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Sample records for prairie island nuclear

  1. 76 FR 29279 - Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION NORTHERN STATES POWER COMPANY Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Plants Regarding the License Renewal of Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plants, Units 1 and 2... years of operation for Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and Unit 2 (PINGP 1 and 2)....

  2. 76 FR 39445 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... issuance of the renewed licenses was published in the Federal Register on June 17, 2008 (73 FR 34335). For... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... Company--Minnesota (licensee), the ] operator of Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and...

  3. 76 FR 11521 - Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 1, Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... (76 FR 9827), which informed the public that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was considering the issuance of amendments to Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60, respectively, for the Prairie... COMMISSION Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 1, Northern States Power Company--Minnesota;...

  4. Prairie Island Nuclear Station Spent Filter Processing for Direct Disposal - 12333

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H. Michael

    2012-07-01

    This paper will discuss WMG's filter processing experience within the commercial nuclear power industry, specifically recent experience processing high activity spent filters generated by Xcel Energy's Prairie Island Nuclear Station (Prairie Island), located in Welch, MN. WMG processed for disposal eighty-four 55-gallon drums filled with varying types of high activity spent filters. The scope of work involved characterization, packaging plan development, transport to the WMG's Off-Site Processing location, shredding the filter contents of each drum, cement solidifying the shredded filter material, and finally shipping the solidified container of shredded filter material to Clive, Utah where the container was presented to EnergySolutions Disposal site for disposal in their Containerised Waste Facility. This sequence of events presented in this paper took place a total of nine (9) times over a period of four weeks. All 1294 filters were successfully solidified into nine (9) -WMG 142 steel liners, and each was successfully disposed of as Class A Waste at EnergySolutions Disposal Site in Clive, Utah. Prairie Island's waste material was unique in that all its filters were packaged in 55-gallon drums; and since the station packaged its filters in drums it was much easier to develop packaging plans for such a large volume of legacy filters. For this author, having over 20-years of waste management experiences, storing and shipping waste material in 55-gallon drums is not immediately thought of as a highly efficient method of managing its waste material. However, Prairie Island's use of 55-gallon drums to store and package its filters provided a significant advantage. Drums could be mixed and matched to provide the most efficient processing method while still meeting the Waste Class A limits required for disposal. (author)

  5. 75 FR 63213 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering the issuance of an...

  6. 75 FR 44292 - Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...-AA90) published in the Federal Register on April 26, 1991 (56 FR 18997); and (C) The Nuclear Energy... contrary to the rationale for rulemaking, as discussed in 56 FR 18997. On October 26 and December 2, 2009... Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Issuance of...

  7. 75 FR 3946 - License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60; Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...) published in the Federal Register on April 26, 1991 (56 FR 18997); and (C) Nuclear Energy Institute's (NEI...'' (56 FR 18997). The NRC is treating the petitioner's request pursuant to 10 CFR 2.206, ``Requests for... COMMISSION License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60; Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear...

  8. 75 FR 6225 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... revisions to 10 CFR part 73, as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967... Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27, 2009)]. The licensee currently maintains a security system... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Units 1 and...

  9. 75 FR 9625 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    .... As noted in the final Power Reactor Security Requirements rule (74 FR 13925, March 27, 2009), the... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60, which authorize operation of the...

  10. 77 FR 65417 - Northern States Power Company (Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Independent Spent Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Storage Installation); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (Board) in the above-captioned Prairie Island... Administrative Judge, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  11. NRC issues license for Prairie Island ISFSI

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued a license to Northern States Power Company for an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI) at the Prairie Island nuclear station. The 20-year license was granted based on [open quotes]an exhaustive three-year review, which concluded that the proposed storage facility is safe to both plant employees and the general public,[close quotes] said Doug Antony, NSP vice president of nuclear operations.

  12. Spent fuel storage at Prairie Island: January 1995 status

    SciTech Connect

    Closs, J.; Kress, L.

    1995-12-31

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been an issue for the US since the inception of the commercial nuclear power industry. In the past decade, it has become a critical factor in the continued operation of some nuclear power plants, including the two units at Prairie Island. As the struggles and litigation over storage alternatives wage on, spent fuel pools continue to fill and plants edge closer to premature shutdown. Due to the delays in the construction of a federal repository, many nuclear power plants have had to seek interim storage alternatives. In the case of Prairie Island, the safest and most feasible option is dry cask storage. This paper discusses the current status of the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) Project at Prairie Island. It provides a historical background to the project, discusses the notable developments over the past year, and presents the projected plans of the Northern States Power Company (NSP) in regards to spent fuel storage.

  13. Processing, packaging, and storage of non-fuel-bearing components from the rod consolidation demonstration at Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    McCarten, L.; Kapitz, J.; Kaczmarsky, M.; Rec, J.

    1988-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants are running out of space in their spent-fuel pools, and by the early 1990s, existing spent-fuel storage capacity must be supplemented at over 20 commercial nuclear plants. Rod consolidation and dry storage, either individually or in combination, are the only viable alternatives to meet the spent-fuel storage requirements until a government storage facility or repository is established. The Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Station operated by Northern States Power Company (NSP) is in this predicament. To meet Prairie Island's storage needs, NSP is evaluating the feasibility of full-scale implementation of spent-fuel consolidation. The technical and economic success of fuel consolidation requires successful and economical processing, storage and disposal of the scrap non-fuel-bearing components (NFBC). In the fall of 1987, NSP initiated a consolidation demonstration program at Prairie Island, during which 29 equipment spent-fuel assemblies were successfully consolidated by Westinghouse. The paper discusses program scope, NFBC characterization and classification, NFBC processing and NFBC segregation and packaging.

  14. 77 FR 33239 - Prairie Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, San Juan Island National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... National Park Service Prairie Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, San Juan Island National... Impact Statement for Prairie Stewardship Plan, San Juan Island National Historical Park, Washington... Prairie Stewardship Plan, as called for in the 2008 General Management Plan. The Prairie Stewardship...

  15. Transient analysis of containment heat removal at Prairie Island with boiling in the fan coil tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Elicson, T.; Fraser, B.; Anderson, D.; Thomas, S.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis has been performed to determine the equilibrium cooling water flow rates and heat removal rates through the Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant containment fan coil units (CFCUs) under postulated accident conditions which leads to boiling in the CFCUs. Key components of the analysis include a detailed fan coil heat exchanger model, mass and energy conservation in the cooling tubes, two-phase flow effects on heat transfer and pressure drop, and pipe network modeling.

  16. Waterfowl nesting on small man-made islands in prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.F., Jr.; Woodward, R.O.; Kirsch, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Small islands constructed in prairie wetlands were attractive nesting sites for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Nest densities of mallards on islands averaged 135 per ha compared to 0.03 per ha on adjacent upland habitats. Construction time averaged 2 hours per island and cost $50. No maintenance was required during the first 10 years.

  17. 78 FR 56947 - Prairie Island; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of Docketing of Amendment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires... that the filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007) apply to appeals... COMMISSION Prairie Island; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of Docketing of...

  18. Public Education of the Prairie Island Sioux: An Interim Report. National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkins, Arthur M.; And Others

    As a part of the Final Report of the National Study of American Indian Education, this study was conducted at the Prairie Island Indian Reservation located in southeastern Minnesota. The document presents a historical background of the small peninsula (approximately 10 miles long and 2 miles wide) and its inhabitants, the Sioux Indians, which…

  19. Approach to ecological assessment of power-plant-intake (316b) related issues: the Prairie Island case

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Vaughan, D.S.; Hildebrand, S.G.; Kumar, K.D.

    1981-04-01

    Assessment approaches and strategies useful in addressing important issues in section 316(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act are illustrated in this report through the analysis and evaluation of the Prairie Island Nuclear Station 316(b) data base. The main issues in 316(b) demonstrations, cooling water intake operation and location, involve determining the impacts of entrainment and impingement. Entrainment impacts were addressed by applying the equivalent adult approach and correcting for inherent biases and by determining the through-plant survival of zooplankton. An assessment of impingement impacts was made by comparing for each of various species the number of fish impinged to estimates of population size. Densities of plankton and fish were compared between the intake area and an alternate area to determine if the location of the present intake minimizes impacts. No definitive conclusion relative to the best location of the intake could be made because of high year to year variability in the data and the differential dominance of trophic groups between areas.

  20. Nuclear waste storage: A legislative issue

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    Following an intense legislative battle, the Minnesota Legislature reaches consensus on a plan to authorize limited dry cask storage of nuclear waste at Northern States Power`s Prairie Island nuclear plant.

  1. Prairie Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Amy; Blake, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Stories read aloud or written by students help science come alive and engage students as active participants in their learning. Students gain a sense of place by learning about their local ecosystem by listening to stories read aloud, doing prairie-related activities, and writing stories of their own. This article describes a prairie unit that…

  2. Nuclear power beyond Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.

    1980-05-01

    At the Three Mile Island-2 Reactor accident in March, 1979, there was concern expressed over a chemical explosion that might rupture the containment vessel and release radioactive material. The absolute worst possible event that could take place at a nuclear power plant would be a melt-down that breached the containment vessel and allowed radioactive material to escape, but this absolute worst possible case would create less cost and loss of life than many natural disasters. When the anti-nukes talk about a nuclear power plant devastating an area the size of Pennsylvania or California, and leaving a vast wasteland for 10,000 years, they are being grossly dishonest, for even at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where we exploded weapons with the intent of massive destruction, the area has been completely restored and repopulated. The only major threat from nuclear power plant accidents is radiation. The average radiation dose received by every American each year is 170 millirems-130 from natural radiation and 40 millirems from man-made sources. A summary of the risks encountered from the combustion of coal, watching TV, diagnostic x-rays, dams collapsing, etc. making the risk level from nuclear radiation much smaller than most secular activities, is given.

  3. Converting Maturing Nuclear Sites to Integrated Power Production Islands

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Solbrig, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear islands, which are integrated power production sites, could effectively sequester and safeguard the US stockpile of plutonium. A nuclear island, an evolution of the integral fast reactor, utilizes all the Transuranics (Pu plus minor actinides) produced in power production, and it eliminates all spent fuel shipments to and from the site. This latter attribute requires that fuel reprocessing occur on each site and that fast reactors be built on-site to utilize the TRU. All commercial spent fuel shipments could be eliminated by converting all LWR nuclear power sites to nuclear islands. Existing LWR sites have the added advantage ofmore » already possessing a license to produce nuclear power. Each could contribute to an increase in the nuclear power production by adding one or more fast reactors. Both the TRU and the depleted uranium obtained in reprocessing would be used on-site for fast fuel manufacture. Only fission products would be shipped to a repository for storage. The nuclear island concept could be used to alleviate the strain of LWR plant sites currently approaching or exceeding their spent fuel pool storage capacity. Fast reactor breeding ratio could be designed to convert existing sites to all fast reactors, or keep the majority thermal.« less

  4. Connecting the Super-Heavy Island to the Nuclear Mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykaczewski, K.; Miernik, K.; Grzywacz, R.; Miller, D.

    2011-10-01

    The reactions between radioactive actinide targets and doubly-magic 48Ca beam led the identification of 6 new super-heavy elements (SHE) and 48 nuclei. Since the observed decay chains are ended by a fission process, these super-heavy nuclei are forming an isolated island in the nuclear chart. The HRIBF development of new detector system and digital data acquisition sensitive to very short-lived α-emitters made possible to attempt the studies extending the SHE island. The experiments aiming in new nuclei produced in the reactions with 248Cm and 239,242Pu targets and 40 , 44 , 48Ca projectiles and connecting the SHE island to the known nuclear mainland will be discussed. Research sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics, U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. Health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-05-01

    Between March 28 and April 15, 1979 the collective dose resulting from the radioactivity released to the population living within a 50-mile radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant was about 2000 person-rems, less than 1% of the annual natural background level. The average dose to a person living within 5 miles of the nuclear plant was less than 10% of annual background radiation. The maximum estimated radiation dose received by any one individual in the general population (excluding the nuclear plant workers) during the accident was 70 mrem. The doses received by the general population as a result of the accident were so small that there will be no detectable additional cases of cancer, developmental abnormalities, or genetic ill-health. Three Three Mile Island nuclear workers received radiation doses of about 3 to 4 rem, exceeding maximum permissible quarterly dose of 3 rem. The major health effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect proved transient in all groups studied except the nuclear workers.

  6. 77 FR 37937 - License Renewal Application for Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Independent Spent Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... the license for the ISFSI would be forty (40) years. On February 16, 2011 (76 FR 8872), revisions to... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires...\\ Requestors should note that the filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28,...

  7. The Prairie Schoolhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, John Martin

    This book documents the history of the prairie schoolhouse through text and photographs. The prairie schoolhouse was a product of the Western Homestead Era, those years beginning late in the 19th century when the federally owned grass prairies east of the Rockies and the sagebrush country of the interior Northwest were opened to farming.…

  8. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  9. Thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to nuclear fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.E.; van Belle, G.; LoGerfo, J.P.

    1987-08-07

    We studied the risk of thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to radioiodines in nuclear fallout from the 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test. We screened 7266 Marshall Islanders for thyroid nodules; the islanders were from 14 atolls, including several southern atolls, which were the source of the best available unexposed comparison group. Using a retrospective cohort design, we determined the prevalence of thyroid nodularity in a subgroup of 2273 persons who were alive in 1954 and who therefore were potentially exposed to fallout from the BRAVO test. For those 12 atolls previously thought to be unexposed to fallout, the prevalence of thyroid nodules ranged from 0.9% to 10.6%. Using the distance of each atoll from the test site as a proxy for the radiation dose to the thyroid gland, a weighted linear regression showed an inverse linear relationship between distance and the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid nodules. Distance was the strongest single predictor in logistic regression analysis. A new absolute risk estimate was calculated to be 1100 excess cases/Gy/y/1 X 10(6) persons (11.0 excess cases/rad/y/1 million persons), 33% higher than previous estimates. We conclude that an excess of thyroid nodules was not limited only to the two northern atolls but extended throughout the northern atolls; this suggests a linear dose-response relationship.

  10. Nuclear reactor safety research since three mile island.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, F R

    1982-04-01

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident has resulted in redirection of reactor safety research priorities. The small release to the environment of radioactive iodine-13 to 17 curies in a total radioactivity release of 2.4 million to 13 million curies-has led to a new emphasis on the physical chemistry of fission product behavior in accidents; the fact that the nuclear core was severely damaged but did not melt down has opened a new accident regime-that of the degraded core; the role of the operators in the progression and severity of the accident has shifted emphasis from equipment reliability to human reliability. As research progresses in these areas, the technical base for regulation and risk analysis will change substantially. PMID:17736229

  11. Cancer near the Three Mile Island nuclear plant: radiation emissions.

    PubMed

    Hatch, M C; Beyea, J; Nieves, J W; Susser, M

    1990-09-01

    As a public charge, cancers among the 159,684 residents living within a 10-mile (16-km) radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant were studied relative to releases of radiation during the March 28, 1979, accident as well as to routine plant emissions. The principal cancers considered were leukemia and childhood malignancies. Estimates of the emissions delivered to small geographic study tracts were derived from mathematical dispersion models which accounted for modifying factors such as wind and terrain; the model of accident emissions was validated by readings from off-site dosimeters. Incident cancers among area residents for the period 1975-1985 (n = 5,493) were identified by a review of the records at all local and regional hospitals; preaccident and postaccident trends in cancer rates were examined. For accident emissions, the authors failed to find definite effects of exposure on the cancer types and population subgroups thought to be most susceptible to radiation. No associations were seen for leukemia in adults or for childhood cancers as a group. For leukemia in children, the odds ratio was raised, but cases were few (n = 4), and the estimate was highly variable. Moreover, rates of childhood leukemia in the Three Mile Island area are low compared with national and regional rates. For exposure to routine emissions, the odds ratios were raised for childhood cancers as a whole and for childhood leukemia, but confidence intervals were wide and included 1.0. For leukemia in adults, there was a negative trend. Trends for two types of cancer ran counter to expectation. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma showed raised risks relative to both accident and routine emissions; lung cancer (adjusted only indirectly for smoking) showed raised risks relative to accident emissions, routine emissions, and background gamma radiation. Overall, the pattern of results does not provide convincing evidence that radiation releases from the Three Mile Island nuclear facility influenced

  12. Prairie Stamp Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Fran; Hoofnagle, Sara Griffen

    The North American prairie ecosystem is unique. Comprised of tall grass, mixed grass, and shortgrass communities, the acreage this ecosystem once covered is incredible 400 million acres (pre-settlement times), accounting for 40% of North America's landscape. Prairies are home to a great diversity of animal life, such as cottontail rabbits,…

  13. Investigating the Tallgrass Prairie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marcia V.; Chi, Sojin Y.; Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an investigation of a tallgrass prairie undertaken by 3- through 7-year-old children in a preschool and a combined kindergarten/first-grade classroom at a Midwestern university. The teaching teams were curious about how these two age groups would explore their questions about the prairie--how their questions would differ by…

  14. 75 FR 38845 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 36700). This exemption is effective upon issuance... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... No. DPR-50 which authorizes operation of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1 (TMI-1)....

  15. REACTOR DOSIMETRY STUDY OF THE RHODE ISLAND NUCLEAR SCIENCE CENTER.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.,; RECINIELLO, R.N.; HU, J.-P.

    2005-05-08

    The Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center (RINSC), located on the Narragansett Bay Campus of the University of Rhode Island, is a state-owned and US NRC-licensed nuclear facility constructed for educational and industrial applications. The main building of RINSC houses a two-megawatt (2 MW) thermal power critical reactor immersed in demineralized water within a shielded tank. As its original design in 1958 by the Rhode Island Atomic Energy Commission focused on the teaching and research use of the facility, only a minimum of 3.85 kg fissile uranium-235 was maintained in the fuel elements to allow the reactor to reach a critical state. In 1986 when RINSC was temporarily shutdown to start US DOE-directed core conversion project for national security reasons, all the U-Al based Highly-Enriched Uranium (HEU, 93% uranium-235 in the total uranium) fuel elements were replaced by the newly developed U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al based Low Enriched Uranium (LEU, {le}20% uranium-235 in the total uranium) elements. The reactor first went critical after the core conversion was achieved in 1993, and feasibility study on the core upgrade to accommodate Boron Neutron-Captured Therapy (BNCT) was completed in 2000 [3]. The 2-MW critical reactor at RINSC which includes six beam tubes, a thermal column, a gamma-ray experimental station and two pneumatic tubes has been extensive utilized as neutron-and-photon dual source for nuclear-specific research in areas of material science, fundamental physics, biochemistry, and radiation therapy. After the core conversion along with several major system upgrade (e.g. a new 3-MW cooling tower, a large secondary piping system, a set of digitized power-level instrument), the reactor has become more compact and thus more effective to generate high beam flux in both the in-core and ex-core regions for advance research. If not limited by the manpower and operating budget in recent years, the RINSC built ''in concrete'' structure and control systems should have

  16. Restoring the prairie

    SciTech Connect

    Mlot, C.

    1990-12-01

    The US DOE at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, prairie restoration is taking place in order to conserve the rich topsoil. This is the largest of many prairie restoration experiments. Big bluestem grass (Andropogon gerardi), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides) are the main initial grasses grown. After their growth reaches enough biomass to sustain a fire, other prairie plants such as purple prairie clover and dropseed grass appear. The goal of this is to provide a generous refuge for disappearing native plants and animals, a site for scientific research, and a storehouse of genes adapted to a region that produces much of the worlds food. Plans for restoring the marsh and oak savanna, also native to the Fermilab site are also in the works.

  17. 75 FR 36700 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering issuance of an exemption from Title 10 of the...

  18. Life on the Iowa Prairies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaim, Ginalie, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    A theme issue of the Iowa State Historical Department magazine ("The Goldfinch") focuses on elementary readings and activities about Iowa prairie life. A total of 13 articles is included. In "History Makers," eight letters recount student and teacher prairie experiences. "The Prairie: Problems or Paradise?" recounts the trials and successes of…

  19. 75 FR 76051 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... quality of the human environment as published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2010 (75 FR 63213... equation be used to predict the rates of energy release, hydrogen concentration, and cladding oxidation... would have either no significant impact or would produce a reduction in corrosion or oxidation and...

  20. Lessons from Prairie Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the Prairie Teachers Project, a program of support for new teachers in eight rural schools, focusing on why teachers remained or left. Teachers who remained tended to have lived in and feel committed to small communities. Rural schools likely to retain new teachers had ongoing programs of professional development, supportive colleagues…

  1. Environmentally sound disposal of wastes: Multipurpose offshore islands offer safekeeping, continuous monitoring of hazardous, nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tengelsen, W.E.

    1995-05-01

    Solid wastes have become a health threat to all municipalities and safe disposal costs are increasing for coastal cities. Onland dumps have become a continuing source of pollution, existing landfill sites should be eliminated. Ocean dumping is rules out because of the threat to aquatic resources but pollutants deep-sixed in the past should be isolated from the ocean environment before they further harm the aquatic food chain. And there are still no totally satisfactory solutions for nuclear waste disposal, especially for high-level wastes. A practical answer to our waste disposal problem is to build waterproof storage vault islands offshore to safely contain all past and futuer solid wastes so they would not mix with the ocean waters. Contaminated dredged spoil and construction materials can be safely included, in turn providing free shielding for nuclear waste stored in special vault chambers. Offshore islands can be built to ride out erthquakes and the ocean`s waters provide a stable temperature environment. Building modular structures in large quantities reduces per-unit costs; implementing these islands creates quality jobs and an economic stimulus. The island`s tops become valuable waterfront property for commercial, institutional, educational, infrastructural, and recreational uses; tenants and users provide the revenues that make this island concept self-supporting.

  2. Reactor engineering support of operations at Three Mile Island nuclear station

    SciTech Connect

    Tropasso, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to detail the activities in which plant nuclear engineering personnel provide direct support to plant operations. The specific activities include steady-state, transient, and shutdown/refueling operation support as well as special project involvement. The paper is intended to describe the experiences at Three Mile Island (TMI) in which significant benefit to the success of the activity is achieved through the support of the nuclear engineers.

  3. The Schoolhouse at Prairie View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Marshall A.

    Written in 1953, this book presents the reminiscences of a renowned scientist about his early education in a one-room school at Prairie View, Kansas, during the 1870s and 1880s. The first chapter records early memories of the road to school, and describes the community of Anglo and German farmers served by Prairie View. Other chapters describe…

  4. Prairie Restoration for Wisconsin Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Molly Fifield; Greenler, Robin McC.

    This packet is composed of several resources for teachers interested in prairie ecology and restoration. "A Guide to Restoration from Site Analysis to Management" focuses on the Prairie/Oak Savanna communities of Wisconsin and takes teachers through the planning and design process for a restoration project on school grounds including site…

  5. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a Christmas Island nuclear test veteran

    PubMed Central

    Parfrey, H; Babar, J; Fiddler, CA; Chilvers, ER

    2010-01-01

    We describe the case of a 71-year-old man with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern) diagnosed on clinical, radiological and lung function criteria, in accordance with the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society consensus criteria (2000), who had been in close proximity to three atmospheric nuclear bomb blasts during military service in 1957. He does not have clubbing and clinically and radiologically his lung disease is stable. He also has bladder carcinoma and carotid arteriosclerosis, both recognised consequences of radiation injury. This is the first reported case of UIP in a nuclear test veteran. Awareness of this potential association is important given the current attempts of the British Nuclear Test Veterans Association to gain compensation for claimed injuries. PMID:22797205

  6. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a Christmas Island nuclear test veteran.

    PubMed

    Parfrey, H; Babar, J; Fiddler, C A; Chilvers, E R

    2010-01-01

    We describe the case of a 71-year-old man with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern) diagnosed on clinical, radiological and lung function criteria, in accordance with the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society consensus criteria (2000), who had been in close proximity to three atmospheric nuclear bomb blasts during military service in 1957. He does not have clubbing and clinically and radiologically his lung disease is stable. He also has bladder carcinoma and carotid arteriosclerosis, both recognised consequences of radiation injury. This is the first reported case of UIP in a nuclear test veteran. Awareness of this potential association is important given the current attempts of the British Nuclear Test Veterans Association to gain compensation for claimed injuries. PMID:22797205

  7. Fallout Deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak Nuclear Weapons Tests

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E.; Simon, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m-2) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for all the 31 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 25 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers. PMID:20622548

  8. Fallout deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    PubMed

    Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 23 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers. PMID:20622548

  9. Definitional Hegemony as a Public Relations Strategy: The Rhetoric of the Nuclear Power Industry after Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionisopoulos, George N.; Crable, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines (1) definitional hegemony as one of several rhetorical options available to issue managers; (2) the post-accident rhetorical context of the Three Mile Island nuclear crisis; and (3) the specific strategies utilized to deal with this crisis. Assesses the nuclear industry's public relations efforts. (MS)

  10. Hydrologic functions of prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBaugh, J.W.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.

    1998-01-01

    Wetlands in the prairie known as potholes or sloughs represent an ever-changing mosaic of surface waters interacting with the atmosphere, groundwater, and each other in a variety of ways. Studies of groups of adjacent wetlands in different parts of the glaciated North American prairie have enabled some connections to be made between hydrologic processes, biological communities, and use of these wetlands by wetland-dependent wildlife. Understanding controls on variability in water levels, water volume, and salinity in these wetlands sets the stage for understanding controls on biological communities utilizing these wetlands. The role that natural variability in water and salinity plays in making these wetlands an important resource for waterfowl will provide an important context for those who are responsible for artificially altering the variability of water and salinity in prairie wetlands.

  11. Nuclear Islands: International Leasing of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Sites to Provide Enduring Assurance of Peaceful Use

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, Christopher E.; Cochran, Thomas B.

    2010-11-01

    Current International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards do not provide adequate protection against the diversion to military use of materials or technology from certain types of sensitive nuclear fuel cycle facilities. In view of highly enriched uranium’s relatively greater ease of use as a nuclear explosive material than plutonium and the significant diseconomies of commercial spent fuel reprocessing, this article focuses on the need for improved international controls over uranium enrichment facilities as the proximate justification for creation of an International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Association (INFCA). In principle, the proposal is equally applicable to alleviating the proliferation concerns provoked by nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and other sensitive nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The INFCA would provide significantly increased nonproliferation assurance to its member states and the wider international community by holding long-term leasehold contracts to operate secure restricted zones containing such sensitive nuclear facilities.

  12. Profitable prairie restoration: The EcoSun Prairie Farm experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns about ongoing conversion of grassland to cropland in the northern Great Plains, and effects on wildlife populations, and soil and water quality prompted a South Dakota group to search for agricultural practices that would balance environmental concerns with farm economics. EcoSun Prairie Fa...

  13. Reactions of psychiatric patients to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Bromet, E; Schulberg, H C; Dunn, L

    1982-06-01

    The reaction of patients in the community mental health system to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), Middletown, Pa, were assessed. The sample was composed of 151 patients from the TMI area and 64 patients from a comparison site where a similar nuclear plant is located. Mental health status was determined for the period immediately after the accident, nine to ten months later, and one year later. No significant differences were found between the TMI group and the comparison group. To isolate risk factors within the TMI group, patients who were most distressed were compared with patients with the least distress. The results showed that quality of network support and viewing TMI as dangerous were significantly associated with mental health. PMID:7092506

  14. Reactions of psychiatric patients to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Bromet, E.; Schulberg, H.C.; Dunn, L.

    1982-06-01

    The reaction of patients in the community mental health system to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), Middletown, Pa, were assessed. The sample was composed of 151 patients from the TMI area and 64 patients from a comparison site where a similar nuclear plant is located. Mental health status was determined for the period immediately after the accident, nine to ten months later, and one year later. No significant differences were found between the TMI group and the comparison group. To isolate risk factors within the TMI group, patients who were most distressed were compared with patients with the least distress. The results showed that quality of network support and viewing TMI as dangerous were significantly associated with mental health.

  15. Doses from external irradiation to Marshall Islanders from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    PubMed

    Bouville, André; Beck, Harold L; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Annual doses from external irradiation resulting from exposure to fallout from the 65 atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands at Bikini and Enewetak between 1946 and 1958 have been estimated for the first time for Marshallese living on all inhabited atolls. All tests that deposited fallout on any of the 23 inhabited atolls or separate reef islands have been considered. The methodology used to estimate the radiation doses at the inhabited atolls is based on test- and location-specific radiation survey data, deposition density estimates of 137Cs, and fallout times-of-arrival provided in a companion paper (Beck et al.), combined with information on the radionuclide composition of the fallout at various times after each test. These estimates of doses from external irradiation have been combined with corresponding estimates of doses from internal irradiation, given in a companion paper (Simon et al.), to assess the cancer risks among the Marshallese population (Land et al.) resulting from exposure to radiation from the nuclear weapons tests. PMID:20622549

  16. Soil microbiota of the prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prairie ecosystem is often used as a benchmark ecosystem to provide a reference soil quality or soil health assessment. Current soil health assessments include measurements of soil chemical and physical indicators and of selected microbiological activities but no characterization of soil microbi...

  17. Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese, and United States nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, V. ); Schultz, S.C. ); Robison, W.L. )

    1991-05-01

    A considerable literature exists on the Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese and their atolls; however, this literature consists of a large number of governmental documents that are relatively unknown and difficult to locate. This is particularly true of the documents of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and those related to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands. Because a comprehensive bibliography on the impact of nuclear weapons testing on the Marshallese and their atolls does not exist, the preparation of a bibliography that includes sufficient information to locate all types of reports seems justified. This document is the bibliography.

  18. Cancer rates after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident and proximity of residence to the plant.

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M C; Wallenstein, S; Beyea, J; Nieves, J W; Susser, M

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the light of a possible link between stress and cancer promotion or progression, and of previously reported distress in residents near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, we attempted to evaluate the impact of the March 1979 accident on community cancer rates. METHODS: Proximity of residence to the plant, which related to distress in previous studies, was taken as a possible indicator of accident stress; the postaccident pattern in cancer rates was examined in 69 "study tracts" within a 10-mile radius of TMI, in relation to residential proximity. RESULTS: A modest association was found between postaccident cancer rates and proximity (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.3, 1.6). After adjusting for a gradient in cancer risk prior to the accident, the odds ratio contrasting those closest to the plant with those living farther out was 1.2 (95% CI = 1.0, 1.4). A postaccident increase in cancer rates near the Three Mile Island plant was notable in 1982, persisted for another year, and then declined. Radiation emissions, as modeled mathematically, did not account for the observed increase. CONCLUSION: Interpretation in terms of accident stress is limited by the lack of an individual measure of stress and by uncertainty about whether stress has a biological effect on cancer in humans. An alternative mechanism for the cancer increase near the plant is through changes in care-seeking and diagnostic practice arising from postaccident concern. PMID:2029040

  19. The Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center conversion from HEU to LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Tehan, Terry

    2000-09-27

    The 2-MW Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center (RINSC) open pool reactor was converted from 93% UAL-High Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to 20% enrichment U3Si2-AL Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. The conversion included redesign of the core to a more compact size and the addition of beryllium reflectors and a beryllium flux trap. A significant increase in thermal flux level was achieved due to greater neutron leakage in the new compact core configuration. Following the conversion, a second cooling loop and an emergency core cooling system were installed to permit operation at 5 MW. After re-licensing at 2 MW, a power upgrade request will be submitted to the NRC.

  20. Life stage differences in resident coping with restart of the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility.

    PubMed

    Prince-Embury, S; Rooney, J F

    1990-12-01

    A study of residents who remained in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) immediately following the restart of the nuclear generating plant revealed that older residents employed a more emotion-focused coping style in the face of this event than did younger residents. Coping style was, however, unrelated to the level of psychological symptoms for these older residents, whereas demographic variables were related. Among younger residents, on the other hand, coping style was related to the level of psychological symptoms, whereas demographic variables were not. Among younger residents, emotion-focused coping was associated with more symptoms and problem-focused coping was associated with fewer symptoms, contradicting previous findings among TMI area residents. PMID:2087105

  1. Life stage differences in resident coping with restart of the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility

    SciTech Connect

    Prince-Embury, S.; Rooney, J.F.

    1990-12-01

    A study of residents who remained in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) immediately following the restart of the nuclear generating plant revealed that older residents employed a more emotion-focused coping style in the face of this event than did younger residents. Coping style was, however, unrelated to the level of psychological symptoms for these older residents, whereas demographic variables were related. Among younger residents, on the other hand, coping style was related to the level of psychological symptoms, whereas demographic variables were not. Among younger residents, emotion-focused coping was associated with more symptoms and problem-focused coping was associated with fewer symptoms, contradicting previous findings among TMI area residents.

  2. Nuclear isomers in superheavy elements as stepping stones towards the island of stability.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, R-D; Greenlees, P T; Butler, P A; Jones, G D; Venhart, M; Darby, I G; Eeckhaudt, S; Eskola, K; Grahn, T; Gray-Jones, C; Hessberger, F P; Jones, P; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Ketelhut, S; Korten, W; Leino, M; Leppänen, A-P; Moon, S; Nyman, M; Page, R D; Pakarinen, J; Pritchard, A; Rahkila, P; Sarén, J; Scholey, C; Steer, A; Sun, Y; Theisen, Ch; Uusitalo, J

    2006-08-24

    A long-standing prediction of nuclear models is the emergence of a region of long-lived, or even stable, superheavy elements beyond the actinides. These nuclei owe their enhanced stability to closed shells in the structure of both protons and neutrons. However, theoretical approaches to date do not yield consistent predictions of the precise limits of the 'island of stability'; experimental studies are therefore crucial. The bulk of experimental effort so far has been focused on the direct creation of superheavy elements in heavy ion fusion reactions, leading to the production of elements up to proton number Z = 118 (refs 4, 5). Recently, it has become possible to make detailed spectroscopic studies of nuclei beyond fermium (Z = 100), with the aim of understanding the underlying single-particle structure of superheavy elements. Here we report such a study of the nobelium isotope 254No, with 102 protons and 152 neutrons--the heaviest nucleus studied in this manner to date. We find three excited structures, two of which are isomeric (metastable). One of these structures is firmly assigned to a two-proton excitation. These states are highly significant as their location is sensitive to single-particle levels above the gap in shell energies predicted at Z = 114, and thus provide a microscopic benchmark for nuclear models of the superheavy elements. PMID:16929293

  3. Hydroperiod affects nutrient accumulation in tree islands of the Florida Everglades: a stable isotope study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Sternberg, L. O.; Engel, V.; Ross, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Tree islands are important and unique components of wetland ecosystems. In many cases they are the end product of self organizing vegetation systems, which are often characterized by uneven soil nutrient distributions. Tree islands in the Everglades are phosphorus rich in contrast to the phosphorus-poor surrounding vegetation matrix. Everglades tree islands occur in the ridge-slough habitat of Shark River Slough, which is characterized by deep organic soils, multi-year hydroperiods, and maximum water depths of ~ 1 m. Tree islands are also found in the drier marl prairie habitat of the Everglades, characterized by marl soils, shallow water (< 0.5 m) and short (< 180 day) hydroperiods. In this study we used stable isotopes to investigate dry season water limitation and soil and foliar nutrient status in upland hammock communities of 18 different tree islands located in the Shark River Slough and adjacent prairie landscapes. We observed that prairie tree islands suffer greater drought stress during the dry season than slough tree islands by examining shifts in foliar δ13C values. We also found that slough tree islands have higher soil total phosphorus concentration and lower foliar N/P ratio than prairie tree islands. Foliar δ15N values, which often increase with greater P availability, was also found to be higher in slough tree islands than in prairie tree islands. Both the elemental N and P and foliar δ15N results indicate that the upland hammock plant communities in slough tree islands have higher amount of P available than those in prairie tree islands. Our findings are consistent with the transpiration driven nutrient harvesting chemohydrodynamic model. Tree islands without drought stress hypothetically transpire more and harvest more P than tree islands that have drought stress during the dry season. These findings suggest that hydroperiod is important to nutrient accumulation of tree island habitats and to the self-organization of the Everglades landscape.

  4. Radionuclides in fishes and mussels from the Farallon Islands Nuclear Waste Dump Site, California

    SciTech Connect

    Suchanek, T.H.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Carvacho, O.

    1996-08-01

    The Farallon Islands Nuclear Waste Dump Site (FINWDS), approximately 30 miles west of San Francisco, California, received at least 500 TBq encapsulated in more than 47,500 containers from approximately 1945 to 1970. During several seasons in 1986/87 deep-sea bottom feeding fishes (Dover sole = Microstomus pacificus; sablefish = Anoplopoma fimbria; thornyheads = Sebastolobus spp.) and intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus) were collected from the vicinity of the FINWDS and from comparable depths at a reference site near Point Arena, CA. Tissues were analyzed for several radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am). Radionuclide concentrations for fish mussel tissue ranged from non-detectable to 4,340 mBq kg{sup {minus}1} wet weight, with the following means for Farallon fishes: {sup 137}Cs = 1,110 mBq kg{sup {minus}1}; {sup 238}Pu = 390 mBq kg{sup {minus}1}; {sup 239+240}Pu = 130 mBq kg{sup {minus}1}; and {sup 241}Am = 1,350 mBq kg{sup {minus}1}. There were no statistically significant differences in the radionuclide concentrations observed in samples from the Farallon Islands compared to reference samples from Point Arena, CA. Concentrations of both {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am in fish tissues (from both sites) were notably higher than those reported in literature from any other sites worldwide, including potentially contaminated sites. Concentrations of {sup 239+240}Pu from both sites were typical of low values found at some contaminated sites worldwide. These results show {approximately} 10 times higher concentrations of {sup 239+240}Pu and {approximately}40-50 times higher concentrations of {sup 238}Pu than those values reported for identical fish species from 1977 collections at the FINWDS. Radionuclide concentrations were converted to a hypothetical per capita annual radionuclide intake for adults. 51 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Relationships of scincid lizards (Mabuya spp; Reptilia: Scincidae) from the Cape Verde islands based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Brehm, A; Jesus, J; Pinheiro, M; Harris, D J

    2001-05-01

    Partial DNA sequences from two mitochondrial (mt) and one nuclear gene (cytochrome b, 12S rRNA, and C-mos) were used to estimate the phylogenetic relationships among the six extant species of skinks endemic to the Cape Verde Archipelago. The species form a monophyletic unit, indicating a single colonization of the islands, probably from West Africa. Mabuya vaillanti and M. delalandii are sister taxa, as indicated by morphological characters. Mabuya fogoensis and M. stangeri are closely related, but the former is probably paraphyletic. Mabuya spinalis and M. salensis are also probably paraphyletic. Within species, samples from separate islands always form monophyletic groups. Some colonization events can be hypothesized, which are in line with the age of the islands. C-mos variation is concordant with the topology derived from mtDNA. PMID:11341812

  6. Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese, and United States nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L. ); Schultz, V. ); Schultz, S.C. )

    1991-04-01

    A considerable literature exists on the Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese and their atolls; however, this literature consists of a large number of governmental documents that are relatively unknown and difficult to locate. This is particularly true of the documents of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and those related to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands. Because a comprehensive bibliography on the impact of nuclear weapons testing on the Marshallese and their atolls does not exist, the preparation of a bibliography that includes sufficient information to locate all types of reports seems justified. Primary sources of information in preparing this bibliography were bibliographies on Oceania, citations in published papers, CIS Index and Abstracts, Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Research Abstracts, numerous bibliographies on radiation ecology, and suggestions by many individuals whom we contacted. One goal in this bibliography is to include complete documentation of the source of congressional reports and other government-related publications. In addition, page numbers for material in this bibliography are provided in parentheses when the subject matter of a book or document is not restricted to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands.

  7. Prairie State begins development work

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-12-15

    Lively Grove will be a state-of-the-art super section mine which will supply 6.7 million tons of bituminous coal per annum to a 1,600 MWS supercritical plant which is expected to begin generation electricity in 2011/2012. The projected cost of Prairie State Energy Campus is over $4 billion. The power plant will be 15% more efficient that similar sized plants and could be a model plant for the industry. The article describes the development plans which are 10% complete. 2 photos.

  8. MHTGR-Nuclear Island Engineering: Final summary report for the period November 30, 1987 through December 1, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This report summarizes the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) - Nuclear Island Engineering (NIE) design and development work performed by General Atomics (GA) for the period November 30, 1987 through December 1, 1988, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract AC03-88SF17367. The scope of the report includes work performed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI), Combustion Engineering Inc. (C-E), and James Howden Company, as major subcontractors to GA.

  9. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss. PMID:6859357

  10. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.K.; Staub, S.L.; Tokuhata, G.K.

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss.

  11. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss. PMID:6859357

  12. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Trott, Klaus R; Simon, Steven L; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Fukao, Akira; Saito, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radio-iodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid. PMID:12675119

  13. Review of Destructive Assay Methods for Nuclear Materials Characterization from the Three Mile Island (TMI) Fuel Debris

    SciTech Connect

    Carla J. Miller

    2013-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the literature review that was performed and based on previous work performed at the Idaho National Laboratory studying the Three Mile Island 2 (TMI-2) nuclear reactor accident, specifically the melted fuel debris. The purpose of the literature review was to document prior published work that supports the feasibility of the analytical techniques that were developed to provide quantitative results of the make-up of the fuel and reactor component debris located inside and outside the containment. The quantitative analysis provides a technique to perform nuclear fuel accountancy measurements

  14. Nuclear power: renaissance or relapse? Global climate change and long-term Three Mile Island activists' narratives.

    PubMed

    Culley, Marci R; Angelique, Holly

    2010-06-01

    Community narratives are increasingly important as people move towards an ecologically sustainable society. Global climate change is a multi-faceted problem with multiple stakeholders. The voices of affected communities must be heard as we make decisions of global significance. We document the narratives of long-term anti-nuclear activists near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant who speak out in the dawn of a nuclear renaissance/relapse. While nuclear power is marketed as a "green" solution to global warming, their narratives reveal three areas for consideration; (1) significant problems with nuclear technology, (2) lessons "not" learned from the TMI disaster, and (3) hopes for a sustainable future. Nuclear waste, untrustworthy officials and economic issues were among the problems cited. Deceptive shaping of public opinion, nuclear illiteracy, and an aging anti-nuclear movement were reasons cited for the lessons not learned. However, many remain optimistic and envision increased participation to create an ecologically-balanced world. PMID:20232245

  15. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavior responses of the general population and the nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-02-01

    A main conclusion drawn from the investigation by the President's Commission was that the most serious health effect of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident was severe mental stress, which was short-lived. The highest levels of psychological distress were found among those living within 5 miles of Three Mile Island, in families with preschool children, and among the Three Mile Island nuclear workers. This report provides some understanding of how these conclusions were drawn, the methods used to obtain information of the experiences of mental stress and the behavioral effects and responses of the general population and the nuclear workers to the accident at Three Mile Island. In order to limit the scope of the discussion, information is taken from the Behavioral Effects Task Group Report (TMI79c) to the President's Commission, and thus from the labors of the many behavioral scientists.

  16. Birds associated with black-tailed prairie dog colonies in southern shortgrass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barko, V.A.; Shaw, J.H.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a census of avifaunal richness and abundance on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies and uncolonized shortgrass prairie in the Oklahoma panhandle in July 1995 and April-June 1996. Five black-tailed prairie dog colonies were paired with five uncolonized prairie sites having similar topography and soil structure. Data were collected by walking permanent line transects and making point counts with a 125-m radius at fixed points placed 250 m apart. Avifaunal abundance and species richness were determined for each site. Avifaunal abundance was significantly higher on sites with prairie dog-colonies than at uncolonized sites during the vegetation growing season. However, we found few significant differences in avian abundance between prairie dog colonies and uncolonized prairie during tile drought months of 1996. We suggest these differences are because of drought-induced vegetation dormancy. Drought created homogeneous habitat instead of distinct habitat patches on prairie dog colonies characteristic of normal precipitation years in other regions of the Great Plains.

  17. Mental health effects of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor restart.

    PubMed

    Dew, M A; Bromet, E J; Schulberg, H C; Dunn, L O; Parkinson, D K

    1987-08-01

    Controversy over potential mental health effects of the Three Mile Island Unit-1 restart led the authors to examine prospectively the pattern of psychiatric symptoms in a sample of Three Mile Island area mothers of young children. Symptom levels after restart were elevated over previous levels; a sizable subcohort of the sample reported relatively serious degrees of postrestart distress. History of diagnosable major depression and generalized anxiety following the Three Mile Island accident, plus symptoms and beliefs about personal risk prior to the restart, best predicted postrestart symptoms. PMID:3605430

  18. Mental health effects of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor restart

    SciTech Connect

    Dew, M.A.; Bromet, E.J.; Schulberg, H.C.; Dunn, L.O.; Parkinson, D.K.

    1987-08-01

    Controversy over potential mental health effects of the Three Mile Island Unit-1 restart led the authors to examine prospectively the pattern of psychiatric symptoms in a sample of Three Mile Island area mothers of young children. Symptom levels after restart were elevated over previous levels; a sizable subcohort of the sample reported relatively serious degrees of postrestart distress. History of diagnosable major depression and generalized anxiety following the Three Mile Island accident, plus symptoms and beliefs about personal risk prior to the restart, best predicted postrestart symptoms.

  19. Connecting the "Hot Fusion Island" to the Nuclear Mainland: Search for 283,284,285Fl Decay Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykaczewski, K. P.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Brewer, N. T.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Miernik, K.; Roberto, J. B.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Polyakov, A. N.; Tsyganov, Yu. S.; Voinov, A. A.; Abdullin, F. Sh.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Itkis, M. G.; Sabelnikov, A. V.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Shumeiko, M. V.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Vostokin, G. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Henderson, R. A.; Stoyer, M. A.

    The program of studies on superheavy nuclei to identify new isotopes anchoring the decay chains from the Hot Fusion Island to the Nuclear Mainland has been started at the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS, JINR Dubna) in collaboration between Russia, US and Poland. These studies are performed with new detection and digital data acquisition system developed at ORNL (Oak Ridge) and UT (Knoxville). The evidence for fast fission of the new isotope 284Fl is presented. The low cross section for the 3n channel of 239Pu + 48Ca reaction is attributed to lower than expected fission barriers in 287-284Fl.

  20. 76 FR 5799 - Prairie Power, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Prairie Power, Inc.; Notice of Filing January 26, 2011. Take notice that on January 25, 2011, Prairie Power, Inc., submitted a proposed revenue requirement filing under Midwest... Transmission System Operator, Inc.\\2\\ \\1\\ Prairie Power is also listed by the Midwest ISO as a...

  1. Soil change induced by prairie dogs across three ecological sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) can influence vegetation dynamics and landscape hydrology by altering soil properties, yet few studies have evaluated soil responses to prairie dog activities across a range of soil types. This study was conducted to quantify prairie dog effects on soil properties within...

  2. Palouse prairie - synaptic relics from a senior pseudo-botanist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, vegetation of the Missoula Valley prairie has been regarded as "Agropyron-Festuca community," otherwise described as "Palouse bunchgrass prairie" or just "Palouse prairie." Synecology of this association has been well described starting in the 1920s, however there is no description of...

  3. Healing and Building Soil on Prairie Birthday Farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native tallgrass prairie was restored as an integral part of a small, food-producing farm called Prairie Birthday Farm in Clay County, Missouri. Reconstruction of native prairie was essential to the farm’s goal of producing high quality food for the family, area residents and restaurant chefs. Impro...

  4. Post-accident cleanup of radioactivity at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Brooksbank, R.E.; Armento, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    The technical staff of the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepare documentation concerned with the cleanup of radioactivity on the Three Mile Island site following the March 28, 1979 accident. The objective of this report is to provide information in a summarized form, which will be of direct usefulness to the commissioners. The information contained herein includes discussion of on-site assistance and accomplishments following the accident, flowsheet development for the TMI recovery team (by the Technical Advisory Group), and the numerous reports already generated on the TMI cleanup and recovery.

  5. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: UPDATE 2, VOLUME III

    EPA Science Inventory

    The original report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem St...

  6. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: UPDATE 2, VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The original report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem St...

  7. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: UPDATE 2, VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The original report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem St...

  8. The pre-conceptual design of the nuclear island of ASTRID

    SciTech Connect

    Saez, M.

    2012-07-01

    The CEA is involved in a substantial effort on the ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) pre-conceptual design in cooperation with EDF, as experienced Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) operator, AREVA, as experienced SFR Nuclear Island engineering company and components designer, ALSTOM POWER as energy conversion system designer and COMEX NUCLEAIRE as mechanical systems designer. The CEA is looking for other partnerships, in France and abroad. The ASTRID preliminary design is based on a sodium-cooled pool reactor of 1500 MWth generating about 600 MWe, which is required to guarantee the representativeness of the reactor core and the main components with regard to future commercial reactors. ASTRID lifetime target is 60 years. Two Energy Conversion Systems are studied in parallel until the end of 2012: Rankine steam cycle or Brayton gas based energy conversion cycle. ASTRID design is guided by the following major objectives: improved safety, simplification of structures, improved In Service Inspection and Repair (ISIR), improved manufacturing conditions for cost reduction and increased quality, reduction of risks related to sodium fires and water/sodium reaction, and improved robustness against external hazards. The core is supported by a diagrid, which lay on a strong back to transfer the weight to the main vessel. AREVA is involved in a substantial effort in order to improve the core support structure in particular regarding the ISIR and the connection to primary pump. In the preliminary design, the primary system is formed by the main vessel and the upper closure comprising the reactor roof, two rotating plugs - used for fuel handling - and the components plugs located in the roof penetrations. The Above Core Structure deflects the sodium flow in the hot pool and provides support to core instrumentation and guidance of the control rod drive mechanisms. The number of the major components in the main vessel, primary pumps

  9. Equipment upgrades increase MW output at Prairie Island

    SciTech Connect

    Yarden, A.L.; Thomas, M.W.

    1994-06-01

    This article describes how redesigned moisture separation systems and four-pass reheaters resolve maintenance problems and increase power plant capacity. Because of the many operating problems with the equipment since plant start-up, Northern States Power (NSP) initiated a two-phase moisture separator reheater (MSR) betterment program. In the first phase, the mesh demister pads were replaced with stainless steel, high-performance inertial separators. These are mechanically rigid, maintenance free, and, when provided with good flow distribution, are capable of virtually complete moisture separation. The reconstructed moisture-separation system has seven zones: shell entrance, distribution manifold, calming plenum, perforated distribution plates, chevron separator banks, inlet to the reheat plenum, and internal drain system.

  10. Ecological Restoration: Bringing Back the Prairie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Molly Fifield

    1997-01-01

    Defines ecological restoration and offers a plan for prairie restoration as a schoolyard project. Steps include researching and planning the site, preparation and planting, and continuing management of the site. Ecological concepts in this activity also relate to science, language arts, math, social studies, art, and music for K-12 students. (AIM)

  11. Habitat management considerations for prairie chickens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, L.M.

    1974-01-01

    Lack of nesting and brood rearing habitat appears to be the universal limiting factor for prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) throughout their range. Grasslands are essential to prairie chickens, but vary widely in quality and thus in their ability to support prairie chickens. High-quality habitat is grassland providing residual vegetation averaging about 20 inches in height in spring and sufficiently dense to completely conceal a nesting prairie chicken. Annually grazed, annually hayed, or long-term (10 years or more) idled habitats are undesirable. The most successful method for maintaining high-quality nest-brood habitat is prescribed burning at 3- to 5-year intervals; such habitat may be established by seeding grass or grass-legume mixtures. Seeded habitat may be maintained by prescribed burning at 3- to 5-year intervals. Management units should contain at least 2 square miles of high-quality habitat within an area not to exceed 8 square miles. High-quality habitat blocks should be at least 160 acres with a minimum width of one-half mile. Based on available evidence, funding to provide winter food or cover is not recommended.

  12. Expanding Teacher Understanding of Wisconsin's Prairie Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Melinda S.; Sivek, Daniel J.; Thomas, Christine L.

    2008-01-01

    The principal author developed a workshop through the Becoming an Outdoors-Woman (BOW) program, based on central Wisconsin's prairie chicken population, to present teachers with the knowledge and skills needed to provide quality environmental education. Seventeen high school teachers attended the 2003 workshop. Pre-and post-workshop surveys were…

  13. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: Summary status report: Three Mile Island Unit 2. Radioactive waste and laundry shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D. H.; Haffner, D. R.

    1988-06-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 through April 19, 1987. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order.

  14. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, C

    1982-03-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters. PMID:7058968

  15. Predictors of temporal patterns of psychiatric distress during 10 years following the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Dew, M A; Bromet, E J

    1993-04-01

    The present study examines psychiatric symptom levels during a 10-year period in a community sample of mothers of young children. All were identified in the early aftermath of the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear accident, and followed through the accident's 1989 anniversary. Cluster analysis was used to identify long-term distress profiles during the study period; women's temporal profiles were found to be either (a) stable and at low, clinically nonsignificant levels of distress across all measurement points or (b) at consistently elevated, clinically significant levels that varied with the timing of postaccident events such as the restart of the undamaged reactor and the 10th anniversary. Subsequent multivariate analyses indicated that preaccident characteristics, as well as parameters reflecting respondents' initial involvement with, and reactions to the accident, were important for distinguishing between women within the two temporal profile groups. Implications of the results for both policy formulation and continued research on significant environmental stressors is discussed. PMID:8511662

  16. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, C

    1982-01-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters. PMID:7058968

  17. Modeling Groundwater Flow and Transport of Radionuclides at Amchitka Island's Underground Nuclear Tests: Milrow, Long Shot, and Cannikin

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed Hassan; Karl Pohlmann; Jenny Chapman

    2002-11-19

    Since 1963, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive material in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these locations, Amchitka Island, Alaska is the subject of this report. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. Long Shot was an 80-kiloton-yield test conducted at a depth of 700 meters (m) on October 29, 1965 (DOE, 2000). Milrow had an announced yield of about 1,000 kilotons, and was detonated at a depth of 1,220 m on October 2, 1969. Cannikin had an announced yield less than 5,000 kilotons, and was conducted at a depth of 1,790 m on November 6, 1971. The purpose of this work is to provide a portion of the information needed to conduct a human-health risk assessment of the potential hazard posed by the three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. Specifically, the focus of this work is the subsurface transport portion, including the release of radionuclides from the underground cavities and their movement through the groundwater system to the point where they seep out of the ocean floor and into the marine environment. This requires a conceptual model of groundwater flow on the island using geologic, hydrologic, and chemical information, a numerical model for groundwater flow, a conceptual model of contaminant release and transport properties from the nuclear test cavities, and a numerical model for contaminant transport. Needed for the risk assessment are estimates of the quantity of radionuclides (in terms of mass flux) from the underground tests on Amchitka that could discharge to the ocean, the time of possible discharge, and the location in terms of distance from shoreline. The radionuclide data presented here are all reported in terms of normalized

  18. Locating, constructing, and managing islands for nesting waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, John T.; Messmer, Terry A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this extension bulletin is to assist public and private managers in locating, constructing, and managing islands to enhance nest success of waterfowl. The information is from studies by the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota, and information collected by biologists working at sites throughout the northern hemisphere.

  19. Mercury Methylation Rates in Prairie Wetland Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggarth, C.; Hall, B.

    2011-12-01

    The majority of methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic ecosystems is likely produced through methylation of Hg(II) by sulfate-reducing and iron-reducing bacteria. Wetland sediments may be significant sites of MeHg production, due to the combination of anoxic conditions and availability of organic matter to support microbial activity. Methylmercury produced by methylation of inorganic mercury within wetland sediments may be transferred to the water column, allowing for bioaccumulation of neurotoxic MeHg in the aquatic food web. Little information is available on sediment MeHg and total mercury concentrations, mercury methylation rates, and MeHg flux to the water column in prairie wetlands. Sediment cores from the St. Denis National Wildlife Area (SDNWA), ~40 km east of Saskatoon in central Saskatchewan, Canada, will be collected to measure sediment mercury methylation rates, total mercury, and MeHg concentrations in prairie wetland sediments. The SDNWA has been a site of prairie wetland research since 1968 and is located near the northern boundary of the Prairie Pothole Region which supports 50-80% of North American waterfowl. Sediment MeHg production will be measured in 2011 through the injection of 201Hg stable isotope to sediment cores from 12 prairie wetlands located within and nearby the SDNWA. Amended sediment cores will be incubated in situ for four hours to allow methylation of a fraction of the inorganic mercury stable isotope to Me201Hg. Analysis of the incubated sediment cores will allow for measurement of MeHg production rates, MeHg, and total mercury concentrations. Additional sediment cores will be taken to determine sediment water content, organic content, and porosity. Water samples from sediment pore water and the wetland water column will be analyzed for MeHg, total mercury, DOC, sulphate, SUVA, and water chemistry. Methylmercury flux from sediment pore water to the overlying water column will be calculated. Sediment MeHg production rates in the 12

  20. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavioral responses of the general population and nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1983-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, an accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant Unit No. 2 near Middletown, PA. A Presidential Commission was established to investigate the incident and was given the responsibility to evaluate the actual and potential impact of the events on the health and safety of the workers and the public. A main conclusion of the investigation was that the most serious health effect was severe, short-lived mental stress. This paper describes the study and the findings for four different study groups: (1) the general population of heads of households located within 20 miles of the plant; (2) mothers of preschool children from the same area; (3) teenagers in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grades from the area; and (4) nuclear workers employed at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. (ACR)

  1. Photovoltaic systems for Canadian prairie regions

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrin, J.

    1983-10-01

    The communications industry has a need for economic low power generators for their remote sites, with minimized power consumption. Photovoltaic generators (PV) promising hardware simplicity, low cost and low maintenance have the potential to fill this need. The operational record of PV generators is rather poor in harsh environment of the Canadian prairies. The authors' analysis of long term radiation data, field and laboratory tests show that often ignored cyclic winter radiation extremes and poor selection, operation and maintenance of batteries are the most frequent causes of PV system failures. They derive a reliable PV sizing curve for Edmonton (53/sup 0/N, 114/sup 0/W) and study various PV designs. At a cost of $20,000 per 100W a hybrid PV-TEG generator is shown to promise reliable operation which is not affected by extreme weather fluctuations of the Canadian prairies.

  2. Topographic Analysis for the Prairie Pothole Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martz, L.; Shaw, D.; Pietroniro, A.

    2008-12-01

    The unique topography of the pothole region of the North American prairies creates challenges for properly determining basin contributing area. Retreating Pleistocene continental glaciers deposited a glacial till that produced a hummocky terrain with numerous depressions or potholes within the landscape that impound runoff. These potholes impound a great deal of runoff and display intermittent 'fill and spill' behaviour which can produce large step-functional shifts in the land surface area contributing to stream flow. Both the storage capacity and the topological relationships between potholes determines the nature of the shifts in basin contributing area and runoff. Most currently available automated methods such as TOPAZ or ArcGIS treat depressions as artefacts that are removed by depression-filling and subsequent routing of flow across the resulting flat areas. This effectively defines the threshold storage value, that when satisfied, allows 100% of the basin to contribute runoff to the basin mouth. However, most runoff events in the prairie pothole region are sub-threshold events that allow only a portion of the watershed to contribute surface runoff to the outlet. We propose an automated method for determining contributing area that incorporates the dynamic fill-and- spill behaviour of prairie potholes. We apply the algorithm in prairie pothole basins both to demonstrate their efficacy and to test the potential for using conceptual curves to describe a hypothesized non-linear relationship between decreasing potential storage in the landscape and contributing area. Results indicate that the proposed conceptual curves represent the relationship between potential storage and contributing area in the test basins very well.

  3. The Nuclear Accident at Three Mile Island a Practical Lesson in the Fundamental Importance of Effective Communications

    SciTech Connect

    DeVine Jr, J.C.

    2008-07-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident in March 1979 had a profound effect on the course of commercial nuclear generation in the United States and around the world. And while the central elements of the accident were matters of nuclear engineering, design and operations, its consequences were compounded, and in some respects superseded, by extraordinarily ineffective communications by all parties at all levels. Communications failures during the accident and its aftermath caused misunderstanding, distrust, and incorrect emergency response - and seeded or reinforced public opposition to nuclear power that persists to this day. There are communications lessons from TMI that have not yet been fully learned, and some that once were learned but are now gradually being forgotten. The more glaring TMI communications problems were in the arena of external interactions and communications among the plant owner, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the media, and the public. Confusing, fragmented, and contradictory public statements early in the accident, regardless of cause, undermined all possibility for reasonable discourse thereafter. And because the TMI accident was playing out on a world stage, the breakdown in public trust had long term and widespread implications. At the plant site, both TMI-2 cleanup and restart of the undamaged TMI-1 unit met with years of public and political criticism, and attendant regulatory pressure. Across the nation, public trust in nuclear power and those who operate it plummeted, unquestionably contributing to the 25+ year hiatus in new plant orders. There were other, less visible but equally important, consequences of ineffective communications at TMI. The unplanned 'precautionary' evacuation urged by the governor two days after the accident - a life changing, traumatic event for thousands of residents - was prompted primarily by misunderstandings and miscommunications regarding the condition of the plant. And today, nearly 30

  4. "Duck stamp" dollars reserve native prairie tracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Ducks and wetlands are inseparable in the prairies. Hunters know this, bird watchers know this, wildlife managers know this, and most importantly people who manage the croplands and rangelands know this. The 1,746 tracts of native prairie within these upland-wetland complexes known as Waterfowl Production Areas are not the only lands purchased with "duck stamp" dollars. Considerable acreages have also been purchased in central and southern parts of the United States to provide staging, resting, and wintering areas for waterfowl. Since 1934, when "duck stamps" were first sold, nearly 2.5 million acres of waterfowl habitats have been acquired or taken under easement within the United States with revenue from these sales. By purchasing "duck stamps", more than 2.2 million people provide over $16.5 million in annual revenue. It is certainly gratifying to know that some of the remaining native prairie remnants in the Northern Great Plains are being reserved for the future with "duck stamp" dollars.

  5. Does paedomorphosis contribute to prairie vole monogamy?

    PubMed Central

    Bushyhead, Timothy; Curtis, J. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We examined skull morphology in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and meadow voles (M. pennsylvanicus), two closely related species with fundamentally different mating systems, to test the hypothesis that paedomorphosis contributes to the evolution of monogamous mating systems. Using several skull measurements, we found that the overall length:width ratio of meadow vole skulls was greater than that of prairie voles suggesting that meadow vole have longer narrower skulls. We then examined which aspects of skull morphology differed between the species and found that the ratio difference was attributable primarily to longer snout length in meadow voles. Finally, we compared adult morphology in both species to that of pups and found the prairie vole, a monogamous species, displays a more juvenile-like skull morphology than does the meadow vole, a promiscuous species. These results suggest that monogamous vole species retain more juvenile-like morphology than do promiscuous species, and thus possibly retain juvenile-like behaviors that may contribute to a monogamous mating system. PMID:26594100

  6. Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet

  7. Spectra of nuclear explosions, earthquakes, and noise from Wake Island bottom hydrophones

    SciTech Connect

    McCreery, C.S.; Walker, D.A.; Sutton, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Spectral characteristics of P phases from 4 shallow focus earthquakes and 8 underground explosions, and of 52 samples of ocean bottom background noise, are examined by using tape recordings of ocean bottom hydrophones near Wake Island from July 1979 through March 1981. Significant differences are found between spectra of large shallow focus earthquakes and explosions (5.7< or =mb< or =6.3) observed at 61/sup 0/ to 77/sup 0/ epicentral distance. For similar magnitudes, explosions were found to have less energy at frequencies below 1.5 Hz and more energy at frequencies above 2.0 Hz. Earthquakes were found to have a spectral slope of -28 dB/octave (relative to pressure) over the band 1 to 6 Hz. Explosions were found to have the same spectral slope over the band 2.2 to 6 Hz, but a different slope of -12 dB/octave over the band 1.1 to 2.2 Hz. High frequencies (>6 Hz) observed in the teleseismic P phases indicate high Q values for the deep mantle. Ambient noise levels on the ocean bottom near Wake are comparable to levels at the quietest continental sites for frequencies between 3 and 15 Hz. Also high levels of coherence (at least as high as 0.85) have been observed for P phases recorded on sensors with 40-km separation.

  8. Performance testing of the environmental TLD system for the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station.

    PubMed

    Toke, L F; Carson, B H; Baker, G G; McBride, M H; Plato, P A; Miklos, J A

    1984-05-01

    Panasonic UD-801 thermoluminescent dosimeters ( TLDs ) containing two calcium sulfate phosphors were tested under Performance Specification 3.1 established by the American National Standard Institute ( ANSI75 ) and in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 4.13 ( NRC77 ). The specific qualifying tests included TLD uniformity, reproducibility, energy dependence and directional dependence. The overall measurement uncertainties and associated confidence levels are within the prescribed guidelines defined in the qualifying requirements for environmental TLDs . PMID:6724910

  9. The Prairie Science Class: Pioneering a Trail in Interdisciplinary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Julie; Ellis, Dave

    2005-01-01

    What happens when an old farmstead, native tall-grass prairie, and middle school students are mixed together? Would one guess learning? That is exactly what is happening in Fergus Falls, Minnesota, where students from a rural middle school have joined with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to restore native tallgrass prairie. In the…

  10. Development of soil microbial communities during tallgrass prairie restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil microbial communities were examined in a chronosequence of four different land-use treatments at the Konza Prairie Biological Station, Kansas. The time series comprised a conventionally tilled cropland (CTC) developed on former prairie soils, two restored grasslands that were initiated on forme...

  11. Plant Guide: Western Prairie Clover [Dalea Ornata (Douglas) Eaton & Wright

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas) Eaton & Wright] is a perennial North American legume that is non-toxic to livestock and wildlife. It can be found in Idaho, Nevada, Washington, Oregon, and California. Western prairie is tap-rooted and reaches a height of 30 to 61 cm. A cluster of st...

  12. A view looking southeast over the Camas Prairie with Bridges ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A view looking southeast over the Camas Prairie with Bridges 46-1 and 46-2 at Milepost 47 - Camas Prairie Railroad, Second Subdivision, From Spalding in Nez Perce County, through Lewis County, to Grangeville in Idaho County, Spalding, Nez Perce County, ID

  13. Ecosystem characteristics of remnant, headwater tallgrass prairie streams.

    PubMed

    Larson, Danelle M; Dodds, Walter K; Jackson, Karen E; Whiles, Matt R; Winders, Kyle R

    2013-01-01

    North America has lost >95% of its native tallgrass prairie due to land conversion, making prairie streams one of the most endangered ecosystems. Research on the basic ecosystem characteristics of the remaining natural prairie streams will inform conservation and management. We examined the structure and function of headwater streams draining tallgrass prairie tracts at Osage Prairie in Missouri and the Konza Prairie Biological Station in Kansas and compared those values with literature values for streams draining agricultural watersheds in the region. We quantified physicochemical and biological characteristics for 2 yr. Streams at Osage and Konza were characterized by low nutrients and low suspended sediments (substantially lower than impacted sites in the region), slight heterotrophic status, and high temporal variability. Suspended sediments and nutrient concentrations were generally low in all prairie streams, but storms increased concentrations of both by 3- to 12-fold. Spring prescribed burns were followed by a slight increase in chlorophyll and decreased nutrients, potentially due to greater light availability. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities at Osage showed seasonal patterns that were probably linked to variable hydrology. We found nine amphibian species using the Osage streams as habitat or breeding sites, but little usage at Konza was probably due to dry conditions and low discharge. Our study indicates that two remnant tallgrass prairie streams along a longitudinal gradient are fairly similar in terms of physicochemical features and have good water quality relative to agricultural watersheds but can differ considerably in macroinvertebrate and amphibian abundance. PMID:23673759

  14. Chicago's Columbus Park: The Prairie Idealized. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachrach, Julia Sniderman; Nathan, Jo Ann

    Twenty-four year old Jens Jensen came to the United States, settled in Chicago (Illinois), and promptly fell in love with the Midwest's prairie landscape. Although some thought that prairie was boring, monotonous, and ordinary, Jensen saw great beauty in the tree-filled groves, long winding rivers, natural rock formations and waterfalls, and the…

  15. Isotopic signatures of vegetation change on northern mixed grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National analyses have shown invasion of northern mixed-grass prairie by nonnative grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Invasion of native prairie by nonnative grasses may compromise ecosystem function and limit potential ecosystem services. Recent data from a long-term (100 year) ...

  16. 77 FR 61594 - Prairie Power, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Prairie Power, Inc.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on October 1, 2012, Prairie Power, Inc. filed its Revised and Superseding Proposed Revenue Requirement for reactive...

  17. 77 FR 47061 - Prairie Power, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Prairie Power, Inc.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 30, 2012, Prairie Power, Inc. filed a Proposed Revenue Requirement for reactive supply service under...

  18. Effects of Prairie Restoration on Soil Quality Indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of soil ecosystem functioning based on soil quality assessments of native prairie may provide a reference for evaluating improvement in soil quality of cultivated agroecosystems converted to perennial vegetation during prairie restoration. Our objective was to determine the effect o...

  19. Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Konza Prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The results of a survey of Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at Konza Prairie near Manhattan, Kansas are reported. Eleven sites representing prairie and woodland/wetland areas, including gallery forest, were sampled in 2001 and 2005 using Malaise traps and a canopy trap. Selec...

  20. Effects of prairie dogs on livestock gains in shortgrass steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are few empirical data addressing the important and controversial question of the effects of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) on livestock weight gains in western rangelands. This is particularly relevant in the shortgrass steppe where the area occupied by prairie dogs has increased substantially i...

  1. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME V. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  2. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME I. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  3. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: UPDATE. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  4. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME IV. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  5. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME III. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  6. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME VI. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  7. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME II. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  8. 75 FR 7470 - Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application February 3, 2010. Take notice that on January 26, 2010, Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC (Pine Prairie), 333 Clay Street... Pine Prairie to: (1) Install six 5,750 hp electric motor drive compressor units instead of the four...

  9. 75 FR 65310 - Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application October 15, 2010. Take notice that on October 4, 2010, Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC (Pine Prairie), 333 Clay Street... convenience and necessity to construct and operate its Phase III Expansion Project. Pine Prairie's Phase...

  10. Use of ecological sites in managing wildlife and livestock: An example with prairie dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prairie dogs are a native rodent found in the mixed grass prairie of the northern Great Plains. Prairie dogs can have an adverse impact on the amount of forages available for grazing livestock. In the Native American community, prairie dogs are often valued as a cultural resource and as an importan...

  11. Evaluation of the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. O.; Collins, E. D.; King, L. J.; Knauer, J. B.

    1980-07-01

    This report discusses the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of the high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station was evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a study that included filtration tests, ion exchange column tests, and ion exchange distribution tests. The contaminated waters, the SDS flowsheet, and the experiments made are described. The experimental results were used to predict the SDS performance and to indicate potential improvements.

  12. Reflections on the prairie as a creative teaching-learning place.

    PubMed

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    In this column, the author reflects on characteristics of the prairie land of South Dakota and how it contributes to a creative teaching-learning place. Attributes of the prairie that are linked with creative teaching-learning include prairie as a space of aloneness and solitude, prairie as a boundless seeing what may be, prairie as contradiction and paradox, and prairie as possibility. These attributes of the prairie are explored through the author's personal experience, theoretical literature on creativity and teaching-learning, and literature from Parse's theory of human becoming. PMID:16407596

  13. The long-term impact of a man-made disaster: An examination of a small town in the aftermath of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Reactor Accident.

    PubMed

    Goldsteen, R; Schorr, J K

    1982-03-01

    This paper explores the long-term effects of a nuclear accident on residents' perceptions of their physical and mental health, their trust of public officials, and their attitudes toward the future risks of nuclear power generation In their community. We find that in the period after the accident at Three Mile Island that there are constant or Increasing levels of distress reported by community residents. We conclude that the effects of a technological disaster may often be more enduring than those natural disaster and that greater research efforts should be made to Investigate the long-term consequences of man-made catastrophies of all types. PMID:20958512

  14. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls affected by U.S. nuclear testing: all exposure pathways, remedial measures, and environmental loss of (137)Cs.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F

    2010-01-01

    Radiation doses calculated for people resettling Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll, Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll, and Utrōk Island at Utrōk Atoll are presented. Residence is assumed to begin in 2010. In previous dose assessments it was shown that (137)Cs accounts for about 98% of the total dose for returning residents. About 85 to 90% (depending on the atoll) is via consumption of locally grown foods containing (137)Cs, and about 10 to 15% is due to external exposure from (137)Cs in the soil. These assessments were made using only the radiological half-life of (137)Cs (30.1 y). We have shown since that there is an environmental loss of (137)Cs from soil to groundwater that results in a more rapid loss of (137)Cs from the atoll ecosystem. The mean effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls is 8.5 y. Moreover, treatment of coconut trees with potassium (K) reduces (137)Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat at Bikini Atoll to about 5% of pretreatment concentrations. The magnitude of reduction is dependent on the concentration of (137)Cs in soil, and thereby in food crops, and is less for Enjebi and Rongelap Islands than for Bikini Island. Treatment of food crops and fruit trees with K and removal of the top 15 cm of soil around houses and community buildings prior to construction to reduce external exposure where people spend most of their time has been presented to the communities as a "Combined Option" remediation strategy. Doses presented here are calculated using the Combined Option, effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls, and a diet of both imported and local foods. The average natural background dose in the Marshall Islands, plus the anthropogenic nuclear test-related dose at Bikini, Enjebi, and Rongelap Islands, is less for each of the islands than the average background dose in the U.S. and Europe. PMID:19959945

  15. Investigation: revelations about Three Mile Island disaster raise doubts over nuclear plant safety: a special facing south investigation by Sue Sturgis.

    PubMed

    Sturgis, Sue

    2009-01-01

    A series of mishaps in a reactor at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant led to the 1979 meltdown of almost half the uranium fuel and uncontrolled releases of radiation into the air and surrounding Susquehanna River. It was the single worst disaster ever to befall the U.S. nuclear power industry. Health physics technician Randall Thompson's story about what he witnessed while monitoring radiation there after the incident is being publicly disclosed for the first time. It is supported by a growing body of evidence and it contradicts the U.S. government's contention that the TMI accident posed no threat to the public. Thompson and his wife, a nuclear health physicist who also worked at TMI in the disaster's wake, warn that the government's failure to acknowledge the full scope of the disaster is leading officials to underestimate the risks posed by a new generation of nuclear power plants. PMID:20129905

  16. Coastal Prairie Restoration Information System: Version 1 (Louisiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allain, Larry

    2007-01-01

    The Coastal Prairie Restoration Information System (CPR) is a Microsoft Access database that allows users to query and view data about Louisiana coastal prairie species. Less than 0.1% of Louisiana's coastal prairie vegetation remains in a relatively undisturbed condition. Encompassing as much as 1 million hectares of land, coastal prairie is a hybrid of coastal wetlands and tall grass prairie. Over 550 plant species have been identified in Louisiana's coastal prairies to date. Efforts to conserve and restore this endangered ecosystem are limited by the ability of workers to identify and access knowledge about this diverse group of plants. In this database, a variety of data are provided for each of 650 coastal prairie species in Louisiana. The database was developed at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center by Larry Allain, with software development by Myra Silva. Additional funding was provided by the biology department of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette (ULL), the ULL Center for Environmental and Ecological Technology, and the National Science Foundation.

  17. Drought, Climate Change and the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. E.

    2010-03-01

    The occurrence of drought is a ubiquitous feature of the global water cycle. Such an extreme does not necessarily lead to an overall change in the magnitude of the global water cycle but it of course affects the regional cycling of water. Droughts are recurring aspects of weather and climate extremes as are floods and tornadoes, but they differ substantially since they have long durations and lack easily identified onsets and terminations. Drought is a relatively common feature of the North American and Canadian climate system and all regions of the continent are affected from time-to-time. However, it tends to be most common and severe over the central regions of the continent. The Canadian Prairies are therefore prone to drought. Droughts in the Canadian Prairies are distinctive in North America. The large scale atmospheric circulations are influenced by blocking from intense orography to the west and long distances from all warm ocean-derived atmospheric water sources; growing season precipitation is generated by a highly complex combination of frontal and convective systems; seasonality is severe and characterized by a relatively long snow-covered and short growing seasons; local surface runoff is primarily produced by snowmelt water; there is substantial water storage potential in the poorly drained, post-glacial topography; and aquifers are overlain by impermeable glacial till, but there are also important permeable aquifers. One example of Prairie drought is the recent one that began in 1999 with cessation of its atmospheric component in 2004/2005 and many of its hydrological components in 2005. This event produced the worst drought for at least a hundred years in parts of the Canadian Prairies. Even in the dust bowl of the 1930s, no single year over the central Prairies were drier than in 2001. The drought affected agriculture, recreation, tourism, health, hydro-electricity, and forestry in the Prairies. Gross Domestic Product fell some 5.8 billion and

  18. Seasonal acclimation of prairie deer mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, R. V.; Belknap, R. W.

    1993-12-01

    Prairie deer mice responded to long nights by reducing their metabolic rates, core temperatures, thermal conductances and incremental metabolic responses to cold stimulus, while increasing their capacities for nonshivering thermogenesis. Some winter animals spontaneously entered daily torpor in the mornings and thereby further reduced their metabolic rates and core temperatures. Provision of exogenous melatonin (by subdermal implants) mimiced short photoperiod effects on metabolic rates and core temperatures of wild-caught, laboratory maintained animals. Provision of supplemental dietary tryptophan to laboratory animals conditioned to natural light cycles mimiced metabolic effects of long nights in summer animals, and further reduced metabolic rates of winter mice, but did not affect their core temperature levels. Newly caught, laboratory maintained deer mice responded to natural seasonal clues of shortphotoperiod and increased dietary tryptophan by reducing their resting energy requirements through both lower metabolic and lower core temperature levels. Short photoperiod and seasonal change also promoted gonadal involution, and resulted in more socially tolerant huddling by mice with reduced core temperature. Reduced 24-hour LH excretion rates were also observed in winter animals which were exposed to seasonal light cycles at warm (25°C) room temperatures. We propose that seasonal acclimatization involves pineal effects on sex hormone-influenced social behaviors and on resting metabolism. These effects serve to conserve resting energy expenditure and promote hypothermic insulation by wild prairie deer mice.

  19. Are there optimal densities for prairie birds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skagen, S.K.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The major forces of food and predation shape fitness-enhancing decisions of birds at all stages of their life cycles. During the breeding season, birds can minimize nest loss due to predation by selecting sites with a lower probability of predation. To understand the environmental and social aspects and consequences of breedingsite selection in prairie birds, we explored variation in nest-survival patterns of the Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys) in the shortgrass prairie region of North America. Over four breeding seasons, we documented the survival of 405 nests, conducted 60 surveys to estimate bird densities, and measured several vegetative features to describe habitat structure in 24 randomly selected study plots. Nest survival varied with the buntings' density as described by a quadratic polynomial, increasing with density below 1.5 birds ha-1 and decreasing with density between 1.5 and 3 birds ha-1, suggesting that an optimal range of densities favors reproductive success of the Lark Bunting, which nests semi-colonially. Nest survival also increased with increasing vegetation structure of study plots and varied with age of the nest, increasing during early incubation and late in the nestling stage and declining slightly from mid-incubation to the middle of the nestling period. The existence of an optimal range of densities in this semi-colonial species can be elucidated by the "commodity-selection hypothesis" at low densities and density dependence at high densities. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  20. Drought, Climate Change and the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. E.

    2010-03-01

    The occurrence of drought is a ubiquitous feature of the global water cycle. Such an extreme does not necessarily lead to an overall change in the magnitude of the global water cycle but it of course affects the regional cycling of water. Droughts are recurring aspects of weather and climate extremes as are floods and tornadoes, but they differ substantially since they have long durations and lack easily identified onsets and terminations. Drought is a relatively common feature of the North American and Canadian climate system and all regions of the continent are affected from time-to-time. However, it tends to be most common and severe over the central regions of the continent. The Canadian Prairies are therefore prone to drought. Droughts in the Canadian Prairies are distinctive in North America. The large scale atmospheric circulations are influenced by blocking from intense orography to the west and long distances from all warm ocean-derived atmospheric water sources; growing season precipitation is generated by a highly complex combination of frontal and convective systems; seasonality is severe and characterized by a relatively long snow-covered and short growing seasons; local surface runoff is primarily produced by snowmelt water; there is substantial water storage potential in the poorly drained, post-glacial topography; and aquifers are overlain by impermeable glacial till, but there are also important permeable aquifers. One example of Prairie drought is the recent one that began in 1999 with cessation of its atmospheric component in 2004/2005 and many of its hydrological components in 2005. This event produced the worst drought for at least a hundred years in parts of the Canadian Prairies. Even in the dust bowl of the 1930s, no single year over the central Prairies were drier than in 2001. The drought affected agriculture, recreation, tourism, health, hydro-electricity, and forestry in the Prairies. Gross Domestic Product fell some 5.8 billion and

  1. A reevaluation of cancer incidence near the Three Mile Island nuclear plant: The collision of evidence and assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, S.; Richardson, D.; Armstrong, D.; Crawford-Brown, D.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies concluded that there was no evidence that the 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) affected cancer incidence in the surrounding area; however, there were logical and methodological problems in earlier reports that led us to reconsider data previously collected. A 10-mile area around TMI was divided into 69 study tracts, which were assigned radiation dose estimates based on radiation readings and models of atmospheric dispersion. Incident cancers from 1975 to 1985 were ascertained from hospital records and assigned to study tracts. Associations between accident doses and incidence rates of leukemia, lung cancer, and all cancer were assessed using relative dose estimates calculated by the earlier investigators. Adjustments were made for age, sex, socioeconomic characteristics, and preaccident variation in incidence. Considering a 2-year latency, the estimated percent increase per dose unit {plus_minus} standard error was 0.020 {plus_minus} 0.012 for all cancer, 0.082 {plus_minus} 0.032 for lung cancer, and 0.116 {plus_minus} 0.067 for leukemia. Adjustment for socioeconomic variables increased the estimates to 0.034 {plus_minus} 0.013, 0.103 {plus_minus} 0.035, and 0.139 {plus_minus} 0.073 for all cancer, lung cancer, and leukemia, respectively. Associations were generally larger considering a 5-year latency, but were based on smaller numbers of cases. Results support the hypothesis that radiation doses are related to increased cancer incidence around TMI. The analysis avoids medical detection bias, but suffers from inaccurate dose classification; therefore, results may underestimate the magnitude of the association between radiation and cancer incidence. These associations would not be expected, based on previous estimates of near-background levels of radiation exposure following the accident. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. A reevaluation of cancer incidence near the Three Mile Island nuclear plant: the collision of evidence and assumptions.

    PubMed

    Wing, S; Richardson, D; Armstrong, D; Crawford-Brown, D

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies concluded that there was no evidence that the 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) affected cancer incidence in the surrounding area; however, there were logical and methodological problems in earlier reports that led us to reconsider data previously collected. A 10-mile area around TMI was divided into 69 study tracts, which were assigned radiation dose estimates based on radiation reading and models of atmospheric dispersion. Incident cancers from 1975 to 1985 were ascertained from hospital records and assigned to study tracts. Associations between accident doses and incidence rates of leukemia, lung cancer, and all cancer were assessed using relative dose estimates calculated by the earlier investigators. Adjustments were made for age, sex, socioeconomic characteristics, and preaccident variation in incidence. Considering a 2-year latency, the estimated percent increase per dose unit +/- standard error was 0.020 +/- 0.012 for all cancer, 0.082 +/- 0.032 for lung cancer, and 0.116 +/- 0.067 for leukemia. Adjustment for socioeconomic variables increased the estimates to 0.034 +/- 0.013, 0.103 +/- 0.035, and 0.139 +/- 0.073 for all cancer, lung cancer, and leukemia, respectively. Associations were generally larger considering a 5-year latency, but were based on smaller numbers of cases. Results support the hypothesis that radiation doses are related to increased cancer incidence around TMI. The analysis avoids medical detection bias, but suffers from inaccurate dose classification; therefore, results may underestimate the magnitude of the association between radiation and cancer incidence. These associations would not be expected, based on previous estimates of near-background levels of radiation exposure following the accident. PMID:9074881

  3. Sylvatic plague vaccine and management of prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Wisconsin (UW), have developed a sylvatic plague vaccine that shows great promise in protecting prairie dogs against plague (Mencher and others, 2004; Rocke and others, 2010). Four species of prairie dogs reside in the United States and Canada, and all are highly susceptible to plague and regularly experience outbreaks with devastating losses. Along with habitat loss and poisoning, plague has contributed to a significant historical decline in prairie dog populations. By some estimates, prairie dogs now occupy only 1 to 2 percent of their former range (Proctor and others, 2006), with prairie dog colonies being now much smaller and fragmented than they were historically, making individual colonies more vulnerable to elimination by plague (Antolin and others, 2002). At least one species, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) as "threatened." Controlling plague is a vital concern for ongoing management and conservation efforts for prairie dogs. Current efforts to halt the spread of plague in prairie dog colonies typically rely on dusting individual prairie dog burrows with pesticides to kill plague-infected fleas. Although flea-control insecticides, such as deltamethrin, are useful in stopping plague outbreaks in these prairie dog colonies, dusting of burrows is labor intensive and time consuming and may affect other insects and arthropods. As an alternative approach, NWHC and UW scientists developed a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) for prairie dogs that can be delivered via oral bait. Laboratory studies have shown that consumption of this vaccine-laden bait by different prairie dog species results in significant protection against plague infection that can last for at least 9 months (Rocke and others, 2010; Rocke, unpublished). Work has now shifted to optimizing baits and distribution methods for

  4. A history of the people of Bikini following nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: with recollections and views of elders of Bikini Atoll.

    PubMed

    Niedenthal, J

    1997-07-01

    The people of Bikini Atoll were moved from their homeland in 1946 to make way for the testing of 23 nuclear weapons by the United States government, beginning with the world's fourth atomic detonation. The subsequent half-century exodus of the Bikini people included a 2-y stay on Rongerik Atoll, where near starvation resulted, and a 6-mo sojourn on Kwajalein Atoll, where they lived in tents beside a runway used by the U.S. military. In 1948, they were finally relocated to Kili, a small, isolated, 200-acre island owned by the U.S. Trust Territory government. Numerous hardships have been faced there, not the least of which was the loss of skills required for self-sustenance. Located 425 miles south of Bikini, Kili Island is without a sheltered lagoon. Thus for six months of the year, fishing and sailing become futile endeavors. Because of the residual radioactive contamination from the nuclear testing, the majority of the Bikinian population still resides on Kili today. One attempt was made to resettle Bikini in the late 1960's when President Lyndon B. Johnson, on recommendations from the Atomic Energy Commission, declared Bikini Atoll safe for habitation. In 1978, however, it was discovered by the U.S. Department of Energy that in the span of only one year, some of the returned islanders were showing a 75% increase in their body burdens of 137Cs. In 1978, the people residing on Bikini were moved again, this time to a small island in Majuro Atoll. In the early 1980's, the Bikinians filed a class action lawsuit against the U.S. government for damages arising out of the nuclear testing program. Although the claim was dismissed, eventually a $90 million trust fund was established for their local government. Since then the leaders of the people of Bikini residing on Kili Island and Majuro Atoll have been confronted with the immense responsibility of determining how to clean their atoll while at the same time maintaining the health and welfare of their displaced

  5. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls Affected by U.S. Nuclear Testing:All Exposure Pathways, Remedial Measures, and Environmental Loss of 137Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F

    2009-04-20

    The United States conducted 24 nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll with a total yield of 76.8 Megatons (MT). The Castle series produced about 60% of this total and included the Bravo test that was the primary source of contamination of Bikini Island and Rongelap and Utrok Atolls. One of three aerial drops missed the atoll and the second test of the Crossroads series, the Baker test, was an underwater detonation. Of the rest, 17 were on barges on water and 3 were on platforms on an island; they produced most of the contamination of islands at the atoll. There were 42 tests conducted at Enewetak Atoll with a total yield of 31.7 MT (Simon and Robison, 1997; UNSCEAR, 2000). Of these tests, 18 were on a barge over wateror reef, 7 were surface shots, 2 aerial drops, 2 under water detonations, and 13 tower shots on either land or reef. All produced some contamination of various atoll islands. Rongelap Atoll received radioactive fallout as a result of the Bravo test on March 1, 1954 that was part of the Castle series of tests. This deposition was the result of the Bravo test producing a yield of 15 MT, about a factor of three to four greater than the predicted yield that resulted in vaporization of more coral reef and island than expected and in the debris-cloud reaching a much higher altitude than anticipated. High-altitude winds were to the east at the time of detonation and carried the debris-cloud toward Rongelap Atoll. Utrok Atoll also received fallout from the Bravo test but at much lower air and ground-level concentrations than at Rongelap atoll. Other atolls received Bravo fallout at levels below that of Utrok [other common spellings of this island and atoll (Simon, et al., 2009)]. To avoid confusion in reading other literature, this atoll and island are spelled in a variety of ways (Utrik, Utirik, Uterik or Utrok). Dose assessments for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll (Robison et al., 1997), Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll (Robison et al., 1987), Rongelap Island at

  6. Natural variation of ambient dose rate in the air of Izu-Oshima Island after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Maedera, Fumihiko; Inoue, Kazumasa; Sugino, Masato; Sano, Ryosuke; Furue, Mai; Shimizu, Hideo; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Le Van, Tan; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    The ambient dose rate in air and radioactivity concentration in soil samples collected on Izu-Oshima Island were observed in 2012, 2013 and 2014, i.e. 1, 2 and 3 years after the severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A car-borne survey for the ambient dose rate in air was carried out for the entire island. Soil samples were collected for the radioactivity concentration measurements from 22 points. The ambient dose rates in air were 36 nGy h(-1) in 2012, 34 nGy h(-1) in 2013 and 29 nGy h(-1) in 2014. The corresponding radioactivity concentrations in those years for (134)Cs were 53, 39 and 29 Bq kg(-1) and for (137)Cs, 87, 73 and 75 Bq kg(-1). All the values have decreased every year. PMID:26246583

  7. Prairie dog poisoning in northern Great Plains: An analysis of programs and policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roemer, David M.; Forrest, Steven C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the programs and policies regarding prairie dog control in the northern Great Plains states of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming. The poisoning programs of federal and state agencies are described, along with the statutes and legal mandates that shape agency management of prairie dogs. Current policies on National Grasslands and other federal lands typically limit prairie dogs to small percentages of available potential habitat, to the detriment of prairie dogs and associated species. State programs to assist landowners in prairie dog control differ greatly, employing cost-share incentives (Wyoming) and regulatory fines (South Dakota) to encourage the poisoning of prairie dogs. Prairie dog control is not actively funded or practiced by state or county agencies in Montana. We document federal and state involvement in more than 1 million acres of prairie dog poisoning in the study area during 1978 1992. In combination with undocumented poisoning by private landowners, plague, and shooting, prairie dogs may be experiencing net regional declines, contributing to the disintegration of the prairie dog ecosystem. We recommend that Animal Damage Control operations concerning prairie dogs be terminated, on the basis that they duplicate state programs and are at cross purposes with federal wildlife management programs that seek to perpetuate and/or recover wildlife species that depend on the prairie dog ecosystem. We further recommend that federal range improvement funds be offered as subsidies for the integration of prairie dogs in range management, as opposed to funding prairie dog eradication programs.

  8. Ecological disturbance in a sandhills prairie: impact and importance to the lizard community on Arapaho Prairie in western Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, R.E.; Jones, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Lizard species occurring in the sandhills prairie of western Nebraska are typically restricted to microhabitats which have sparse vegetation. The fence lizard (Sceloporus undulatus) and the lesser earless lizard (Holbrookia maculata) are especially abundant in open blowouts. Only the six-lined racerunner (Cnemidophorus sexlineatus) occupies microhabitats with dense grass. Since cattle grazing was discontinued on Arapaho Prairie in 1977, associated vegetational changes have tended to reduce the microhabitats available for lizards. As a result of the decreased disturbance to the vegetation, lizards have become more restricted and less abundant on Arapaho Prairie. 19 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  9. The spectral emissivity of prairie and pasture grasses at Konza Prairie, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, Frank; Kahle, Anne B.; Hoover, Gordon; Conel, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Field measurements of spectral radiances are used to determine precise values of the spectral emissivity of grass-thatch-soil complexes to facilitate remote temperature determinations. The emissivity variation with wavelength is very small, emissivity is close to unity, and emissivity is fairly constant in terms of emission angle, land practice, and season. The prairie surface is therefore similar to a grey body and a quasiideal emitter, although determinations of the kinetic temperature are required to confirm the results.

  10. AmeriFlux US-Kon Konza Prairie LTER (KNZ)

    SciTech Connect

    Brunsell, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Kon Konza Prairie LTER (KNZ). Site Description - Burned on an annual basis. Bison reintroduced in 1987. Experimental cattle herds in 1992

  11. 18. SOUTH BRANCH, PRAIRIE CITY DITCH, RUNNING SOUTHWEST UNDER FENCE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SOUTH BRANCH, PRAIRIE CITY DITCH, RUNNING SOUTHWEST UNDER FENCE, TOWARD US HWY. 50 IN DISTANCE. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  12. Two decades of prairie restoration at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, R.F.; Lootens, R.J.; Becker, M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Successional Restoration is the method being used to restore the prairie at Fermilab on the former agricultural fields. This involves an initial planting, using aggressive species that have wide ecological tolerances which will grow well on abandoned agricultural fields. Collectively, these species are designated as the prairie matrix. The species used for this prairie matrix compete with and eventually eliminate most weedy species. They also provide an adequate fuel load capable of sustaining a fire within a few years after a site has been initially planted. Associated changes in the biological and physical structure of the soil help prepare the way for the successful introduction of plants of the later successional species. Only after the species of the prairie matrix are well established, is the species diversity increased by introducing species with narrower ecological tolerances. These species are thus characteristic of the later successional stages.

  13. 17. PRAIRIE CITY DITCH, NEAR ITS JUNCTION WITH RHODES DITCH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. PRAIRIE CITY DITCH, NEAR ITS JUNCTION WITH RHODES DITCH, CUT THROUGH SLATY BEDROCK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 23. MADISON GRANT TABLET AT PRAIRIE CREEK STATE PARK. HUMBOLDT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. MADISON GRANT TABLET AT PRAIRIE CREEK STATE PARK. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING W. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  15. Temporal connectivity in a prairie pothole complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leibowitz, S.G.; Vining, K.C.

    2003-01-01

    A number of studies have noted the occurrence of intermittent surface-water connections between depressional wetlands in general and prairie potholes in particular. Yet, the ecological implications of such connections remain largely unexplored. In 1995, we observed spillage into and out of a North Dakota wetland during two field visits. Between May 3 and May 26, there was a positive relationship between specific conductance and water level at this site, suggesting an external source of dissolved ions. We estimated that specific conductance may have increased at the site by as much as 614 ??S cm-1 due to spillage from the upslope wetland. Based on a spatial analysis that compared National Wetlands Inventory maps with 1996 color infrared imagery, we estimated that 28% of the area's wetlands had a temporary surface water connection to at least one other wetland at that time, including one complex of 14 interconnected wetlands. These results indicate that the connectivity observed in 1995 was not confined to the two wetlands nor to that single year. The degree of connectivity we observed would be expected to occur during the wetter portions of the region's 20-year wet-dry cycle. We hypothesize that intermittent surface-water connections between wetlands occur throughout the prairie pothole region. Given patterns in relief and precipitation, these connections most likely would have occurred in the eastern portion of the prairie pothole region. However, wetland drainage may have altered historical patterns. The implication of these spatial and temporal trends is that surface-water connections between depressional wetlands should be viewed as a probability event that has some distribution over time and space. We refer to connections that are impermanent, temporally discontinuous, or sporadic as temporal connectivity. The most intriguing feature of these temporary connections may be that they could affect biodiversity or population dynamics through transport of individuals

  16. Nuclear Island Engineering MHTGR [Modular High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor] preliminary and final designs. Technical progress report, December 12, 1988--September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy (DOE)-funded work performed by General Atomics (GA) under the Nuclear Island Engineering (NIE)-Modular High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR) Preliminary and Final Designs Contract DE-AC03-89SF17885 for the period December 12, 1988 through September 30, 1989. This reporting period is the first (partial) fiscal year of the 5-year contract performance period. The objective of DOE`s MHTGR program is to advance the design from the conceptual design phase into preliminary design and then on to final design in support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) design review and approval of the MHTGR Design Team, is focused on the Nuclear Island portion of the technology and design, primarily in the areas of the reactor and internals, fuel characteristics and fuel fabrication, helium services systems, reactor protection, shutdown cooling, circulator design, and refueling system. Maintenance and implementation of the functional methodology, plant-level analysis, support for probabilistic risk assessment, quality assurance, operations, and reliability/availability assessments are included in GA`s scope of work.

  17. Hydrology affects carbon storage potential of prairie potholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-06-01

    Prairie potholes, the small, dynamic, unconnected ponds that dot central Canada as well as parts of the north central United States, can store significant amounts of soil nutrients that can be transformed to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Scientists would like to better understand how these regions could contribute to climate warming, but there are challenges, given the large heterogeneity in greenhouse gas emissions over the prairie pothole landscape.

  18. Aspirin Prevention of Cholesterol Gallstone Formation in Prairie Dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sum P.; Carey, Martin C.; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1981-03-01

    When prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are fed a diet containing cholesterol, a marked increase in gallbladder mucin secretion parallels the evolution of cholesterol supersaturated bile. Gelation of mucin precedes the precipitation of cholesterol liquid and solid crystals and the development of gallstones. Aspirin given to prairie dogs inhibited mucin hypersecretion and gel accumulation and prevented gallstone formation without influencing the cholesterol content of supersaturated bile. This suggests that gallbladder mucin is a nucleation matrix for cholesterol gallstones.

  19. Perceptual specificity in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Kiriazis, Judith; Slobodchikoff, C N

    2006-07-01

    Gunnison's prairie dogs have a complex alarm communication system. We show that the escape responses of prairie dogs to naturally occurring live predators differed depending upon the species of predator. We also show that playbacks of alarm calls that were elicited originally by the live predators produced the same escape responses as the live predators themselves. The escape responses fell into two qualitatively different categories: running to the burrow and diving inside for hawks and humans, and standing upright outside the burrow for coyotes and dogs. Within these two categories there were differences in response. For hawks, only the prairie dogs that were in the direct flight path of a stooping red-tailed hawk ran to their burrows and dove inside, while for humans and human alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and diving inside. For coyotes and coyote alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and standing alert at the burrow rims, while for domestic dogs and playbacks of alarm calls for domestic dogs the prairie dogs assumed an alert posture wherever they were feeding, but did not run to their burrows. These responses to both the live predators and to predator-elicited alarm calls suggest that the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs contain meaningful referential information about the categories of predators that approach a colony of prairie dogs. PMID:16529880

  20. Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tammi L.; Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

  1. Interspecific comparisons of sylvatic plague in prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, J.F., Jr.; Williams, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Of the 3 major factors (habitat loss, poisoning, and disease) that limit abundance of prairie dogs today, sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis is the 1 factor that is beyond human control. Plague epizootics frequently kill >99% of prairie dogs in infected colonies. Although epizootics of sylvatic plague occur throughout most of the range of prairie dogs in the United States and are well described, long-term maintenance of plague in enzootic rodent species is not well documented or understood. We review dynamics of plague in white-tailed (Cynomys leucurus), Gunnison's (C. gunnisoni), and black-tailed (C. ludovicianus) prairie dogs, and their rodent and flea associates. We use epidemiologic concepts to support an enzootic hypothesis in which the disease is maintained in a dynamic state, which requires transmission of Y. pestis to be slower than recruitment of new susceptible mammal hosts. Major effects of plague are to reduce colony size of black-tailed prairie dogs and increase intercolony distances within colony complexes. In the presence of plague, black-tailed prairie dogs will probably survive in complexes of small colonies that are usually >3 km from their nearest neighbor colonies.

  2. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, Jack F., Jr.; Johnson, T.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  3. Microwave experiments on Prairie View Rotamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, R. J.; Xu, M.; Huang, Tian-Sen

    2015-05-15

    A 6 kW/2.45 GHz microwave system has been added on Prairie View Rotamak, and a series of experiments with microwave heating in both O-mode and X-mode configurations have been performed. Effective ionization of hydrogen in the two configurations is observed when filling pressure of the hydrogen gas is under p{sub f}=0.1 Pa. Clear oscillations in plasma current I{sub p} and magnetic field B{sub R} are excited when microwaves are injected into plasma in the X-mode configuration. The higher the injected microwave power, the sooner the emergence of the magnetic oscillations in B{sub R}, which implies the microwave may have decreased the elongation of the plasma. In the experiments, the efficiency of the current drive mechanism due to the injected microwave is about 0.2 kA/kW.

  4. Wind training in some prairie trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogan, M.A.; Mollhagen, T.R.

    1969-01-01

    Asymmetry in tree crowns has been established for some time. Lawrence (Ecol. Monogr. 9:217-257, 1939) studied wind training, one cause of asymmetry, in the Columbia River Gorge. He and Boyce (Ecol. Monogr. 24: 29-67, 1954) cite the intensity and direction of wind during the growing season as the causative agents. In their study of trunk asymmetry, Potter and Green (Cology 45: 10-23, 1964) mention crown deformity in the open stands of trees. Prairie trees are typically found in open stands, and to our knowledge no quantitative studies have been done on their crown asymmetry. The present study on the nature of this asymmetry, is an attempt to fill the void.

  5. Nitrogen transport from tallgrass prairie watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodds, W.K.; Blair, J.M.; Henebry, G.M.; Koelliker, J.K.; Ramundo, R.; Tate, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    Discharge and N content of surface water flowing from four Karat watersheds on Konza Prairie Research Natural Area, Kansas, managed with different burn frequencies, were monitored from 1986 to 1992. The goal was to establish the influence of natural processes (climate, fire, and bison grazing) on N transport and concentration in streams. Streams were characterized by variable flow, under conditions that included an extreme flood and a drought during which all channels were dry for over a year. The estimated groundwater/stream water discharge ratio varied between 0.15 to 6.41. Annual N transport by streams, averaged across all watersheds and years, was 0.16 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Annual N transport per unit area also increased as the watershed area increased and as precipitation increased. Total annual transport of N horn the prairie via streams ranged from 0.01 to 6.0% of the N input from precipitation. Nitrate and total N concentrations in surface water decreased (P < 0.001, r values ranged from 0.140.26) as length of time since last fire increased. Increased watershed area was correlated negatively (P < 0.0001) to stream water concentrations of NO3-N and total N (r values = -0.43 and -0.20, respectively). Low N concentration is typical of these streams, with NH4/+-N concentrations below 1.0 ??g L-1, NO3-N ranging from below 1.4 to 392 ??g L-1, and total N from 3.0 to 714 ??g L-1. These data provide an important baseline for evaluating N transport and stream water quality from unfertilized grasslands.

  6. The effective and environmental half-life of 137Cs at Coral Islands at the former US nuclear test site.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Conrado, Cynthia L; Bogen, Kenneth T; Stoker, A Carol

    2003-01-01

    The United States (US) conducted nuclear weapons testing from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Based on previous detailed dose assessments for Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap, and Utirik Atolls over a period of 28 years, cesium-137 (137Cs) at Bikini Atoll contributes about 85-89% of the total estimated dose through the terrestrial food chain as a result of uptake of 137Cs by food crops. The estimated integral 30, 50, and 70-year doses were based on the radiological decay of 137Cs (30-year half-life) and other radionuclides. However, there is a continuing inventory of 137Cs and 90Sr in the fresh water portion of the groundwater at all contaminated atolls even though the turnover rate of the fresh groundwater is about 5 years. This is evidence that a portion of the soluble fraction of 137Cs and 90Sr inventory in the soil is lost by transport to groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the lens, resulting in loss of 137Cs from the soil column and root zone of the plants. This loss is in addition to that caused by radioactive decay. The effective rate of loss was determined by two methods: (1) indirectly, from time-dependent studies of the 137Cs concentration in leaves of Pisonia grandis, Guettarda specosia, Tournefortia argentea (also called Messerschmidia), Scaevola taccada, and fruit from Pandanus and coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.), and (2) more directly, by evaluating the 137Cs/90Sr ratios at Bikini Atoll. The mean (and its lower and upper 95% confidence limits) for effective half-life and for environmental-loss half-life (ELH) based on all the trees studied on Rongelap, Bikini, and Enewetak Atolls are 8.5 years (8.0 years, 9.8 years), and 12 years (11 years, 15 years), respectively. The ELH based on the 137Cs/90Sr ratios in soil in 1987 relative to the 137Cs/90Sr ratios at the time of deposition in 1954 is less than 17 years. The magnitude of the decrease below 17 years depends on the ELH for 90Sr

  7. Characterization of reticuloendotheliosis virus isolates obtained from chickens, turkeys and prairie chickens in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates obtained from chickens, turkeys and prairie chickens in the United States were characterized using ploymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immunofluoresence (IFA) assays. This study included five REV isolates from Prairie chickens in Texas, two ...

  8. Black-tailed prairie dogs, cattle, and the conservation of North America's arid grasslands.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Corona, Rodrigo; Davidson, Ana; Fredrickson, Ed L; Luna-Soria, Hugo; Suzan-Azpiri, Humberto; Ponce-Guevara, Eduardo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) have been eliminated from over 95% of their historic range in large part from direct eradication campaigns to reduce their purported competition with cattle for forage. Despite the longstanding importance of this issue to grassland management and conservation, the ecological interactions between cattle and prairie dogs have not been well examined. We address this issue through two complementary experiments to determine if cattle and prairie dogs form a mutualistic grazing association similar to that between prairie dogs and American bison. Our experimental results show that cattle preferentially graze along prairie dog colony edges and use their colony centers for resting, resembling the mutualistic relationship prairie dogs have with American bison. Our results also show that prairie dog colonies are not only an important component of the grassland mosaic for maintaining biodiversity, but also provide benefits to cattle, thereby challenging the long-standing view of prairie dogs as an undesirable pest species in grasslands. PMID:25760377

  9. Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs, Cattle, and the Conservation of North America’s Arid Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Sierra–Corona, Rodrigo; Davidson, Ana; Fredrickson, Ed L.; Luna-Soria, Hugo; Suzan-Azpiri, Humberto; Ponce-Guevara, Eduardo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) have been eliminated from over 95% of their historic range in large part from direct eradication campaigns to reduce their purported competition with cattle for forage. Despite the longstanding importance of this issue to grassland management and conservation, the ecological interactions between cattle and prairie dogs have not been well examined. We address this issue through two complementary experiments to determine if cattle and prairie dogs form a mutualistic grazing association similar to that between prairie dogs and American bison. Our experimental results show that cattle preferentially graze along prairie dog colony edges and use their colony centers for resting, resembling the mutualistic relationship prairie dogs have with American bison. Our results also show that prairie dog colonies are not only an important component of the grassland mosaic for maintaining biodiversity, but also provide benefits to cattle, thereby challenging the long-standing view of prairie dogs as an undesirable pest species in grasslands. PMID:25760377

  10. Tradeoffs in ecosystem services of prairies managed for bioenergy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarchow, Meghann Elizabeth

    The use of perennial plant materials as a renewable source of energy may constitute an important opportunity to improve the environmental sustainability of managed land. Currently, the production of energy from agricultural products is primarily in the form of ethanol from corn grain, which used more than 45% of the domestic U.S. corn crop in 2011. Concomitantly, using corn grain to produce ethanol has promoted landscape simplification and homogenization through conversion of Conservation Reserve Program grasslands to annual row crops, and has been implicated in increasing environmental damage, such as increased nitrate leaching into water bodies and increased rates of soil erosion. In contrast, perennial prairie vegetation has the potential to be used as a bioenergy feedstock that produces a substantial amount of biomass as well as numerous ecosystem services. Reincorporating prairies to diversify the landscape of the Midwestern U.S. at strategic locations could provide more habitat for animals, including beneficial insects, and decrease nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment movement into water bodies. In this dissertation, I present data from two field experiments that examine (1) how managing prairies for bioenergy production affects prairie ecology and agronomic performance and (2) how these prairie systems differ from corn systems managed for bioenergy production. Results of this work show that there are tradeoffs among prairie systems and between corn and prairie systems with respect to the amount of harvested biomass, root production, nutrient export, feedstock characteristics, growing season utilization, and species and functional group diversity. These results emphasize the need for a multifaceted approach to fully evaluate bioenergy feedstock production systems.

  11. 78 FR 35017 - Prairie Power, Inc. v. Ameren Services Company, Ameren Illinois Company, Ameren Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Prairie Power, Inc. v. Ameren Services Company, Ameren Illinois Company... Regulatory Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206, Prairie Power, Inc.... Prairie Power, Inc. certifies that copies of the complaint were served on the contacts for the...

  12. 76 FR 81924 - Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 15, 2011, Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC (Pine Prairie), 333 Clay Street, Suite 1500, Houston, TX... necessity to amend its certificate authority previously granted in CP04-379-000, et al. Pine...

  13. Response of mountain plovers to plague-driven dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sylvatic plague is a major factor influencing prairie dog colony dynamics in the western Great Plains. We studied the nesting response of the mountain plover (Charadrius montanus), a grassland bird that nests on prairie dog colonies, to plague-driven dynamics of prairie dog colonies at three sites i...

  14. The EcoSun Prairie Farm: An experiment in bioenergy production, landscape restoration, and ecological sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, the non-profit corporation, EcoSun Prairie Farms (hereafter EcoSun), began establishing mixtures and monocultures of native prairie species in eastern South Dakota on a section of land (hereafter Prairie Farm) that had been conventionally farmed with annual crops for more than a century. T...

  15. Impact of soil type on vegetation response to prairie dog herbivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prairie dogs and their impact on vegetation have been the focus of numerous research projects. However, the effect of soil from this interaction has been less thoroughly documented. We evaluated prairie dog colonies (on-colony) and nearby sites without prairie dogs (off-colony) on Wayden, Cabba an...

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog colonies affected by plague

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are a key component of the disturbance regime in semi-arid grasslands of central North America. Many studies have compared community and ecosystem characteristics on prairie dog colonies to grasslands without prairie dogs, but little is known about la...

  17. Immunoglobulin genomics in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Qin, Tong; Zhao, Huijing; Zhu, Huabin; Wang, Dong; Du, Weihua; Hao, Haisheng

    2015-08-01

    In science, the prairie voles are ideal models for studying the regulatory mechanisms of social behavior in humans. The utility of the prairie vole as a biology model can be further enhanced by characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization of the prairie vole immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. The prairie vole IgH locus on chromosome 1 spans over 1600kb, and consists of at least 79 VH segments (28 potentially functional genes, 2 ORFs and 49 pseudogenes), 7 DH segments, 4 JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ɛ, and α), and two transmembrane regions of δ gene. The Igκ locus, found on three scaffolds (JH996430, JH996605 and JH996566), contains a totle of 124 Vκ segments (47 potentially functional genes, 1 ORF and 76 pseudogenes), 5 Jκ segments and a single Cκ gene. Two different transcriptional orientations were determined for these Vκ gene segments. In contrast, the Igλ locus on scaffold JH996473 and JH996489 includes 21 Vλ gene segments (14 potentially functional genes, 1 ORF and 6 pseudogenes), all with the same transcriptional polarity as the downstream Jλ-Cλ cluster. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence alignments suggested the prairie vole's large germline VH, Vκ and Vλ gene segments appear to form limited gene families. Therefore, this species may generate antibody diversity via a gene conversion-like mechanism associated with its pseudogene reserves. PMID:26073565

  18. Vulnerability of shortgrass prairie bird assemblages to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skagen, Susan; Dreitz, Victoria; Conrey, Reesa Y.; Yackel, Amy; Panjabi, Arvind O.

    2016-01-01

    The habitats and resources needed to support grassland birds endemic to North American prairie ecosystems are seriously threatened by impending climate change. To assess the vulnerability of grassland birds to climate change, we consider various components of vulnerability, including sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity (Glick et al. 2011). Sensitivity encompasses the innate characteristics of a species and, in this context, is related to a species’ tolerance to changes in weather patterns. Groundnesting birds, including prairie birds, are particularly responsive to heat waves combined with drought conditions, as revealed by abundance and distribution patterns (Albright et al. 2010). To further assess sensitivity, we estimated reproductive parameters of nearly 3000 breeding attempts of a suite of prairie birds relative to prevailing weather. Fluctuations in weather conditions in eastern Colorado, 1997-2014, influenced breeding performance of a suite of avian species endemic to the shortgrass prairie, many of which have experienced recent population declines. High summer temperatures and intense rain events corresponded with lower nest survival for most species. Although dry conditions favored nest survival of Burrowing Owls and Mountain Plovers (Conrey 2010, Dreitz et al. 2012), drought resulted in smaller clutch sizes and lower nest survival for passerines (Skagen and Yackel Adams 2012, Conrey et al. in review). Declining summer precipitation may reduce the likelihood that some passerine species can maintain stable breeding populations in this region of the shortgrass prairie.

  19. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Williamson, J.; Cobble, K.R.; Busch, J.D.; Antolin, M.F.; Wagner, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. ?? 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  20. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

  1. Prairie dogs increase fitness by killing interspecific competitors.

    PubMed

    Hoogland, John L; Brown, Charles R

    2016-03-30

    Interspecific competition commonly selects for divergence in ecology, morphology or physiology, but direct observation of interspecific competition under natural conditions is difficult. Herbivorous white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) employ an unusual strategy to reduce interspecific competition: they kill, but do not consume, herbivorous Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) encountered in the prairie dog territories. Results from a 6-year study in Colorado, USA, revealed that interspecific killing of ground squirrels by prairie dogs was common, involving 47 different killers; 19 prairie dogs were serial killers in the same or consecutive years, and 30% of female prairie dogs killed at least one ground squirrel over their lifetimes. Females that killed ground squirrels had significantly higher annual and lifetime fitness than non-killers, probably because of decreased interspecific competition for vegetation. Our results document the first case of interspecific killing of competing individuals unrelated to predation (IK) among herbivorous mammals in the wild, and show that IK enhances fitness for animals living under natural conditions. PMID:27009223

  2. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from the prairie vole.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Devanand S; Subramanyam, Deepa; Carey, Catriona; Sudin, Erik; Van Westerhuyzen, Julie A; Bales, Karen L; Blelloch, Robert; Shah, Nirao M

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of animals mate more or less promiscuously. A few mammals, including humans, utilize more restrained mating strategies that entail a longer term affiliation with a single mating partner. Such pair bonding mating strategies have been resistant to genetic analysis because of a lack of suitable model organisms. Prairie voles are small mouse-like rodents that form enduring pair bonds in the wild as well as in the laboratory, and consequently they have been used widely to study social bonding behavior. The lack of targeted genetic approaches in this species however has restricted the study of the molecular and neural circuit basis of pair bonds. As a first step in rendering the prairie vole amenable to reverse genetics, we have generated induced pluripotent stem cell (IPSC) lines from prairie vole fibroblasts using retroviral transduction of reprogramming factors. These IPSC lines display the cellular and molecular hallmarks of IPSC cells from other organisms, including mice and humans. Moreover, the prairie vole IPSC lines have pluripotent differentiation potential since they can give rise to all three germ layers in tissue culture and in vivo. These IPSC lines can now be used to develop conditions that facilitate homologous recombination and eventually the generation of prairie voles bearing targeted genetic modifications to study the molecular and neural basis of pair bond formation. PMID:22675440

  3. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R; Busch, Joseph D; Antolin, Michael F; Wagner, David M

    2012-02-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogeneous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. PMID:21923261

  4. Validating DNA Polymorphisms Using KASP Assay in Prairie Cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) Populations in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Hannah; Rayburn, A. L.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Jose L.; Nah, Gyoungju; Kim, Do-Soon; Lee, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are one of the most abundant DNA variants found in plant genomes and are highly efficient when comparing genome and transcriptome sequences. SNP marker analysis can be used to analyze genetic diversity, create genetic maps, and utilize marker-assisted selection breeding in many crop species. In order to utilize these technologies, one must first identify and validate putative SNPs. In this study, 121 putative SNPs, developed from a nuclear transcriptome of prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link), were analyzed using KASP technology in order to validate the SNPs. Fifty-nine SNPs were validated using a core collection of 38 natural populations and a phylogenetic tree was created with one main clade. Samples from the same population tended to cluster in the same location on the tree. Polymorphisms were identified within 52.6% of the populations, split evenly between the tetraploid and octoploid cytotypes. Twelve selected SNP markers were used to assess the fidelity of tetraploid crosses of prairie cordgrass and their resulting F2population. These markers were able to distinguish true crosses and selfs. This study provides insight into the genomic structure of prairie cordgrass, but further analysis must be done on other cytotypes to fully understand the structure of this species. This study validates putative SNPs and confirms the potential usefulness of SNP marker technology in future breeding programs of this species. PMID:26834772

  5. Simulated grazing responses on the proposed prairies National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parton, William J.; Wright, R. Gerald; Risser, Paul G.

    1980-03-01

    The tallgrass prairie version of the ELM Grassland Model was used to evaluate the potential impact of establishing a tallgrass prairie National Park in the Flint Hills region of Kansas. This total ecosystem model simulates ( a) the flow of water, heat, nitrogen, and phosphorus through the ecosystem and( b) the biomass dynamics of plants and consumers. It was specifically developed to study the effects of levels and types of herbivory, climatic variation, and fertilization upon grassland ecosystems. The model was used to simulate the impact of building up herds of bison, elk, antelope, and wolves on a tallgrass prairie. The results show that the grazing levels in the park should not be decreased below the prepark grazing levels (moderate grazing with cattle) and that the final grazing levels in the park could be maintained at a slightly higher level than the prepark grazing levels.

  6. Canopy Interception for a Tallgrass Prairie under Juniper Encroachment

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Chris B.; Caterina, Giulia L.; Will, Rodney E.; Stebler, Elaine; Turton, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall partitioning and redistribution by canopies are important ecohydrological processes underlying ecosystem dynamics. We quantified and contrasted spatial and temporal variations of rainfall redistribution for a juniper (Juniperus virginiana, redcedar) woodland and a tallgrass prairie in the south-central Great Plains, USA. Our results showed that redcedar trees had high canopy storage capacity (S) ranging from 2.14 mm for open stands to 3.44 mm for closed stands. The canopy funneling ratios (F) of redcedar trees varied substantially among stand type and tree size. The open stands and smaller trees usually had higher F values and were more efficient in partitioning rainfall into stemflow. Larger trees were more effective in partitioning rainfall into throughfall and no significant changes in the total interception ratios among canopy types and tree size were found. The S values were highly variable for tallgrass prairie, ranging from 0.27 mm at early growing season to 3.86 mm at senescence. As a result, the rainfall interception by tallgrass prairie was characterized by high temporal instability. On an annual basis, our results showed no significant difference in total rainfall loss to canopy interception between redcedar trees and tallgrass prairie. Increasing structural complexity associated with redcedar encroachment into tallgrass prairie changes the rainfall redistribution and partitioning pattern at both the temporal and spatial scales, but does not change the overall canopy interception ratios compared with unburned and ungrazed tallgrass prairie. Our findings support the idea of convergence in interception ratio for different canopy structures under the same precipitation regime. The temporal change in rainfall interception loss from redcedar encroachment is important to understand how juniper encroachment will interact with changing rainfall regime and potentially alter regional streamflow under climate change. PMID:26544182

  7. Canopy Interception for a Tallgrass Prairie under Juniper Encroachment.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chris B; Caterina, Giulia L; Will, Rodney E; Stebler, Elaine; Turton, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall partitioning and redistribution by canopies are important ecohydrological processes underlying ecosystem dynamics. We quantified and contrasted spatial and temporal variations of rainfall redistribution for a juniper (Juniperus virginiana, redcedar) woodland and a tallgrass prairie in the south-central Great Plains, USA. Our results showed that redcedar trees had high canopy storage capacity (S) ranging from 2.14 mm for open stands to 3.44 mm for closed stands. The canopy funneling ratios (F) of redcedar trees varied substantially among stand type and tree size. The open stands and smaller trees usually had higher F values and were more efficient in partitioning rainfall into stemflow. Larger trees were more effective in partitioning rainfall into throughfall and no significant changes in the total interception ratios among canopy types and tree size were found. The S values were highly variable for tallgrass prairie, ranging from 0.27 mm at early growing season to 3.86 mm at senescence. As a result, the rainfall interception by tallgrass prairie was characterized by high temporal instability. On an annual basis, our results showed no significant difference in total rainfall loss to canopy interception between redcedar trees and tallgrass prairie. Increasing structural complexity associated with redcedar encroachment into tallgrass prairie changes the rainfall redistribution and partitioning pattern at both the temporal and spatial scales, but does not change the overall canopy interception ratios compared with unburned and ungrazed tallgrass prairie. Our findings support the idea of convergence in interception ratio for different canopy structures under the same precipitation regime. The temporal change in rainfall interception loss from redcedar encroachment is important to understand how juniper encroachment will interact with changing rainfall regime and potentially alter regional streamflow under climate change. PMID:26544182

  8. Convergent Ecosystems from Divergent Environmental Drivers: Revisiting Drivers of the Past Prairie-Forest Ecotone Across the North American Prairie Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilman, K.; McLachlan, J. S.; Feng, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Prairie Peninsula in North America refers to the eastward extension of prairie and savanna ecosystems from western tallgrass prairie into deciduous forests of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri. Historically, the Prairie Peninsula border defined one of the largest shifts in vegetation and biomass in North America. Today, the fertile soils of the Prairie Peninsula have been transformed into a large agricultural center of national economic importance. The existence and location of prairie and savanna on the Northwest border of the Prairie Peninsula has previously been attributed to strong, dry westerly winds, low precipitation, and high fire frequencies. However, these drivers remain untested with historical vegetation across the whole Prairie Peninsula. We use recently digitized historical survey data of vegetation at the time of European settlement (the Public Land Survey (PLS)) to test these hypotheses with past structure and composition data of the entire Prairie Peninsula region. We demonstrate that commonly cited hypotheses for the existence of these ecosystems (westerly winds, low precipitation, and fire) cannot predict the extent and composition of the pre-settlement landscape in the Prairie Peninsula. Using the PLS data in a statistical model of biomass run with environmental covariates (precipitation, soil hydrology parameters, and topography), we test which covariates best explain the distribution of biomass and species composition across the region. Explanatory power of each covariate is spatially variable, suggesting that a single environmental factor alone did not drive prairie and savanna vegetation in the Prairie Peninsula. Rather, this work suggests that variable interactions between climate, soil hydrology properties, and disturbances promote similar vegetation structure across space.

  9. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies.

    PubMed

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest. PMID:26604009

  10. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  11. Phenological and climatic patterns in three tallgrass prairies

    SciTech Connect

    Kebart, K.K.; Anderson, R.C.

    1987-03-07

    Flowering patterns for a central Illinois tallgrass prairie were studied during the 1983 growing season and compared with those for prairies in Wisconsin and Oklahoma. The distribution of species in flower per month was significantly different (p < 0.05) between the Oklahoma, Wisconsin, and Illinois sites. Species that initiated flowering after July 15 tended to flower earlier at northern locations than at southern ones. The number of species in flower per month was correlated with long-term mean monthly temperature and precipitation at all three locations.

  12. Re-evaluation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay Data for the Three Mile Island Unit 1 Reactor and Application to Code Validation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gauld, Ian C.; Giaquinto, J. M.; Delashmitt, J. S.; Hu, Jianwei; Ilas, Germina; Haverlock, T. J.; Romano, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Destructive radiochemical assay measurements of spent nuclear fuel rod segments from an assembly irradiated in the Three Mile Island unit 1 (TMI-1) pressurized water reactor have been performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Assay data are reported for five samples from two fuel rods of the same assembly. The TMI-1 assembly was a 15 X 15 design with an initial enrichment of 4.013 wt% 235U, and the measured samples achieved burnups between 45.5 and 54.5 gigawatt days per metric ton of initial uranium (GWd/t). Measurements were performed mainly using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after elemental separation via highmore » performance liquid chromatography. High precision measurements were achieved using isotope dilution techniques for many of the lanthanides, uranium, and plutonium isotopes. Measurements are reported for more than 50 different isotopes and 16 elements. One of the two TMI-1 fuel rods measured in this work had been measured previously by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and these data have been widely used to support code and nuclear data validation. Recently, ORNL provided an important opportunity to independently cross check results against previous measurements performed at ANL. The measured nuclide concentrations are used to validate burnup calculations using the SCALE nuclear systems modeling and simulation code suite. These results show that the new measurements provide reliable benchmark data for computer code validation.« less

  13. Re-evaluation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay Data for the Three Mile Island Unit 1 Reactor and Application to Code Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, Ian C.; Giaquinto, J. M.; Delashmitt, J. S.; Hu, Jianwei; Ilas, Germina; Haverlock, T. J.; Romano, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Destructive radiochemical assay measurements of spent nuclear fuel rod segments from an assembly irradiated in the Three Mile Island unit 1 (TMI-1) pressurized water reactor have been performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Assay data are reported for five samples from two fuel rods of the same assembly. The TMI-1 assembly was a 15 X 15 design with an initial enrichment of 4.013 wt% 235U, and the measured samples achieved burnups between 45.5 and 54.5 gigawatt days per metric ton of initial uranium (GWd/t). Measurements were performed mainly using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after elemental separation via high performance liquid chromatography. High precision measurements were achieved using isotope dilution techniques for many of the lanthanides, uranium, and plutonium isotopes. Measurements are reported for more than 50 different isotopes and 16 elements. One of the two TMI-1 fuel rods measured in this work had been measured previously by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and these data have been widely used to support code and nuclear data validation. Recently, ORNL provided an important opportunity to independently cross check results against previous measurements performed at ANL. The measured nuclide concentrations are used to validate burnup calculations using the SCALE nuclear systems modeling and simulation code suite. These results show that the new measurements provide reliable benchmark data for computer code validation.

  14. Effects of ungulates and prairie dogs on seed banks and vegetation in a North American mixed-grass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fahnestock, J.T.; Larson, D.L.; Plumb, G.E.; Detling, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between vegetation cover and soil seed banks was studied in five different ungulate herbivoreprairie dog treatment combinations at three northern mixed-grass prairie sites in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. There were distinct differences in both the seed bank composition and the aboveground vegetation between the off-prairie dog colony treatments and the on-colony treatments. The three on-colony treatments were similar to each other at all three sites with vegetation dominated by the forbs Dyssodia papposa, Hedeoma spp., Sphaeralcea coccinea, Conyza canadensis, and Plantago patagonica and seed banks dominated by the forbs Verbena bracteata and Dyssodia papposa. The two off-colony treatments were also similar to each other at all three sites. Vegetation at these sites was dominated by the grasses Pascopyrum smithii, Bromus tectorum and Bouteloua gracilis and the seed banks were dominated by several grasses including Bromus tectorum, Monroa squarrosa, Panicum capillare, Sporobolus cryptandra and Stipa viridula. A total of 146 seedlings representing 21 species germinated and emerged from off-colony treatments while 3069 seedlings comprising 33 species germinated from on-colony treatments. Fifteen of the forty species found in soil seed banks were not present in the vegetation, and 57 of the 82 species represented in the vegetation were not found in the seed banks. Few dominant species typical of mixed-grass prairie vegetation germinated and emerged from seed banks collected from prairie dog colony treatments suggesting that removal of prairie dogs will not result in the rapid reestablishment of representative mixed-grass prairie unless steps are taken to restore the soil seed bank.

  15. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2. Radioactive waste and laundry shipments. Volume 9. Summary status report

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D. H.; Miller, R. L.; Scotti, K. S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 to May 5, 1985. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order.

  16. Number-Theory in Nuclear-Physics in Number-Theory: Non-Primality Factorization As Fission VS. Primality As Fusion; Composites' Islands of INstability: Feshbach-Resonances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Edward

    2011-10-01

    Numbers: primality/indivisibility/non-factorization versus compositeness/divisibility /factor-ization, often in tandem but not always, provocatively close analogy to nuclear-physics: (2 + 1)=(fusion)=3; (3+1)=(fission)=4[=2 × 2]; (4+1)=(fusion)=5; (5 +1)=(fission)=6[=2 × 3]; (6 + 1)=(fusion)=7; (7+1)=(fission)=8[= 2 × 4 = 2 × 2 × 2]; (8 + 1) =(non: fission nor fusion)= 9[=3 × 3]; then ONLY composites' Islands of fusion-INstability: 8, 9, 10; then 14, 15, 16,... Could inter-digit Feshbach-resonances exist??? Applications to: quantum-information/computing non-Shore factorization, millennium-problem Riemann-hypotheses proof as Goodkin BEC intersection with graph-theory ``short-cut'' method: Rayleigh(1870)-Polya(1922)-``Anderson'' (1958)-localization, Goldbach-conjecture, financial auditing/accounting as quantum-statistical-physics;... abound!!!

  17. Number-Theory in Nuclear-Physics in Number-Theory: Non-Primality Factorization As Fission VS. Primality As Fusion; Composites' Islands of INstability: Feshbach-Resonances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Edward

    2011-04-01

    Numbers: primality/indivisibility/non-factorization versus compositeness/divisibility /factor-ization, often in tandem but not always, provocatively close analogy to nuclear-physics: (2 + 1)=(fusion)=3; (3+1)=(fission)=4[=2 x 2]; (4+1)=(fusion)=5; (5+1)=(fission)=6[=2 x 3]; (6 + 1)=(fusion)=7; (7+1)=(fission)=8[= 2 x 4 = 2 x 2 x 2]; (8 + 1) =(non: fission nor fusion)= 9[=3 x 3]; then ONLY composites' Islands of fusion-INstability: 8, 9, 10; then 14, 15, 16,... Could inter-digit Feshbach-resonances exist??? Applications to: quantum-information and computing non-Shore factorization, millennium-problem Riemann-hypotheses physics-proof as numbers/digits Goodkin Bose-Einstein Condensation intersection with graph-theory ``short-cut'' method: Rayleigh(1870)-Polya(1922)-``Anderson'' (1958)-localization, Goldbach-conjecture, financial auditing/accounting as quantum-statistical-physics;... abound!!!

  18. An Assessment of the Current Day Impact of Various Materials Associated with the U.S. Nuclear Test Program in the Marshall Island

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Noshkin, V E; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L; Bogen, K T

    2001-05-01

    Different stable elements, and some natural and man-made radionuclides, were used as tracers or associated in other ways with nuclear devices that were detonated at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls as part of the U.S. nuclear testing program from 1946 through 1958. The question has been raised whether any of these materials dispersed by the explosions could be of sufficient concentration in either the marine environment or on the coral islands to be of a health concern to people living, or planning to live, on the atolls. This report addresses that concern. An inventory of the materials involved during the test period was prepared and provided to us by the Office of Defense Programs (DP) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The materials that the DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) ask to be evaluated are--sulfur, arsenic, yttrium, tantalum, gold, rhodium, indium, tungsten, thallium, thorium-230,232 ({sup 230,232}Th), uranium-233,238 ({sup 233,238}U), polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po), curium-232 ({sup 232}Cu), and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). The stable elements were used primarily as tracers for determining neutron energy and flux, and for other diagnostic purposes in the larger yield, multistage devices. It is reasonable to assume that these materials would be distributed in a similar manner as the fission products subsequent to detonation. A large inventory of fission product and uranium data was available for assessment. Detailed calculations show only a very small fraction of the fission products produced during the entire test series remain at the test site atolls. Consequently, based on the information provided, we conclude that the concentration of these materials in the atoll environment pose no adverse health effects to humans.

  19. 23. TERMINUS, NORTH BRANCH PRAIRIE CITY DITCH. DITCH COMES FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. TERMINUS, NORTH BRANCH PRAIRIE CITY DITCH. DITCH COMES FROM ISOLATED GROUP OF TREES IN MIDDLE DISTANCE, AND ENDS AT CENTER RIGHT. WATER THEN PROCEEDED DOWN SWALE, INTO TREES AT LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  20. 22. NORTH BRANCH, PRAIRIE CITY DITCH, CONTOURING AROUND SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. NORTH BRANCH, PRAIRIE CITY DITCH, CONTOURING AROUND SIDE OF KNOLL. DITCH LIES BETWEEN OAK TREE AND POINTED ROCKS, AND EXITS PHOTOGRAPH AT LOWER RIGHT CORNER. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  1. Profiling Cover Cycle Dynamics for Prairie Pothole Wetland Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The national call to assess effects of conservation requires wetland profiles reflect current and long-term natural variability, which poses a significant challenge for over 3 million wetlands located in the U.S. portion of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). One of the conservation goals in the PPR ...

  2. Butterfly responses to prairie restoration through fire and grazing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Debinski, Diane M.; Koford, Rolf R.; Miller, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The development of land for modern agriculture has resulted in losses of native prairie habitat. The small, isolated patches of prairie habitat that remain are threatened by fire suppression, overgrazing, and invasion by non-native species. We evaluated the effects of three restoration practices (grazing only, burning only, and burning and grazing) on the vegetation characteristics and butterfly communities of remnant prairies. Total butterfly abundance was highest on prairies that were managed with burning and grazing and lowest on those that were only burned. Butterfly species richness did not differ among any of the restoration practices. Butterfly species diversity was highest on sites that were only burned. Responses of individual butterfly species to restoration practices were highly variable. In the best predictive regression model, total butterfly abundance was negatively associated with the percent cover of bare ground and positively associated with the percent cover of forbs. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that sites with burned only and grazed only practices could be separated based on their butterfly community composition. Butterfly communities in each of the three restoration practices are equally species rich but different practices yield compositionally different butterfly communities. Because of this variation in butterfly species responses to different restoration practices, there is no single practice that will benefit all species or even all species within habitat-specialist or habitat-generalist habitat guilds. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Great American Prairie: An Integrated Fifth Grade Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stange, Terrence V.; Wyant, Susan L.

    1999-01-01

    Maintains that children's literature broadens students views and understanding of the past while also offering teachers a means for integrating the elementary curriculum. Provides an integrated unit using a literture-social studies connection that focuses on the Great American Prairie during the pioneer period and gives a list of supporting…

  4. Guide to the 2004 Prairie State Achievement Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Prairie State Achievement Examination (PSAE) measures student achievement relative to the Illinois Learning Standards. It recognizes the excellent achievement of individual students whose scores qualify them for honors, and it measures the progress that schools have made in helping their students meet the Illinois Learning Standards. The PSAE…

  5. Prairie State Achievement Examination: Teacher's Handbook, 2003-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This handbook contains information for high school educators--teachers, curriculum coordinators, counselors, and principals--as they prepare students to take the Prairie State Achievement Examination (PSAE). The first section explains the purpose of the PSAE, gives timelines and test-day schedules, and shows how the PSAE is constructed. The rest…

  6. Increased snow facilitates plant invasion in mixed grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although global change is known to influence plant invasion, relatively little is known about interactions between altered precipitation and invasion. In the North American Mixedgrass prairie, invasive species are often abundant in wet and nitrogen rich areas, suggesting that predicted changes in pr...

  7. Canopy-Coverage Method Compares Pasture and Prairie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the procedures used by a high school biology class in an ecological study related to the degeneration of grasslands. The canopy-coverage method of vegetational analysis was used to compare a low-grade, over-grazed pasture with a nearby high-quality prairie. An interpretation of the results is also presented. (JR)

  8. Wetland Ecosystem Services Vary With Climate for Prairie Pothole Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrology is the primary mechanism for the cyclic vegetation dynamics collectively known as the wetland cover cycle, which drives ecosystem services for the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). These palustrine, depressional basin waters vacillate with regional drought and deluge, so surface water fluctuat...

  9. Remote Wetland Assessment for Missouri Coteau Prairie Glacial Basins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Missouri Coteau prairie glacial wetlands are subject to numerous anthropogenic disturbances, such as cultivation, construction, and chemical inputs from upland land-use practices. High wetland density and temporal variability among these ecosystems necessitate synoptic tools for watershed-scale wetl...

  10. Camel spider (Solifugae) use of prairie dog colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solifugids (camel spiders) are widespread throughout arid regions of western North America and are thought to be important in structuring desert arthropod communities. Despite the ubiquity of camel spiders, little is known about their ecology. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are als...

  11. 21. LOOKING EAST ALONG NORTH BRANCH PRAIRIE CITY DITCH TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. LOOKING EAST ALONG NORTH BRANCH PRAIRIE CITY DITCH TO POINT (AT WIRE ROLL) WHERE IT IS CUT BY A ROCK WALL. DITCH IS ALSO VISIBLE RUNNING ALONG BASE OF KNOLL IN DISTANCE, BELOW AND TO RIGHT OF DEAD TREE. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  12. Recommended methods for range-wide monitoring of prairie dogs in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Lyman L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Otis, David L.; Biggins, Dean E.; Stevens, Patricia D.; Koprowski, John L.; Ballard, Warren

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for conserving grassland, prairie scrub, and shrub-steppe ecosystems is maintaining prairie dog populations across the landscape. Of the four species of prairie dogs found in the United States, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as threatened, the Gunnison's prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) is a candidate for listing in a portion of its range, and the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) have each been petitioned for listing at least once in recent history. Although the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) determined listing is not warranted for either the black-tailed prairie dog or white-tailed prairie dog, the petitions and associated reviews demonstrated the need for the States to monitor and manage for self-sustaining populations. In response to these findings, a multi-State conservation effort was initiated for the nonlisted species which included the following proposed actions: (1) completing an assessment of each prairie dog species in each State, (2) developing a range-wide monitoring protocol for each species using a statistically valid sampling procedure that would allow comparable analyses across States, and (3) monitoring prairie dog status every 3-5 years depending upon the species. To date, each State has completed an assessment and currently is monitoring prairie dog status; however, for some species, the inconsistency in survey methodology has made it difficult to compare data year-to-year or State-to-State. At the Prairie Dog Conservation Team meeting held in November 2008, there was discussion regarding the use of different methods to survey prairie dogs. A recommendation from this meeting was to convene a panel in a workshop-type forum and have the panel review the different methods being used and provide recommendations for range-wide monitoring protocols for each species of prairie dog. Consequently, the Western

  13. Small mammal community composition in cornfields, roadside ditches, and prairies in eastern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Community composition of small mammals was examined in prairies, cornfields, and their adjacent roadside ditches in eastern Nebraska. Western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were associated with prairie habitat, were common in ditches, but avoided cornfields. Prairie voles (M. Ochrogaster) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were associated with ditch habitat, were common in prairies, but avoided cornfields. Short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) avoided cornfields, were associated with ditches next to cornfields, but were common in prairies and ditches next to prairies. Deer mice (P. Maniculatus) were associated with cornfields but were relatively common in prairies and ditches. House mice (Mus musculus) were most common in ditches next to cornfields, occurred in cornfields and ditches next to prairies, but were not captured in prairies. Although community composition appears to differ among prairies, ditches, and cornfields, ditches support a more complete suite of the native small mammal species in large and relatively even numbers, whereas cornfields only support deer mice in large numbers.

  14. Selenium concentration, speciation and behavior in surface waters of the Canadian prairies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoxi; Wang, Feiyue; Hanson, Mark L

    2009-11-01

    Similar to the San Joaquin Valley of California, the Canadian prairies are underlain with seleniferous shale and have recently witnessed a significant expansion in irrigated agriculture. The irrigated acreage in the prairies is expected to further increase due to global warming and changes in human use patterns. This raises concerns over potential selenium (Se) contamination in prairie surface waters and risk of adverse biological effects. To test the potential for elevated Se in the prairies, Se concentrations and speciation were examined in surface water, sediments, and sediment porewater in three water bodies in southern Manitoba, Canada, along a north-south transect with a gradient of irrigation and agricultural activities. A selenite addition experiment was also performed in mesocosms in a prairie wetland to assess the risk of increasing Se loading to the prairie waters. Overall, our results indicate that Se concentrations in the prairie waters of southern Manitoba are presently low except during the snowmelt season, that Se speciation is dominated by selenate which is of lower toxicity than selenite, and that if additional selenite is discharged into the prairie waters, it will be quickly removed from the surface water to the sediment. The low Se risk in the Canadian prairies is attributed to high soil drainability and relatively small scale of irrigation at present. The Se problem as being experienced in central California is thus unlikely to occur in surface waters of the Canadian prairies, although Se contamination in ground water is possible should the irrigated acreage continue to increase. PMID:19732939

  15. Diets of swift foxes (Vulpes velox) in continuous and fragmented prairie in Northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kamler, J.F.; Ballard, W.B.; Wallace, M.C.; Gipson, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Distribution of the swift fox (Vulpes velox) has declined dramatically since the 1800s, and suggested causes of this decline are habitat fragmentation and transformation due to agricultural expansion. However, impacts of fragmentation and human-altered habitats on swift foxes still are not well understood. To better understand what effects these factors have on diets of swift foxes, scats were collected in northwestern Texas at two study sites, one of continuous native prairie and one representing fragmented native prairie interspersed with agricultural and fields in the Conservation Reserve Program. Leporids, a potential food source, were surveyed seasonally on both sites. Diets of swift foxes differed between sites; insects were consumed more on continuous prairie, whereas mammals, birds, and crops were consumed more on fragmented prairie. Size of populations of leporids were 2-3 times higher on fragmented prairie, and swift foxes responded by consuming more leporids on fragmented (11.1% frequency occurrence) than continuous (3.8%) prairie. Dietary diversity was greater on fragmented prairie during both years of the study. Differences in diets between sites suggested that the swift fox is an adaptable and opportunistic feeder, able to exploit a variety of food resources, probably in relation to availability of food. We suggest that compared to continuous native prairie, fragmented prairie can offer swift foxes a more diverse prey base, at least within the mosaic of native prairie, agricultural, and fields that are in the Conservation Reserve Program.

  16. Black-tailed prairie dogs and the structure of avian communities on the shortgrass plains.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gregory A; Lomolino, Mark V

    2004-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) influence avian community structure on the shortgrass prairie. We surveyed 36 prairie dog towns and 36 paired sites without prairie dogs during summer and fall of 1997, 1998, and 1999 in the Oklahoma Panhandle. Our surveys totaled 9,040 individual observations for 73 avian species. Significantly distinct avian communities were present on prairie dog towns when compared to sites within four different macrohabitats of the surrounding landscape: open rangeland, scrub/sandsage (Artemisia filifolia) habitats, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) plots, and fallow crop fields. Relative densities of all bird species combined was higher on prairie dog towns versus paired sites in summer and fall. Mean species richness of birds was significantly higher on prairie dog towns than paired sites during summer, but there were no significant differences in fall. Open rangeland had the highest mean species richness in fall. Assemblages of avian communities differed significantly between prairie dog towns and the four macrohabitat types during summer. Burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia), killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), horned larks (Eremophila alpestris), and meadowlarks (Sturnella spp.) were positively and significantly associated with prairie dog towns during summer, while horned larks and ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) were significantly associated with prairie dog towns during fall. Even in their current remnant state, black-tailed prairie dogs continue to play a significant role in the assembly of ecological communities across the Great Plains. Conservation of prairie dogs goes well beyond a single species, and is an important strategy for the preservation of the prairie ecosystem as a whole. PMID:14685848

  17. Effect of seed scarification and seeding depth on greenhouse seedling emergence in western prairie clover, Searls prairie clover, and Basalt milkvetch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only a few North American legumes are commercially available for rangeland revegetation in the western U.S. Basalt milkvetch (Astragalus filipes, Asfi)), western prairie clover (Dalea ornata, Daor) and Searls' prairie clover (D. searlsiae, Dase) are three North American legumes that hold promise for...

  18. Ecosystem engineering varies spatially: a test of the vegetation modification paradigm for prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Bruce W.; Augustine, David J.; Sedgwick, James A.; Lubow, Bruce C.

    2013-01-01

    Colonial, burrowing herbivores can be engineers of grassland and shrubland ecosystems worldwide. Spatial variation in landscapes suggests caution when extrapolating single-place studies of single species, but lack of data and the need to generalize often leads to ‘model system’ thinking and application of results beyond appropriate statistical inference. Generalizations about the engineering effects of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.) developed largely from intensive study at a single complex of black-tailed prairie dogs C. ludovicianus in northern mixed prairie, but have been extrapolated to other ecoregions and prairie dog species in North America, and other colonial, burrowing herbivores. We tested the paradigm that prairie dogs decrease vegetation volume and the cover of grasses and tall shrubs, and increase bare ground and forb cover. We sampled vegetation on and off 279 colonies at 13 complexes of 3 prairie dog species widely distributed across 5 ecoregions in North America. The paradigm was generally supported at 7 black-tailed prairie dog complexes in northern mixed prairie, where vegetation volume, grass cover, and tall shrub cover were lower, and bare ground and forb cover were higher, on colonies than at paired off-colony sites. Outside the northern mixed prairie, all 3 prairie dog species consistently reduced vegetation volume, but their effects on cover of plant functional groups varied with prairie dog species and the grazing tolerance of dominant perennial grasses. White-tailed prairie dogs C. leucurus in sagebrush steppe did not reduce shrub cover, whereas black-tailed prairie dogs suppressed shrub cover at all complexes with tall shrubs in the surrounding habitat matrix. Black-tailed prairie dogs in shortgrass steppe and Gunnison's prairie dogs C. gunnisoni in Colorado Plateau grassland both had relatively minor effects on grass cover, which may reflect the dominance of grazing-tolerant shortgrasses at both complexes. Variation in modification of

  19. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. RADIATION DOSES AND CANCER RISKS IN THE MARSHALL ISLANDS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT FROM BIKINI AND ENEWETAK NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTS: SUMMARY

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, André; Land, Charles E.; Beck, Harold L.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear weapons testing conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls during 1946–1958 resulted in exposures of the resident population of the present-day Republic of the Marshall Islands to radioactive fallout. This paper summarizes the results of a thorough and systematic reconstruction of radiation doses to that population, by year, age at exposure, and atoll of residence, and the related cancer risks. Detailed methods and results are presented in a series of companion papers in this volume. From our analysis, we concluded that 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in measurable fallout deposition on one or more of the inhabited atolls of the Marshall Islands. In this work, we estimated deposition densities (kBq m−2) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides at each of the 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Quantitative deposition estimates were made for 63 radionuclides from each test at each atoll. Those estimates along with reported measurements of exposure rates at various times after fallout were used to estimate radiation absorbed doses to the red bone marrow, thyroid gland, stomach wall, and colon wall of atoll residents from both external and internal exposure. Annual doses were estimated for six age groups ranging from newborns to adults. We found that the total deposition of 137Cs, external dose, internal organ doses, and cancer risks followed the same geographic pattern with the large population of the southern atolls receiving the lowest doses. Permanent residents of the southern atolls who were of adult age at the beginning of the testing period received external doses ranging from 5 to 12 mGy on average; the external doses to adults at the mid-latitude atolls ranged from 22 to 59 mGy on average, while the residents of the northern atolls received external doses in the hundreds to over 1,000 mGy. Internal doses varied significantly by age at exposure, location, and organ. Except

  1. Radiation doses and cancer risks in the Marshall Islands associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests: summary.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Land, Charles E; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    Nuclear weapons testing conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls during 1946-1958 resulted in exposures of the resident population of the present-day Republic of the Marshall Islands to radioactive fallout. This paper summarizes the results of a thorough and systematic reconstruction of radiation doses to that population, by year, age at exposure, and atoll of residence, and the related cancer risks. Detailed methods and results are presented in a series of companion papers in this volume. From our analysis, we concluded that 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in measurable fallout deposition on one or more of the inhabited atolls of the Marshall Islands. In this work, we estimated deposition densities (kBq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides at each of the 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Quantitative deposition estimates were made for 63 radionuclides from each test at each atoll. Those estimates along with reported measurements of exposure rates at various times after fallout were used to estimate radiation absorbed doses to the red bone marrow, thyroid gland, stomach wall, and colon wall of atoll residents from both external and internal exposure. Annual doses were estimated for six age groups ranging from newborns to adults. We found that the total deposition of 137Cs, external dose, internal organ doses, and cancer risks followed the same geographic pattern with the large population of the southern atolls receiving the lowest doses. Permanent residents of the southern atolls who were of adult age at the beginning of the testing period received external doses ranging from 5 to 12 mGy on average; the external doses to adults at the mid-latitude atolls ranged from 22 to 59 mGy on average, while the residents of the northern atolls received external doses in the hundreds to over 1,000 mGy. Internal doses varied significantly by age at exposure, location, and organ. Except

  2. Guidelines for managing lesser prairie-chicken populations and their habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagen, C.A.; Jamison, B.E.; Giesen, K.M.; Riley, T.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) populations have declined by >90% since the 1800s. These declines have concerned both biologists and private conservation groups and led to a petition to list the lesser prairie-chicken as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Most of the land in the current range of the lesser prairie-chicken is privately owned, and declines have been primarily attributed to anthropogenic factors. Conversion of native rangeland to cropland and excessive grazing have been implicated as leading causes in the species' decline. Periodic drought probably has exacerbated these problems. Little research on habitat requirements was conducted prior to 1970. Despite recent advances in the knowledge of lesser prairie-chicken ecology, no comprehensive guidelines for management of the species have been published. In these guidelines, we provide a synopsis of our current knowledge of lesser prairie-chicken habitat requirements and suggest management strategies to monitor, maintain, and enhance lesser prairie-chicken populations.

  3. Prairie basin wetlands of the Dakotas: a community profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.; Krapu, G.L.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    This description of prairie basin wetlands of the Dakotas is part of a series of community profiles on ecologically important wetlands of national significance. The shallow wetlands of the Dakotas form the bulk of the portion of the Prairie Pothole Region lying within the United States. This region is famous as the producer of at least half of North America's waterfowl and an unknown, but large, proportion of other prairie-dwelling marsh and aquatic birds.The wetlands described here lie in relatively small, shallow basins that vary greatly in their ability to maintain surface water, and in their water chemistry, which varies from fresh to hypersaline. These wetlands occur in a wide variety of hydrological settings, in an area where annual and seasonal precipitation varies greatly in form and amount. Thus the presence of surface water in these wetlands is largely unpredictable. Superimposed on these phenomena are the effects of a variety of land uses, including pasture, cultivation, mechanical forage removal, idle conditions and burning. All those factors greatly affect the plant and animal communities found in these basins.This profile covers lacustrine and palustrine basins with temporarily flooded, seasonally flooded, and semipermanently flooded water regimes. Basins with these water regimes compose about 90% of the basins in the Prairie Pothole Region of the Dakotas. This profile outlines the wetland subsystems, classes and subclasses that occur in these basins, and provides a useful reference to their geologic, climatic, hydrologic, and pedologic setting.Detailed information on the biotic environment of the wetlands dealt with in this profile will be useful to scientists and resource managers. Special recognition is paid to the macrophyte and invertebrate communities, which have dynamic qualities found in few other of the world's wetland ecosystems.The most noteworthy animal inhabitants of these basins are waterfowl, which are a resource of international

  4. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination. Summary status report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information relating to decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building. The report covers activities for the period of June 1, 1979 through March 29, 1985. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were entered into a computerized data system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific information which can be used in planning for recovery from an accident similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during decontamination of the reactor building. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are excluded from the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: a chronological summary listing work performed relating to reactor building decontamination for the period specified; and summary reports for each major task during the period. Each task summary is listed in chronological order for zone entry and subtotaled for the number of personnel entries, exposures, and man-hours. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: labor and exposures by department and labor and exposures by major activity.

  5. AmeriFlux US-IB2 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory- Batavia (Prairie site)

    SciTech Connect

    Matamala, Roser

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-IB2 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory- Batavia (Prairie site). Site Description - Two eddy correlation systems are installed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory: one on a restored prairie (established October 2004) and one on a corn/soybean rotation agricultural field (established in July 2005). The prairie site had been farmed for more than 100 years, but was converted to prairie in 1989. April annual to bi-annual prescribed burns have taken place from 1994 - 2007.

  6. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  7. Tree island pattern formation in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Joel; D'Odorico, P.; Engel, Victor C.; Redwine, Jed

    2016-01-01

    The Florida Everglades freshwater landscape exhibits a distribution of islands covered by woody vegetation and bordered by marshes and wet prairies. Known as “tree islands”, these ecogeomorphic features can be found in few other low gradient, nutrient limited freshwater wetlands. In the last few decades, however, a large percentage of tree islands have either shrank or disappeared in apparent response to altered water depths and other stressors associated with human impacts on the Everglades. Because the processes determining the formation and spatial organization of tree islands remain poorly understood, it is still unclear what controls the sensitivity of these landscapes to altered conditions. We hypothesize that positive feedbacks between woody plants and soil accretion are crucial to emergence and decline of tree islands. Likewise, positive feedbacks between phosphorus (P) accumulation and trees explain the P enrichment commonly observed in tree island soils. Here, we develop a spatially-explicit model of tree island formation and evolution, which accounts for these positive feedbacks (facilitation) as well as for long range competition and fire dynamics. It is found that tree island patterns form within a range of parameter values consistent with field data. Simulated impacts of reduced water levels, increased intensity of drought, and increased frequency of dry season/soil consuming fires on these feedback mechanisms result in the decline and disappearance of tree islands on the landscape.

  8. Influence of radio transmitters on prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vekasy, M.S.; Marzluff, J.M.; Kochert, Michael N.; Lehman, Robert N.; Steenhof, Karen

    1996-01-01

    We examined the effects of backpack radio transmitters on Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus) reproduction (percentage of occupied territories producing young and number of nestlings produced) over four years. In addition, we observed falcon aeries during brood-rearing to determine attendance at the nest and in the territory, prey delivery rates, and prey composition. We found no effect of radio tagging on Prairie Falcon productivity (nesting success and brood size) among years, although productivity varied significantly among years. The sex of the falcon tagged did not affect productivity. Radio-tagged members of pairs did not differ significantly from un-tagged members of pairs in territory attendance, nest attendance, prey delivery rates, or caching rates. Nestlings raised by radio-tagged parents attained masses similar to those reared by control parents. During low prey years, radio-tagged males brought a greater proportion of small birds and reptiles, and fewer mammals to the nest area than control males.

  9. Prairie dogs disperse when all close kin have disappeared.

    PubMed

    Hoogland, John L

    2013-03-01

    Because competition decreases inclusive fitness among kin, Hamilton and May predicted that the presence of nearby kin should induce the dispersal of individuals from the natal territory, independent of pressures to avoid inbreeding. Many studies support this landmark prediction, but research over 31 years with prairie dogs reveals the opposite pattern: Young females are 12.5 times more likely to disperse in the absence of mother and siblings for one species, and 5.5 times more likely for another species. Such striking patterns probably occur because cooperation among kin is more important than competition among kin for young prairie dogs. The inability to cooperate with close kin, due to their absence, prompts a search for a new territory where cooperation might be less crucial for survival and reproduction. PMID:23471407

  10. Energy balance components from six sites in a native prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Qian, Ping

    1990-01-01

    The surface-flux stations investigated are of similar design and operation, but are located on different slopes and aspects and provided data with significant variations. The largest difference between sites is noticed in the data for soil heat-flux density, and the general variability is theorized to be related to treatment and locations. The number of surface-flux stations required for the prairie topography can be inferred from the results of the data analysis.

  11. Bidirectional reflectance, leaf optical and physiological properties of prairie vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter-Shea, E. A.; Blad, B. L.; Starks, P. J; Hays, C. J.; Mesarch, M. A.; Middleton, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    A modular multiband radiometer is used to measure reflected radiation from the vegetative surface of a prairie. The data are compared to estimates of incoming radiation by measuring the reflection from a molded halon panel, and the bidirectional reflectance factors are measured at seven view-zenith angles and various incidence angles. The canopy-reflectance results are compared to leaf-optical and other vegetative physiological properties, and a direct relationship is reported.

  12. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Black-Tailed Prairie Dog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clippinger, Norman W.

    1989-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomus ludovicianus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  13. Increased snow facilitates plant invasion in mixedgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Blumenthlal, D; Chimner, R A; Welker, J M; Morgan, J A

    2008-07-01

    Although global change is known to influence plant invasion, little is known about interactions between altered precipitation and invasion. In the North American mixedgrass prairie, invasive species are often abundant in wet and nitrogen (N)-rich areas, suggesting that predicted changes in precipitation and N deposition could exacerbate invasion. Here, this possibility was tested by seeding six invasive species into experimental plots of mixedgrass prairie treated with a factorial combination of increased snow, summer irrigation, and N addition. Without added snow, seeded invasive species were rarely observed. Snow addition increased average above-ground biomass of Centaurea diffusa from 0.026 to 66 g m(-2), of Gypsophila paniculata from 0.1 to 7.3 g m(-2), and of Linaria dalmatica from 5 to 101 g m(-2). Given added snow, summer irrigation increased the density of G. paniculata, and N addition increased the density and biomass of L. dalmatica. Plant density responses mirrored those of plant biomass, indicating that increases in biomass resulted, in part, from increases in recruitment. In contrast to seeded invasive species, resident species did not respond to snow addition. These results suggest that increases in snowfall or variability of snowfall may exacerbate forb invasion in the mixedgrass prairie. PMID:19086291

  14. Does habitat fragmentation influence nest predation in the shortgrass prairie?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, M.N.; Skagen, S.K.; Kennedy, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of habitat fragmentation and vegetation structure of shortgrass prairie and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands on predation rates of artificial and natural nests in northeastern Colorado. The CRP provides federal payments to landowners to take highly erodible cropland out of agricultural production. In our study area, CRP lands have been reseeded primarily with non-native grasses, and this vegetation is taller than native shortgrass prairie. We measured three indices of habitat fragmentation (patch size, degree of matrix fragmentation, and distance from edge), none of which influenced mortality rates of artificial or natural nests. Vegetation structure did influence predation rates of artificial nests; daily mortality decreased significantly with increasing vegetation height. Vegetation structure did not influence predation rates of natural nests. CRP lands and shortgrass sites did not differ with respect to mortality rates of artificial nests. Our study area is only moderately fragmented; 62% of the study area is occupied by native grassland. We conclude that the extent of habitat fragmentation in our study area does not result in increased predation in remaining patches of shortgrass prairie habitat.

  15. Pesticide photolysis in prairie potholes: probing photosensitized processes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Arnold, William A

    2013-07-01

    Prairie pothole lakes (PPLs) are glacially derived, ecologically important water bodies found in central North America and represent a unique setting in which extensive agriculture occurs within wetland ecosystems. In the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), elevated pesticide use and increasing hydrologic connectivity have raised concerns about the impact of nonpoint source agricultural pollution on the water quality of PPLs and downstream aquatic systems. Despite containing high dissolved organic matter (DOM) levels, the photoreactivity of the PPL water and the photochemical fate of pesticides entering PPLs are largely unknown. In this study, the photodegradation of sixteen pesticides was investigated in PPL waters sampled from North Dakota, under simulated and natural sunlight. Enhanced pesticide removal rates in the irradiated PPL water relative to the control buffer pointed to the importance of indirect photolysis pathways involving photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs). The steady-state concentrations of carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM were measured and second-order rate constants for reactions of pesticides with these PPRIs were calculated. Results from this study underscore the role of DOM as photosensitizer in limiting the persistence of pesticides in prairie wetlands through photochemical reactions. PMID:23116462

  16. Organization of sensory neocortex in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Campi, Katharine L; Karlen, Sarah J; Bales, Karen L; Krubitzer, Leah

    2007-05-20

    In the current investigation, the functional organization of visual, auditory, and somatosensory cortex was examined in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) by using electrophysiological recording techniques. Functional boundaries of cortical fields were directly related to myeloarchitectonic boundaries. Our results demonstrated that most of the neocortex is occupied by the visual, auditory, and somatosensory areas. Specifically, a small area 17, or primary visual area (V1), was located on the caudomedial pole of the neocortex; a large auditory cortex (AC), which contains the primary auditory area (A1) and other auditory fields, encompassed almost the entire temporal pole; and a large area 3b, or primary somatosensory area (S1), contained a complete representation of the contralateral body surface. Furthermore, these areas were coextensive with distinct myeloarchitectonic appearances. We also observed that the AC appeared to be disproportionately large in the prairie vole compared with other rodents. In addition, we found that both primary and nonprimary areas contained neurons that responded to auditory stimulation. Finally, we observed within S1 a disproportionate amount of cortex that was devoted to representing the perioral hairs and the snout and also that neurons within this representation had very small receptive fields. We discuss the expanded auditory domain and the enlarged representation of perioral hairs as they relate to the specialized life style of the prairie vole. PMID:17366609

  17. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  18. Tallgrass Prairie as a Source and Sink of Methyl Halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, T.; Rhew, R. C.; Mazeas, O.; Atwood, A.; King, A. J.; Ma, L.; Whelan, M.

    2007-12-01

    Temperate grasslands are believed to be a globally significant sink for methyl bromide (CH3Br) and perhaps methyl chloride (CH3Cl), compounds which lead to stratospheric ozone destruction. Fluxes of these compounds were measured at Konza Prairie, a tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of Kansas, during June 2006 and August 2007. A stable isotope tracer technique was used to distinguish between simultaneous production and oxidation processes, allowing the first gross flux measurements of CH3Cl and CH3Br from a tallgrass prairie. Observed gross uptake rates of CH3Cl and CH3Br were similar to what we previously observed from the shortgrass steppe in Colorado and annual grasslands in California, but much lower than reported fluxes from a grassland in northeastern North America. A water manipulation experiment was performed both under controlled laboratory conditions, as well as in the field, demonstrating that uptake rates of both CH3Cl and CH3Br were strongly affected by soil moisture. On the production side, new sources of methyl halides were identified in association with certain plant species. Fluxes of these halogenated trace gases were compared to environmental variables, such as air temperature and volumetric water content. Net fluxes of methyl iodide (CH3I), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and other halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs), were also measured.

  19. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive fission product 131I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, 134Cs and 137Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m-3 in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of 134Cs and 137Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m-3) variation of stable cesium (133Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  20. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-15

    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  1. Number-Theory in Nuclear-Physics in Number-Theory: Non-Primality Factorization As Fission VS. Primality As Fusion; Composites' Islands of INstability: Feshbach-Resonances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Numbers: primality/indivisibility/non-factorization versus compositeness/divisibility/ factorization, often in tandem but not always, provocatively close analogy to nuclear-physics: (2 + 1)=(fusion)=3; (3+1)=(fission)=4[=2 x 2]; (4+1)=(fusion)=5; (5 +1)=(fission)=6[=2 x 3]; (6 + 1)=(fusion)=7; (7+1)=(fission)=8[= 2 x 4 = 2 x 2 x 2]; (8 + 1) =(non: fission nor fusion)= 9[=3 x 3]; then ONLY composites' Islands of fusion-INstability: 8, 9, 10; then 14, 15, 16, ... Could inter-digit Feshbach-resonances exist??? Possible applications to: quantum-information/ computing non-Shore factorization, millennium-problem Riemann-hypotheses proof as Goodkin BEC intersection with graph-theory "short-cut" method: Rayleigh(1870)-Polya(1922)-"Anderson"(1958)-localization, Goldbach-conjecture, financial auditing/accounting as quantum-statistical-physics; ...abound!!! Watkins [www.secamlocal.ex.ac.uk/people/staff/mrwatkin/] "Number-Theory in Physics" many interconnections: "pure"-maths number-theory to physics including Siegel [AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)-Abs.# 973-60-124] inversion of statistics on-average digits' Newcomb(1881)-Weyl(14-16)-Benford(38)-law to reveal both the quantum and BEQS (digits = bosons = digits:"spinEless-boZos"). 1881 1885 1901 1905 1925 < 1927, altering quantum-theory history!!!

  2. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  3. Visual counts as an index of White-Tailed Prairie Dog density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menkens, George E., Jr.; Biggins, Dean E.; Anderson, Stanley H.

    1990-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) are depended on prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) for food and shelter and were historically restricted to prairie dog towns (Anderson et al. 1986). Because ferrets and prairie dogs are closely associated, successful ferret management and conservation depends on successful prairie dog management. A critical component of any management program for ferrets will be monitoring prairie dog population dynamics on towns containing ferrets or on towns proposed as ferret reintroduction sites. Three techniques for estimating prairie dog population size and density are counts of plugged and reopened burrows (Tietjen and Matschke 1982), mark-recapture (Otis et al. 1978; Seber 1982, 1986; Menkens and Anderson 1989), and visual counts (Fagerstone and Biggins 1986, Knowles 1986). The technique of plugging burrows and counting the number reopened by prairie dogs is too time and labor intensive for population evaluation on a large number of towns or over large areas. Total burrow counts are not correlated with white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) densities and thus cannot be used for populated evaluation (Menkens et al. 1988). Mark-recapture requires trapping that is expensive and time and labor intensive. Monitoring a large number of prairie dog populations using mark-recapture would be difficult. Alternatively a large number of populations could be monitored in short periods of time using the visual count technique (Fagerstone and Biggins 1986, Knowles 1986). However, the accuracy of visual counts has only been evaluated in a few locations. Thus, it is not known whether the relationship between counts and prairie dog density is consistent throughout the prairie dog's range. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of using visual counts as a rapid means of estimating white-tailed prairie dog density in prairie dog towns throughout Wyoming. We studied 18 white-tailed prairie dog towns in 4 white-tailed prairie dog complexes in Wyoming near

  4. Duration of plague (Yersinia pestis) outbreaks in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies of northern Colorado.

    PubMed

    St Romain, Krista; Tripp, Daniel W; Salkeld, Daniel J; Antolin, Michael F

    2013-09-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, triggers die-offs in colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), but the time-frame of plague activity is not well understood. We document plague activity in fleas from prairie dogs and their burrows on three prairie dog colonies that suffered die-offs. We demonstrate that Y. pestis transmission occurs over periods from several months to over a year in prairie dog populations before observed die-offs. PMID:24057801

  5. COMPARISON OF THE POPULATIONS OF COMMON WOOD-NYMPH BUTTERFLIES IN BURNED PRAIRIE, UNBURNED PRAIRIE AND OLD FIELD GRASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Walton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Common wood-nymph butterfl ies are found throughout the United States and Canada. However, not much is known about how they overwinter or their preferences for particular grasses and habitats. In this study, the impact of prairie management plans on the abundance of the wood-nymph population was assessed, as well as the preference of these butterfl ies for areas with native or non-native grasses. The abundance of common wood-nymph butterfl ies was determined using Pollard walks; more common wood-nymph butterfl ies were found in the European grasses than were found in the burned and unburned prairie sites. The majority of the vegetation at each of the three sites was identifi ed and documented. Using a 1 X 3 ANOVA analysis, it was determined there were signifi cantly more butterfl ies in the European grasses than in the burned and unburned prairie sites (p < 0.0005). There was no signifi cant difference between the burned and unburned treatments of the prairie on the common wood-nymph population. A multiple variable linear regression model described the effect of temperature and wind speed on the number of observed common wood-nymph butterfl ies per hour (p = 0.026). These preliminary results need to be supplemented with future studies. Quadrat analysis of the vegetation from all three sites should be done to search for a correlation between common wood-nymph butterfl y abundance per hour and the specifi c types or quantity of vegetation at each site. The effect of vegetation height and density on the observer’s visual fi eld should also be assessed.

  6. Towards an improved land surface scheme for prairie landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, M. A.; Wheater, H. S.; Ireson, A. M.; Spence, C.; Davison, B.; Pietroniro, A.

    2014-04-01

    The prairie region of Canada and the United States is characterized by millions of small depressions of glacial origin called prairie potholes. The transfer of surface runoff in this landscape is mainly through a “fill and spill” mechanism among neighboring potholes. While non-contributing areas, that is small internally drained basins, are common on this landscape, during wet periods these areas can become hydrologically connected to larger regional drainage systems. Accurate prediction of prairie surface runoff generation and streamflow thus requires realistic representation of the dynamic threshold-mediated nature of these contributing areas. This paper presents a new prairie surface runoff generation algorithm for land surface schemes and large scale hydrological models that conceptualizes a hydrologic unit as a combination of variable and interacting storage elements. The proposed surface runoff generation algorithm uses a probability density function to represent the spatial variation of pothole storages and assumes a unique relationship between storage and the fractional contributing area for runoff (and hence amount of direct runoff generated) within a grid cell. In this paper the parameters that define this relationship are obtained by calibration against streamflow. The model was compared to an existing hydrology-land surface scheme (HLSS) applied to a typical Canadian prairie catchment, the Assiniboine River. The existing configuration is based on the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) and WATROF (a physically-based overland and interflow scheme). The new configuration consists of CLASS coupled with the new PDMROF model. Results showed that the proposed surface runoff generation algorithm performed better at simulating streamflow, and appears to capture the dynamic nature of contributing areas in an effective and parsimonious manner. A pilot evaluation based on 1 m LiDAR data from a small (10 km2) experimental area suggests that the shape of the

  7. 75 FR 67358 - Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Intent to Prepare an... Expansion Project (Project), involving construction and operation of facilities by Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC (Pine Prairie) in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana. This EA will be used by the Commission in...

  8. 75 FR 11164 - Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Intent to Prepare an... Compressor Project (Project) involving construction and operation of facilities by Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC (Pine Prairie) in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana. This EA will be used by the Commission in...

  9. 76 FR 31906 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Special Rule for the Utah Prairie Dog

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) was listed as an endangered species on June 4, 1973 (38 FR 14678... reclassified the Utah prairie dog from endangered to threatened (49 FR 22330) and developed a special rule... was inconsistent with the conservation of the Utah prairie dog (49 FR 22330, May 29, 1984). In...

  10. Transition of soil microbial communities in a tallgrass prairie restoration chronosequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive agriculture since the 1830’s has led to a 82-99% decline of the tallgrass prairie ecosystem in North America. Restoration of these prairies is of great interest. Objectives were to: (1) investigate the change in soil microbial communities during grassland restoration and (2) study the in...