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Sample records for practical ofdma system

  1. Self-Organizing OFDMA System for Broadband Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Aloke (Inventor); Anandappan, Thanga (Inventor); Malve, Sharath Babu (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for a self-organizing OFDMA system for broadband communication are provided. In certain embodiments a communication node for a self organizing network comprises a communication interface configured to transmit data to and receive data from a plurality of nodes; and a processing unit configured to execute computer readable instructions. Further, computer readable instructions direct the processing unit to identify a sub-region within a cell, wherein the communication node is located in the sub-region; and transmit at least one data frame, wherein the data from the communication node is transmitted at a particular time and frequency as defined within the at least one data frame, where the time and frequency are associated with the sub-region.

  2. Mutual Amplify-and-Forward Cooperation Using Modified STBC in OFDMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jae-Seon; Kim, Jee-Hoon; Song, Hyoung-Kyu

    Recently, the orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) based wireless communication system is usually used in interactive digital video broadcasting environments or the wireless metropolitan area network (WMAN). Therefore, the relative condition of the inter-user channel can be easily deteriorated. This letter proposes and evaluates the mutual amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperation between two users using modified space time block code (STBC) to provide the reliability for an OFDMA system with a single antenna in an inferior inter-user channel environment. As a result, an OFDMA system adopting the proposed cooperation becomes more robust to inferior inter-user channels than our previously proposed decode-and-forward (DF) cooperation.

  3. Rate Adaptive Based Resource Allocation with Proportional Fairness Constraints in OFDMA Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhendong; Zhuang, Shufeng; Wu, Zhilu; Ma, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), which is widely used in the wireless sensor networks, allows different users to obtain different subcarriers according to their subchannel gains. Therefore, how to assign subcarriers and power to different users to achieve a high system sum rate is an important research area in OFDMA systems. In this paper, the focus of study is on the rate adaptive (RA) based resource allocation with proportional fairness constraints. Since the resource allocation is a NP-hard and non-convex optimization problem, a new efficient resource allocation algorithm ACO-SPA is proposed, which combines ant colony optimization (ACO) and suboptimal power allocation (SPA). To reduce the computational complexity, the optimization problem of resource allocation in OFDMA systems is separated into two steps. For the first one, the ant colony optimization algorithm is performed to solve the subcarrier allocation. Then, the suboptimal power allocation algorithm is developed with strict proportional fairness, and the algorithm is based on the principle that the sums of power and the reciprocal of channel-to-noise ratio for each user in different subchannels are equal. To support it, plenty of simulation results are presented. In contrast with root-finding and linear methods, the proposed method provides better performance in solving the proportional resource allocation problem in OFDMA systems. PMID:26426016

  4. Rate Adaptive Based Resource Allocation with Proportional Fairness Constraints in OFDMA Systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhendong; Zhuang, Shufeng; Wu, Zhilu; Ma, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), which is widely used in the wireless sensor networks, allows different users to obtain different subcarriers according to their subchannel gains. Therefore, how to assign subcarriers and power to different users to achieve a high system sum rate is an important research area in OFDMA systems. In this paper, the focus of study is on the rate adaptive (RA) based resource allocation with proportional fairness constraints. Since the resource allocation is a NP-hard and non-convex optimization problem, a new efficient resource allocation algorithm ACO-SPA is proposed, which combines ant colony optimization (ACO) and suboptimal power allocation (SPA). To reduce the computational complexity, the optimization problem of resource allocation in OFDMA systems is separated into two steps. For the first one, the ant colony optimization algorithm is performed to solve the subcarrier allocation. Then, the suboptimal power allocation algorithm is developed with strict proportional fairness, and the algorithm is based on the principle that the sums of power and the reciprocal of channel-to-noise ratio for each user in different subchannels are equal. To support it, plenty of simulation results are presented. In contrast with root-finding and linear methods, the proposed method provides better performance in solving the proportional resource allocation problem in OFDMA systems. PMID:26426016

  5. An Efficient Resource Allocation Scheme for VoIP Services in the IEEE 802.16e OFDMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Jae-Woo

    In this letter, we propose an efficient resource allocation scheme that improves the system performance by reducing the signaling overhead for voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) services in the IEEE 802.16e OFDMA system. We theoretically analyze the performance of the proposed allocation scheme and carry out a computer simulation to evaluate the FA scheme.

  6. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing access (OFDMA) based wireless visible light communication (VLC) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Jiun-Yu; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Lin, Wan-Feng; Liu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    An orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing access (OFDMA) based visible light communication (VLC) system is proposed in this paper. The architecture of the proposed system is divided into several VLC cells, which is defined in this paper. The deployment and upgrade of the system involve only simple combination of the VLC cells. Hence it is economically advantageous. To guarantee smooth communication, nearly equal data rate is provided at every location within the system with no concern on the system scale. The user location monitor strategy is also discussed to solve the region division issues. The characteristics of the proposed system are analyzed in detail in this paper. A one-dimensional experiment was demonstrated with 13.6 Mb/s data rate.

  7. A novel 3D constellation-masked method for physical security in hierarchical OFDMA system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Bo; Xin, Xiangjun; Liu, Deming

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel 3D constellation-masked method to ensure the physical security in hierarchical optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access (OFDMA) system. The 3D constellation masking is executed on the two levels of hierarchical modulation and among different OFDM subcarriers, which is realized by the masking vectors. The Lorenz chaotic model is adopted for the generation of masking vectors in the proposed scheme. A 9.85 Gb/s encrypted hierarchical QAM OFDM signal is successfully demonstrated in the experiment. The performance of illegal optical network unit (ONU) with different masking vectors is also investigated. The proposed method is demonstrated to be secure and efficient against the commonly known attacks in the experiment. PMID:23842348

  8. Adaptive Subframe Partitioning and Efficient Packet Scheduling in OFDMA Cellular System with Fixed Decode-and-Forward Relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liping; Ji, Yusheng; Liu, Fuqiang

    The integration of multihop relays with orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) cellular infrastructures can meet the growing demands for better coverage and higher throughput. Resource allocation in the OFDMA two-hop relay system is more complex than that in the conventional single-hop OFDMA system. With time division between transmissions from the base station (BS) and those from relay stations (RSs), fixed partitioning of the BS subframe and RS subframes can not adapt to various traffic demands. Moreover, single-hop scheduling algorithms can not be used directly in the two-hop system. Therefore, we propose a semi-distributed algorithm called ASP to adjust the length of every subframe adaptively, and suggest two ways to extend single-hop scheduling algorithms into multihop scenarios: link-based and end-to-end approaches. Simulation results indicate that the ASP algorithm increases system utilization and fairness. The max carrier-to-interference ratio (Max C/I) and proportional fairness (PF) scheduling algorithms extended using the end-to-end approach obtain higher throughput than those using the link-based approach, but at the expense of more overhead for information exchange between the BS and RSs. The resource allocation scheme using ASP and end-to-end PF scheduling achieves a tradeoff between system throughput maximization and fairness.

  9. A QoS aware resource allocation strategy for 3D A/V streaming in OFDMA based wireless systems.

    PubMed

    Chung, Young-Uk; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Park, Suwon; Lee, Hyukjoon

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) video is expected to be a "killer app" for OFDMA-based broadband wireless systems. The main limitation of 3D video streaming over a wireless system is the shortage of radio resources due to the large size of the 3D traffic. This paper presents a novel resource allocation strategy to address this problem. In the paper, the video-plus-depth 3D traffic type is considered. The proposed resource allocation strategy focuses on the relationship between 2D video and the depth map, handling them with different priorities. It is formulated as an optimization problem and is solved using a suboptimal heuristic algorithm. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme provides a better quality of service compared to conventional schemes. PMID:25250377

  10. A QoS Aware Resource Allocation Strategy for 3D A/V Streaming in OFDMA Based Wireless Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young-uk; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Park, Suwon; Lee, Hyukjoon

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) video is expected to be a “killer app” for OFDMA-based broadband wireless systems. The main limitation of 3D video streaming over a wireless system is the shortage of radio resources due to the large size of the 3D traffic. This paper presents a novel resource allocation strategy to address this problem. In the paper, the video-plus-depth 3D traffic type is considered. The proposed resource allocation strategy focuses on the relationship between 2D video and the depth map, handling them with different priorities. It is formulated as an optimization problem and is solved using a suboptimal heuristic algorithm. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme provides a better quality of service compared to conventional schemes. PMID:25250377

  11. Peak-to-Average-Power-Ratio (PAPR) reduction in WiMAX and OFDM/A systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademi, Seyran; Svantesson, Thomas; Viberg, Mats; Eriksson, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    A peak to average power ratio (PAPR) reduction method is proposed that exploits the precoding or beamforming mode in WiMAX. The method is applicable to any OFDM/A systems that implements beamforming using dedicated pilots which use the same beamforming antenna weights for both pilots and data. Beamforming performance depends on the relative phase shift between antennas, but is unaffected by a phase shift common to all antennas. PAPR, on the other hand, changes with a common phase shift and this paper exploits that property. An effective optimization technique based on sequential quadratic programming is proposed to compute the common phase shift. The proposed technique has several advantages compared with traditional PAPR reduction techniques in that it does not require any side-information and has no effect on power and bit-error-rate while providing better PAPR reduction performance than most other methods.

  12. OFDMA-based network-coded cooperation: design and implementation using software-defined radio nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökceli, Selahattin; Alakoca, Hakan; Başaran, Semiha Tedik; Kurt, Güneş Karabulut

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of network coding towards enhancing communication quality, both in terms of robustness or data transmission rates, make it a significant candidate as a future networking technology. Conventionally, network coding is mostly used in wired infrastructures, where transmission errors between nodes are negligible. Capturing the provided benefits of network coding via straightforward extension from wired networks to wireless networks is not trivial. In addition to the challenges introduced through the wireless channel impairments, we can also capture the spatial diversity gain provided by the broadcast nature of the wireless channels. In this work, we design and implement a network-coded cooperation (NCC) system that operates in real time through the use of software-defined radio (SDR) nodes for the first time in the literature. We specifically target wireless networks. Our system is based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) that provides a practical means to enable high transmission rates through the use of narrowband subcarriers. The developed testbed is composed of three source nodes, a relay node and two destination nodes. The transmission of the proposed NCC-OFDMA system is completed in two phases; the broadcast and the relaying phases. Multiplexing of source nodes' signals is achieved through OFDMA technique. In the broadcast phase, an OFDMA signal is transmitted to relay and destination nodes. In the relaying phase, the relay node first detects the OFDMA signal, generates network-coded symbols, and then transmits these symbols to destination nodes. At the end of these two phases, the destination nodes determine the source nodes' signals by using network decoders. The destination nodes make use of both the uncoded and network-coded symbols, which are received in broadcast and relaying phases, respectively. Destination nodes then perform network decoding. Through real-time bit error rate and error vector magnitude measurements, we show

  13. Feedback Allocation for OFDMA Systems With Slow Frequency-Domain Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathy, Harish; Banerjee, Siddhartha; Dimitrov, Nedialko B.; Caramanis, Constantine

    2012-12-01

    We study the problem of allocating limited feedback resources across multiple users in an orthogonal-frequency-division-multiple-access downlink system with slow frequency-domain scheduling. Many flavors of slow frequency-domain scheduling (e.g., persistent scheduling, semi-persistent scheduling), that adapt user-sub-band assignments on a slower time-scale, are being considered in standards such as 3GPP Long-Term Evolution. In this paper, we develop a feedback allocation algorithm that operates in conjunction with any arbitrary slow frequency-domain scheduler with the goal of improving the throughput of the system. Given a user-sub-band assignment chosen by the scheduler, the feedback allocation algorithm involves solving a weighted sum-rate maximization at each (slow) scheduling instant. We first develop an optimal dynamic-programming-based algorithm to solve the feedback allocation problem with pseudo-polynomial complexity in the number of users and in the total feedback bit budget. We then propose two approximation algorithms with complexity further reduced, for scenarios where the problem exhibits additional structure.

  14. Uplink User Signal Separation for OFDMA-Based Cognitive Radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, MustafaE; Guvenc, Ismail; Arslan, Hüseyin

    2009-12-01

    Spectrum awareness of orthogonal frequency division multiple access- (OFDMA-) based cognitive radios (CRs) can be improved by enabling them to separate the primary user signals in the uplink (UL). Assuming availability of information about the basic parameters of the primary system as well as time synchronization to the first arriving user signal, two algorithms are proposed in this paper. The first one targets estimating the size of the frequency allocation block of the primary system. The performance of this algorithm is compared with the results of a Gaussian approximation-based approach that aims to determine the probability of correct block size estimation theoretically. The second one is a semiblind user separation algorithm, which estimates the carrier frequency offsets and time delays of each block by exploiting the cross-correlations over pilot subcarriers. A two-dimensional clustering method is then employed to group the estimates, where each group belongs to a different user. It is shown that the proposed algorithms can improve the spectrum opportunity detection of cognitive radios. Feasibility of the algorithms is proved through practical simulations.

  15. Optical beat interference noise reduction in OFDMA optical access link using self-homodyne balanced detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sang-Min; Won, Yong-Yuk; Han, Sang-Kook

    2013-12-01

    A Novel technique for reducing the OBI noise in optical OFDMA-PON uplink is presented. OFDMA is a multipleaccess/ multiplexing scheme that can provide multiplexing operation of user data streams onto the downlink sub-channels and uplink multiple access by means of dividing OFDM subcarriers as sub-channels. The main issue of high-speed, single-wavelength upstream OFDMA-PON arises from optical beating interference noise. Because the sub-channels are allocated dynamically to multiple access users over same nominal wavelength, it generates the optical beating interference among upstream signals. In this paper, we proposed a novel scheme using self-homodyne balanced detection in the optical line terminal (OLT) to reduce OBI noise which is generated in the uplink transmission of OFDMA-PON system. When multiple OFDMA sub-channels over the same nominal wavelength are received at the same time in the proposed architecture, OBI noises can be removed using balanced detection. Using discrete multitone modulation (DMT) to generate real valued OFDM signals, the proposed technique is verified through experimental demonstration.

  16. Power margin improvement for OFDMA-PON using hierarchical modulation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pan; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhuang, Zhiming; Zhang, Liang; Chang, Qingjiang; Yang, Qi; Hu, Rong; Su, Yikai

    2013-04-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a hierarchical modulation scheme to improve power margin for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-passive optical networks (OFDMA-PONs). In a PON system, under the same launched optical power, optical network units (ONUs) have different power margins due to unequal distribution fiber lengths. The power margin of the PON system is determined by the ONU with the lowest power margin. In our proposed scheme, ONUs with long and short distribution fibers are grouped together, and downstream signals for the paired ONUs are mapped onto the same OFDM subcarriers using hierarchical modulation. In a pair of ONUs, part of the power margin of the ONU with short distribution fiber is re-allocated to the ONU with long distribution fiber. Therefore, the power margin of the ONU with the longest distribution fiber can be increased, leading to the power margin improvement of the PON system. Experimental results show that the hierarchical modulation scheme improves the power margin by 2.7 dB for an OFDMA-PON system, which can be used to support more users or extend transmission distance. PMID:23571916

  17. Linear Receiver for OFDMA Uplink with both CFOs and IQ Imbalances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weile; Yin, Qinye

    In orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFD-MA) uplink, the distortions introduced by both multiple carrier frequency offsets (CFOs) and in-phase and quadrature-phase (IQ) imbalances will severely degrade the system performance. With both CFOs and IQ imbalances, signal detection at the receiver becomes hard, if not impossible. In this letter, a linear receiver is proposed to cope with the distortions at a slight drop in system transmission rate. The analysis and simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. On the Influence of Packet Scheduling on the Trade-Off between System Spectral Efficiency and User Fairness in OFDMA-Based Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Emanuel B.; Walker, Michael L.; Casadevall, Fernando

    System spectral efficiency and user fairness are crucial aspects for resource allocation in multi-user OFDM-based cellular networks. This work intends to investigate the influence of the performance of packet scheduling algorithms on the trade-off between these two objectives in scenarios with non real-time and real-time services. By means of system-level simulations, we were able to create a didactic map of the relation between these two aspects and propose ways to exploit this trade-off efficiently.

  19. A New Subcarrier Allocation Strategy for MIMO-OFDMA Multicellular Networks Based on Cooperative Interference Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Gkonis, Panagiotis K.; Seimeni, Maria A.; Asimakis, Nikolaos P.; Kaklamani, Dimitra I.; Venieris, Iakovos S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the performance of a new subcarrier allocation strategy for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) multicellular networks which employ Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) architecture. For this reason, a hybrid system-link level simulator has been developed executing independent Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in parallel. Up to two tiers of cells around the central cell are taken into consideration and increased loading per cell. The derived results indicate that this strategy can provide up to 12% capacity gain for 16-QAM modulation and two tiers of cells around the central cell in a symmetric 2 × 2 MIMO configuration. This gain is derived when comparing the proposed strategy to the traditional approach of allocating subcarriers that maximize only the desired user's signal. PMID:24683351

  20. Metro-access integrated network based on optical OFDMA with dynamic sub-carrier allocation and power distribution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongfu; Zhang, Qiongli; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Ning; Liu, Deming; Qiu, Kun; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Baojian

    2013-01-28

    We propose and demonstrate a novel optical orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA)-based metro-access integrated network with dynamic resource allocation. It consists of a single fiber OFDMA ring and many single fiber OFDMA trees, which transparently integrates metropolitan area networks with optical access networks. The single fiber OFDMA ring connects the core network and the central nodes (CNs), the CNs are on demand reconfigurable and use multiple orthogonal sub-carriers to realize parallel data transmission and dynamic resource allocation, meanwhile, they can also implement flexible power distribution. The remote nodes (RNs) distributed in the user side are connected by the single fiber OFDMA trees with the corresponding CN. The obtained results indicate that our proposed metro-access integrated network is feasible and the power distribution is agile. PMID:23389228

  1. Localized Mode DFT-S-OFDMA Implementation Using Frequency and Time Domain Interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viholainen, Ari; Ihalainen, Tero; Rinne, Mika; Renfors, Markku

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a novel method to generate a localized mode single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) waveform. Instead of using DFT-spread OFDMA (DFT-S-OFDMA) processing, the new structure called SCiFI-FDMA relies on frequency and time domain interpolation followed by a user-specific frequency shift. SCiFI-FDMA can provide signal waveforms that are compatible to DFT-S-OFDMA. In addition, it provides any resolution of user bandwidth allocation for the uplink multiple access with comparable computational complexity, because the DFT is avoided. Therefore, SCiFI-FDMA allows a flexible choice of parameters appreciated in broadband mobile communications in the future.

  2. Learning Participation as Systems Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ison, Ray; Blackmore, Chris; Armson, Rosalind

    2007-01-01

    Learning participation only makes sense if it is purposeful. From our perspective its primary purpose is to achieve more effective managing in situations of complexity and change. We describe our evolving understandings and practices (a praxeology) for Systems Practice for managing complexity, built on 30 years of developing supported open…

  3. Distributed Synchronization Technique for OFDMA-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Bio-Inspired Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Sung Joon; Cho, Yong Soo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a distributed synchronization technique based on a bio-inspired algorithm is proposed for an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)-based wireless mesh network (WMN) with a time difference of arrival. The proposed time- and frequency-synchronization technique uses only the signals received from the neighbor nodes, by considering the effect of the propagation delay between the nodes. It achieves a fast synchronization with a relatively low computational complexity because it is operated in a distributed manner, not requiring any feedback channel for the compensation of the propagation delays. In addition, a self-organization scheme that can be effectively used to construct 1-hop neighbor nodes is proposed for an OFDMA-based WMN with a large number of nodes. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated with regard to the convergence property and synchronization success probability using a computer simulation. PMID:26225974

  4. Practical aspects of systems hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of hardening technology in a practical system require a balance between the factors governing affordability, producibility, and survivability of the finished design. Without careful consideration of the top-level system operating constraints, a design engineer may find himself with a survivable but overweight, unproductive, expensive design. This paper explores some lessons learned in applying hardening techniques to several laser communications programs and is intended as an introductory guide to novice designers faced with the task of hardening a space system.

  5. Staged optimization algorithms based MAC dynamic bandwidth allocation for OFDMA-PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yafan; Qian, Chen; Cao, Bingyao; Dun, Han; Shi, Yan; Zou, Junni; Lin, Rujian; Wang, Min

    2016-06-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access passive optical network (OFDMA-PON) has being considered as a promising solution for next generation PONs due to its high spectral efficiency and flexible bandwidth allocation scheme. In order to take full advantage of these merits of OFDMA-PON, a high-efficiency medium access control (MAC) dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) scheme is needed. In this paper, we propose two DBA algorithms which can act on two different stages of a resource allocation process. To achieve higher bandwidth utilization and ensure the equity of ONUs, we propose a DBA algorithm based on frame structure for the stage of physical layer mapping. Targeting the global quality of service (QoS) of OFDMA-PON, we propose a full-range DBA algorithm with service level agreement (SLA) and class of service (CoS) for the stage of bandwidth allocation arbitration. The performance of the proposed MAC DBA scheme containing these two algorithms is evaluated using numerical simulations. Simulations of a 15 Gbps network with 1024 sub-carriers and 32 ONUs demonstrate the maximum network throughput of 14.87 Gbps and the maximum packet delay of 1.45 ms for the highest priority CoS under high load condition.

  6. Practical Applications of Space Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report gives an overview of a study conducted by the Space Applications Board (SAB) on the practical applications of space systems. In this study, the SAB considered how the nation's space capability might be used to solve problems such as the shortage of food and energy; the improvement of the physical environment; inventorying and…

  7. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  8. Minimum cost maximum flow algorithm for upstream bandwidth allocation in OFDMA passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yating; Kuang, Bin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Qianwu; Wang, Min

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a minimum cost maximum flow (MCMF) based upstream bandwidth allocation algorithm, which supports differentiated QoS for orthogonal frequency division multiple access passive optical networks (OFDMA-PONs). We define a utility function as the metric to characterize the satisfaction degree of an ONU on the obtained bandwidth. The bandwidth allocation problem is then formulated as maximizing the sum of the weighted total utility functions of all ONUs. By constructing a flow network graph, we obtain the optimized bandwidth allocation using the MCMF algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme improves the performance in terms of mean packet delay, packet loss ratio and throughput.

  9. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Distributed OFDMA-Based MAC Protocol for MANETs

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jiyoung; Lee, Hyungyu; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed MAC protocol for OFDMA-based wireless mobile ad hoc multihop networks, in which the resource reservation and data transmission procedures are operated in a distributed manner. A frame format is designed considering the characteristics of OFDMA that each node can transmit or receive data to or from multiple nodes simultaneously. Under this frame structure, we propose a distributed resource management method including network state estimation and resource reservation processes. We categorize five types of logical errors according to their root causes and show that two of the logical errors are inevitable while three of them are avoided under the proposed distributed MAC protocol. In addition, we provide a systematic method to determine the advertisement period of each node by presenting a clear relation between the accuracy of estimated network states and the signaling overhead. We evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in respect of the reservation success rate and the success rate of data transmission. Since our method focuses on avoiding logical errors, it could be easily placed on top of the other resource allocation methods focusing on the physical layer issues of the resource management problem and interworked with them. PMID:25133254

  10. Initial ranging scheme based on interpolated Zadoff-Chu sequences for OFDMA-PON.

    PubMed

    Razmtouz, Ali; Habel, Kai; Kottke, Christoph; Ruprecht, Christian; Rosenkranz, Werner

    2014-02-10

    Initial access to passive optical networks (PONs) requires upstream (US) synchronization of multiple optical network units (ONUs). We propose a low-complexity scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) based PONs and demonstrate it experimentally. The scheme is based on interpolated Zadoff-Chu sequences, to synchronize the signal of each ONU arriving at the optical line terminal (OLT). Our experimental test bed consists of 4 colorless ONUs seeded by a single laser located at the OLT. Thermal expansion of a fiber is utilized to emulate a dynamic time drift in the demodulation-window positioning of OLT. The detected individual offsets at the OLT are fed back to the ONUs and are compensated at every data frame transmission. In this way, both inter carrier interference (ICI) and inter symbol interference (ISI) remain below acceptable levels. PMID:24663658

  11. Calculating Storage Requirements for Office Practice Systems

    PubMed Central

    Stead, William W.; Hammond, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The disk space requirements of small and medium sized group practices using a comprehensive medical information system supported by either a micro-computer or a mini-computer are analyzed. Efficient operation requires that 23%-54% of a typical system disk be used for files other than patient records. Data is presented to allow prediction of both the number of records that will need to be maintained for a practice and the average size of each record based upon the type of data required by the practice.

  12. Systems Concepts Effectively Taught Using Systems Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Claudia; Baliga, Nitin S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes two lessons within the authors' education module entitled, Ecological Networks, that successfully teaches introductory systems content to middle and high school students. To catch students' attention when teaching these new concepts, they decided to use a network that was familiar and fun for students--a cell-phone…

  13. An adaptive OFDMA-based MAC protocol for underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Issa M; Gadallah, Yasser; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Khreishah, Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UAWSNs) have many applications across various civilian and military domains. However, they suffer from the limited available bandwidth of acoustic signals and harsh underwater conditions. In this work, we present an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol that is configurable to suit the operating requirements of the underwater sensor network. The protocol has three modes of operation, namely random, equal opportunity and energy-conscious modes of operation. Our MAC design approach exploits the multi-path characteristics of a fading acoustic channel to convert it into parallel independent acoustic sub-channels that undergo flat fading. Communication between node pairs within the network is done using subsets of these sub-channels, depending on the configurations of the active mode of operation. Thus, the available limited bandwidth gets fully utilized while completely avoiding interference. We derive the mathematical model for optimal power loading and subcarrier selection, which is used as basis for all modes of operation of the protocol. We also conduct many simulation experiments to evaluate and compare our protocol with other Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based MAC protocols. PMID:23012517

  14. An Adaptive OFDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Issa M.; Gadallah, Yasser; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Khreishah, Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UAWSNs) have many applications across various civilian and military domains. However, they suffer from the limited available bandwidth of acoustic signals and harsh underwater conditions. In this work, we present an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol that is configurable to suit the operating requirements of the underwater sensor network. The protocol has three modes of operation, namely random, equal opportunity and energy-conscious modes of operation. Our MAC design approach exploits the multi-path characteristics of a fading acoustic channel to convert it into parallel independent acoustic sub-channels that undergo flat fading. Communication between node pairs within the network is done using subsets of these sub-channels, depending on the configurations of the active mode of operation. Thus, the available limited bandwidth gets fully utilized while completely avoiding interference. We derive the mathematical model for optimal power loading and subcarrier selection, which is used as basis for all modes of operation of the protocol. We also conduct many simulation experiments to evaluate and compare our protocol with other Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based MAC protocols. PMID:23012517

  15. ONU discovery using multiple subchannels for seamless service support in long-reach OFDMA-PON.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hakjeon; Doo, Kyeong-Hwan; Lee, Jonghyun; Lee, Sangsoo

    2014-09-01

    In a passive optical network (PON), discovery is a process that detects and registers newly connected optical network units (ONUs). A long-reach PON requires a longer discovery window, e.g., at least 1 ms for 100 km, due to the increased round-trip time between an optical line terminal (OLT) and an ONU. The longer discovery window consumes more network resources and issues longer service-interruption time. From this motivation, for a long-reach orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA)-PON, we propose a discovery method using multiple subchannels, where each subchannel consists of one or several subcarrier(s). Compared to discovery using a single channel, the proposed discovery method can increase the number of successfully detected ONUs at the same resources (i.e., for a discovery window) and ensure seamless service support to already registered ONUs, by assigning some subchannels for discovery and the remainder for data transmission. We analyze the discovery efficiency (i.e., the number of successfully detected ONUs in the discovery process) based on a probability and optimize the discovery window size by numerical simulations. PMID:25321588

  16. Two-Level Scheduling for Video Transmission over Downlink OFDMA Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Mau-Luen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a two-level scheduling scheme for video transmission over downlink orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) networks. It aims to maximize the aggregate quality of the video users subject to the playback delay and resource constraints, by exploiting the multiuser diversity and the video characteristics. The upper level schedules the transmission of video packets among multiple users based on an overall target bit-error-rate (BER), the importance level of packet and resource consumption efficiency factor. Instead, the lower level renders unequal error protection (UEP) in terms of target BER among the scheduled packets by solving a weighted sum distortion minimization problem, where each user weight reflects the total importance level of the packets that has been scheduled for that user. Frequency-selective power is then water-filled over all the assigned subcarriers in order to leverage the potential channel coding gain. Realistic simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art scheduling scheme by up to 6.8 dB in terms of peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR). Further test evaluates the suitability of equal power allocation which is the common assumption in the literature. PMID:26906398

  17. Developing an Expert System for Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ozbolt, Judy G.; Schultz, Samuel; Swain, Mary Ann P.; Abraham, Ivo L.; Farchaus-Stein, Karen

    1984-01-01

    The American Nurses' Association has set eight Standards of Nursing Practice related to the nursing process. Computer-aided information systems intended to facilitate the nursing process must be designed to promote adherence to these professional standards. For each of the eight standards, the paper tells how a hypothetical expert system could help nurses to meet the standard. A prototype of such an expert system is being developed. The paper describes issues in conceptualizing clinical decision-making and developing decision strategies for the prototype system. The process of developing the prototype system is described.

  18. Effective maintenance practices to manage system aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chockie, Alan; Bjorkelo, Kenneth

    A study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was recently undertaken to identify effective maintenance practices that could be adapted by the nuclear industry in the United States to assist in managing the aging degradation of plant systems and components. Four organizations were examined to assess the influence of maintenance programs on addressing the system and component aging degradation issues. An effective maintenance program was found to be essential to the management of system and component aging. Four key elements of an effective maintenance program that are important to an aging management were identified: (1) the selection of critical systems and components; (2) the development of an understanding of aging through the collection and analysis of equipment performance information; (3) the development of appropriate preventive and predictive maintenance tasks to manage equipment and system aging degradation; and (4) the use of feedback mechanisms to continuously improve the management of aging systems and components. These elements were found to be common to all four organizations.

  19. Practicing Technology Implementation: The Case of an Enterprise System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awazu, Yukika

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on four theories of practice--Communities of Practice (CoP), Bourdieu's theory of practice, Pickering's mangle of practice, and Actor Network Theory (ANT), the study provides an in-depth understanding about technology implementation practice. Analysis of an Enterprise System implementation project in a software manufacturing…

  20. Practical video indexing and retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yiqing; Wolf, Wayne H.; Liu, Bede; Huang, Jeffrey R.

    1998-03-01

    We integrated a practical digital video database system based on language and image analysis with components from digital video processing, still image search, information retrieval, closed captioning processing. The attempt is to utilize the multiple modalities of information in video and implement data fusion among the multiple modalities; image information, speech/dialog information, closed captioning information, sound track information such as music, gunfire, explosion, caption information, motion information, temporal information. Effort is made to allow access video contents at different levels including video program level, scene level, shot level, and object level. Approaches of browsing, subject-based classification, and random retrieving are available to gain access to the contents.

  1. [Systemic therapy of breast cancer: practice guideline].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Zsolt; Boér, Katalin; Dank, Magdolna; Kahán, Zsuzsanna; Kocsis, Judit; Kövér, Erika; Pajkos, Gábor; Pikó, Béla; Rubovszky, Gábor; Eckhardt, Sándor

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the practice guideline of systemic treatment of breast cancer and recommendations of the 3rd Hungarian Breast Cancer Consensus Conference. It reflects the recent international guidelines (ESMO, NCCN, ABC2, St Gallen's) irrespectively of the current financial opportunities. Here we follow the early - locally advanced - locally relapsed - metastatic breast cancer line for didactic considerations and we discuss the different subgroups of breast cancer based on hormone receptor and HER2 receptor status. Diagnosis and treatment options of rare clinical entities are summarised at the end of the paper. PMID:27579723

  2. Adaptive Systems Engineering: A Medical Paradigm for Practicing Systems Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann

    2011-06-01

    From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.

  3. System based practice: a concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; HOSSEINI, FAKHROLSADAT; AHMADY, SOLEIMAN

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Systems-Based Practice (SBP) is one of the six competencies introduced by the ACGME for physicians to provide high quality of care and also the most challenging of them in performance, training, and evaluation of medical students. This concept analysis clarifies the concept of SBP by identifying its components to make it possible to differentiate it from other similar concepts. For proper training of SBP and to ensure these competencies in physicians, it is necessary to have an operational definition, and SBP’s components must be precisely defined in order to provide valid and reliable assessment tools. Methods Walker & Avant’s approach to concept analysis was performed in eight stages: choosing a concept, determining the purpose of analysis, identifying all uses of the concept, defining attributes, identifying a model case, identifying borderline, related, and contrary cases, identifying antecedents and consequences, and defining empirical referents. Results Based on the analysis undertaken, the attributes of SBP includes knowledge of the system, balanced decision between patients’ need and system goals, effective role playing in interprofessional health care team, system level of health advocacy, and acting for system improvement. System thinking and a functional system are antecedents and system goals are consequences. A case model, as well as border, and contrary cases of SBP, has been introduced. Conclusion he identification of SBP attributes in this study contributes to the body of knowledge in SBP and reduces the ambiguity of this concept to make it possible for applying it in training of different medical specialties. Also, it would be possible to develop and use more precise tools to evaluate SBP competency by using empirical referents of the analysis. PMID:27104198

  4. Bioelectrochemical systems: an outlook for practical applications.

    PubMed

    Sleutels, Tom H J A; Ter Heijne, Annemiek; Buisman, Cees J N; Hamelers, Hubertus V M

    2012-06-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) hold great promise for sustainable production of energy and chemicals. This review addresses the factors that are essential for practical application of BESs. First, we compare benefits (value of products and cleaning of wastewater) with costs (capital and operational costs). Based on this, we analyze the maximum internal resistance (in mΩ m(2) ) and current density that is required to make microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and hydrogen-producing microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) cost effective. We compare these maximum resistances to reported internal resistances and current densities with special focus on cathodic resistances. Whereas the current densities of MFCs still need to be increased considerably (i.e., internal resistance needs to be decreased), MECs are closer to application as their current densities can be increased by increasing the applied voltage. For MFCs, the production of high-value products in combination with electricity production and wastewater treatment is a promising route. PMID:22674691

  5. The Virtual Practice: Using the Residents' Continuity Clinic to Teach Practice Management and Systems-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jose A.; Faust, Cheryl; Kenyon, Angie

    2009-01-01

    Background Education in systems-based practice is a required component of all postgraduate medical education programs in the United States. Competency in this area requires that trainees have an understanding of the health care system sufficient to provide optimal care to patients. Most trainees in residency programs have little understanding of the complexities and challenges of present-day practice in the current system of care and consider themselves unprepared to undertake this activity following completion of training. Training in practice management in residency programs has not been emphasized as an important component of systems-based practice. Historically, practice management training in residency programs has been done using a fully didactic model, and residents have expressed a desire to learn this skill by becoming more directly involved in the operations and management of a practice. The patient visit touches many aspects of the health care system, including clinic operations, insurance, quality, and finances. Approach At our institution, we used the residents' continuity clinic practices as a vehicle to provide education in practice management and systems-based practice by creating a curriculum that included the residents' perceived gaps in knowledge regarding going into practice. This is known as the virtual practice. This curriculum is taught using data obtained from residents' practice to illustrate concepts in many areas, including primary practice operations, malpractice insurance, financial benchmarks, and career planning. Results Resident self-assessed knowledge of these areas increased after participating in the curriculum, and resident testimonials indicate satisfaction with the project. In addition, residents have become engaged and interested in how their effort translates into performance and how they participate in the health care system. PMID:21975715

  6. The evolution and practical application of machine translation system (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Isao; Sato, Masayuki

    This paper describes a development, practical applicatioin, problem of a system, evaluation of practical system, and development trend of machine translation. Most recent system contains next four problems. 1) the vagueness of a text, 2) a difference of the definition of the terminology between different language, 3) the preparing of a large-scale translation dictionary, 4) the development of a software for the logical inference. Machine translation system is already used practically in many industry fields. However, many problems are not solved. The implementation of an ideal system will be after 15 years. Also, this paper described seven evaluation items detailedly. This English abstract was made by Mu system.

  7. Education System Reform in China after 1978: Some Practical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Miantao

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of education system reform in China since 1978, and its practical implications. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from literature review and interview. An overview of education system reform and its practical implications was found through data analysis. Findings: There has been two…

  8. High-capacity and low-cost long-reach OFDMA PON based on distance-adaptive bandwidth allocation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Pan; Wu, Jiayang; Mao, Junming; Lv, Jianxin; Jiang, Yuling; Qiu, Ciyuan; Tremblay, Christine; Su, Yikai

    2015-01-26

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a distance-adaptive bandwidth allocation scheme to realize high-capacity long-reach orthogonal frequency division multiple access passive optical network (OFDMA PON) with cost-effective electro-absorption modulator (EAM). In our scheme, the subcarriers in downstream OFDM signal are properly allocated to the optical network units (ONUs) with different fiber transmission lengths. By this means, the detrimental influence of power fading induced by dispersion and chirp can be avoided, thus all OFDM subcarriers can be modulated with high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) format, leading to a high transmission capacity. A proof-of-concept experiment is performed, in which three ONUs with transmission distances of 25, 50, and 100 km are assigned with different subcarriers, respectively. By using distance-adaptive bandwidth allocation technique, an OFDM signal of 34.5 Gb/s is successfully delivered to the ONUs with a bit error ratio (BER) lower than 2 × 10(-3). PMID:25835883

  9. Integrated Online Library Systems: Perspectives, Perceptions, and Practicalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Gennaro, Richard

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of information and misinformation about integrated online library systems highlights capabilities and functions that should be offered by an integrated system, practicalities of purchasing a system, visions versus reality, library versus information automation, origins of integrated online systems in the 1960s and 1970s, and future…

  10. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  11. Electronic Resource Management Systems in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic resource management (ERM) systems have inundated the library marketplace. Both integrated library systems (ILS) vendors and subscription agents are now offering products and service enhancements that claim to help libraries efficiently manage their electronic resources. Additionally, some homegrown and open-source solutions have emerged…

  12. Individualized Study Systems in Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Klauw, C. F.; Plomp, Tj

    1974-01-01

    After a short characterization of individualized study systems (ISS) and a survey of the number and subject fields of individualized courses in the USA and Europe, the construction and evaluation of an ISS system in freshman mathematics at the Twente University of Technology, in the Netherlands, is discussed. (Editor)

  13. Systems and the Changing Architectural Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimsath, Clovis B.

    The architecture profession needs to employ systems building design in order to raise the rate of productivity and performance in construction. Changes have been made in architecture educational programs that recognize the shift in the role of the architect from design genius to building production manager. Systems design has led to changes within…

  14. Recommended Practice for Securing Control System Modems

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Davidson; Jason L. Wright

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses an often overlooked “backdoor” into critical infrastructure control systems created by modem connections. A modem’s connection to the public telephone system is similar to a corporate network connection to the Internet. By tracing typical attack paths into the system, this paper provides the reader with an analysis of the problem and then guides the reader through methods to evaluate existing modem security. Following the analysis, a series of methods for securing modems is provided. These methods are correlated to well-known networking security methods.

  15. A practical three visit complete denture system.

    PubMed

    Ling, B C

    2000-10-01

    Standard prosthodontic procedures require five visits to construct a set of complete maxillary and mandibular dentures. Various attempts have been made to reduce these procedures to four or three appointments. However, most of these techniques require the use of visible light polymerized resin as the final denture base materials. Visible light-cured resin materials have inferior physical properties and biocompatibility problems as compared with heat cured polymethylmethacrylate. This paper describes a system of complete denture construction which requires three clinical appointments instead of the usual five visits. This system is made possible by using the VLC base/tray material as the preliminary impression material as well as the application of a new biometric wax occlusion rim. It retains the use of polymethylmethacrylate as the denture base material. This system also utilizes all the procedures used in the conventional five appointment system of complete denture construction. PMID:11709981

  16. Practical vision based degraded text recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Rapid growth and progress in the medical, industrial, security and technology fields means more and more consideration for the use of camera based optical character recognition (OCR) Applying OCR to scanned documents is quite mature, and there are many commercial and research products available on this topic. These products achieve acceptable recognition accuracy and reasonable processing times especially with trained software, and constrained text characteristics. Even though the application space for OCR is huge, it is quite challenging to design a single system that is capable of performing automatic OCR for text embedded in an image irrespective of the application. Challenges for OCR systems include; images are taken under natural real world conditions, Surface curvature, text orientation, font, size, lighting conditions, and noise. These and many other conditions make it extremely difficult to achieve reasonable character recognition. Performance for conventional OCR systems drops dramatically as the degradation level of the text image quality increases. In this paper, a new recognition method is proposed to recognize solid or dotted line degraded characters. The degraded text string is localized and segmented using a new algorithm. The new method was implemented and tested using a development framework system that is capable of performing OCR on camera captured images. The framework allows parameter tuning of the image-processing algorithm based on a training set of camera-captured text images. Novel methods were used for enhancement, text localization and the segmentation algorithm which enables building a custom system that is capable of performing automatic OCR which can be used for different applications. The developed framework system includes: new image enhancement, filtering, and segmentation techniques which enabled higher recognition accuracies, faster processing time, and lower energy consumption, compared with the best state of the art published

  17. Systemic accident analysis: examining the gap between research and practice.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Peter; Waterson, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    The systems approach is arguably the dominant concept within accident analysis research. Viewing accidents as a result of uncontrolled system interactions, it forms the theoretical basis of various systemic accident analysis (SAA) models and methods. Despite the proposed benefits of SAA, such as an improved description of accident causation, evidence within the scientific literature suggests that these techniques are not being used in practice and that a research-practice gap exists. The aim of this study was to explore the issues stemming from research and practice which could hinder the awareness, adoption and usage of SAA. To achieve this, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 42 safety experts from ten countries and a variety of industries, including rail, aviation and maritime. This study suggests that the research-practice gap should be closed and efforts to bridge the gap should focus on ensuring that systemic methods meet the needs of practitioners and improving the communication of SAA research. PMID:23542136

  18. Economic Systems, Child Rearing Practices and Personality Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Conrad M.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews research on the relationship of a society's economic system to other aspects of the social structure, including socialization practices. Concludes that the relationship between personal values and the economic institution becomes reciprocal as society becomes more complex. (JG)

  19. Teachers' Belief Systems and Grading Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Harry; Brown, Clarence

    This report investigated two hypotheses: 1) junior high school teachers with concrete belief systems would assign more unsatisfactory citizenship grades and lower academic grades than more abstract teachers; and 2) the correlation between citizenship and academic grades would be higher for concrete than abstract teachers. Ten teachers from…

  20. The SI Metric System and Practical Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Richard W.

    Intended for use in the technical program of a technical institute or community college, this student manual is designed to provide background in the metric system contributing to employability. Nine units are presented with objectives stated for each unit followed by questions or exercises. (Printed answers are supplied when necessary.) Unit 1…

  1. Better Management Practices for Recirculating Aquaculture Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under the 2004 federal aquaculture effluent limitation guidelines (Federal Register 2004), recirculating aquaculture systems with an annual production exceeding 45,454 kg (100,000 pounds) are classified as concentrated aquatic animal production (CAAP) facilities and are required to obtain a National...

  2. PC reporting system for radiologists: practical use under PACS environment.

    PubMed

    Nakata, N; Yoshihiro, S; Miida, K; Tashima, M; Sunakawa, Y; Harada, J; Tada, S; Fukuda, K

    2001-07-01

    To evaluate the practical usefulness of several types of the reporting system especially for radiologists, we have developed and employed several reporting systems. We categorized those reporting systems as follows (1) stand alone PC reporting system; (2) linked reporting system with PACS environment; (3) integrated three-dimensional (3D) imaging workstation (WS) with the intranet. We have evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of those three systems, and compared between the reporting system without PACS and network reporting system with PACS. Using linked reporting system with PACS, radiologists could easily reference both previous reports and archived diagnostic images, and also make their teaching files quickly. In conclusion, the reporting system under PACS environment is found to be practical and helpful for Japanese radiologists. PMID:11378217

  3. A practical solution for KKT systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hong; Li, Jianlin

    2007-10-01

    We consider KKT systems of linear equations with a 2???2 block indefinite matrix whose (2, 2) block is zero. Such systems arise in many applications. Treating such matrices would encounter some intricacies, especially when its (1, 1) block, i.e., the stiffness matrix in term of computational mechanics, is rank-deficient. It is the rank-deficiency of the stiffness matrix that leads to the so-called rigid-displacement issue. This is believed to be one of the main reasons that many programmers would unwillingly give up the Lagrange multiplier method but select the penalty method. Based on the Sherman?Morrison formula and the conventional LDLT decomposition for symmetric positive definite matrices, a robust direct solution is proposed, which is amenable to the conventional finite element codes, competent for both nonsingular and singular stiffness matrices, and particularly suitable to parallel computation. As a paradigm, the application to the element-free Galerkin method (EFGM) with the moving least squares interpolation is illustrated.

  4. Central nervous system stimulants and sport practice

    PubMed Central

    Avois, L; Robinson, N; Saudan, C; Baume, N; Mangin, P; Saugy, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants may be used to reduce tiredness and increase alertness, competitiveness, and aggression. They are more likely to be used in competition but may be used during training to increase the intensity of the training session. There are several potential dangers involving their misuse in contact sports. This paper reviews the three main CNS stimulants, ephedrine, amfetamine, and cocaine, in relation to misuse in sport. Methods Description of the pharmacology, actions, and side effects of amfetamine, cocaine, and ephedrine. Results CNS stimulants have psychotropic effects that may be perceived to be ergogenic. Some are prescription drugs, such as Ephedra alkaloids, and there are issues regarding their appropriate therapeutic use. Recently attention has been given to their widespread use by athletes, despite the lack of evidence regarding any ergogenic or real performance benefit, and their potentially serious side effects. Recreational drugs, some of which are illegal (cocaine, amfetamines), are commonly used by athletes and cause potential ergolytic effects. Overall, these drugs are important for their frequent use and mention in anti‐doping laboratories statistics and the media, and their potentially serious adverse effects. Conclusions Doping with CNS stimulants is a real public health problem and all sports authorities should participate in its prevention. Dissemination of information is essential to prevent doping in sport and to provide alternatives. Adequate training and education in this domain should be introduced. PMID:16799095

  5. Practical thermodynamics of Yukawa systems at strong coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Khrapak, Sergey A.; Kryuchkov, Nikita P.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Thomas, Hubertus M.

    2015-05-21

    Simple practical approach to estimate thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled Yukawa systems, in both fluid and solid phases, is presented. The accuracy of the approach is tested by extensive comparison with direct computer simulation results (for fluids and solids) and the recently proposed shortest-graph method (for solids). Possible applications to other systems of softly repulsive particles are briefly discussed.

  6. Guidelines for Psychological Practice in Health Care Delivery Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…

  7. Practical thermodynamics of Yukawa systems at strong coupling.

    PubMed

    Khrapak, Sergey A; Kryuchkov, Nikita P; Yurchenko, Stanislav O; Thomas, Hubertus M

    2015-05-21

    Simple practical approach to estimate thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled Yukawa systems, in both fluid and solid phases, is presented. The accuracy of the approach is tested by extensive comparison with direct computer simulation results (for fluids and solids) and the recently proposed shortest-graph method (for solids). Possible applications to other systems of softly repulsive particles are briefly discussed. PMID:26001480

  8. Research on Innovative Practice Teaching System Based on the High-End Practice Teaching Environment for Software Engineering Speciality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jianli; Li, Cunhua; Ji, Zhaohui; Wu, Junming

    Through the analysis of current culture status of undergraduate engineering applied talents, the paper points out that the main reason causing the lack of student integrated application and practice innovation abilities is the poor construction of high-end practice environment. And then, how to enhance the practice environment construction and practical teaching innovation as well as building an appropriate innovation practice teaching system for engineering applied talents are systematically discussed. It is very obvious that the application and promotion of this kind of innovative practice teaching system could enhance the practice innovation abilities and entrepreneurial and employment awareness of the graduates.

  9. Recommended Practice for Patch Management of Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Tom; Dale Christiansen; Dan Berrett

    2008-12-01

    A key component in protecting a nation’s critical infrastructure and key resources is the security of control systems. The term industrial control system refers to supervisory control and data acquisition, process control, distributed control, and any other systems that control, monitor, and manage the nation’s critical infrastructure. Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) consists of electric power generators, transmission systems, transportation systems, dam and water systems, communication systems, chemical and petroleum systems, and other critical systems that cannot tolerate sudden interruptions in service. Simply stated, a control system gathers information and then performs a function based on its established parameters and the information it receives. The patch management of industrial control systems software used in CIKR is inconsistent at best and nonexistent at worst. Patches are important to resolve security vulnerabilities and functional issues. This report recommends patch management practices for consideration and deployment by industrial control systems owners.

  10. Practical Challenges of Systems Thinking and Modeling in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Trochim, William M.; Cabrera, Derek A.; Milstein, Bobby; Gallagher, Richard S.; Leischow, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Awareness of and support for systems thinking and modeling in the public health field are growing, yet there are many practical challenges to implementation. We sought to identify and describe these challenges from the perspectives of practicing public health professionals. Methods. A systems-based methodology, concept mapping, was used in a study of 133 participants from 2 systems-based public health initiatives (the Initiative for the Study and Implementation of Systems and the Syndemics Prevention Network). This method identified 100 key challenges to implementation of systems thinking and modeling in public health work. Results. The project resulted in a map identifying 8 categories of challenges and the dynamic interactions among them. Conclusions. Implementation by public health professionals of the 8 simple rules we derived from the clusters in the map identified here will help to address challenges and improve the organization of systems that protect the public’s health. PMID:16449581

  11. Feedback Control Systems Loop Shaping Design with Practical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopsakis, George

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes loop shaping control design in feedback control systems, primarily from a practical stand point that considers design specifications. Classical feedback control design theory, for linear systems where the plant transfer function is known, has been around for a long time. But it s still a challenge of how to translate the theory into practical and methodical design techniques that simultaneously satisfy a variety of performance requirements such as transient response, stability, and disturbance attenuation while taking into account the capabilities of the plant and its actuation system. This paper briefly addresses some relevant theory, first in layman s terms, so that it becomes easily understood and then it embarks into a practical and systematic design approach incorporating loop shaping design coupled with lead-lag control compensation design. The emphasis is in generating simple but rather powerful design techniques that will allow even designers with a layman s knowledge in controls to develop effective feedback control designs.

  12. Assessing System Thinking Through Different Concept-Mapping Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandstädter, Kristina; Harms, Ute; Großschedl, Jörg

    2012-09-01

    System thinking is usually investigated by using questionnaires, video analysis, or interviews. Recently, concept-mapping (CM) was suggested as an adequate instrument for analysing students' system thinking. However, there are different ways with which to use this method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether particular features of CM practices affect the valid assessment of students' system thinking. The particular features analysed were the medium (computer versus paper-pencil) and the directedness (highly directed versus nondirected) of CM practices. These features were evaluated with respect to their influence on (a) students' performance in CM and (b) the validity of different CM practices for system thinking. One hundred fifty-four German fourth graders (mean age: 9.95 years) and 93 eighth graders (mean age: 14.07 years) participated in the study following an experimental pre-test-post-test design. Three variations of CM practices were applied: (a) highly directed computer mapping, (b) highly directed paper-pencil mapping, and (c) nondirected paper-pencil mapping. In addition to the CM task, a paper-pencil questionnaire was employed to investigate the validity of the CM practices. Results showed that the computer positively influenced student performance in CM when compared with paper-pencil. By contrast, there was no difference between highly directed and nondirected mapping. Whereas the medium rarely influenced the validity of CM for system thinking, high directedness showed a positive influence. Considering the limitations and benefits of particular CM practices, we suggest highly directed and computer-based CM as an appropriate assessment tool-in particular, with regard to large-scale assessments of system thinking.

  13. Choosing a New Telephone System for Your Medical Practice.

    PubMed

    Metherell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    E-mail may rule the world in other types of businesses, but for medical practices, the telephone remains the primary mode of communication with patients, specialists, and pharmacies. From making appointments to calling in prescriptions, telephones are essential to patient care. With technology changing very quickly and new capabilities coming into the medical practice, such as telemedicine and Skype, you need to know your options when choosing a new telephone system. The possibilities include on-site, cloud, and hybrid networked solutions. A wide variety of features and capabilities are available, from dozens of vendors. Of course, no matter what telephone solution you choose, you must meet regulatory compliance, particularly HIPAA, and Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard if you take credit cards. And it has to be affordable, reliable, and long lasting. This article explores what medical practices need to know when choosing a new business telephone system in order to find the right solutions for their businesses. PMID:27443060

  14. "Solar System - Practical Exercises" and "Astronomy - Practical Works" for Secondary Scholars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomic, A. S.

    2006-08-01

    Following intentions for introducing new forms of astronomical education in secondary schools and, simultaneously, suggestions for adaptation of astronomical methods of investigation for use by amateurs, the author has written two books, as cited in the title, and published by state textbook publisher "Zavod za udzbenike" in Belgrade. "Solar System - Practical Exercises" (A4, 55 p.) is complete with ten practical exercises for scholars, with emphasis on the fundamental astronomical parameters in the solar system. "Astronomy - Practical Works" (B5, 196 p.) is the result of a 25-year-long author's experience in guiding competition, plus "Science for Youth," covering astronomy for secondary and primary school pupils. It contains 82 practical works, which were all realized by scholars with some assistance and guidance by mentors at the public observatories or those with personal instruments. A number of good quality papers are written by these pupils and published in the astronomical journal "VASIONA," edited by the astronomical society "Rudjer Boscovich" in Belgrade. Most of these authors completed studies of astronomy, physics, mathematics or techniques. Both books are presented with full information on contents.

  15. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C.K.

    2000-07-07

    Chemical kinetic factors of hydrocarbon oxidation are examined in a variety of ignition problems. Ignition is related to the presence of a dominant chain branching reaction mechanism that can drive a chemical system to completion in a very short period of time. Ignition in laboratory environments is studied for problems including shock tubes and rapid compression machines. Modeling of the laboratory systems are used to develop kinetic models that can be used to analyze ignition in practical systems. Two major chain branching regimes are identified, one consisting of high temperature ignition with a chain branching reaction mechanism based on the reaction between atomic hydrogen with molecular oxygen, and the second based on an intermediate temperature thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic models are then used to describe ignition in practical combustion environments, including detonations and pulse combustors for high temperature ignition, and engine knock and diesel ignition for intermediate temperature ignition. The final example of ignition in a practical environment is homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) which is shown to be a problem dominated by the kinetics intermediate temperature hydrocarbon ignition. Model results show why high hydrocarbon and CO emissions are inevitable in HCCI combustion. The conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition are actually quite simple, since only one or two elementary reactions are dominant. However, there are many combustion factors that can influence these two major reactions, and these are the features that vary from one practical system to another.

  16. Review of EMC practice for launch vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiming

    Case histories, design and test practice in the field of advanced electromagnetic compatability (EMC) are reviewed. Failures caused by lightning, electrostatic discharge (ESD), and electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) are discussed. System and equipment design and analysis are examined, including lightning and ESD protection and computer-aided EMC analysis. Testing of a number of rockets and spacecraft is described.

  17. Leading Instructional Practices in a Performance-Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauble, Anna; Wise, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Given the shift to Common Core, educational leaders are challenged to see new directions in teaching and learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the instructional practices which may be related to the effectiveness of a performance-based system (PBS) and their impact on student achievement, as part of a thematic set of dissertations…

  18. School Technology Leadership: Artifacts in Systems of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Sara

    2011-01-01

    A cross-case analysis of five case studies of team-based technology leadership in middle schools with laptop programs identifies systems of practice that organize teams' distributed leadership. These cases suggest that successfully implementing a complex improvement effort warrants a team-based leadership approach, especially for an improvement…

  19. Design of a compensation system for dental practice.

    PubMed

    Scheetz, J P; Willis, D O

    1997-01-01

    The compensation system has an impact on the performance of employees in a dental practice. A comprehensive system includes many aspects in addition to the pay that employees receive. This paper explores issues related to the design and implementation of compensation systems in dentistry. Major considerations are the role of pay as a motivator of employees, decisions affecting pay equity of employees, the impact of wage and hour laws on pay decisions, the relationship of performance appraisal to potential pay increases, the use of bonus and incentive plans, and incorporation of fringe benefits into a compensation system. PMID:9130806

  20. Documentation of Nursing Practice Using a Computerized Medical Information System

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Carol

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses a definition of the content of the computerized nursing data base developed by the Nursing Department for the Clinical Center Medical Information System at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. The author describes the theoretical framework for the content and presents a model to describe the organization of the nursing data components in relation to the process of nursing care delivery. Nursing documentation requirements of Nurse Practice Acts, American Nurses Association Standards of Practice and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals are also addressed as they relate to this data base. The advantages and disadvantages of such an approach to computerized documentation are discussed.

  1. Human Systems Integration in Practice: Constellation Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Constellation program provided a unique testbed for Human Systems Integration (HSI) as a fundamental element of the Systems Engineering process. Constellation was the first major program to have HSI mandated by NASA's Human Rating document. Proper HSI is critical to the success of any project that relies on humans to function as operators, maintainers, or controllers of a system. HSI improves mission, system and human performance, significantly reduces lifecycle costs, lowers risk and minimizes re-design. Successful HSI begins with sufficient project schedule dedicated to the generation of human systems requirements, but is by no means solely a requirements management process. A top-down systems engineering process that recognizes throughout the organization, human factors as a technical discipline equal to traditional engineering disciplines with authority for the overall system. This partners with a bottoms-up mechanism for human-centered design and technical issue resolution. The Constellation Human Systems Integration Group (HSIG) was a part of the Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) organization within the program office, and existed alongside similar groups such as Flight Performance, Environments & Constraints, and Integrated Loads, Structures and Mechanisms. While the HSIG successfully managed, via influence leadership, a down-and-in Community of Practice to facilitate technical integration and issue resolution, it lacked parallel top-down authority to drive integrated design. This presentation will discuss how HSI was applied to Constellation, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers. This presentation will discuss how Human Systems Integration (HSI) was applied to NASA's Constellation program, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers on how to accomplish this critical function.

  2. Practical system for generating digital mixed reality video holograms.

    PubMed

    Song, Joongseok; Kim, Changseob; Park, Hanhoon; Park, Jong-Il

    2016-07-10

    We propose a practical system that can effectively mix the depth data of real and virtual objects by using a Z buffer and can quickly generate digital mixed reality video holograms by using multiple graphic processing units (GPUs). In an experiment, we verify that real objects and virtual objects can be merged naturally in free viewing angles, and the occlusion problem is well handled. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed system can generate mixed reality video holograms at 7.6 frames per second. Finally, the system performance is objectively verified by users' subjective evaluations. PMID:27409312

  3. Advancing the practice of systems engineering at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansma, Patti A.; Jones, Ross M.

    2006-01-01

    In FY 2004, JPL launched an initiative to improve the way it practices systems engineering. The Lab's senior management formed the Systems Engineering Advancement (SEA) Project in order to "significantly advance the practice and organizational capabilities of systems engineering at JPL on flight projects and ground support tasks." The scope of the SEA Project includes the systems engineering work performed in all three dimensions of a program, project, or task: 1. the full life-cycle, i.e., concept through end of operations 2. the full depth, i.e., Program, Project, System, Subsystem, Element (SE Levels 1 to 5) 3. the full technical scope, e.g., the flight, ground and launch systems, avionics, power, propulsion, telecommunications, thermal, etc. The initial focus of their efforts defined the following basic systems engineering functions at JPL: systems architecture, requirements management, interface definition, technical resource management, system design and analysis, system verification and validation, risk management, technical peer reviews, design process management and systems engineering task management, They also developed a list of highly valued personal behaviors of systems engineers, and are working to inculcate those behaviors into members of their systems engineering community. The SEA Project is developing products, services, and training to support managers and practitioners throughout the entire system lifecycle. As these are developed, each one needs to be systematically deployed. Hence, the SEA Project developed a deployment process that includes four aspects: infrastructure and operations, communication and outreach, education and training, and consulting support. In addition, the SEA Project has taken a proactive approach to organizational change management and customer relationship management - both concepts and approaches not usually invoked in an engineering environment. This paper'3 describes JPL's approach to advancing the practice of

  4. Practical application of equivalent linearization approaches to nonlinear piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1995-05-01

    The use of mechanical energy absorbers as an alternative to conventional hydraulic and mechanical snubbers for piping supports has attracted a wide interest among researchers and practitioners in the nuclear industry. The basic design concept of energy absorbers (EA) is to dissipate the vibration energy of piping systems through nonlinear hysteretic actions of EA!s under design seismic loads. Therefore, some type of nonlinear analysis needs to be performed in the seismic design of piping systems with EA supports. The equivalent linearization approach (ELA) can be a practical analysis tool for this purpose, particularly when the response approach (RSA) is also incorporated in the analysis formulations. In this paper, the following ELA/RSA methods are presented and compared to each other regarding their practice and numerical accuracy: Response approach using the square root of sum of squares (SRSS) approximation (denoted RS in this paper). Classical ELA based on modal combinations and linear random vibration theory (denoted CELA in this paper). Stochastic ELA based on direct solution of response covariance matrix (denoted SELA in this paper). New algorithms to convert response spectra to the equivalent power spectral density (PSD) functions are presented for both the above CELA and SELA methods. The numerical accuracy of the three EL are studied through a parametric error analysis. Finally, the practicality of the presented analysis is demonstrated in two application examples for piping systems with EA supports.

  5. Practical applications of Zernike phase surfaces in optical system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Steven H.

    2010-04-01

    There are times when it would be helpful to share performance information about an optical system without disclosing proprietary information between multiple parties. A combination of Zernike phase surfaces and paraxial surfaces can be used to model an optical system and provide a method to safely transfer the required information without disclosing the specifics of the design such as details about the optical materials or the specific element geometry. This paper deals with some of the practical aspects of this approach such as aperture stop location, the affects of windows which may change thickness on the construction of the model, and the need for multiple field positions and wavelengths.

  6. Resilient Control Systems Practical Metrics Basis for Defining Mission Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Craig G. Rieger

    2014-08-01

    "Resilience” describes how systems operate at an acceptable level of normalcy despite disturbances or threats. In this paper we first consider the cognitive, cyber-physical interdependencies inherent in critical infrastructure systems and how resilience differs from reliability to mitigate these risks. Terminology and metrics basis are provided to integrate the cognitive, cyber-physical aspects that should be considered when defining solutions for resilience. A practical approach is taken to roll this metrics basis up to system integrity and business case metrics that establish “proper operation” and “impact.” A notional chemical processing plant is the use case for demonstrating how the system integrity metrics can be applied to establish performance, and

  7. Medical Practice Support System. A medical practitioner's multimedia workstation.

    PubMed

    Stetson, D M; Eberhart, R C; Dobbins, R W; Pugh, W

    1991-01-01

    The United States Navy has developed a computer based Medical Practice Support System (MEPSS) intended for use by medical practitioners working in isolated situations. The system, now being tested in operational settings, emphasizes inexpensive, easily obtained off-the-shelf hardware and specially developed, readily implemented software to provide users with: 1) medical record keeping, 2) an electronic medical library, 3) interactive video instruction programs suitable for continuing medical education, 4) computer based medical diagnosis and treatment assistance, and 5) electronic communications with other facilities. This demonstration emphasizes a user based developmental approach, integration of diverse systems under a single user interface, and portable hardware. The resulting system makes medical information needed by practitioners instantly available at the time of a patient encounter, whenever and wherever that encounter may occur. Making clinically valuable information immediately available, MEPSS demonstrates how practitioners can use computers to help their own efforts to improve patient care quality and efficiency. PMID:1807756

  8. Practical mask inspection system with printability and pattern priority verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Hideo; Ozaki, Fumio; Takahara, Kenichi; Inoue, Takafumi; Kikuiri, Nobutaka

    2011-05-01

    Through the four years of study in Association of Super-Advanced Electronics Technologies (ASET) on reducing mask manufacturing Turn Around Time (TAT) and cost, we have been able to establish a technology to improve the efficiency of the review process by applying a printability verification function that utilizes computational lithography simulations to analyze defects detected by a high-resolution mask inspection system. With the advent of Source-Mask Optimization (SMO) and other technologies that extend the life of existing optical lithography, it is becoming extremely difficult to judge a defect only by the shape of a mask pattern, while avoiding pseudo-defects. Thus, printability verification is indispensable for filtering out nuisance defects from high-resolution mask inspection results. When using computational lithography simulations to verify printability with high precision, the image captured by the inspection system must be prepared with extensive care. However, for practical applications, this preparation process needs to be simplified. In addition, utilizing Mask Data Rank (MDR) to vary the defect detection sensitivity according to the patterns is also useful for simultaneously inspecting minute patterns and avoiding pseudo-defects. Combining these two technologies, we believe practical mask inspection for next generation lithography is achievable. We have been improving the estimation accuracy of the printability verification function through discussion with several customers and evaluation of their masks. In this report, we will describe the progress of these practical mask verification functions developed through customers' evaluations.

  9. 75 FR 65052 - Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane... Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems (Standard Practice) as an acceptable means... FAA finds the standards to be acceptable methods and procedures for maintenance of electrical...

  10. Bringing science into river systems cumulative effects assessment practice

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Nicole E.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Noble, Bram F.

    2011-04-15

    Fast-paced watershed change, driven by anthropogenic development, is threatening the sustainability of freshwater resources across the globe. Developments within watersheds interact in a manner that is additive and synergistic over space and time. Such cumulative environmental effects are defined as the results of actions that are individually minor but collectively significant when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions. Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) then is broadly defined as the process of evaluating the potential impacts of such collective actions on the environment and is a requirement in many countries, including in Canada at the federal level under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. However, current approaches to CEA for river systems are proving to be ineffective, which is largely attributed to the disconnect between CEA science and practice. We highlight this gap herein by discussing contradictions in the CEA literature, challenges in quantifying cumulative interactions, including overcoming spatiotemporal scale issues, multiple hydrologic and ecological pathways, and lack of predictive analysis. Our analysis shows there is a need for improved CEA for river systems, and in responding to this need we propose a conceptual framework for better integrating science and practice for improved CEA for river systems using one of the most adversely affected rivers basins in Canada, the Athabasca River, as our model. We conclude by addressing the challenges inherent to CEA with the intent of providing scientists with ways to help improve CEA of river systems.

  11. Energy management systems in buildings: The practical lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, P.

    1984-01-01

    Dramatic reductions in energy consumption in buildings can now be achieved by the use of automated energy management systems (EMS). This book draws on the results of an official programme of twenty five EMS installations in widely differing organisations. It provides detailed guidance on how to determine whether such a system represents a good investment for them; how to approach the project and write a good specification; how to select suitable prospective equipment suppliers; how to assess tenders and set up contracts; and how to train and educate supervisors and staff. Further chapters cover the practicalities of installing and commissioning the equipment and making best use of the system, including action in response to the information output and solutions to problems of handling the data.

  12. Activity Theory in Information Systems Research and Practice: Theoretical Underpinnings for an Information Systems Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mursu, Anja; Luukkonen, Irmeli; Toivanen, Marika; Korpela, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of information systems is to facilitate work activities: here we consider how Activity Theory can be applied in information systems development. Method. The requirements for an analytical model for emancipatory, work-oriented information systems research and practice are specified. Previous research work in Activity…

  13. Information systems: the key to evidence-based health practice.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing prominence is being given to the use of best current evidence in clinical practice and health services and programme management decision-making. The role of information in evidence-based practice (EBP) is discussed, together with questions of how advanced information systems and technology (IS&T) can contribute to the establishment of a broader perspective for EBP. The author examines the development, validation and use of a variety of sources of evidence and knowledge that go beyond the well-established paradigm of research, clinical trials, and systematic literature review. Opportunities and challenges in the implementation and use of IS&T and knowledge management tools are examined for six application areas: reference databases, contextual data, clinical data repositories, administrative data repositories, decision support software, and Internet-based interactive health information and communication. Computerized and telecommunications applications that support EBP follow a hierarchy in which systems, tasks and complexity range from reference retrieval and the processing of relatively routine transactions, to complex "data mining" and rule-driven decision support systems. PMID:11143195

  14. Practical approaches to field problems of stationary combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC) business plan dictates collaboration with industrial clients and other government agencies to promote energy efficiency, health and safety, pollution reduction and productivity enhancement. The Advanced Combustion Technologies group of CETC provides consultation to numerous organizations in combustion related areas by conducting laboratory and field investigations of fossil fuel-fired combustion equipment. CETC, with its modern research facilities and technical expertise, has taken this practical approach since the seventies and has assisted many organizations in overcoming field problems and in providing cost saving measures and improved profit margins. This paper presents a few selected research projects conducted for industrial clients in north and central America. The combustion systems investigated are mostly liquid fuel fired, with the exception of the utility boiler which was coal-fired. The key areas involved include fuel quality, fuel storage/delivery system contamination, waste derived oils, crude oil combustion, unacceptable pollutant emissions, ambient soot deposition, slagging, fouling, boiler component degradation, and particulate characterization. Some of the practical approaches taken to remedy these field problems on several combustion systems including residential, commercial and industrial scale units are discussed.

  15. Cobra sealing system; From field evaluation to practical safeguards application

    SciTech Connect

    Vodrazka, P.; Cermak, L. )

    1991-01-01

    After a successful conclusion of the Cobra seal IAEA field trials, the Cobra Seal System was installed in two Canadian facilities. The seals permit on-site verification without needing to replace them in extreme weather conditions, thus allowing a substantial time reduction for inspectors as well as minimizing intrusiveness of these activities. The paper describes experiences with practical installations of almost sixty Cobra seals including the selection of environmental conduits and housing. Examples of the results of the first several inspections utilizing a new version of the Cobra seal verifier are also included. Possible future outdoor applications of Cobra seals are described and some suggested improvements are outlined.

  16. The Practice Teaching Platform and System for Innovating Talents and Performing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Boyu; Hao, Ziqiang

    2014-01-01

    The practice education is an important part of higher educational system and an important approach to cultivating applied innovative talents. This paper studies practice of teaching platform and practical teaching system for the research and practice based on the objective basis of applied innovative talents and the basic characteristics of the…

  17. Practice.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    Practice refers to a characteristic way professionals use common standards to customize solutions to a range of problems. Practice includes (a) standards for outcomes and processes that are shared with one's colleagues, (b) a rich repertoire of skills grounded in diagnostic acumen, (c) an ability to see the actual and the ideal and work back and forth between them, (d) functional artistry, and (e) learning by doing that transcends scientific rationality. Communities of practice, such as dental offices, are small groups that work together in interlocking roles to achieve these ends. PMID:19413050

  18. Using Gunshot Detection Systems to Fight Explosive Fishing Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showen, R. L.; Dunson, J. C.; Woodman, G.; Christopher, S.; Wilson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blast fishing (using explosives to catch fish) causes extensive damage to coral reefs, especially in the Coral Triangle in Southeast Asia. Subsistence fishermen and larger consortiums, often with criminal links, throw an explosive into a school of fish, killing all sea life within range. This unsustainable practice is becoming more prevalent, and threatens the protein supply of as many as a billion people. Ending blast fishing will require combined technical and societal methods aimed at both deterring the practice, and catching those responsible. Our work aims to significantly improve enforcement. We are re-purposing SST's ShotSpotter gunshot detection system, (trusted and valued by police around the world), substituting hydrophones for the present microphones. Using multilateration and trained human reviewers, the system can give prompt blast alerts, location data, and acoustic waveforms to law enforcement officials. We hope to establish a prototype system in Malaysia in 2015, and have already secured governmental approvals for installation and tests with local law enforcement. The Scubazoo media firm in Malaysia is working with resorts, dive operations, and celebrity sponsors, and is planning to produce videos to illustrate the severity of the problem to both governments and the public. Because there is little hard data concerning the prevalence of blast fishing in either marine protected areas or open waters, the system can also indicate to the world the actual blast rates and patterns of use. The Teng Hoi environmental NGO in Hong Kong showed in 2004 that acoustic waves from typical bombs propagate on the order of 20 km, so an underwater locator system with a small number of sensors can feasibly cover a sizable coral region. Our present plans are to mount sensors on piers, buoys, and boats, but if possible we would also like to integrate with other existing acoustic arrays to strengthen the fight against blast fishing.

  19. Best practices for PV solar home system projects

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove-Davies, M.; Cabraal, A.

    1994-12-31

    PV solar home systems (SHS) are increasingly employed as an energy supply option for rural populations. The past 20 years` experience with small-scale SHS programs in developing countries has had mixed results. However, efforts in recent years have been more successful. In support of World Bank lending operations, the Banks Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) has undertaken a series of case studies of currently operating SHS programs in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and the Dominican Republic. These programs have varying degrees of government, NGO, and private sector involvement. This paper summarizes ASTAE`s draft Solar Photovoltaics: Best Practices for Household Electrification report which identifies the institutional, financial, and technical factors fundamental to the success of a PV solar home system project. The final version of the ASTAE report will incorporate comments from an international group of peer reviewers.

  20. Satellite-instrument system engineering best practices and lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueler, Carl F.

    2009-08-01

    This paper focuses on system engineering development issues driving satellite remote sensing instrumentation cost and schedule. A key best practice is early assessment of mission and instrumentation requirements priorities driving performance trades among major instrumentation measurements: Radiometry, spatial field of view and image quality, and spectral performance. Key lessons include attention to technology availability and applicability to prioritized requirements, care in applying heritage, approaching fixed-price and cost-plus contracts with appropriate attention to risk, and assessing design options with attention to customer preference as well as design performance, and development cost and schedule. A key element of success either in contract competition or execution is team experience. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of success, however, is thorough requirements analysis and flowdown to specifications driving design performance with sufficient parameter margin to allow for mistakes or oversights - the province of system engineering from design inception to development, test and delivery.

  1. [Systemic social practice of nurses in luhmann's perspective].

    PubMed

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Backes, Marli Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to understand the meaning of the social practice of nurses in Luhmann's perspective and allow for a discussion about the construction of a specific code for nursing; one that would go beyond the traditional health-disease code prevalent in the health system, whose relevant social communication is the disease. The Grounded Theory was the methodological framework. Data collection was performed by interviewing the 35 participants between May and December 2007. Data coding and analysis resulted revealed that assuming that nursing is as a functionally differentiated system implies on developing a binary code to enhance health as socially relevant communication and human beings as social beings who are part of a complex and multidimensional reality. PMID:21445497

  2. A manual of recommended practices for hydrogen energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, W.; Leach, S.

    1997-12-31

    Technologies for the production, distribution, and use of hydrogen are rapidly maturing and the number and size of demonstration programs designed to showcase emerging hydrogen energy systems is expanding. The success of these programs is key to hydrogen commercialization. Currently there is no comprehensive set of widely-accepted codes or standards covering the installation and operation of hydrogen energy systems. This lack of codes or standards is a major obstacle to future hydrogen demonstrations in obtaining the requisite licenses, permits, insurance, and public acceptance. In a project begun in late 1996 to address this problem, W. Hoagland and Associates has been developing a Manual of Recommended Practices for Hydrogen Systems intended to serve as an interim document for the design and operation of hydrogen demonstration projects. It will also serve as a starting point for some of the needed standard-setting processes. The Manual will include design guidelines for hydrogen procedures, case studies of experience at existing hydrogen demonstration projects, a bibliography of information sources, and a compilation of suppliers of hydrogen equipment and hardware. Following extensive professional review, final publication will occur later in 1997. The primary goal is to develop a draft document in the shortest possible time frame. To accomplish this, the input and guidance of technology developers, industrial organizations, government R and D and regulatory organizations and others will be sought to define the organization and content of the draft Manual, gather and evaluate available information, develop a draft document, coordinate reviews and revisions, and develop recommendations for publication, distribution, and update of the final document. The workshop, Development of a Manual of Recommended Practices for Hydrogen Energy Systems, conducted on March 11, 1997 in Alexandria, Virginia, was a first step.

  3. Systems analysis and design methodologies: practicalities and use in today's information systems development efforts.

    PubMed

    Jerva, M

    2001-05-01

    Historically, systems analysis and design methodologies have been used as a guide in software development. Such methods provide structure to software engineers in their efforts to create quality solutions in the real world of information systems. This article looks at the elements that constitute a systems analysis methodology and examines the historical development of systems analysis in software development. It concludes with observations on the strengths and weaknesses of four methodologies and the state of the art of practice today. PMID:11378979

  4. Recommended Practice: Creating Cyber Forensics Plans for Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Cornelius; Mark Fabro

    2008-08-01

    issues and to accommodate for the diversity in both system and architecture types, a framework based in recommended practices to address forensics in the control systems domain is required. This framework must be fully flexible to allow for deployment into any control systems environment regardless of technologies used. Moreover, the framework and practices must provide for direction on the integration of modern network security technologies with traditionally closed systems, the result being a true defense-in-depth strategy for control systems architectures. This document takes the traditional concepts of cyber forensics and forensics engineering and provides direction regarding augmentation for control systems operational environments. The goal is to provide guidance to the reader with specifics relating to the complexity of cyber forensics for control systems, guidance to allow organizations to create a self-sustaining cyber forensics program, and guidance to support the maintenance and evolution of such programs. As the current control systems cyber security community of interest is without any specific direction on how to proceed with forensics in control systems environments, this information product is intended to be a first step.

  5. Study of Clinical Practical Model of Urinary System Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wu, Yuan-Yi; Fu, Wei-Jun; Jia, Ying-Xin; Zhang, Bing-Hong; Xu, Yong-De; Wang, Zhong-Xin; Shi, Jian-Guo; Tan, Hai-Song; Qian, Ye-Yong; Shi, Bin-Yi; Zhang, Chao-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to improve the clinical treatment level of urinary system injury, it is necessary to build up an animal model of urinary system wound, which is not only analogous to real clinical practice, but also simple and practical. Methods: We have developed the third generation of firearm fragment wound generator based on the first and the second producer. The best explosive charge of the blank cartridge was selected by gradient powder loading experiments. The firearm fragment injuries were made to the bulbous urethra of 10 New Zealand male rabbits. One week preoperatively and 2, 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, all the animals underwent urethroscopy and urethrography. At 2, 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, two animals were randomly selected and killed, and the urethra was cut off for pathological examination. Results: The shooting distance of the third generation of firearm fragment wound generator is 2 cm. The best explosive charge of the blank cartridge is 1 g of nitrocotton. All rabbits survived the procedures and stayed alive until they were killed. Injuries were limited to bulbous urethra and distal urethra. Round damaged areas, 1–1.5 cm in length, on the ventral wall were observed. Ureteroscopy results showed that canal diameter gradually shrank by over 50% in 9 rabbits. The rate of success was 90%. Urethrography result noted that a 1–1.3 cm stricture was formed at the bulbous urethra. Histology results of injured stricture urethra showed that fibrous connective tissue hyperplasia and hyaline degeneration caused further stricture in the canal. Conclusions: The third generation of firearm fragment wound generator imitates the bullet firing process and is more accurate and repeatable. The corresponding rabbit model of traumatic complex urethral stricture simulates the real complex clinical conditions. This animal model provides a standardized platform for clinical researches on treating traumatic injuries to the urinary system. PMID:25836614

  6. A prototype system to support evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Seckman, Charlotte; Fisher, Cheryl; Hauser, Susan E; Clayton, Jennifer; Thoma, George R

    2008-01-01

    Translating evidence into clinical practice is a complex process that depends on the availability of evidence, the environment into which the research evidence is translated, and the system that facilitates the translation. This paper presents InfoBot, a system designed for automatic delivery of patient-specific information from evidence-based resources. A prototype system has been implemented to support development of individualized patient care plans. The prototype explores possibilities to automatically extract patients problems from the interdisciplinary team notes and query evidence-based resources using the extracted terms. Using 4,335 de-identified interdisciplinary team notes for 525 patients, the system automatically extracted biomedical terminology from 4,219 notes and linked resources to 260 patient records. Sixty of those records (15 each for Pediatrics, Oncology & Hematology, Medical & Surgical, and Behavioral Health units) have been selected for an ongoing evaluation of the quality of automatically proactively delivered evidence and its usefulness in development of care plans. PMID:18998835

  7. Using Electronic Health Record Systems in Diabetes Care: Emerging Practices.

    PubMed

    Veinot, Tiffany C; Zheng, Kai; Lowery, Julie C; Souden, Maria; Keith, Rosalind

    2010-01-01

    While there has been considerable attention devoted to the deployment of electronic health record (EHR) systems, there has been far less attention given to their appropriation for use in clinical encounters - particularly in the context of complex, chronic illness. The Department of Veterans' Affairs (VA) has been at the forefront of EHR adoption and, as such, provides a unique opportunity to examine a mature EHR system in widespread use. Moreover, with a high prevalence of diabetes in its patient population, the VA provides a useful platform for examining EHR use in the context of chronic disease care. We conducted a sequential, exploratory qualitative study at two VA Medical Centers in the Midwest. First, we conducted observations of 64 clinical consultations with diabetes patients. These observations involved 31 different health care providers. Second, using insights from these observations, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 39 health care providers focusing on their use of information in diabetes patient care. Field notes and interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Our analysis generated several categories of EHR use in clinical encounters: priming, structuring, assessing, informing, and continuing. We also outline some mismatches between EHR system design and VA diabetes care practices. We conclude by discussing implications of these emergent system uses for improving the software design of EHRs to better support chronic disease care, as well as for our understanding of the integration of technologies in health care. PMID:25264545

  8. Electronic patient-reported outcome systems in oncology clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Antonia V; Jensen, Roxanne E; Basch, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires assess topics a patient can report about his or her own health. This includes symptoms (eg, nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, pain, or frequent urination), physical functioning (eg, difficulty climbing stairs or difficulty fastening buttons), and mental health (eg, anxiety, fear, or worry). Electronic PRO (ePRO) systems are used in oncology clinical care because of 1) their ability to enhance clinical care by flagging important symptoms and saving clinicians time; 2) the availability of standardized methods for creating and implementing PROs in clinics; and 3) the existence of user-friendly platforms for patient self-reporting like tablet computers and automated telephone surveys. Many ePRO systems can provide actionable links to clinical care such as summary reports in a patient's electronic medical record and real-time e-mail alerts to providers when patients report acute needs. This review presents 5 examples of ePRO systems currently in use in oncology practice. These systems support multiple clinical activities, including assessment of symptoms and toxicities related to chemotherapy and radiation, postoperative surveillance, and symptom management during palliative care and hospice. Patient self-reporting is possible both at clinical visits and between visits over the Internet or by telephone. The implementation of an ePRO system requires significant resources and expertise, as well as user training. ePRO systems enable regular monitoring of patient symptoms, function, and needs, and can enhance the efficiency and quality of care as well as communication with patients. PMID:22811342

  9. Effect of alternative medicinal systems and general practice.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shyam

    2007-10-01

    Alternative medicinal systems like Ayurveda and homeopathy are respected and legitimate sciences. The former was born in India. Colleges abound in this country churning out tens of thousands of graduates of these fields. It is ironic that a large number of them pratice allopathic general practice instead of, or along with, their field of specialisation despite laws prohibiting them to do so. Their gross lack of knowledge of dermatology wreaks a havoc. Even GPs contribute to this confusion for the same reason. Pharmacists contribute to unauthorised sale of dermatologic drugs and promote unsupervised treatment flouting the law. The result is neglected and vitiated dermatoses, unwanted adverse drug reactions and resource depletion for the patient. The practising dermatologist in India is unfortunately the one who bears the brunt of the above confusion. However these situations are also contributory to the enviable clinical skills that Indian dermatologists are so well known for. PMID:17958632

  10. Theory and Practice of Cavity RF Test Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Powers

    2006-08-28

    Over the years Jefferson Lab staff members have performed about 2500 cold cavity tests on about 500 different superconducting cavities. Most of these cavities were later installed in 73 different cryomodules, which were used in three different accelerators. All of the cavities were tested in our vertical test area. About 25% of the cryomodules were tested in our cryomodule test facility and later commissioned in an accelerator. The remainder of the cryomodules were tested and commissioned after they were installed in their respective accelerator. This paper is an overview which should provide a practical background in the RF systems used to test the cavities as well as provide the mathematics necessary to convert the raw pulsed or continuous wave RF signals into useful information such as gradient, quality factor, RF-heat loads and loaded Q?s. Additionally, I will provide the equations necessary for determining the measurement error associated with these values.

  11. Practical Entanglement Estimation for Spin-System Quantum Simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, O.; Cramer, M.; Plenio, M. B.

    2016-03-01

    We present practical methods to measure entanglement for quantum simulators that can be realized with trapped ions, cold atoms, and superconducting qubits. Focusing on long- and short-range Ising-type Hamiltonians, we introduce schemes that are applicable under realistic experimental conditions including mixedness due to, e.g., noise or temperature. In particular, we identify a single observable whose expectation value serves as a lower bound to entanglement and that may be obtained by a simple quantum circuit. As such circuits are not (yet) available for every platform, we investigate the performance of routinely measured observables as quantitative entanglement witnesses. Possible applications include experimental studies of entanglement scaling in critical systems and the reliable benchmarking of quantum simulators.

  12. Practical Entanglement Estimation for Spin-System Quantum Simulators.

    PubMed

    Marty, O; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B

    2016-03-11

    We present practical methods to measure entanglement for quantum simulators that can be realized with trapped ions, cold atoms, and superconducting qubits. Focusing on long- and short-range Ising-type Hamiltonians, we introduce schemes that are applicable under realistic experimental conditions including mixedness due to, e.g., noise or temperature. In particular, we identify a single observable whose expectation value serves as a lower bound to entanglement and that may be obtained by a simple quantum circuit. As such circuits are not (yet) available for every platform, we investigate the performance of routinely measured observables as quantitative entanglement witnesses. Possible applications include experimental studies of entanglement scaling in critical systems and the reliable benchmarking of quantum simulators. PMID:27015489

  13. Practical solutions to implementing "Born Semantic" data systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadbetter, A.; Buck, J. J. H.; Stacey, P.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of data being "Born Semantic" has been proposed in recent years as a Semantic Web analogue to the idea of data being "born digital"[1], [2]. Within the "Born Semantic" concept, data are captured digitally and at a point close to the time of creation are annotated with markup terms from semantic web resources (controlled vocabularies, thesauri or ontologies). This allows heterogeneous data to be more easily ingested and amalgamated in near real-time due to the standards compliant annotation of the data. In taking the "Born Semantic" proposal from concept to operation, a number of difficulties have been encountered. For example, although there are recognised methods such as Header, Dictionary, Triples [3] for the compression, publication and dissemination of large volumes of triples these systems are not practical to deploy in the field on low-powered (both electrically and computationally) devices. Similarly, it is not practical for instruments to output fully formed semantically annotated data files if they are designed to be plugged into a modular system and the data to be centrally logged in the field as is the case on Argo floats and oceanographic gliders where internal bandwidth becomes an issue [2]. In light of these issues, this presentation will concentrate on pragmatic solutions being developed to the problem of generating Linked Data in near real-time systems. Specific examples from the European Commission SenseOCEAN project where Linked Data systems are being developed for autonomous underwater platforms, and from work being undertaken in the streaming of data from the Irish Galway Bay Cable Observatory initiative will be highlighted. Further, developments of a set of tools for the LogStash-ElasticSearch software ecosystem to allow the storing and retrieval of Linked Data will be introduced. References[1] A. Leadbetter & J. Fredericks, We have "born digital" - now what about "born semantic"?, European Geophysical Union General Assembly, 2014

  14. NCEA's Best Practice Framework: A Platform to Examine School and System Practices. 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Accountability, 2007

    2007-01-01

    While educators often have rich information on the strategies used in their own school, they may have little information about the strategies or practices in other schools--particularly the specific practices of consistently high-performing schools. To provide an outside compass for those seeking to improve, members at National Center for…

  15. NCEA's Best Practice Framework: A Platform to Examine School and System Practices. 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Accountability, 2006

    2006-01-01

    While educators often have rich information on the strategies used in their own school, they may have little information about the strategies or practices in other schools--particularly the specific practices of consistently higher performing schools. To provide an outside compass for those seeking to improve, members at the National Center for…

  16. Energy Efficiency Maximization of Practical Wireless Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraslan, Eren

    Energy consumption of the modern wireless communication systems is rapidly growing due to the ever-increasing data demand and the advanced solutions employed in order to address this demand, such as multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) techniques. These MIMO systems are power hungry, however, they are capable of changing the transmission parameters, such as number of spatial streams, number of transmitter/receiver antennas, modulation, code rate, and transmit power. They can thus choose the best mode out of possibly thousands of modes in order to optimize an objective function. This problem is referred to as the link adaptation problem. In this work, we focus on the link adaptation for energy efficiency maximization problem, which is defined as choosing the optimal transmission mode to maximize the number of successfully transmitted bits per unit energy consumed by the link. We model the energy consumption and throughput performances of a MIMO-OFDM link and develop a practical link adaptation protocol, which senses the channel conditions and changes its transmission mode in real-time. It turns out that the brute force search, which is usually assumed in previous works, is prohibitively complex, especially when there are large numbers of transmit power levels to choose from. We analyze the relationship between the energy efficiency and transmit power, and prove that energy efficiency of a link is a single-peaked quasiconcave function of transmit power. This leads us to develop a low-complexity algorithm that finds a near-optimal transmit power and take this dimension out of the search space. We further prune the search space by analyzing the singular value decomposition of the channel and excluding the modes that use higher number of spatial streams than the channel can support. These algorithms and our novel formulations provide simpler computations and limit the search space into a much smaller set; hence

  17. Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications. PMID:21995776

  18. Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Willem M

    2011-08-30

    Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications. PMID:21995776

  19. Systemic Hydration: Relating Science to Clinical Practice in Vocal Health

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Naomi A.; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the current state of the science regarding the role of systemic hydration in vocal function and health. Study Design Literature Review Methods Literature search spanning multiple disciplines, including speech-language pathology, nutrition and dietetics, medicine, sports and exercise science, physiology and biomechanics. Results The relationship between hydration and physical function is an area of common interest amongst multiple professions. Each discipline provides valuable insight into the connection between performance and water balance, as well as complimentary methods of investigation. Existing voice literature suggests a relationship between hydration and voice production, however the underlying mechanisms are not yet defined and a treatment effect for systemic hydration remains to be demonstrated. Literature from other disciplines sheds light on methodological shortcomings and in some cases offers an alternative explanation for observed phenomena. Conclusions A growing body of literature in the field of voice science is documenting a relationship between hydration and vocal function, however greater understanding is required to guide best practice in the maintenance of vocal health and management of voice disorders. Integration of knowledge and technical expertise from multiple disciplines facilitates analysis of existing literature and provides guidance as to future research. PMID:24880674

  20. Practical advantages of mud cooling systems for drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Maury, V.; Guenot, A.

    1995-03-01

    Field case studies of borehole stability have shown that some failures, previously unexplained, were due to thermal effects, such as heating the upper part of open hole sections by mud circulation when drilling deeper or reheating of the bottomhole when mud circulation is stopped. A complete analysis of the thermal regime in boreholes was performed and as a consequence, cooling of mud appeared as a means to mitigate these effects. A series of tests were then carried out to check the practicality of installing such mud cooling systems. Many other advantages then appeared: decrease of the temperature of the borehole allowing better operation of the logging tools, better control of the mud rheology with less additives, extended use of MWD/LWD devices. But the most significant advantage is for the oil based muds which can be maintained at surface below their flash point, improving the safety of operations. This paper recalls and summarizes the results of observations, measurements and studies performed to determine the feasibility of such systems. Operational results are given for several field cases with emphasis on safety. The use of these very simple devices, which have been field proven on normal and high temperature (BHCT = 150 C), is now contemplated for future HP-HT wells.

  1. Spoken Grammar Practice and Feedback in an ASR-Based CALL System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Bart Penning; Cucchiarini, Catia; Bodnar, Stephen; Strik, Helmer; van Hout, Roeland

    2015-01-01

    Speaking practice is important for learners of a second language. Computer assisted language learning (CALL) systems can provide attractive opportunities for speaking practice when combined with automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology. In this paper, we present a CALL system that offers spoken practice of word order, an important aspect of…

  2. Perspectives on the changing healthcare system: teaching systems-based practice to medical residents

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Johanna; Phillips, Erica; Fein, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education restructured its accreditation system to be based on educational outcomes in six core competencies. Systems-based practice is one of the six core competencies. The purpose of this report is to describe Weill Cornell Medical College's Internal Medicine Residency program curriculum for systems-based practice (SBP) and its evaluation process. Methods To examine potential outcomes of the POCHS curriculum, an evaluation was conducted, examining participants': (1) knowledge gain; (2) course ratings; and (3) qualitative feedback. Results On average, there was a 19 percentage point increase in knowledge test scores for all three cohorts. The course was rated overall highly, receiving an average of 4.6 on a 1–5 scale. Lastly, the qualitative comments supported that the material is needed and valued. Conclusion The course, entitled Perspectives on the Changing Healthcare System (POCHS) and its evaluation process support that systems-based practice is crucial to residency education. The course is designed not only to educate residents about the current health care system but also to enable them to think critically about the risk and benefits of the changes. POCHS provides a framework for teaching and assessing this competency and can serve as a template for other residency programs looking to create or restructure their SBP curriculum. PMID:24001523

  3. Microcomputer Systems in Solo and Small Group Medical Practices

    PubMed Central

    Bremer, Roger E.

    1978-01-01

    Technological developments of microprocessors and microcomputers will facilitate transferring the advantages of larger computer installations to solo and small group medical practices. A series of powerful forces will create the need for computer assistance, helping to overcome earlier restraints. Surveys show the physician is anxious for the help, and manufacturers have the needed advanced components under development. A typical advanced system for physical examination and clerical transactions (ASPECT) has been synthesized from the identified components at attractive economies of scale. More orderly and faster patient processing, lower costs for in-office laboratory tests, high quality, comparative diagnostic protocols, processing more patients at lower unit costs, automated administrative procedures and interface with emerging data banks are a few of the many potential benefits to the patient, the practitioner and society. Effective demonstration programs, triggering modified manufacturing and marketing patterns, are pragmatic priorities before the arsenal of these benefits can be effectively arrayed against today's greatest health care adversary - “the inflation crunch.”

  4. Situational Analysis: Centerless Systems and Human Service Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbury, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Bronfenbrenner's ecological model is a conceptual framework that continues to contribute to human service practices. In the current article, the author describes the possibilities for practice made intelligible by drawing from this framework. She then explores White's "Web of Praxis" model as an important extension of this approach, and proceeds…

  5. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  6. Policy and practice in Myanmar's protected area system.

    PubMed

    Myint Aung, U

    2007-07-01

    Myanmar's protected area (PA) system began nearly 150 years ago under royal patronage. Park policies and practices, embodied in 19 pieces of legislation developed sporadically during and after the colonial period. As a result of the FAO-UNDP's Nature Conservation and National Parks Project (1981-1985) the government established the Nature & Wildlife Conservation Division and placed it within the Forest Department as the agency responsible for PA management. As a consequence the number of parks increased from 14 to 33. Myanmar's median park size is less than 50 km(2), but only five parks (15%) are larger than 1000 km(2). Most parks conserve terrestrial habitats; parks encompassing inland wetlands, mangrove, and marine habitats are limited in number and size. Existing PAs unequally represent Myanmar's ecosystems; the Malay Transition, Burmese coast, Burmese Transition and Cardamom Mountains bio-units are under-represented within the system. The effective total PA size (i.e., area of all parks less the area of 13 paper parks) is currently about 2.1%. Budgetary support for parks increased 11% since 1996, but is insufficient to address park needs, particularly in remote parks that are understaffed. Limited education and training of PA staff is a major factor limiting effective park management. Fifty-eight percent of park wardens are educated as foresters, and 42% have university degrees. The average posting in a park is 4 years, which is less than ideal for management continuity. Recommended actions to secure Myanmar's PAs include evaluation and reformulation of policies, increasing representation of Myanmar's habitats within the PA system, management planning, and standardizing protocols for anti-poaching patrols and other forms of law enforcement. Improved leadership training for wardens and range forest officers can also improve park management. Funding for community relations and more integrated management of parks and people can reduce conflicts, while

  7. Changing remuneration systems: effects on activity in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Krasnik, A; Groenewegen, P P; Pedersen, P A; von Scholten, P; Mooney, G; Gottschau, A; Flierman, H A; Damsgaard, M T

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effects on general practitioners' activities of a change in their remuneration from a capitation based system to a mixed fee per item and capitation based system. DESIGN--Follow up study with data collected from contact sheets completed by general practitioners in one period before (March 1987) a change in their remuneration system and two periods after (March 1988, November 1988), with a control group of general practitioners with a mixed fee per item and capitation based system throughout. SETTING--General practices in Copenhagen city (index group) and Copenhagen county (control group). SUBJECTS--265 General practitioners in Copenhagen city, of whom 100 were selected randomly from the 130 who agreed to participate (10 exclusions) and 326 general practitioners in Copenhagen county. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of consultations (face to face and by telephone) and renewals of prescriptions, diagnostic and curative services, and specialist and hospital referrals per 1000 enlisted patients in one week. RESULTS--Of the 75 general practitioners who completed all three sheets, four were excluded for incomplete data. Total contact rates per 1000 patients listed rose significantly compared with the rates before the change index in the city (100.0 before the change v 111.7 (95% confidence interval 106.4 to 117.4 after the change) and over the same time in the control group (100.0 v 106.0), but within a year these rates fell (to 104.2(99.1 to 109.6) and 104.0 respectively). There was an increase in consultations by telephone initially but not thereafter. Rates of examinations and treatments that attracted specific additional remuneration after the change rose significantly compared with those before (diagnostic services, 138.1 (118.7 to 160.5) and 159.5 (137.8 to 184.7) and curative services 194.6 (152.2 to 248.9) and 194.8(152.3 to 249.2) for second and third data collections respectively) and with the control group (diagnostic services 105

  8. What Indicates Competency in Systems Based Practice? An Analysis of Perspective Consistency among Healthcare Team Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Mark J.; Naqvi, Zoon; Encandela, John A.; Bylund, Carma L.; Dean, Randa; Calero-Breckheimer, Ayxa; Schmidt, Hilary J.

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of the world the practice of medicine and medical education increasingly focus on providing patient care within context of the larger healthcare system. Our purpose is to solicit perceptions of all professional stakeholders (e.g. nurses) of the system regarding the U.S. ACGME competency Systems Based Practice to uncover the extent to…

  9. Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Amelie Y.

    Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol

  10. Teaching Family Systems Theory to Family Practice Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Steve; Herndon, Anne

    1981-01-01

    The family practice resident is taught that the patient's family is the most medically relevant context for viewing the patient's present symptoms and illnesses. With the removal of the necessity for family interviews, an effective training program in family dynamics was designed for family medicine residents. (Author/MLW)

  11. Parenting Practices among Depressed Mothers in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Kagotho, Jacqueline Njeri; Dixon, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze a nationally representative sample of families referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) agencies, the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, to examine the association between maternal depression and parenting practices over a 36-month follow-up period. Three hypotheses were tested: (1)…

  12. Understanding Families: Applying Family Systems Theory to Early Childhood Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Linda Garris

    2006-01-01

    Working with families is one of the most important aspects of being an early childhood professional, yet it is an area in which many educators have received little preparation (Nieto 2004). Teachers spend hours learning about child development, developmentally appropriate practices, health and safety, playgrounds, and play. At times it seems that…

  13. Promising Practices in Statewide Articulation and Transfer Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hezel Associates (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This guide is based on a study funded by Lumina Foundation for Education and conducted by Hezel Associates and the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE). Designed to aid policymakers and others, this report takes a state-by-state look at practices related to transfer and articulation between two- and four-year public…

  14. Current Faculty Development Practices for Alternative Delivery Systems in Christian Higher Education Institutions: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Steven Lowell

    2009-01-01

    This research study was an investigation of current faculty development practices for alternative delivery systems. Attention was given to faculty development in general as well as specific facets of faculty development for alternative delivery systems. Future or intended faculty development practices were pursued, along with factors that…

  15. E-Learning System for Experiments Involving Construction of Practical Electronic Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takemura, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel e-learning system for technical experiments involving the construction of practical electronic circuits; this system would meet the various demands of individual experimenters. This mixed mode is beneficial for practical use in that an experimenter who does not have sufficient circuit components for circuit making can…

  16. Structural Decoupling between the VET and the Employment Systems: Challenges Manifested in Assessment of Practical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista; Hinno, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyse how structural decoupling, which is an especially relevant problem for school-based vocational education and training (VET) systems, reveals itself in the assessment of practical training. Niklas Luhmann's social system theory has been applied to the analysis of assessment practices as a communication act between the…

  17. The Multicampus System: Perspectives on Practice and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaither, Gerald, Ed.

    This book, a compilation of 12 chapters written by leaders at postsecondary institutions, examines multicampus systems of higher education, and the dynamic environment in which these systems operate. Part 1 discusses the role, scope, mission and purpose of multicampus systems: (1) "Management and Leadership Challenges of Multicampus Systems" (D.…

  18. Systemic Change for RTI: Key Shifts for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozleski, Elizabeth B.; Huber, Jennifer J.

    2010-01-01

    RTI has the potential to meet the challenges of increasing diversity in student populations and the need for increasingly complex systems of instructional design. Three fundamental shifts in understanding systems and systems change must ground RTI policy and implementation work. First, RTI must be seen as an activity system nested within a larger…

  19. Duke Electronic Mail Post Office A Practical Mail Linking System*

    PubMed Central

    Dryfoos, James D.; Hammond, William E.; Spero, Laurence A.; Rabold, Jean S.; Straube, Mark J.; Stead, William W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a system designed to integrate the many different electronic mail systems in use throughout Duke University. The Duke Electronic Mail Post Office project is part of Duke University Medical Center's model for Achieving an Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS). Main features of the systems, problems encountered during implementation, and future directions are presented and discussed.

  20. Energy-efficient downlink resource management in self-organized OFDMA-based two-tier femtocell networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Adnan; Aslam, Saleem; Kim, Hyung Seok; Lee, Kyung-Geun

    2015-12-01

    Femtocell is a novel technology that is used for escalating indoor coverage as well as the capacity of traditional cellular networks. However, interference is the limiting factor for performance improvement due to co-channel deployment between macrocells and femtocells. The traditional network planning is not feasible because of the random deployment of femtocells. Therefore, self-organization approaches are the key to having successful deployment of femtocells. This study presents the joint resource block (RB) and power allocation task for the two-tier femtocell network in a self-organizing manner, with the concern to minimizing the impact of interference and maximizing the energy efficiency. In this study, we analyze the performance of the system in terms of the energy efficiency, which is composed of both the transmission and circuit power. Most of the previous studies investigate the performance regarding the throughput requirement of the two-tier femtocell network while the energy efficiency aspect is largely ignored. Here, the joint allocation task is modeled as a non-cooperative game which is demonstrated to exhibit pure and unique Nash equilibrium. In order to reduce the complexity of the proposed non-cooperative game, the joint RB and power allocation task is divided into two subproblems: an RB allocation and a particle swarm optimization-based power allocation. The analysis of the proposed game is carried out in terms of not only energy efficiency but also throughput. With practical 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long-Term Evolution (LTE) parameters, the simulation results illustrate the superior performance of the proposed game as compared to the traditional methods. Also, the comparison is carried out with the joint allocation scheme which only considers the throughput as the objective function. The results illustrate that significant performance improvement is achieved in terms of energy efficiency with slight loss in the throughput. The

  1. Improving System Integration: The Art and Science of Engaging Small Community Practices in Health System Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Pus, Laura; Stanaitis, Ian; Ivers, Noah; Baker, G. Ross; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Hawker, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on successful engagement strategies in recruiting and retaining primary care physicians (PCPs) in a quality improvement project, as perceived by family physicians in small practices. Sustained physician engagement is critical for quality improvement (QI) aiming to enhance health system integration. Although there is ample literature on engaging physicians in hospital or team-based practice, few reports describe factors influencing engagement of community-based providers practicing with limited administrative support. The PCPs we describe participated in SCOPE: Seamless Care Optimizing the Patient Experience, a QI project designed to support their care of complex patients and reduce both emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient admissions. SCOPE outcome measures will inform subsequent papers. All the 30 participating PCPs completed surveys assessing perceptions regarding the importance of specific engagement strategies. Project team acknowledgement that primary care is challenging and new access to patient resources were the most important factors in generating initial interest in SCOPE. The opportunity to improve patient care via integration with other providers was most important in their commitment to participate, and a positive experience with project personnel was most important in their continued engagement. Our experience suggests that such providers respond well to personalized, repeated, and targeted engagement strategies. PMID:26904284

  2. The System Effect: Scaling High-Impact Practices across Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, Jonathan S.; Martin, Rebecca R.; Wise, Kathleen; Blaich, Charles

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the role of systems and consortia in scaling and implementing undergraduate research through a study of the efforts of six systems and consortia working together with the Council on Undergraduate Research.

  3. A System of Individually Guided Motivation. Practical Paper Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.; And Others

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a system of individually guided motivation which is directly tied to a total system of individually guided education. In the system of motivation, the child's entering characteristics are assessed, motivational objectives in the form of desired behaviors are set for each child, a program designed to…

  4. Selecting and Using Career Information Systems. Practice Application Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaerman, Robert D.

    This brief summarizes research-based implementation factors to improve the selection and use of career information systems in schools, community agencies, and other employment and training settings. Thirteen factors to consider when selecting career information systems are identified: theoretical assumptions upon which the system is based,…

  5. Practical engineering: control of active systems using the stagnation temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Lunde, P.J.

    1982-04-01

    Solar active systems with flat plate collectors are discussed with reference to the temperature at which the system should be activated. It is concluded that the system should be activated when the stagnation temperature (temperature under the absorber plate when no fluid is circulating) equals the temperature of the fluid in storage. A thermistor Wheatstone bridge control system is described which will eliminate pump relay chatter and the permissible control differential is calculated from the collector efficiency curve. To avoid dedication of an entire collector to house the control system, a method is described for determining the stagnation temperature using a portion of an active collector. For an active solar hot water system, a calculation is carried out to show that a 2/sup 0/F temperature differential (stagnation temperature-storage temperature) is satisfactory. (MJJ)

  6. Stochastic perturbed systems: Theory and practice of Karman vortex streets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtfort, Joerg

    1991-05-01

    In the theory of randomly perturbed dynamical systems developed by Friedlin and Wentzell, the potential of a vectorfield is generalized to the so called quasipotential. For general nonlinear systems, the quasipotential turns out to be nondifferentiable along certain lines. These lines are investigated numerically for bistable systems with at least one limit cycle. It is found that even for strong nonlinearity, the quasipotential remains smooth in a finite neighborhood of the stable limit cycle. This formalism is used for the reconstruction of dynamical systems for measured time series. The method is successfully applied to velocity measurements in a Karman vortex street at Reynolds numbers 60 to 150.

  7. PORÍS: practical-oriented representation for instrument systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz-Cedillo, Jacinto Javier

    2010-07-01

    This article presents a toolkit for defining simple but powerful systems. PORIS toolkit is an open and extensible source collaborative project that allows describing system graph-based systems and their behavior in a snapshot. It provides a web editor for a domain visual specific language (DSL) and transformation tools to generate software prototypes, system configurations, specific user interfaces and documentation. Different kind of instruments, like the astronomical ones, can be described and represented using PORIS specifications and models. A significant advantage of using PORIS toolkit is that it makes easy and lighter providing instant feedback to domain experts in the dynamic process of defining new instruments.

  8. GN&C Engineering Best Practices For Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  9. GN&C Engineering Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  10. GN&C Engineering Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  11. Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems: the Career of a Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Etienne

    The concept of community of practice was not born in the systems theory tradition. It has its roots in attempts to develop accounts of the social nature of human learning inspired by anthropology and social theory (Lave, 1988; Bourdieu, 1977; Giddens, 1984; Foucault, 1980; Vygotsky, 1978). But the concept of community of practice is well aligned with the perspective of systems traditions. A community of practice itself can be viewed as a simple social system. And a complex social system can be viewed as constituted by interrelated communities of practice. In this essay I first explore the systemic nature of the concept at these two levels. Then I use this foundation to look at the applications of the concept, some of its main critiques, and its potential for developing a social discipline of learning.

  12. From Systemic Conception to Working Model: Translating Principles into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Christine G.; And Others

    This paper focuses on the systems approach in family therapy and attempts to further the development of this approach by defining its assumptions and delineating the relationship between the assumptions and their operationalization in assessment and therapy. The first section identifies two basic assumptions of a systemic approach, i.e., that the…

  13. A Practical System of Photography for Genealogists and Historians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, George F.

    The purpose of this report is to describe the KISS (Keep It Sweet and Simple) system of photography for accurately and rapidly copying genealogical and historical records on 35mm film, developing the same and using the resulting negative roll in a regular microfilm reader for immediate viewing. The basic requirement of the system is that it be…

  14. Practical solutions to turbine control system retrofit problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, M.; Lovejoy, K.

    1996-10-01

    This paper addresses the use of microprocessors in retrofitting turbine control systems. The topics of the paper include modern control system architecture, human machine interface, steam flow linearization and automatic valve calibration, retrofit hydraulic interfacing, reliability considerations, and advanced valve positioning technique (quarter cycle damping).

  15. Assessing System Thinking through Different Concept-Mapping Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandstadter, Kristina; Harms, Ute; Grossschedl, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    System thinking is usually investigated by using questionnaires, video analysis, or interviews. Recently, concept-mapping (CM) was suggested as an adequate instrument for analysing students' system thinking. However, there are different ways with which to use this method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether particular…

  16. Vacuum pumps and systems: A review of current practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Stuart

    1986-01-01

    A review of the fundamental characteristics of the many types of vacuum pumps and vacuum pumping systems is given. The optimum pumping range, relative cost, performance limitations, maintenance problems, system operating costs and similar subjects are discussed. Experiences from the thin film deposition, chemical processing, material handling, food processing and other industries, as well as space simulation are used to support conclusions and recommendations.

  17. Private Agricultural Extension System in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Private extension system has been at the centre of a debate triggered by inefficient public agricultural extension. The debate is anchored on the premise that the private sector is more efficient in extension service delivery. This study evaluates the private extension system in Kenya. It employs qualitative and quantitative methods. The results…

  18. Practical Methods for Estimating Software Systems Fault Content and Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, A.; Schneidewind, N.; Munson, J.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed techniques to discriminate between fault-prone software modules and those that are not, to estimate a software system's residual fault content, to identify those portions of a software system having the highest estimated number of faults, and to estimate the effects of requirements changes on software quality.

  19. Systems medicine: a new approach to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Cardinal-Fernández, Pablo; Nin, Nicolás; Ruíz-Cabello, Jesús; Lorente, José A

    2014-10-01

    Most respiratory diseases are considered complex diseases as their susceptibility and outcomes are determined by the interaction between host-dependent factors (genetic factors, comorbidities, etc.) and environmental factors (exposure to microorganisms or allergens, treatments received, etc.) The reductionist approach in the study of diseases has been of fundamental importance for the understanding of the different components of a system. Systems biology or systems medicine is a complementary approach aimed at analyzing the interactions between the different components within one organizational level (genome, transcriptome, proteome), and then between the different levels. Systems medicine is currently used for the interpretation and understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of different diseases, biomarker discovery, design of innovative therapeutic targets, and the drawing up of computational models for different biological processes. In this review we discuss the most relevant concepts of the theory underlying systems medicine, as well as its applications in the various biological processes in humans. PMID:24397963

  20. Online Course Best Practices as Precision Teaching: Case Study of Quality Systems Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinn, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Best practices for online courses are explored as precision teaching (PT) within the context of a case study analysis. The case study focuses on courses taught, 100 per cent online, as part of Quality Systems (QS) at Bowling Green State University (BGSU). PT literature establishes main attributes desired as the basis for best practices. The…

  1. Practice parameter for the assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Terry; Fouras, George; Brown, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    This Practice Parameter presents principles for the mental health assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system. Important definitions, background, history, epidemiology, mental health care use, and functional outcomes are described. Practical guidance regarding child welfare-related considerations for evaluation and management are discussed. PMID:26004666

  2. Photovoltaic power systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested practices

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, J.

    1996-12-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently. Application of this information and results obtained are the responsibility of the user.

  3. Surveillance system for hepatitis C infection: A practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Najmeh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Ataei, Behrooz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health concern throughout the world. Despite its public health prominence, however, how surveillance systems for hepatitis C should be designed is still a challenging issue especially in developing countries such as Iran. Establishing a surveillance system needs an ongoing process of case investigation, data collection, analysis of data and also dissemination of data to public health professionals and health care providers. This review article tries to provide the best recommendations for planning and implantation a surveillance system for HCV infection. PMID:22826770

  4. [Periodontitis and systemic diseases: from science to clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Thomas, R Z; Loos, B G; Teeuw, W; Kunnen, A; van Winkelhoff, A J; Abbas, F

    2015-10-01

    The evidence for an association between systemic diseases and periodontitis is strongest with diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disease. There is a moderate association of periodontitis with adverse pregnancy outcomes and rheumatoid arthritis. Periodontal treatment has, on average, a positive effect on reducing systemic infection and improving the condition of the vascular system. For diabetes patients, periodontal treatment can also have a positive effect on metabolic regulation. There is insufficient evidence that periodontal treatment prevents adverse pregnancy outcomes and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26465017

  5. Tutoring System Innovations: Past Practice to Future Prototypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Ralph; Nobel, Michele M.; Hessler, Terri; Yawn, Christopher D.; Heron, Timothy E.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the progression of tutoring system innovations from informal, dyadic, and subjectively evaluated arrangements to more formally arranged configurations that emphasize training, application, and evaluation. Suggestions for future innovations, based on existing prototypes, are discussed.

  6. A Practice of the Simple Learning Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagoshi, Takashi; Doshita, Hiroki; Okino, Koji; Tajima, Masato

    Recently, the LMS ( Learning Management System) of the Blackboard, the WebCt, the Moodle and the Wiki etc. are utilized at the time of e-learning execution. We constructed a simple learning management system with the PukiWiki which is a derivative edition of the Wiki. In this system, the page which the Web page reader is perusing can be edited freely. Moreover, not only a teacher can equally treat the functions used before easily, but a student can create and expand his pages freely. We applied this system to the programming exercise with Java language. When students present a subject, the certainty and convenience are verified since the process are automatically recorded with time.

  7. Practical reliability and uncertainty quantification in complex systems : final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, Matthew D.; Ringland, James T.; Marzouk, Youssef M.; Boggs, Paul T.; Zurn, Rena M.; Diegert, Kathleen V.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Red-Horse, John Robert

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the use of Bayesian methods for the estimation of the reliability of complex systems. The goals were to find methods for dealing with continuous data, rather than simple pass/fail data; to avoid assumptions of specific probability distributions, especially Gaussian, or normal, distributions; to compute not only an estimate of the reliability of the system, but also a measure of the confidence in that estimate; to develop procedures to address time-dependent or aging aspects in such systems, and to use these models and results to derive optimal testing strategies. The system is assumed to be a system of systems, i.e., a system with discrete components that are themselves systems. Furthermore, the system is 'engineered' in the sense that each node is designed to do something and that we have a mathematical description of that process. In the time-dependent case, the assumption is that we have a general, nonlinear, time-dependent function describing the process. The major results of the project are described in this report. In summary, we developed a sophisticated mathematical framework based on modern probability theory and Bayesian analysis. This framework encompasses all aspects of epistemic uncertainty and easily incorporates steady-state and time-dependent systems. Based on Markov chain, Monte Carlo methods, we devised a computational strategy for general probability density estimation in the steady-state case. This enabled us to compute a distribution of the reliability from which many questions, including confidence, could be addressed. We then extended this to the time domain and implemented procedures to estimate the reliability over time, including the use of the method to predict the reliability at a future time. Finally, we used certain aspects of Bayesian decision analysis to create a novel method for determining an optimal testing strategy, e.g., we can estimate the 'best' location to take the next test to

  8. Gastric atrophy: use of OLGA staging system in practice

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Mahsa; Ehtiati, Ara; Mashayekhi, Reza; Rafizadeh, Mitra; Zojaji, Homayoun; Mirsattari, Dariush; Kishani Farahani, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study used the OLGA system to characterize the histology pattern of gastritis in dyspeptic outpatients with a mean age of 45 years from regions with different gastric cancer risks. Background: Several classification systems have been purposed for understanding the status of the gastric mucosa. Currently, the Sydney system is the most widely employed. Nevertheless, the applicability of the Sydney system in therapeutic and prognostic areas is a matter of debate. Given this shortcoming an international group of gastroenterologists and pathologists developed a new system named Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA). Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional comparative study the OLGA system was used to characterize the histology pattern of gastritis in 685 dyspeptic patients referring to the department of gastroenterology of a training hospital. Results: No significant correlation was found between active inflammation and total OLGA score (P > 0.05). Also, no statistically significant correlation was found between activity and intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, atrophy, and cancer (P > 0.05). Even though, there is a positive correlation between mild chronic inflammation and total OLGA score, no correlation has been identified between chronicity and dysplasia or cancer (P > 0.05). Nearly, In all cases with no dysplasia OLGA score was zero but all patients with gastric cancer OLGA score was more than two. Conclusion: Generally, the activity is not a useful factor in predicting prognosis and its loss of relation with total OLGA score does not make OLGA score any less predictable. PMID:26744611

  9. Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS): A practical tool for earth science visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinter, James L., III; Doty, Brian E.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on grid analysis and display system (GrADS): a practical tool for earth science visualization are presented. Topics covered include: GrADS design goals; data sets; and temperature profiles.

  10. 78 FR 59725 - Construction Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices, and Training Requirements; Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...OSHA solicits public comments concerning its proposal to extend OMB approval of the information collection requirements contained in the Construction Standards on Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices (29 CFR 1926.502), and Training Requirements (29 CFR...

  11. [A reflection upon an organizational system model for nursing care centered on best practices].

    PubMed

    Kempfer, Silvana Silveira; Birolo, Ioná Vieira Bez; Meirelles, Betina Homer Schlindwein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2010-09-01

    This article aims at reflecting on nursing best practices and these practices as a perspective of systemizing care. Quality of nursing becomes evident from management practices instituted as a result of its development throughout time. Thinkers of the management area have really influenced nursing both at professional acting and theoretical basis levels. It is imperative that nursing comes closer to best practices, which are considered as a non linear manner of perceiving the world, where structuring of its actions is centered on complex perspective; the use of registers as a way for planning organization and care to take effect, as well as professional identification with issues that transcend personal care and are closer to universal ethics. Best practices are linked to social responsibility, sustainability and ecology as an essence of human actions to conduct management practices. PMID:21574344

  12. Practical Loop-Shaping Design of Feedback Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George

    2010-01-01

    An improved methodology for designing feedback control systems has been developed based on systematically shaping the loop gain of the system to meet performance requirements such as stability margins, disturbance attenuation, and transient response, while taking into account the actuation system limitations such as actuation rates and range. Loop-shaping for controls design is not new, but past techniques do not directly address how to systematically design the controller to maximize its performance. As a result, classical feedback control systems are designed predominantly using ad hoc control design approaches such as proportional integral derivative (PID), normally satisfied when a workable solution is achieved, without a good understanding of how to maximize the effectiveness of the control design in terms of competing performance requirements, in relation to the limitations of the plant design. The conception of this improved methodology was motivated by challenges in designing control systems of the types needed for supersonic propulsion. But the methodology is generally applicable to any classical control-system design where the transfer function of the plant is known or can be evaluated. In the case of a supersonic aerospace vehicle, a major challenge is to design the system to attenuate anticipated external and internal disturbances, using such actuators as fuel injectors and valves, bypass doors, and ramps, all of which are subject to limitations in actuator response, rates, and ranges. Also, for supersonic vehicles, with long slim type of structures, coupling between the engine and the structural dynamics can produce undesirable effects that could adversely affect vehicle stability and ride quality. In order to design distributed controls that can suppress these potential adverse effects, within the full capabilities of the actuation system, it is important to employ a systematic control design methodology such as this that can maximize the

  13. Best practices: the Utah Youth Suicide Study: best practices for suicide prevention through the juvenile court system.

    PubMed

    Gray, Doug; Dawson, Kristin L; Grey, Todd C; McMahon, William M

    2011-12-01

    Utah is among a group of Western Mountain states in which suicide rates among youths are consistently high. The Utah Youth Suicide Study incorporated data from every government agency in Utah, utilizing a statewide Office of the Medical Examiner. A key finding was that 63% of suicide decedents had contact with the juvenile courts. The group developed a best practices model within the juvenile court system for early mental health intervention. Significant cost savings were demonstrated. The model includes screening at-risk teenagers with the Youth Outcome Questionnaire. Treatment includes both psychiatric care and in-home behavioral intervention. Services were effectively delivered on a large scale. PMID:22193786

  14. Broadcast encryption: paving the road to practical content protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deen, G.; Ponceleon, D.; Leake, Donald, Jr.

    2009-02-01

    Broadcast encryption is a well established alternative to public key encryption for use in content protection systems. It offers significant performance benefits, as well as useful features such a one-to-many delivery, dynamic membership in the authorized receivers group, and provides anonymous access to content, permitting content protection systems to preserve privacy for consumers. Broadcast encryption has been successfully deployed to users for protection of commercial content on digital media such as flash memory devices and optical media for both standard-definition and high-definition content. In this paper, we present the Advanced Secure Content Cluster Technology which applies broadcast encryption to content protection for home media networks

  15. The Fifth Workshop on HPC Best Practices: File Systems and Archives

    SciTech Connect

    Hick, Jason; Hules, John; Uselton, Andrew

    2011-11-30

    The workshop on High Performance Computing (HPC) Best Practices on File Systems and Archives was the fifth in a series sponsored jointly by the Department Of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and DOE National Nuclear Security Administration. The workshop gathered technical and management experts for operations of HPC file systems and archives from around the world. Attendees identified and discussed best practices in use at their facilities, and documented findings for the DOE and HPC community in this report.

  16. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 12: Space Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels comprised user…

  17. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 7: Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs potentially capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels…

  18. A practical scheme for adaptive aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.; Willner, D.

    1974-01-01

    A flight control system design is presented, that can be implemented by analog hardware, to be used to control an aircraft with uncertain parameters. The design is based upon the use of modern control theory. The ideas are illustrated by considering control of STOL longitudinal dynamics.

  19. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 6: Extractable Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs potentially capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels…

  20. Implementation of Systems Engineering Practices into a Capstone Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Gloria; Schmidt, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Discusses the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate senior design projects which are to provide students with senior design project ideas, with potential contribution to NASA ESMD objectives. and provides NASA technical representative to act as external customer / technology mentor / requirements source.

  1. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 14: Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs potentially capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels…

  2. Practical Decisions in Developing and Operating a Faculty Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreola, Raoul; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    1990-01-01

    When faculty evaluation systems are proposed, students, faculty, and administrators often think only of questionnaires and assignment of data-processing tasks. Much more must be considered, including balancing the needs of all constituencies, designing student-rating forms and administration procedures, and the treatment and uses of the…

  3. Psychological Practice in Schools: System Change in the Heartland. Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J.

    System reform in U.S. heartland is the story of a decade-long effort to change the ways we think about children and youth who experience learning or behavior problems in educational settings. This fundamentally different way of thinking involves a shift from seeking the causes and solutions to learning and emotional/behavioral problems in inferred…

  4. Evolutionary systemic modelling of practices on flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatibi, Rahman

    2011-04-01

    SummaryOver time since the prehistory, interactions with floods have undergone evolutionary transitions including aversion to flood risk, flood defence and flood risk management, each serving as a mindset or a paradigm. Historic data describing these interactions are used in this paper to "model" these transitions and to explain them. This is a new bottom-up modelling capability based on a set of postulates integrating: (i) systemic thinking where systems are effected by four types of feedback loops to be described in the paper, which include positive/negative feedback; and (ii) evolutionary thinking, where each feedback loop is associated with a "risk mindset." These mindsets can undergo evolutionary transition from one to the next and the transition is largely driven by natural selection. After an evolutionary transition, lower mindsets do not necessarily disappear but can adapt and coexist with higher order loops. Based on the insight gained, the paper argues that (i) as the loops coexist pluralistically, systems increase in their complexity; (ii) there may be unexpected dynamic behaviours when a system is interacted with different types of feedback loops; and (iii) currently, these dynamic behaviours are overlooked, suggesting possible loopholes, bottlenecks or barriers and hence the motivation for this paper.

  5. SEWER SYSTEM EVALUATION, REHABILITATION AND NEW CONSTRUCTION. A MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Manual of Practice has been prepared for use by local authorities and consulting engineers for the investigation of sewer systems for infiltration/inflow. This Manual discusses three areas: sewer system evaluation, sewer rehabilitation, and design of new systems to minimize ...

  6. Practical output tracking of switched nonlinear systems in p-normal form with unstable subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies practical output tracking of switched nonlinear systems in p-normal form. No solvability of the practical output tracking problem for subsystems is required. A constructive scheme to solve the problem for a switched nonlinear system is set up by exploiting the single Lyapunov function method and the tool of adding a power integrator. Also, we design a proper switching law and construct state-feedback controllers of subsystems. A two inverted pendulums as a practical example, which cannot be handled by the existing approaches, illustrates our theoretical result.

  7. Natural language watermarking: Challenges in building a practical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topkara, Mercan; Riccardi, Giuseppe; Hakkani-Tür, Dilek; Atallah, Mikhail J.

    2006-02-01

    This paper gives an overview of the research and implementation challenges we encountered in building an end-to-end natural language processing based watermarking system. With natural language watermarking, we mean embedding the watermark into a text document, using the natural language components as the carrier, in such a way that the modifications are imperceptible to the readers and the embedded information is robust against possible attacks. Of particular interest is using the structure of the sentences in natural language text in order to insert the watermark. We evaluated the quality of the watermarked text using an objective evaluation metric, the BLEU score. BLEU scoring is commonly used in the statistical machine translation community. Our current system prototype achieves 0.45 BLEU score on a scale [0,1].

  8. A Practical Approach to Process Support in Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Richard; Elstner, Thomas; Siegele, Hannes; Kuhn, Klaus A.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the design of a generator tool for rapid application development. The generator tool is an integral part of a healthcare information system, and newly developed applications are embedded into the healthcare information system from the very beginning. The tool-generated applications are based on a document oriented user interaction paradigm. A significant feature is the support of intra- and interdepartmental clinical processes by means of providing document flow between different user groups. For flexible storage of newly developed applications, a generic EAV-type (Entity-Attribute-Value) database schema is used. Important aspects of a consequent implementation, like database representation of structured documents, document flow, versioning, and synchronization are presented. Applications generated by this approach are in routine use in more than 200 hospitals in Germany. PMID:12386109

  9. Development of practical damage-mapping and inspection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, F.

    1998-08-19

    We have developed and are continuing to refine semi-automated technology for the detection and inspection of surface and bulk defects and damage in large laser optics Different manifestations of the DAMOCLES system (Damage and Artifact Mapping Of Coherent-Laser-Exposed Substrates) provide an effective and economical means of being able to detect, map and characterize surface and bulk defects which may become precursors of massive damage in optics when subjected to high-fluence laser irradiation Subsequent morphology and evolution of damage due to laser irradiation can be tracked efficiently The strength of the Damocles system is that it allows for immediate visual observation of defects in an entire optic, which can range up to l-meter dimensions, while also being able to provide digital map and magnified images of the defects with resolutions better than 5 µm.

  10. Micro/nano electro mechanical systems for practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esashi, Masayoshi

    2009-09-01

    Silicon MEMS as electrostatically levitated rotational gyroscope, 2D optical scanner and wafer level packaged devices as integrated capacitive pressure sensor and MEMS switch are described. MEMS which use non-silicon materials as diamond, PZT, conductive polymer, CNT (carbon nano tube), LTCC with electrical feedthrough, SiC (silicon carbide) and LiNbO3 for multi-probe data storage, multi-column electron beam lithography system, probe card for wafer-level burn-in test, mould for glass press moulding and SAW wireless passive sensor respectively are also described.

  11. A practical system for regional mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glein, Randall; Leverson, Denis; Olmstead, Dean

    1993-01-01

    The Regional Mobile Satellite (MSAT) concept proposes a worldwide, interconnected mobile satellite service (MSS) network in which MSAT-type satellites provide the space segment services to separate regions (i.e., one or a few countries). Using this concept, mobile communications users across entire continents can now be served by a handful of regionally controlled satellites in geostationary earth orbit (GEO). All requirements, including hand-held telephone capabilities, can be cost-effectively provided using proven technologies. While other concepts of regional or global mobile communications continue to be explored, the Hughes Regional MSAT system demonstrates the near-term viability of the GEO approach.

  12. Prolog: A Practical Language for Decision Support Systems in Nursing?

    PubMed Central

    Ozbolt, Judy G.

    1987-01-01

    Developing decision support systems for nursing has been limited by difficulties in defining and representing nursing's knowledge base and by a lack of knowledge of how nurses make decisions. Recent theoretical and empirical work offers solutions to those problems. The challenge now is to represent nursing knowledge in a way that is comprehensible to both nurse and computer and to design decision support modalities that are accurate, efficient, and appropriate for nurses with different levels of expertise. This paper reviews the issues and critically evaluates Prolog as a tool for meeting the challenge.

  13. The HSE management system in practice-implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Primrose, M.J.; Bentley, P.D.; Sykes, R.M.

    1996-11-01

    This paper sets out the necessary strategic issues that must be dealt with when setting up a management system for HSE. It touches on the setting of objectives using a form of risk matrix and the establishment of corporate risk tolerability levels. Such issue management is vital but can be seen as yet another corporate HQ initiative. It must therefore be linked, and made relevant to those in middle management tasked with implementing the system and also to those at risk {open_quote}at the sharp end{close_quote} of the business. Setting acceptance criteria is aimed at demonstrating a necessary and sufficient level of control or coverage for those hazards considered as being within the objective setting of the Safety or HSE Case. Critical risk areas addressed via the Safety Case, within Shell companies at least, must show how this coverage is extended to critical health and environmental issues. Methods of achieving this are various ranging from specific Case deliverables (like the Hazard Register and Accountability Matrices) through to the incorporation of topics from the hazard analysis in toolbox talks and meetings. Risk analysis techniques are increasingly seen as complementary rather than separate with environmental assessments, health risk assessment sand safety risk analyses taking place together and results being considered jointly. The paper ends with some views on the way ahead regarding the linking of risk decisions to target setting at the workplace and views on how Case information may be retrieved and used on a daily basis.

  14. Some closing thoughts: Practical payoffs from satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The benefits-to-cost ratio of satellite remote sensing, both as a substitute for conventional methods of monitoring and assessing resources, and as a supplement to these methods is examined using a model which analyzes the cost of aerial photography versus satellite scanner for producing and interpreting an image of the Earth's surface sized to LANDSAT dimensions. Examples of cost savings are tabulated for ground surveys, aerial photos, and LANDSAT. Possible additional benefits from LANDSAT D are assessed. The way in which satellites fit into more comprehensive models for resources management is discussed. It is shown that remote sensing is but one essential component in a complex system that aggregates technical. Socioeconomics, political, cultural, and other factors in the human decision process.

  15. Practical variational tomography for critical one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Yeon; Landon-Cardinal, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    We improve upon a recently introduced efficient quantum state reconstruction procedure targeted to states well approximated by the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA), e.g., ground states of critical models. We show how to numerically select a subset of experimentally accessible measurements which maximize information extraction about renormalized particles, thus dramatically reducing the required number of physical measurements. We numerically estimate the number of measurements required to characterize the ground state of the critical one-dimensional Ising (resp. XX) model and find that MERA tomography on 16-qubit (resp. 24-qubit) systems requires the same experimental effort as brute-force tomography on 8 qubits. We derive a bound computable from experimental data which certifies the distance between the experimental and reconstructed states.

  16. Public health perspectives in cross-system practice: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Bada Math, Suresh; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, C Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Cross-system practice is widely prevalent in Indian settings. The recent policy decisions of the Government of India and the legalisation of cross-system practice in various states have brought this issue into the limelight once again. We aim to critically evaluate this issue from the philosophical, academic, and public health perspectives, as well as with reference to training. On the one hand, students of traditional Indian medicine are being introduced to allopathy without philosophical backing, practice based on the aetiological model and training in modern pharmacology. In addition, pharmaceutical industries are wooing AYUSH practitioners and their prescription patterns have already been "allopathised". As for the allopathic system, it is witnessing enormous scientific advances and growing increasingly complicated. The medicines are risky and also associated with many life-threatening side-effects. Meanwhile, the government is grappling with the humungous problem of ensuring health services for all. The government's intention is to expand the reach of health services by allowing cross-system practice, but the issue has much wider ramifications. The authors believe that before cross-system practice is allowed, there is a need for a comprehensive and deeper understanding of all the benefits and pitfalls of such as system. A few of these are discussed in this article. Specifically, we delve into the philosophical issues, syllabus and training, advances in medical technology, and larger public health perspectives. We end by suggesting a few steps that may help to improve public health in the country. PMID:26058367

  17. Development of practical thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianyu; Li, Chunlai; Lv, Gang; Yuan, Liyin; Liu, Enguang; Jin, Jian; Ji, Hongzhen

    2014-11-01

    As an optical remote sensing equipment, the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager operates in the thermal infrared spectral band and acquires about 180 wavebands in range of 8.0~12.5μm. The field of view of this imager is 13° and the spatial resolution is better than 1mrad. Its noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) is less than 0.2K@300K(average). 1 The influence of background radiation of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager,and a simulation model of simplified background radiation is builded. 2 The design and implementationof the Cryogenic Optics. 3 Thermal infrared focal plane array (FPA) and special dewar component for the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager. 4 Parts of test results of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager.The hyperspectral imaging system is China's first success in developing this type of instrument, whose flight validation experiments have already been embarked on. The thermal infrared hyperspectral data acquired will play an important role in fields such as geological exploration and air pollutant identification.

  18. Integrating Safety and Mission Assurance into Systems Engineering Modeling Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Sean; Darpel, Scott

    2015-01-01

    During the early development of products, flight, or experimental hardware, emphasis is often given to the identification of technical requirements, utilizing such tools as use case and activity diagrams. Designers and project teams focus on understanding physical and performance demands and challenges. It is typically only later, during the evaluation of preliminary designs that a first pass, if performed, is made to determine the process, safety, and mission quality assurance requirements. Evaluation early in the life cycle, though, can yield requirements that force a fundamental change in design. This paper discusses an alternate paradigm for using the concepts of use case or activity diagrams to identify safety hazard and mission quality assurance risks and concerns using the same systems engineering modeling tools being used to identify technical requirements. It contains two examples of how this process might be used in the development of a space flight experiment, and the design of a Human Powered Pizza Delivery Vehicle, along with the potential benefits to decrease development time, and provide stronger budget estimates.

  19. Development of a Practical Broadband Active Vibration Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Perey, Daniel F.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop robust, lightweight, and low-power control units that can be used to suppress structural vibration in flexible aerospace structures. In particular, this paper focuses on active damping, which is implemented using compact decentralized control units distributed over the structure. Each control unit consists of a diamond-shaped piezoelectric patch actuator, three miniature accelerometers, and analog electronics. The responses from the accelerometers are added together and then integrated to give a signal proportional to velocity. The signal is then inverted, amplified, and applied to the actuator, which generates a control force that is out of phase with the measured velocity. This paper describes the development of the control system, including a detailed description of the control and power electronics. The paper also presents experimental results acquired on a Plexiglas window blank. Five identical control units installed around the perimeter of the window achieved 10 dB peak reductions and a 2.4 dB integrated reduction of the spatially averaged velocity of the window between 500 and 3000 Hz.

  20. Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2002-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor (HPC) and high pressure turbine (HPT) can provide dramatic reductions in specific fuel consumption (SFC), time-on-wing, compressor stall margin, and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities. Maintenance costs to overhaul large commercial gas turbine engines can easily exceed $1M. Engine removal from service is primarily due to spent exhaust gas temperature (EGT) margin caused mainly by the deterioration of HPT components. Increased blade tip clearance is a major factor in hot section component degradation. As engine designs continue to push the performance envelope with fewer parts and the market drives manufacturers to increase service life, the need for advanced sealing continues to grow. A review of aero gas turbine engine HPT performance degradation and the mechanisms that promote these losses are discussed. Benefits to the HPT due to improved clearance management are identified. Past and present sealing technologies are presented along with specifications for next generation engine clearance control systems.

  1. A practical, low-noise coil system for magnetotellurics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, William D.; Tinkler, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetotellurics is a geophysical technique which was developed by Cagnaird (1953) and Tikhonov (1950) and later refined by other scientists worldwide. The technique is a method of electromagnetic sounding of the Earth and is based upon the skin depth effect in conductive media. The electric and magnetic fields arising from natural sources are measured at the surface of the earth over broad frequency bands. An excellent review of the technique is provided in the paper by Vozoff (1972). The sources of the natural fields are found in two basic mechanisms. At frequencies above a few hertz, most of the energy arises from lightning in thunderstorm belts around the equatorial regions. This energy is propagated in a wave-guide formed by the earthionospheric cavity. Energy levels are higher at fundamental modes for this cavity, but sufficient energy exists over most of the audio range to be useful for sounding at these frequencies, in which case the technique is generally referred to as audio-magnetotellurics or AMT. At frequencies lower than audio, and in general below 1 Hz, the source of naturally occuring electromagnetic energy is found in ionospheric currents. Current systems flowing in the ionosphere generate EM waves which can be used in sounding of the earth. These fields generate a relatively complete spectrum of electromagnetic energy that extends from around 1 Hz to periods of one day. Figure 1 shows an amplitude spectrum characteristic of both the ionospheric and lightning sources, covering a frequency range from 0.0001 Hz to 1000 Hz. It can be seen that there is a minimum in signal levels that occurs at about 1 Hz, in the gap between the two sources, and that signal level increases with a decrease in frequency.

  2. Impact of Doctor of Nursing Practice education in shaping health care systems for the future.

    PubMed

    Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Nativio, Donna G; Khalil, Heba

    2013-08-01

    The approval of the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing in 2004 and publication of The Essentials of Doctoral Education for Advanced Nursing Practice in 2006 promised significant benefit to nursing and to shaping health care systems. Currently, 229 DNP programs exist and more are planned. This article provides an overview of program types, graduates, and postgraduation placement, using Pennsylvania as an exemplar, to describe the potential impact of DNP education in health care systems. Nurse educators need to consider whether our current directions enable us to realize opportunities for shaping health care systems or whether we need to make course corrections. [ PMID:23875726

  3. Improving Lectures and Practical Classes in Using an Automatically Feedback System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollin, Andreas

    This paper presents a World Wide Web-based electronic feedback system for use in lectures and practical classes. The system is based on Java and provides a configurable feedback form, a managing tool for administrators, and a statistics viewer for presenting the generated statistical data in various ways. In addition, it generates a statistical…

  4. A Meta-Systems Approach to Evidence-Based Practice for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazak, Anne E.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Weisz, John R.; Hood, Korey; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Vargas, Luis A.; Banez, Gerard A.

    2010-01-01

    Improving outcomes for children and adolescents with mental health needs demands a broad meta-systemic orientation to overcome persistent problems in current service systems. Improving outcomes necessitates inclusion of current and emerging evidence about effective practices for the diverse population of youth and their families. Key components of…

  5. ENERGY BALANCE COMPARISON AMONG TILLAGE PRACTICES IN CORN AND CORN-SOYBEAN SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction There is little information available on the effect of common management practices on the energy balance of corn and soybean cropping systems. This type of information is needed to assess the sustainability of these systems. Such information will also be useful for designing improved cr...

  6. The Practical Relevance of Accountability Systems for School Improvement: A Descriptive Analysis of California Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintrop, Heinrich; Trujillo, Tina

    2007-01-01

    In search for the practical relevance of accountability systems for school improvement, the authors ask whether practitioners traveling between the worlds of system-designated high- and low-performing schools would detect tangible differences in educational quality and organizational effectiveness. In comparing nine exceptionally high and low…

  7. Relationships among Teachers' Perspectives, Self-Reported Practices, and Concerns Related to an Alternate Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Gyoung; Angell, Maureen E.; O'Brian, Mary; Strand, Kenneth B.; Fulk, Barbara M.; Watts, Emily H.

    2006-01-01

    A statewide survey was completed by 234 special education teachers with experience in developing assessment portfolios within the Illinois Alternate Assessment (IAA) system. Relationships between these teachers' demographics and their perspectives, concerns, and self-reported practices related to the IAA system was identified and described. These…

  8. School System (Re)design: Developing Educational Infrastructures to Support School Leadership and Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Megan; Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge for local education agencies (i.e., school districts in the United States) undergoing reform is to design systems that facilitate instructional improvement. At the core of these systems are educational infrastructures that bolster capacity building efforts and support teaching and leadership practices. Our goal for this special…

  9. AN ARS DATA SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN WATERSHED STUDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To support ARS’s recently established Conservation Effects Assessment Project in assessing U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs and practices, a team located at several ARS locations is developing a web-based watershed data system named STEWARDS. The data system consists of four comp...

  10. A Trial of Nursing Cost Accounting using Nursing Practice Data on a Hospital Information System.

    PubMed

    Miyahira, Akiko; Tada, Kazuko; Ishima, Masatoshi; Nagao, Hidenori; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Takemura, Tadamasa

    2015-01-01

    Hospital administration is very important and many hospitals carry out activity-based costing under comprehensive medicine. However, nursing cost is unclear, because nursing practice is expanding both quantitatively and qualitatively and it is difficult to grasp all nursing practices, and nursing cost is calculated in many cases comprehensively. On the other hand, a nursing information system (NIS) is implemented in many hospitals in Japan and we are beginning to get nursing practical data. In this paper, we propose a nursing cost accounting model and we simulate a cost by nursing contribution using NIS data. PMID:26262246

  11. A meta-systems approach to evidence-based practice for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Weisz, John R; Hood, Korey; Kratochwill, Thomas R; Vargas, Luis A; Banez, Gerard A

    2010-01-01

    Improving outcomes for children and adolescents with mental health needs demands a broad meta-systemic orientation to overcome persistent problems in current service systems. Improving outcomes necessitates inclusion of current and emerging evidence about effective practices for the diverse population of youth and their families. Key components of the meta-system for children with emotional or behavioral needs include families, cultural norms and values, and service sectors such as schools, pediatric health centers, specialty mental health systems, juvenile justice systems, child protection services, and substance use treatment systems. We describe each component of the meta-system, noting challenges to the provision of evidence-based practice (EBP) and highlighting ways to optimize outcomes. Our focus is on the inclusion of evidence-based assessment and interventions, including prevention, within a developmentally driven and culturally responsive contextual model. Recommendations for addressing disparities in research funding and essential steps to foster communication and coordination of EBP across settings are provided. PMID:20141264

  12. Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C): Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebsock, Ken; West, John

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 the NESC completed an in-depth assessment to identify, define and document engineering considerations for the Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of human-rated spacecraft systems. This study had been requested by the Astronaut Office at JSC to help them to better understand what is required to ensure safe, robust, and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. The 22 GN&C engineering Best Practices described in this paper are a condensed version of what appears in the NESC Technical Report. These Best Practices cover a broad range from fundamental system architectural considerations to more specific aspects (e.g., stability margin recommendations) of GN&C system design and development. 15 of the Best Practices address the early phases of a GN&C System development project and the remaining 7 deal with the later phases. Some of these Best Practices will cross-over between both phases. We recognize that this set of GN&C Best Practices will not be universally applicable to all projects and mission applications.

  13. Measuring primary care practice performance within an integrated delivery system: a case study.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Louis J; Greisler, David

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the use of an integrated performance measurement system to plan and control primary care service delivery within an integrated delivery system. We review a growing body of literature that focuses on the development and implementation of management reporting systems among healthcare providers. Our study extends the existing literature by examining the use of performance information generated by an integrated performance measurement system within a healthcare organization. We conduct our examination through a case study of the WMG Primary Care Medicine Group, the primary care medical group practice of WellSpan Health System. WellSpan Health System is an integrated delivery system that serves south central Pennsylvania and northern Maryland. Our study examines the linkage between WellSpan Health's strategic objectives and its primary care medicine group's integrated performance measurement system. The conceptual design of this integrated performance measurement system combines financial metrics with practice management and clinical operating metrics to provide a more complete picture of medical group performance. Our findings demonstrate that WellSpan Health was able to achieve superior financial results despite a weak linkage between its integrated performance measurement system and its strategic objectives. WellSpan Health achieved this objective for its primary care medicine group by linking clinical performance information to physician compensation and reporting practice management performance through the use of statistical process charts. They found that the combined mechanisms of integrated performance measurement and statistical process control charts improved organizational learning and communications between organizational stakeholders. PMID:12221746

  14. An Evaluation of EPIC's Analysis of School Practice & Knowledge System. The Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC). Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kay; Pereira-Leon, Maura; Honeyford, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Established in 2006 by New Leaders for New Schools[TM], the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative rewards high-need urban schools showing significant gains in student achievement. In exchange, schools agree to share the practices helping to drive those gains, which they do through an in-depth study of practice, aided by the EPIC…

  15. Knowing for Nursing Practice: Patterns of Knowledge and Their Emulation in Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Ivo L.; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of clinical knowledge in nursing, and the feasibility of emulating this knowledge into expert system technology. The perspective on patterns of knowing for nursing practice, advanced by Carper (1978), serves as point of departure. The four patterns of knowing -- empirics, esthetics, ethics, personal knowledge -- are evaluated as to the extent to which they can be emulated in clinical expert systems, given constraints imposed by the current technology of these systems.

  16. The ABC's required for establishing a practical computerized plant engineering management data base system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiocco, F. R.; Hume, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A system's approach is outlined in the paper to assist facility and Plant Engineers improve their organization's data management system. The six basic steps identified may appear somewhat simple; however, adequate planning, proper resources, and the involvement of management will determine the success of a computerized facility management data base. Helpful suggestions are noted throughout the paper to insure the development of a practical computerized data management system.

  17. Brahms An Agent-Oriented Language for Work Practice Simulation and Multi-Agent Systems Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; van Hoof, Ron J. J.

    Brahms is a multi-agent modeling language for simulating human work practice that emerges from work processes in organizations. The same Brahms language can be used to implement and execute distributed multi-agent systems, based on models of work practice that were first simulated. Brahms demonstrates how a multi-agent belief-desire-intention language, symbolic cognitive modeling, traditional business process modeling, activity-and situated cognition theories are brought together in a coherent approach for analysis and design of organizations and human-centered systems.

  18. The SECONDI MAPZ(©) system: a practical guide and proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Abu-Serriah, Muammar; Wong, Lilia; Richardson, Jeremy; Richardson, Sophia

    2016-05-01

    The SECONDI MAPZ(©) system is a new, simple, and logical classification of oncological defects of the midface that combines regional anatomy, 3-dimensional visualisation, and the hierarchy of functional priorities. In this paper, we provide clinical and radiographic examples of defects of varying complexity to illustrate the application of the system, to highlight its versatility, and to give practical clinical and radiological guidance on its use. We hope that its introduction will result in better communication of information, and the collection of more uniform data with which to compare outcomes, and ultimately will facilitate evidence-based practice in head and neck oncology. PMID:26898518

  19. Ethical and legal issues in cross-system practice in India: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C; Nirmala, Maria Christine

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policies allowing practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) to integrate into the mainstream of healthcare and also allowing practitioners of Ayurveda and Homoeopathy to perform medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) under the proposed amendment to the MTP bill have brought crosssystem practice into the limelight. We evaluate cross-system practice from its legal and ethical perspectives. Across judgments, the judiciary has held that cross-system practice is a form of medical negligence; however, it is permitted only in those states where the concerned governments have authorized it by a general or special order. Further, though a state government may authorize an alternative medicine doctor to prescribe allopathic medicines (or vice versa), it does not condone the prescription of wrong medicines or wrong diagnosis. Courts have also stated that prescribing allopathic medicines and misrepresenting these as traditional medicines is an unfair trade practice and not explaining the side-effects of a prescribed allopathic medicine amounts to medical negligence. Finally, the Supreme Court has cautioned that employing traditional medical practitioners who do not possess the required skill and competence to give allopathic treatment in hospitals and to let an emergency patient be treated by them is gross negligence. In the event of an unwanted outcome, the responsibility is completely on the hospital authorities. Therefore, there is an urgent need to abolish cross-system practice, invest in healthcare, and bring radical changes in health legislations to make right to healthcare a reality. PMID:27294458

  20. Administrators’ Perspectives on Changing Practice in End-of-Life Care in a State Prison System

    PubMed Central

    Penrod, Janice; Loeb, Susan J.; Smith, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sentencing trends have created a demographic shift in prison populations. Greater numbers of inmates are aging and dying in prison, creating a demand for enhanced end-of-life care. Changing practice to meet escalating care demands in corrections settings is complicated by economic constraints, attitudinal barriers, and organizational features. This study explored perspectives of end-of-life care held by administrators in a state prison system to reveal challenges to changing practice to meet the needs of inmates suffering advanced illness and dying in prison. Design and Sample Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 administrators from the central office of a state department of corrections. Results Key influences impacting end-of-life care services included: local prison culture; treatment versus security focus; case-by-case consideration; public sentiment; budget neutral approaches; and conflicting views of service targets. Conclusions These findings revealed the organizational structures, attitudes, and beliefs held by the administrative echelon of a state prison system and were used to guide the derivation of discrete approaches to changing practice in this complex system. Contextual evaluation permitted a much deeper understanding of the influences on changing practice in this hierarchical bureaucracy. This type of preliminary evaluation is crucial to infusing new practice initiatives in complex organizations caring for stigmatized, at-risk populations. PMID:24588128

  1. A Practical Guide for Exploring Opportunities of Repurposing Drugs for CNS Diseases in Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Mei, Hongkang; Feng, Gang; Zhu, Jason; Lin, Simon; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Yue; Xia, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Systems biology has shown its potential in facilitating pathway-focused therapy development for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. An integrated network can be utilized to explore the multiple disease mechanisms and to discover repositioning opportunities. This review covers current therapeutic gaps for CNS diseases and the role of systems biology in pharmaceutical industry. We conclude with a Multiple Level Network Modeling (MLNM) example to illustrate the great potential of systems biology for CNS diseases. The system focuses on the benefit and practical applications in pathway centric therapy and drug repositioning. PMID:26235090

  2. Medical safety and community practice: necessary elements and barriers to implement a safety learning system.

    PubMed

    O'Beirne, Maeve; Sterling, Pam D

    2009-01-01

    A safety learning system (SLS) is a system that monitors patient safety incident information and analyzes it to develop and implement improvement strategies to increase patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the necessary elements of a community-based family medicine practice SLS in Alberta Health Services - Calgary zone, and barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of this system. An SLS was developed in the research program Medical Safety in Community Practice. To determine the elements necessary to implement an SLS in community-based family medicine practice, we performed a comprehensive literature review, internal investigator discussions and internal investigator and external stakeholder reviews of key design elements. The system is currently being implemented and tested in community-based family practices as part of the program. Steps identified for implementation: included determining key design elements including creating a website and ascertaining a classification system or taxonomy; developing recruitment strategies; establishing an incident analysis methodology; building a knowledge translation strategy; and pursuing sustainability. These elements produced an SLS that is easily incorporated into community-based family medicine clinics. PMID:19667792

  3. Improving general practice computer systems for patient safety: qualitative study of key stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Anthony J; Savelyich, Boki S P; Sheikh, Aziz; Morris, Caroline J; Bowler, Isobel; Teasdale, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Objective The authors sought to identify ways in which the use of general practice computer systems could be improved to enhance safety in primary care. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Participants Thirty one participants, representing a broad range of relevant disciplines and interest groups. Participants included clinicians, computer system and drug database suppliers, academics with interests in health informatics and members of governmental, professional and patient representative bodies. Setting UK. Results Participants identified deficiencies in current systems that pose serious threats to patient safety. To bring about improvements, providers need to supply clinicians with safe, accurate and accessible information for decision support; be aware of the importance of human ergonomics in the design of hazard alerts; consider the value of audit trails and develop mechanisms to allow for the accurate transfer of information between clinical computer systems. These improvements in computer systems will be most likely to occur if mandated through regulations. Individual practices are in need of improved education and training which focuses, in particular, on providing support with recording data accurately and using call, recall and reminders effectively. Conclusion There are significant opportunities for improving the safety of general practice computer systems. Priorities include improving the knowledge base for clinical decision support, paying greater attention to human ergonomics in system design, improved staff training and the introduction of new regulations mandating system suppliers to satisfy essential safety requirements. PMID:17301200

  4. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  5. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  6. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  7. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  8. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Ffff of... - Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Work Practice Standards for Heat Exchange Systems 10 Table 10 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  9. A Proposed System for Nursing. Theoretical Framework, Part 2. Pathways to Practice, Vol. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Patricia T.

    This fourth volume in the series "Pathways to Practice" presents the heart of the Southern Regional Education Board's Nursing Curriculum Project, which was designed to (1) develop a set of assumptions about societal systems that impinge on the environments of nursing, (2) determine broadly the future direction of health care delivery patterns, (3)…

  10. Working with the Support Network: Applying Systemic Practice in Learning Disabilities Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Rosemary; Parry, Rhonwen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a model of practice termed "Network Training" which describes a structured approach to working with the network of support around an individual with learning disabilities. Within learning disability services there are many contexts in which the support system has opportunities to come together. For example,…

  11. Evaluating the Strength of School Tobacco Policies: The Development of a Practical Rating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Jennifer C.; Mueller, Nancy B.; Hogan-Watts, Melissa; Luke, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: School tobacco control policies vary widely in their strength, extensiveness, and enforcement. Currently, no standardized method exists to assess the comprehensiveness of school tobacco policies. The purpose of this study was to develop a new practical rating system for school tobacco policies, assess its reliability, and present…

  12. 49 CFR 214.105 - Fall protection systems standards and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fall protection systems standards and practices. 214.105 Section 214.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.105 Fall protection...

  13. Abstract: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating the Sustainability of “Complete Streets” Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating the Sustainability of “Complete Streets” Practices Primary Author: Nicholas R. Flanders 109 T.W. Alexander Drive Mail Code: E343-02 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 919-541-3660 Flanders.nick@Epa.gov Topic categ...

  14. Rainwater harvesting in the United States: a survey of common system practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in the United States vary in terms of design and operation. To better understand common practices in the RWH community and motivation for collecting harvested rainwater, an electronic survey was used to poll members of the American Rainwater Cat...

  15. 75 FR 22844 - Construction Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices and Training Requirements; Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 5-2007 (72 FR 31160). Signed at... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Construction Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices and Training Requirements; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

  16. Practical optimal flight control system design for helicopter aircraft. Volume 1: Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, L. G.; Riedel, S. A.; Mcruer, D.

    1980-01-01

    A method by which modern and classical theory techniques may be integrated in a synergistic fashion and used in the design of practical flight control systems is presented. A general procedure is developed, and several illustrative examples are included. Emphasis is placed not only on the synthesis of the design, but on the assessment of the results as well.

  17. Modeling Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff in Adaptive System for Practicing Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nižnan, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    Estimation is useful in situations where an exact answer is not as important as a quick answer that is good enough. A web-based adaptive system for practicing estimates is currently being developed. We propose a simple model for estimating student's latent skill of estimation. This model combines a continuous measure of correctness and response…

  18. PRACTICAL SENSITIVITY AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS MODELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present a practical evaluation framework for analysis of two complex, process-based agricultural system models, WEPP and RZWQM. The evaluation framework combines sensitivity analysis and the uncertainty analysis techniques of first order error analysis (FOA) and Monte Carlo simulation with Latin ...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE PRACTICES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents effective operating and maintenance (O/M) practices for wastewater treatment systems in the iron and steel industry, and describes how their application might affect permit parameters and operational upsets. Selection of processes for the study--byproduct cok...

  20. Supporting the Persuasive Writing Practices of English Language Learners through Culturally Responsive Systemic Functional Linguistic Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the potential of Systemic Functional Linguistic (SFL) pedagogy to support English language learners (ELLs) in enhancing their meaning making potential as they engage in persuasive writing practices within academic contexts. The dissertation results from a teacher action research project in which the…

  1. Improving Professional Development System through Quality Assurance Practices in the Universities of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Khalid, M. Ibrahim; Bakhsh, Khuda; Mohsin, Muhammad Naeem; Rasool, Shafqat; Mohsin, M. Saleem

    2016-01-01

    The rationalization of this research was to investigate about improving professional development system through Quality Assurance Practices (QAP) in the Universities of Pakistan pertaining to the opinions of students, teachers and Directors of Quality Enhancement Cells (QECs) and to differentiate the ideas of students, teachers and Directors of…

  2. Influences of Family-Systems Intervention Practices on Parent-Child Interactions and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivette, Carol M.; Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which the influences of family-systems intervention practices could be traced to variations in parent-child interactions and child development was investigated by meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM). MASEM is a procedure for producing a weighted pooled correlation matrix and fitting a structural equation model to the…

  3. Wavelength attack on practical continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system with a heterodyne protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiang-Chun; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2013-05-01

    We present the wavelength attack on a practical continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system with a heterodyne protocol, in which the transmittance of beam splitters at Bob's station is wavelength dependent. Our strategy is proposed independent of but analogous to that of Huang [arXiv:1206.6550v1 [quant-ph

  4. Does a quality management system improve quality in primary care practices in Switzerland? A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Katja; Hess, Sigrid; Jossen, Marianne; Huber, Felix; Rosemann, Thomas; Brodowski, Marc; Künzi, Beat; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effectiveness of the quality management programme—European Practice Assessment—in primary care in Switzerland. Design Longitudinal study with three points of measurement. Setting Primary care practices in Switzerland. Participants In total, 45 of 91 primary care practices completed European Practice Assessment three times. Outcomes The interval between each assessment was around 36 months. A variance analyses for repeated measurements were performed for all 129 quality indicators from the domains: ‘infrastructure’, ‘information’, ‘finance’, and ‘quality and safety’ to examine changes over time. Results Significant improvements were found in three of four domains: ‘quality and safety’ (F=22.81, p<0.01), ‘information’ (F=27.901, p<0.01) and ‘finance’ (F=4.073, p<0.02). The 129 quality indicators showed a significant improvement within the three points of measurement (F=33.864, p<0.01). Conclusions The European Practice Assessment for primary care practices thus provides a functioning quality management programme, focusing on the sustainable improvement of structural and organisational aspects to promote high quality of primary care. The implementation of a quality management system which also includes a continuous improvement process would give added value to provide good care. PMID:25900466

  5. Effect of electromagnetic disturbance on the practical QKD system in the smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Wang, Shuang; Li, Mo; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-12-01

    To improve the security of the smart grid, quantum key distribution (QKD) is an excellent choice. The rapid fluctuations on the power aerial optical cable and electromagnetic disturbance in substations are two main challenges for implementation of QKD. Due to insensitivity to birefringence of the channel, the stable phase-coding Faraday—Michelson QKD system is very practical in the smart grid. However, the electromagnetic disturbance in substations on this practical QKD system should be considered. The disturbance might change the rotation angle of the Faraday mirror, and would introduce an additional quantum bit error rate (QBER). We derive the new fringe visibility of the system and the additional QBER from the electromagnetic disturbance. In the worst case, the average additional QBER only increases about 0.17% due to the disturbance, which is relatively small to normal QBER values. We also find the way to degrade the electromagnetic disturbance on the QKD system.

  6. Development of Quality Management Systems for Clinical Practice Guidelines in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Heui-Sug; Kim, Dong Ik; Chang, Sung-Goo; Shin, Ein-Soon

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces the Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) appraisal system by the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences (KAMS). Quality management policies for CPGs vary among different countries, which have their own cultures and health care systems. However, supporting developers in guideline development and appraisals using standardized tools are common practices. KAMS, an organization representing the various medical societies of Korea, has been striving to establish a quality management system for CPGs, and has established a CPGs quality management system that reflects the characteristics of the Korean healthcare environment and the needs of its users. KAMS created a foundation for the development of CPGs, set up an independent appraisal organization, enacted regulations related to the appraisals, and trained appraisers. These efforts could enhance the ability of each individual medical society to develop CPGs, to increase the quality of the CPGs, and to ultimately improve the quality of the information available to decision-makers. PMID:26538997

  7. Development of Quality Management Systems for Clinical Practice Guidelines in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jo, Heui-Sug; Kim, Dong Ik; Chang, Sung-Goo; Shin, Ein-Soon; Oh, Moo-Kyung

    2015-11-01

    This study introduces the Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) appraisal system by the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences (KAMS). Quality management policies for CPGs vary among different countries, which have their own cultures and health care systems. However, supporting developers in guideline development and appraisals using standardized tools are common practices. KAMS, an organization representing the various medical societies of Korea, has been striving to establish a quality management system for CPGs, and has established a CPGs quality management system that reflects the characteristics of the Korean healthcare environment and the needs of its users. KAMS created a foundation for the development of CPGs, set up an independent appraisal organization, enacted regulations related to the appraisals, and trained appraisers. These efforts could enhance the ability of each individual medical society to develop CPGs, to increase the quality of the CPGs, and to ultimately improve the quality of the information available to decision-makers. PMID:26538997

  8. Computerized practice guidelines for heart failure management: the HeartMan system.

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, A.; Bray, B. E.; Gilbert, E. M.; Warner, H. R.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the initial stages of development and evaluation of the HeartMan system, a set of computerized practice guidelines for heart failure management. The concept of computerized guidelines as a hybrid of expert systems and practice guidelines methodologies and techniques is proposed. We show the results of the initial evaluation of the system, which are very promising, although the sample size is small, and the study is retrospective: Of 177 messages, 90% were considered appropriate, of which 97.5% would have been followed. Eight percent of the messages were classified as neutral, and 2% classified as inappropriate. The errors were correctable by changing the logic. The potential technical and sociological barriers to the complete development and clinical use of the system are discussed. PMID:8563274

  9. Adoption of technology, management practices, and production systems in US milk production.

    PubMed

    Khanal, A R; Gillespie, J; MacDonald, J

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of new technology, management practices, and alternative production systems has resulted in rapid structural change in the US dairy industry. This paper examines adoption rates and adopter characteristics for the following dairy technologies, practices, and systems: holding pen with an udder washer, milking units with automatic take-offs, genetic selection technologies, recombinant bovine somatotropin, membership in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association, computerized feed delivery systems, computerized milking systems, use of a nutritionist to design feed rations, grazing, milking cows 3 times daily, and milking parlors. Four of these were used on a greater percentage of farms in 2005 than in 2000, but increased farm sizes and the interaction of farm size with adoption suggest a greater percentage of milk being produced under each, with the exception of grazing. Except for grazing, technologies were generally complementary. PMID:21094776

  10. Nineteenth-Century World's Fairs as Accountability Systems: Scopic Systems, Audit Practices and Educational Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobe, Noah W.; Boven, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Late-19th century World's Fairs constitute an important chapter in the history of educational accountability. International expositions allowed for educational systems and practices to be "audited" by lay and expert audiences. In this article we examine how World's Fair exhibitors sought to make visible educational practices…

  11. Dentists' practice behaviors and perceived barriers regarding oral-systemic evidence: implications for education.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Rebecca S; Bell, Kathryn P; Phillips, Ceib; Paquette, David W; Offenbacher, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Observational studies consistently support a relationship between poor oral health and systemic diseases like cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to identify current practices and perceived barriers among North Carolina dentists regarding the incorporation of oral-systemic evidence into the delivery of patient care. A survey questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, revised, and mailed to 1,350 licensed dentists in North Carolina. The response rate was 49 percent. Bivariate analysis was used to compare practice behaviors and barriers among age, gender, practice type, and setting categorizations using the chi-square test. Respondents were predominantly male (77 percent), in solo practice (59.4 percent), and in urban or suburban settings (74 percent). Half (50 percent) reported updating medical histories at every patient visit. Younger dentists were significantly (p<0.05) more likely to inquire about patient blood glucose levels and utilize blood pressure guidelines. Perceived patient objections to additional fees and lack of patient acceptance were reported as significant barriers, especially among younger dentists. Significantly more rural dentists reported lack of appropriate referral options as a barrier (p<0.05). In the multivariate analysis, gender and type of practice but not age were statistically significant predictors of respondents' perceptions of patients' objection to additional fees. Dental schools need to prepare dental students for future roles in the assessment, management, and interprofessional collaboration that will be needed in the future. PMID:25179921

  12. Proposal for research and education: joint lectures and practicals on central nervous system anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Ikuo; Yoshimura, Ken; Satoh, Yoshihide; Nanayakkara, Chinthani D; Pallegama, Ranjith W; Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    We coordinated anatomy and physiology lectures and practicals to facilitate an integrated understanding of morphology and function in a basic medical science program for dental students and to reduce the time spent on basic science education. This method is a means to provide the essential information and skills in less time. The overall impression was that the practice of joint central nervous system lectures and practicals was an efficient method for students, which suggests that joint lectures might also be useful for clinical subjects. About two-thirds of students felt that the joint anatomy and physiology lecture on the central nervous system was useful and necessary in understanding the relationship between morphology and function, at least for this subject. One-third of students were neutral on the effectiveness of this method. However, the survey results suggest that improvements are needed in the method and timing of joint lectures and practicals. The present teaching approach can be further improved by conducting combined lectures in which the form and function of anatomic structures are presented by the relevant departments during the same lecture. Finally, joint lecturers and practicals offer an opportunity to increase student understanding of the importance of new research findings by the present authors and other researchers. PMID:26621026

  13. Practical Performance Analysis for Multiple Information Fusion Based Scalable Localization System Using Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yubin; Li, Xiaofan; Zhang, Sha; Meng, Tianhui; Zhang, Yiwen

    2016-01-01

    In practical localization system design, researchers need to consider several aspects to make the positioning efficiently and effectively, e.g., the available auxiliary information, sensing devices, equipment deployment and the environment. Then, these practical concerns turn out to be the technical problems, e.g., the sequential position state propagation, the target-anchor geometry effect, the Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) identification and the related prior information. It is necessary to construct an efficient framework that can exploit multiple available information and guide the system design. In this paper, we propose a scalable method to analyze system performance based on the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB), which can fuse all of the information adaptively. Firstly, we use an abstract function to represent all of the wireless localization system model. Then, the unknown vector of the CRLB consists of two parts: the first part is the estimated vector, and the second part is the auxiliary vector, which helps improve the estimation accuracy. Accordingly, the Fisher information matrix is divided into two parts: the state matrix and the auxiliary matrix. Unlike the theoretical analysis, our CRLB can be a practical fundamental limit to denote the system that fuses multiple information in the complicated environment, e.g., recursive Bayesian estimation based on the hidden Markov model, the map matching method and the NLOS identification and mitigation methods. Thus, the theoretical results are approaching the real case more. In addition, our method is more adaptable than other CRLBs when considering more unknown important factors. We use the proposed method to analyze the wireless sensor network-based indoor localization system. The influence of the hybrid LOS/NLOS channels, the building layout information and the relative height differences between the target and anchors are analyzed. It is demonstrated that our method exploits all of the available information for

  14. An orthogonal wavelet division multiple-access processor architecture for LTE-advanced wireless/radio-over-fiber systems over heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, Chinmaya; Leung, Victor CM; Stouraitis, Thanos

    2014-12-01

    The increase in internet traffic, number of users, and availability of mobile devices poses a challenge to wireless technologies. In long-term evolution (LTE) advanced system, heterogeneous networks (HetNet) using centralized coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmitting radio over optical fibers (LTE A-ROF) have provided a feasible way of satisfying user demands. In this paper, an orthogonal wavelet division multiple-access (OWDMA) processor architecture is proposed, which is shown to be better suited to LTE advanced systems as compared to orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) as in LTE systems 3GPP rel.8 (3GPP, http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/36300.htm). ROF systems are a viable alternative to satisfy large data demands; hence, the performance in ROF systems is also evaluated. To validate the architecture, the circuit is designed and synthesized on a Xilinx vertex-6 field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The synthesis results show that the circuit performs with a clock period as short as 7.036 ns (i.e., a maximum clock frequency of 142.13 MHz) for transform size of 512. A pipelined version of the architecture reduces the power consumption by approximately 89%. We compare our architecture with similar available architectures for resource utilization and timing and provide performance comparison with OFDMA systems for various quality metrics of communication systems. The OWDMA architecture is found to perform better than OFDMA for bit error rate (BER) performance versus signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in wireless channel as well as ROF media. It also gives higher throughput and mitigates the bad effect of peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR).

  15. Development of superconducting high gradient magnetic separation system for highly viscous fluid for practical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, S.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2011-11-01

    In the industrial plants processing highly viscous fluid such as foods or industrial products, it is necessary to remove the metallic wear debris originating from pipe in manufacturing line which triggers quality loss. In this study, we developed a high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system which consists of superconducting magnet to remove the metallic wear debris. The magnetic separation experiment and the particle trajectory simulation were conducted with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a model material (viscosity coefficient was 10 Pa s, which is 10,000 times higher than that in water). In order to develop a magnetic separation system for practical use, the particle trajectory simulation by using solenoidal superconducting magnet was conducted, and the possibility of the magnetic separation for removing ferromagnetic stainless steel (SUS) particles in highly viscous fluid of 10 Pa s was indicated. Based on the results, the number of filters to obtain required separation efficiency was examined to design the practical separation system.

  16. Creating financial transparency in public health: examining best practices of system partners.

    PubMed

    Honoré, Peggy A; Clarke, Richard L; Mead, Dean Michael; Menditto, Susan M

    2007-01-01

    Financial transparency is based on concepts for valid, standardized information that is readily accessible and routinely disseminated to stakeholders. While Congress and others continuously ask for an accounting of public health investments, transparency remains an ignored concept. The objective of this study was to examine financial transparency practices in other industries considered as part of the public health system. Key informants, regarded as financial experts on the operations of hospitals, school systems, and higher education, were a primary source of information. Principal findings were that system partners have espoused some concepts for financial transparency beginning in the early 20th century--signifying an 80-year implementation gap for public health. Critical features that promote accountability included standardized data collection methods and infrastructures, uniform practices for quantitative analysis of financial performance, and credentialing of the financial management workforce. Recommendations are offered on the basis of these findings to aid public health to close this gap by framing a movement toward transparency. PMID:17299315

  17. Practices Changes in the Child Protection System to Address the Needs of Parents With Cognitive Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Sandra T.; Maggi, Mirella C.; Proctor, Stephon Nathanial

    2016-01-01

    Parents with cognitive disabilities (PCD) are over-represented in the child protection system. However, the current state of the child protection system is not well prepared for working with them. Biases that exist against their parenting, the need for accommodations in assessment and intervention practices, and specific training in staff and cross systems barriers need to be addressed. This paper argues for changes that will ensure such parents are more effectively served and that child protection staff and contract providers are better equipped to work with them. Specific changes are discussed in assessment and intervention practices. These changes will require human capacity building and organizational restructuring. Although empirically based behavioral approaches with PCD will be emphasized, recent empirical work suggests that social information processing and neurocognitive problems occur in PCD. Approaches to working with such problems are emerging and must also be considered and integrated into a blueprint for change.

  18. Does an activity based remuneration system attract young doctors to general practice?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of increasingly complex payment schemes in primary care may represent a barrier to recruiting general practitioners (GP). The existing Norwegian remuneration system is fully activity based - 2/3 fee-for-service and 1/3 capitation. Given that the system has been designed and revised in close collaborations with the medical association, it is likely to correspond - at least to some degree - with the preferences of current GPs (men in majority). The objective of this paper was to study which preferences that young doctors (women in majority), who are the potential entrants to general practice have for activity based vs. salary based payment systems. Methods In November-December 2010 all last year medical students and all interns in Norway (n = 1.562) were invited to participate in an online survey. The respondents were asked their opinion on systems of remuneration for GPs; inclination to work as a GP; risk attitude; income preferences; work pace tolerance. The data was analysed using one-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 831 (53%) responded. Nearly half the sample (47%) did not consider the remuneration system to be important for their inclination to work as GP; 36% considered the current system to make general practice more attractive, while 17% considered it to make general practice less attractive. Those who are attracted by the existing system were men and those who think high income is important, while those who are deterred by the system are risk averse and less happy with a high work pace. On the question of preferred remuneration system, half the sample preferred a mix of salary and activity based remuneration (the median respondent would prefer a 50/50 mix). Only 20% preferred a fully activity based system like the existing one. A salary system was preferred by women, and those less concerned with high income, while a fully activity based system was preferred by men, and those happy with a high work

  19. A Multidisciplinary Approach for Teaching Systems-Based Practice to Internal Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Nabors, Christopher; Peterson, Stephen J; Weems, Roger; Forman, Leanne; Mumtaz, Arif; Goldberg, Randy; Kar, Kausik; Borges, Joseph A; Doctor, Ida; Lubben, Orpha; Pherwani, Nisha; Frishman, William H

    2011-01-01

    Background Rapid growth in the complexity of the health care environment (including monitoring systems for health care quality and patient safety) may result in graduating internists not being adequately prepared for the demands the system places on them. In response, the Residency Review Committee for Internal Medicine created the Educational Innovations Project (EIP) to encourage select residency training programs to develop new strategies and methods to meet changing demands in graduate medical education. Methods As part of the EIP, our program created an innovative administrative internship. This multiyear curriculum provides systems-based practice training and consists of a series of rotations that take place during the 3 years of internal medicine residency. Each session involves close interaction with the nonphysician personnel who are instrumental in making our institution a functional and cohesive unit. To assess the potential impact of the rotations, we survey senior residents, recent graduates, and faculty educators. In conjunction with the Performance and Patient Experience departments of the hospital, we track several systems-based practice metrics for residents, including compliance with core health care measures, length of stay, and patient satisfaction. Results Residents recognize the need to develop systems-based practice skills, to readily participate in structured curricula designed to enhance such skills, and to provide leadership in organizing and publishing quality improvement initiatives, and upon graduation, they may lament that they did not receive even more vigorous training in these areas. Conclusion Although internal medicine residencies continue to improve their training in systems-based practice, our experience suggests that an even greater emphasis on these skills may be warranted. PMID:22379526

  20. Commercial Impact and Optimum Capacity Determination of Pumped Storage Hydro Plant for a Practical Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, P. G.; Anand, S. R.; Imthias, Ahamed T. P.; Sreejith, P. S., Dr.

    2013-06-01

    This paper attempts to study the commercial impact of pumped storage hydro plant on the operation of a stressed power system. The paper further attempts to compute the optimum capacity of the pumped storage scheme that can be provided on commercial basis for a practical power system. Unlike the analysis of commercial aspects of pumped storage scheme attempted in several papers, this paper is presented from the point of view of power system management of a practical system considering the impact of the scheme on the economic operation of the system. A realistic case study is presented as the many factors that influence the pumped storage operation vary widely from one system to another. The suitability of pumped storage for the particular generation mix of a system is well explored in the paper. To substantiate the economic impact of pumped storage on the system, the problem is formulated as a short-term hydrothermal scheduling problem involving power purchase which optimizes the quantum of power to be scheduled and the duration of operation. The optimization model is formulated using an algebraic modeling language, AMPL, which is then solved using the advanced MILP solver CPLEX.

  1. A Practical and Portable Solids-State Electronic Terahertz Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Smart, Ken; Du, Jia; Li, Li; Wang, David; Leslie, Keith; Ji, Fan; Li, Xiang Dong; Zeng, Da Zhang

    2016-01-01

    A practical compact solid-state terahertz imaging system is presented. Various beam guiding architectures were explored and hardware performance assessed to improve its compactness, robustness, multi-functionality and simplicity of operation. The system performance in terms of image resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, the electronic signal modulation versus optical chopper, is evaluated and discussed. The system can be conveniently switched between transmission and reflection mode according to the application. A range of imaging application scenarios was explored and images of high visual quality were obtained in both transmission and reflection mode. PMID:27110791

  2. A Hitchhiker's Guide to Myeloid Cell Subsets: Practical Implementation of a Novel Mononuclear Phagocyte Classification System.

    PubMed

    Guilliams, Martin; van de Laar, Lianne

    2015-01-01

    The classification of mononuclear phagocytes as either dendritic cells or macrophages has been mainly based on morphology, the expression of surface markers, and assumed functional specialization. We have recently proposed a novel classification system of mononuclear phagocytes based on their ontogeny. Here, we discuss the practical application of such a classification system through a number of prototypical examples we have encountered while hitchhiking from one subset to another, across species and between steady-state and inflammatory settings. Finally, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of such a classification system and propose a number of improvements to move from theoretical concepts to concrete guidelines. PMID:26322042

  3. A Practical and Portable Solids-State Electronic Terahertz Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Ken; Du, Jia; Li, Li; Wang, David; Leslie, Keith; Ji, Fan; Li, Xiang Dong; Zeng, Da Zhang

    2016-01-01

    A practical compact solid-state terahertz imaging system is presented. Various beam guiding architectures were explored and hardware performance assessed to improve its compactness, robustness, multi-functionality and simplicity of operation. The system performance in terms of image resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, the electronic signal modulation versus optical chopper, is evaluated and discussed. The system can be conveniently switched between transmission and reflection mode according to the application. A range of imaging application scenarios was explored and images of high visual quality were obtained in both transmission and reflection mode. PMID:27110791

  4. Design of visible light communication system for maintaining uniform data rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Jiun-Yu; Lin, Wan-Feng; Wu, Yu-Fu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yeh, Chien-Hung

    2014-09-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) is gradually replacing the fluorescent lamp for lighting. Higher modulation bandwidth of LEDs makes the additional application of visible light communication (VLC) possible. Every location of a VLC system should be provided by equal data rate for smooth communication. However, locations away from the LED lamp have less power. These low-power locations have lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); and hence lower data rate can be achieved. For achieving high capacity VLC, strategies should be adequately provided to mitigate this problem. Moreover, for some real-time continuous applications, such as video and voice, latency reduction plan should also be considered. In this paper, an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing access (OFDMA) based system was proposed to solve the above problem. Because we do not use time-division multiplexing access (TDMA) based system, the latency issue can be reduced. The OFDMA based system is also beneficial for large scale operation because the user bandwidth is not reduced by TDM mechanism. Signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (SNIR) distribution of the VLC system is designed to ensure uniform and optimal system capacity. Discrete multi-tone (DMT) is used for this VLC system. The DMT subcarriers are bit-loaded depending on the LED frequency response. More subcarriers are allocated for communication at low SNIR locations. Hence, nearly equal data rate can be provided everywhere. Demonstration of 17 Mb/s/LED data rate was provided.

  5. [How to develop advanced practice nursing in complex health care systems?].

    PubMed

    Lecocq, Dan; Mengal, Yves; Pirson, Magali

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, advanced nursing practitioners (ANP) have developed new roles in health care systems and this tendency is continuing to grow. Postgraduate trainedANP interact directly with the person, i.e. the individual and his/her family - in many fields of practice and in a context of collaboration withfellow nurses and other health care professionals. The potential benefits of ANP interventions have been demonstrated in many fields. In particular, ANP are public health actors, able to participate in the interdisciplinary response to supportive care ofpatients with chronic diseases. However, the development of advanced practice nursing (APN) in a complex health care system requires a systemic approach coordinated with the various levels of training of nursing practitioners and other health care professionals. This is an essential prerequisite to allow ANPs to develop new roles adapted to their capacities (legal qualification, high level, specialist training, modalities of collaboration, etc.). To achieve an added value for patients, for the health care system in terms ofresults and to ensure adequate nursing conditions, the authors emphasize the importance of structured development of APN and propose an awareness phase comprising adoption of a conceptual model of APN and the establishment of a structured list of existing nursing practices in order to prepare a methodical implementation strategy. PMID:26168623

  6. Developing a Web-Based Nursing Practice and Research Information Management System: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeeyae; Lapp, Cathi; Hagle, Mary E

    2015-09-01

    Many hospital information systems have been developed and implemented to collect clinical data from the bedside and have used the information to improve patient care. Because of a growing awareness that the use of clinical information improves quality of care and patient outcomes, measuring tools (electronic and paper based) have been developed, but most of them require multiple steps of data collection and analysis. This necessitated the development of a Web-based Nursing Practice and Research Information Management System that processes clinical nursing data to measure nurses' delivery of care and its impact on patient outcomes and provides useful information to clinicians, administrators, researchers, and policy makers at the point of care. This pilot study developed a computer algorithm based on a falls prevention protocol and programmed the prototype Web-based Nursing Practice and Research Information Management System. It successfully measured performance of nursing care delivered and its impact on patient outcomes successfully using clinical nursing data from the study site. Although Nursing Practice and Research Information Management System was tested with small data sets, results of study revealed that it has the potential to measure nurses' delivery of care and its impact on patient outcomes, while pinpointing components of nursing process in need of improvement. PMID:26176636

  7. Development and clinical trial of a practical vessel imaging system for vessel punctures in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuper, Natasha J.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; de Roode, Rowland; Septer, Erica

    2008-02-01

    Venipunctures to draw blood for diagnostics can be cumbersome. Multiple puncture attempts are distressing, painful and traumatic, especially for small children. Drawing blood from babies, in particular, is a problem, due to the cutaneous baby fat, tiny veins and, worst case, a pigmented skin. We developed a practical vein viewing system based on IR translumination that, contrary to commercial systems available, has the advantage of: a) low cost, b) easily implemented in routine practice, c) normal and IR image simultaneously available, d) small add-on, e) child friendly IR illuminator and f) efficient IR light coupling. Before introducing the vessel viewer for clinical application in the children's department, parameters were measured in 194 patients (age 0-17 yrs): time to draw blood, number of attempts, skin characteristics, discomfort of patient, and experience of nurse. In this control group, time to draw blood increases significantly with decreasing age of the children. The instant feedback from the nurses has been valuable for the improvements of especially the illumination sources. A clinical trial has been performed in 125 patients (age 0-6 yrs) to prove effectivity of the system in the blood withdrawal procedure. There was a significant decrease from 13% to 2% in failure rate. Also time needed to search for a vein was significantly decreased. A practical and accessible vein viewing system has been developed and is being introduced for clinical application. Although the concept of patient friendliness is already accepted, measurements need to show the effectiveness for particular groups of patients.

  8. Highly turbulent counterflow flames: A laboratory scale benchmark for practical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coppola, Gianfilippo; Coriton, Bruno; Gomez, Alessandro

    2009-09-15

    We propose a highly turbulent counterflow flame as a very useful benchmark of complexity intermediate between laminar flames and practical systems. By operating in a turbulent Reynolds number regime of relevance to practical systems such as gas turbines and internal combustion engines, it retains the interaction of turbulence and chemistry of such environments, but offers several advantages including: (a) the achievement of high Reynolds numbers without pilot flames, which is particularly advantageous from a modeling standpoint; (b) control of the transition from stable flames to local extinction/reignition conditions; (c) compactness of the domain by comparison with jet flames, with obvious advantages from both a diagnostic and, especially, a computational viewpoint; and (d) the reduction or, altogether, elimination of soot formation, thanks to the high strain rates and low residence times of such a system, and the establishment of conditions of large stoichiometric mixture fraction, as required for robust flame stabilization. We demonstrate the phenomenology of such highly strained turbulent flames under conditions spanning unpremixed, partially premixed and premixed regimes. The system lends itself to the validation of DNS and other computational models. It is also well-suited for the examination of practical fuel blends - a need that is becoming more and more pressing in view of the anticipated diversification of the future fossil fuel supply. (author)

  9. Investigation of practical and theoretical accuracy of wireless indoor-positioning system UBISENSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Marek; Odziemczyk, Waldemar; Nagorski, Kamil

    2013-04-01

    The development of Real Time Locating Systems has become an important add-on to many existing location aware systems. While Global Navigation Satelite System has solved most of the outdoor problems, it fails to repeat this success indoors. Wireless indoor positioning systems have become very popular in recent years. One of them is UBISENSE system. This system requires to carry an identity tag that is detected by sensors, which typically use triangulation to determine location. This paper presents the results of the investigation of accuracy of tag position using precise geodetic measurements and geometric analysis. Experimental measurements were carried out on the field polygon using precise tacheometer TCRP 1201+ and complete equipment of Ubisense. Results of experimental measurements were analyzed and presented graphically using Surfer 8. The paper presents the results of the investigation the teoretical and practical positioning accuracy according to the various working conditions.

  10. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Supporting analyses of human-system interfaces, procedures and practices, training and organizational practices and policies. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L.

    1995-07-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the second, third, fourth, and fifth phases of the project, which involved detailed analyses of four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training practices and policies; and organizational practices and policies, respectively. Findings based on these analyses provided factual and conceptual support for the final phase of this project, which identified factors leading to human error in RAB. The impact of those factors on RAB performance was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance, and alternative approaches for resolving safety significant problems were identified and evaluated.

  11. Theory and Practice of the Cropping Systems Approach to Reducing Nematode Problems in the Tropics

    PubMed Central

    Noe, James P.

    1988-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are major constraints to the productivity of tropical farming operations. Intensive land use and climatic conditions favorable to nematode development contribute to increased crop losses due to these pests. Many farmers in developing tropical countries have limited resources and management options. Cropping systems research is a relatively low-cost, low-input method of optimizing existing agricultural practices with respect to limiting losses due to plant-parasitic nematodes. Specific tropical farming practices are discussed along with problems they pose for research in quantitative hematology. Comprehensive, systematic research methods for delineating and using nematode-host relationships are described, and new ways of dealing with complex multicropping systems are suggested. PMID:19290203

  12. Physician Practice Audit Targets Now Become Hospital and Health System Compliance Risks.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Ronald L

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, 22% of the federal budget was spent on Medicare and Medicaid. The Medicare Trust Fund is forecast to be depleted in 2030. More than 12% of Medicare fee-for-service payments in 2014 were made in error. These factors have led Congress to apply more pressure to reduce improper payments. Although hospitals were the initial targets because of their higher reimbursement, recent efforts have shifted to physician billing. Hospitals and health systems continue to acquire physician practices, making them liable for the billing activities of physicians. And for physicians who remain independent, the cost and effort required to respond to audits and denials can be financially devastating, further demonstrating the importance of prevention. This article addresses some of the common audit targets and mistakes made by physicians and provides strategies for physician practices and health systems to respond to and, ultimately, avoid these denials. PMID:26665475

  13. Contrast-detail evaluation and dose assessment of eight digital chest radiography systems in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Veldkamp, Wouter J H; Kroft, Lucia J M; Boot, Mireille V; Mertens, Bart J A; Geleijns, Jacob

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess contrast-detail performance and effective dose of eight different digital chest radiography systems. Digital chest radiography systems from different manufacturers were included: one storage phosphor system, one selenium-coated drum system, and six direct readout systems including four thin-film transistor (TFT) systems and two charge-coupled device (CCD) systems. For measuring image quality, a contrast-detail test object was used in combination with a phantom that simulates the primary and scatter transmission through lung fields (LucAl). Six observers judged phantom images of each modality by soft-copy reading in a four-alternative-forced-choice experiment. The entrance dose was also measured, and the effective dose was calculated for an average patient. Contrast-detail curves were constructed from the observer data. The blocked two-way ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. Significant difference in contrast-detail performance was found between the systems. Best contrast-detail performance was shown by a CCD system with slot-scan technology, and the selenium-coated drum system was compared to the other six systems (p values systems in clinical practice. PMID:16132918

  14. Social Ecology of Asthma: Engaging Stakeholders in Integrating Health Behavior Theories and Practice-Based Evidence through Systems Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Emily M.; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Yeatts, Karin B.; Hernandez, Michelle L.; Smith, Timothy W.; Lewis, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a process for integrating health behavior and social science theories with practice-based insights using participatory systems thinking and diagramming methods largely inspired by system dynamics methods. This integration can help close the gap between research and practice in health education and health behavior by offering…

  15. 40 CFR 141.553 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my combined filter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... there any special provision regarding my combined filter effluent? 141.553 Section 141.553 Protection of... Filter Effluent Requirements § 141.553 My system practices lime softening—is there any special provision regarding my combined filter effluent? If your system practices lime softening, you may...

  16. 40 CFR 141.553 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my combined filter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... there any special provision regarding my combined filter effluent? 141.553 Section 141.553 Protection of... Filter Effluent Requirements § 141.553 My system practices lime softening—is there any special provision regarding my combined filter effluent? If your system practices lime softening, you may...

  17. 40 CFR 141.553 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my combined filter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... there any special provision regarding my combined filter effluent? 141.553 Section 141.553 Protection of... Filter Effluent Requirements § 141.553 My system practices lime softening—is there any special provision regarding my combined filter effluent? If your system practices lime softening, you may...

  18. 40 CFR 141.553 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my combined filter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... there any special provision regarding my combined filter effluent? 141.553 Section 141.553 Protection of... Filter Effluent Requirements § 141.553 My system practices lime softening—is there any special provision regarding my combined filter effluent? If your system practices lime softening, you may...

  19. Straight talk: new approaches in healthcare. Physician practice turnaround in an integrated delivery system.

    PubMed

    Albian, Joseph M; Geihsler, Debra A; Sacks, Lee B; Schmidt, Daniel P

    2002-03-25

    This is the second installment in a series of group discussions by top executives on key issues in healthcare today. Straight Talk is present by Modern Healthcare and PricewaterhouseCoopers. This session tackles the subject of physician practice turnaround in an Integrated Delivery System. The discussion was held on March 5, 2002 at Modern Healthcare's Chicago headquarters, moderated by Charles S. Lauer. PMID:11951354

  20. Best Practices for Finite Element Analysis of Spent Nuclear Fuel Transfer, Storage, and Transportation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bajwa, Christopher S.; Piotter, Jason; Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Fort, James A.; Suffield, Sarah R.

    2010-08-11

    Storage casks and transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are designed to confine SNF in sealed canisters or casks, provide structural integrity during accidents, and remove decay through a storage or transportation overpack. The transfer, storage, and transportation of SNF in dry storage casks and transport packages is regulated under 10 CFR Part 72 and 10 CFR Part 71, respectively. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used with increasing frequency in Safety Analysis Reports and other regulatory technical evaluations related to SNF casks and packages and their associated systems. Advances in computing power have made increasingly sophisticated FEA models more feasible, and as a result, the need for careful review of such models has also increased. This paper identifies best practice recommendations that stem from recent NRC review experience. The scope covers issues common to all commercially available FEA software, and the recommendations are applicable to any FEA software package. Three specific topics are addressed: general FEA practices, issues specific to thermal analyses, and issues specific to structural analyses. General FEA practices covers appropriate documentation of the model and results, which is important for an efficient review process. The thermal analysis best practices are related to cask analysis for steady state conditions and transient scenarios. The structural analysis best practices are related to the analysis of casks and associated payload during standard handling and drop scenarios. The best practices described in this paper are intended to identify FEA modeling issues and provide insights that can help minimize associated uncertainties and errors, in order to facilitate the NRC licensing review process.

  1. Coliform Bacteria Monitoring in Fish Systems: Current Practices in Public Aquaria.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, Erin E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Arnold, Jill E; Bourbon, Holly M

    2016-06-01

    Public aquaria evaluate coliform indicator bacteria levels in fish systems, but the purpose of testing, testing methods, and management responses are not standardized, unlike with the coliform bacteria testing for marine mammal enclosures required by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. An online survey was sent to selected aquaria to document current testing and management practices in fish systems without marine mammals. The information collected included indicator bacteria species, the size and type of systems monitored, the primary purpose of testing, sampling frequency, test methods, the criteria for interpreting results, corrective actions, and management changes to limit human exposure. Of the 25 institutions to which surveys were sent, 19 (76%) responded. Fourteen reported testing for fecal indicator bacteria in fish systems. The most commonly tested indicator species were total (86%) and fecal (79%) coliform bacteria, which were detected by means of the membrane filtration method (64%). Multiple types and sizes of systems were tested, and the guidelines for testing and corrective actions were highly variable. Only three institutions performed additional tests to confirm the identification of indicator organisms. The results from this study can be used to compare bacterial monitoring practices and protocols in fish systems, as an aid to discussions relating to the accuracy and reliability of test results, and to help implement appropriate management responses. Received August 23, 2015; accepted December 29, 2015. PMID:27168340

  2. Brazilian National System for the Monitoring and Improvement of Compounding Practices: program outcomes.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Hugo Guedes; Favaro, Alvaro; Andrade, Alba Lívia; Gomes, Lenir Yago; Garcez, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies in Brazil have to comply with a complex and strict set of drug manufacturing regulations. The authors reported in the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding (November/December 2009, Volume 13, Issue 6) on the development and implementation of a National System for the Monitoring and Improvement of Compounding Practices in Brazil, a process-focused program aiming to help compounding pharmacies improve drug manufacturing processes and meet the standards set forth by the applicable legislation This article reports the results obtained in the first three editions of the National System for the Monitoring and Improvement of Compounding Practices in Brazil (2006-2010) and presents new foci explored in the 2011 cycle. The results obtained over the years demonstrate that participating in the National System for the Monitoring and Improvement of Compounding Practices in Brazil has helped pharmacies achieve legal compliance and improve the quality of their preparations, which has contributed substantially to meeting quality standards never before achieved in the compounding sector in Brazil. PMID:23050320

  3. Amalgamation of management information system into anaesthesiology practice: A boon for the modern anaesthesiologists

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, traditional anaesthesia record keeping system has been the backbone of anaesthesiology ever since its introduction in the 1890s by Dr. Harvey Cushing and Dr. Ernest A. Codman. Besides providing the important information regarding patients’ vital physiologic parameters, paper records had been a reliable source for various clinical research activities. The introduction of electronic monitoring gadgets and electronic record keeping systems has revolutionised the anaesthesiology practice to a large extent. Recently, the introduction of anaesthesia information management system (AIMS), which incorporates all the features of monitoring gadgets, such as electronic storage of large accurate data, quality assurance in anaesthesia, enhancing patient safety, ensuring legal protection, improved billing services and effecting an organisational change, is almost a revolution in modern-day anaesthesiology practice. The clinical research activities that are responsible for taking anaesthesiology discipline to higher peaks have also been boosted by the amalgamation of AIMS, enabling multicenter studies and sharing of clinical data. Barring few concerns in its installation, cost factors and functional aspects, the future of AIMS seems to be bright and will definitely prove to be a boon for modern-day anaesthesiology practice. PMID:24963173

  4. The Practical Implementation of Non-Contacting Laser Strain Measurements Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunis, Isam; Quinn, roger D.; Kadambi, Jaikrishnan R.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of stress and strain in rotating turbomachinery is critical to many industries. The search for a non-contacting, non-interfering, non-degrading measurement system is on going and extensive. While several methods seem promising in theory, implementation has proven troublesome. This work uncovers and quantifies these implementation issues in the context of a laser measurement system. Both a Laser Doppler Velocimeter system and a displacement laser system are utilized. It is found that the key issues are signal to noise ratio, rigid body compensation, measurement location, and conversion of intermittent measurements to a continuous signal. Accounting for these factors leads to successful measurements. These results should lead to better ideas and more practical solutions to the non-contacting, non-degrading, non-interfering strain measurement system problem.

  5. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  6. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011–2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize–cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  7. A practical guide to the monitoring and management of the complications of systemic corticosteroid therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Systemic corticosteroids play an integral role in the management of many inflammatory and immunologic conditions, but these agents are also associated with serious risks. Osteoporosis, adrenal suppression, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, Cushing’s syndrome, psychiatric disturbances and immunosuppression are among the more serious side effects noted with systemic corticosteroid therapy, particularly when used at high doses for prolonged periods. This comprehensive article reviews these adverse events and provides practical recommendations for their prevention and management based on both current literature and the clinical experience of the authors. PMID:23947590

  8. Systematic approach to managing vernal keratoconjunctivitis in clinical practice: Severity grading system and a treatment algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Nikhil S

    2016-01-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is an ocular allergy that is common in the pediatric age group. It is often chronic, severe, and nonresponsive to the available treatment options. Management of these children is difficult and often a dilemma for the practitioner. There is a need to simplify and standardize its management. To achieve this goal, we require a grading system to judge the severity of inflammation and an algorithm to select the appropriate medications. This article provides a simple and practically useful grading system and a stepladder algorithm for systematic treatment of these patients. Use of appropriate treatment modalities can reduce treatment and disease-related complications. PMID:27050351

  9. Practical quantum synchronization for the Schrödinger–Lohe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sun-Ho; Cho, Junghee; Ha, Seung-Yeal

    2016-05-01

    We present a practical synchronization method for the Schrödinger–Lohe (S–L) system distinct potentials. The S–L model describes the spatial-temporal evolution of the wave functions of quantum Lohe oscillators on a network with Lohe couplings. When the potential effects are ignored, complete wave function synchronization (CWFS) can emerge in the sense that the L 2-distance between wave functions exponentially approaches zero for a class of initial wave functions. In contrast, when the Lohe oscillators are under the effect of potential forces, CWFS cannot occur. In this study, we employ a weaker concept of quantum synchronization for discussing the asymptotic collective behavior of the S–L model. This concept leads to ‘practical synchronization’ of the S–L model. In practical synchronization, the L 2-distance between wave functions can be upper bounded by the inverse power of the square root of the coupling strength; as the coupling strength increases. Thus, the L 2-discrepancy between wave functions arbitrarily decreases as the coupling strength increases. We present a sufficient analytical framework for this practical synchronization, which is a generalization of the earlier result in (Choi S-H and Ha S-Y 2014 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47 355104)

  10. Capability of Using Clinical Care Classification System to Represent Nursing Practice in Acute Setting in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rung-Chuang; Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Yan, Hsiu-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Ya; Chang, Polun

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the capability of the Clinical Care Classification (CCC) system to represent nursing record data in a medical center in Taiwan. Nursing care records were analyzed using the process of knowledge discovery in data sets. The study data set included all the nursing care plan records from December 1998 to October 2008, totaling 2,060,214 care plan documentation entries. Results show that 75.42% of the documented diagnosis terms could be mapped using the CCC system. A total of 21 established nursing diagnoses were recommended to be added into the CCC system. Results show that one-third of the assessment and care tasks were provided by nursing professionals. This study shows that the CCC system is useful for identifying patterns in nursing practices and can be used to construct a nursing database in the acute setting. PMID:24199066

  11. Obesity Treatment at HealthPartners: Adaptation of Clinical Guidelines into Systems for Practice Operations.

    PubMed

    Vesely, Jennifer M; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Kottke, Thomas E; Marshall, Peter S

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how HealthPartners health system in Minneapolis, MN, has translated a clinical guideline for obesity among adults into an efficient care delivery practice operations system. Based on a foundation provided by the physician-led Institute of Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)-developed Prevention and Management of Obesity for Adults Health Care Guideline, HealthPartners adapted the guideline into an electronic health record-based "Smart Set" that provides frontline physicians with the information, treatment options, and referral steps necessary to care for their patients with obesity. Additional context is provided in terms of insurance coverage and systems-based resources designed to prevent and treat obesity for adults. PMID:27342444

  12. A practical real-time detection visual system for driver's eye closure state tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Tong; Li, Zheng-ming; Zhang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    We use an onboard computer and a smart webcam built a practical real-time detection visual system. Installed in a driving cabin in a specific way, it is able to determine the degree of closure of the driver's eyelids for further study of detecting and mitigating driver drowsiness and fatigue. For a practical real-time application, both the temporal resolution and the image resolution of video processing are key performances. Instead of the traditional video processing strategy which detects face in the first frame and keep tracking in the following, a frame-by-frame detecting and locating strategy is adopted, which firstly locates face region in a size-reduced image, secondly face region in original image is located by linear mapping calculation, thirdly eye region is located in face region according to the characteristics of a facial geometric model, this model allows personal calibration intuitively in run-time according to different individuals. A novel combination of several practical methods proved effective in computer vision is proposed, including capturing and resizing frames, face and eye localization, adaptive-threshold segmentation, mathematical morphology etc. Experiments show that the proposed system achieves a performance of image resolution of 640×480 pixels, temporal resolution of 53 frames / second, average eye-blink detection accuracy of 96% under various illumination conditions.

  13. A practical real-time detection visual system for driver's eye closure state tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Tong; Li, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jin

    2011-12-01

    We use an onboard computer and a smart webcam built a practical real-time detection visual system. Installed in a driving cabin in a specific way, it is able to determine the degree of closure of the driver's eyelids for further study of detecting and mitigating driver drowsiness and fatigue. For a practical real-time application, both the temporal resolution and the image resolution of video processing are key performances. Instead of the traditional video processing strategy which detects face in the first frame and keep tracking in the following, a frame-by-frame detecting and locating strategy is adopted, which firstly locates face region in a size-reduced image, secondly face region in original image is located by linear mapping calculation, thirdly eye region is located in face region according to the characteristics of a facial geometric model, this model allows personal calibration intuitively in run-time according to different individuals. A novel combination of several practical methods proved effective in computer vision is proposed, including capturing and resizing frames, face and eye localization, adaptive-threshold segmentation, mathematical morphology etc. Experiments show that the proposed system achieves a performance of image resolution of 640×480 pixels, temporal resolution of 53 frames / second, average eye-blink detection accuracy of 96% under various illumination conditions.

  14. Work practice changes caused by the introduction of a picture archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Hilton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    We studied the acceptance of work practice changes six months after the introduction of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) in New South Wales. A one-page questionnaire was developed to assess doctors' and nurses' acceptance of work practice changes. Over 100 subjects were surveyed and 76 responded. In all, 92% of participants worked in the intensive-care unit (ICU) or the emergency department (ED). The results showed that the PACS had received a high level of acceptance. The respondents would not like to return to a film-based practice. They were happy with the accessibility of images, especially when patients returned from an X-ray examination. At the time of survey, the doctors still had difficulty in remembering their user name and password. The users rarely or only sometimes used their own user names and passwords to log on the system. They were sometimes annoyed by the automatic time-out function. Nurses were happy that the PACS relieved their burden of searching for X-ray images for doctors. However, they distanced themselves from accessing the PACS, which they regarded as a doctors' tool. PMID:16375815

  15. The relationship between office system tools and evidence-based care in primary care physician practice.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark A; Pavur, Robert J

    2011-08-01

    A number of office system tools have been developed to improve the rates of preventive services and enhance the quality of medical care in practice settings. New approaches to measuring physician adherence to evidence-based standards of treatment, offer a unique opportunity to examine the link between the use of office system tools and evidence-based practices in primary care. Using episode-based profiling measures of adherence as the criterion, results from this investigation suggest that the application of simple physician reminders can be an effective technique for promoting evidence-based treatment. The data also reveal that the influence of health information technology (HIT) resources on adherence was not exclusively positive. Specifically, adherence to evidence-based standards was higher for primary care practices that employed HIT resources judiciously. In contrast, extensive use of personal digital assistants was negatively associated with adherence. Despite concerns directed towards the new generation of episode-based profiling measures, results from this research indicate that the measures behave similarly to traditional measures of quality. PMID:21840895

  16. Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: Pollination in coffee agroforestry systems

    PubMed Central

    Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-01-01

    Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

  17. Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: pollination in coffee agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-05-21

    Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

  18. Knowledge systems, health care teams, and clinical practice: a study of successful change.

    PubMed

    Olson, Curtis A; Tooman, Tricia R; Alvarado, Carla J

    2010-10-01

    Clinical teams are of growing importance to healthcare delivery, but little is known about how teams learn and change their clinical practice. We examined how teams in three US hospitals succeeded in making significant practice improvements in the area of antimicrobial resistance. This was a qualitative cross-case study employing Soft Knowledge Systems as a conceptual framework. The purpose was to describe how teams produced, obtained, and used knowledge and information to bring about successful change. A purposeful sampling strategy was used to maximize variation between cases. Data were collected through interviews, archival document review, and direct observation. Individual case data were analyzed through a two-phase coding process followed by the cross-case analysis. Project teams varied in size and were multidisciplinary. Each project had more than one champion, only some of whom were physicians. Team members obtained relevant knowledge and information from multiple sources including the scientific literature, experts, external organizations, and their own experience. The success of these projects hinged on the teams' ability to blend scientific evidence, practical knowledge, and clinical data. Practice change was a longitudinal, iterative learning process during which teams continued to acquire, produce, and synthesize relevant knowledge and information and test different strategies until they found a workable solution to their problem. This study adds to our understanding of how teams learn and change, showing that innovation can take the form of an iterative, ongoing process in which bits of K&I are assembled from multiple sources into potential solutions that are then tested. It suggests that existing approaches to assessing the impact of continuing education activities may overlook significant contributions and more attention should be given to the role that practical knowledge plays in the change process in addition to scientific knowledge. PMID

  19. Motivating medical information system performance by system quality, service quality, and job satisfaction for evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background No previous studies have addressed the integrated relationships among system quality, service quality, job satisfaction, and system performance; this study attempts to bridge such a gap with evidence-based practice study. Methods The convenience sampling method was applied to the information system users of three hospitals in southern Taiwan. A total of 500 copies of questionnaires were distributed, and 283 returned copies were valid, suggesting a valid response rate of 56.6%. SPSS 17.0 and AMOS 17.0 (structural equation modeling) statistical software packages were used for data analysis and processing. Results The findings are as follows: System quality has a positive influence on service quality (γ11= 0.55), job satisfaction (γ21= 0.32), and system performance (γ31= 0.47). Service quality (β31= 0.38) and job satisfaction (β32= 0.46) will positively influence system performance. Conclusions It is thus recommended that the information office of hospitals and developers take enhancement of service quality and user satisfaction into consideration in addition to placing b on system quality and information quality when designing, developing, or purchasing an information system, in order to improve benefits and gain more achievements generated by hospital information systems. PMID:23171394

  20. A practical numerical scheme for the ternary Cahn-Hilliard system with a logarithmic free energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Darae; Kim, Junseok

    2016-01-01

    We consider a practically stable finite difference method for the ternary Cahn-Hilliard system with a logarithmic free energy modeling the phase separation of a three-component mixture. The numerical scheme is based on a linear unconditionally gradient stable scheme by Eyre and is solved by an efficient and accurate multigrid method. The logarithmic function has a singularity at zero. To remove the singularity, we regularize the function near zero by using a quadratic polynomial approximation. We perform a convergence test, a linear stability analysis, and a robustness test of the ternary Cahn-Hilliard equation. We observe that our numerical solutions are convergent, consistent with the exact solutions of linear stability analysis, and stable with practically large enough time steps. Using the proposed numerical scheme, we also study the temporal evolution of morphology patterns during phase separation in one-, two-, and three-dimensional spaces.

  1. Phase-remapping attack in practical quantum-key-distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2007-03-15

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) can be used to generate secret keys between two distant parties. Even though QKD has been proven unconditionally secure against eavesdroppers with unlimited computation power, practical implementations of QKD may contain loopholes that may lead to the generated secret keys being compromised. In this paper, we propose a phase-remapping attack targeting two practical bidirectional QKD systems (the 'plug-and-play' system and the Sagnac system). We showed that if the users of the systems are unaware of our attack, the final key shared between them can be compromised in some situations. Specifically, we showed that, in the case of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with ideal single-photon sources, when the quantum bit error rate (QBER) is between 14.6% and 20%, our attack renders the final key insecure, whereas the same range of QBER values has been proved secure if the two users are unaware of our attack; also, we demonstrated three situations with realistic devices where positive key rates are obtained without the consideration of Trojan horse attacks but in fact no key can be distilled. We remark that our attack is feasible with only current technology. Therefore, it is very important to be aware of our attack in order to ensure absolute security. In finding our attack, we minimize the QBER over individual measurements described by a general POVM, which has some similarity with the standard quantum state discrimination problem.

  2. Implementing Effective Mission Systems Engineering Practices During Early Project Formulation Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moton, Tryshanda

    2016-01-01

    Developing and implementing a plan for a NASA space mission can be a complicated process. The needs, goals, and objectives of any proposed mission or technology must be assessed early in the Project Life Cycle. The key to successful development of a space mission or flight project is the inclusion of systems engineering in early project formulation, namely during Pre-phase A, Phase A, and Phase B of the NASA Project Life Cycle. When a space mission or new technology is in pre-development, or "pre-Formulation", feasibility must be determined based on cost, schedule, and risk. Inclusion of system engineering during project formulation is key because in addition to assessing feasibility, design concepts are developed and alternatives to design concepts are evaluated. Lack of systems engineering involvement early in the project formulation can result in increased risks later in the implementation and operations phases of the project. One proven method for effective systems engineering practice during the pre-Formulation Phase is the use of a mission conceptual design or technology development laboratory, such as the Mission Design Lab (MDL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will review the engineering process practiced routinely in the MDL for successful mission or project development during the pre-Formulation Phase.

  3. Future of the US healthcare system and the effects on the practice of hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Pushman, Allison G; Chung, Kevin C

    2009-06-01

    The multitier healthcare system of the USA has several major flaws. High costs and uncertain quality of care indicate that this system is no longer practical. Several improvement initiatives, such as the Oregon Health Plan, Leapfrog, Lean Manufacturing, and Pay-for-Performance have been implemented into the current system. All of these quality improvement models are being experimented in a limited fashion and do not address the biggest problem in the US healthcare, inequality of care. There is now increasing support for a universal health coverage model as an ethically sound and just way to decrease health disparities in the USA. The current quality initiatives as well as an adoption of universal coverage appear to be the best way to improve quality of care, reduce cost, and increase equality in healthcare. These initiatives may have considerable effects on the practice of hand surgery in the near future, and thus, it is important for the field of hand surgery to become more engaged in advocacy and public policy arena. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current problems in the US healthcare system and to evaluate potential solutions that will enhance quality while simultaneously curbing the unchecked increase in healthcare expenditure. PMID:19156466

  4. Final Scientific and Technical Report - Practical Fiber Delivered Laser Ignition Systems for Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Yalin, Azer

    2014-03-30

    Research has characterized advanced kagome fiber optics for their use in laser ignition systems. In comparison to past fibers used in laser ignition, these fibers have the important advantage of being relatively bend-insensitivity, so that they can be bent and coiled without degradation of output energy or beam quality. The results are very promising for practical systems. For pulse durations of ~12 ns, the fibers could deliver >~10 mJ pulses before damage onset. A study of pulse duration showed that by using longer pulse duration (~20 – 30 ns), it is possible to carry even higher pulse energy (by factor of ~2-3) which also provides future opportunities to implement longer duration sources. Beam quality measurements showed nearly single-mode output from the kagome fibers (i.e. M2 close to 1) which is the optimum possible value and, combined with their high pulse energy, shows the suitability of the fibers for laser ignition. Research has also demonstrated laser ignition of an engine including reliable (100%) ignition of a single-cylinder gasoline engine using the laser ignition system with bent and coiled kagome fiber. The COV of IMEP was <2% which is favorable for stable engine operation. These research results, along with the continued reduction in cost of laser sources, support our commercial development of practical laser ignition systems.

  5. Moving science into state child and adolescent mental health systems: Illinois' evidence-informed practice initiative.

    PubMed

    Starin, Amy C; Atkins, Marc S; Wehrmann, Kathryn C; Mehta, Tara; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S; Marinez-Lora, A; Mehlinger, Renee

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the Illinois State Mental Health Authority embarked on an initiative to close the gap between research and practice in the children's mental health system. A stakeholder advisory council developed a plan to advance evidence informed practice through policy and program initiatives. A multilevel approach was developed to achieve this objective, which included policy change, stakeholder education, and clinician training. This article focuses on the evidence-informed training process designed following review of implementation research. The training involved in-person didactic sessions and twice-monthly telephone supervision across 6 cohorts of community based clinicians, each receiving 12 months of training. Training content initially included cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral parent training and was adapted over the years to a practice model based on common element concepts. Evaluation based on provider and parent report indicated children treated by training clinicians generally showed superior outcomes versus both a treatment-as-usual comparison group for Cohorts 1 to 4 and the statewide child population as a whole after 90 days of care for Cohorts 5 to 6. The results indicated primarily moderate to strong effects for the evidence-based training groups. Moving a large public statewide child mental health system toward more effective services is a complex and lengthy process. These results indicate training of community mental health providers in Illinois in evidence-informed practice was moderately successful in positively impacting child-level functional outcomes. These findings also influenced state policy in committing resources to continuing the initiative, even in difficult economic times. PMID:24175571

  6. Physician Professional Satisfaction and Area of Clinical Practice: Evidence from an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Caloyeras, John P; Kanter, Michael; Ives, Nicole; Kim, Chong Y; Kanzaria, Hemal K; Berry, Sandra H; Brook, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Context: For health care reform to succeed, health care systems need a professionally satisfied primary care workforce. Evidence suggests that primary care physicians are less satisfied than those in other medical specialties. Objective: To assess three domains of physician satisfaction by area of clinical practice among physicians practicing in an established integrated health system. Design: Cross-sectional online survey of all Southern California Permanente Medical Group (SCPMG) partner and associate physicians (N = 1034) who were primarily providing clinic-based care in 1 of 4 geographically and operationally distinct Kaiser Permanente Southern California Medical Centers. Main Outcome Measures: Primary measure was satisfaction with one’s day-to-day professional life as a physician. Secondary measures were satisfaction with quality of care and income. Results: Of the 636 physicians responding to the survey (61.5% response rate), on average, 8 in 10 SCPMG physicians reported satisfaction with their day-to-day professional life as a physician. Primary care physicians were only minimally less likely to report being satisfied (difference of 8.2–9.5 percentage points; p < 0.05) than were other physicians. Nearly all physicians (98.2%) were satisfied with the quality of care they are able to provide. Roughly 8 in 10 physicians reported satisfaction with their income. No differences were found between primary care physicians and those in other clinical practice areas regarding satisfaction with quality of care or income. Conclusion: It is possible to create practice settings, such as SCPMG, in which most physicians, including those in primary care, experience high levels of professional satisfaction. PMID:27057819

  7. Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Teacher Evaluation Systems: A Tool to Assist in the Development of Teacher Evaluation Systems. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goe, Laura; Holdheide, Lynn; Miller, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    Across the nation, states and districts are in the process of building better teacher evaluation systems that not only identify highly effective teachers but also systematically provide data and feedback that can be used to improve teacher practice. The "Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Teacher Evaluation Systems" is a tool…

  8. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  9. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practice uses

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Lin, Guanjing; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-11-26

    Energy information systems are the web-based software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building energy data. They often include analysis methods such as baselining, benchmarking, load profiling, and energy anomaly detection. This report documents a large-scale assessment of energy information system (EIS) uses, costs, and energy benefits, based on a series of focused case study investigations that are synthesized into generalizable findings. The overall objective is to provide organizational decision makers with the information they need to make informed choices as to whether or not to invest in an EIS--a promising technology that can enable up to 20 percent site energy savings, quick payback, and persistent low-energy performance when implemented as part of best-practice energy management programs.

  10. Clinical practice guidelines: the warped incentives in the U.S. healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Avraham, Ronen

    2011-01-01

    The healthcare system is sick. The players are incentivized to maximize their own benefit and externalize their costs onto the other parties. This paper examines the warped incentives that underlie the system. The tort system, lacking expertise and slow to adapt, is unable to overcome cognitive biases to adequately solve the problems. Clinical practice guidelines could pose a solution, but not as they are currently developed. Guidelines promulgated by healthcare associations are infected by a web of conflicts of interest with every player in the industry. Government agencies, and their revolving doors, are underfunded and also subject to the industry's web of conflicts. Even if adequate guidelines could consistently be produced, state legislatures and courts have been unwilling and unable to substantially incorporate guidelines into the legal landscape. Lastly, this article proposes a private regulation regime that could be a solution which would align all of the players' incentives to society's interests. PMID:21614994

  11. The 6 "ws" of rapid response systems: best practices for improving development, implementation, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Benishek, Lauren E; Sonesh, Shirley C; Patzer, Brady; Robinson, Patricia; Wallace, Ruth; Salas, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Delays in care have been cited as one of the primary contributors of preventable mortality; thus, quality patient safety is often contingent upon the delivery of timely clinical care. Rapid response systems (RRSs) have been touted as one mechanism to improve the ability of suitable staff to respond to deteriorating patients quickly and appropriately. Rapid response systems are defined as highly skilled individual(s) who mobilize quickly to provide medical care in response to clinical deterioration. While there is mounting evidence that RRSs are a valid strategy for managing obstetric emergencies, reducing adverse events, and improving patient safety, there remains limited insight into the practices underlying the development and execution of these systems. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to synthesize the literature and answer the primary questions necessary for successfully developing, implementing, and evaluating RRSs within inpatient settings-the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How of RRSs. PMID:24595258

  12. Practical Considerations For A Design Of A High Precision 3-D Laser Scanner System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais, Francois; Rioux, Marc; Beraldin, J.-Angelo

    1988-11-01

    The Laboratory for Intelligent Systems of the Division of Electrical Engineering of the National Research Council of Canada is intensively involved in the development of laser-based three-dimensional vision systems and their applications. Two basic systems have been invented. One, based on a double aperture mask in front of a CCD camera, has been developed for robotic applications and control. The other technique is based on an auto-synchronized scanning principle to provide accurate, fast, and reliable 3-D coordinates. Using the latter method, several prototypes have been developed for the acquisition of 3-D data of objects and for inspection. This paper will describe some practical considerations for the design and implementation of triangulation-based 3-D range sensors with emphasis on the latter triangulation technique. Some applications and results will be presented.

  13. Designing Information Systems for Nursing Practice: Data Base and Knowledge Base Requirements of Different Organizational Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Ozbolt, Judy G.

    1985-01-01

    A prequisite to designing computer-aided information systems to support nurse decision making is to identify the kinds of decisions nurses make and to specify the data and the knowledge required to make those decisions. Perrow's (1970) models of organizational technologies, which consider the variability of stimuli and the nature of search procedures for deciding what to do about the stimuli, offer a useful approach to analyzing nurse decision making. Different assumptions about stimuli and search procedures result in different models of nursing, each with its own requirements for a knowledge base and a data base. Professional standards of nursing practice generally assume that clients are unique and therefore treat the stimuli with which nurses deal are highly varied. Existing nursing information systems, however, have been designed as though the stimuli had little variability. Nurses involved in developing the next generation of computer systems will need to identify appropriate models of nursing and to specify the data bases as knowledge bases accordingly.

  14. Practical photoluminescence and photoreflectance spectroscopic system for optical characterization of semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Ching-Hwa; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Lin, Yu-Shyan; Lin, Der-Yuh

    2005-05-01

    We present a practical experimental design for performing photoluminescence (PL) and photoreflectance (PR) measurements of semiconductors with only one PL spectroscopic system. The measurement setup is more cost efficient than typical PL-plus-PR systems. The design of the experimental setup of the PL-PR system is described in detail. Measurements of two actual device structures, a high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) and a double heterojunction-bipolar transistor (DHBT), are carried out by using this design. The experimental PL and PR spectra of the HEMT device, as well as polarized-photoreflectance (PPR) spectra of the DHBT structure, are analyzed in detailed and discussed. The experimental analyses demonstrate the well-behaved performance of this PL-PR design.

  15. Applications of complex systems theory in nursing education, research, and practice.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Thomas R; Effken, Judith A; Pesut, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The clinical and administrative processes in today's healthcare environment are becoming increasingly complex. Multiple providers, new technology, competition, and the growing ubiquity of information all contribute to the notion of health care as a complex system. A complex system (CS) is characterized by a highly connected network of entities (e.g., physical objects, people or groups of people) from which higher order behavior emerges. Research in the transdisciplinary field of CS has focused on the use of computational modeling and simulation as a methodology for analyzing CS behavior. The creation of virtual worlds through computer simulation allows researchers to analyze multiple variables simultaneously and begin to understand behaviors that are common regardless of the discipline. The application of CS principles, mediated through computer simulation, informs nursing practice of the benefits and drawbacks of new procedures, protocols and practices before having to actually implement them. The inclusion of new computational tools and their applications in nursing education is also gaining attention. For example, education in CSs and applied computational applications has been endorsed by The Institute of Medicine, the American Organization of Nurse Executives and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing as essential training of nurse leaders. The purpose of this article is to review current research literature regarding CS science within the context of expert practice and implications for the education of nurse leadership roles. The article focuses on 3 broad areas: CS defined, literature review and exemplars from CS research and applications of CS theory in nursing leadership education. The article also highlights the key role nursing informaticists play in integrating emerging computational tools in the analysis of complex nursing systems. PMID:18922279

  16. Practical optimal flight control system design for helicopter aircraft. Volume 2: Software user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    A method by which modern and classical control theory techniques may be integrated in a synergistic fashion and used in the design of practical flight control systems is presented. A general procedure is developed, and several illustrative examples are included. Emphasis is placed not only on the synthesis of the design, but on the assessment of the results as well. The first step is to establish the differences, distinguishing characteristics and connections between the modern and classical control theory approaches. Ultimately, this uncovers a relationship between bandwidth goals familiar in classical control and cost function weights in the equivalent optimal system. In order to obtain a practical optimal solution, it is also necessary to formulate the problem very carefully, and each choice of state, measurement and output variable must be judiciously considered. Once design goals are established and problem formulation completed, the control system is synthesized in a straightforward manner. Three steps are involved: filter-observer solution, regulator solution, and the combination of those two into the controller. Assessment of the controller permits and examination and expansion of the synthesis results.

  17. Impulsive practical tracking synchronization of networked uncertain Lagrangian systems without and with time-delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Mihua; Zhou, Jin; Cai, Jianping

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a procedure for studying tracking synchronization of networked Lagrangian systems via impulsive control, where each agent is allowed to be nonidentical, even uncertain dynamics. Some algebraic criteria for tracking synchronization without and with time-delays are established respectively. It turns out that these criteria can provide a novel impulsive control strategy to synchronize globally networked Lagrangian systems to a given time-varying target trajectory with a desired tracking error bound (called as practical tracking synchronization). A distinctive feature of the developed control strategy is fully to take into account the effects of impulsive constraints, and thereby to yield impulsive synchronization motion of networked Lagrangian systems, provided that each agent instantaneously interacts with its neighbors only at some discrete moments. As a direct application of the theoretical results, practical tracking synchronization of nonidentical 3-DOF mobile robots without and with time-delays is discussed in detail. Simulation results illustrate and visualize the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control technique.

  18. Indicators for assessing socioeconomic sustainability of bioenergy systems. A short list of practical measures

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Kline, Keith L.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Leiby, Paul Newsome; Oladosu, Gbadebo A.; Davis, Maggie R.; Downing, Mark E.; Hilliard, Michael R.

    2012-10-16

    Indicators are needed to assess both socioeconomic and environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Effective indicators can help to identify and quantify the sustainability attributes of bioenergy options. We identify 16 socioeconomic indicators that fall into the categories of social well-being, energy security, trade, profitability, resource conservation, and social acceptability. The suite of indicators is predicated on the existence of basic institutional frameworks to provide governance, legal, regulatory and enforcement services. Indicators were selected to be practical, sensitive to stresses, unambiguous, anticipatory, predictive, calibrated with known variability, and sufficient when considered collectively. The utility of each indicator, methods for its measurement, and applications appropriate for the context of particular bioenergy systems are described along with future research needs. Together, this suite of indicators is hypothesized to reflect major socioeconomic effects of the full supply chain for bioenergy, including feedstock production and logistics, conversion to biofuels, biofuel logistics and biofuel end uses. Ten of those 16 indicators are proposed to be the minimum list of practical measures of socioeconomic aspects of bioenergy sustainability. Coupled with locally-prioritized environmental indicators, we propose that these socioeconomic indicators can provide a basis to quantify and evaluate sustainability of bioenergy systems across many regions in which they will be deployed.

  19. A new practice-driven approach to develop software in a cyber-physical system environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yiping; Chen, C. L. Philip; Duan, Junwei

    2016-02-01

    Cyber-physical system (CPS) is an emerging area, which cannot work efficiently without proper software handling of the data and business logic. Software and middleware is the soul of the CPS. The software development of CPS is a critical issue because of its complicity in a large scale realistic system. Furthermore, object-oriented approach (OOA) is often used to develop CPS software, which needs some improvements according to the characteristics of CPS. To develop software in a CPS environment, a new systematic approach is proposed in this paper. It comes from practice, and has been evolved from software companies. It consists of (A) Requirement analysis in event-oriented way, (B) architecture design in data-oriented way, (C) detailed design and coding in object-oriented way and (D) testing in event-oriented way. It is a new approach based on OOA; the difference when compared with OOA is that the proposed approach has different emphases and measures in every stage. It is more accord with the characteristics of event-driven CPS. In CPS software development, one should focus on the events more than the functions or objects. A case study of a smart home system is designed to reveal the effectiveness of the approach. It shows that the approach is also easy to be operated in the practice owing to some simplifications. The running result illustrates the validity of this approach.

  20. Passive Faraday-mirror attack in a practical two-way quantum-key-distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2011-06-01

    The Faraday mirror (FM) plays a very important role in maintaining the stability of two-way plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. However, the practical FM is imperfect, which will not only introduce an additional quantum bit error rate (QBER) but also leave a loophole for Eve to spy the secret key. In this paper we propose a passive Faraday mirror attack in two-way QKD system based on the imperfection of FM. Our analysis shows that if the FM is imperfect, the dimension of Hilbert space spanned by the four states sent by Alice is three instead of two. Thus Eve can distinguish these states with a set of Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) operators belonging to three-dimension space, which will reduce the QBER induced by her attack. Furthermore, a relationship between the degree of the imperfection of FM and the transmittance of the practical QKD system is obtained. The results show that the probability that Eve loads her attack successfully depends on the degree of the imperfection of FM rapidly, but the QBER induced by Eve’s attack changes slightly with the degree of the FM imperfection.

  1. Passive Faraday-mirror attack in a practical two-way quantum-key-distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Shihai; Jiang Musheng; Liang Linmei

    2011-06-15

    The Faraday mirror (FM) plays a very important role in maintaining the stability of two-way plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. However, the practical FM is imperfect, which will not only introduce an additional quantum bit error rate (QBER) but also leave a loophole for Eve to spy the secret key. In this paper we propose a passive Faraday mirror attack in two-way QKD system based on the imperfection of FM. Our analysis shows that if the FM is imperfect, the dimension of Hilbert space spanned by the four states sent by Alice is three instead of two. Thus Eve can distinguish these states with a set of Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) operators belonging to three-dimension space, which will reduce the QBER induced by her attack. Furthermore, a relationship between the degree of the imperfection of FM and the transmittance of the practical QKD system is obtained. The results show that the probability that Eve loads her attack successfully depends on the degree of the imperfection of FM rapidly, but the QBER induced by Eve's attack changes slightly with the degree of the FM imperfection.

  2. Comprehensive and Practical Vision System for Self-Driving Vehicle Lane-Level Localization.

    PubMed

    Du, Xinxin; Tan, Kok Kiong

    2016-05-01

    Vehicle lane-level localization is a fundamental technology in autonomous driving. To achieve accurate and consistent performance, a common approach is to use the LIDAR technology. However, it is expensive and computational demanding, and thus not a practical solution in many situations. This paper proposes a stereovision system, which is of low cost, yet also able to achieve high accuracy and consistency. It integrates a new lane line detection algorithm with other lane marking detectors to effectively identify the correct lane line markings. It also fits multiple road models to improve accuracy. An effective stereo 3D reconstruction method is proposed to estimate vehicle localization. The estimation consistency is further guaranteed by a new particle filter framework, which takes vehicle dynamics into account. Experiment results based on image sequences taken under different visual conditions showed that the proposed system can identify the lane line markings with 98.6% accuracy. The maximum estimation error of the vehicle distance to lane lines is 16 cm in daytime and 26 cm at night, and the maximum estimation error of its moving direction with respect to the road tangent is 0.06 rad in daytime and 0.12 rad at night. Due to its high accuracy and consistency, the proposed system can be implemented in autonomous driving vehicles as a practical solution to vehicle lane-level localization. PMID:26992020

  3. Experience of Using Information Systems in Public Health Practice: Findings from a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Vest, Joshua R; Issel, L. Michele; Lee, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Objective Data collection and management by local health departments (LHDs) is a complex endeavor, complicated by system level and organizational factors. The purpose of this study was to describe the processes and use of information systems (IS) utilized for data collection, management, and sharing by LHD employees. Methods We interviewed a purposive sample of 12 staff working in the key public health practice areas of communicable disease control, immunizations, and vital records from three LHDs in different states. Our interview questions addressed job descriptions, daily activities, and the use and perceptions of both data and IS in support of their work. A content analytic approach was used to derive themes and categories common across programmatic areas. Results Local public health involves the use of mix of state-supplied and locally implemented IS supported by paper records. Additionally, each LHD in this study used at least one shadow system to maintain a duplicate set of information. Experiences with IS functionality and the extent to which it supported work varied by programmatic area, but inefficiencies, challenges in generating reports, limited data accessibility, and workarounds were commonly reported. Conclusions Current approaches to data management and sharing do not always support efficient public health practice or allow data to be used for organizational and community decision making. Many of the challenges to effective and efficient public health work were not solely technological. These findings suggest the need for interorganizational collaboration, increasing organizational capacity, workflow redesign, and end user training. PMID:24678380

  4. Neuropathic pain: an updated grading system for research and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Finnerup, Nanna B; Haroutounian, Simon; Kamerman, Peter; Baron, Ralf; Bennett, David L H; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Freeman, Roy; Hansson, Per; Nurmikko, Turo; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rice, Andrew S C; Serra, Jordi; Smith, Blair H; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Jensen, Troels S

    2016-08-01

    The redefinition of neuropathic pain as "pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system," which was suggested by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Special Interest Group on Neuropathic Pain (NeuPSIG) in 2008, has been widely accepted. In contrast, the proposed grading system of possible, probable, and definite neuropathic pain from 2008 has been used to a lesser extent. Here, we report a citation analysis of the original NeuPSIG grading paper of 2008, followed by an analysis of its use by an expert panel and recommendations for an improved grading system. As of February, 2015, 608 eligible articles in Scopus cited the paper, 414 of which cited the neuropathic pain definition. Of 220 clinical studies citing the paper, 56 had used the grading system. The percentage using the grading system increased from 5% in 2009 to 30% in 2014. Obstacles to a wider use of the grading system were identified, including (1) questions about the relative significance of confirmatory tests, (2) the role of screening tools, and (3) uncertainties about what is considered a neuroanatomically plausible pain distribution. Here, we present a revised grading system with an adjusted order, better reflecting clinical practice, improvements in the specifications, and a word of caution that even the "definite" level of neuropathic pain does not always indicate causality. In addition, we add a table illustrating the area of pain and sensory abnormalities in common neuropathic pain conditions and propose areas for further research. PMID:27115670

  5. Paying for prevention in clinical practice: Aligning provider remuneration with system objectives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the efficacy of preventive procedures in oral health care has not been matched by uptake of prevention in clinical practice. Reducing oral disease in the population reduces the size of the future market for treatment. Hence a provider's intention to adopt prevention in clinical practice may be offset by the financial implications of such behaviour. Effective prevention may therefore depend upon prevention-friendly methods of remuneration if providers are to be rewarded appropriately for doing what the system expects them to do. This paper considers whether changing the way providers are paid for delivering care can be expected to change the utilisation of preventive care in the population in terms of the proportion of the population receiving preventive care, the distribution of preventive care in the population and the pattern of preventive care received. A conceptual framework is presented that identifies the determinants of rewards under different approaches to provider remuneration. The framework is applied to develop recommendations for paying for prevention in clinical practice. Literature on provider payment in dental care is reviewed to assess the evidence base for the effects of changing payment methods, identify gaps in the evidence-base and inform the design of future research on dental remuneration. PMID:26390928

  6. The Clinical Health Economics System Simulation (CHESS): a teaching tool for systems- and practice-based learning.

    PubMed

    Voss, John D; Nadkarni, Mohan M; Schectman, Joel M

    2005-02-01

    Academic medical centers face barriers to training physicians in systems- and practice-based learning competencies needed to function in the changing health care environment. To address these problems, at the University of Virginia School of Medicine the authors developed the Clinical Health Economics System Simulation (CHESS), a computerized team-based quasi-competitive simulator to teach the principles and practical application of health economics. CHESS simulates treatment costs to patients and society as well as physician reimbursement. It is scenario based with residents grouped into three teams, each team playing CHESS using differing (fee-for-service or capitated) reimbursement models. Teams view scenarios and select from two or three treatment options that are medically justifiable yet have different potential cost implications. CHESS displays physician reimbursement and patient and societal costs for each scenario as well as costs and income summarized across all scenarios extrapolated to a physician's entire patient panel. The learners are asked to explain these findings and may change treatment options and other variables such as panel size and case mix to conduct sensitivity analyses in real time. Evaluations completed in 2003 by 68 (94%) CHESS resident and faculty participants at 19 U.S. residency programs preferred CHESS to a traditional lecture-and-discussion format to learn about medical decision making, physician reimbursement, patient costs, and societal costs. Ninety-eight percent reported increased knowledge of health economics after viewing the simulation. CHESS demonstrates the potential of computer simulation to teach health economics and other key elements of practice- and systems-based competencies. PMID:15671315

  7. How secure is your information system? An investigation into actual healthcare worker password practices.

    PubMed

    Cazier, Joseph A; Medlin, B Dawn

    2006-01-01

    For most healthcare information systems, passwords are the first line of defense in keeping patient and administrative records private and secure. However, this defense is only as strong as the passwords employees chose to use. A weak or easily guessed password is like an open door to the medical records room, allowing unauthorized access to sensitive information. In this paper, we present the results of a study of actual healthcare workers' password practices. In general, the vast majority of these passwords have significant security problems on several dimensions. Implications for healthcare professionals are discussed. PMID:18066366

  8. How Secure Is Your Information System? An Investigation into Actual Healthcare Worker Password Practices

    PubMed Central

    Cazier, Joseph A; Medlin, B. Dawn

    2006-01-01

    For most healthcare information systems, passwords are the first line of defense in keeping patient and administrative records private and secure. However, this defense is only as strong as the passwords employees chose to use. A weak or easily guessed password is like an open door to the medical records room, allowing unauthorized access to sensitive information. In this paper, we present the results of a study of actual healthcare workers' password practices. In general, the vast majority of these passwords have significant security problems on several dimensions. Implications for healthcare professionals are discussed. PMID:18066366

  9. Practical Aerobic Oxidations of Alcohols and Amines with Homogeneous Cu/TEMPO and Related Catalyst Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ryland, Bradford L.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and amine oxidations are common reactions in laboratory and industrial synthesis of organic molecules. Aerobic oxidation methods have long been sought for these transformations, but few practical methods exist that offer advantages over traditional oxidation methods. Recently developed homogeneous Cu/TEMPO (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-N-oxyl) and related catalyst systems appear to fill this void. The reactions exhibit high levels of chemoselectivity and broad functional-group tolerance, and they often operate efficiently at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. These advances, together with their historical context and recent applications, are highlighted in this minireview. PMID:25044821

  10. Spontaneous Raman Scattering Diagnostics: Applications in Practical Combustion Systems. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Viet-Nguyen, Quang; Lackner, Maximilian (Editor); Winter, Franz (Editor); Agarwal, Avinash (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the recent advancements and practical aspects of laser SRS diagnostics have been reviewed wi til regards to applications in practical combustion systems. Clearly, SRS represents a theoretically and experimentally mature diagnostic technology that has become an essential tool for multiscalar measurements in turbulent combustion at elevated pressures. Today, time-, space-, spectrally, and even polarization-resolved S RS diagnostics is at hand, with aid from recent innovations in theoretical and technological developments on electro-optical or electromechanical devices. Whilst a linear increase in SRS signals can be expected in high-pressure systems (this is perhaps one of the most important advantages for using SRS in high-pressure systems), there are practical (often severe) restrictions associated with pressurized vessels, due mainly to the limited degree of optical access. This narrows ti,e available choice of diagnostics that can be employed at any given time. Point-wise SRS diagnostics provides the highest accuracy on the chemical species and temperature measurements, and will continue to remain a vital approach for the study in such harsh environments. The practical design considerations and hands-on set-up guide for SRS diagnostics provided in this chapter are rarely presented elsewhere. Although the second-harmonic Nd:YAG pulsed laser (532 nm), combined with pulse-stretching optics or the recently introduced White Cell-based laser, seems to be the most favored excitation source of choice by the research community, UV excitation will undoubtedly continue to be used on many occasions, and especially in sooting flames. Detection methods may be divided into ICCD-based nanosecond-gate detection or a rotary-chopper electromechanical shutter-based CCD array detection, and the levels of background flame emission in individual cases would determine this critical design choice. Here, a process of Raman signal calibration based on ti,e crosstalk matrix

  11. Practical hyperdynamics method for systems with large changes in potential energy.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hirotoshi

    2014-12-21

    A practical hyperdynamics method is proposed to accelerate systems with highly endothermic and exothermic reactions such as hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation reactions. In this method, referred to as the "adaptive hyperdynamics (AHD) method," the bias potential parameters are adaptively updated according to the change in potential energy. The approach is intensively examined for JP-10 (exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene) pyrolysis simulations using the ReaxFF reactive force field. Valid boost parameter ranges are clarified as a result. It is shown that AHD can be used to model pyrolysis at temperatures as low as 1000 K while achieving a boost factor of around 10(5). PMID:25527921

  12. Practical hyperdynamics method for systems with large changes in potential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hirotoshi

    2014-12-01

    A practical hyperdynamics method is proposed to accelerate systems with highly endothermic and exothermic reactions such as hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation reactions. In this method, referred to as the "adaptive hyperdynamics (AHD) method," the bias potential parameters are adaptively updated according to the change in potential energy. The approach is intensively examined for JP-10 (exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene) pyrolysis simulations using the ReaxFF reactive force field. Valid boost parameter ranges are clarified as a result. It is shown that AHD can be used to model pyrolysis at temperatures as low as 1000 K while achieving a boost factor of around 105.

  13. System-specific spare rail vehicle ratios: A synthesis of transit practice. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    This synthesis addresses the system-specific variables that directly impact fleet size, and the spare ratios that are maintained by individual transit agencies. From the information obtained, it appears that most rail transit agencies closely monitor the spare vehicles they maintain to maximize efficiency and thereby reduce operating costs. This report of the Transportation Research Board describes operating environments at 21 selected rail transit agencies of various sizes in key geographical locations in North America. It contains survey information about operating practices, impediments, and strategies used to appropriately size fleets within each agency`s operating context.

  14. Instructional Systems of Practice: A Multidimensional Analysis of Math and Science Undergraduate Course Planning and Classroom Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hora, Matthew Tadashi; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    Descriptions of faculty practice that illuminate nuances of how course planning and classroom instruction occur in specific contexts are important to inform pedagogical interventions. The study reported in this article draws on systems-of-practice theory to focus on the dynamic interplay among actors, artifacts, and tasks that constrains…

  15. Systemic mistakes in hand hygiene practice in Ukraine: detection, consequences and ways of elimination

    PubMed Central

    Klymenko, Iryna; Kampf, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine. Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers. Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare workers in teaching and training

  16. An information-theoretic approach to assess practical identifiability of parametric dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Pant, Sanjay; Lombardi, Damiano

    2015-10-01

    A new approach for assessing parameter identifiability of dynamical systems in a Bayesian setting is presented. The concept of Shannon entropy is employed to measure the inherent uncertainty in the parameters. The expected reduction in this uncertainty is seen as the amount of information one expects to gain about the parameters due to the availability of noisy measurements of the dynamical system. Such expected information gain is interpreted in terms of the variance of a hypothetical measurement device that can measure the parameters directly, and is related to practical identifiability of the parameters. If the individual parameters are unidentifiable, correlation between parameter combinations is assessed through conditional mutual information to determine which sets of parameters can be identified together. The information theoretic quantities of entropy and information are evaluated numerically through a combination of Monte Carlo and k-nearest neighbour methods in a non-parametric fashion. Unlike many methods to evaluate identifiability proposed in the literature, the proposed approach takes the measurement-noise into account and is not restricted to any particular noise-structure. Whilst computationally intensive for large dynamical systems, it is easily parallelisable and is non-intrusive as it does not necessitate re-writing of the numerical solvers of the dynamical system. The application of such an approach is presented for a variety of dynamical systems--ranging from systems governed by ordinary differential equations to partial differential equations--and, where possible, validated against results previously published in the literature. PMID:26292167

  17. A practical distributed Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor system based on STM32 processor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinjun; Cheng, Yongxin; Wang, Guangyu; Zhang, Yanjun

    2015-10-01

    A practical distributed FBG temperature sensor system based on STM32 processor platform is presented in this paper and this FBG sensing system can realize single-channel and multi-point temperature measurement. Because the measured area has been divided into several parts, every part has several fiber Bragg gratings with the same wavelength. There is no need to get the temperature of each point, just get the temperature field information of the parts. In other words, if the temperature of points is varied, the largest varied temperature of the points in one part can be obtained as the temperature of this part. So in the system only use one light source, but more FBGs can be implanted in a fiber, which can effectively reduce costs and complexity. In signal processing system, the FFP-TF control circuit cans precise control without distortion of FFP-TF; high precision photoelectric detection circuit can achieve nW level optical power detection; wavelength demodulation algorithm can achieve system synchronization. The PC monitoring software based on VC++ is used to display the monitoring interface. The experiment results indicated that temperature precision is 1°C and the linearity is over 99.6%. All experiments can be reproducible. It has been seen in experiments that the system has the characteristics of the high measured stable, good reliability, low cost and can meet the needs of the engineering measurements.

  18. Improving an electronic system for measuring PROs in routine oncology practice

    PubMed Central

    White, Sharon M.; Blackford, Amanda L.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Carducci, Michael A.; Herman, Joseph M.; Snyder, Claire F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to study how patients and their clinicians evaluated the usability of PatientViewpoint, a webtool designed to allow patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures to be used in clinical practice. Methods As part of a two-round quality improvement study, breast and prostate cancer patients and their medical and radiation oncology clinicians completed semi-structured interviews about their use of PatientViewpoint. The patient interview addressed different phases of the PRO completion workflow: reminders, completing the survey, and viewing the results. The clinician interviews asked about use of PatientViewpoint, integration with the clinical workflow, barriers to use, and helpful and desired features. Responses were recorded, categorized, and reviewed. After both rounds of interviews, modifications were made to PatientViewpoint. Results Across the two rounds, 42 unique patients (n=19 in round 1, n=23 in round 2) and 12 clinicians (all in both rounds) completed interviews. For patients, median age was 65, 81% were white, 69% were college graduates, 80% had performance status of 0, 69% had loco-regional disease, and 81% were regular computer users. In the quality improvement interviews, patients identified numerous strengths of the system, including its ability to flag issues for discussion with their provider. Comments included confusion about how scores were presented and that the value of the system was diminished if the doctor did not look at the results. Requests included tailoring questions to be applicable to the individual and providing more explanation about the score meaning, including having higher scores consistently indicating either better or worse status. Clinicians also provided primarily positive feedback about the system, finding it helpful in some cases, and confirmatory in others. Their primary concern was with impact on their workflow. Conclusions Systematically collected feedback from patients and clinicians was useful to identify

  19. Controlling practical stability and safety of mechanical systems by exploiting chaos properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenci, Stefano; Orlando, Diego; Rega, Giuseppe; Gonçalves, Paulo B.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a method for controlling the global nonlinear dynamics of mechanical systems is applied to two models: the model of Augusti and an inverted guyed pendulum. These simplified models represent a large class of structures liable to buckling exhibiting interacting buckling phenomena. These structures may fail at load levels well below the theoretical buckling load due to complex nonlinear phenomena that decrease the safety and the dynamic integrity of the structure; this often occur as a consequence of imperfections and of the erosion of the basins of attraction of the safe pre-buckling solutions. So, it is of paramount practical importance to increase the safety of these structures in a dynamic environment. This can be achieved by increasing the integrity of the basins of attraction of the safe solutions, a goal that is attained by a control method which consists of the (optimal) elimination of homoclinic (or heteroclinic) intersection by properly adding superharmonic terms to a given harmonic excitation. By means of the solution of an appropriate optimization problem, it is possible to select the amplitudes and the phases of the added superharmonics in such a way that the manifolds distance is as large as possible. The results show that this methodology increases the integrity of the basins of attraction of the system and, consequently, the practical safety of the structure.

  20. The Reliability of a Novel Automated System for ANA Immunofluorescence Analysis in Daily Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Alsuwaidi, Mohammed; Dollinger, Margit; Fleck, Martin; Ehrenstein, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Automated interpretation (AI) systems for antinuclear antibody (ANA) analysis have been introduced based on assessment of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) patterns. The diagnostic performance of a novel automated IIF reading system was compared with visual interpretation (VI) of IIF in daily clinical practice to evaluate the reduction of workload. ANA-IIF tests of consecutive serum samples from patients with suspected connective tissue disease were carried out using HEp-2 cells according to routine clinical care. AI was performed using a visual analyser (Zenit G-Sight, Menarini, Germany). Agreement rates between ANA results by AI and VI were calculated. Of the 336 samples investigated, VI yielded 205 (61%) negative, 42 (13%) ambiguous, and 89 (26%) positive results, whereas 82 (24%) were determined to be negative, 176 (52%) ambiguous, and 78 (24%) positive by AI. AI displayed a diagnostic accuracy of 175/336 samples (52%) with a kappa coefficient of 0.34 compared to VI being the gold standard. Solely relying on AI, with VI only performed for all ambiguous samples by AI, would have missed 1 of 89 (1%) positive results by VI and misclassified 2 of 205 (1%) negative results by VI as positive. The use of AI in daily clinical practice resulted only in a moderate reduction of the VI workload (82 of 336 samples: 24%). PMID:27247573

  1. Correlation channel modeling for practical Slepian-Wolf distributed video compression system using irregular LDPC codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Hu, Xiao; Zeng, Rui

    2007-11-01

    The development of practical distributed video coding schemes is based on the consequence of information-theoretic bounds established in the 1970s by Slepian and Wolf for distributed lossless coding, and by Wyner and Ziv for lossy coding with decoder side information. In distributed video compression application, it is hard to accurately describe the non-stationary behavior of the virtual correlation channel between X and side information Y although it plays a very important role in overall system performance. In this paper, we implement a practical Slepian-Wolf asymmetric distributed video compression system using irregular LDPC codes. Moreover, based on exploiting the dependencies of previously decode bit planes from video frame X and side information Y, we present improvement schemes to divide different reliable regions. Our simulation results show improving schemes of exploiting the dependencies between previously decoded bit planes can get better overall encoding rate performance as BER approach zero. We also show, compared with BSC model, BC channel model is more suitable for distributed video compression scenario because of the non-stationary properties of the virtual correlation channel and adaptive detecting channel model parameters from previously adjacent decoded bit planes can provide more accurately initial belief messages from channel at LDPC decoder.

  2. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: exploring dual practice and its management in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many full-time Ugandan government health providers take on additional jobs – a phenomenon called dual practice. We describe the complex patterns that characterize the evolution of dual practice in Uganda, and the local management practices that emerged in response, in five government facilities. An in-depth understanding of dual practice can contribute to policy discussions on improving public sector performance. Methods A multiple case study design with embedded units of analysis was supplemented by interviews with policy stakeholders and a review of historical and policy documents. Five facility case studies captured the perspective of doctors, nurses, and health managers through semi-structured in-depth interviews. A causal loop diagram illustrated interactions and feedback between old and new actors, as well as emerging roles and relationships. Results The causal loop diagram illustrated how feedback related to dual practice policy developed in Uganda. As opportunities for dual practice grew and the public health system declined over time, government providers increasingly coped through dual practice. Over time, government restrictions to dual practice triggered policy resistance and protest from government providers. Resulting feedback contributed to compromising the supply of government providers and, potentially, of service delivery outcomes. Informal government policies and restrictions replaced the formal restrictions identified in the early phases. In some instances, government health managers, particularly those in hospitals, developed their own practices to cope with dual practice and to maintain public sector performance. Management practices varied according to the health manager’s attitude towards dual practice and personal experience with dual practice. These practices were distinct in hospitals. Hospitals faced challenges managing internal dual practice opportunities, such as those created by externally-funded research projects based

  3. New Approach to a Practical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor Utilizing an Inkjet Printing System

    PubMed Central

    Fuchiwaki, Yusuke; Tanaka, Masato; Makita, Yoji; Ooie, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    The present work demonstrates a valuable approach to developing quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor units inexpensively for reliable determination of analytes. This QCM sensor unit is constructed by inkjet printing equipment utilizing background noise removal techniques. Inkjet printing equipment was chosen as an alternative to an injection pump in conventional flow-mode systems to facilitate the commercial applicability of these practical devices. The results demonstrate minimization of fluctuations from external influences, determination of antigen-antibody interactions in an inkjet deposition, and quantification of C-reactive protein in the range of 50–1000 ng(x000B7)mL−1. We thus demonstrate a marketable application of an inexpensive and easily available QCM sensor system. PMID:25360577

  4. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  5. Highly practical copper(I)/TEMPO catalyst system for chemoselective aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Stahl, Shannon S

    2011-10-26

    Aerobic oxidation reactions have been the focus of considerable attention, but their use in mainstream organic chemistry has been constrained by limitations in their synthetic scope and by practical factors, such as the use of pure O(2) as the oxidant or complex catalyst synthesis. Here, we report a new (bpy)Cu(I)/TEMPO catalyst system that enables efficient and selective aerobic oxidation of a broad range of primary alcohols, including allylic, benzylic, and aliphatic derivatives, to the corresponding aldehydes using readily available reagents, at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. The catalyst system is compatible with a wide range of functional groups and the high selectivity for 1° alcohols enables selective oxidation of diols that lack protecting groups. PMID:21861488

  6. An architectural approach to create self organizing control systems for practical autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, Helen

    1991-01-01

    For practical industrial applications, the development of trainable robots is an important and immediate objective. Therefore, the developing of flexible intelligence directly applicable to training is emphasized. It is generally agreed upon by the AI community that the fusion of expert systems, neural networks, and conventionally programmed modules (e.g., a trajectory generator) is promising in the quest for autonomous robotic intelligence. Autonomous robot development is hindered by integration and architectural problems. Some obstacles towards the construction of more general robot control systems are as follows: (1) Growth problem; (2) Software generation; (3) Interaction with environment; (4) Reliability; and (5) Resource limitation. Neural networks can be successfully applied to some of these problems. However, current implementations of neural networks are hampered by the resource limitation problem and must be trained extensively to produce computationally accurate output. A generalization of conventional neural nets is proposed, and an architecture is offered in an attempt to address the above problems.

  7. Foundational ethics of the health care system: the moral and practical superiority of free market reforms.

    PubMed

    Sade, Robert M

    2008-10-01

    Proposed solutions to the problems of this country's health care system range along a spectrum from central planning to free market. Central planners and free market advocates provide various ethical justifications for the policies they propose. The crucial flaw in the philosophical rationale of central planning is failure to distinguish between normative and metanormative principles, which leads to mistaken understanding of the nature of rights. Natural rights, based on the principle of noninterference, provide the link between individual morality and social order. Free markets, the practical expression of natural rights, are uniquely capable of achieving the goals that central planners seek but find beyond their grasp. The history of this country's health care system and the experiences of other nations provide evidence of the superiority of free markets in reaching for the goals of universal access, control of costs, and sustaining the quality of health care. PMID:18840853

  8. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  9. A practical implementation of free viewpoint video system for soccer games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suenaga, Ryo; Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Tezuka, Tomoyuki; Panahpour Tehrani, Mehrdad; Takahashi, Keita; Fujii, Toshiaki

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a free viewpoint video generation system with billboard representation for soccer games. Free viewpoint video generation is a technology that enables users to watch 3-D objects from their desired viewpoints. Practical implementation of free viewpoint video for sports events is highly demanded. However, a commercially acceptable system has not yet been developed. The main obstacles are insufficient user-end quality of the synthesized images and highly complex procedures that sometimes require manual operations. In this work, we aim to develop a commercially acceptable free viewpoint video system with a billboard representation. A supposed scenario is that soccer games during the day can be broadcasted in 3-D, even in the evening of the same day. Our work is still ongoing. However, we have already developed several techniques to support our goal. First, we captured an actual soccer game at an official stadium where we used 20 full-HD professional cameras. Second, we have implemented several tools for free viewpoint video generation as follow. In order to facilitate free viewpoint video generation, all cameras should be calibrated. We calibrated all cameras using checker board images and feature points on the field (cross points of the soccer field lines). We extract each player region from captured images manually. The background region is estimated by observing chrominance changes of each pixel in temporal domain (automatically). Additionally, we have developed a user interface for visualizing free viewpoint video generation using a graphic library (OpenGL), which is suitable for not only commercialized TV sets but also devices such as smartphones. However, practical system has not yet been completed and our study is still ongoing.

  10. Concepts and practices used to develop functional PLGA-based nanoparticulate systems

    PubMed Central

    Sah, Hongkee; Thoma, Laura A; Desu, Hari R; Sah, Edel; Wood, George C

    2013-01-01

    The functionality of bare polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles is limited to drug depot or drug solubilization in their hard cores. They have inherent weaknesses as a drug-delivery system. For instance, when administered intravenously, the nanoparticles undergo rapid clearance from systemic circulation before reaching the site of action. Furthermore, plain PLGA nanoparticles cannot distinguish between different cell types. Recent research shows that surface functionalization of nanoparticles and development of new nanoparticulate dosage forms help overcome these delivery challenges and improve in vivo performance. Immense research efforts have propelled the development of diverse functional PLGA-based nanoparticulate delivery systems. Representative examples include PEGylated micelles/nanoparticles (PEG, polyethylene glycol), polyplexes, polymersomes, core-shell–type lipid-PLGA hybrids, cell-PLGA hybrids, receptor-specific ligand-PLGA conjugates, and theranostics. Each PLGA-based nanoparticulate dosage form has specific features that distinguish it from other nanoparticulate systems. This review focuses on fundamental concepts and practices that are used in the development of various functional nanoparticulate dosage forms. We describe how the attributes of these functional nanoparticulate forms might contribute to achievement of desired therapeutic effects that are not attainable using conventional therapies. Functional PLGA-based nanoparticulate systems are expected to deliver chemotherapeutic, diagnostic, and imaging agents in a highly selective and effective manner. PMID:23459088

  11. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice

    PubMed Central

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  12. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice.

    PubMed

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  13. Aspects of Synthetic Vision Display Systems and the Best Practices of the NASA's SVS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Glaab, Louis J.; Harrah, Steven D.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project conducted research aimed at eliminating visibility-induced errors and low visibility conditions as causal factors in civil aircraft accidents while enabling the operational benefits of clear day flight operations regardless of actual outside visibility. SVS takes advantage of many enabling technologies to achieve this capability including, for example, the Global Positioning System (GPS), data links, radar, imaging sensors, geospatial databases, advanced display media and three dimensional video graphics processors. Integration of these technologies to achieve the SVS concept provides pilots with high-integrity information that improves situational awareness with respect to terrain, obstacles, traffic, and flight path. This paper attempts to emphasize the system aspects of SVS - true systems, rather than just terrain on a flight display - and to document from an historical viewpoint many of the best practices that evolved during the SVS Project from the perspective of some of the NASA researchers most heavily involved in its execution. The Integrated SVS Concepts are envisagements of what production-grade Synthetic Vision systems might, or perhaps should, be in order to provide the desired functional capabilities that eliminate low visibility as a causal factor to accidents and enable clear-day operational benefits regardless of visibility conditions.

  14. Decision support systems for clinical radiological practice — towards the next generation

    PubMed Central

    Stivaros, S M; Gledson, A; Nenadic, G; Zeng, X-J; Keane, J; Jackson, A

    2010-01-01

    The huge amount of information that needs to be assimilated in order to keep pace with the continued advances in modern medical practice can form an insurmountable obstacle to the individual clinician. Within radiology, the recent development of quantitative imaging techniques, such as perfusion imaging, and the development of imaging-based biomarkers in modern therapeutic assessment has highlighted the need for computer systems to provide the radiological community with support for academic as well as clinical/translational applications. This article provides an overview of the underlying design and functionality of radiological decision support systems with examples tracing the development and evolution of such systems over the past 40 years. More importantly, we discuss the specific design, performance and usage characteristics that previous systems have highlighted as being necessary for clinical uptake and routine use. Additionally, we have identified particular failings in our current methodologies for data dissemination within the medical domain that must be overcome if the next generation of decision support systems is to be implemented successfully. PMID:20965900

  15. Evaluation of pig production practices, constraints and opportunities for improvement in smallholder production systems in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mbuthia, Jackson Mwenda; Rewe, Thomas Odiwuor; Kahi, Alexander Kigunzu

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated pig production practices by smallholder farmers in two distinct production systems geared towards addressing their constraints and prospects for improvement. The production systems evaluated were semi-intensive and extensive and differed in remoteness, market access, resource availability and pig production intensity. Data were collected using structured questionnaires where a total of 102 pig farmers were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed to define the socioeconomic characteristics of the production systems, understanding the different roles that pigs play, marketing systems and constraints to production. In both systems, regular cash income and insurance against emergencies were ranked as the main reasons for rearing pigs. Marketing of pigs was mainly driven by the type of production operation. Finances, feeds and housing were identified as the major constraints to production. The study provides important parameters and identifies constraints important for consideration in design of sustainable production improvement strategies. Feeding challenges can be improved through understanding the composition and proper utilization of local feed resources. Provision of adequate housing would improve the stocking rates and control mating. PMID:25448534

  16. Evidence-based use of electronic clinical tracking systems in advanced practice registered nurse education: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Branstetter, M Laurie; Smith, Lynette S; Brooks, Andrea F

    2014-07-01

    Over the past decade, the federal government has mandated healthcare providers to incorporate electronic health records into practice by 2015. This technological update in healthcare documentation has generated a need for advanced practice RN programs to incorporate information technology into education. The National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties created core competencies to guide program standards for advanced practice RN education. One core competency is Technology and Information Literacy. Educational programs are moving toward the utilization of electronic clinical tracking systems to capture students' clinical encounter data. The purpose of this integrative review was to evaluate current research on advanced practice RN students' documentation of clinical encounters utilizing electronic clinical tracking systems to meet advanced practice RN curriculum outcome goals in information technology as defined by the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties. The state of the science depicts student' and faculty attitudes, preferences, opinions, and data collections of students' clinical encounters. Although electronic clinical tracking systems were utilized to track students' clinical encounters, these systems have not been evaluated for meeting information technology core competency standards. Educational programs are utilizing electronic clinical tracking systems with limited evidence-based literature evaluating the ability of these systems to meet the core competencies in advanced practice RN programs. PMID:24814999

  17. Design and Practice on Metadata Service System of Surveying and Mapping Results Based on Geonetwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Z.; Zhou, X.

    2011-08-01

    Based on the analysis and research on the current geographic information sharing and metadata service,we design, develop and deploy a distributed metadata service system based on GeoNetwork covering more than 30 nodes in provincial units of China.. By identifying the advantages of GeoNetwork, we design a distributed metadata service system of national surveying and mapping results. It consists of 31 network nodes, a central node and a portal. Network nodes are the direct system metadata source, and are distributed arround the country. Each network node maintains a metadata service system, responsible for metadata uploading and management. The central node harvests metadata from network nodes using OGC CSW 2.0.2 standard interface. The portal shows all metadata in the central node, provides users with a variety of methods and interface for metadata search or querying. It also provides management capabilities on connecting the central node and the network nodes together. There are defects with GeoNetwork too. Accordingly, we made improvement and optimization on big-amount metadata uploading, synchronization and concurrent access. For metadata uploading and synchronization, by carefully analysis the database and index operation logs, we successfully avoid the performance bottlenecks. And with a batch operation and dynamic memory management solution, data throughput and system performance are significantly improved; For concurrent access, , through a request coding and results cache solution, query performance is greatly improved. To smoothly respond to huge concurrent requests, a web cluster solution is deployed. This paper also gives an experiment analysis and compares the system performance before and after improvement and optimization. Design and practical results have been applied in national metadata service system of surveying and mapping results. It proved that the improved GeoNetwork service architecture can effectively adaptive for distributed deployment

  18. A policy of introducing a new contract and funding system of general practice in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Lember, Margus

    2002-01-01

    The socialist bloc of post-war Europe was obliged to follow the Soviet example with a hierarchical, centrally controlled health care system based on polyclinics and other facilities providing extensive specialist services at the first level of contact. All the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have now expressed their wish to totally change their health care systems. Changes in these countries include: the introduction of market economy mechanisms in health care, an increased focus on population health needs in guiding health care systems, and the possibility of introducing a more general type of care at primary level. Patient expectations of access, choice and convenience are factors in shaping new models of health care delivery. Appropriate timing is the key determinant of the success of reforms. In Estonia the beginning of the 1990s was the time when several interest groups in society supported changes in the health care system. The first step after regaining independence was the reintroduction of a Bismarck-type insurance system. In the late 1990s the primary care reforms have changed the initial plans and elements of a National Health Service were introduced, especially general practitioners' lists, capitation payment and gate-keeping principles. The family medicine reform in Estonia has two main objectives: introduction of general practice as a specialty into Estonian health care and changing the remuneration system of primary care doctors. The specific tasks are: to provide practising primary care doctors with opportunities for retraining to gain the specialty status of a general practitioner, to create a list system for the population to register with a primary care doctor, to introduce a partial gate-keeping system and to give the status of the independent contractor to primary care doctors. PMID:11963443

  19. Worms in smallholder livestock systems: technologies and practices that make a difference.

    PubMed

    Gray, G D; Connell, J G; Phimphachanhvongsod, V

    2012-05-01

    Australian scientists, in partnership with Asian, African and Pacific nations have longstanding interests in applied research on helminth parasite control. Many technologies and practices have been successfully developed to control the parasite problems of smallholder and emerging farmers. This wide range extends from simple herbal remedies to complex, integrated use of chemicals, feeding and breeding. In many cases widespread adoption has been limited by lack of technical support, poor access to input markets and lack of incentives for poorer farmers to seek out and pay for innovations. A further new approach may be required that encompasses the wider production and market environment. The biological, social and economic context of each 'emerging farming system' is different and the matching of technologies to each system requires sound understanding of farmer needs and requirements. Thus, it is essential that farmers, extension workers, and scientists jointly decide what technologies to try, what results mean and, if successful, how to sustain their use. In one Asian example a range of technologies were considered for pig, large ruminant and goat production and parasite control through a participatory process which was also used to agree on what determines sustainability beyond testing. The criteria use to screen technologies and practices were (a) continued availability of inputs including dewormers, (b) dependence on related innovations (e.g. weaning or fencing) and (c) degree of community organisation required (e.g. control of breeding or communal grazing). On this basis deworming with chemicals, especially for Toxacara infection in cattle and buffalo calves following on from supplementary feeding with forages were the most feasible entry points. Further interventions were dependent on changes to the production system, including the introduction of weaning and controlled breeding. Further, the incentives for these production changes could not exist without

  20. Managing soil microbial communities in grain production systems through cropping practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vadakattu

    2013-04-01

    Cropping practices can significantly influence the composition and activity of soil microbial communities with consequences to plant growth and production. Plant type can affect functional capacity of different groups of biota in the soil surrounding their roots, rhizosphere, influencing plant nutrition, beneficial symbioses, pests and diseases and overall plant health and crop production. The interaction between different players in the rhizosphere is due to the plethora of carbon and nutritional compounds, root-specific chemical signals and growth regulators that originate from the plant and are modulated by the physico-chemical properties of soils. A number of plant and environmental factors and management practices can influence the quantity and quality of rhizodeposition and in turn affect the composition of rhizosphere biota communities, microbe-fauna interactions and biological processes. Some of the examples of rhizosphere interactions that are currently considered important are: proliferation of plant and variety specific genera or groups of microbiota, induction of genes involved in symbiosis and virulence, promoter activity in biocontrol agents and genes correlated with root adhesion and border cell quality and quantity. The observation of variety-based differences in rhizodeposition and associated changes in rhizosphere microbial diversity and function suggests the possibility for the development of varieties with specific root-microbe interactions targeted for soil type and environment i.e. designer rhizospheres. Spatial location of microorganisms in the heterogeneous field soil matrix can have significant impacts on biological processes. Therefore, for rhizosphere research to be effective in variable seasonal climate and soil conditions, it must be evaluated in the field and within a farming systems context. With the current focus on security of food to feed the growing global populations through sustainable agricultural production systems there is a

  1. Promise and dismay: The state of strategic environmental assessment systems and practices in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Bram F.

    2009-01-15

    Has strategic environmental assessment (SEA) finally reached a point of maturity in Canada? Or, is it still stumbling to find its place in the impact assessment family? Strategic environmental assessment has been ongoing in Canada for a number of years, both formally and informally, and under a variety of labels and institutional models. The result is a system of SEA that is diverse, founded on a range of principles and frameworks, and not well understood. This paper provides a critical review of Canadian SEA systems and practices. To accomplish this objective, a manageable and diverse set of past and recent SEA and SEA-like frameworks and applications are described and critically analyzed based on a set of input, process, and output evaluation criteria. Results suggest considerable variability in SEA experience and value added. This is due in large part to the institutional and methodological pluralism of SEA, the boundaries of which are not well defined. Under the federal system, since the formalization of SEA, many applications have been disappointing in light of broader SEA good-practice principles and criteria. Indeed, some of the better examples of SEA have neither carried the SEA name tag nor occurred under formal SEA requirements. Further, many of the same challenges to project-based impact assessment also plague the development and value added of SEA. Of particular concern is the systematic separation of SEA from downstream decision inputs and assessment activities. As Canada commences review of its federal SEA Directive in preparation for the next generation of SEA, this paper reflects on what it has achieved in the prior.

  2. Neuropathic pain: an updated grading system for research and clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Nanna B.; Haroutounian, Simon; Kamerman, Peter; Baron, Ralf; Bennett, David L.H.; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Freeman, Roy; Hansson, Per; Nurmikko, Turo; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rice, Andrew S.C.; Serra, Jordi; Smith, Blair H.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Jensen, Troels S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The redefinition of neuropathic pain as “pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system,” which was suggested by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Special Interest Group on Neuropathic Pain (NeuPSIG) in 2008, has been widely accepted. In contrast, the proposed grading system of possible, probable, and definite neuropathic pain from 2008 has been used to a lesser extent. Here, we report a citation analysis of the original NeuPSIG grading paper of 2008, followed by an analysis of its use by an expert panel and recommendations for an improved grading system. As of February, 2015, 608 eligible articles in Scopus cited the paper, 414 of which cited the neuropathic pain definition. Of 220 clinical studies citing the paper, 56 had used the grading system. The percentage using the grading system increased from 5% in 2009 to 30% in 2014. Obstacles to a wider use of the grading system were identified, including (1) questions about the relative significance of confirmatory tests, (2) the role of screening tools, and (3) uncertainties about what is considered a neuroanatomically plausible pain distribution. Here, we present a revised grading system with an adjusted order, better reflecting clinical practice, improvements in the specifications, and a word of caution that even the “definite” level of neuropathic pain does not always indicate causality. In addition, we add a table illustrating the area of pain and sensory abnormalities in common neuropathic pain conditions and propose areas for further research. PMID:27115670

  3. Practical Considerations of Waste Heat Reuse for a Mars Mission Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Energy conservation is a key issue in design optimization of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) for long-term space missions. By considering designs for conservation at the system level, energy saving opportunities arise that would otherwise go unnoticed. This paper builds on a steady-state investigation of system-level waste heat reuse in an ALSS with a low degree of crop growth for a Mars mission. In past studies, such a system has been defined in terms of technology types, hot and cold stream identification and stream energy content. The maximum steady-state potential for power and cooling savings within the system was computed via the Pinch Method. In this paper, several practical issues are considered for achieving a pragmatic estimate of total system savings in terms of equivalent system mass (ESM), rather than savings solely in terms of power and cooling. In this paper, more realistic ESM savings are computed by considering heat transfer inefficiencies during material transfer. An estimate of the steady-state mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with heat exchange equipment is made by considering heat exchange equipment material type and configuration, stream flow characteristics and associated energy losses during the heat exchange process. Also, previously estimated power and cooling savings are adjusted to reflect the impact of such energy losses. This paper goes one step further than the traditional Pinch Method of considering waste heat reuse in heat exchangers to include ESM savings that occur with direct reuse of a stream. For example, rather than exchanging heat between crop growth lamp cooling air and air going to a clothes dryer, air used to cool crop lamps might be reused directly for clothes drying purposes. When thermodynamically feasible, such an approach may increase ESM savings by minimizing the mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with stream routing equipment.

  4. Health systems research in Lao PDR: capacity development for getting research into policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Kristina; Tomson, Göran; Jönsson, Christer; Kounnavong, Sengchanh; Wahlström, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Background Lao PDR is a low-income country with an urgent need for evidence-informed policymaking in the healthcare sector. During the last decade a number of Health Systems Research (HSR) projects have been conducted in order to meet this need. However, although knowledge about research is increasing among policymakers, the use of research in policymaking is still limited. Methods This article investigates the relationship between research and policymaking from the perspective of those participating in HSR projects. The study is based on 28 interviews, two group discussions and the responses from 56 questionnaires. Results The interviewees and questionnaire respondents were aware of the barriers to getting research into policy and practice. But while some were optimistic, claiming that there had been a change of attitudes among policymakers in the last two years, others were more pessimistic and did not expect any real changes until years from now. The major barriers to feeding research results into policy and practice included an inability to influence the policy process and to get policymakers and practitioners interested in research results. Another barrier was the lack of continuous capacity development and high-quality research, both of which are related to funding and international support. Many of the interviewees and questionnaire respondents also pointed out that communication between those conducting research and policymakers must be improved. Conclusion The results show that in the case of Lao PDR, research capacity development is at a crucial stage for implementing research into policy and practice. If research is going to make a consistent impact on policymaking in the Lao health care sector, the attitude towards research will need to be changed in order to get research prioritised, both among those conducting research, and among policymakers and practitioners. Our findings indicate that there is awareness about the barriers in this process. PMID

  5. [A practical multi-electrode extracellular recording system based on virtual testing.].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Qin; Yue, Lin; Zhu, Ru-Peng

    2009-06-25

    Extracellular recording is a key technology to study many types of brain functions. However the amplitudes of extracellular spikes are typically about 100 muV and should be picked up and amplified specially, then recorded and analyzed online. Most of the equipment for extracellular recording are either very expensive, or too large for recording in the brains of freely moving small animals. In this paper we developed a practical multi-electrode recording system based on virtual testing technology. The system includes microelectrode amplifier, analog input device NI4472 with 24-bit resolution, and data processing software SPKrec. The features of the hardware are low noise, high input impedance, a total gain of 2 000, and large dynamic range. The software developed in LabVIEW is capable of online analysis, data recording, spike detection, fire rate histograms, etc. The system functions have been verified in extracellular recording in the olfactory bulb of Gekko gecko. The result indicates that the system with performance comparable to that of commercial products meets the requirements of recording experiments. PMID:19536443

  6. Practical attacks on decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Yangyang; Gao, Ming; Wang, Weilong; Li, Chaobo; Ma, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    To the active-basis-choice decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch, we present a modified attack strategy, which is based on the faked states attack, with quantum nondemolition measurement ability to restress the threat of detector efficiency mismatch. Considering that perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability doesn't exist in real life, we also propose a practical attack strategy using photon number resolving detectors. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that, without changing the channel, our attack strategies are serious threats to decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems. The eavesdropper may get some information about the secret key without causing any alarms. Besides, the lower bound of detector efficiency mismatch to run our modified faked states attack successfully with perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability is also given out, which provides the producers of quantum-key-distribution systems with a reference and can be treated as the approximate secure bound of detector efficiency mismatch in decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems.

  7. Cyborg practices: call-handlers and computerised decision support systems in urgent and emergency care.

    PubMed

    Pope, Catherine; Halford, Susan; Turnbull, Joanne; Prichard, Jane

    2014-06-01

    This article draws on data collected during a 2-year project examining the deployment of a computerised decision support system. This computerised decision support system was designed to be used by non-clinical staff for dealing with calls to emergency (999) and urgent care (out-of-hours) services. One of the promises of computerised decisions support technologies is that they can 'hold' vast amounts of sophisticated clinical knowledge and combine it with decision algorithms to enable standardised decision-making by non-clinical (clerical) staff. This article draws on our ethnographic study of this computerised decision support system in use, and we use our analysis to question the 'automated' vision of decision-making in healthcare call-handling. We show that embodied and experiential (human) expertise remains central and highly salient in this work, and we propose that the deployment of the computerised decision support system creates something new, that this conjunction of computer and human creates a cyborg practice. PMID:24810726

  8. PRACTICAL EXERIENCES WITH THE 6 GYROTRON SYSTEM ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    SciTech Connect

    LOHR,J; CARY,W.P; GORELOV,Y.A; GRUNLOH,H.J; KAJIWARA,K; PEAVY,J.J; PONCE,D; TOOKER,J; CALLIS,R.W

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The gyrotron installation on the DIII-D tokamak now comprises six 110 GHz gyrotrons in the 1 MW class, three manufactured by CPI[1] and three by Gycom [2]. Two tetrode rectifier/modulator/regulator power supplies were constructed to provide power for the CPI gyrotrons. A second system uses three mod/reg tetrodes connected in parallel, which are fed by a dual parallel tetrode mod/reg to power the Gycom tubes. the windowless evacuated transmission lines are up to 100 m in length, with 80% transmission efficiency. Engineering solutions were developed in specific problematic areas encountered in the development of this complex system, including: Gyrotron instability; high voltage circuit instability; gyrotron conditioning; rf beam forming and coupling to waveguide; output window vacuum seals; material control; launcher mechanics and diagnosis; polarizer mechanics; dummy loads; power measurements; polarization measurements; cooling; calorimetry; and operating controls. The system is in routine operation in support of tokamak experiments, with peak generated power of about 5 MW at 2 s. pulse length and about 3 MW for 5 s. pulses. This presentation focuses on practical lessons learned in the development and operation of these systems.

  9. A practical indoor context-aware surveillance system with multi-Kinect sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; You, Ying; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Shun

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we develop a novel practical application, which give scalable services to the end users when abnormal actives are happening. Architecture of the application has been presented consisting of network infrared cameras and a communication module. In this intelligent surveillance system we use Kinect sensors as the input cameras. Kinect is an infrared laser camera which its user can access the raw infrared sensor stream. We install several Kinect sensors in one room to track the human skeletons. Each sensor returns the body positions with 15 coordinates in its own coordinate system. We use calibration algorithms to calibrate all the body positions points into one unified coordinate system. With the body positions points, we can infer the surveillance context. Furthermore, the messages from the metadata index matrix will be sent to mobile phone through communication module. User will instantly be aware of an abnormal case happened in the room without having to check the website. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. And the application method introduced in this paper is not only to discourage the criminals and assist police in the apprehension of suspects, but also can enabled the end-users monitor the indoor environments anywhere and anytime by their phones.

  10. [Practical implementation of a quality management system in a radiological department].

    PubMed

    Huber, S; Zech, C J

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the architecture of a project aiming to implement a DIN EN ISO 9001 quality management system in a radiological department. It is intended to be a practical guide to demonstrate each step of the project leading to certification of the system. In a planning phase resources for the implementation of the project have to be identified and a quality management (QM) group as core team has to be formed. In the first project phase all available documents have to be checked and compiled in the QM manual. Moreover all relevant processes of the department have to be described in so-called process descriptions. In a second step responsibilities for the project are identified. Customer and employee surveys have to be carried out and a nonconformity management system has to be implemented. In this phase internal audits are also needed to check the new QM system, which is finally tested in the external certification audit with reference to its conformity with the standards. PMID:21879364

  11. SOMWeb: A Semantic Web-Based System for Supporting Collaboration of Distributed Medical Communities of Practice

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Marie; Jontell, Mats; Torgersson, Olof

    2008-01-01

    Background Information technology (IT) support for remote collaboration of geographically distributed communities of practice (CoP) in health care must deal with a number of sociotechnical aspects of communication within the community. In the mid-1990s, participants of the Swedish Oral Medicine Network (SOMNet) began discussing patient cases in telephone conferences. The cases were distributed prior to the conferences using PowerPoint and email. For the technical support of online CoP, Semantic Web technologies can potentially fulfill needs of knowledge reuse, data exchange, and reasoning based on ontologies. However, more research is needed on the use of Semantic Web technologies in practice. Objectives The objectives of this research were to (1) study the communication of distributed health care professionals in oral medicine; (2) apply Semantic Web technologies to describe community data and oral medicine knowledge; (3) develop an online CoP, Swedish Oral Medicine Web (SOMWeb), centered on user-contributed case descriptions and meetings; and (4) evaluate SOMWeb and study how work practices change with IT support. Methods Based on Java, and using the Web Ontology Language and Resource Description Framework for handling community data and oral medicine knowledge, SOMWeb was developed using a user-centered and iterative approach. For studying the work practices and evaluating the system, a mixed-method approach of interviews, observations, and a questionnaire was used. Results By May 2008, there were 90 registered users of SOMWeb, 93 cases had been added, and 18 meetings had utilized the system. The introduction of SOMWeb has improved the structure of meetings and their discussions, and a tenfold increase in the number of participants has been observed. Users submit cases to seek advice on diagnosis or treatment, to show an unusual case, or to create discussion. Identified barriers to submitting cases are lack of time, concern about whether the case is interesting

  12. Practical Methods for the Analysis of Voltage Collapse in Electric Power Systems: a Stationary Bifurcations Viewpoint.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Jumeau, Rene

    1993-03-01

    assumptions in order to develop a framework and new formulation for application of the tools previously developed for the analysis and prediction of voltage collapse in practical power system models which include numerous constraints and discontinuities. Illustrations and numerical simulations throughout the thesis support our results.

  13. Promising Practices in Early Childhood Mental Health. Systems of Care: Promising Practices in Children's Mental Health, 2001 Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer S.; Jivanjee, Pauline; Koroloff, Nancy; Doerfler, Andrea; Garcia, Maria

    Part of a series designed to provide guidance for communities interested in building systems of care for children with emotional disturbances, this volume addresses mental health services for very young children and their families. A literature review was conducted, and four Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program…

  14. Validation of a pain mechanism classification system (PMCS) in physical therapy practice.

    PubMed

    Kolski, Melissa C; O'Connor, Annie; Van Der Laan, Krista; Lee, Jungwha; Kozlowski, Allan J; Deutsch, Anne

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the clinical application of a pain mechanism classification system (PMCS) in clinical practice. We analyzed data abstracted from the medical records of patients who were treated in the outpatient clinics of a large urban rehabilitation hospital in Chicago. We hypothesized that there would be good agreement between the PMCS determined by trained therapists and the PMCS category assigned based on a computer-generated statistical model using patients' signs and symptoms. Using cluster analysis, when we assumed five groups, 97% of patients could be classified. Sensitivity and specificity results with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the categories using the physical therapist assigned categories (PMCS) as the criterion standard. Sensitivity for four of the five categories (inflammatory, ischemia, peripheral neurogenic, and other ranged from 72·0 to 83·1%). For the central mechanism, sensitivity was much lower at 15%. Specificity for the five categories ranged from 72·4% (ischemia) to 98·8% (central). This study provides empirical support for recent findings in the literature that the peripheral components of a PMCS can be implemented consistently in an outpatient pain clinical practice. PMID:27582618

  15. Harm reduction and women in the Canadian national prison system: policy or practice?

    PubMed

    Rehman, Laurene; Gahagan, Jacqueline; DiCenso, Anne Marie; Dias, Giselle

    2004-01-01

    Applying the principles of harm reduction within the context of incarcerated populations raises a number of challenges. Although some access to harm reduction strategies has been promoted in general society, a divide between what is available and what is advocated continues to exist within the prison system. This paper explores the perceptions and lived experiences of a sample of nationally incarcerated women in Canada regarding their perceptions and experiences in accessing HIV and Hepatitis C prevention, care, treatment and support. In-depth interviews were conducted with 156 women in Canadian national prisons. Q.S.R. Nudist was used to assist with data management. A constant comparison method was used to derive categories, patterns, and themes. Emergent themes highlighted a gap between access to harm reduction in policy and in practice. Despite the implementation of some harm reduction techniques, women in Canadian prisons reported variable access to both education and methods of reducing HIV/HCV transmission. Concerns were also raised about pre-and post-test counseling for HIV/HCV testing. Best practices are suggested for implementing harm reduction strategies within prisons for women in Canada. PMID:15911510

  16. Experience with a practice quality improvement system in a university radiology department.

    PubMed

    Kouo, Theresa

    2012-11-01

    In 2007, the ABR established and implemented Maintenance of Certification as a way to ensure radiologists' licensure and competency and to promote lifelong learning. Maintenance of Certification was instated for all radiologists receiving diagnostic radiology certificates starting in 2002. The 4 components of Maintenance of Certification are (1) Evidence of Professional Standing, (2) Lifelong Learning and Self-Assessment, (3) Cognitive Expertise, and (4) Practice Quality Improvement (PQI). Creating a PQI program involves establishing basic goals that, when met, will best benefit a department's needs. Developing a PQI system that promotes quality improvement will benefit the individuals involved, the department, and the institution. Much good can come from these projects: improved patient safety, increased efficiency and throughput with resultant cost savings, improved outcomes, and revenue generation. In addition, these efforts ensure that faculty members and trainees understand the importance of quality efforts in daily practice. This article reflects the author's experience setting up a PQI program for the radiology department of a large urban teaching hospital. Six steps are suggested to guide the creation of an effective PQI program. PMID:23122349

  17. Factors associated with oral hygiene practices among adults with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Hon K.; Hant, Faye N.; Hatfield, Corey; Summerlin, Lisa M.; Smith, Edwin A.; Silver, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with oral hygiene practices in adults with systemic sclerosis (SSc) METHODS In this cross-sectional study, 178 dentate adults with SSc received an oral examination which included measurement of oral aperture, assessment of manual dexterity to perform oral hygiene, as well as completion of the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and an oral health-related questionnaire. RESULTS Multivariable logistic regression modeling showed male, minority and high CES-D scores (i.e., clinically significant symptoms of depression) were associated with less likelihood of participants brushing teeth at least twice daily, but the presence of self-reported dry mouth symptoms increased the likelihood of toothbrushing. Having a dental visit in the past 12 months, and use of an adapted flossing or interdental cleaning device were significantly associated with daily dental flossing; however, having difficulty flossing teeth reduced the likelihood of daily flossing. CONCLUSIONS Overall, demographic variables were strongly associated with toothbrushing frequency, whereas, flossing self-efficacy and barriers were strongly associated with dental flossing frequency in adults with SSc. The results suggest that dental health professionals should take mental health into consideration when educating patients with SSc to improve their oral hygiene, and consider making referrals for patients exhibiting suspected clinically significant depressive symptoms to mental health professionals for further evaluation and treatment. In addition, an appropriate adapted flossing or interdental cleaning device should be recommended to increase dental flossing practices in this patient population. PMID:24128049

  18. Configurations of power relations in the Brazilian emergency care system: analyzing a context of visible practices.

    PubMed

    Velloso, Isabela; Ceci, Christine; Alves, Marilia

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we make explicit the changing configurations of power relations that currently characterize the Brazilian Emergency Care System (SAMU) team in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The SAMU is a recent innovation in Brazilian healthcare service delivery. A qualitative case study methodology was used to explore SAMU's current organizational arrangements, specifically the power relations that have developed and that demonstrate internal team struggles over space and defense of particular occupational interests. The argument advanced in this paper is that these professionals are developing their work in conditions of exposure, that is, they are always being observed by someone, and that such observational exposure provides the conditions whereby everyday emergency care practices are enacted such that practice is shaped by, as well as shapes, particular, yet recognizable power relationships. Data were collected through the observation of the SAMU's work processes and through semi-structured interviews. Research materials were analyzed using discourse analysis. In the emergency care process of work, visibility is actually embedded in the disciplinary context and can thus be analyzed as a technique applied to produce disciplined individuals through the simple mechanisms elaborated by Foucault such as hierarchical surveillance, normalizing judgment, and the examination. PMID:22591246

  19. Development of an exposure database and surveillance system for use by practicing OSH professionals.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, M V; LaMontagne, A D; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    gradually narrow query criteria to identify specific exposure determinants. A number of other industrial hygiene processes were automated by the use of this database. Exposure calculations were coded into the system to allow automatic calculation of time-weighted averages and sample volumes. In addition, a table containing all the PELs and other relevant occupational exposure limits was built into the system to allow automatic comparisons with the current standards. Finally, the process of generating reports for employee notification was automated. The implementation of this system demonstrates that an integrated database system can save time for a practicing hygienist as well as provide useful and more importantly, timely information to guide primary prevention efforts. PMID:11217700

  20. Using Project Performance to Measure Effectiveness of Quality Management System Maintenance and Practices in Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Tiong Kung; Ariff, Mohd. Shoki Md.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings. PMID:24701182

  1. Practical synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation of the pyrazino[1,2-b]-isoquinoline ring system.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vázquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Luis D

    2016-06-01

    A practical three-step protocol for the synthesis of pyrazino[1,2-b]isoquinolines is reported. This approach includes a one-pot parallel cyclization/cyclization parallel process followed by a non-common 6-endo Heck cyclization that transformed previously constructed Ugi adducts into diversely decorated tricyclic systems. Compounds bearing a t-butyl or 2,6-dimethylphenyl substituent showed significant cytotoxic activity. The most active analogue (6p) showed significant activity against HCT-15 and K562 (IC50 = 41.8 ± 3.3 and 57.7 ± 2.1 μM, respectively) with no cytotoxicity against human gingival fibroblasts. PMID:27161451

  2. Using project performance to measure effectiveness of quality management system maintenance and practices in construction industry.

    PubMed

    Leong, Tiong Kung; Zakuan, Norhayati; Mat Saman, Muhamad Zameri; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Tan, Choy Soon

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings. PMID:24701182

  3. Electrical energy converters for practical human total artificial hearts--an opinion in support of electropneumatic systems.

    PubMed

    Jarvik, R K

    1983-02-01

    Until recently, most artificial hearts have served as research tools to acquire further knowledge necessary ultimately to design practical systems for human use. Transcutaneous systems or percutaneous systems utilizing permanently implanted energy converters, batteries, and electronics packages have a number of substantial problems that would not exist if most system elements were kept outside the body. These problems include physiologic control, fit and fixation, foreign body infection, hermetic sealing, cable insulation and fatigue, inherent system complexity, stringent requirements for maintenance-free operation with long-term high reliability, and high cost. Percutaneous systems, particularly those in which only the blood pump is implanted, are an attractive choice for practical systems in the near future. A wearable, battery-powered electropneumatic total heart system should be developed. PMID:6838405

  4. Tracking Systems for Virtual Rehabilitation: Objective Performance vs. Subjective Experience. A Practical Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Lloréns, Roberto; Noé, Enrique; Naranjo, Valery; Borrego, Adrián; Latorre, Jorge; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Motion tracking systems are commonly used in virtual reality-based interventions to detect movements in the real world and transfer them to the virtual environment. There are different tracking solutions based on different physical principles, which mainly define their performance parameters. However, special requirements have to be considered for rehabilitation purposes. This paper studies and compares the accuracy and jitter of three tracking solutions (optical, electromagnetic, and skeleton tracking) in a practical scenario and analyzes the subjective perceptions of 19 healthy subjects, 22 stroke survivors, and 14 physical therapists. The optical tracking system provided the best accuracy (1.074 ± 0.417 cm) while the electromagnetic device provided the most inaccurate results (11.027 ± 2.364 cm). However, this tracking solution provided the best jitter values (0.324 ± 0.093 cm), in contrast to the skeleton tracking, which had the worst results (1.522 ± 0.858 cm). Healthy individuals and professionals preferred the skeleton tracking solution rather than the optical and electromagnetic solution (in that order). Individuals with stroke chose the optical solution over the other options. Our results show that subjective perceptions and preferences are far from being constant among different populations, thus suggesting that these considerations, together with the performance parameters, should be also taken into account when designing a rehabilitation system. PMID:25808765

  5. Radiation dosage reduction in general dental practice using digital intraoral radiographic systems.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Y; Shibuya, H; Ota, Y; Kuroyanagi, K

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the radiation dosage reduction possible in the general dental practice with two CCD (charge-coupled device)-based intraoral radiographic systems: the RVG-S (Trophy Radiologie, Vincennes, France) and the Sens-A-Ray (Regam Medical Systems, Sundsvall, Sweden). Radiation dosages (air-kerma; Gy) necessary for obtaining clinically acceptable images were measured at the cone tip using an ionization chamber type 660-1 (Nuclear Associates, Victoreen, Inc., Carle Place, New York, USA). When the RVG-S was used with an Oramatic 70 (Trophy Radiologie) X-ray generator, dosages at the cone tip ranged from 322 to 612 microGy. These corresponded to 40-60% of the dosages necessary when using Ektaspeed dental X-ray film (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, New York, USA) with a Heliodent 70 (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) X-ray generator. At 60 kVp, the Sens-A-Ray reduced the dosage in the order of 30% compared with Ektaspeed dental X-ray film. Reduction in radiation dosage is one of the benefits of digital intraoral radiographic systems in general dental clinics. The RVG-S provides greater dose savings than does the Sens-A-Ray. PMID:9566150

  6. An evaluation of the environmental impact assessment system in Vietnam: The gap between theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, Alison; Vu, Hoang Hoa; Pedrono, Miguel

    2011-03-15

    Vietnam has one of the fastest growing economies in the world and has achieved significant socio-economic development in recent years. However this growth is placing increased pressure on an already depleted natural environment. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is recognised by the Government and international organizations as an important tool in the management of the impacts of future development on the country's natural resource base. The Government's commitment to EIA has been demonstrated through the development and adoption of the Law on Environment Protection (Revised) in 2005 which sets out the requirements for EIA and which represents a major step in the development of a robust legislative framework for EIA in Vietnam. The Law on Environment Protection (Revised) 2005 has now been operational for several years and we have undertaken an evaluation of the resulting EIA system in Vietnam. We argue that while significant improvements have been achieved in the EIA policy framework, an important gap remains between EIA theory and practice. We contend that the basis of the current EIA legislation is strong and that future developments of the EIA system in Vietnam should focus on improving capacity of EIA practitioners rather than further substantial legislative change. Such improvements would allow the Vietnamese EIA system to emerge as an effective and efficient tool for environmental management in Vietnam and as a model EIA framework for other developing countries.

  7. [Clinical practice guidelines for systemic lupus erythematosus: Recommendations for general clinical management].

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Martín, María M; Rúa-Figueroa Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; Ruíz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Pego-Reigosa, José María; Sabio Sánchez, José Mario; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex rheumatic multisystemic disease of autoimmune origin with significant potential morbidity and mortality. It is one of the most common autoimmune diseases with an estimated prevalence of 20-150 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The clinical spectrum of SLE is wide and variable both in clinical manifestations and severity. This prompted the Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality to promote and fund the development of a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the clinical care of SLE patients within the Programme of CPG in the National Health System which coordinates GuiaSalud. This CPG is is intended as the reference tool in the Spanish National Health System in order to support the comprehensive clinical management of people with SLE by all health professionals involved, regardless of specialty and level of care, helping to standardize and improve the quality of clinical decisions in our context in order to improve the health outcomes of the people affected. The purpose of this document is to present and discuss the rationale of the recommendations on the general management of SLE, specifically, clinical follow-up, general therapeutic approach, healthy lifestyles, photoprotection, and training programmes for patients. These recommendations are based on the best available scientific evidence, on discussion and the consensus of expert groups. PMID:26975887

  8. Modular minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation systems; can they become the standard practice for performing cardiac surgery?

    PubMed

    Anastasiadis, K; Antonitsis, P; Argiriadou, H; Deliopoulos, A; Grosomanidis, V; Tossios, P

    2015-04-01

    Minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation (MiECC) has been developed in an attempt to integrate all advances in cardiopulmonary bypass technology in one closed circuit that shows improved biocompatibility and minimizes the systemic detrimental effects of CPB. Despite well-evidenced clinical advantages, penetration of MiECC technology into clinical practice is hampered by concerns raised by perfusionists and surgeons regarding air handling together with blood and volume management during CPB. We designed a modular MiECC circuit, bearing an accessory circuit for immediate transition to an open system that can be used in every adult cardiac surgical procedure, offering enhanced safety features. We challenged this modular circuit in a series of 50 consecutive patients. Our results showed that the modular AHEPA circuit design offers 100% technical success rate in a cohort of random, high-risk patients who underwent complex procedures, including reoperation and valve and aortic surgery, together with emergency cases. This pilot study applies to the real world and prompts for further evaluation of modular MiECC systems through multicentre trials. PMID:25564510

  9. Parasite management extension - challenging traditional practice through adoption of a systems approach.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L; Rhodes, A P; Dodunski, G

    2015-11-01

    The drivers for anthelmintic use today are substantial and anthelmintic use has become an embedded normalised behaviour. The cheapness and easy availability of anthelmintic products has meant that New Zealand farmers have had access to easy "solutions" for dealing with parasites and minimal forward planning or system redesign has been required. Despite 30 years of messaging about the emerging issue of anthelmintic resistance, management to reduce parasitism and the need to change behaviour, farmer practice has largely remained unchanged. Traditional approaches to extension, particularly around parasite management, appear to have been quite ineffective, apart from encouraging change in anthelmintic products and a switch to use of anthelmintics in combination. More effective approaches are required. The evolving nature of anthelmintic resistance and sustainable management of parasitism require attitudes, knowledge and behaviour to change. This is a challenge for all players in the industry; researchers, manufacturers and sellers, advisors and farmers. Looking beyond agriculture to the health sector provides some insight into models of decision making and behaviour change that can inform future strategies. Features in the health belief model including concepts of self-efficacy and cues to action appear to align with the issues, challenges and culture prevailing in farming, and parasite management in particular. Programmes through which farmers have made substantial beneficial behaviour change and the lessons learnt are discussed. Effecting consistent behaviour change around parasite management will involve new approaches by all participants in the process. And the process itself also needs to change. It requires an understanding of whole-farm systems, and the consideration of all the sources of influence on the farmer and the other participants in the process. The process of knowledge sharing involving the farmer should be based on equality; each person in the process

  10. Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating the Sustainability of “Complete Streets” Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    If “complete streets” practices are followed, transportation corridor designs accommodate multiple modes of transportation. When transportation engineers and planners consider implementing these practices, they must decide what portion of a transportation corridor&rs...

  11. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-01

    The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the U.S. for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in each of the volumes.

  12. Practical Maintenance of Digital Systems: Guidance to Maximize the Benefits of Digital Technology for the Maintenance of Digital Systems and Plant Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D; Scarola, K

    2004-10-30

    This report presents detailed guidance for the maintenance and testing of modern digital systems. The guidance provides practical means for plants to take advantage of the increased diagnostic and self-test capabilities of these systems. It helps plants avoid mistakes in design and installation that could lead to increased maintenance burden and decreased system reliability and availability.

  13. Best practices of hospital security planning for patient surge--a comparative analysis of three national systems.

    PubMed

    Downey, Erin; Hebert, Anjanette

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines three international healthcare security systems as they relate to patient surge in Canada, Israel, and the United States. Its purpose is to compare the systems, to highlight unique characteristics that define those systems, and to initiate the development of best practices that transcend national boundaries. Several significant national characteristics of demographics, healthcare systems, and political climate, among others, present challenges to translating best practices among these three countries. However, we have found that best practice strategies exist in areas of communications, coordination, building design, space adaptability, and patient routing (both from the community to the hospital, as well as within the hospital) that can be shared and incorporated into the healthcare preparedness efforts in all three countries. PMID:20873500

  14. 40 CFR 141.564 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my individual filter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... there any special provision regarding my individual filter turbidity monitoring? 141.564 Section 141.564... People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.564 My system practices lime softening—is there any special provision regarding my individual filter turbidity monitoring? If your system utilizes...

  15. 40 CFR 141.564 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my individual filter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... there any special provision regarding my individual filter turbidity monitoring? 141.564 Section 141.564... People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.564 My system practices lime softening—is there any special provision regarding my individual filter turbidity monitoring? If your system utilizes...

  16. 40 CFR 141.564 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my individual filter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... there any special provision regarding my individual filter turbidity monitoring? 141.564 Section 141.564... People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.564 My system practices lime softening—is there any special provision regarding my individual filter turbidity monitoring? If your system utilizes...

  17. 40 CFR 141.564 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my individual filter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... there any special provision regarding my individual filter turbidity monitoring? 141.564 Section 141.564... People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.564 My system practices lime softening—is there any special provision regarding my individual filter turbidity monitoring? If your system utilizes...

  18. Applications of a Nursing Knowledge Based System for Nursing Practice: Inservice, Continuing Education, and Standards of Care

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Sheila A.

    1983-01-01

    A knowledge base of nursing theory supports computerized consultation to nursing service administrators and staff about patient care. Three scenarios portray different nurses utilizing the system for inservice development, continuing education, and development of standards of care or protocols for practice. The advantages of the system including cost savings are discussed.

  19. Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) for Interventional Pain Management Practices: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hammer, Marvel; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    Basing their rationale on multiple publications from Institute of Medicine (IOM), specifically Crossing the Quality Chasm, policy makers have focused on a broad range of issues, including assessment of the influence of medical practice organization structures on quality performance and development of quality measures. The 2006 Tax Relief and Health Care Act established the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), to enable eligible professionals to report health care quality and health outcome information that cannot be obtained from standard Medicare claims. However, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 required the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to incorporate a combination of cost and quality into the payment systems for health care as a precursor to value-based payments. The final change to PQRS pending initiation after 2018, is based on the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) which has incorporated alternative payment models and merit-based payment systems. Recent publication of quality performance scores by CMS has been less than optimal. When voluntary participation began in July 2007, providers were paid a bonus for reporting quality measures from 2008 through 2014, ranging from 0.5% to 2% of the Medicare Part B allowed charges furnished during the reporting period. Starting in 2015, penalties started for nonparticipation. Eligible professionals and group practices that failed to satisfactorily report data on quality measures during 2014 are subject to a 2% reduction in Medicare fee-for-service amounts for services furnished by the eligible professional or group practice during 2016. The CMS proposed rule for 2016 physician payments contained a number of provisions with proposed updates to the PQRS and Physician Value-Based Payment Modifier among other changes. The proposed rule is the first release since MACRA repealed the sustainable growth rate formula. CMS proposed to continue many

  20. Best practices for implementing, testing and using a cloud-based communication system in a disaster situation.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Dale

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out the basics for approaching the selection and implementation of a cloud-based communication system to support a business continuity programme, including: • consideration for how a cloud-based communication system can enhance a business continuity programme; • descriptions of some of the more popular features of a cloud-based communication system; • options to evaluate when selecting a cloud-based communication system; • considerations for how to design a system to be most effective for an organisation; • best practices for how to conduct the initial load of data to a cloud-based communication system; • best practices for how to conduct an initial validation of the data loaded to a cloud-based communication system; • considerations for how to keep contact information in the cloud-based communication system current and accurate; • best practices for conducting ongoing system testing; • considerations for how to conduct user training; • review of other potential uses of a cloud-based communication system; and • review of other tools and features many cloud-based communication systems may offer. PMID:27318288

  1. Post-treatment and reuse of secondary effluents using natural ltreatment systems: the Indian practices.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D; Asolekar, S R; Sharma, S K

    2015-10-01

    Paper summarizes the results of India-wide survey of natural treatment systems (NTSs) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The quality of treated wastewater from different types of NTSs was analyzed for various physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters, and needs for post-treatment were identified. Currently, about 1838 million liters per day (MLD) of wastewater is being treated using NTSs, of which the contributions of polishing ponds, waste stabilization ponds, duckweed ponds, constructed wetlands, and Karnal technology were found to be 53.39, 45.15, 0.13, 0.55, and 0.78%, respectively. Among the NTSs studied, constructed wetland was found most efficient in removal of pollutants including nitrogen, phosphorus, total coliform, and fecal coliform in the range of 76, 61, 99.956, and 99.923%, respectively. Of all types of NTSs, only constructed wetland was found to meet the total coliform count requirements (<1000 per 100 ml). Of all the 108 NTSs in operation, 23 systems are producing treated effluents for irrigation; effluents from 48 systems are being discharged into river or lake, and remaining 38 systems have not found any designated use of treated effluent. The chlorination was the only post-treatment, which is being practiced at only three wastewater treatment facilities. During post-treatment, 1-2 ppm of chlorine is applied to the secondary effluent irrespective of its quality. The treated effluents from different NTSs contain fecal bacteria in the magnitude of 10(3) to 10(5), which may cause the severe health impacts through contamination of groundwater as well as surface water resources. PMID:26341500

  2. Use of health systems evidence by policymakers in eastern mediterranean countries: views, practices, and contextual influences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health systems evidence can enhance policymaking and strengthen national health systems. In the Middle East, limited research exists on the use of evidence in the policymaking process. This multi-country study explored policymakers’ views and practices regarding the use of health systems evidence in health policymaking in 10 eastern Mediterranean countries, including factors that influence health policymaking and barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence. Methods This study utilized a survey adapted and customized from a similar tool developed in Canada. Health policymakers from 10 countries (Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Lebanon Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Sudan, Tunisia, and Yemen) were surveyed. Descriptive and bi-variate analyses were performed for quantitative questions and thematic analysis was done for qualitative questions. Results A total of 237 policymakers completed the survey (56.3% response rate). Governing parties, limited funding for the health sector and donor organizations exerted a strong influence on policymaking processes. Most (88.5%) policymakers reported requesting evidence and 43.1% reported collaborating with researchers. Overall, 40.1% reported that research evidence is not delivered at the right time. Lack of an explicit budget for evidence-informed health policymaking (55.3%), lack of an administrative structure for supporting evidence-informed health policymaking processes (52.6%), and limited value given to research (35.9%) all limited the use of research evidence. Barriers to the use of evidence included lack of research targeting health policy, lack of funding and investments, and political forces. Facilitators included availability of health research and research institutions, qualified researchers, research funding, and easy access to information. Conclusions Health policymakers in several countries recognize the importance of using health systems evidence. Study findings are important in light of changes unfolding

  3. Reduced Complexity in Antenna Selection for Polarized MIMO System with SVD for the Practical MIMO Communication Channel Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sann Maw, Maung; Sasase, Iwao

    In the conventional multi-input multi-output (MIMO) communication systems, most of the antenna selection methods considered are suitable only for spatially separated uni-polarized system under Rayleigh fading channel in non-line of sight (NLOS) condition. There have a few antenna selection schemes for the cross-polarized system in LOS condition and Ricean fading channel, and no antenna selection scheme for the MIMO channel with both LOS and NLOS. In the practical MIMO channel case, influence of LOS and NLOS conditions in the channel can vary from time to time according to the channel parameters and user movement in the system. Based on these influences and channel condition, uni-polarized system may outperform a cross-polarized. Thus, we should consider this kind of practical MIMO channel environment when developing the antenna selection scheme. Moreover, no research work has been done on reducing the complexity of antenna selection for this kind of practical MIMO channel environment. In this paper, reduced complexity in antenna selection is proposed to give the higher throughput in the practical MIMO channel environment. In the proposed scheme, suitable polarized antennas are selected based on the calculation of singular value decomposition (SVD) of channel matrix and then adaptive bit loading is applied. Simulation results show that throughput of the system can be improved under the constraint of target BER and total transmit power of the MIMO system.

  4. Lightweight Data Systems in the Cloud: Costs, Benefits and Best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatland, R.; Arendt, A. A.; Howe, B.; Hess, N. J.; Futrelle, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present here a simple analysis of both the cost and the benefit of using the cloud in environmental science circa 2016. We present this set of ideas to enable the potential 'cloud adopter' research scientist to explore and understand the tradeoffs in moving some aspect of their compute work to the cloud. We present examples, design patterns and best practices as an evolving body of knowledge that help optimize benefit to the research team. Thematically this generally means not starting from a blank page but rather learning how to find 90% of the solution to a problem pre-built. We will touch on four topics of interest. (1) Existing cloud data resources (NASA, WHOI BCO DMO, etc) and how they can be discovered, used and improved. (2) How to explore, compare and evaluate cost and compute power from many cloud options, particularly in relation to data scale (size/complexity). (3) What are simple / fast 'Lightweight Data System' procedures that take from 20 minutes to one day to implement and that have a clear immediate payoff in environmental data-driven research. Examples include publishing a SQL Share URL at (EarthCube's) CINERGI as a registered data resource and creating executable papers on a cloud-hosted Jupyter instance, particularly iPython notebooks. (4) Translating the computational terminology landscape ('cloud', 'HPC cluster', 'hadoop', 'spark', 'machine learning') into examples from the community of practice to help the geoscientist build or expand their mental map. In the course of this discussion -- which is about resource discovery, adoption and mastery -- we provide direction to online resources in support of these themes.

  5. Cropping systems and cultural practices determine the Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups associated with Brassica spp. in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hua, Gia Khuong Hoang; Bertier, Lien; Soltaninejad, Saman; Höfte, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Ninety seven Rhizoctonia isolates were collected from different Brassica species with typical Rhizoctonia symptoms in different provinces of Vietnam. The isolates were identified using staining of nuclei and sequencing of the rDNA-ITS barcoding gene. The majority of the isolates were multinucleate R. solani and four isolates were binucleate Rhizoctonia belonging to anastomosis groups (AGs) AG-A and a new subgroup of A-F that we introduce here as AG-Fc on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. The most prevalent multinucleate AG was AG 1-IA (45.4% of isolates), followed by AG 1-ID (17.5%), AG 1-IB (13.4%), AG 4-HGI (12.4%), AG 2-2 (5.2%), AG 7 (1.0%) and an unknown AG related to AG 1-IA and AG 1-IE that we introduce here as AG 1-IG (1.0%) on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. AG 1-IA and AG 1-ID have not been reported before on Brassica spp. Pathogenicity tests revealed that isolates from all AGs, except AG-A, induced symptoms on detached leaves of several cabbage species. In in vitro tests on white cabbage and Chinese cabbage, both hosts were severely infected by AG 1-IB, AG 2-2, AG 4-HGI, AG 1-IG and AG-Fc isolates, while under greenhouse conditions, only AG 4-HGI, AG 2-2 and AG-Fc isolates could cause severe disease symptoms. The occurrence of the different AGs seems to be correlated with the cropping systems and cultural practices in different sampling areas suggesting that agricultural practices determine the AGs associated with Brassica plants in Vietnam. PMID:25372406

  6. Cropping Systems and Cultural Practices Determine the Rhizoctonia Anastomosis Groups Associated with Brassica spp. in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Soltaninejad, Saman; Höfte, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Ninety seven Rhizoctonia isolates were collected from different Brassica species with typical Rhizoctonia symptoms in different provinces of Vietnam. The isolates were identified using staining of nuclei and sequencing of the rDNA-ITS barcoding gene. The majority of the isolates were multinucleate R. solani and four isolates were binucleate Rhizoctonia belonging to anastomosis groups (AGs) AG-A and a new subgroup of A-F that we introduce here as AG-Fc on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. The most prevalent multinucleate AG was AG 1-IA (45.4% of isolates), followed by AG 1-ID (17.5%), AG 1-IB (13.4%), AG 4-HGI (12.4%), AG 2-2 (5.2%), AG 7 (1.0%) and an unknown AG related to AG 1-IA and AG 1-IE that we introduce here as AG 1-IG (1.0%) on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. AG 1-IA and AG 1-ID have not been reported before on Brassica spp. Pathogenicity tests revealed that isolates from all AGs, except AG-A, induced symptoms on detached leaves of several cabbage species. In in vitro tests on white cabbage and Chinese cabbage, both hosts were severely infected by AG 1-IB, AG 2-2, AG 4-HGI, AG 1-IG and AG-Fc isolates, while under greenhouse conditions, only AG 4-HGI, AG 2-2 and AG-Fc isolates could cause severe disease symptoms. The occurrence of the different AGs seems to be correlated with the cropping systems and cultural practices in different sampling areas suggesting that agricultural practices determine the AGs associated with Brassica plants in Vietnam. PMID:25372406

  7. Curriculum Providing Cognitive Knowledge and Problem-Solving Skills for Anesthesia Systems-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wachtel, Ruth E.; Dexter, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    Background Residency programs accredited by the ACGME are required to teach core competencies, including systems-based practice (SBP). Projects are important for satisfying this competency, but the level of knowledge and problem-solving skills required presupposes a basic understanding of the field. The responsibilities of anesthesiologists include the coordination of patient flow in the surgical suite. Familiarity with this topic is crucial for many improvement projects. Intervention A course in operations research for surgical services was originally developed for hospital administration students. It satisfies 2 of the Institute of Medicine's core competencies for health professionals: evidence-based practice and work in interdisciplinary teams. The course lasts 3.5 days (eg, 2 weekends) and consists of 45 cognitive objectives taught using 7 published articles, 10 lectures, and 156 computer-assisted problem-solving exercises based on 17 case studies. We tested the hypothesis that the cognitive objectives of the curriculum provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills necessary to perform projects that satisfy the SBP competency. Standardized terminology was used to define each component of the SBP competency for the minimum level of knowledge needed. The 8 components of the competency were examined independently. Findings Most cognitive objectives contributed to at least 4 of the 8 core components of the SBP competency. Each component of SBP is addressed at the minimum requirement level of exemplify by at least 6 objectives. There is at least 1 cognitive objective at the level of summarize for each SBP component. Conclusions A curriculum in operating room management can provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills anesthesiologists need for participation in projects that satisfy the SBP competency. PMID:22132289

  8. SUPPORTING TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT PRACTICES IN EARTH SYSTEMS SCIENCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, C. J.; Penuel, W. R.; Haydel Debarger, A.; Blank, J. G.

    2009-12-01

    An important purpose of formative assessment is to elicit student thinking to use in instruction to help all students learn and inform next steps in teaching. However, formative assessment practices are difficult to implement and thus present a formidable challenge for many science teachers. A critical need in geoscience education is a framework for providing teachers with real-time assessment tools as well as professional development to learn how to use formative assessment to improve instruction. Here, we describe a comprehensive support system, developed for our NSF-funded Contingent Pedagogies project, for addressing the challenge of helping teachers to use formative assessment to enhance student learning in middle school Earth Systems science. Our support system is designed to improve student understanding about the geosphere by integrating classroom network technology, interactive formative assessments, and contingent curricular activities to guide teachers from formative assessment to instructional decision-making and improved student learning. To accomplish this, we are using a new classroom network technology, Group Scribbles, in the context of an innovative middle-grades Earth Science curriculum called Investigating Earth Systems (IES). Group Scribbles, developed at SRI International, is a collaborative software tool that allows individual students to compose “scribbles” (i.e., drawings and notes), on “post-it” notes in a private workspace (a notebook computer) in response to a public task. They can post these notes anonymously to a shared, public workspace (a teacher-controlled large screen monitor) that becomes the centerpiece of group and class discussion. To help teachers implement formative assessment practices, we have introduced a key resource, called a teaching routine, to help teachers take advantage of Group Scribbles for more interactive assessments. Routine refers to a sequence of repeatable interactions that, over time, become

  9. Attacking a practical quantum-key-distribution system with wavelength-dependent beam-splitter and multiwavelength sources

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Shuang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Fang-Yi; Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu; Bao, Wan-Su

    2011-12-15

    It is well known that the unconditional security of quantum-key distribution (QKD) can be guaranteed by quantum mechanics. However, practical QKD systems have some imperfections, which can be controlled by the eavesdropper to attack the secret key. With current experimental technology, a realistic beam splitter, made by fused biconical technology, has a wavelength-dependent property. Based on this fatal security loophole, we propose a wavelength-dependent attacking protocol, which can be applied to all practical QKD systems with passive state modulation. Moreover, we experimentally attack a practical polarization encoding QKD system to obtain all the secret key information at the cost of only increasing the quantum bit error rate from 1.3 to 1.4%.

  10. Comparative evaluation of three egg production systems: Housing characteristics and management practices.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Karcher, D M; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    This paper is an integral part of the special publication series that arose from the multidisciplinary and multi-institutional project of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES). The CSES project involves 3 housing systems for egg production at the same research farm site in the Midwest, USA, namely, a conventional cage (CC) house, an aviary (AV) house, and an enriched colony (EC) house. The CC house (141.4 m L×26.6 m W×6.1 m H) had a nominal capacity of 200,000 hens (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), and the cages were arranged in 10 rows, 8 tiers per cage row, with a perforated aisle walkway at 4-tier height. The AV house (154.2 m L×21.3 m W×3.0 m H) and the EC house (154.2 m L×13.7 m W×4.0 m H) each had a nominal capacity of 50,000 hens. The AV house had 6 rows of aviary colonies, and the EC house had 5 rows of 4-tier enriched colonies containing perches, nestbox, and scratch pads (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen). The overarching goal of the CSES project, as stated in the opening article of this series, was to comprehensively evaluate the 3 egg production systems from the standpoints of animal behavior and well-being, environmental impact, egg safety and quality, food affordability, and worker health. So that all the area-specific papers would not have to repeat a detailed description of the production systems and the management practices, this paper is written to provide such a description and to be used as a common reference for the companion papers. PMID:25737566

  11. Comparative evaluation of three egg production systems: Housing characteristics and management practices

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y.; Shepherd, T. A.; Swanson, J. C.; Mench, J. A.; Karcher, D. M.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an integral part of the special publication series that arose from the multidisciplinary and multi-institutional project of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES). The CSES project involves 3 housing systems for egg production at the same research farm site in the Midwest, USA, namely, a conventional cage (CC) house, an aviary (AV) house, and an enriched colony (EC) house. The CC house (141.4 m L × 26.6 m W × 6.1 m H) had a nominal capacity of 200,000 hens (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), and the cages were arranged in 10 rows, 8 tiers per cage row, with a perforated aisle walkway at 4-tier height. The AV house (154.2 m L × 21.3 m W × 3.0 m H) and the EC house (154.2 m L × 13.7 m W × 4.0 m H) each had a nominal capacity of 50,000 hens. The AV house had 6 rows of aviary colonies, and the EC house had 5 rows of 4-tier enriched colonies containing perches, nestbox, and scratch pads (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen). The overarching goal of the CSES project, as stated in the opening article of this series, was to comprehensively evaluate the 3 egg production systems from the standpoints of animal behavior and well-being, environmental impact, egg safety and quality, food affordability, and worker health. So that all the area-specific papers would not have to repeat a detailed description of the production systems and the management practices, this paper is written to provide such a description and to be used as a common reference for the companion papers. PMID:25737566

  12. A practical, bioinformatic workflow system for large data sets generated by next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Cantacessi, Cinzia; Jex, Aaron R.; Hall, Ross S.; Young, Neil D.; Campbell, Bronwyn E.; Joachim, Anja; Nolan, Matthew J.; Abubucker, Sahar; Sternberg, Paul W.; Ranganathan, Shoba; Mitreva, Makedonka; Gasser, Robin B.

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptomics (at the level of single cells, tissues and/or whole organisms) underpins many fields of biomedical science, from understanding the basic cellular function in model organisms, to the elucidation of the biological events that govern the development and progression of human diseases, and the exploration of the mechanisms of survival, drug-resistance and virulence of pathogens. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are contributing to a massive expansion of transcriptomics in all fields and are reducing the cost, time and performance barriers presented by conventional approaches. However, bioinformatic tools for the analysis of the sequence data sets produced by these technologies can be daunting to researchers with limited or no expertise in bioinformatics. Here, we constructed a semi-automated, bioinformatic workflow system, and critically evaluated it for the analysis and annotation of large-scale sequence data sets generated by NGS. We demonstrated its utility for the exploration of differences in the transcriptomes among various stages and both sexes of an economically important parasitic worm (Oesophagostomum dentatum) as well as the prediction and prioritization of essential molecules (including GTPases, protein kinases and phosphatases) as novel drug target candidates. This workflow system provides a practical tool for the assembly, annotation and analysis of NGS data sets, also to researchers with a limited bioinformatic expertise. The custom-written Perl, Python and Unix shell computer scripts used can be readily modified or adapted to suit many different applications. This system is now utilized routinely for the analysis of data sets from pathogens of major socio-economic importance and can, in principle, be applied to transcriptomics data sets from any organism. PMID:20682560

  13. Experimental demonstration of counteracting imperfect sources in a practical one-way quantum-key-distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Fangxing; Zhang Yang; Zhou Zheng; Chen Wei; Han Zhengfu; Guo Guangcan

    2009-12-15

    In a practical quantum-key-distribution system, photon source and small operational errors cause intensity fluctuations inevitably, which cannot be ignored for a precise estimation on the single-photon fraction. In this paper, we demonstrated an efficient three-intensity decoy method scheme on top of the one-way Faraday-Michelson Interferometric system, combining an active monitoring with existing commercial apparatus to inspect fluctuations instantly. With this faithful detection for the upper bound of the fluctuation, the secure quantum key distribution is unconditionally realized with whatever type of intensity errors, which declares the utility and potential of decoy theory and active monitoring for quantum key distribution in practical use.

  14. Small ruminant feed systems: perceptions and practices in the transitional zone of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    into major feeds, the creation of non-cropping zones around village fringes and studies on labour demands of different feed systems are proposed. The insight gained in this study on farmers' perceptions and practices relating to small ruminant feeds could guide in the selection and introduction of feed innovations that fit into current feed systems to enhance adoption. PMID:20298617

  15. Design considerations &practical results with long duration systems for manned flight: cryogenic helium and superpressure balloons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, J.

    The paper will describe two manned flights made in polyethylene zero pressure balloons with liquid helium carried to provide all in-flight buoyancy adjustment. These balloons were of 1,600 and 8,000 cubic meter volumes. Two flights have been made, both lasting 24 hours. The first flight cruised and flew through the sunset at 18,000 feet / 5,500 meters. The second flight using a pressurized cabin included flying through the night at about 32,000 feet / 10,000 meters. These flights highlight a wide range of theoretical and practical design concerns. For a craft carrying a crew, structural integrity and manageability &control in flight are naturally important. These flights demonstrated the complete feasibility of this system which will be described in detail. In addition the author constructed a 1,600 cubic meter pumpkin balloon used for a two day fight across Australia with a crew of two. Considerable problems were discovered during construction with distortion of the balloon. Although this work was done some time ago, the results have not been published in detail. The reason for publications at this time is that the work is very relevant to the problems recently encountered with the ULDB pumpkin design. The author, who is a physicist as well as a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, was the principal desig ner as well as pilot of these craft. Ends...

  16. Systems-Based Practice Defined: Taxonomy Development and Role Identification for Competency Assessment of Residents

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Mark J.; Naqvi, Zoon; Encandela, John; Harding, Kelli J.; Chatterji, Madhabi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate a methodology for coding and taxonomy development and to operationally define residents' competence in systems-based practice (SBP) in terms of observable roles, actions, and behaviors. Methods The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's (ACGME's) full-text definition of SBP and the 6 discrete expectations it contains were content analyzed. Structured interviews of 88 health care professionals using a variant of focus group interviews called nominal group processes were conducted and qualitatively analyzed to identify the key attributes of SBP. Themes obtained from these 2 procedures were conceptually matched and organized to create a taxonomy of observable SPB behaviors and the SBP domain. Results Six general resident roles emerged, under which 35 specific behavioral attributes were subsumed. From the SBP domain specified. Sample SBP items categorized by roles were derived that reflected “in-context” representations of ACGME SBP expectations. Conclusion Our comprehensive analysis created an operational representation of the SBP competency. The taxonomy development model provides a framework for constructing assessment instrument(s) that could be applied to the other ACGME competencies or complex concepts in medical education. PMID:21975707

  17. Evaluation of a novel compule-based gingival retraction system in UK general dental practices.

    PubMed

    Burke, F J Trevor; Crisp, Russell John

    2014-06-01

    Twelve members were selected at random from the PREP panel, a group of UK-based dentists who are prepared to carry out research in their practices. A questionnaire was designed to determine the views of the participants, who were asked to use the retraction paste capsules where clinically indicated. They were asked to return the questionnaire after 8 weeks and the information contained therein was collated and presented mainly on visual analogue scales (VAS). A total of 160 impressions were taken using the Astringent Retraction Paste (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) plus use in the placement of 25 restorations. Of evaluators, 83% (n = 10) agreed that Astringent Retraction Paste was a suitable product for gingival retraction and 75% (n = 9) agreed that it had good haemostatic properties. Overall dispensing and handling of the paste was rated as 4.9 on a VAS scale where 1 = Inconvenient and 5 = Convenient. The viscosity of the paste was rated as 3.6 on a VAS where 1 = too thin and 5 = too thick. Good scores were achieved across all criteria for the product. Clinical Relevance: Practitioners may wish to be aware of a novel compule-based gingival retraction system. PMID:25073225

  18. Case studies of energy information systems and related technology: Operational practices, costs, and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Dewey, Jim

    2003-09-02

    Energy Information Systems (EIS), which can monitor and analyze building energy consumption and related data throughout the Internet, have been increasing in use over the last decade. Though EIS developers describe the capabilities, costs, and benefits of EIS, many of these descriptions are idealized and often insufficient for potential users to evaluate cost, benefit and operational usefulness. LBNL has conducted a series of case studies of existing EIS and related technology installations. This study explored the following questions: (1) How is the EIS used in day-to-day operation? (2) What are the costs and benefits of an EIS? (3) Where do the energy savings come from? This paper reviews the process of these technologies from installation through energy management practice. The study is based on interviews with operators and energy managers who use EIS. Analysis of energy data trended by EIS and utility bills was also conducted to measure the benefit. This paper explores common uses and findings to identify energy savings attributable to EIS, and discusses non-energy benefits as well. This paper also addresses technologies related to EIS that have been demonstrated and evaluated by LBNL.

  19. Central Nervous System Disease in Hematological Malignancies: Historical Perspective and Practical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Thiel, Eckhard

    2009-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) 5-year survival rates are approaching 90% in children and 50% in adults who are receiving contemporary risk-directed treatment protocols. Current efforts focus not only on further improving cure rate but also on patient quality of life. Hence, all protocols decrease or limit the use of cranial irradiation as central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy, even in patients with high-risk presenting features, such as the presence of leukemia cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (even resulting from traumatic lumbar puncture), adverse genetic features, T-cell immunophenotype, and a large leukemia-cell burden. Current strategies for CNS-directed therapy involve effective systemic chemotherapy (eg, dexamethasone, high-dose methotrexate, intensive asparaginase, ifosfamide) and early intensification and optimization of intrathecal therapy. Options under investigation for the treatment of relapsed or refractory CNS leukemia in ALL patients include thiotepa and intrathecal liposomal cytarabine. CNS involvement in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is associated with young age, advanced stage, number of extranodal sites, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and International Prognostic Index score. Refractory CNS lymphoma in patients with NHL carries a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 2 to 6 months; the most promising treatment, autologous stem cell transplant, can extend median survival from 10 to 26 months. CNS prophylaxis is required during the initial treatment of NHL subtypes that carry a high risk of CNS relapse, such as B-cell ALL, Burkitt’s lymphoma, and lymphoblastic lymphoma. The use of CNS prophylaxis in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is controversial because of the low risk of CNS relapse (~5%) in this population. In this article, we review current and past practice of intrathecal therapy in ALL and NHL and the risk-models that aim to identify predictors of CNS relapse in NHL. PMID:19660680

  20. A practical MRI grading system for cervical foraminal stenosis based on oblique sagittal images

    PubMed Central

    Park, H-J; Kim, S S; Lee, S-Y; Chung, E-C; Rho, M-H; Kwon, H-J; Kook, S-H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To propose a new and practical MRI grading method for cervical neural foraminal stenosis and to evaluate its reproducibility. Methods: We evaluated 50 patients (37 males and 13 females, mean age 49 years) who visited our institution and underwent oblique sagittal MRI of the cervical spine. A total of 300 foramina and corresponding nerve roots in 50 patients were qualitatively analysed from C4–5 to C6–7. We assessed the grade of cervical foraminal stenosis at the maximal narrowing point according to the new grading system based on T2 weighted oblique sagittal images. The incidence of each of the neural foraminal stenosis grades according to the cervical level was analysed by χ2 tests. Intra- and interobserver agreements between two radiologists were analysed using kappa statistics. Kappa value interpretations were poor (κ<0.1), slight (0.1≤κ≤0.2), fair (0.2<κ≤0.4), moderate (0.4<κ≤0.6), substantial (0.6<κ≤0.8) and almost perfect (0.8<κ≤1.0). Results: Significant stenoses (Grades 2 and 3) were rarely found at the C4–5 level. The incidence of Grade 3 at the C5–6 level was higher than that at other levels, a difference that was statistically significant. The overall intra-observer agreement according to the cervical level was almost perfect. The agreement at each level was almost perfect, except for only substantial agreement at the right C6–7 by Reader 2. No statistically significant differences were seen according to the cervical level. Overall kappa values of interobserver agreement according to the cervical level were almost perfect. In addition, the agreement of each level was almost perfect. Overall intra- and interobserver agreement for the presence of foraminal stenosis (Grade 0 vs Grades 1, 2 and 3) and for significant stenosis (Grades 0 and 1 vs Grades 2 and 3) showed similar results and were almost perfect. However, only substantial agreement was seen in the right C6–7. Conclusion: A new grading system for cervical

  1. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practice For Children & Adolescents: A Systems Approach to Enhancing Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association (APA), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on psychological practice with children and adolescents, concurring with a previous task force report that integrating science and practice must be a priority. In addition, the report advocates that developmental considerations and cultural/contextual factors warrant specific, distinctive attention by researchers and…

  2. Evidence to Practice Commentary: The Evidence Alert Traffic Light Grading System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Iona

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the "Evidence to Practice" commentary is to highlight an issue or research finding in selected articles, emphasizing the relevance to practice. This article introduces a new tool designed to summarize the most up-to-date evidence in an easily readable format, in order to provide clinically useful answers within minutes for assisting…

  3. Pilot of a Learning Management System to Enhance Counselors' Relational Qualities through Mindfulness-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness-based practices are associated with increased attentional qualities, improved self-focus styles, enhanced empathic understanding, and strengthened self-compassion, making these practices a viable addition to counselor training programs. However, current mindfulness training models are primarily designed for relief of psychological…

  4. Knowledge Systems, Health Care Teams, and Clinical Practice: A Study of Successful Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Curtis A.; Tooman, Tricia R.; Alvarado, Carla J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical teams are of growing importance to healthcare delivery, but little is known about how teams learn and change their clinical practice. We examined how teams in three US hospitals succeeded in making significant practice improvements in the area of antimicrobial resistance. This was a qualitative cross-case study employing Soft Knowledge…

  5. Evaluating the Motivational Impact of CALL Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodnar, Stephen; Cucchiarini, Catia; Strik, Helmer; van Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    A major aim of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is to create computer environments that facilitate students' second language (L2) acquisition. To achieve this aim, CALL employs technological innovations to create novel types of language practice. Evaluations of the new practice types serve the important role of distinguishing effective…

  6. The Profiles, Patterns, and Practices of Women Superintendents in Alabama's Public School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouillette, Janine E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a profile that describes the patterns and practices of the 27 women who served as public school superintendents in Alabama during the 2006-2007 school year. This study explored the relationship between the profiles, patterns, and practices found in research and the manifestations in the lives and careers of…

  7. Integrating Single-System Design Research into the Clinical Practice Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Marlene G.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical practice and research are generally taught separately in Master of Social Work programs by faculty with distinct areas of expertise. This paper discusses the teaching of single-subject design research methodology by clinical faculty, in the clinical practice class. Examples from student papers demonstrate the effectiveness of integrating…

  8. Promoting Assessment Efficacy through an Integrated System for Online Clinical Assessment of Practical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Peter J.; Engstrom, Craig; Green, Anita; Friis, Peter; Dickens, Sue; Macdonald, Doune

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evaluation outcomes from an externally funded research project involving the online clinical assessment of practical skills (eCAPS) using web-based video technologies within a university medical programme. eCAPS was implemented to trial this web-based approach for promoting the efficacy of "practical" skills assessment in knee…

  9. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  10. Profession differences in family focused practice in the adult mental health system.

    PubMed

    Maybery, Darryl; Goodyear, Melinda; O'Hanlon, Brendan; Cuff, Rose; Reupert, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    There is a large gulf between what psychiatric services should (or could) provide and what they do in practice. This article sought to determine practice differences between the differing professions working in adult mental health services in terms of their family focused work. Three hundred and seven adult mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey of family focused practices in adult mental health services. Findings highlight that social workers engaged in more family focused practice compared to psychiatric nurses, who performed consistently the lowest on direct family care, compared to both social workers and psychologists. Clear skill, knowledge, and confidence differences are indicated between the professions. The article concludes by offering direction for future profession education and training in family focused practices. PMID:24945363

  11. Uncertainty analysis of practical structural health monitoring systems currently employed for tall buildings consisting of small number of sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Kenta; Mita, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Because of social background, such as repeated large earthquakes and cheating in design and construction, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are getting strong attention. The SHM systems are in a practical phase. An SHM system consisting of small number of sensors has been introduced to 6 tall buildings in Shinjuku area. Including them, there are 2 major issues in the SHM systems consisting of small number of sensors. First, optimal system number of sensors and the location are not well-defined. In the practice, system placement is determined based on rough prediction and experience. Second, there are some uncertainties in estimation results by the SHM systems. Thus, the purpose of this research is to provide useful information for increasing reliability of SHM system and to improve estimation results based on uncertainty analysis of the SHM systems. The important damage index used here is the inter-story drift angle. The uncertainty considered here are number of sensors, earthquake motion characteristics, noise in data, error between numerical model and real building, nonlinearity of parameter. Then I have analyzed influence of each factor to estimation accuracy. The analysis conducted here will help to decide sensor system design considering valance of cost and accuracy. Because of constraint on the number of sensors, estimation results by the SHM system has tendency to provide smaller values. To overcome this problem, a compensation algorithm was discussed and presented. The usefulness of this compensation method was demonstrated for 40 story S and RC building models with nonlinear response.

  12. Research on high-accuracy two-dimensional digital image correlation hardware measurement systems used in the engineering practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Ding, Keqin; Feng, Qibo

    2014-11-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) method is a rapid development of photomechanics technology. The basic principle of the method is calculated the correlation between before and after deformation of the specimen surface speckle images, which is used to determine displacement and deformation. DIC measurement system includes hardware and software system. The former is the speckle image acquisition system, the latter are speckle image analysis algorithm and implementation procedures. Because the software analysis algorithm can achieve sub-pixel accuracy or even more, most of scholars have focused on the speckle image analysis algorithms. The system performance caused by the composition of hardware system has been less introduced. The hardware system mainly included the camera, lenses, lighting and other components. If hardware system is not perfect and stable, it will bring hundreds or even thousands of micro strain measurement error. These unfavorable factors make 2D-DIC inaccurate in small deformation tests. To some extent, it limits the application of 2D-DIC in the engineering practice. This paper analyzed that the various components of DIC hardware system impacted on the system performance, It was given that how to reasonably select the various components in the typical cases, as well as involved that the selection of 2D-DIC measurement system is applied to the actual engineering measurements in high temperature environment. These can provide support that 2D-DIC measurement system is better applied to the engineering practice.

  13. 28 CFR 16.78 - Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems. 16.78 Section 16.78 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.78 Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair...

  14. 28 CFR 16.78 - Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems. 16.78 Section 16.78 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.78 Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair...

  15. 28 CFR 16.78 - Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems. 16.78 Section 16.78 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.78 Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair...

  16. 28 CFR 16.78 - Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems. 16.78 Section 16.78 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.78 Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair...

  17. 28 CFR 16.78 - Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems. 16.78 Section 16.78 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.78 Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair...

  18. Inquiry into the Practices of Expert Courseware Designers: A Pragmatic Method for the Design of Effective Instructional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    A multi-stage study of the practices of expert courseware designers was conducted with the final goal of identifying methods for assisting non-experts with the design of effective instructional systems. A total of 25 expert designers were involved in all stages of the inquiry. A model of the expert courseware design process was created, tested,…

  19. 40 CFR 141.553 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my combined filter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my combined filter effluent? 141.553 Section 141.553 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS...

  20. 40 CFR 141.564 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my individual filter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my individual filter turbidity monitoring? 141.564 Section 141.564 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER...

  1. Use of Saliva for Assessment of Stress and Its Effect on the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, S. Reid; Brown, Jason R.; Aycock, Jeffrey E.; Grubbs, S. Lee; Johnson, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal effects of a series of stressful gross anatomy tests on the immune system. Thirty-six freshman occupational therapy students completed a written stress evaluation survey, and saliva samples were obtained at baseline and prior to each of three timed-practical gross anatomy tests.…

  2. 75 FR 54939 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice Changing the Date of the Country Practices Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Policy Staff Committee; Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. BILLING CODE 3190-W0-P ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice Changing the Date of the Country Practices Review Hearing AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. Scaring the Students Away? Institutional Selection through Assessment Practices in the Danish Vocational and Educational Training System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grønborg, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds light on how competence assessment takes place in the Danish Vocational and Educational Training System. It discusses how intentions formulated by the government have unintentional effects when implemented in practice. The qualitative methods used in this study consist of participant observations from my field study of dropouts in…

  4. NDTAC Practice Guide: Quality Education Services Are Critical for Youth Involved with the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsoulin, Simon; Clark, Heather Griller; Rankin, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    This National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk (NDTAC) practice guide examines the principle that quality education services are critical for youth involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. This principle asserts that, to address the…

  5. Academic Standards and Students with Disabilities: School Practitioners' Perspectives of Pedagogical Strategies and Systemic Practices Leading to Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    This case study investigated evidence-based teaching strategies and systemic practices that support positive academic outcomes for students with disabilities. Equity in educating students with disabilities is paramount and reflected in the legislation of the past five decades. The Institute of Education Sciences in partnership with special…

  6. Modifying the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time to Measure Teacher Practices Related to Physical Activity Promotion: SOFIT+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Choukroun, Hadrien; Kaysing, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is commonly used to measure variables related to physical activity during physical education (PE). However, SOFIT does not yield detailed information about teacher practices related to children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study describes the modification of SOFIT…

  7. Handbook of Response to Intervention: The Science and Practice of Multi-Tiered Systems of Support, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R., Ed.; Burns, Matthew K., Ed.; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of this essential handbook provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the science that informs best practices for the implementation of response to intervention (RTI) processes within Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) to facilitate the academic success of all students. The volume includes insights from leading scholars…

  8. School Systems' Practices of Controlling Socialization during Principal Succession: Looking through the Lens of an Organizational Socialization Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtson, Ed; Zepeda, Sally J.; Parylo, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    The importance of effective school leadership is well known. The inevitable changing of school leaders raises concerns over the successfulness of the succession process. Directly linked to leader succession is socialization; therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the processes and practices of school systems that control the…

  9. 40 CFR 63.7925 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for closed vent systems and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for closed vent systems and control devices? 63.7925 Section 63.7925 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR...

  10. Use of Alternate Assessment Results in Reporting and Accountability Systems: Conditions for Use Based on Research and Practice. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Rigney, Susan; Thurlow, Martha

    State assessment systems must address both technical and policy issues as assessments and accountability practices are developed and implemented. These technical and policy issues have been expanded from traditional large-scale assessment to new alternative assessment approaches required by law and developed in every state. The primary purpose of…

  11. 40 CFR 141.542 - What must my system do if we are considering a significant change to disinfection practices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must my system do if we are considering a significant change to disinfection practices? 141.542 Section 141.542 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING...

  12. 40 CFR 141.542 - What must my system do if we are considering a significant change to disinfection practices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must my system do if we are considering a significant change to disinfection practices? 141.542 Section 141.542 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration...

  13. The Campus Environmental Management System Cycle in Practice: 15 Years of Environmental Management, Education and Research at Dalhousie University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Amelia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To challenge the deliberate strategy approach of the environmental management system (EMS) cycle, and offer a model based on both the practical reality experienced at Dalhousie University and emergent strategy theory. Also, to share some of the lessons learned in the 15 years of environmental management at Dalhousie University.…

  14. Systemic therapy for recurrent, persistent, or metastatic cervical cancer: a clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Hirte, H.; Kennedy, E.B.; Elit, L.; Fung Kee Fung, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic therapy options are needed for women with recurrent, metastatic, or persistent cervical cancer. This systematic review and clinical practice guideline were developed to address that need, and to update a 2007 guideline from Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-Based Care. Methods The literature between 2006 and April 2014 in the medline and embase databases, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Issue 4, 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 3, 2014), relevant guideline databases, and conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (2007–2013) was searched. A working group developed draft guidelines and incorporated comments and feedback from internal and external reviewers. Results Four phase iii randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for the review and provided the basis for draft recommendations. Feedback was obtained from Ontario practitioners and others abroad, which led to modifications to the draft recommendations. Three key recommendations were developed. Conclusions The working group concluded that all patients should be offered the opportunity to participate in appropriate randomized clinical trials. Cisplatin–paclitaxel, cisplatin–vinorelbine, cisplatin–gemcitabine, and cisplatin–topotecan are recommended combinations for this patient population. The substitution of carboplatin for cisplatin in the foregoing combinations can also be recommended because carboplatin is associated with fewer adverse effects and greater ease of administration. Selection of combination chemotherapy will depend on the toxicity profile, patient preference, and other factors. Finally, bevacizumab in combination with cisplatin–paclitaxel or carboplatin–paclitaxel is recommended for a specific subset of the target population as outlined in Gynecologic Oncology Group study 0240. PMID:26089720

  15. EFFECTS OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL PRACTICES ON WEED CONTROL IN A PERENNIAL CROPPING SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vineyard weed communities were examined under the influence of an organic weed control practice, soil cultivation with a Clemens cultivator, and applications of the herbicide, glyphosate. Experimental treatments (winter-spring glyphosate, spring cultivation, fall-spring cultivation, fall cultivatio...

  16. 76 FR 77299 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice of Review of Certain Pending Country Practice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Bangladesh, Niger, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Uzbekistan. In addition, the hearing will include testimony on a country practice petition related to the Republic of Georgia. (See 76 FR 67530.) FOR...

  17. Training for systemic general practice: a new approach from the Tavistock Clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Launer, J; Lindsey, C

    1997-01-01

    A new course at the Tavistock Clinic offers general practitioners (GPs) and primary care nurses a training based on family therapy principles but directed at developing skills and conceptualization across the whole range of general practice work. The course may point to a new way forward for postgraduate training in general practice, creating links with the social sciences and giving doctors and nurses appropriate training for the 'postmodern' world. PMID:9281876

  18. Towards monolithic scintillator based TOF-PET systems: practical methods for detector calibration and operation.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Giacomo; Tabacchini, Valerio; Schaart, Dennis R

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-ray detectors based on thick monolithic scintillator crystals can achieve spatial resolutions  <2 mm full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) and coincidence resolving times (CRTs) better than 200 ps FWHM. Moreover, they provide high sensitivity and depth-of-interaction (DOI) information. While these are excellent characteristics for clinical time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET), the application of monolithic scintillators has so far been hampered by the lengthy and complex procedures needed for position- and time-of-interaction estimation. Here, the algorithms previously developed in our group are revised to make the calibration and operation of a large number of monolithic scintillator detectors in a TOF-PET system practical. In particular, the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification method for x,y-position estimation is accelerated with an algorithm that quickly preselects only the most useful reference events, reducing the computation time for position estimation by a factor of ~200 compared to the previously published k-NN 1D method. Also, the procedures for estimating the DOI and time of interaction are revised to enable full detector calibration by means of fan-beam or flood irradiations only. Moreover, a new technique is presented to allow the use of events in which some of the photosensor pixel values and/or timestamps are missing (e.g. due to dead time), so as to further increase system sensitivity. The accelerated methods were tested on a monolithic scintillator detector specifically developed for clinical PET applications, consisting of a 32 mm  ×  32 mm  ×  22 mm LYSO : Ce crystal coupled to a digital photon counter (DPC) array. This resulted in a spatial resolution of 1.7 mm FWHM, an average DOI resolution of 3.7 mm FWHM, and a CRT of 214 ps. Moreover, the possibility of using events missing the information of up to 16 out of 64 photosensor pixels is shown. This results in only a small

  19. Towards monolithic scintillator based TOF-PET systems: practical methods for detector calibration and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Giacomo; Tabacchini, Valerio; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-ray detectors based on thick monolithic scintillator crystals can achieve spatial resolutions  <2 mm full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) and coincidence resolving times (CRTs) better than 200 ps FWHM. Moreover, they provide high sensitivity and depth-of-interaction (DOI) information. While these are excellent characteristics for clinical time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET), the application of monolithic scintillators has so far been hampered by the lengthy and complex procedures needed for position- and time-of-interaction estimation. Here, the algorithms previously developed in our group are revised to make the calibration and operation of a large number of monolithic scintillator detectors in a TOF-PET system practical. In particular, the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification method for x,y-position estimation is accelerated with an algorithm that quickly preselects only the most useful reference events, reducing the computation time for position estimation by a factor of ~200 compared to the previously published k-NN 1D method. Also, the procedures for estimating the DOI and time of interaction are revised to enable full detector calibration by means of fan-beam or flood irradiations only. Moreover, a new technique is presented to allow the use of events in which some of the photosensor pixel values and/or timestamps are missing (e.g. due to dead time), so as to further increase system sensitivity. The accelerated methods were tested on a monolithic scintillator detector specifically developed for clinical PET applications, consisting of a 32 mm  ×  32 mm  ×  22 mm LYSO : Ce crystal coupled to a digital photon counter (DPC) array. This resulted in a spatial resolution of 1.7 mm FWHM, an average DOI resolution of 3.7 mm FWHM, and a CRT of 214 ps. Moreover, the possibility of using events missing the information of up to 16 out of 64 photosensor pixels is shown. This results in only a small

  20. Did the new French pay-for-performance system modify benzodiazepine prescribing practices?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background French general practitioners (GPs) were enrolled in a new payment system in January 2012. As part of a national agreement with the French National Ministry of Health, GPs were asked to decrease the proportion of patients who continued their benzodiazepine treatment 12 weeks after its initiation and to decrease the proportion of patients older than 65 who were prescribed long half-life benzodiazepines. In return, GPs could expect an extra payment of up to 490 euros per year. This study reports the evolution of the corresponding prescribing practices of French GPs during that period regarding patients who were prescribed a benzodiazepine for the first time. Methods The national healthcare system's administrative database was used to report the longitudinal follow-up of two historical cohorts of French patients from the Pays de la Loire area. Study patients: The “2011” and “2012” cohorts included all patients who initiated benzodiazepine regimens from April 1 to June 30 in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The primary outcomes were the proportion of those study patients who continued benzodiazepine treatment after 12 weeks and the proportion of study patients >65 years who were prescribed long half-life benzodiazepines. Analyses were performed using a multi-level regression. Results In total, 41,436 and 42,042 patients initiated benzodiazepine treatment in 2011 and 2012, respectively. A total of 18.97% of patients continued treatment for more than 12 weeks in 2012, compared with 18.18% in 2011. In all, 27.43% and 28.06% of patients >65 years continued treatment beyond 12 weeks in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The proportion of patients >65 years who were prescribed long half-life benzodiazepines decreased from 53.5% to 48.8% (p < 0.005) due to an increase in short half-life benzodiazepine prescriptions. Patients >65 years who were prescribed short half-life benzodiazepines were more likely to continue treatment after 12 weeks (p < 0

  1. First real-time experimental demonstrations of 11.25Gb/s optical OFDMA PONs with adaptive dynamic bandwidth allocation.

    PubMed

    Jin, X Q; Hugues-Salas, E; Giddings, R P; Wei, J L; Groenewald, J; Tang, J M

    2011-10-10

    End-to-end real-time experimental demonstrations are reported, for the first time, of aggregated 11.25Gb/s over 26.4km standard SMF, optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OOFDMA) PONs with adaptive dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA). The demonstrated intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IMDD) OOFDMA PON system consists of two optical network units (ONUs), each of which employs a DFB-based directly modulated laser (DML) or a VCSEL-based DML for modulating upstream signals. Extensive experimental explorations of dynamic OOFDMA PON system properties are undertaken utilizing identified optimum DML operating conditions. It is shown that, for simultaneously achieving acceptable BERs for all upstream signals, the OOFDMA PON system has a >3dB dynamic ONU launch power variation range, and the BER performance of the system is insusceptible to any upstream symbol offsets slightly smaller than the adopted cyclic prefix. In addition, experimental results also indicate that, in addition to maximizing the aggregated system transmission capacity, adaptive DBA can also effectively reduce imperfections in transmission channel properties without affecting signal bit rates offered to individual ONUs. PMID:21997063

  2. Implementation of Sustainable Soil Management Practices to Improve Crop Production in the Different Ethiopian Agro Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Moreno, R.; Gameda, S.; Diaz Alvarez, M. C.; Selasie, Y. G.

    2012-04-01

    Agriculture in Ethiopia is one of first priority since close to 10 In this context, the Ethiopian crop production faces to the following soil management challenges: lack of updated soil data, macro and micro nutrient depletion, acidity, salinity and soil surface erosion and crusting. One of the biggest issues is the loss of arable land, above 137 T/yr, reaching during some particularly dried periods until 300 T/yr. In this context, the authors constituted a working group of experts from Spanish and Ethiopian universities, local producers and international and governmental organisms to analyse the problems related to the different agro ecological zones found in Ethiopia and the management practices of different local producers. The study produced the trends to implement in the different areas to improve soil management practices in order to contribute to increase the crop production mainly to achieve food security problems. The analyse produced different working fields for the next years for addressing soil degradation, improving land resources management practices, increasing agricultural productivity, updating the available soil data, developing an international program of education, transferring of knowledge from similar study cases and implementing economical tools to help producers to assure income after severe edapho-climatic events. The practical work and the projects developed for the next period is addressed to smallholder farms belonging to the different 34 agro ecological zones identified in Ethiopia, each of them with very specific environmental, cultural and soil management practices.

  3. A Hitchhiker’s Guide to Myeloid Cell Subsets: Practical Implementation of a Novel Mononuclear Phagocyte Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Guilliams, Martin; van de Laar, Lianne

    2015-01-01

    The classification of mononuclear phagocytes as either dendritic cells or macrophages has been mainly based on morphology, the expression of surface markers, and assumed functional specialization. We have recently proposed a novel classification system of mononuclear phagocytes based on their ontogeny. Here, we discuss the practical application of such a classification system through a number of prototypical examples we have encountered while hitchhiking from one subset to another, across species and between steady-state and inflammatory settings. Finally, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of such a classification system and propose a number of improvements to move from theoretical concepts to concrete guidelines. PMID:26322042

  4. Lower bound of optimization in radiological protection system taking account of practical implementation of clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Takatoshi

    2007-07-01

    The dose criterion used to derive clearance and exemption levels is of the order of 0.01 mSv/y based on the Basic Safety Standard (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the use of which has been agreed upon by many countries. It is important for human beings, who are facing the fact that global resources for risk reduction are limited, to carefully consider the practical implementation of radiological protection systems, particularly for low-radiation-dose regions. For example, in direct gamma ray monitoring, to achieve clearance level compliance, difficult issues on how the uncertainty (error) of gamma measurement should be handled and also how the uncertainty (scattering) of the estimation of non-gamma emitters should be treated in clearance must be resolved. To resolve these issues, a new probabilistic approach has been proposed to establish an appropriate safety factor for compliance with the clearance level in Japan. This approach is based on the fundamental concept that 0.1 mSv/y should be complied with the 97.5. percentile of the probability distribution for the uncertainties of both the measurement and estimation of non-gamma emitters. The International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP published a new concept of the representative person in Publication 101 Part I. The representative person is a hypothetical person exposed to a dose that is representative of those of highly exposed persons in a population. In a probabilistic dose assessment, the ICRP recommends that the representative person should be defined such that the probability of exposure occurrence is lower than about 5% that of a person randomly selected from the population receiving a high dose. From the new concept of the ICRP, it is reasonable to consider that the 95. percentile of the dose distribution for the representative person is theoretically always lower than the dose constraint. Using this established relationship, it can be concluded that the minimum dose

  5. Web-Based Systems Development: Analysis and Comparison of Practices in Croatia and Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael; Vukovac, Dijana Plantak

    The “dot.com” hysteria which sparked fears of a “Web crisis” a decade ago has long subsided and firms established in the 1990 s now have mature development processes in place. This chapter presents a timely re-assessment of the state of Web development practices, comparing data gathered in Croatia and Ireland. Given the growth in popularity of “agile” methods in the past few years, a secondary objective of this research was to analyse the extent to which Web development practices are guided by or otherwise consistent with the underlying principles of agile development.

  6. A new method for designing dual foil electron beam forming systems. II. Feasibility of practical implementation of the method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrich, Przemysław

    2016-05-01

    In Part I of this work a new method for designing dual foil electron beam forming systems was introduced. In this method, an optimal configuration of the dual foil system is found by means of a systematic, automatized scan of system performance in function of its parameters. At each point of the scan, Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the off-axis dose profile in water taking into account detailed and complete geometry of the system. The new method, while being computationally intensive, minimizes the involvement of the designer. In this Part II paper, feasibility of practical implementation of the new method is demonstrated. For this, a prototype software tools were developed and applied to solve a real life design problem. It is demonstrated that system optimization can be completed within few hours time using rather moderate computing resources. It is also demonstrated that, perhaps for the first time, the designer can gain deep insight into system behavior, such that the construction can be simultaneously optimized in respect to a number of functional characteristics besides the flatness of the off-axis dose profile. In the presented example, the system is optimized in respect to both, flatness of the off-axis dose profile and the beam transmission. A number of practical issues related to application of the new method as well as its possible extensions are discussed.

  7. [A Comprehensive Care System for Children with Anorexia Nervosa in Pediatric Practice].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hisako

    2015-01-01

    Against the backdrop of rapid industrialization and westernization after the World War II, there has been an ever increasing number of children with anorexia nervosa (AN) in pediatric practice, making it one of the most common diseases in children. With a severe lack of AN specialists in Japan, pediatricians need to face the daunting task of treating AN on their own. Malnutrition overlooked during periods of growth and development yields a risk of death, growth disturbance and an intractable conditions with secondary disorders of brain atrophy, osteoporosis, infertility, maltreatment and childrearing failures, mental disorders and others, which can last for life. Prevention is the best and a must for AN, and an early detection and treatment need to be in place to mitigate its progress and aggravation. It is crucial that an effective care is provided in early, treatable stage to assist the patient back to a healthy developmental trajectory. In 1993, the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Keio University (hereafter PKU) appointed a child psychiatrist as its fulltime staff and has included inpatient treatment of AN as a compulsory item of its postgraduate training program. Over the past twenty years, PKU has developed a comprehensive treatment system of AN (Scientific Report of Ministry of Welfare and Labor 2006). In the primary care of AN, a screening tool using simple physical measurement of weight on growth chart combined with pulse proves effective. When a weight on growth chart reveals an unhealthy weight loss and is combined with bradycardia, it detects AN at sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 93%. In the secondary care of AN, 40 pediatric institutions affiliated with PKU implemented early treatment of AN with the support of the Mental Health Division of PKU. In the tertiary care for severely emaciated AN patients, an around-the-clock intensive treatment program, called Anorexia Nervosa Intensive Care Unit (ANICU) was instituted. The gist of ANICU

  8. The Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act and the practice of dentistry in the United States: system security.

    PubMed

    Chasteen, Joseph E; Murphy, Gretchen; Forrey, Arden; Heid, David

    2004-08-15

    This article reviews the issues related to the Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act (HIPAA) security rule that apply to dental practice. The security rule specifically addresses individually identifiable health information that is transmitted or maintained in electronic media. System security must be applied to the entire technical infrastructure for the practice environment as well as to the work culture on a daily basis and must be thought of as an enterprise asset. Security refers to all of the policies, procedures, tools, and techniques used to assure that privacy and confidentiality are adequately addressed in a healthcare system. HIPAA requires all covered entities that transmit or maintain electronic health information perform, and document, a risk assessment for security and develop a security plan to address major areas of concern. A self-assessment tool is provided in this article. PMID:15318267

  9. A profitable hygiene system: not an undervalued practice resource, part 2.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Hugh; Davis, Karen; Miller, Kimberly

    2009-02-01

    In this 2-part article, we have addressed the correct methods to use in selecting the right hygienist and the importance of creating a purposeful vision for your dental hygiene department. We have touched on the role of having the doctor discuss practice expectations, and the qualities and traits a dental hygienist should possess. Finally we have briefly reviewed some ideas regarding hygienist compensation as well as the integration of the new technologies to help you build a successful, productive, and profitable dental hygiene department. Many of today's practice owners have invested hundreds of thousands of dollars in updated facilities and state-of-the-art technology. They have invested in management and leadership courses, developed their business acumen, and have worked to insure that their clinical assistants' skills stay sharp. However, when it comes to dental hygiene, too many practices still operate a 1980s-style "prophylaxis mindset palace." The time has come for more dentists to embrace up-to-date dental hygiene practice standards. PMID:19275088

  10. Promising Practices for Community College Developmental Education: A Discussion Resource for the Connecticut Community College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy; Jenkins, Davis

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes key findings from the literature on effective developmental education practice. It is designed to promote discussion among community college educators and state agency staff in Connecticut as they consider how to improve outcomes for their many students who are academically unprepared to succeed in college. One common theme…

  11. 75 FR 65051 - Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Inspection of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) intention to accept the ASTM International's F2696-08 Standard... Comments, and must specify the standard being addressed by ASTM F2696-08 Standard Practice for Inspection... forwarded to ASTM International Committee F39 for consideration. The standard may be changed in light of...

  12. Teaching Digital Systems in the Context of the New European Higher Education Area: A Practical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, X. C.; Martin, M. J.; Sanjurjo, J.; Regueiro, C. V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a practical experience of adapting the teaching of a course in Computer Technology (CT) to the new demands of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). CT is a core course taught in the first year of the degree program Technical Engineering in Management Computing in the Faculty of Computer Science at the University of A…

  13. Entrepreneurial University: Concurrent Practices in the US Business Higher Education System A Romanian Fulbright Scholar's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paunescu, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses a model of entrepreneurial university embraced by American business schools as perceived by a Romanian Fulbright scholar. The purpose of this study was to highlight the practices pursued by the US entrepreneurial universities in their journey towards increasing performance excellence and strengthening the prestige of the…

  14. Student Assessment System. Domain Referenced Tests. Allied Health Occupations/Practical Nursing. Volume II: Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Gene, Comp.; Simpson, Bruce, Comp.

    These written domain referenced tests (DRTs) for the area of allied health occupations/practical nursing test cognitive abilities or knowledge of theory. Introductory materials describe domain referenced testing and test development. Each multiple choice test includes a domain statement, describing the behavior and content of the domain, and a…

  15. Farm-system modeling to evaluate environmental losses, profitability, and best management practice cost-effectiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To meet Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load requirements for agricultural pollution, conservation districts and farmers are tasked with implementing best management practices (BMPs) that reduce farm losses of nutrients and sediment. The importance of the agricultural industry to the regional eco...

  16. Are Open Educational Resources Systematic or Systemic Change Agents for Teaching Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Andy; McAndrew, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Open educational resources (OER) raise many similar issues for education to those that have surrounded Learning Objects (LO). However the greater use and availability of digital technologies and open licensing seems to be enabling OER to have wider acceptance into individual and institutional teaching practice. While the need for appropriate…

  17. Training for Efficiency: Work, Time, and Systems-Based Practice in Medical Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymczak, Julia E.; Bosk, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    Medical residency is a period of intense socialization with a heavy workload. Previous sociological studies have identified efficiency as a practical skill necessary for success. However, many contextual features of the training environment have undergone dramatic change since these studies were conducted. What are the consequences of these…

  18. Data-Driven Decision Making in Practice: The NCAA Injury Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klossner, David; Corlette, Jill; Agel, Julie; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Putting data-driven decision making into practice requires the use of consistent and reliable data that are easily accessible. The systematic collection and maintenance of accurate information is an important component in developing policy and evaluating outcomes. Since 1982, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has been collecting…

  19. A Rasch Model Analysis of Evidence-Based Treatment Practices Used in the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Craig E.; Taxman, Faye S.; Young, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    This study used item response theory (IRT) to examine the extent to which criminal justice facilities and community-based agencies are using evidence-based substance abuse treatment practices (EBPs), which EBPs are most commonly used, and how EBPs cluster together. The study used data collected from wardens, justice administrators, and treatment directors as part of the National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey (NCJTP; Taxman et al., 2007a), and includes both adult criminal and juvenile justice samples. Results of Rasch modeling demonstrated that a reliable measure can be formed to gauge the extent to which juvenile and adult correctional facilities, and community treatment agencies serving offenders, have adopted various treatment practices supported by research. We also demonstrated the concurrent validity of the measure by showing that features of the facilities’ organizational contexts were associated with the extent to which facilities were using EBPs, and which EBPs they were using. Researchers, clinicians, and program administrators may find these results interesting not only because they show the program factors most strongly related to EBP use, but the results also suggest that certain treatment practices are generally clustered together, which may help stakeholders plan and prioritize the adoption of new EBPs in their facilities. The study has implications for future research focused on understanding the adoption and implementation of EBPs in correctional environments. PMID:18029116

  20. EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON THE SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY IN AGRICULTURAL AND NATIVE SYSTEMS IN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increase in agricultural practices in the Cerrado (tropical savannah) and Amazon regions in Brazil is causing drastic changes in the nutrient and carbon cycling of native areas. Because microorganisms play a key role in biogeochemical cycling, monitoring the shifts in the microb...

  1. Effectiveness of conservation practices within watersheds: Case study in tile-drained systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of conservation practices are governed in part by the spatial and temporal patterns of water flow as runoff and subsurface (tile) drainage. The variability in patterns of nitrate loss were examined using data from different sized catchments with four CEAP watersheds located in cent...

  2. Exploring Management Practices in Child Care Centres in Australia, Queensland from a Social Systems Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nupponen, Hanna

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this research was on the nature and characteristics of effective leadership and management practices in centre-based child care. This paper is part of a larger doctoral study with a focus on management within child care centres. Eight directors were interviewed in south east Queensland, Australia using a case study methodology. There…

  3. Succession Planning and Management: A Guide to Organizational Systems and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berke, David

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of succession-related practices is to ensure that there are ready replacements for key positions in an organization so that turnover will not negatively affect the organization's performance. CCL first published an annotated bibliography on succession planning in 1995. That bibliography focused primarily on the link between succession…

  4. A WebGIS-Based Teaching Assistant System for Geography Field Practice (TASGFP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jiechen; Ni, Haochen; Rui, Yikang; Cui, Can; Cheng, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Field practice is an important part of training geography research talents. However, traditional teaching methods may not adequately manage, share and implement instruction resources and thus may limit the instructor's ability to conduct field instruction. A possible answer is found in the rapid development of computer-assisted instruction (CAI),…

  5. Student Assessment System. Domain Referenced Tests. Allied Health Occupations/Practical Nursing. Volume 1: Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Bruce; And Others

    These performance tests for the area of allied health occupations/practical nursing consist of a sampling technique (domain referenced tests) which covers all the possible performance situations. When used in total, they may also serve as a comprehensive test. Introductory materials discuss domain referenced testing, determining the domains, and…

  6. Comparing production practices and costs for continuous corn and corn-soybean cropping systems: A National Survey of 2005 corn-for-grain producers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forecasts for increased corn acreage will likely lead to an increase in continuous corn cropping systems which may require producers to adjust their production practices compared to the more widely practiced corn-soybean rotation system. Using 2005 field-level data from a probability-based national...

  7. Participatory assessment of animal health and husbandry practices in smallholder pig production systems in three high poverty districts in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dione, Michel M; Ouma, Emily A; Roesel, Kristina; Kungu, Joseph; Lule, Peter; Pezo, Danilo

    2014-12-01

    While animal health constraints have been identified as a major limiting factor in smallholder pig production in Uganda, researchers and policy makers lack information on the relative incidence of diseases and their impacts on pig production. This study aimed to assess animal health and management practices, constraints and opportunities for intervention in smallholder pig value chains in three high poverty districts of Uganda. Semi-qualitative interview checklists through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were administered to 340 pig farmers in 35 villages in Masaka, Kamuli and Mukono districts. Quantitative data was obtained during the exercise through group consensus. Results of FGDs were further triangulated with secondary data and information obtained from key informant interviews. Findings show that pig keeping systems are dominated by tethering and scavenging in rural areas. In peri-urban and urban areas, intensive production systems are more practiced, with pigs confined in pens. The main constraints identified by farmers include high disease burden such as African swine fever (ASF) and parasites, poor housing and feeding practices, poor veterinary services, ineffective drugs and a general lack of knowledge on piggery management. According to farmers, ASF is the primary cause of pig mortality with epidemics occurring mainly during the dry season. Worms and ectoparasites namely; mange, lice and flies are endemic leading to stunted growth which reduces the market value of pigs. Diarrhoea and malnutrition are common in piglets. Ninety-three percent of farmers say they practice deworming, 37% practice ectoparasite spraying and 77% castrate their boars. Indigenous curative treatments include the application of human urine and concoctions of local herbs for ASF control and use of old engine oil or tobacco extracts to control ectoparasites. There is a need for better technical services to assist farmers with these problems. PMID:25458705

  8. Healthcare improvement as planned system change or complex responsive processes? a longitudinal case study in general practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in how to implement evidence-based practices into routine health care has never been greater. Primary care faces challenges in managing the increasing burden of chronic disease in an ageing population. Reliable prescriptions for translating knowledge into practice, however, remain elusive, despite intense research and publication activity. This study seeks to explore this dilemma in general practice by challenging the current way of thinking about healthcare improvement and asking what can be learned by looking at change through a complexity lens. Methods This paper reports the local level of an embedded case study of organisational change for better chronic illness care over more than a decade. We used interviews, document review and direct observation to explore how improved chronic illness care developed in one practice. This formed a critical case to compare, using pattern matching logic, to the common prescription for local implementation of best evidence and a rival explanation drawn from complexity sciences interpreted through modern sociology and psychology. Results The practice changed continuously over more than a decade to deliver better chronic illness care in line with research findings and policy initiatives – re-designing care processes, developing community linkages, supporting patient self-management, using guidelines and clinical information systems, and integrating nurses into the practice team. None of these improvements was designed and implemented according to an explicit plan in response to a documented gap in chronic disease care. The process that led to high quality chronic illness care exhibited clear complexity elements of co-evolution, non-linearity, self-organisation, emergence and edge of chaos dynamics in a network of agents and relationships where a stable yet evolving way of organizing emerged from local level communicative interaction, power relating and values based choices. Conclusions The current discourse

  9. Digital avionics systems - Principles and practices (2nd revised and enlarged edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, Cary R.

    1993-01-01

    The state of the art in digital avionics systems is surveyed. The general topics addressed include: establishing avionics system requirements; avionics systems essentials in data bases, crew interfaces, and power; fault tolerance, maintainability, and reliability; architectures; packaging and fitting the system into the aircraft; hardware assessment and validation; software design, assessment, and validation; determining the costs of avionics.

  10. Establishing Policy Foundations and Regulatory Systems to Enhance Nursing Practice in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lyndal H.; Aqtash, Salah; Day, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) established a Nursing and Midwifery Council with a mandate to develop standards for the registration and regulation of nursing and midwifery and to strengthen the nursing and midwifery workforce. Priorities included workforce Emiratization and the development of regulatory standards to support advanced and speciality nursing practice and new models of care—particularly for the management of noncommunicable diseases. This article provides background, context for, and best practice inputs to the effort to provide one unified framework of nursing regulation and licensure across the whole of the UAE. This article is intended for nurse leaders, policy makers, and regulators who are reviewing or developing nursing regulatory processes and advancing nursing workforce capacity building activities; and nurse educators and nurses wishing to work in the UAE. PMID:25944674

  11. Establishing Policy Foundations and Regulatory Systems to Enhance Nursing Practice in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Brownie, Sharon M; Hunter, Lyndal H; Aqtash, Salah; Day, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) established a Nursing and Midwifery Council with a mandate to develop standards for the registration and regulation of nursing and midwifery and to strengthen the nursing and midwifery workforce. Priorities included workforce Emiratization and the development of regulatory standards to support advanced and speciality nursing practice and new models of care-particularly for the management of noncommunicable diseases. This article provides background, context for, and best practice inputs to the effort to provide one unified framework of nursing regulation and licensure across the whole of the UAE. This article is intended for nurse leaders, policy makers, and regulators who are reviewing or developing nursing regulatory processes and advancing nursing workforce capacity building activities; and nurse educators and nurses wishing to work in the UAE. PMID:25944674

  12. Practical homeostasis lighting control system using sensor agent robots for office space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokiwa, Momoko; Mita, Akira

    2014-03-01

    The comfortable space can be changed by season, age, physical condition and the like. However, the current systems are not able to resolve them absolutely. This research proposes the Homeostasis lighting control system based on the mechanism of biotic homeostasis for making the algorithms of apparatus control. Homeostasis are kept by the interaction of the three systems, endocrine system, immune system, and nervous system[1]. By the gradual reaction in the endocrine system, body's protective response in the immune system, and the electrical reaction in the nerve system, we can keep the environments against variable changes. The new lighting control system utilizes this mechanism. Firstly, we focused on legibility and comfort in the office space to construct the control model learning from the endocrine and immune systems. The mechanism of the endocrine system is used for ambient lights in the space is used considering circadian rhythm for comfort. For the legibility, the immune system is used to control considering devices near the human depending on the distance between the human. Simulations and the demonstration were conducted to show the feasibility. Finally, the nerve system was intruded to enhance the system.

  13. Enabling Innovation and Collaboration Across Geography and Culture: A Case Study of NASA's Systems Engineering Community of Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topousis, Daria E.; Murphy, Keri; Robinson, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, NASA faced major knowledge sharing challenges due to geographically isolated field centers that inhibited personnel from sharing experiences and ideas. Mission failures and new directions for the agency demanded better collaborative tools. In addition, with the push to send astronauts back to the moon and to Mars, NASA recognized that systems engineering would have to improve across the agency. Of the ten field centers, seven had not built a spacecraft in over 30 years, and had lost systems engineering expertise. The Systems Engineering Community of Practice came together to capture the knowledge of its members using the suite of collaborative tools provided by the NASA Engineering Network (NEN.) The NEN provided a secure collaboration space for over 60 practitioners across the agency to assemble and review a NASA systems engineering handbook. Once the handbook was complete, they used the open community area to disseminate it. This case study explores both the technology and the social networking that made the community possible, describes technological approaches that facilitated rapid setup and low maintenance, provides best practices that other organizations could adopt, and discusses the vision for how this community will continue to collaborate across the field centers to benefit the agency as it continues exploring the solar system.

  14. From Cybernetics to Plectics: A Practical Approach to Systems Enquiry in Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pátkai, Béla; Tar, József K.; Rudas, Imre J.

    The most prominent systems theories from the 20th century are reviewed in this chapter and the arguments of complex system theorists is supported who use the term “plec-tics” instead of the overused and ambiguous “systems science” and “systems theory”. It is claimed that the measurement of complex systems cannot be separated from their modelling as the boundaries between the specific steps of the scientific method are necessarily blurred. A critical and extended interpretation of the complex system modelling method is provided and the importance of discipline-specific paradigms and their systematic interdisciplinary transfer is proposed.

  15. Social ecology of asthma: engaging stakeholders in integrating health behavior theories and practice-based evidence through systems mapping.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Emily M; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Yeatts, Karin B; Hernandez, Michelle L; Smith, Timothy W; Lewis, Megan A

    2014-02-01

    This article describes a process for integrating health behavior and social science theories with practice-based insights using participatory systems thinking and diagramming methods largely inspired by system dynamics methods. This integration can help close the gap between research and practice in health education and health behavior by offering a systematic approach to bring together stakeholders across multiple domains. In this process we create a diagram using constructs from multiple health behavior theories at all levels of the social ecological framework as variables in causal loop diagrams. The goal of this process is to elucidate the reciprocal relationships between explanatory factors at various levels of the social ecological framework that render so many public health problems intractable. To illustrate, we detail a theory-based, replicable process for creating a qualitative diagram to enrich understanding of caregiver and provider behavior around adherence to pediatric asthma action plans. We describe how such diagramming can serve as the foundation for translating evidence into practice to address real-world challenges. Key insights gained include recognition of the complex, multilevel factors affecting whether, and how effectively, parents/caregivers and medical providers co-create an asthma action plan, and important "feedback" dynamics at play that can support or derail ongoing collaboration. Although this article applies this method to asthma action plan adherence in children, the method and resulting diagrams are applicable and adaptable to other health behaviors requiring continuous, daily action. PMID:23709516

  16. Best practices for system dynamics model design and construction with powersim studio.

    SciTech Connect

    Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2011-06-01

    This guide addresses software quality in the construction of Powersim{reg_sign} Studio 8 system dynamics simulation models. It is the result of almost ten years of experience with the Powersim suite of system dynamics modeling tools (Constructor and earlier Studio versions). It is a guide that proposes a common look and feel for the construction of Powersim Studio system dynamics models.

  17. Triple Helix Systems: An Analytical Framework for Innovation Policy and Practice in the Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranga, Marina; Etzkowitz, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of Triple Helix systems as an analytical construct that synthesizes the key features of university--industry--government (Triple Helix) interactions into an "innovation system" format, defined according to systems theory as a set of components, relationships and functions. Among the components of Triple…

  18. First Steps in Computational Systems Biology: A Practical Session in Metabolic Modeling and Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Palomares, Armando; Sanchez-Jimenez, Francisca; Medina, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of biological functions requires new systemic perspectives, such as those provided by systems biology. Systems biology approaches are hypothesis-driven and involve iterative rounds of model building, prediction, experimentation, model refinement, and development. Developments in computer science are allowing for ever…

  19. Introducing Systems Biology to Bioscience Students through Mathematical Modelling. A Practical Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Nestor V.

    2013-01-01

    Systems Biology, one of the current approaches to the understanding of living things, aims to understand the behaviour of living systems through the creation of mathematical models that integrate the available knowledge of the system's component parts and the relations among them. Accordingly, model building should play a central part in any…

  20. A Comparative Study of English and Spanish Vowel Systems: Theoretical and Practical Implications for Teaching Pronunciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odisho, Edward Y.

    A study examines two major types of vowel systems in languages, centripetal and centrifugal. English is associated with the centripetal system, in which vowel quality and quantity (rhythm) are heavily influenced by stress. In this system, vowels have a strong tendency to move toward the center of the vowel area. Spanish is associated with the…