronization with a relatively low computational complexity because it is operated in a distributed manner, not requiring any feedback channel for the compensation of the propagation delays. In addition, a self-organization scheme that can be effectively used to construct 1-hop neighbor nodes is proposed for an OFDMA-based WMN with a large number of nodes. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated with regard to the convergence property and synchronization success probability using a computer simulation. PMID:26225974

  5. Staged optimization algorithms based MAC dynamic bandwidth allocation for OFDMA-PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yafan; Qian, Chen; Cao, Bingyao; Dun, Han; Shi, Yan; Zou, Junni; Lin, Rujian; Wang, Min

    2016-06-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access passive optical network (OFDMA-PON) has being considered as a promising solution for next generation PONs due to its high spectral efficiency and flexible bandwidth allocation scheme. In order to take full advantage of these merits of OFDMA-PON, a high-efficiency medium access control (MAC) dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) scheme is needed. In this paper, we propose two DBA algorithms which can act on two different stages of a resource allocation process. To achieve higher bandwidth utilization and ensure the equity of ONUs, we propose a DBA algorithm based on frame structure for the stage of physical layer mapping. Targeting the global quality of service (QoS) of OFDMA-PON, we propose a full-range DBA algorithm with service level agreement (SLA) and class of service (CoS) for the stage of bandwidth allocation arbitration. The performance of the proposed MAC DBA scheme containing these two algorithms is evaluated using numerical simulations. Simulations of a 15 Gbps network with 1024 sub-carriers and 32 ONUs demonstrate the maximum network throughput of 14.87 Gbps and the maximum packet delay of 1.45 ms for the highest priority CoS under high load condition.

  6. Practical Applications of Space Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report gives an overview of a study conducted by the Space Applications Board (SAB) on the practical applications of space systems. In this study, the SAB considered how the nation's space capability might be used to solve problems such as the shortage of food and energy; the improvement of the physical environment; inventorying and…

  7. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  8. Minimum cost maximum flow algorithm for upstream bandwidth allocation in OFDMA passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yating; Kuang, Bin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Qianwu; Wang, Min

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a minimum cost maximum flow (MCMF) based upstream bandwidth allocation algorithm, which supports differentiated QoS for orthogonal frequency division multiple access passive optical networks (OFDMA-PONs). We define a utility function as the metric to characterize the satisfaction degree of an ONU on the obtained bandwidth. The bandwidth allocation problem is then formulated as maximizing the sum of the weighted total utility functions of all ONUs. By constructing a flow network graph, we obtain the optimized bandwidth allocation using the MCMF algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme improves the performance in terms of mean packet delay, packet loss ratio and throughput.

  9. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Distributed OFDMA-Based MAC Protocol for MANETs

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jiyoung; Lee, Hyungyu; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed MAC protocol for OFDMA-based wireless mobile ad hoc multihop networks, in which the resource reservation and data transmission procedures are operated in a distributed manner. A frame format is designed considering the characteristics of OFDMA that each node can transmit or receive data to or from multiple nodes simultaneously. Under this frame structure, we propose a distributed resource management method including network state estimation and resource reservation processes. We categorize five types of logical errors according to their root causes and show that two of the logical errors are inevitable while three of them are avoided under the proposed distributed MAC protocol. In addition, we provide a systematic method to determine the advertisement period of each node by presenting a clear relation between the accuracy of estimated network states and the signaling overhead. We evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in respect of the reservation success rate and the success rate of data transmission. Since our method focuses on avoiding logical errors, it could be easily placed on top of the other resource allocation methods focusing on the physical layer issues of the resource management problem and interworked with them. PMID:25133254

  10. Initial ranging scheme based on interpolated Zadoff-Chu sequences for OFDMA-PON.

    PubMed

    Razmtouz, Ali; Habel, Kai; Kottke, Christoph; Ruprecht, Christian; Rosenkranz, Werner

    2014-02-10

    Initial access to passive optical networks (PONs) requires upstream (US) synchronization of multiple optical network units (ONUs). We propose a low-complexity scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) based PONs and demonstrate it experimentally. The scheme is based on interpolated Zadoff-Chu sequences, to synchronize the signal of each ONU arriving at the optical line terminal (OLT). Our experimental test bed consists of 4 colorless ONUs seeded by a single laser located at the OLT. Thermal expansion of a fiber is utilized to emulate a dynamic time drift in the demodulation-window positioning of OLT. The detected individual offsets at the OLT are fed back to the ONUs and are compensated at every data frame transmission. In this way, both inter carrier interference (ICI) and inter symbol interference (ISI) remain below acceptable levels. PMID:24663658

  11. Calculating Storage Requirements for Office Practice Systems

    PubMed Central

    Stead, William W.; Hammond, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The disk space requirements of small and medium sized group practices using a comprehensive medical information system supported by either a micro-computer or a mini-computer are analyzed. Efficient operation requires that 23%-54% of a typical system disk be used for files other than patient records. Data is presented to allow prediction of both the number of records that will need to be maintained for a practice and the average size of each record based upon the type of data required by the practice.

  12. Systems Concepts Effectively Taught Using Systems Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Claudia; Baliga, Nitin S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes two lessons within the authors' education module entitled, Ecological Networks, that successfully teaches introductory systems content to middle and high school students. To catch students' attention when teaching these new concepts, they decided to use a network that was familiar and fun for students--a cell-phone…

  13. ONU discovery using multiple subchannels for seamless service support in long-reach OFDMA-PON.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hakjeon; Doo, Kyeong-Hwan; Lee, Jonghyun; Lee, Sangsoo

    2014-09-01

    In a passive optical network (PON), discovery is a process that detects and registers newly connected optical network units (ONUs). A long-reach PON requires a longer discovery window, e.g., at least 1 ms for 100 km, due to the increased round-trip time between an optical line terminal (OLT) and an ONU. The longer discovery window consumes more network resources and issues longer service-interruption time. From this motivation, for a long-reach orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA)-PON, we propose a discovery method using multiple subchannels, where each subchannel consists of one or several subcarrier(s). Compared to discovery using a single channel, the proposed discovery method can increase the number of successfully detected ONUs at the same resources (i.e., for a discovery window) and ensure seamless service support to already registered ONUs, by assigning some subchannels for discovery and the remainder for data transmission. We analyze the discovery efficiency (i.e., the number of successfully detected ONUs in the discovery process) based on a probability and optimize the discovery window size by numerical simulations. PMID:25321588

  14. Two-Level Scheduling for Video Transmission over Downlink OFDMA Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Mau-Luen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a two-level scheduling scheme for video transmission over downlink orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) networks. It aims to maximize the aggregate quality of the video users subject to the playback delay and resource constraints, by exploiting the multiuser diversity and the video characteristics. The upper level schedules the transmission of video packets among multiple users based on an overall target bit-error-rate (BER), the importance level of packet and resource consumption efficiency factor. Instead, the lower level renders unequal error protection (UEP) in terms of target BER among the scheduled packets by solving a weighted sum distortion minimization problem, where each user weight reflects the total importance level of the packets that has been scheduled for that user. Frequency-selective power is then water-filled over all the assigned subcarriers in order to leverage the potential channel coding gain. Realistic simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art scheduling scheme by up to 6.8 dB in terms of peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR). Further test evaluates the suitability of equal power allocation which is the common assumption in the literature. PMID:26906398

  15. An adaptive OFDMA-based MAC protocol for underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Issa M; Gadallah, Yasser; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Khreishah, Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UAWSNs) have many applications across various civilian and military domains. However, they suffer from the limited available bandwidth of acoustic signals and harsh underwater conditions. In this work, we present an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol that is configurable to suit the operating requirements of the underwater sensor network. The protocol has three modes of operation, namely random, equal opportunity and energy-conscious modes of operation. Our MAC design approach exploits the multi-path characteristics of a fading acoustic channel to convert it into parallel independent acoustic sub-channels that undergo flat fading. Communication between node pairs within the network is done using subsets of these sub-channels, depending on the configurations of the active mode of operation. Thus, the available limited bandwidth gets fully utilized while completely avoiding interference. We derive the mathematical model for optimal power loading and subcarrier selection, which is used as basis for all modes of operation of the protocol. We also conduct many simulation experiments to evaluate and compare our protocol with other Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based MAC protocols. PMID:23012517

  16. An Adaptive OFDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Issa M.; Gadallah, Yasser; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Khreishah, Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UAWSNs) have many applications across various civilian and military domains. However, they suffer from the limited available bandwidth of acoustic signals and harsh underwater conditions. In this work, we present an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol that is configurable to suit the operating requirements of the underwater sensor network. The protocol has three modes of operation, namely random, equal opportunity and energy-conscious modes of operation. Our MAC design approach exploits the multi-path characteristics of a fading acoustic channel to convert it into parallel independent acoustic sub-channels that undergo flat fading. Communication between node pairs within the network is done using subsets of these sub-channels, depending on the configurations of the active mode of operation. Thus, the available limited bandwidth gets fully utilized while completely avoiding interference. We derive the mathematical model for optimal power loading and subcarrier selection, which is used as basis for all modes of operation of the protocol. We also conduct many simulation experiments to evaluate and compare our protocol with other Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based MAC protocols. PMID:23012517

  17. Developing an Expert System for Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ozbolt, Judy G.; Schultz, Samuel; Swain, Mary Ann P.; Abraham, Ivo L.; Farchaus-Stein, Karen

    1984-01-01

    The American Nurses' Association has set eight Standards of Nursing Practice related to the nursing process. Computer-aided information systems intended to facilitate the nursing process must be designed to promote adherence to these professional standards. For each of the eight standards, the paper tells how a hypothetical expert system could help nurses to meet the standard. A prototype of such an expert system is being developed. The paper describes issues in conceptualizing clinical decision-making and developing decision strategies for the prototype system. The process of developing the prototype system is described.

  18. Effective maintenance practices to manage system aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chockie, Alan; Bjorkelo, Kenneth

    A study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was recently undertaken to identify effective maintenance practices that could be adapted by the nuclear industry in the United States to assist in managing the aging degradation of plant systems and components. Four organizations were examined to assess the influence of maintenance programs on addressing the system and component aging degradation issues. An effective maintenance program was found to be essential to the management of system and component aging. Four key elements of an effective maintenance program that are important to an aging management were identified: (1) the selection of critical systems and components; (2) the development of an understanding of aging through the collection and analysis of equipment performance information; (3) the development of appropriate preventive and predictive maintenance tasks to manage equipment and system aging degradation; and (4) the use of feedback mechanisms to continuously improve the management of aging systems and components. These elements were found to be common to all four organizations.

  19. Practicing Technology Implementation: The Case of an Enterprise System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awazu, Yukika

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on four theories of practice--Communities of Practice (CoP), Bourdieu's theory of practice, Pickering's mangle of practice, and Actor Network Theory (ANT), the study provides an in-depth understanding about technology implementation practice. Analysis of an Enterprise System implementation project in a software manufacturing…

  20. Practical video indexing and retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yiqing; Wolf, Wayne H.; Liu, Bede; Huang, Jeffrey R.

    1998-03-01

    We integrated a practical digital video database system based on language and image analysis with components from digital video processing, still image search, information retrieval, closed captioning processing. The attempt is to utilize the multiple modalities of information in video and implement data fusion among the multiple modalities; image information, speech/dialog information, closed captioning information, sound track information such as music, gunfire, explosion, caption information, motion information, temporal information. Effort is made to allow access video contents at different levels including video program level, scene level, shot level, and object level. Approaches of browsing, subject-based classification, and random retrieving are available to gain access to the contents.

  1. [Systemic therapy of breast cancer: practice guideline].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Zsolt; Boér, Katalin; Dank, Magdolna; Kahán, Zsuzsanna; Kocsis, Judit; Kövér, Erika; Pajkos, Gábor; Pikó, Béla; Rubovszky, Gábor; Eckhardt, Sándor

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the practice guideline of systemic treatment of breast cancer and recommendations of the 3rd Hungarian Breast Cancer Consensus Conference. It reflects the recent international guidelines (ESMO, NCCN, ABC2, St Gallen's) irrespectively of the current financial opportunities. Here we follow the early - locally advanced - locally relapsed - metastatic breast cancer line for didactic considerations and we discuss the different subgroups of breast cancer based on hormone receptor and HER2 receptor status. Diagnosis and treatment options of rare clinical entities are summarised at the end of the paper. PMID:27579723

  2. Adaptive Systems Engineering: A Medical Paradigm for Practicing Systems Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann

    2011-06-01

    From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.

  3. System based practice: a concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; HOSSEINI, FAKHROLSADAT; AHMADY, SOLEIMAN

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Systems-Based Practice (SBP) is one of the six competencies introduced by the ACGME for physicians to provide high quality of care and also the most challenging of them in performance, training, and evaluation of medical students. This concept analysis clarifies the concept of SBP by identifying its components to make it possible to differentiate it from other similar concepts. For proper training of SBP and to ensure these competencies in physicians, it is necessary to have an operational definition, and SBP’s components must be precisely defined in order to provide valid and reliable assessment tools. Methods Walker & Avant’s approach to concept analysis was performed in eight stages: choosing a concept, determining the purpose of analysis, identifying all uses of the concept, defining attributes, identifying a model case, identifying borderline, related, and contrary cases, identifying antecedents and consequences, and defining empirical referents. Results Based on the analysis undertaken, the attributes of SBP includes knowledge of the system, balanced decision between patients’ need and system goals, effective role playing in interprofessional health care team, system level of health advocacy, and acting for system improvement. System thinking and a functional system are antecedents and system goals are consequences. A case model, as well as border, and contrary cases of SBP, has been introduced. Conclusion he identification of SBP attributes in this study contributes to the body of knowledge in SBP and reduces the ambiguity of this concept to make it possible for applying it in training of different medical specialties. Also, it would be possible to develop and use more precise tools to evaluate SBP competency by using empirical referents of the analysis. PMID:27104198

  4. Bioelectrochemical systems: an outlook for practical applications.

    PubMed

    Sleutels, Tom H J A; Ter Heijne, Annemiek; Buisman, Cees J N; Hamelers, Hubertus V M

    2012-06-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) hold great promise for sustainable production of energy and chemicals. This review addresses the factors that are essential for practical application of BESs. First, we compare benefits (value of products and cleaning of wastewater) with costs (capital and operational costs). Based on this, we analyze the maximum internal resistance (in mΩ m(2) ) and current density that is required to make microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and hydrogen-producing microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) cost effective. We compare these maximum resistances to reported internal resistances and current densities with special focus on cathodic resistances. Whereas the current densities of MFCs still need to be increased considerably (i.e., internal resistance needs to be decreased), MECs are closer to application as their current densities can be increased by increasing the applied voltage. For MFCs, the production of high-value products in combination with electricity production and wastewater treatment is a promising route. PMID:22674691

  5. The Virtual Practice: Using the Residents' Continuity Clinic to Teach Practice Management and Systems-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jose A.; Faust, Cheryl; Kenyon, Angie

    2009-01-01

    Background Education in systems-based practice is a required component of all postgraduate medical education programs in the United States. Competency in this area requires that trainees have an understanding of the health care system sufficient to provide optimal care to patients. Most trainees in residency programs have little understanding of the complexities and challenges of present-day practice in the current system of care and consider themselves unprepared to undertake this activity following completion of training. Training in practice management in residency programs has not been emphasized as an important component of systems-based practice. Historically, practice management training in residency programs has been done using a fully didactic model, and residents have expressed a desire to learn this skill by becoming more directly involved in the operations and management of a practice. The patient visit touches many aspects of the health care system, including clinic operations, insurance, quality, and finances. Approach At our institution, we used the residents' continuity clinic practices as a vehicle to provide education in practice management and systems-based practice by creating a curriculum that included the residents' perceived gaps in knowledge regarding going into practice. This is known as the virtual practice. This curriculum is taught using data obtained from residents' practice to illustrate concepts in many areas, including primary practice operations, malpractice insurance, financial benchmarks, and career planning. Results Resident self-assessed knowledge of these areas increased after participating in the curriculum, and resident testimonials indicate satisfaction with the project. In addition, residents have become engaged and interested in how their effort translates into performance and how they participate in the health care system. PMID:21975715

  6. The evolution and practical application of machine translation system (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Isao; Sato, Masayuki

    This paper describes a development, practical applicatioin, problem of a system, evaluation of practical system, and development trend of machine translation. Most recent system contains next four problems. 1) the vagueness of a text, 2) a difference of the definition of the terminology between different language, 3) the preparing of a large-scale translation dictionary, 4) the development of a software for the logical inference. Machine translation system is already used practically in many industry fields. However, many problems are not solved. The implementation of an ideal system will be after 15 years. Also, this paper described seven evaluation items detailedly. This English abstract was made by Mu system.

  7. Education System Reform in China after 1978: Some Practical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Miantao

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of education system reform in China since 1978, and its practical implications. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from literature review and interview. An overview of education system reform and its practical implications was found through data analysis. Findings: There has been two…

  8. High-capacity and low-cost long-reach OFDMA PON based on distance-adaptive bandwidth allocation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Pan; Wu, Jiayang; Mao, Junming; Lv, Jianxin; Jiang, Yuling; Qiu, Ciyuan; Tremblay, Christine; Su, Yikai

    2015-01-26

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a distance-adaptive bandwidth allocation scheme to realize high-capacity long-reach orthogonal frequency division multiple access passive optical network (OFDMA PON) with cost-effective electro-absorption modulator (EAM). In our scheme, the subcarriers in downstream OFDM signal are properly allocated to the optical network units (ONUs) with different fiber transmission lengths. By this means, the detrimental influence of power fading induced by dispersion and chirp can be avoided, thus all OFDM subcarriers can be modulated with high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) format, leading to a high transmission capacity. A proof-of-concept experiment is performed, in which three ONUs with transmission distances of 25, 50, and 100 km are assigned with different subcarriers, respectively. By using distance-adaptive bandwidth allocation technique, an OFDM signal of 34.5 Gb/s is successfully delivered to the ONUs with a bit error ratio (BER) lower than 2 × 10(-3). PMID:25835883

  9. Integrated Online Library Systems: Perspectives, Perceptions, and Practicalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Gennaro, Richard

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of information and misinformation about integrated online library systems highlights capabilities and functions that should be offered by an integrated system, practicalities of purchasing a system, visions versus reality, library versus information automation, origins of integrated online systems in the 1960s and 1970s, and future…

  10. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  11. Individualized Study Systems in Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Klauw, C. F.; Plomp, Tj

    1974-01-01

    After a short characterization of individualized study systems (ISS) and a survey of the number and subject fields of individualized courses in the USA and Europe, the construction and evaluation of an ISS system in freshman mathematics at the Twente University of Technology, in the Netherlands, is discussed. (Editor)

  12. Electronic Resource Management Systems in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic resource management (ERM) systems have inundated the library marketplace. Both integrated library systems (ILS) vendors and subscription agents are now offering products and service enhancements that claim to help libraries efficiently manage their electronic resources. Additionally, some homegrown and open-source solutions have emerged…

  13. Systems and the Changing Architectural Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimsath, Clovis B.

    The architecture profession needs to employ systems building design in order to raise the rate of productivity and performance in construction. Changes have been made in architecture educational programs that recognize the shift in the role of the architect from design genius to building production manager. Systems design has led to changes within…

  14. Recommended Practice for Securing Control System Modems

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Davidson; Jason L. Wright

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses an often overlooked “backdoor” into critical infrastructure control systems created by modem connections. A modem’s connection to the public telephone system is similar to a corporate network connection to the Internet. By tracing typical attack paths into the system, this paper provides the reader with an analysis of the problem and then guides the reader through methods to evaluate existing modem security. Following the analysis, a series of methods for securing modems is provided. These methods are correlated to well-known networking security methods.

  15. A practical three visit complete denture system.

    PubMed

    Ling, B C

    2000-10-01

    Standard prosthodontic procedures require five visits to construct a set of complete maxillary and mandibular dentures. Various attempts have been made to reduce these procedures to four or three appointments. However, most of these techniques require the use of visible light polymerized resin as the final denture base materials. Visible light-cured resin materials have inferior physical properties and biocompatibility problems as compared with heat cured polymethylmethacrylate. This paper describes a system of complete denture construction which requires three clinical appointments instead of the usual five visits. This system is made possible by using the VLC base/tray material as the preliminary impression material as well as the application of a new biometric wax occlusion rim. It retains the use of polymethylmethacrylate as the denture base material. This system also utilizes all the procedures used in the conventional five appointment system of complete denture construction. PMID:11709981

  16. Practical vision based degraded text recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Rapid growth and progress in the medical, industrial, security and technology fields means more and more consideration for the use of camera based optical character recognition (OCR) Applying OCR to scanned documents is quite mature, and there are many commercial and research products available on this topic. These products achieve acceptable recognition accuracy and reasonable processing times especially with trained software, and constrained text characteristics. Even though the application space for OCR is huge, it is quite challenging to design a single system that is capable of performing automatic OCR for text embedded in an image irrespective of the application. Challenges for OCR systems include; images are taken under natural real world conditions, Surface curvature, text orientation, font, size, lighting conditions, and noise. These and many other conditions make it extremely difficult to achieve reasonable character recognition. Performance for conventional OCR systems drops dramatically as the degradation level of the text image quality increases. In this paper, a new recognition method is proposed to recognize solid or dotted line degraded characters. The degraded text string is localized and segmented using a new algorithm. The new method was implemented and tested using a development framework system that is capable of performing OCR on camera captured images. The framework allows parameter tuning of the image-processing algorithm based on a training set of camera-captured text images. Novel methods were used for enhancement, text localization and the segmentation algorithm which enables building a custom system that is capable of performing automatic OCR which can be used for different applications. The developed framework system includes: new image enhancement, filtering, and segmentation techniques which enabled higher recognition accuracies, faster processing time, and lower energy consumption, compared with the best state of the art published

  17. Systemic accident analysis: examining the gap between research and practice.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Peter; Waterson, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    The systems approach is arguably the dominant concept within accident analysis research. Viewing accidents as a result of uncontrolled system interactions, it forms the theoretical basis of various systemic accident analysis (SAA) models and methods. Despite the proposed benefits of SAA, such as an improved description of accident causation, evidence within the scientific literature suggests that these techniques are not being used in practice and that a research-practice gap exists. The aim of this study was to explore the issues stemming from research and practice which could hinder the awareness, adoption and usage of SAA. To achieve this, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 42 safety experts from ten countries and a variety of industries, including rail, aviation and maritime. This study suggests that the research-practice gap should be closed and efforts to bridge the gap should focus on ensuring that systemic methods meet the needs of practitioners and improving the communication of SAA research. PMID:23542136

  18. Economic Systems, Child Rearing Practices and Personality Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Conrad M.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews research on the relationship of a society's economic system to other aspects of the social structure, including socialization practices. Concludes that the relationship between personal values and the economic institution becomes reciprocal as society becomes more complex. (JG)

  19. Teachers' Belief Systems and Grading Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Harry; Brown, Clarence

    This report investigated two hypotheses: 1) junior high school teachers with concrete belief systems would assign more unsatisfactory citizenship grades and lower academic grades than more abstract teachers; and 2) the correlation between citizenship and academic grades would be higher for concrete than abstract teachers. Ten teachers from…

  20. The SI Metric System and Practical Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Richard W.

    Intended for use in the technical program of a technical institute or community college, this student manual is designed to provide background in the metric system contributing to employability. Nine units are presented with objectives stated for each unit followed by questions or exercises. (Printed answers are supplied when necessary.) Unit 1…

  1. Better Management Practices for Recirculating Aquaculture Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under the 2004 federal aquaculture effluent limitation guidelines (Federal Register 2004), recirculating aquaculture systems with an annual production exceeding 45,454 kg (100,000 pounds) are classified as concentrated aquatic animal production (CAAP) facilities and are required to obtain a National...

  2. PC reporting system for radiologists: practical use under PACS environment.

    PubMed

    Nakata, N; Yoshihiro, S; Miida, K; Tashima, M; Sunakawa, Y; Harada, J; Tada, S; Fukuda, K

    2001-07-01

    To evaluate the practical usefulness of several types of the reporting system especially for radiologists, we have developed and employed several reporting systems. We categorized those reporting systems as follows (1) stand alone PC reporting system; (2) linked reporting system with PACS environment; (3) integrated three-dimensional (3D) imaging workstation (WS) with the intranet. We have evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of those three systems, and compared between the reporting system without PACS and network reporting system with PACS. Using linked reporting system with PACS, radiologists could easily reference both previous reports and archived diagnostic images, and also make their teaching files quickly. In conclusion, the reporting system under PACS environment is found to be practical and helpful for Japanese radiologists. PMID:11378217

  3. A practical solution for KKT systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hong; Li, Jianlin

    2007-10-01

    We consider KKT systems of linear equations with a 2???2 block indefinite matrix whose (2, 2) block is zero. Such systems arise in many applications. Treating such matrices would encounter some intricacies, especially when its (1, 1) block, i.e., the stiffness matrix in term of computational mechanics, is rank-deficient. It is the rank-deficiency of the stiffness matrix that leads to the so-called rigid-displacement issue. This is believed to be one of the main reasons that many programmers would unwillingly give up the Lagrange multiplier method but select the penalty method. Based on the Sherman?Morrison formula and the conventional LDLT decomposition for symmetric positive definite matrices, a robust direct solution is proposed, which is amenable to the conventional finite element codes, competent for both nonsingular and singular stiffness matrices, and particularly suitable to parallel computation. As a paradigm, the application to the element-free Galerkin method (EFGM) with the moving least squares interpolation is illustrated.

  4. Central nervous system stimulants and sport practice

    PubMed Central

    Avois, L; Robinson, N; Saudan, C; Baume, N; Mangin, P; Saugy, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants may be used to reduce tiredness and increase alertness, competitiveness, and aggression. They are more likely to be used in competition but may be used during training to increase the intensity of the training session. There are several potential dangers involving their misuse in contact sports. This paper reviews the three main CNS stimulants, ephedrine, amfetamine, and cocaine, in relation to misuse in sport. Methods Description of the pharmacology, actions, and side effects of amfetamine, cocaine, and ephedrine. Results CNS stimulants have psychotropic effects that may be perceived to be ergogenic. Some are prescription drugs, such as Ephedra alkaloids, and there are issues regarding their appropriate therapeutic use. Recently attention has been given to their widespread use by athletes, despite the lack of evidence regarding any ergogenic or real performance benefit, and their potentially serious side effects. Recreational drugs, some of which are illegal (cocaine, amfetamines), are commonly used by athletes and cause potential ergolytic effects. Overall, these drugs are important for their frequent use and mention in anti‐doping laboratories statistics and the media, and their potentially serious adverse effects. Conclusions Doping with CNS stimulants is a real public health problem and all sports authorities should participate in its prevention. Dissemination of information is essential to prevent doping in sport and to provide alternatives. Adequate training and education in this domain should be introduced. PMID:16799095

  5. Practical thermodynamics of Yukawa systems at strong coupling.

    PubMed

    Khrapak, Sergey A; Kryuchkov, Nikita P; Yurchenko, Stanislav O; Thomas, Hubertus M

    2015-05-21

    Simple practical approach to estimate thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled Yukawa systems, in both fluid and solid phases, is presented. The accuracy of the approach is tested by extensive comparison with direct computer simulation results (for fluids and solids) and the recently proposed shortest-graph method (for solids). Possible applications to other systems of softly repulsive particles are briefly discussed. PMID:26001480

  6. Guidelines for Psychological Practice in Health Care Delivery Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…

  7. Practical thermodynamics of Yukawa systems at strong coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Khrapak, Sergey A.; Kryuchkov, Nikita P.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Thomas, Hubertus M.

    2015-05-21

    Simple practical approach to estimate thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled Yukawa systems, in both fluid and solid phases, is presented. The accuracy of the approach is tested by extensive comparison with direct computer simulation results (for fluids and solids) and the recently proposed shortest-graph method (for solids). Possible applications to other systems of softly repulsive particles are briefly discussed.

  8. Research on Innovative Practice Teaching System Based on the High-End Practice Teaching Environment for Software Engineering Speciality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jianli; Li, Cunhua; Ji, Zhaohui; Wu, Junming

    Through the analysis of current culture status of undergraduate engineering applied talents, the paper points out that the main reason causing the lack of student integrated application and practice innovation abilities is the poor construction of high-end practice environment. And then, how to enhance the practice environment construction and practical teaching innovation as well as building an appropriate innovation practice teaching system for engineering applied talents are systematically discussed. It is very obvious that the application and promotion of this kind of innovative practice teaching system could enhance the practice innovation abilities and entrepreneurial and employment awareness of the graduates.

  9. Recommended Practice for Patch Management of Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Tom; Dale Christiansen; Dan Berrett

    2008-12-01

    A key component in protecting a nation’s critical infrastructure and key resources is the security of control systems. The term industrial control system refers to supervisory control and data acquisition, process control, distributed control, and any other systems that control, monitor, and manage the nation’s critical infrastructure. Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) consists of electric power generators, transmission systems, transportation systems, dam and water systems, communication systems, chemical and petroleum systems, and other critical systems that cannot tolerate sudden interruptions in service. Simply stated, a control system gathers information and then performs a function based on its established parameters and the information it receives. The patch management of industrial control systems software used in CIKR is inconsistent at best and nonexistent at worst. Patches are important to resolve security vulnerabilities and functional issues. This report recommends patch management practices for consideration and deployment by industrial control systems owners.

  10. Practical Challenges of Systems Thinking and Modeling in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Trochim, William M.; Cabrera, Derek A.; Milstein, Bobby; Gallagher, Richard S.; Leischow, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Awareness of and support for systems thinking and modeling in the public health field are growing, yet there are many practical challenges to implementation. We sought to identify and describe these challenges from the perspectives of practicing public health professionals. Methods. A systems-based methodology, concept mapping, was used in a study of 133 participants from 2 systems-based public health initiatives (the Initiative for the Study and Implementation of Systems and the Syndemics Prevention Network). This method identified 100 key challenges to implementation of systems thinking and modeling in public health work. Results. The project resulted in a map identifying 8 categories of challenges and the dynamic interactions among them. Conclusions. Implementation by public health professionals of the 8 simple rules we derived from the clusters in the map identified here will help to address challenges and improve the organization of systems that protect the public’s health. PMID:16449581

  11. Feedback Control Systems Loop Shaping Design with Practical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopsakis, George

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes loop shaping control design in feedback control systems, primarily from a practical stand point that considers design specifications. Classical feedback control design theory, for linear systems where the plant transfer function is known, has been around for a long time. But it s still a challenge of how to translate the theory into practical and methodical design techniques that simultaneously satisfy a variety of performance requirements such as transient response, stability, and disturbance attenuation while taking into account the capabilities of the plant and its actuation system. This paper briefly addresses some relevant theory, first in layman s terms, so that it becomes easily understood and then it embarks into a practical and systematic design approach incorporating loop shaping design coupled with lead-lag control compensation design. The emphasis is in generating simple but rather powerful design techniques that will allow even designers with a layman s knowledge in controls to develop effective feedback control designs.

  12. Assessing System Thinking Through Different Concept-Mapping Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandstädter, Kristina; Harms, Ute; Großschedl, Jörg

    2012-09-01

    System thinking is usually investigated by using questionnaires, video analysis, or interviews. Recently, concept-mapping (CM) was suggested as an adequate instrument for analysing students' system thinking. However, there are different ways with which to use this method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether particular features of CM practices affect the valid assessment of students' system thinking. The particular features analysed were the medium (computer versus paper-pencil) and the directedness (highly directed versus nondirected) of CM practices. These features were evaluated with respect to their influence on (a) students' performance in CM and (b) the validity of different CM practices for system thinking. One hundred fifty-four German fourth graders (mean age: 9.95 years) and 93 eighth graders (mean age: 14.07 years) participated in the study following an experimental pre-test-post-test design. Three variations of CM practices were applied: (a) highly directed computer mapping, (b) highly directed paper-pencil mapping, and (c) nondirected paper-pencil mapping. In addition to the CM task, a paper-pencil questionnaire was employed to investigate the validity of the CM practices. Results showed that the computer positively influenced student performance in CM when compared with paper-pencil. By contrast, there was no difference between highly directed and nondirected mapping. Whereas the medium rarely influenced the validity of CM for system thinking, high directedness showed a positive influence. Considering the limitations and benefits of particular CM practices, we suggest highly directed and computer-based CM as an appropriate assessment tool-in particular, with regard to large-scale assessments of system thinking.

  13. Choosing a New Telephone System for Your Medical Practice.

    PubMed

    Metherell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    E-mail may rule the world in other types of businesses, but for medical practices, the telephone remains the primary mode of communication with patients, specialists, and pharmacies. From making appointments to calling in prescriptions, telephones are essential to patient care. With technology changing very quickly and new capabilities coming into the medical practice, such as telemedicine and Skype, you need to know your options when choosing a new telephone system. The possibilities include on-site, cloud, and hybrid networked solutions. A wide variety of features and capabilities are available, from dozens of vendors. Of course, no matter what telephone solution you choose, you must meet regulatory compliance, particularly HIPAA, and Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard if you take credit cards. And it has to be affordable, reliable, and long lasting. This article explores what medical practices need to know when choosing a new business telephone system in order to find the right solutions for their businesses. PMID:27443060

  14. "Solar System - Practical Exercises" and "Astronomy - Practical Works" for Secondary Scholars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomic, A. S.

    2006-08-01

    Following intentions for introducing new forms of astronomical education in secondary schools and, simultaneously, suggestions for adaptation of astronomical methods of investigation for use by amateurs, the author has written two books, as cited in the title, and published by state textbook publisher "Zavod za udzbenike" in Belgrade. "Solar System - Practical Exercises" (A4, 55 p.) is complete with ten practical exercises for scholars, with emphasis on the fundamental astronomical parameters in the solar system. "Astronomy - Practical Works" (B5, 196 p.) is the result of a 25-year-long author's experience in guiding competition, plus "Science for Youth," covering astronomy for secondary and primary school pupils. It contains 82 practical works, which were all realized by scholars with some assistance and guidance by mentors at the public observatories or those with personal instruments. A number of good quality papers are written by these pupils and published in the astronomical journal "VASIONA," edited by the astronomical society "Rudjer Boscovich" in Belgrade. Most of these authors completed studies of astronomy, physics, mathematics or techniques. Both books are presented with full information on contents.

  15. Leading Instructional Practices in a Performance-Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauble, Anna; Wise, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Given the shift to Common Core, educational leaders are challenged to see new directions in teaching and learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the instructional practices which may be related to the effectiveness of a performance-based system (PBS) and their impact on student achievement, as part of a thematic set of dissertations…

  16. Review of EMC practice for launch vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiming

    Case histories, design and test practice in the field of advanced electromagnetic compatability (EMC) are reviewed. Failures caused by lightning, electrostatic discharge (ESD), and electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) are discussed. System and equipment design and analysis are examined, including lightning and ESD protection and computer-aided EMC analysis. Testing of a number of rockets and spacecraft is described.

  17. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C.K.

    2000-07-07

    Chemical kinetic factors of hydrocarbon oxidation are examined in a variety of ignition problems. Ignition is related to the presence of a dominant chain branching reaction mechanism that can drive a chemical system to completion in a very short period of time. Ignition in laboratory environments is studied for problems including shock tubes and rapid compression machines. Modeling of the laboratory systems are used to develop kinetic models that can be used to analyze ignition in practical systems. Two major chain branching regimes are identified, one consisting of high temperature ignition with a chain branching reaction mechanism based on the reaction between atomic hydrogen with molecular oxygen, and the second based on an intermediate temperature thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic models are then used to describe ignition in practical combustion environments, including detonations and pulse combustors for high temperature ignition, and engine knock and diesel ignition for intermediate temperature ignition. The final example of ignition in a practical environment is homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) which is shown to be a problem dominated by the kinetics intermediate temperature hydrocarbon ignition. Model results show why high hydrocarbon and CO emissions are inevitable in HCCI combustion. The conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition are actually quite simple, since only one or two elementary reactions are dominant. However, there are many combustion factors that can influence these two major reactions, and these are the features that vary from one practical system to another.

  18. School Technology Leadership: Artifacts in Systems of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Sara

    2011-01-01

    A cross-case analysis of five case studies of team-based technology leadership in middle schools with laptop programs identifies systems of practice that organize teams' distributed leadership. These cases suggest that successfully implementing a complex improvement effort warrants a team-based leadership approach, especially for an improvement…

  19. Design of a compensation system for dental practice.

    PubMed

    Scheetz, J P; Willis, D O

    1997-01-01

    The compensation system has an impact on the performance of employees in a dental practice. A comprehensive system includes many aspects in addition to the pay that employees receive. This paper explores issues related to the design and implementation of compensation systems in dentistry. Major considerations are the role of pay as a motivator of employees, decisions affecting pay equity of employees, the impact of wage and hour laws on pay decisions, the relationship of performance appraisal to potential pay increases, the use of bonus and incentive plans, and incorporation of fringe benefits into a compensation system. PMID:9130806

  20. Documentation of Nursing Practice Using a Computerized Medical Information System

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Carol

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses a definition of the content of the computerized nursing data base developed by the Nursing Department for the Clinical Center Medical Information System at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. The author describes the theoretical framework for the content and presents a model to describe the organization of the nursing data components in relation to the process of nursing care delivery. Nursing documentation requirements of Nurse Practice Acts, American Nurses Association Standards of Practice and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals are also addressed as they relate to this data base. The advantages and disadvantages of such an approach to computerized documentation are discussed.

  1. Human Systems Integration in Practice: Constellation Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Constellation program provided a unique testbed for Human Systems Integration (HSI) as a fundamental element of the Systems Engineering process. Constellation was the first major program to have HSI mandated by NASA's Human Rating document. Proper HSI is critical to the success of any project that relies on humans to function as operators, maintainers, or controllers of a system. HSI improves mission, system and human performance, significantly reduces lifecycle costs, lowers risk and minimizes re-design. Successful HSI begins with sufficient project schedule dedicated to the generation of human systems requirements, but is by no means solely a requirements management process. A top-down systems engineering process that recognizes throughout the organization, human factors as a technical discipline equal to traditional engineering disciplines with authority for the overall system. This partners with a bottoms-up mechanism for human-centered design and technical issue resolution. The Constellation Human Systems Integration Group (HSIG) was a part of the Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) organization within the program office, and existed alongside similar groups such as Flight Performance, Environments & Constraints, and Integrated Loads, Structures and Mechanisms. While the HSIG successfully managed, via influence leadership, a down-and-in Community of Practice to facilitate technical integration and issue resolution, it lacked parallel top-down authority to drive integrated design. This presentation will discuss how HSI was applied to Constellation, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers. This presentation will discuss how Human Systems Integration (HSI) was applied to NASA's Constellation program, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers on how to accomplish this critical function.

  2. Practical system for generating digital mixed reality video holograms.

    PubMed

    Song, Joongseok; Kim, Changseob; Park, Hanhoon; Park, Jong-Il

    2016-07-10

    We propose a practical system that can effectively mix the depth data of real and virtual objects by using a Z buffer and can quickly generate digital mixed reality video holograms by using multiple graphic processing units (GPUs). In an experiment, we verify that real objects and virtual objects can be merged naturally in free viewing angles, and the occlusion problem is well handled. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed system can generate mixed reality video holograms at 7.6 frames per second. Finally, the system performance is objectively verified by users' subjective evaluations. PMID:27409312

  3. Advancing the practice of systems engineering at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansma, Patti A.; Jones, Ross M.

    2006-01-01

    In FY 2004, JPL launched an initiative to improve the way it practices systems engineering. The Lab's senior management formed the Systems Engineering Advancement (SEA) Project in order to "significantly advance the practice and organizational capabilities of systems engineering at JPL on flight projects and ground support tasks." The scope of the SEA Project includes the systems engineering work performed in all three dimensions of a program, project, or task: 1. the full life-cycle, i.e., concept through end of operations 2. the full depth, i.e., Program, Project, System, Subsystem, Element (SE Levels 1 to 5) 3. the full technical scope, e.g., the flight, ground and launch systems, avionics, power, propulsion, telecommunications, thermal, etc. The initial focus of their efforts defined the following basic systems engineering functions at JPL: systems architecture, requirements management, interface definition, technical resource management, system design and analysis, system verification and validation, risk management, technical peer reviews, design process management and systems engineering task management, They also developed a list of highly valued personal behaviors of systems engineers, and are working to inculcate those behaviors into members of their systems engineering community. The SEA Project is developing products, services, and training to support managers and practitioners throughout the entire system lifecycle. As these are developed, each one needs to be systematically deployed. Hence, the SEA Project developed a deployment process that includes four aspects: infrastructure and operations, communication and outreach, education and training, and consulting support. In addition, the SEA Project has taken a proactive approach to organizational change management and customer relationship management - both concepts and approaches not usually invoked in an engineering environment. This paper'3 describes JPL's approach to advancing the practice of

  4. Practical application of equivalent linearization approaches to nonlinear piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1995-05-01

    The use of mechanical energy absorbers as an alternative to conventional hydraulic and mechanical snubbers for piping supports has attracted a wide interest among researchers and practitioners in the nuclear industry. The basic design concept of energy absorbers (EA) is to dissipate the vibration energy of piping systems through nonlinear hysteretic actions of EA!s under design seismic loads. Therefore, some type of nonlinear analysis needs to be performed in the seismic design of piping systems with EA supports. The equivalent linearization approach (ELA) can be a practical analysis tool for this purpose, particularly when the response approach (RSA) is also incorporated in the analysis formulations. In this paper, the following ELA/RSA methods are presented and compared to each other regarding their practice and numerical accuracy: Response approach using the square root of sum of squares (SRSS) approximation (denoted RS in this paper). Classical ELA based on modal combinations and linear random vibration theory (denoted CELA in this paper). Stochastic ELA based on direct solution of response covariance matrix (denoted SELA in this paper). New algorithms to convert response spectra to the equivalent power spectral density (PSD) functions are presented for both the above CELA and SELA methods. The numerical accuracy of the three EL are studied through a parametric error analysis. Finally, the practicality of the presented analysis is demonstrated in two application examples for piping systems with EA supports.

  5. Practical applications of Zernike phase surfaces in optical system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Steven H.

    2010-04-01

    There are times when it would be helpful to share performance information about an optical system without disclosing proprietary information between multiple parties. A combination of Zernike phase surfaces and paraxial surfaces can be used to model an optical system and provide a method to safely transfer the required information without disclosing the specifics of the design such as details about the optical materials or the specific element geometry. This paper deals with some of the practical aspects of this approach such as aperture stop location, the affects of windows which may change thickness on the construction of the model, and the need for multiple field positions and wavelengths.

  6. Medical Practice Support System. A medical practitioner's multimedia workstation.

    PubMed

    Stetson, D M; Eberhart, R C; Dobbins, R W; Pugh, W

    1991-01-01

    The United States Navy has developed a computer based Medical Practice Support System (MEPSS) intended for use by medical practitioners working in isolated situations. The system, now being tested in operational settings, emphasizes inexpensive, easily obtained off-the-shelf hardware and specially developed, readily implemented software to provide users with: 1) medical record keeping, 2) an electronic medical library, 3) interactive video instruction programs suitable for continuing medical education, 4) computer based medical diagnosis and treatment assistance, and 5) electronic communications with other facilities. This demonstration emphasizes a user based developmental approach, integration of diverse systems under a single user interface, and portable hardware. The resulting system makes medical information needed by practitioners instantly available at the time of a patient encounter, whenever and wherever that encounter may occur. Making clinically valuable information immediately available, MEPSS demonstrates how practitioners can use computers to help their own efforts to improve patient care quality and efficiency. PMID:1807756

  7. Resilient Control Systems Practical Metrics Basis for Defining Mission Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Craig G. Rieger

    2014-08-01

    "Resilience” describes how systems operate at an acceptable level of normalcy despite disturbances or threats. In this paper we first consider the cognitive, cyber-physical interdependencies inherent in critical infrastructure systems and how resilience differs from reliability to mitigate these risks. Terminology and metrics basis are provided to integrate the cognitive, cyber-physical aspects that should be considered when defining solutions for resilience. A practical approach is taken to roll this metrics basis up to system integrity and business case metrics that establish “proper operation” and “impact.” A notional chemical processing plant is the use case for demonstrating how the system integrity metrics can be applied to establish performance, and

  8. Practical mask inspection system with printability and pattern priority verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Hideo; Ozaki, Fumio; Takahara, Kenichi; Inoue, Takafumi; Kikuiri, Nobutaka

    2011-05-01

    Through the four years of study in Association of Super-Advanced Electronics Technologies (ASET) on reducing mask manufacturing Turn Around Time (TAT) and cost, we have been able to establish a technology to improve the efficiency of the review process by applying a printability verification function that utilizes computational lithography simulations to analyze defects detected by a high-resolution mask inspection system. With the advent of Source-Mask Optimization (SMO) and other technologies that extend the life of existing optical lithography, it is becoming extremely difficult to judge a defect only by the shape of a mask pattern, while avoiding pseudo-defects. Thus, printability verification is indispensable for filtering out nuisance defects from high-resolution mask inspection results. When using computational lithography simulations to verify printability with high precision, the image captured by the inspection system must be prepared with extensive care. However, for practical applications, this preparation process needs to be simplified. In addition, utilizing Mask Data Rank (MDR) to vary the defect detection sensitivity according to the patterns is also useful for simultaneously inspecting minute patterns and avoiding pseudo-defects. Combining these two technologies, we believe practical mask inspection for next generation lithography is achievable. We have been improving the estimation accuracy of the printability verification function through discussion with several customers and evaluation of their masks. In this report, we will describe the progress of these practical mask verification functions developed through customers' evaluations.

  9. 75 FR 65052 - Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane... Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems (Standard Practice) as an acceptable means... FAA finds the standards to be acceptable methods and procedures for maintenance of electrical...

  10. Bringing science into river systems cumulative effects assessment practice

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Nicole E.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Noble, Bram F.

    2011-04-15

    Fast-paced watershed change, driven by anthropogenic development, is threatening the sustainability of freshwater resources across the globe. Developments within watersheds interact in a manner that is additive and synergistic over space and time. Such cumulative environmental effects are defined as the results of actions that are individually minor but collectively significant when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions. Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) then is broadly defined as the process of evaluating the potential impacts of such collective actions on the environment and is a requirement in many countries, including in Canada at the federal level under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. However, current approaches to CEA for river systems are proving to be ineffective, which is largely attributed to the disconnect between CEA science and practice. We highlight this gap herein by discussing contradictions in the CEA literature, challenges in quantifying cumulative interactions, including overcoming spatiotemporal scale issues, multiple hydrologic and ecological pathways, and lack of predictive analysis. Our analysis shows there is a need for improved CEA for river systems, and in responding to this need we propose a conceptual framework for better integrating science and practice for improved CEA for river systems using one of the most adversely affected rivers basins in Canada, the Athabasca River, as our model. We conclude by addressing the challenges inherent to CEA with the intent of providing scientists with ways to help improve CEA of river systems.

  11. Energy management systems in buildings: The practical lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, P.

    1984-01-01

    Dramatic reductions in energy consumption in buildings can now be achieved by the use of automated energy management systems (EMS). This book draws on the results of an official programme of twenty five EMS installations in widely differing organisations. It provides detailed guidance on how to determine whether such a system represents a good investment for them; how to approach the project and write a good specification; how to select suitable prospective equipment suppliers; how to assess tenders and set up contracts; and how to train and educate supervisors and staff. Further chapters cover the practicalities of installing and commissioning the equipment and making best use of the system, including action in response to the information output and solutions to problems of handling the data.

  12. Activity Theory in Information Systems Research and Practice: Theoretical Underpinnings for an Information Systems Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mursu, Anja; Luukkonen, Irmeli; Toivanen, Marika; Korpela, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of information systems is to facilitate work activities: here we consider how Activity Theory can be applied in information systems development. Method. The requirements for an analytical model for emancipatory, work-oriented information systems research and practice are specified. Previous research work in Activity…

  13. Practical approaches to field problems of stationary combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC) business plan dictates collaboration with industrial clients and other government agencies to promote energy efficiency, health and safety, pollution reduction and productivity enhancement. The Advanced Combustion Technologies group of CETC provides consultation to numerous organizations in combustion related areas by conducting laboratory and field investigations of fossil fuel-fired combustion equipment. CETC, with its modern research facilities and technical expertise, has taken this practical approach since the seventies and has assisted many organizations in overcoming field problems and in providing cost saving measures and improved profit margins. This paper presents a few selected research projects conducted for industrial clients in north and central America. The combustion systems investigated are mostly liquid fuel fired, with the exception of the utility boiler which was coal-fired. The key areas involved include fuel quality, fuel storage/delivery system contamination, waste derived oils, crude oil combustion, unacceptable pollutant emissions, ambient soot deposition, slagging, fouling, boiler component degradation, and particulate characterization. Some of the practical approaches taken to remedy these field problems on several combustion systems including residential, commercial and industrial scale units are discussed.

  14. Information systems: the key to evidence-based health practice.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing prominence is being given to the use of best current evidence in clinical practice and health services and programme management decision-making. The role of information in evidence-based practice (EBP) is discussed, together with questions of how advanced information systems and technology (IS&T) can contribute to the establishment of a broader perspective for EBP. The author examines the development, validation and use of a variety of sources of evidence and knowledge that go beyond the well-established paradigm of research, clinical trials, and systematic literature review. Opportunities and challenges in the implementation and use of IS&T and knowledge management tools are examined for six application areas: reference databases, contextual data, clinical data repositories, administrative data repositories, decision support software, and Internet-based interactive health information and communication. Computerized and telecommunications applications that support EBP follow a hierarchy in which systems, tasks and complexity range from reference retrieval and the processing of relatively routine transactions, to complex "data mining" and rule-driven decision support systems. PMID:11143195

  15. Cobra sealing system; From field evaluation to practical safeguards application

    SciTech Connect

    Vodrazka, P.; Cermak, L. )

    1991-01-01

    After a successful conclusion of the Cobra seal IAEA field trials, the Cobra Seal System was installed in two Canadian facilities. The seals permit on-site verification without needing to replace them in extreme weather conditions, thus allowing a substantial time reduction for inspectors as well as minimizing intrusiveness of these activities. The paper describes experiences with practical installations of almost sixty Cobra seals including the selection of environmental conduits and housing. Examples of the results of the first several inspections utilizing a new version of the Cobra seal verifier are also included. Possible future outdoor applications of Cobra seals are described and some suggested improvements are outlined.

  16. The Practice Teaching Platform and System for Innovating Talents and Performing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Boyu; Hao, Ziqiang

    2014-01-01

    The practice education is an important part of higher educational system and an important approach to cultivating applied innovative talents. This paper studies practice of teaching platform and practical teaching system for the research and practice based on the objective basis of applied innovative talents and the basic characteristics of the…

  17. Practice.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    Practice refers to a characteristic way professionals use common standards to customize solutions to a range of problems. Practice includes (a) standards for outcomes and processes that are shared with one's colleagues, (b) a rich repertoire of skills grounded in diagnostic acumen, (c) an ability to see the actual and the ideal and work back and forth between them, (d) functional artistry, and (e) learning by doing that transcends scientific rationality. Communities of practice, such as dental offices, are small groups that work together in interlocking roles to achieve these ends. PMID:19413050

  18. Using Gunshot Detection Systems to Fight Explosive Fishing Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showen, R. L.; Dunson, J. C.; Woodman, G.; Christopher, S.; Wilson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blast fishing (using explosives to catch fish) causes extensive damage to coral reefs, especially in the Coral Triangle in Southeast Asia. Subsistence fishermen and larger consortiums, often with criminal links, throw an explosive into a school of fish, killing all sea life within range. This unsustainable practice is becoming more prevalent, and threatens the protein supply of as many as a billion people. Ending blast fishing will require combined technical and societal methods aimed at both deterring the practice, and catching those responsible. Our work aims to significantly improve enforcement. We are re-purposing SST's ShotSpotter gunshot detection system, (trusted and valued by police around the world), substituting hydrophones for the present microphones. Using multilateration and trained human reviewers, the system can give prompt blast alerts, location data, and acoustic waveforms to law enforcement officials. We hope to establish a prototype system in Malaysia in 2015, and have already secured governmental approvals for installation and tests with local law enforcement. The Scubazoo media firm in Malaysia is working with resorts, dive operations, and celebrity sponsors, and is planning to produce videos to illustrate the severity of the problem to both governments and the public. Because there is little hard data concerning the prevalence of blast fishing in either marine protected areas or open waters, the system can also indicate to the world the actual blast rates and patterns of use. The Teng Hoi environmental NGO in Hong Kong showed in 2004 that acoustic waves from typical bombs propagate on the order of 20 km, so an underwater locator system with a small number of sensors can feasibly cover a sizable coral region. Our present plans are to mount sensors on piers, buoys, and boats, but if possible we would also like to integrate with other existing acoustic arrays to strengthen the fight against blast fishing.

  19. [Systemic social practice of nurses in luhmann's perspective].

    PubMed

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Backes, Marli Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to understand the meaning of the social practice of nurses in Luhmann's perspective and allow for a discussion about the construction of a specific code for nursing; one that would go beyond the traditional health-disease code prevalent in the health system, whose relevant social communication is the disease. The Grounded Theory was the methodological framework. Data collection was performed by interviewing the 35 participants between May and December 2007. Data coding and analysis resulted revealed that assuming that nursing is as a functionally differentiated system implies on developing a binary code to enhance health as socially relevant communication and human beings as social beings who are part of a complex and multidimensional reality. PMID:21445497

  20. Best practices for PV solar home system projects

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove-Davies, M.; Cabraal, A.

    1994-12-31

    PV solar home systems (SHS) are increasingly employed as an energy supply option for rural populations. The past 20 years` experience with small-scale SHS programs in developing countries has had mixed results. However, efforts in recent years have been more successful. In support of World Bank lending operations, the Banks Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) has undertaken a series of case studies of currently operating SHS programs in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and the Dominican Republic. These programs have varying degrees of government, NGO, and private sector involvement. This paper summarizes ASTAE`s draft Solar Photovoltaics: Best Practices for Household Electrification report which identifies the institutional, financial, and technical factors fundamental to the success of a PV solar home system project. The final version of the ASTAE report will incorporate comments from an international group of peer reviewers.

  1. Satellite-instrument system engineering best practices and lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueler, Carl F.

    2009-08-01

    This paper focuses on system engineering development issues driving satellite remote sensing instrumentation cost and schedule. A key best practice is early assessment of mission and instrumentation requirements priorities driving performance trades among major instrumentation measurements: Radiometry, spatial field of view and image quality, and spectral performance. Key lessons include attention to technology availability and applicability to prioritized requirements, care in applying heritage, approaching fixed-price and cost-plus contracts with appropriate attention to risk, and assessing design options with attention to customer preference as well as design performance, and development cost and schedule. A key element of success either in contract competition or execution is team experience. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of success, however, is thorough requirements analysis and flowdown to specifications driving design performance with sufficient parameter margin to allow for mistakes or oversights - the province of system engineering from design inception to development, test and delivery.

  2. A manual of recommended practices for hydrogen energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, W.; Leach, S.

    1997-12-31

    Technologies for the production, distribution, and use of hydrogen are rapidly maturing and the number and size of demonstration programs designed to showcase emerging hydrogen energy systems is expanding. The success of these programs is key to hydrogen commercialization. Currently there is no comprehensive set of widely-accepted codes or standards covering the installation and operation of hydrogen energy systems. This lack of codes or standards is a major obstacle to future hydrogen demonstrations in obtaining the requisite licenses, permits, insurance, and public acceptance. In a project begun in late 1996 to address this problem, W. Hoagland and Associates has been developing a Manual of Recommended Practices for Hydrogen Systems intended to serve as an interim document for the design and operation of hydrogen demonstration projects. It will also serve as a starting point for some of the needed standard-setting processes. The Manual will include design guidelines for hydrogen procedures, case studies of experience at existing hydrogen demonstration projects, a bibliography of information sources, and a compilation of suppliers of hydrogen equipment and hardware. Following extensive professional review, final publication will occur later in 1997. The primary goal is to develop a draft document in the shortest possible time frame. To accomplish this, the input and guidance of technology developers, industrial organizations, government R and D and regulatory organizations and others will be sought to define the organization and content of the draft Manual, gather and evaluate available information, develop a draft document, coordinate reviews and revisions, and develop recommendations for publication, distribution, and update of the final document. The workshop, Development of a Manual of Recommended Practices for Hydrogen Energy Systems, conducted on March 11, 1997 in Alexandria, Virginia, was a first step.

  3. Systems analysis and design methodologies: practicalities and use in today's information systems development efforts.

    PubMed

    Jerva, M

    2001-05-01

    Historically, systems analysis and design methodologies have been used as a guide in software development. Such methods provide structure to software engineers in their efforts to create quality solutions in the real world of information systems. This article looks at the elements that constitute a systems analysis methodology and examines the historical development of systems analysis in software development. It concludes with observations on the strengths and weaknesses of four methodologies and the state of the art of practice today. PMID:11378979

  4. Recommended Practice: Creating Cyber Forensics Plans for Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Cornelius; Mark Fabro

    2008-08-01

    issues and to accommodate for the diversity in both system and architecture types, a framework based in recommended practices to address forensics in the control systems domain is required. This framework must be fully flexible to allow for deployment into any control systems environment regardless of technologies used. Moreover, the framework and practices must provide for direction on the integration of modern network security technologies with traditionally closed systems, the result being a true defense-in-depth strategy for control systems architectures. This document takes the traditional concepts of cyber forensics and forensics engineering and provides direction regarding augmentation for control systems operational environments. The goal is to provide guidance to the reader with specifics relating to the complexity of cyber forensics for control systems, guidance to allow organizations to create a self-sustaining cyber forensics program, and guidance to support the maintenance and evolution of such programs. As the current control systems cyber security community of interest is without any specific direction on how to proceed with forensics in control systems environments, this information product is intended to be a first step.

  5. Study of Clinical Practical Model of Urinary System Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wu, Yuan-Yi; Fu, Wei-Jun; Jia, Ying-Xin; Zhang, Bing-Hong; Xu, Yong-De; Wang, Zhong-Xin; Shi, Jian-Guo; Tan, Hai-Song; Qian, Ye-Yong; Shi, Bin-Yi; Zhang, Chao-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to improve the clinical treatment level of urinary system injury, it is necessary to build up an animal model of urinary system wound, which is not only analogous to real clinical practice, but also simple and practical. Methods: We have developed the third generation of firearm fragment wound generator based on the first and the second producer. The best explosive charge of the blank cartridge was selected by gradient powder loading experiments. The firearm fragment injuries were made to the bulbous urethra of 10 New Zealand male rabbits. One week preoperatively and 2, 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, all the animals underwent urethroscopy and urethrography. At 2, 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, two animals were randomly selected and killed, and the urethra was cut off for pathological examination. Results: The shooting distance of the third generation of firearm fragment wound generator is 2 cm. The best explosive charge of the blank cartridge is 1 g of nitrocotton. All rabbits survived the procedures and stayed alive until they were killed. Injuries were limited to bulbous urethra and distal urethra. Round damaged areas, 1–1.5 cm in length, on the ventral wall were observed. Ureteroscopy results showed that canal diameter gradually shrank by over 50% in 9 rabbits. The rate of success was 90%. Urethrography result noted that a 1–1.3 cm stricture was formed at the bulbous urethra. Histology results of injured stricture urethra showed that fibrous connective tissue hyperplasia and hyaline degeneration caused further stricture in the canal. Conclusions: The third generation of firearm fragment wound generator imitates the bullet firing process and is more accurate and repeatable. The corresponding rabbit model of traumatic complex urethral stricture simulates the real complex clinical conditions. This animal model provides a standardized platform for clinical researches on treating traumatic injuries to the urinary system. PMID:25836614

  6. A prototype system to support evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Seckman, Charlotte; Fisher, Cheryl; Hauser, Susan E; Clayton, Jennifer; Thoma, George R

    2008-01-01

    Translating evidence into clinical practice is a complex process that depends on the availability of evidence, the environment into which the research evidence is translated, and the system that facilitates the translation. This paper presents InfoBot, a system designed for automatic delivery of patient-specific information from evidence-based resources. A prototype system has been implemented to support development of individualized patient care plans. The prototype explores possibilities to automatically extract patients problems from the interdisciplinary team notes and query evidence-based resources using the extracted terms. Using 4,335 de-identified interdisciplinary team notes for 525 patients, the system automatically extracted biomedical terminology from 4,219 notes and linked resources to 260 patient records. Sixty of those records (15 each for Pediatrics, Oncology & Hematology, Medical & Surgical, and Behavioral Health units) have been selected for an ongoing evaluation of the quality of automatically proactively delivered evidence and its usefulness in development of care plans. PMID:18998835

  7. Using Electronic Health Record Systems in Diabetes Care: Emerging Practices.

    PubMed

    Veinot, Tiffany C; Zheng, Kai; Lowery, Julie C; Souden, Maria; Keith, Rosalind

    2010-01-01

    While there has been considerable attention devoted to the deployment of electronic health record (EHR) systems, there has been far less attention given to their appropriation for use in clinical encounters - particularly in the context of complex, chronic illness. The Department of Veterans' Affairs (VA) has been at the forefront of EHR adoption and, as such, provides a unique opportunity to examine a mature EHR system in widespread use. Moreover, with a high prevalence of diabetes in its patient population, the VA provides a useful platform for examining EHR use in the context of chronic disease care. We conducted a sequential, exploratory qualitative study at two VA Medical Centers in the Midwest. First, we conducted observations of 64 clinical consultations with diabetes patients. These observations involved 31 different health care providers. Second, using insights from these observations, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 39 health care providers focusing on their use of information in diabetes patient care. Field notes and interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Our analysis generated several categories of EHR use in clinical encounters: priming, structuring, assessing, informing, and continuing. We also outline some mismatches between EHR system design and VA diabetes care practices. We conclude by discussing implications of these emergent system uses for improving the software design of EHRs to better support chronic disease care, as well as for our understanding of the integration of technologies in health care. PMID:25264545

  8. Electronic patient-reported outcome systems in oncology clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Antonia V; Jensen, Roxanne E; Basch, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires assess topics a patient can report about his or her own health. This includes symptoms (eg, nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, pain, or frequent urination), physical functioning (eg, difficulty climbing stairs or difficulty fastening buttons), and mental health (eg, anxiety, fear, or worry). Electronic PRO (ePRO) systems are used in oncology clinical care because of 1) their ability to enhance clinical care by flagging important symptoms and saving clinicians time; 2) the availability of standardized methods for creating and implementing PROs in clinics; and 3) the existence of user-friendly platforms for patient self-reporting like tablet computers and automated telephone surveys. Many ePRO systems can provide actionable links to clinical care such as summary reports in a patient's electronic medical record and real-time e-mail alerts to providers when patients report acute needs. This review presents 5 examples of ePRO systems currently in use in oncology practice. These systems support multiple clinical activities, including assessment of symptoms and toxicities related to chemotherapy and radiation, postoperative surveillance, and symptom management during palliative care and hospice. Patient self-reporting is possible both at clinical visits and between visits over the Internet or by telephone. The implementation of an ePRO system requires significant resources and expertise, as well as user training. ePRO systems enable regular monitoring of patient symptoms, function, and needs, and can enhance the efficiency and quality of care as well as communication with patients. PMID:22811342

  9. Effect of alternative medicinal systems and general practice.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shyam

    2007-10-01

    Alternative medicinal systems like Ayurveda and homeopathy are respected and legitimate sciences. The former was born in India. Colleges abound in this country churning out tens of thousands of graduates of these fields. It is ironic that a large number of them pratice allopathic general practice instead of, or along with, their field of specialisation despite laws prohibiting them to do so. Their gross lack of knowledge of dermatology wreaks a havoc. Even GPs contribute to this confusion for the same reason. Pharmacists contribute to unauthorised sale of dermatologic drugs and promote unsupervised treatment flouting the law. The result is neglected and vitiated dermatoses, unwanted adverse drug reactions and resource depletion for the patient. The practising dermatologist in India is unfortunately the one who bears the brunt of the above confusion. However these situations are also contributory to the enviable clinical skills that Indian dermatologists are so well known for. PMID:17958632

  10. Theory and Practice of Cavity RF Test Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Powers

    2006-08-28

    Over the years Jefferson Lab staff members have performed about 2500 cold cavity tests on about 500 different superconducting cavities. Most of these cavities were later installed in 73 different cryomodules, which were used in three different accelerators. All of the cavities were tested in our vertical test area. About 25% of the cryomodules were tested in our cryomodule test facility and later commissioned in an accelerator. The remainder of the cryomodules were tested and commissioned after they were installed in their respective accelerator. This paper is an overview which should provide a practical background in the RF systems used to test the cavities as well as provide the mathematics necessary to convert the raw pulsed or continuous wave RF signals into useful information such as gradient, quality factor, RF-heat loads and loaded Q?s. Additionally, I will provide the equations necessary for determining the measurement error associated with these values.

  11. Practical Entanglement Estimation for Spin-System Quantum Simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, O.; Cramer, M.; Plenio, M. B.

    2016-03-01

    We present practical methods to measure entanglement for quantum simulators that can be realized with trapped ions, cold atoms, and superconducting qubits. Focusing on long- and short-range Ising-type Hamiltonians, we introduce schemes that are applicable under realistic experimental conditions including mixedness due to, e.g., noise or temperature. In particular, we identify a single observable whose expectation value serves as a lower bound to entanglement and that may be obtained by a simple quantum circuit. As such circuits are not (yet) available for every platform, we investigate the performance of routinely measured observables as quantitative entanglement witnesses. Possible applications include experimental studies of entanglement scaling in critical systems and the reliable benchmarking of quantum simulators.

  12. Practical Entanglement Estimation for Spin-System Quantum Simulators.

    PubMed

    Marty, O; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B

    2016-03-11

    We present practical methods to measure entanglement for quantum simulators that can be realized with trapped ions, cold atoms, and superconducting qubits. Focusing on long- and short-range Ising-type Hamiltonians, we introduce schemes that are applicable under realistic experimental conditions including mixedness due to, e.g., noise or temperature. In particular, we identify a single observable whose expectation value serves as a lower bound to entanglement and that may be obtained by a simple quantum circuit. As such circuits are not (yet) available for every platform, we investigate the performance of routinely measured observables as quantitative entanglement witnesses. Possible applications include experimental studies of entanglement scaling in critical systems and the reliable benchmarking of quantum simulators. PMID:27015489

  13. Practical solutions to implementing "Born Semantic" data systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadbetter, A.; Buck, J. J. H.; Stacey, P.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of data being "Born Semantic" has been proposed in recent years as a Semantic Web analogue to the idea of data being "born digital"[1], [2]. Within the "Born Semantic" concept, data are captured digitally and at a point close to the time of creation are annotated with markup terms from semantic web resources (controlled vocabularies, thesauri or ontologies). This allows heterogeneous data to be more easily ingested and amalgamated in near real-time due to the standards compliant annotation of the data. In taking the "Born Semantic" proposal from concept to operation, a number of difficulties have been encountered. For example, although there are recognised methods such as Header, Dictionary, Triples [3] for the compression, publication and dissemination of large volumes of triples these systems are not practical to deploy in the field on low-powered (both electrically and computationally) devices. Similarly, it is not practical for instruments to output fully formed semantically annotated data files if they are designed to be plugged into a modular system and the data to be centrally logged in the field as is the case on Argo floats and oceanographic gliders where internal bandwidth becomes an issue [2]. In light of these issues, this presentation will concentrate on pragmatic solutions being developed to the problem of generating Linked Data in near real-time systems. Specific examples from the European Commission SenseOCEAN project where Linked Data systems are being developed for autonomous underwater platforms, and from work being undertaken in the streaming of data from the Irish Galway Bay Cable Observatory initiative will be highlighted. Further, developments of a set of tools for the LogStash-ElasticSearch software ecosystem to allow the storing and retrieval of Linked Data will be introduced. References[1] A. Leadbetter & J. Fredericks, We have "born digital" - now what about "born semantic"?, European Geophysical Union General Assembly, 2014

  14. NCEA's Best Practice Framework: A Platform to Examine School and System Practices. 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Accountability, 2007

    2007-01-01

    While educators often have rich information on the strategies used in their own school, they may have little information about the strategies or practices in other schools--particularly the specific practices of consistently high-performing schools. To provide an outside compass for those seeking to improve, members at National Center for…

  15. NCEA's Best Practice Framework: A Platform to Examine School and System Practices. 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Accountability, 2006

    2006-01-01

    While educators often have rich information on the strategies used in their own school, they may have little information about the strategies or practices in other schools--particularly the specific practices of consistently higher performing schools. To provide an outside compass for those seeking to improve, members at the National Center for…

  16. Energy Efficiency Maximization of Practical Wireless Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraslan, Eren

    Energy consumption of the modern wireless communication systems is rapidly growing due to the ever-increasing data demand and the advanced solutions employed in order to address this demand, such as multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) techniques. These MIMO systems are power hungry, however, they are capable of changing the transmission parameters, such as number of spatial streams, number of transmitter/receiver antennas, modulation, code rate, and transmit power. They can thus choose the best mode out of possibly thousands of modes in order to optimize an objective function. This problem is referred to as the link adaptation problem. In this work, we focus on the link adaptation for energy efficiency maximization problem, which is defined as choosing the optimal transmission mode to maximize the number of successfully transmitted bits per unit energy consumed by the link. We model the energy consumption and throughput performances of a MIMO-OFDM link and develop a practical link adaptation protocol, which senses the channel conditions and changes its transmission mode in real-time. It turns out that the brute force search, which is usually assumed in previous works, is prohibitively complex, especially when there are large numbers of transmit power levels to choose from. We analyze the relationship between the energy efficiency and transmit power, and prove that energy efficiency of a link is a single-peaked quasiconcave function of transmit power. This leads us to develop a low-complexity algorithm that finds a near-optimal transmit power and take this dimension out of the search space. We further prune the search space by analyzing the singular value decomposition of the channel and excluding the modes that use higher number of spatial streams than the channel can support. These algorithms and our novel formulations provide simpler computations and limit the search space into a much smaller set; hence

  17. Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications. PMID:21995776

  18. Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Willem M

    2011-08-30

    Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications. PMID:21995776

  19. Practical advantages of mud cooling systems for drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Maury, V.; Guenot, A.

    1995-03-01

    Field case studies of borehole stability have shown that some failures, previously unexplained, were due to thermal effects, such as heating the upper part of open hole sections by mud circulation when drilling deeper or reheating of the bottomhole when mud circulation is stopped. A complete analysis of the thermal regime in boreholes was performed and as a consequence, cooling of mud appeared as a means to mitigate these effects. A series of tests were then carried out to check the practicality of installing such mud cooling systems. Many other advantages then appeared: decrease of the temperature of the borehole allowing better operation of the logging tools, better control of the mud rheology with less additives, extended use of MWD/LWD devices. But the most significant advantage is for the oil based muds which can be maintained at surface below their flash point, improving the safety of operations. This paper recalls and summarizes the results of observations, measurements and studies performed to determine the feasibility of such systems. Operational results are given for several field cases with emphasis on safety. The use of these very simple devices, which have been field proven on normal and high temperature (BHCT = 150 C), is now contemplated for future HP-HT wells.

  20. Systemic Hydration: Relating Science to Clinical Practice in Vocal Health

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Naomi A.; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the current state of the science regarding the role of systemic hydration in vocal function and health. Study Design Literature Review Methods Literature search spanning multiple disciplines, including speech-language pathology, nutrition and dietetics, medicine, sports and exercise science, physiology and biomechanics. Results The relationship between hydration and physical function is an area of common interest amongst multiple professions. Each discipline provides valuable insight into the connection between performance and water balance, as well as complimentary methods of investigation. Existing voice literature suggests a relationship between hydration and voice production, however the underlying mechanisms are not yet defined and a treatment effect for systemic hydration remains to be demonstrated. Literature from other disciplines sheds light on methodological shortcomings and in some cases offers an alternative explanation for observed phenomena. Conclusions A growing body of literature in the field of voice science is documenting a relationship between hydration and vocal function, however greater understanding is required to guide best practice in the maintenance of vocal health and management of voice disorders. Integration of knowledge and technical expertise from multiple disciplines facilitates analysis of existing literature and provides guidance as to future research. PMID:24880674

  1. Spoken Grammar Practice and Feedback in an ASR-Based CALL System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Bart Penning; Cucchiarini, Catia; Bodnar, Stephen; Strik, Helmer; van Hout, Roeland

    2015-01-01

    Speaking practice is important for learners of a second language. Computer assisted language learning (CALL) systems can provide attractive opportunities for speaking practice when combined with automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology. In this paper, we present a CALL system that offers spoken practice of word order, an important aspect of…

  2. Perspectives on the changing healthcare system: teaching systems-based practice to medical residents

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Johanna; Phillips, Erica; Fein, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education restructured its accreditation system to be based on educational outcomes in six core competencies. Systems-based practice is one of the six core competencies. The purpose of this report is to describe Weill Cornell Medical College's Internal Medicine Residency program curriculum for systems-based practice (SBP) and its evaluation process. Methods To examine potential outcomes of the POCHS curriculum, an evaluation was conducted, examining participants': (1) knowledge gain; (2) course ratings; and (3) qualitative feedback. Results On average, there was a 19 percentage point increase in knowledge test scores for all three cohorts. The course was rated overall highly, receiving an average of 4.6 on a 1–5 scale. Lastly, the qualitative comments supported that the material is needed and valued. Conclusion The course, entitled Perspectives on the Changing Healthcare System (POCHS) and its evaluation process support that systems-based practice is crucial to residency education. The course is designed not only to educate residents about the current health care system but also to enable them to think critically about the risk and benefits of the changes. POCHS provides a framework for teaching and assessing this competency and can serve as a template for other residency programs looking to create or restructure their SBP curriculum. PMID:24001523

  3. Microcomputer Systems in Solo and Small Group Medical Practices

    PubMed Central

    Bremer, Roger E.

    1978-01-01

    Technological developments of microprocessors and microcomputers will facilitate transferring the advantages of larger computer installations to solo and small group medical practices. A series of powerful forces will create the need for computer assistance, helping to overcome earlier restraints. Surveys show the physician is anxious for the help, and manufacturers have the needed advanced components under development. A typical advanced system for physical examination and clerical transactions (ASPECT) has been synthesized from the identified components at attractive economies of scale. More orderly and faster patient processing, lower costs for in-office laboratory tests, high quality, comparative diagnostic protocols, processing more patients at lower unit costs, automated administrative procedures and interface with emerging data banks are a few of the many potential benefits to the patient, the practitioner and society. Effective demonstration programs, triggering modified manufacturing and marketing patterns, are pragmatic priorities before the arsenal of these benefits can be effectively arrayed against today's greatest health care adversary - “the inflation crunch.”

  4. Situational Analysis: Centerless Systems and Human Service Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbury, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Bronfenbrenner's ecological model is a conceptual framework that continues to contribute to human service practices. In the current article, the author describes the possibilities for practice made intelligible by drawing from this framework. She then explores White's "Web of Praxis" model as an important extension of this approach, and proceeds…

  5. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  6. Policy and practice in Myanmar's protected area system.

    PubMed

    Myint Aung, U

    2007-07-01

    Myanmar's protected area (PA) system began nearly 150 years ago under royal patronage. Park policies and practices, embodied in 19 pieces of legislation developed sporadically during and after the colonial period. As a result of the FAO-UNDP's Nature Conservation and National Parks Project (1981-1985) the government established the Nature & Wildlife Conservation Division and placed it within the Forest Department as the agency responsible for PA management. As a consequence the number of parks increased from 14 to 33. Myanmar's median park size is less than 50 km(2), but only five parks (15%) are larger than 1000 km(2). Most parks conserve terrestrial habitats; parks encompassing inland wetlands, mangrove, and marine habitats are limited in number and size. Existing PAs unequally represent Myanmar's ecosystems; the Malay Transition, Burmese coast, Burmese Transition and Cardamom Mountains bio-units are under-represented within the system. The effective total PA size (i.e., area of all parks less the area of 13 paper parks) is currently about 2.1%. Budgetary support for parks increased 11% since 1996, but is insufficient to address park needs, particularly in remote parks that are understaffed. Limited education and training of PA staff is a major factor limiting effective park management. Fifty-eight percent of park wardens are educated as foresters, and 42% have university degrees. The average posting in a park is 4 years, which is less than ideal for management continuity. Recommended actions to secure Myanmar's PAs include evaluation and reformulation of policies, increasing representation of Myanmar's habitats within the PA system, management planning, and standardizing protocols for anti-poaching patrols and other forms of law enforcement. Improved leadership training for wardens and range forest officers can also improve park management. Funding for community relations and more integrated management of parks and people can reduce conflicts, while

  7. Changing remuneration systems: effects on activity in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Krasnik, A; Groenewegen, P P; Pedersen, P A; von Scholten, P; Mooney, G; Gottschau, A; Flierman, H A; Damsgaard, M T

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effects on general practitioners' activities of a change in their remuneration from a capitation based system to a mixed fee per item and capitation based system. DESIGN--Follow up study with data collected from contact sheets completed by general practitioners in one period before (March 1987) a change in their remuneration system and two periods after (March 1988, November 1988), with a control group of general practitioners with a mixed fee per item and capitation based system throughout. SETTING--General practices in Copenhagen city (index group) and Copenhagen county (control group). SUBJECTS--265 General practitioners in Copenhagen city, of whom 100 were selected randomly from the 130 who agreed to participate (10 exclusions) and 326 general practitioners in Copenhagen county. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of consultations (face to face and by telephone) and renewals of prescriptions, diagnostic and curative services, and specialist and hospital referrals per 1000 enlisted patients in one week. RESULTS--Of the 75 general practitioners who completed all three sheets, four were excluded for incomplete data. Total contact rates per 1000 patients listed rose significantly compared with the rates before the change index in the city (100.0 before the change v 111.7 (95% confidence interval 106.4 to 117.4 after the change) and over the same time in the control group (100.0 v 106.0), but within a year these rates fell (to 104.2(99.1 to 109.6) and 104.0 respectively). There was an increase in consultations by telephone initially but not thereafter. Rates of examinations and treatments that attracted specific additional remuneration after the change rose significantly compared with those before (diagnostic services, 138.1 (118.7 to 160.5) and 159.5 (137.8 to 184.7) and curative services 194.6 (152.2 to 248.9) and 194.8(152.3 to 249.2) for second and third data collections respectively) and with the control group (diagnostic services 105

  8. What Indicates Competency in Systems Based Practice? An Analysis of Perspective Consistency among Healthcare Team Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Mark J.; Naqvi, Zoon; Encandela, John A.; Bylund, Carma L.; Dean, Randa; Calero-Breckheimer, Ayxa; Schmidt, Hilary J.

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of the world the practice of medicine and medical education increasingly focus on providing patient care within context of the larger healthcare system. Our purpose is to solicit perceptions of all professional stakeholders (e.g. nurses) of the system regarding the U.S. ACGME competency Systems Based Practice to uncover the extent to…

  9. Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Amelie Y.

    Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol

  10. Teaching Family Systems Theory to Family Practice Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Steve; Herndon, Anne

    1981-01-01

    The family practice resident is taught that the patient's family is the most medically relevant context for viewing the patient's present symptoms and illnesses. With the removal of the necessity for family interviews, an effective training program in family dynamics was designed for family medicine residents. (Author/MLW)

  11. Parenting Practices among Depressed Mothers in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Kagotho, Jacqueline Njeri; Dixon, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze a nationally representative sample of families referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) agencies, the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, to examine the association between maternal depression and parenting practices over a 36-month follow-up period. Three hypotheses were tested: (1)…

  12. Understanding Families: Applying Family Systems Theory to Early Childhood Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Linda Garris

    2006-01-01

    Working with families is one of the most important aspects of being an early childhood professional, yet it is an area in which many educators have received little preparation (Nieto 2004). Teachers spend hours learning about child development, developmentally appropriate practices, health and safety, playgrounds, and play. At times it seems that…

  13. Promising Practices in Statewide Articulation and Transfer Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hezel Associates (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This guide is based on a study funded by Lumina Foundation for Education and conducted by Hezel Associates and the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE). Designed to aid policymakers and others, this report takes a state-by-state look at practices related to transfer and articulation between two- and four-year public…

  14. Structural Decoupling between the VET and the Employment Systems: Challenges Manifested in Assessment of Practical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista; Hinno, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyse how structural decoupling, which is an especially relevant problem for school-based vocational education and training (VET) systems, reveals itself in the assessment of practical training. Niklas Luhmann's social system theory has been applied to the analysis of assessment practices as a communication act between the…

  15. Current Faculty Development Practices for Alternative Delivery Systems in Christian Higher Education Institutions: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Steven Lowell

    2009-01-01

    This research study was an investigation of current faculty development practices for alternative delivery systems. Attention was given to faculty development in general as well as specific facets of faculty development for alternative delivery systems. Future or intended faculty development practices were pursued, along with factors that…

  16. E-Learning System for Experiments Involving Construction of Practical Electronic Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takemura, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel e-learning system for technical experiments involving the construction of practical electronic circuits; this system would meet the various demands of individual experimenters. This mixed mode is beneficial for practical use in that an experimenter who does not have sufficient circuit components for circuit making can…

  17. Duke Electronic Mail Post Office A Practical Mail Linking System*

    PubMed Central

    Dryfoos, James D.; Hammond, William E.; Spero, Laurence A.; Rabold, Jean S.; Straube, Mark J.; Stead, William W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a system designed to integrate the many different electronic mail systems in use throughout Duke University. The Duke Electronic Mail Post Office project is part of Duke University Medical Center's model for Achieving an Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS). Main features of the systems, problems encountered during implementation, and future directions are presented and discussed.

  18. The Multicampus System: Perspectives on Practice and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaither, Gerald, Ed.

    This book, a compilation of 12 chapters written by leaders at postsecondary institutions, examines multicampus systems of higher education, and the dynamic environment in which these systems operate. Part 1 discusses the role, scope, mission and purpose of multicampus systems: (1) "Management and Leadership Challenges of Multicampus Systems" (D.…

  19. Systemic Change for RTI: Key Shifts for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozleski, Elizabeth B.; Huber, Jennifer J.

    2010-01-01

    RTI has the potential to meet the challenges of increasing diversity in student populations and the need for increasingly complex systems of instructional design. Three fundamental shifts in understanding systems and systems change must ground RTI policy and implementation work. First, RTI must be seen as an activity system nested within a larger…

  20. Energy-efficient downlink resource management in self-organized OFDMA-based two-tier femtocell networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Adnan; Aslam, Saleem; Kim, Hyung Seok; Lee, Kyung-Geun

    2015-12-01

    Femtocell is a novel technology that is used for escalating indoor coverage as well as the capacity of traditional cellular networks. However, interference is the limiting factor for performance improvement due to co-channel deployment between macrocells and femtocells. The traditional network planning is not feasible because of the random deployment of femtocells. Therefore, self-organization approaches are the key to having successful deployment of femtocells. This study presents the joint resource block (RB) and power allocation task for the two-tier femtocell network in a self-organizing manner, with the concern to minimizing the impact of interference and maximizing the energy efficiency. In this study, we analyze the performance of the system in terms of the energy efficiency, which is composed of both the transmission and circuit power. Most of the previous studies investigate the performance regarding the throughput requirement of the two-tier femtocell network while the energy efficiency aspect is largely ignored. Here, the joint allocation task is modeled as a non-cooperative game which is demonstrated to exhibit pure and unique Nash equilibrium. In order to reduce the complexity of the proposed non-cooperative game, the joint RB and power allocation task is divided into two subproblems: an RB allocation and a particle swarm optimization-based power allocation. The analysis of the proposed game is carried out in terms of not only energy efficiency but also throughput. With practical 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long-Term Evolution (LTE) parameters, the simulation results illustrate the superior performance of the proposed game as compared to the traditional methods. Also, the comparison is carried out with the joint allocation scheme which only considers the throughput as the objective function. The results illustrate that significant performance improvement is achieved in terms of energy efficiency with slight loss in the throughput. The

  1. Improving System Integration: The Art and Science of Engaging Small Community Practices in Health System Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Pus, Laura; Stanaitis, Ian; Ivers, Noah; Baker, G. Ross; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Hawker, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on successful engagement strategies in recruiting and retaining primary care physicians (PCPs) in a quality improvement project, as perceived by family physicians in small practices. Sustained physician engagement is critical for quality improvement (QI) aiming to enhance health system integration. Although there is ample literature on engaging physicians in hospital or team-based practice, few reports describe factors influencing engagement of community-based providers practicing with limited administrative support. The PCPs we describe participated in SCOPE: Seamless Care Optimizing the Patient Experience, a QI project designed to support their care of complex patients and reduce both emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient admissions. SCOPE outcome measures will inform subsequent papers. All the 30 participating PCPs completed surveys assessing perceptions regarding the importance of specific engagement strategies. Project team acknowledgement that primary care is challenging and new access to patient resources were the most important factors in generating initial interest in SCOPE. The opportunity to improve patient care via integration with other providers was most important in their commitment to participate, and a positive experience with project personnel was most important in their continued engagement. Our experience suggests that such providers respond well to personalized, repeated, and targeted engagement strategies. PMID:26904284

  2. The System Effect: Scaling High-Impact Practices across Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, Jonathan S.; Martin, Rebecca R.; Wise, Kathleen; Blaich, Charles

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the role of systems and consortia in scaling and implementing undergraduate research through a study of the efforts of six systems and consortia working together with the Council on Undergraduate Research.

  3. A System of Individually Guided Motivation. Practical Paper Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.; And Others

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a system of individually guided motivation which is directly tied to a total system of individually guided education. In the system of motivation, the child's entering characteristics are assessed, motivational objectives in the form of desired behaviors are set for each child, a program designed to…

  4. Selecting and Using Career Information Systems. Practice Application Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaerman, Robert D.

    This brief summarizes research-based implementation factors to improve the selection and use of career information systems in schools, community agencies, and other employment and training settings. Thirteen factors to consider when selecting career information systems are identified: theoretical assumptions upon which the system is based,…

  5. Practical engineering: control of active systems using the stagnation temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Lunde, P.J.

    1982-04-01

    Solar active systems with flat plate collectors are discussed with reference to the temperature at which the system should be activated. It is concluded that the system should be activated when the stagnation temperature (temperature under the absorber plate when no fluid is circulating) equals the temperature of the fluid in storage. A thermistor Wheatstone bridge control system is described which will eliminate pump relay chatter and the permissible control differential is calculated from the collector efficiency curve. To avoid dedication of an entire collector to house the control system, a method is described for determining the stagnation temperature using a portion of an active collector. For an active solar hot water system, a calculation is carried out to show that a 2/sup 0/F temperature differential (stagnation temperature-storage temperature) is satisfactory. (MJJ)

  6. PORÍS: practical-oriented representation for instrument systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz-Cedillo, Jacinto Javier

    2010-07-01

    This article presents a toolkit for defining simple but powerful systems. PORIS toolkit is an open and extensible source collaborative project that allows describing system graph-based systems and their behavior in a snapshot. It provides a web editor for a domain visual specific language (DSL) and transformation tools to generate software prototypes, system configurations, specific user interfaces and documentation. Different kind of instruments, like the astronomical ones, can be described and represented using PORIS specifications and models. A significant advantage of using PORIS toolkit is that it makes easy and lighter providing instant feedback to domain experts in the dynamic process of defining new instruments.

  7. Stochastic perturbed systems: Theory and practice of Karman vortex streets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtfort, Joerg

    1991-05-01

    In the theory of randomly perturbed dynamical systems developed by Friedlin and Wentzell, the potential of a vectorfield is generalized to the so called quasipotential. For general nonlinear systems, the quasipotential turns out to be nondifferentiable along certain lines. These lines are investigated numerically for bistable systems with at least one limit cycle. It is found that even for strong nonlinearity, the quasipotential remains smooth in a finite neighborhood of the stable limit cycle. This formalism is used for the reconstruction of dynamical systems for measured time series. The method is successfully applied to velocity measurements in a Karman vortex street at Reynolds numbers 60 to 150.

  8. GN&C Engineering Best Practices For Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  9. GN&C Engineering Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  10. GN&C Engineering Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  11. Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems: the Career of a Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Etienne

    The concept of community of practice was not born in the systems theory tradition. It has its roots in attempts to develop accounts of the social nature of human learning inspired by anthropology and social theory (Lave, 1988; Bourdieu, 1977; Giddens, 1984; Foucault, 1980; Vygotsky, 1978). But the concept of community of practice is well aligned with the perspective of systems traditions. A community of practice itself can be viewed as a simple social system. And a complex social system can be viewed as constituted by interrelated communities of practice. In this essay I first explore the systemic nature of the concept at these two levels. Then I use this foundation to look at the applications of the concept, some of its main critiques, and its potential for developing a social discipline of learning.

  12. Practical solutions to turbine control system retrofit problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, M.; Lovejoy, K.

    1996-10-01

    This paper addresses the use of microprocessors in retrofitting turbine control systems. The topics of the paper include modern control system architecture, human machine interface, steam flow linearization and automatic valve calibration, retrofit hydraulic interfacing, reliability considerations, and advanced valve positioning technique (quarter cycle damping).

  13. Assessing System Thinking through Different Concept-Mapping Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandstadter, Kristina; Harms, Ute; Grossschedl, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    System thinking is usually investigated by using questionnaires, video analysis, or interviews. Recently, concept-mapping (CM) was suggested as an adequate instrument for analysing students' system thinking. However, there are different ways with which to use this method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether particular…

  14. From Systemic Conception to Working Model: Translating Principles into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Christine G.; And Others

    This paper focuses on the systems approach in family therapy and attempts to further the development of this approach by defining its assumptions and delineating the relationship between the assumptions and their operationalization in assessment and therapy. The first section identifies two basic assumptions of a systemic approach, i.e., that the…

  15. A Practical System of Photography for Genealogists and Historians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, George F.

    The purpose of this report is to describe the KISS (Keep It Sweet and Simple) system of photography for accurately and rapidly copying genealogical and historical records on 35mm film, developing the same and using the resulting negative roll in a regular microfilm reader for immediate viewing. The basic requirement of the system is that it be…

  16. Private Agricultural Extension System in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Private extension system has been at the centre of a debate triggered by inefficient public agricultural extension. The debate is anchored on the premise that the private sector is more efficient in extension service delivery. This study evaluates the private extension system in Kenya. It employs qualitative and quantitative methods. The results…

  17. Vacuum pumps and systems: A review of current practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Stuart

    1986-01-01

    A review of the fundamental characteristics of the many types of vacuum pumps and vacuum pumping systems is given. The optimum pumping range, relative cost, performance limitations, maintenance problems, system operating costs and similar subjects are discussed. Experiences from the thin film deposition, chemical processing, material handling, food processing and other industries, as well as space simulation are used to support conclusions and recommendations.

  18. Practical Methods for Estimating Software Systems Fault Content and Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, A.; Schneidewind, N.; Munson, J.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed techniques to discriminate between fault-prone software modules and those that are not, to estimate a software system's residual fault content, to identify those portions of a software system having the highest estimated number of faults, and to estimate the effects of requirements changes on software quality.

  19. Systems medicine: a new approach to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Cardinal-Fernández, Pablo; Nin, Nicolás; Ruíz-Cabello, Jesús; Lorente, José A

    2014-10-01

    Most respiratory diseases are considered complex diseases as their susceptibility and outcomes are determined by the interaction between host-dependent factors (genetic factors, comorbidities, etc.) and environmental factors (exposure to microorganisms or allergens, treatments received, etc.) The reductionist approach in the study of diseases has been of fundamental importance for the understanding of the different components of a system. Systems biology or systems medicine is a complementary approach aimed at analyzing the interactions between the different components within one organizational level (genome, transcriptome, proteome), and then between the different levels. Systems medicine is currently used for the interpretation and understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of different diseases, biomarker discovery, design of innovative therapeutic targets, and the drawing up of computational models for different biological processes. In this review we discuss the most relevant concepts of the theory underlying systems medicine, as well as its applications in the various biological processes in humans. PMID:24397963

  20. Online Course Best Practices as Precision Teaching: Case Study of Quality Systems Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinn, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Best practices for online courses are explored as precision teaching (PT) within the context of a case study analysis. The case study focuses on courses taught, 100 per cent online, as part of Quality Systems (QS) at Bowling Green State University (BGSU). PT literature establishes main attributes desired as the basis for best practices. The…

  1. Practice parameter for the assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Terry; Fouras, George; Brown, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    This Practice Parameter presents principles for the mental health assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system. Important definitions, background, history, epidemiology, mental health care use, and functional outcomes are described. Practical guidance regarding child welfare-related considerations for evaluation and management are discussed. PMID:26004666

  2. [Periodontitis and systemic diseases: from science to clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Thomas, R Z; Loos, B G; Teeuw, W; Kunnen, A; van Winkelhoff, A J; Abbas, F

    2015-10-01

    The evidence for an association between systemic diseases and periodontitis is strongest with diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disease. There is a moderate association of periodontitis with adverse pregnancy outcomes and rheumatoid arthritis. Periodontal treatment has, on average, a positive effect on reducing systemic infection and improving the condition of the vascular system. For diabetes patients, periodontal treatment can also have a positive effect on metabolic regulation. There is insufficient evidence that periodontal treatment prevents adverse pregnancy outcomes and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26465017

  3. Photovoltaic power systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested practices

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, J.

    1996-12-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently. Application of this information and results obtained are the responsibility of the user.

  4. Surveillance system for hepatitis C infection: A practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Najmeh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Ataei, Behrooz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health concern throughout the world. Despite its public health prominence, however, how surveillance systems for hepatitis C should be designed is still a challenging issue especially in developing countries such as Iran. Establishing a surveillance system needs an ongoing process of case investigation, data collection, analysis of data and also dissemination of data to public health professionals and health care providers. This review article tries to provide the best recommendations for planning and implantation a surveillance system for HCV infection. PMID:22826770

  5. Tutoring System Innovations: Past Practice to Future Prototypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Ralph; Nobel, Michele M.; Hessler, Terri; Yawn, Christopher D.; Heron, Timothy E.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the progression of tutoring system innovations from informal, dyadic, and subjectively evaluated arrangements to more formally arranged configurations that emphasize training, application, and evaluation. Suggestions for future innovations, based on existing prototypes, are discussed.

  6. A Practice of the Simple Learning Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagoshi, Takashi; Doshita, Hiroki; Okino, Koji; Tajima, Masato

    Recently, the LMS ( Learning Management System) of the Blackboard, the WebCt, the Moodle and the Wiki etc. are utilized at the time of e-learning execution. We constructed a simple learning management system with the PukiWiki which is a derivative edition of the Wiki. In this system, the page which the Web page reader is perusing can be edited freely. Moreover, not only a teacher can equally treat the functions used before easily, but a student can create and expand his pages freely. We applied this system to the programming exercise with Java language. When students present a subject, the certainty and convenience are verified since the process are automatically recorded with time.

  7. Practical reliability and uncertainty quantification in complex systems : final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, Matthew D.; Ringland, James T.; Marzouk, Youssef M.; Boggs, Paul T.; Zurn, Rena M.; Diegert, Kathleen V.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Red-Horse, John Robert

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the use of Bayesian methods for the estimation of the reliability of complex systems. The goals were to find methods for dealing with continuous data, rather than simple pass/fail data; to avoid assumptions of specific probability distributions, especially Gaussian, or normal, distributions; to compute not only an estimate of the reliability of the system, but also a measure of the confidence in that estimate; to develop procedures to address time-dependent or aging aspects in such systems, and to use these models and results to derive optimal testing strategies. The system is assumed to be a system of systems, i.e., a system with discrete components that are themselves systems. Furthermore, the system is 'engineered' in the sense that each node is designed to do something and that we have a mathematical description of that process. In the time-dependent case, the assumption is that we have a general, nonlinear, time-dependent function describing the process. The major results of the project are described in this report. In summary, we developed a sophisticated mathematical framework based on modern probability theory and Bayesian analysis. This framework encompasses all aspects of epistemic uncertainty and easily incorporates steady-state and time-dependent systems. Based on Markov chain, Monte Carlo methods, we devised a computational strategy for general probability density estimation in the steady-state case. This enabled us to compute a distribution of the reliability from which many questions, including confidence, could be addressed. We then extended this to the time domain and implemented procedures to estimate the reliability over time, including the use of the method to predict the reliability at a future time. Finally, we used certain aspects of Bayesian decision analysis to create a novel method for determining an optimal testing strategy, e.g., we can estimate the 'best' location to take the next test to

  8. Gastric atrophy: use of OLGA staging system in practice

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Mahsa; Ehtiati, Ara; Mashayekhi, Reza; Rafizadeh, Mitra; Zojaji, Homayoun; Mirsattari, Dariush; Kishani Farahani, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study used the OLGA system to characterize the histology pattern of gastritis in dyspeptic outpatients with a mean age of 45 years from regions with different gastric cancer risks. Background: Several classification systems have been purposed for understanding the status of the gastric mucosa. Currently, the Sydney system is the most widely employed. Nevertheless, the applicability of the Sydney system in therapeutic and prognostic areas is a matter of debate. Given this shortcoming an international group of gastroenterologists and pathologists developed a new system named Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA). Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional comparative study the OLGA system was used to characterize the histology pattern of gastritis in 685 dyspeptic patients referring to the department of gastroenterology of a training hospital. Results: No significant correlation was found between active inflammation and total OLGA score (P > 0.05). Also, no statistically significant correlation was found between activity and intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, atrophy, and cancer (P > 0.05). Even though, there is a positive correlation between mild chronic inflammation and total OLGA score, no correlation has been identified between chronicity and dysplasia or cancer (P > 0.05). Nearly, In all cases with no dysplasia OLGA score was zero but all patients with gastric cancer OLGA score was more than two. Conclusion: Generally, the activity is not a useful factor in predicting prognosis and its loss of relation with total OLGA score does not make OLGA score any less predictable. PMID:26744611

  9. 78 FR 59725 - Construction Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices, and Training Requirements; Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...OSHA solicits public comments concerning its proposal to extend OMB approval of the information collection requirements contained in the Construction Standards on Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices (29 CFR 1926.502), and Training Requirements (29 CFR...

  10. Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS): A practical tool for earth science visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinter, James L., III; Doty, Brian E.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on grid analysis and display system (GrADS): a practical tool for earth science visualization are presented. Topics covered include: GrADS design goals; data sets; and temperature profiles.

  11. [A reflection upon an organizational system model for nursing care centered on best practices].

    PubMed

    Kempfer, Silvana Silveira; Birolo, Ioná Vieira Bez; Meirelles, Betina Homer Schlindwein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2010-09-01

    This article aims at reflecting on nursing best practices and these practices as a perspective of systemizing care. Quality of nursing becomes evident from management practices instituted as a result of its development throughout time. Thinkers of the management area have really influenced nursing both at professional acting and theoretical basis levels. It is imperative that nursing comes closer to best practices, which are considered as a non linear manner of perceiving the world, where structuring of its actions is centered on complex perspective; the use of registers as a way for planning organization and care to take effect, as well as professional identification with issues that transcend personal care and are closer to universal ethics. Best practices are linked to social responsibility, sustainability and ecology as an essence of human actions to conduct management practices. PMID:21574344

  12. Practical Loop-Shaping Design of Feedback Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George

    2010-01-01

    An improved methodology for designing feedback control systems has been developed based on systematically shaping the loop gain of the system to meet performance requirements such as stability margins, disturbance attenuation, and transient response, while taking into account the actuation system limitations such as actuation rates and range. Loop-shaping for controls design is not new, but past techniques do not directly address how to systematically design the controller to maximize its performance. As a result, classical feedback control systems are designed predominantly using ad hoc control design approaches such as proportional integral derivative (PID), normally satisfied when a workable solution is achieved, without a good understanding of how to maximize the effectiveness of the control design in terms of competing performance requirements, in relation to the limitations of the plant design. The conception of this improved methodology was motivated by challenges in designing control systems of the types needed for supersonic propulsion. But the methodology is generally applicable to any classical control-system design where the transfer function of the plant is known or can be evaluated. In the case of a supersonic aerospace vehicle, a major challenge is to design the system to attenuate anticipated external and internal disturbances, using such actuators as fuel injectors and valves, bypass doors, and ramps, all of which are subject to limitations in actuator response, rates, and ranges. Also, for supersonic vehicles, with long slim type of structures, coupling between the engine and the structural dynamics can produce undesirable effects that could adversely affect vehicle stability and ride quality. In order to design distributed controls that can suppress these potential adverse effects, within the full capabilities of the actuation system, it is important to employ a systematic control design methodology such as this that can maximize the

  13. Best practices: the Utah Youth Suicide Study: best practices for suicide prevention through the juvenile court system.

    PubMed

    Gray, Doug; Dawson, Kristin L; Grey, Todd C; McMahon, William M

    2011-12-01

    Utah is among a group of Western Mountain states in which suicide rates among youths are consistently high. The Utah Youth Suicide Study incorporated data from every government agency in Utah, utilizing a statewide Office of the Medical Examiner. A key finding was that 63% of suicide decedents had contact with the juvenile courts. The group developed a best practices model within the juvenile court system for early mental health intervention. Significant cost savings were demonstrated. The model includes screening at-risk teenagers with the Youth Outcome Questionnaire. Treatment includes both psychiatric care and in-home behavioral intervention. Services were effectively delivered on a large scale. PMID:22193786

  14. The Fifth Workshop on HPC Best Practices: File Systems and Archives

    SciTech Connect

    Hick, Jason; Hules, John; Uselton, Andrew

    2011-11-30

    The workshop on High Performance Computing (HPC) Best Practices on File Systems and Archives was the fifth in a series sponsored jointly by the Department Of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and DOE National Nuclear Security Administration. The workshop gathered technical and management experts for operations of HPC file systems and archives from around the world. Attendees identified and discussed best practices in use at their facilities, and documented findings for the DOE and HPC community in this report.

  15. Broadcast encryption: paving the road to practical content protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deen, G.; Ponceleon, D.; Leake, Donald, Jr.

    2009-02-01

    Broadcast encryption is a well established alternative to public key encryption for use in content protection systems. It offers significant performance benefits, as well as useful features such a one-to-many delivery, dynamic membership in the authorized receivers group, and provides anonymous access to content, permitting content protection systems to preserve privacy for consumers. Broadcast encryption has been successfully deployed to users for protection of commercial content on digital media such as flash memory devices and optical media for both standard-definition and high-definition content. In this paper, we present the Advanced Secure Content Cluster Technology which applies broadcast encryption to content protection for home media networks

  16. SEWER SYSTEM EVALUATION, REHABILITATION AND NEW CONSTRUCTION. A MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Manual of Practice has been prepared for use by local authorities and consulting engineers for the investigation of sewer systems for infiltration/inflow. This Manual discusses three areas: sewer system evaluation, sewer rehabilitation, and design of new systems to minimize ...

  17. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 6: Extractable Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs potentially capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels…

  18. Implementation of Systems Engineering Practices into a Capstone Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Gloria; Schmidt, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Discusses the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate senior design projects which are to provide students with senior design project ideas, with potential contribution to NASA ESMD objectives. and provides NASA technical representative to act as external customer / technology mentor / requirements source.

  19. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 14: Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs potentially capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels…

  20. Practical Decisions in Developing and Operating a Faculty Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreola, Raoul; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    1990-01-01

    When faculty evaluation systems are proposed, students, faculty, and administrators often think only of questionnaires and assignment of data-processing tasks. Much more must be considered, including balancing the needs of all constituencies, designing student-rating forms and administration procedures, and the treatment and uses of the…

  1. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 12: Space Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels comprised user…

  2. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 7: Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs potentially capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels…

  3. A practical scheme for adaptive aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.; Willner, D.

    1974-01-01

    A flight control system design is presented, that can be implemented by analog hardware, to be used to control an aircraft with uncertain parameters. The design is based upon the use of modern control theory. The ideas are illustrated by considering control of STOL longitudinal dynamics.

  4. Evolutionary systemic modelling of practices on flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatibi, Rahman

    2011-04-01

    SummaryOver time since the prehistory, interactions with floods have undergone evolutionary transitions including aversion to flood risk, flood defence and flood risk management, each serving as a mindset or a paradigm. Historic data describing these interactions are used in this paper to "model" these transitions and to explain them. This is a new bottom-up modelling capability based on a set of postulates integrating: (i) systemic thinking where systems are effected by four types of feedback loops to be described in the paper, which include positive/negative feedback; and (ii) evolutionary thinking, where each feedback loop is associated with a "risk mindset." These mindsets can undergo evolutionary transition from one to the next and the transition is largely driven by natural selection. After an evolutionary transition, lower mindsets do not necessarily disappear but can adapt and coexist with higher order loops. Based on the insight gained, the paper argues that (i) as the loops coexist pluralistically, systems increase in their complexity; (ii) there may be unexpected dynamic behaviours when a system is interacted with different types of feedback loops; and (iii) currently, these dynamic behaviours are overlooked, suggesting possible loopholes, bottlenecks or barriers and hence the motivation for this paper.

  5. Psychological Practice in Schools: System Change in the Heartland. Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J.

    System reform in U.S. heartland is the story of a decade-long effort to change the ways we think about children and youth who experience learning or behavior problems in educational settings. This fundamentally different way of thinking involves a shift from seeking the causes and solutions to learning and emotional/behavioral problems in inferred…

  6. Practical output tracking of switched nonlinear systems in p-normal form with unstable subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies practical output tracking of switched nonlinear systems in p-normal form. No solvability of the practical output tracking problem for subsystems is required. A constructive scheme to solve the problem for a switched nonlinear system is set up by exploiting the single Lyapunov function method and the tool of adding a power integrator. Also, we design a proper switching law and construct state-feedback controllers of subsystems. A two inverted pendulums as a practical example, which cannot be handled by the existing approaches, illustrates our theoretical result.

  7. A Practical Approach to Process Support in Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Richard; Elstner, Thomas; Siegele, Hannes; Kuhn, Klaus A.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the design of a generator tool for rapid application development. The generator tool is an integral part of a healthcare information system, and newly developed applications are embedded into the healthcare information system from the very beginning. The tool-generated applications are based on a document oriented user interaction paradigm. A significant feature is the support of intra- and interdepartmental clinical processes by means of providing document flow between different user groups. For flexible storage of newly developed applications, a generic EAV-type (Entity-Attribute-Value) database schema is used. Important aspects of a consequent implementation, like database representation of structured documents, document flow, versioning, and synchronization are presented. Applications generated by this approach are in routine use in more than 200 hospitals in Germany. PMID:12386109

  8. Development of practical damage-mapping and inspection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, F.

    1998-08-19

    We have developed and are continuing to refine semi-automated technology for the detection and inspection of surface and bulk defects and damage in large laser optics Different manifestations of the DAMOCLES system (Damage and Artifact Mapping Of Coherent-Laser-Exposed Substrates) provide an effective and economical means of being able to detect, map and characterize surface and bulk defects which may become precursors of massive damage in optics when subjected to high-fluence laser irradiation Subsequent morphology and evolution of damage due to laser irradiation can be tracked efficiently The strength of the Damocles system is that it allows for immediate visual observation of defects in an entire optic, which can range up to l-meter dimensions, while also being able to provide digital map and magnified images of the defects with resolutions better than 5 µm.

  9. Natural language watermarking: Challenges in building a practical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topkara, Mercan; Riccardi, Giuseppe; Hakkani-Tür, Dilek; Atallah, Mikhail J.

    2006-02-01

    This paper gives an overview of the research and implementation challenges we encountered in building an end-to-end natural language processing based watermarking system. With natural language watermarking, we mean embedding the watermark into a text document, using the natural language components as the carrier, in such a way that the modifications are imperceptible to the readers and the embedded information is robust against possible attacks. Of particular interest is using the structure of the sentences in natural language text in order to insert the watermark. We evaluated the quality of the watermarked text using an objective evaluation metric, the BLEU score. BLEU scoring is commonly used in the statistical machine translation community. Our current system prototype achieves 0.45 BLEU score on a scale [0,1].

  10. Micro/nano electro mechanical systems for practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esashi, Masayoshi

    2009-09-01

    Silicon MEMS as electrostatically levitated rotational gyroscope, 2D optical scanner and wafer level packaged devices as integrated capacitive pressure sensor and MEMS switch are described. MEMS which use non-silicon materials as diamond, PZT, conductive polymer, CNT (carbon nano tube), LTCC with electrical feedthrough, SiC (silicon carbide) and LiNbO3 for multi-probe data storage, multi-column electron beam lithography system, probe card for wafer-level burn-in test, mould for glass press moulding and SAW wireless passive sensor respectively are also described.

  11. A practical system for regional mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glein, Randall; Leverson, Denis; Olmstead, Dean

    1993-01-01

    The Regional Mobile Satellite (MSAT) concept proposes a worldwide, interconnected mobile satellite service (MSS) network in which MSAT-type satellites provide the space segment services to separate regions (i.e., one or a few countries). Using this concept, mobile communications users across entire continents can now be served by a handful of regionally controlled satellites in geostationary earth orbit (GEO). All requirements, including hand-held telephone capabilities, can be cost-effectively provided using proven technologies. While other concepts of regional or global mobile communications continue to be explored, the Hughes Regional MSAT system demonstrates the near-term viability of the GEO approach.

  12. Prolog: A Practical Language for Decision Support Systems in Nursing?

    PubMed Central

    Ozbolt, Judy G.

    1987-01-01

    Developing decision support systems for nursing has been limited by difficulties in defining and representing nursing's knowledge base and by a lack of knowledge of how nurses make decisions. Recent theoretical and empirical work offers solutions to those problems. The challenge now is to represent nursing knowledge in a way that is comprehensible to both nurse and computer and to design decision support modalities that are accurate, efficient, and appropriate for nurses with different levels of expertise. This paper reviews the issues and critically evaluates Prolog as a tool for meeting the challenge.

  13. The HSE management system in practice-implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Primrose, M.J.; Bentley, P.D.; Sykes, R.M.

    1996-11-01

    This paper sets out the necessary strategic issues that must be dealt with when setting up a management system for HSE. It touches on the setting of objectives using a form of risk matrix and the establishment of corporate risk tolerability levels. Such issue management is vital but can be seen as yet another corporate HQ initiative. It must therefore be linked, and made relevant to those in middle management tasked with implementing the system and also to those at risk {open_quote}at the sharp end{close_quote} of the business. Setting acceptance criteria is aimed at demonstrating a necessary and sufficient level of control or coverage for those hazards considered as being within the objective setting of the Safety or HSE Case. Critical risk areas addressed via the Safety Case, within Shell companies at least, must show how this coverage is extended to critical health and environmental issues. Methods of achieving this are various ranging from specific Case deliverables (like the Hazard Register and Accountability Matrices) through to the incorporation of topics from the hazard analysis in toolbox talks and meetings. Risk analysis techniques are increasingly seen as complementary rather than separate with environmental assessments, health risk assessment sand safety risk analyses taking place together and results being considered jointly. The paper ends with some views on the way ahead regarding the linking of risk decisions to target setting at the workplace and views on how Case information may be retrieved and used on a daily basis.

  14. Some closing thoughts: Practical payoffs from satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The benefits-to-cost ratio of satellite remote sensing, both as a substitute for conventional methods of monitoring and assessing resources, and as a supplement to these methods is examined using a model which analyzes the cost of aerial photography versus satellite scanner for producing and interpreting an image of the Earth's surface sized to LANDSAT dimensions. Examples of cost savings are tabulated for ground surveys, aerial photos, and LANDSAT. Possible additional benefits from LANDSAT D are assessed. The way in which satellites fit into more comprehensive models for resources management is discussed. It is shown that remote sensing is but one essential component in a complex system that aggregates technical. Socioeconomics, political, cultural, and other factors in the human decision process.

  15. Practical variational tomography for critical one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Yeon; Landon-Cardinal, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    We improve upon a recently introduced efficient quantum state reconstruction procedure targeted to states well approximated by the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA), e.g., ground states of critical models. We show how to numerically select a subset of experimentally accessible measurements which maximize information extraction about renormalized particles, thus dramatically reducing the required number of physical measurements. We numerically estimate the number of measurements required to characterize the ground state of the critical one-dimensional Ising (resp. XX) model and find that MERA tomography on 16-qubit (resp. 24-qubit) systems requires the same experimental effort as brute-force tomography on 8 qubits. We derive a bound computable from experimental data which certifies the distance between the experimental and reconstructed states.

  16. Public health perspectives in cross-system practice: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Bada Math, Suresh; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, C Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Cross-system practice is widely prevalent in Indian settings. The recent policy decisions of the Government of India and the legalisation of cross-system practice in various states have brought this issue into the limelight once again. We aim to critically evaluate this issue from the philosophical, academic, and public health perspectives, as well as with reference to training. On the one hand, students of traditional Indian medicine are being introduced to allopathy without philosophical backing, practice based on the aetiological model and training in modern pharmacology. In addition, pharmaceutical industries are wooing AYUSH practitioners and their prescription patterns have already been "allopathised". As for the allopathic system, it is witnessing enormous scientific advances and growing increasingly complicated. The medicines are risky and also associated with many life-threatening side-effects. Meanwhile, the government is grappling with the humungous problem of ensuring health services for all. The government's intention is to expand the reach of health services by allowing cross-system practice, but the issue has much wider ramifications. The authors believe that before cross-system practice is allowed, there is a need for a comprehensive and deeper understanding of all the benefits and pitfalls of such as system. A few of these are discussed in this article. Specifically, we delve into the philosophical issues, syllabus and training, advances in medical technology, and larger public health perspectives. We end by suggesting a few steps that may help to improve public health in the country. PMID:26058367

  17. Integrating Safety and Mission Assurance into Systems Engineering Modeling Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Sean; Darpel, Scott

    2015-01-01

    During the early development of products, flight, or experimental hardware, emphasis is often given to the identification of technical requirements, utilizing such tools as use case and activity diagrams. Designers and project teams focus on understanding physical and performance demands and challenges. It is typically only later, during the evaluation of preliminary designs that a first pass, if performed, is made to determine the process, safety, and mission quality assurance requirements. Evaluation early in the life cycle, though, can yield requirements that force a fundamental change in design. This paper discusses an alternate paradigm for using the concepts of use case or activity diagrams to identify safety hazard and mission quality assurance risks and concerns using the same systems engineering modeling tools being used to identify technical requirements. It contains two examples of how this process might be used in the development of a space flight experiment, and the design of a Human Powered Pizza Delivery Vehicle, along with the potential benefits to decrease development time, and provide stronger budget estimates.

  18. Development of practical thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianyu; Li, Chunlai; Lv, Gang; Yuan, Liyin; Liu, Enguang; Jin, Jian; Ji, Hongzhen

    2014-11-01

    As an optical remote sensing equipment, the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager operates in the thermal infrared spectral band and acquires about 180 wavebands in range of 8.0~12.5μm. The field of view of this imager is 13° and the spatial resolution is better than 1mrad. Its noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) is less than 0.2K@300K(average). 1 The influence of background radiation of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager,and a simulation model of simplified background radiation is builded. 2 The design and implementationof the Cryogenic Optics. 3 Thermal infrared focal plane array (FPA) and special dewar component for the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager. 4 Parts of test results of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager.The hyperspectral imaging system is China's first success in developing this type of instrument, whose flight validation experiments have already been embarked on. The thermal infrared hyperspectral data acquired will play an important role in fields such as geological exploration and air pollutant identification.

  19. Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2002-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor (HPC) and high pressure turbine (HPT) can provide dramatic reductions in specific fuel consumption (SFC), time-on-wing, compressor stall margin, and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities. Maintenance costs to overhaul large commercial gas turbine engines can easily exceed $1M. Engine removal from service is primarily due to spent exhaust gas temperature (EGT) margin caused mainly by the deterioration of HPT components. Increased blade tip clearance is a major factor in hot section component degradation. As engine designs continue to push the performance envelope with fewer parts and the market drives manufacturers to increase service life, the need for advanced sealing continues to grow. A review of aero gas turbine engine HPT performance degradation and the mechanisms that promote these losses are discussed. Benefits to the HPT due to improved clearance management are identified. Past and present sealing technologies are presented along with specifications for next generation engine clearance control systems.

  20. Development of a Practical Broadband Active Vibration Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Perey, Daniel F.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop robust, lightweight, and low-power control units that can be used to suppress structural vibration in flexible aerospace structures. In particular, this paper focuses on active damping, which is implemented using compact decentralized control units distributed over the structure. Each control unit consists of a diamond-shaped piezoelectric patch actuator, three miniature accelerometers, and analog electronics. The responses from the accelerometers are added together and then integrated to give a signal proportional to velocity. The signal is then inverted, amplified, and applied to the actuator, which generates a control force that is out of phase with the measured velocity. This paper describes the development of the control system, including a detailed description of the control and power electronics. The paper also presents experimental results acquired on a Plexiglas window blank. Five identical control units installed around the perimeter of the window achieved 10 dB peak reductions and a 2.4 dB integrated reduction of the spatially averaged velocity of the window between 500 and 3000 Hz.

  1. A practical, low-noise coil system for magnetotellurics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, William D.; Tinkler, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetotellurics is a geophysical technique which was developed by Cagnaird (1953) and Tikhonov (1950) and later refined by other scientists worldwide. The technique is a method of electromagnetic sounding of the Earth and is based upon the skin depth effect in conductive media. The electric and magnetic fields arising from natural sources are measured at the surface of the earth over broad frequency bands. An excellent review of the technique is provided in the paper by Vozoff (1972). The sources of the natural fields are found in two basic mechanisms. At frequencies above a few hertz, most of the energy arises from lightning in thunderstorm belts around the equatorial regions. This energy is propagated in a wave-guide formed by the earthionospheric cavity. Energy levels are higher at fundamental modes for this cavity, but sufficient energy exists over most of the audio range to be useful for sounding at these frequencies, in which case the technique is generally referred to as audio-magnetotellurics or AMT. At frequencies lower than audio, and in general below 1 Hz, the source of naturally occuring electromagnetic energy is found in ionospheric currents. Current systems flowing in the ionosphere generate EM waves which can be used in sounding of the earth. These fields generate a relatively complete spectrum of electromagnetic energy that extends from around 1 Hz to periods of one day. Figure 1 shows an amplitude spectrum characteristic of both the ionospheric and lightning sources, covering a frequency range from 0.0001 Hz to 1000 Hz. It can be seen that there is a minimum in signal levels that occurs at about 1 Hz, in the gap between the two sources, and that signal level increases with a decrease in frequency.

  2. Impact of Doctor of Nursing Practice education in shaping health care systems for the future.

    PubMed

    Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Nativio, Donna G; Khalil, Heba

    2013-08-01

    The approval of the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing in 2004 and publication of The Essentials of Doctoral Education for Advanced Nursing Practice in 2006 promised significant benefit to nursing and to shaping health care systems. Currently, 229 DNP programs exist and more are planned. This article provides an overview of program types, graduates, and postgraduation placement, using Pennsylvania as an exemplar, to describe the potential impact of DNP education in health care systems. Nurse educators need to consider whether our current directions enable us to realize opportunities for shaping health care systems or whether we need to make course corrections. [ PMID:23875726

  3. A Meta-Systems Approach to Evidence-Based Practice for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazak, Anne E.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Weisz, John R.; Hood, Korey; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Vargas, Luis A.; Banez, Gerard A.

    2010-01-01

    Improving outcomes for children and adolescents with mental health needs demands a broad meta-systemic orientation to overcome persistent problems in current service systems. Improving outcomes necessitates inclusion of current and emerging evidence about effective practices for the diverse population of youth and their families. Key components of…

  4. ENERGY BALANCE COMPARISON AMONG TILLAGE PRACTICES IN CORN AND CORN-SOYBEAN SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction There is little information available on the effect of common management practices on the energy balance of corn and soybean cropping systems. This type of information is needed to assess the sustainability of these systems. Such information will also be useful for designing improved cr...

  5. The Practical Relevance of Accountability Systems for School Improvement: A Descriptive Analysis of California Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintrop, Heinrich; Trujillo, Tina

    2007-01-01

    In search for the practical relevance of accountability systems for school improvement, the authors ask whether practitioners traveling between the worlds of system-designated high- and low-performing schools would detect tangible differences in educational quality and organizational effectiveness. In comparing nine exceptionally high and low…

  6. Improving Lectures and Practical Classes in Using an Automatically Feedback System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollin, Andreas

    This paper presents a World Wide Web-based electronic feedback system for use in lectures and practical classes. The system is based on Java and provides a configurable feedback form, a managing tool for administrators, and a statistics viewer for presenting the generated statistical data in various ways. In addition, it generates a statistical…

  7. Relationships among Teachers' Perspectives, Self-Reported Practices, and Concerns Related to an Alternate Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Gyoung; Angell, Maureen E.; O'Brian, Mary; Strand, Kenneth B.; Fulk, Barbara M.; Watts, Emily H.

    2006-01-01

    A statewide survey was completed by 234 special education teachers with experience in developing assessment portfolios within the Illinois Alternate Assessment (IAA) system. Relationships between these teachers' demographics and their perspectives, concerns, and self-reported practices related to the IAA system was identified and described. These…

  8. AN ARS DATA SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN WATERSHED STUDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To support ARS’s recently established Conservation Effects Assessment Project in assessing U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs and practices, a team located at several ARS locations is developing a web-based watershed data system named STEWARDS. The data system consists of four comp...

  9. School System (Re)design: Developing Educational Infrastructures to Support School Leadership and Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Megan; Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge for local education agencies (i.e., school districts in the United States) undergoing reform is to design systems that facilitate instructional improvement. At the core of these systems are educational infrastructures that bolster capacity building efforts and support teaching and leadership practices. Our goal for this special…

  10. A Trial of Nursing Cost Accounting using Nursing Practice Data on a Hospital Information System.

    PubMed

    Miyahira, Akiko; Tada, Kazuko; Ishima, Masatoshi; Nagao, Hidenori; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Takemura, Tadamasa

    2015-01-01

    Hospital administration is very important and many hospitals carry out activity-based costing under comprehensive medicine. However, nursing cost is unclear, because nursing practice is expanding both quantitatively and qualitatively and it is difficult to grasp all nursing practices, and nursing cost is calculated in many cases comprehensively. On the other hand, a nursing information system (NIS) is implemented in many hospitals in Japan and we are beginning to get nursing practical data. In this paper, we propose a nursing cost accounting model and we simulate a cost by nursing contribution using NIS data. PMID:26262246

  11. A meta-systems approach to evidence-based practice for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Weisz, John R; Hood, Korey; Kratochwill, Thomas R; Vargas, Luis A; Banez, Gerard A

    2010-01-01

    Improving outcomes for children and adolescents with mental health needs demands a broad meta-systemic orientation to overcome persistent problems in current service systems. Improving outcomes necessitates inclusion of current and emerging evidence about effective practices for the diverse population of youth and their families. Key components of the meta-system for children with emotional or behavioral needs include families, cultural norms and values, and service sectors such as schools, pediatric health centers, specialty mental health systems, juvenile justice systems, child protection services, and substance use treatment systems. We describe each component of the meta-system, noting challenges to the provision of evidence-based practice (EBP) and highlighting ways to optimize outcomes. Our focus is on the inclusion of evidence-based assessment and interventions, including prevention, within a developmentally driven and culturally responsive contextual model. Recommendations for addressing disparities in research funding and essential steps to foster communication and coordination of EBP across settings are provided. PMID:20141264

  12. Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C): Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebsock, Ken; West, John

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 the NESC completed an in-depth assessment to identify, define and document engineering considerations for the Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of human-rated spacecraft systems. This study had been requested by the Astronaut Office at JSC to help them to better understand what is required to ensure safe, robust, and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. The 22 GN&C engineering Best Practices described in this paper are a condensed version of what appears in the NESC Technical Report. These Best Practices cover a broad range from fundamental system architectural considerations to more specific aspects (e.g., stability margin recommendations) of GN&C system design and development. 15 of the Best Practices address the early phases of a GN&C System development project and the remaining 7 deal with the later phases. Some of these Best Practices will cross-over between both phases. We recognize that this set of GN&C Best Practices will not be universally applicable to all projects and mission applications.

  13. Measuring primary care practice performance within an integrated delivery system: a case study.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Louis J; Greisler, David

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the use of an integrated performance measurement system to plan and control primary care service delivery within an integrated delivery system. We review a growing body of literature that focuses on the development and implementation of management reporting systems among healthcare providers. Our study extends the existing literature by examining the use of performance information generated by an integrated performance measurement system within a healthcare organization. We conduct our examination through a case study of the WMG Primary Care Medicine Group, the primary care medical group practice of WellSpan Health System. WellSpan Health System is an integrated delivery system that serves south central Pennsylvania and northern Maryland. Our study examines the linkage between WellSpan Health's strategic objectives and its primary care medicine group's integrated performance measurement system. The conceptual design of this integrated performance measurement system combines financial metrics with practice management and clinical operating metrics to provide a more complete picture of medical group performance. Our findings demonstrate that WellSpan Health was able to achieve superior financial results despite a weak linkage between its integrated performance measurement system and its strategic objectives. WellSpan Health achieved this objective for its primary care medicine group by linking clinical performance information to physician compensation and reporting practice management performance through the use of statistical process charts. They found that the combined mechanisms of integrated performance measurement and statistical process control charts improved organizational learning and communications between organizational stakeholders. PMID:12221746

  14. An Evaluation of EPIC's Analysis of School Practice & Knowledge System. The Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC). Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kay; Pereira-Leon, Maura; Honeyford, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Established in 2006 by New Leaders for New Schools[TM], the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative rewards high-need urban schools showing significant gains in student achievement. In exchange, schools agree to share the practices helping to drive those gains, which they do through an in-depth study of practice, aided by the EPIC…

  15. The ABC's required for establishing a practical computerized plant engineering management data base system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiocco, F. R.; Hume, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A system's approach is outlined in the paper to assist facility and Plant Engineers improve their organization's data management system. The six basic steps identified may appear somewhat simple; however, adequate planning, proper resources, and the involvement of management will determine the success of a computerized facility management data base. Helpful suggestions are noted throughout the paper to insure the development of a practical computerized data management system.

  16. Knowing for Nursing Practice: Patterns of Knowledge and Their Emulation in Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Ivo L.; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of clinical knowledge in nursing, and the feasibility of emulating this knowledge into expert system technology. The perspective on patterns of knowing for nursing practice, advanced by Carper (1978), serves as point of departure. The four patterns of knowing -- empirics, esthetics, ethics, personal knowledge -- are evaluated as to the extent to which they can be emulated in clinical expert systems, given constraints imposed by the current technology of these systems.

  17. Brahms An Agent-Oriented Language for Work Practice Simulation and Multi-Agent Systems Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; van Hoof, Ron J. J.

    Brahms is a multi-agent modeling language for simulating human work practice that emerges from work processes in organizations. The same Brahms language can be used to implement and execute distributed multi-agent systems, based on models of work practice that were first simulated. Brahms demonstrates how a multi-agent belief-desire-intention language, symbolic cognitive modeling, traditional business process modeling, activity-and situated cognition theories are brought together in a coherent approach for analysis and design of organizations and human-centered systems.

  18. The SECONDI MAPZ(©) system: a practical guide and proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Abu-Serriah, Muammar; Wong, Lilia; Richardson, Jeremy; Richardson, Sophia

    2016-05-01

    The SECONDI MAPZ(©) system is a new, simple, and logical classification of oncological defects of the midface that combines regional anatomy, 3-dimensional visualisation, and the hierarchy of functional priorities. In this paper, we provide clinical and radiographic examples of defects of varying complexity to illustrate the application of the system, to highlight its versatility, and to give practical clinical and radiological guidance on its use. We hope that its introduction will result in better communication of information, and the collection of more uniform data with which to compare outcomes, and ultimately will facilitate evidence-based practice in head and neck oncology. PMID:26898518

  19. Ethical and legal issues in cross-system practice in India: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C; Nirmala, Maria Christine

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policies allowing practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) to integrate into the mainstream of healthcare and also allowing practitioners of Ayurveda and Homoeopathy to perform medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) under the proposed amendment to the MTP bill have brought crosssystem practice into the limelight. We evaluate cross-system practice from its legal and ethical perspectives. Across judgments, the judiciary has held that cross-system practice is a form of medical negligence; however, it is permitted only in those states where the concerned governments have authorized it by a general or special order. Further, though a state government may authorize an alternative medicine doctor to prescribe allopathic medicines (or vice versa), it does not condone the prescription of wrong medicines or wrong diagnosis. Courts have also stated that prescribing allopathic medicines and misrepresenting these as traditional medicines is an unfair trade practice and not explaining the side-effects of a prescribed allopathic medicine amounts to medical negligence. Finally, the Supreme Court has cautioned that employing traditional medical practitioners who do not possess the required skill and competence to give allopathic treatment in hospitals and to let an emergency patient be treated by them is gross negligence. In the event of an unwanted outcome, the responsibility is completely on the hospital authorities. Therefore, there is an urgent need to abolish cross-system practice, invest in healthcare, and bring radical changes in health legislations to make right to healthcare a reality. PMID:27294458

  20. Administrators’ Perspectives on Changing Practice in End-of-Life Care in a State Prison System

    PubMed Central

    Penrod, Janice; Loeb, Susan J.; Smith, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sentencing trends have created a demographic shift in prison populations. Greater numbers of inmates are aging and dying in prison, creating a demand for enhanced end-of-life care. Changing practice to meet escalating care demands in corrections settings is complicated by economic constraints, attitudinal barriers, and organizational features. This study explored perspectives of end-of-life care held by administrators in a state prison system to reveal challenges to changing practice to meet the needs of inmates suffering advanced illness and dying in prison. Design and Sample Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 administrators from the central office of a state department of corrections. Results Key influences impacting end-of-life care services included: local prison culture; treatment versus security focus; case-by-case consideration; public sentiment; budget neutral approaches; and conflicting views of service targets. Conclusions These findings revealed the organizational structures, attitudes, and beliefs held by the administrative echelon of a state prison system and were used to guide the derivation of discrete approaches to changing practice in this complex system. Contextual evaluation permitted a much deeper understanding of the influences on changing practice in this hierarchical bureaucracy. This type of preliminary evaluation is crucial to infusing new practice initiatives in complex organizations caring for stigmatized, at-risk populations. PMID:24588128

  1. A Practical Guide for Exploring Opportunities of Repurposing Drugs for CNS Diseases in Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Mei, Hongkang; Feng, Gang; Zhu, Jason; Lin, Simon; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Yue; Xia, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Systems biology has shown its potential in facilitating pathway-focused therapy development for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. An integrated network can be utilized to explore the multiple disease mechanisms and to discover repositioning opportunities. This review covers current therapeutic gaps for CNS diseases and the role of systems biology in pharmaceutical industry. We conclude with a Multiple Level Network Modeling (MLNM) example to illustrate the great potential of systems biology for CNS diseases. The system focuses on the benefit and practical applications in pathway centric therapy and drug repositioning. PMID:26235090

  2. Medical safety and community practice: necessary elements and barriers to implement a safety learning system.

    PubMed

    O'Beirne, Maeve; Sterling, Pam D

    2009-01-01

    A safety learning system (SLS) is a system that monitors patient safety incident information and analyzes it to develop and implement improvement strategies to increase patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the necessary elements of a community-based family medicine practice SLS in Alberta Health Services - Calgary zone, and barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of this system. An SLS was developed in the research program Medical Safety in Community Practice. To determine the elements necessary to implement an SLS in community-based family medicine practice, we performed a comprehensive literature review, internal investigator discussions and internal investigator and external stakeholder reviews of key design elements. The system is currently being implemented and tested in community-based family practices as part of the program. Steps identified for implementation: included determining key design elements including creating a website and ascertaining a classification system or taxonomy; developing recruitment strategies; establishing an incident analysis methodology; building a knowledge translation strategy; and pursuing sustainability. These elements produced an SLS that is easily incorporated into community-based family medicine clinics. PMID:19667792

  3. Improving general practice computer systems for patient safety: qualitative study of key stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Anthony J; Savelyich, Boki S P; Sheikh, Aziz; Morris, Caroline J; Bowler, Isobel; Teasdale, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Objective The authors sought to identify ways in which the use of general practice computer systems could be improved to enhance safety in primary care. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Participants Thirty one participants, representing a broad range of relevant disciplines and interest groups. Participants included clinicians, computer system and drug database suppliers, academics with interests in health informatics and members of governmental, professional and patient representative bodies. Setting UK. Results Participants identified deficiencies in current systems that pose serious threats to patient safety. To bring about improvements, providers need to supply clinicians with safe, accurate and accessible information for decision support; be aware of the importance of human ergonomics in the design of hazard alerts; consider the value of audit trails and develop mechanisms to allow for the accurate transfer of information between clinical computer systems. These improvements in computer systems will be most likely to occur if mandated through regulations. Individual practices are in need of improved education and training which focuses, in particular, on providing support with recording data accurately and using call, recall and reminders effectively. Conclusion There are significant opportunities for improving the safety of general practice computer systems. Priorities include improving the knowledge base for clinical decision support, paying greater attention to human ergonomics in system design, improved staff training and the introduction of new regulations mandating system suppliers to satisfy essential safety requirements. PMID:17301200

  4. Practical optimal flight control system design for helicopter aircraft. Volume 1: Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, L. G.; Riedel, S. A.; Mcruer, D.

    1980-01-01

    A method by which modern and classical theory techniques may be integrated in a synergistic fashion and used in the design of practical flight control systems is presented. A general procedure is developed, and several illustrative examples are included. Emphasis is placed not only on the synthesis of the design, but on the assessment of the results as well.

  5. Supporting the Persuasive Writing Practices of English Language Learners through Culturally Responsive Systemic Functional Linguistic Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the potential of Systemic Functional Linguistic (SFL) pedagogy to support English language learners (ELLs) in enhancing their meaning making potential as they engage in persuasive writing practices within academic contexts. The dissertation results from a teacher action research project in which the…

  6. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  7. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  8. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  9. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  10. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  11. A Proposed System for Nursing. Theoretical Framework, Part 2. Pathways to Practice, Vol. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Patricia T.

    This fourth volume in the series "Pathways to Practice" presents the heart of the Southern Regional Education Board's Nursing Curriculum Project, which was designed to (1) develop a set of assumptions about societal systems that impinge on the environments of nursing, (2) determine broadly the future direction of health care delivery patterns, (3)…

  12. Working with the Support Network: Applying Systemic Practice in Learning Disabilities Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Rosemary; Parry, Rhonwen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a model of practice termed "Network Training" which describes a structured approach to working with the network of support around an individual with learning disabilities. Within learning disability services there are many contexts in which the support system has opportunities to come together. For example,…

  13. Evaluating the Strength of School Tobacco Policies: The Development of a Practical Rating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Jennifer C.; Mueller, Nancy B.; Hogan-Watts, Melissa; Luke, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: School tobacco control policies vary widely in their strength, extensiveness, and enforcement. Currently, no standardized method exists to assess the comprehensiveness of school tobacco policies. The purpose of this study was to develop a new practical rating system for school tobacco policies, assess its reliability, and present…

  14. 49 CFR 214.105 - Fall protection systems standards and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fall protection systems standards and practices. 214.105 Section 214.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.105 Fall protection...

  15. Abstract: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating the Sustainability of “Complete Streets” Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating the Sustainability of “Complete Streets” Practices Primary Author: Nicholas R. Flanders 109 T.W. Alexander Drive Mail Code: E343-02 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 919-541-3660 Flanders.nick@Epa.gov Topic categ...

  16. Rainwater harvesting in the United States: a survey of common system practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in the United States vary in terms of design and operation. To better understand common practices in the RWH community and motivation for collecting harvested rainwater, an electronic survey was used to poll members of the American Rainwater Cat...

  17. 75 FR 22844 - Construction Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices and Training Requirements; Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 5-2007 (72 FR 31160). Signed at... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Construction Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices and Training Requirements; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

  18. PRACTICAL SENSITIVITY AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS MODELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present a practical evaluation framework for analysis of two complex, process-based agricultural system models, WEPP and RZWQM. The evaluation framework combines sensitivity analysis and the uncertainty analysis techniques of first order error analysis (FOA) and Monte Carlo simulation with Latin ...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE PRACTICES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents effective operating and maintenance (O/M) practices for wastewater treatment systems in the iron and steel industry, and describes how their application might affect permit parameters and operational upsets. Selection of processes for the study--byproduct cok...

  20. Improving Professional Development System through Quality Assurance Practices in the Universities of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Khalid, M. Ibrahim; Bakhsh, Khuda; Mohsin, Muhammad Naeem; Rasool, Shafqat; Mohsin, M. Saleem

    2016-01-01

    The rationalization of this research was to investigate about improving professional development system through Quality Assurance Practices (QAP) in the Universities of Pakistan pertaining to the opinions of students, teachers and Directors of Quality Enhancement Cells (QECs) and to differentiate the ideas of students, teachers and Directors of…

  1. Influences of Family-Systems Intervention Practices on Parent-Child Interactions and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivette, Carol M.; Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which the influences of family-systems intervention practices could be traced to variations in parent-child interactions and child development was investigated by meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM). MASEM is a procedure for producing a weighted pooled correlation matrix and fitting a structural equation model to the…

  2. Wavelength attack on practical continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system with a heterodyne protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiang-Chun; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2013-05-01

    We present the wavelength attack on a practical continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system with a heterodyne protocol, in which the transmittance of beam splitters at Bob's station is wavelength dependent. Our strategy is proposed independent of but analogous to that of Huang [arXiv:1206.6550v1 [quant-ph

  3. Modeling Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff in Adaptive System for Practicing Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nižnan, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    Estimation is useful in situations where an exact answer is not as important as a quick answer that is good enough. A web-based adaptive system for practicing estimates is currently being developed. We propose a simple model for estimating student's latent skill of estimation. This model combines a continuous measure of correctness and response…

  4. Does a quality management system improve quality in primary care practices in Switzerland? A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Katja; Hess, Sigrid; Jossen, Marianne; Huber, Felix; Rosemann, Thomas; Brodowski, Marc; Künzi, Beat; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effectiveness of the quality management programme—European Practice Assessment—in primary care in Switzerland. Design Longitudinal study with three points of measurement. Setting Primary care practices in Switzerland. Participants In total, 45 of 91 primary care practices completed European Practice Assessment three times. Outcomes The interval between each assessment was around 36 months. A variance analyses for repeated measurements were performed for all 129 quality indicators from the domains: ‘infrastructure’, ‘information’, ‘finance’, and ‘quality and safety’ to examine changes over time. Results Significant improvements were found in three of four domains: ‘quality and safety’ (F=22.81, p<0.01), ‘information’ (F=27.901, p<0.01) and ‘finance’ (F=4.073, p<0.02). The 129 quality indicators showed a significant improvement within the three points of measurement (F=33.864, p<0.01). Conclusions The European Practice Assessment for primary care practices thus provides a functioning quality management programme, focusing on the sustainable improvement of structural and organisational aspects to promote high quality of primary care. The implementation of a quality management system which also includes a continuous improvement process would give added value to provide good care. PMID:25900466

  5. Computerized practice guidelines for heart failure management: the HeartMan system.

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, A.; Bray, B. E.; Gilbert, E. M.; Warner, H. R.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the initial stages of development and evaluation of the HeartMan system, a set of computerized practice guidelines for heart failure management. The concept of computerized guidelines as a hybrid of expert systems and practice guidelines methodologies and techniques is proposed. We show the results of the initial evaluation of the system, which are very promising, although the sample size is small, and the study is retrospective: Of 177 messages, 90% were considered appropriate, of which 97.5% would have been followed. Eight percent of the messages were classified as neutral, and 2% classified as inappropriate. The errors were correctable by changing the logic. The potential technical and sociological barriers to the complete development and clinical use of the system are discussed. PMID:8563274

  6. Development of Quality Management Systems for Clinical Practice Guidelines in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Heui-Sug; Kim, Dong Ik; Chang, Sung-Goo; Shin, Ein-Soon

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces the Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) appraisal system by the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences (KAMS). Quality management policies for CPGs vary among different countries, which have their own cultures and health care systems. However, supporting developers in guideline development and appraisals using standardized tools are common practices. KAMS, an organization representing the various medical societies of Korea, has been striving to establish a quality management system for CPGs, and has established a CPGs quality management system that reflects the characteristics of the Korean healthcare environment and the needs of its users. KAMS created a foundation for the development of CPGs, set up an independent appraisal organization, enacted regulations related to the appraisals, and trained appraisers. These efforts could enhance the ability of each individual medical society to develop CPGs, to increase the quality of the CPGs, and to ultimately improve the quality of the information available to decision-makers. PMID:26538997

  7. Effect of electromagnetic disturbance on the practical QKD system in the smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Wang, Shuang; Li, Mo; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-12-01

    To improve the security of the smart grid, quantum key distribution (QKD) is an excellent choice. The rapid fluctuations on the power aerial optical cable and electromagnetic disturbance in substations are two main challenges for implementation of QKD. Due to insensitivity to birefringence of the channel, the stable phase-coding Faraday—Michelson QKD system is very practical in the smart grid. However, the electromagnetic disturbance in substations on this practical QKD system should be considered. The disturbance might change the rotation angle of the Faraday mirror, and would introduce an additional quantum bit error rate (QBER). We derive the new fringe visibility of the system and the additional QBER from the electromagnetic disturbance. In the worst case, the average additional QBER only increases about 0.17% due to the disturbance, which is relatively small to normal QBER values. We also find the way to degrade the electromagnetic disturbance on the QKD system.

  8. Adoption of technology, management practices, and production systems in US milk production.

    PubMed

    Khanal, A R; Gillespie, J; MacDonald, J

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of new technology, management practices, and alternative production systems has resulted in rapid structural change in the US dairy industry. This paper examines adoption rates and adopter characteristics for the following dairy technologies, practices, and systems: holding pen with an udder washer, milking units with automatic take-offs, genetic selection technologies, recombinant bovine somatotropin, membership in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association, computerized feed delivery systems, computerized milking systems, use of a nutritionist to design feed rations, grazing, milking cows 3 times daily, and milking parlors. Four of these were used on a greater percentage of farms in 2005 than in 2000, but increased farm sizes and the interaction of farm size with adoption suggest a greater percentage of milk being produced under each, with the exception of grazing. Except for grazing, technologies were generally complementary. PMID:21094776

  9. Development of Quality Management Systems for Clinical Practice Guidelines in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jo, Heui-Sug; Kim, Dong Ik; Chang, Sung-Goo; Shin, Ein-Soon; Oh, Moo-Kyung

    2015-11-01

    This study introduces the Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) appraisal system by the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences (KAMS). Quality management policies for CPGs vary among different countries, which have their own cultures and health care systems. However, supporting developers in guideline development and appraisals using standardized tools are common practices. KAMS, an organization representing the various medical societies of Korea, has been striving to establish a quality management system for CPGs, and has established a CPGs quality management system that reflects the characteristics of the Korean healthcare environment and the needs of its users. KAMS created a foundation for the development of CPGs, set up an independent appraisal organization, enacted regulations related to the appraisals, and trained appraisers. These efforts could enhance the ability of each individual medical society to develop CPGs, to increase the quality of the CPGs, and to ultimately improve the quality of the information available to decision-makers. PMID:26538997

  10. Nineteenth-Century World's Fairs as Accountability Systems: Scopic Systems, Audit Practices and Educational Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobe, Noah W.; Boven, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Late-19th century World's Fairs constitute an important chapter in the history of educational accountability. International expositions allowed for educational systems and practices to be "audited" by lay and expert audiences. In this article we examine how World's Fair exhibitors sought to make visible educational practices…