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Sample records for praziquantel em uma

  1. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section 520.1870... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg) praziquantel. (2) 11.5 or 23 mg praziquantel....

  2. MCR Synthesis of Praziquantel Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haixia; William, Samia; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Botros, Sanaa; Dömling, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a high volume neglected tropical disease affecting more than 200 million people worldwide, can only be effectively treated by the tetrahydroisoquinoline drug praziquantel (PZQ). Herein, we describe an efficient approach to access PZQ derivatives by the Ugi 4-component reaction followed by the Pictet-Spengler reaction in a two-step, one-pot procedure. 30 Novel PZQ derivatives are described based on the Ugi 4-component reaction and an X-ray structure of a novel derivative revealing different conformation compared with PZQ is discussed. Several analogues comparable in activity to the drug PZQ have been identified based on an in vitro Schistosoma mansoni worm viability assay. PMID:22151001

  3. Results of toxicological studies on praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Frohberg, H

    1984-01-01

    Praziquantel (2-cyclohexylcarbonyl-1,2,3,6,7, 11b-hexahydro-4H-pyrazino[2,1-a]isoquinolin-4-one, EMBAY 8440, Biltricide) is an anthelminthic drug with activity against all species of schistosomes pathogenic to man and a wide range of cestodes, including the cysticerci of Taenia solium in human tissues and organs, also the CNS. Praziquantel does not reveal any undesired pharmacodynamic effects. After oral administration praziquantel is quantitatively and rapidly absorbed, metabolized and excreted as a variety of metabolites predominantly via the kidneys. The acute toxicity in rats, mice, rabbits and dogs is very low. Rats tolerated by oral administration doses of up to 1000 mg/kg repeated daily for four weeks, and dogs up to 180 mg/kg for 13 weeks without any organ damage. Praziquantel did not disturb reproduction in rats (up to F2-generation), nor did it reveal teratogenic effects in mice, rats and rabbits. In extensive mutagenicity trials performed by different laboratories worldwide, in a variety of test systems, no induction of point mutations, gene conversion, DNA-repair, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), or X-linked recessive lethals was detected. Besides, Salmonella tests with urines of praziquantel treated mice, rats, healthy and Schistosoma-infected persons gave no indication of a mutagenic effect. In different in vivo mammalian assays praziquantel not mutagenic either. Low toxicity of praziquantel was not mutagenic either. Low toxicity of praziquantel was demonstrated also in the combined chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity tests which were performed in rats and Syrian hamsters. In none of these species praziquantel exerted a carcinogenic action, and both doses were tolerated. PMID:6542381

  4. Metabolic profiling of praziquantel enantiomers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haina; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zheng, Yang; Zhou, Kun; Hu, Changyan; Krausz, Kristopher W; Sun, Dequn; Idle, Jeffrey R.; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ), prescribed as a racemic mixture, is the most readily available drug to treat schistosomiasis. In the present study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOFMS) based metabolomics was employed to decipher the metabolic pathways and enantioselective metabolic differences of PZQ. Many phase I and four new phase II metabolites were found in urine and feces samples of mice 24h after dosing indicating that the major metabolic reaction encompassed oxidation, dehydrogenation, and glucuronidation. Differences in the formation of all these metabolites were observed between (R)-PZQ and (S)-PZQ. In an in vitro phase I incubation system, the major involvement of CYP3A, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 in the metabolism of PZQ, and CYP3A, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 exhibited different catalytic activity towards the PZQ enantiomers. Apparent Km and Vmax differences were observed in the catalytic formation of three mono-oxidized metabolites by CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 further supporting the metabolic differences for PZQ enantiomers. Molecular docking showed that chirality resulted in differences in location and conformation, which likely accounts for the metabolic differences. In conclusion, in silico, in vitro, and in vivo methods revealed the enantioselective metabolic profile of praziquantel. PMID:24821110

  5. Praziquantel

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat certain other worm infestations, including tapeworm (a type of worm that may attach to ... have ocular cysticercosis (infestation with a type of tapeworm that forms cysts in the eyes)Your doctor ...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel. 520.1445... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1445 Milbemycin...) milbemycin oxime and 22.8 mg praziquantel; (2) 5.75 mg milbemycin oxime and 57 mg praziquantel; (3) 11.5...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel. 520.1445... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1445 Milbemycin...) milbemycin oxime and 22.8 mg praziquantel; (2) 5.75 mg milbemycin oxime and 57 mg praziquantel; (3) 11.5...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1) 34 micrograms (mcg) ivermectin, 28.5 milligrams (mg) pyrantel pamoate, and 28.5 mg praziquantel; (2) 68...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68 micrograms (g) ivermectin, 1.134 grams fenbendazole, and 57 milligrams (mg) praziquantel;...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1) 34 micrograms (mcg) ivermectin, 28.5 milligrams (mg) pyrantel pamoate, and 28.5 mg praziquantel; (2) 68...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68 micrograms (g) ivermectin, 1.134 grams fenbendazole, and 57 milligrams (mg) praziquantel;...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68 micrograms (g) ivermectin, 1.134 grams fenbendazole, and 57 milligrams (mg) praziquantel;...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1) 34 micrograms (mcg) ivermectin, 28.5 milligrams (mg) pyrantel pamoate, and 28.5 mg praziquantel; (2) 68...

  14. Metabolism of praziquantel in kingfish Seriola lalandi.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, L; Mathieson, T; Tingle, M

    2008-01-24

    Investigations into the metabolism of drugs used in aquatic animal therapy are useful for understanding the mechanisms of xenobiotic transformation systems and can aid the development of dosing regimens. This study investigated the metabolism of the synthetic anthelmintic praziquantel, which has application in helminthiasis treatment for several fish species including kingfish Seriola lalandi, a commercial aquaculture finfish species. At least 7 mono- or dihydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound were identified in kingfish after administration of a 150 mg kg(-1) oral praziquantel dose, paralleling findings in mammals. The structure of one representative mono-hydroxylated species that was prominent in the skin, muscle, liver, kidney and plasma of kingfish was investigated using fragmentation experiments; this revealed that hydroxylation of the parent molecule occurred in the tetrahydroisoquinoline region of praziquantel, analogous with mammalian metabolites, but different to that of the active mammalian metabolite (trans-4-OH-praziquantel). The implications of these findings with regard to biotransformation systems for this drug in mammals and fish are discussed. PMID:18380221

  15. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1) 34...) Amount. Administer monthly according to body weight as follows: (i) 6 to 12 lb: one tablet as...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Administer tablets to provide...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1) 34...) Amount. Administer monthly according to body weight as follows: (i) 6 to 12 lb: one tablet as...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pyrantel. (a) Specifications. (1) Each tablet contains 18.2 milligrams (mg) praziquantel and 72.6 mg pyrantel (as pyrantel pamoate). (2) Each chewable tablet contains 30 mg praziquantel and 30 mg pyrantel... use as in paragraph (d) of this chapter. (1) See No. 000859 for use of tablet described in...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Administer tablets to provide...

  20. Uma grade de perfis teóricos para estrelas massivas em transição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, C. M. P.; Machado, M. A.

    2003-08-01

    Na XXVIII Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (2002) apresentamos uma grade de perfis calculados de acordo com os pontos da trajetória evolutiva de metalicidade solar, Z = 0.02 e taxa de perda de massa () padrão, para estrelas com massa inicial de 25, 40, 60, 85 e 120 massas solares. Estes perfis foram calculados com o auxílio de um código numérico adequado para descrever os ventos de objetos massivos, supondo simetria esférica, estacionaridade e homogeneidade. No presente trabalho, apresentamos a complementação da grade com os perfis teóricos relativos às trajetórias de Z = 0.02 com taxa de perda de massa dobrada em relação a padrão (2´), e de metalicidade Z = 0.008. Para cada ponto das três trajetórias obtemos os perfis teóricos de Ha, Hb, Hg e Hd, e como esperado eles se apresentam em pura emissão, pura absorção ou em P-Cygni. Para valores de taxa de perda de massa muito baixos (~10-7) não há formação de linhas, o que é visto nos primeiros pontos em todas as trajetórias. Em geral, para um mesmo ponto a componente de emissão diminui e a absorção aumenta de Ha para Hd. É verificado que as trajetórias com Z = 0.02 e padrão possuem menos circuitos (loops) do que as com metalicidade Z = 0.02 e 2´ padrão, e seus perfis são, em geral, menos intensos. Em relação a trajetória de Z = 0.008, verifica-se menos circuitos e maior variação em luminosidade, e seus perfis mostram-se em, algumas trajetórias, mais intensos. Verificamos também que, pontos distintos em uma mesma trajetória, apresentam perfis diferentes para valores similares de luminosidade e temperatura efetiva. Sendo assim, uma grade de perfis teóricos parece ser útil para fornecer uma informação preliminar sobre o estágio evolutivo de uma estrela massiva.

  1. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... praziquantel per kilogram of body weight (1 gram of paste per 7.5 pounds body weight) administered by mouth or... pounds body weight) administered by mouth on a full stomach once daily for 3 days. (2) Indications...

  2. In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-12-01

    /sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

  3. 21 CFR 520.1447 - Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel... § 520.1447 Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains: (1) 2.3 milligrams (mg) milbemycin oxime, 46 mg lufenuron, and 22.8 mg praziquantel; (2) 5.75...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1447 - Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel... § 520.1447 Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains: (1) 2.3 milligrams (mg) milbemycin oxime, 46 mg lufenuron, and 22.8 mg praziquantel; (2) 5.75...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1447 - Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel... § 520.1447 Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains: (1) 2.3 milligrams (mg) milbemycin oxime, 46 mg lufenuron, and 22.8 mg praziquantel; (2) 5.75...

  6. Acute toxicity of praziquantel (an anthelmintic) to grass carp and golden shiners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Praziquantel is an anthelmintic that can be applied to the water to kill tapeworm and trematode parasites in fish. Effective praziquantel treatment rates have been determined but there is little information on the toxicity of this chemical to fish hosts of the parasites. Acute praziquantel toxicit...

  7. The profile of the trematodicidal compound praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Wegner, D H

    1984-01-01

    From the start onwards of testing praziquantel (2 - cyclohexyl - carbonyl - 1,2,3,6,7,11 b - hexahydro - 4H - pyrazino[2,1-a]isoquinolin-4-one, EMBAY 8440, Biltricide) proved to be very promising. By testing numerous trematode species in different host animals, high efficacy was established. There were no limitations due to the geographical origin of all those parasite species. Pharmacokinetic studies in animals and man showed similarly favourable results. The compound passes the blood-liquor barrier into the brain. No toxic alterations of vital functions and organs were revealed. After demonstrating satisfactory tolerability in healthy volunteers, therapeutic trials were begun. As to schistosomiasis, studies started double-blind in close cooperation with WHO, Geneva, with emphasis on future large scale treatment campaigns. Up to now safe and successful treatment of over 25,000 patients has been documented in Africa, Asia and South America with single dose or single day dosage schemes against all five schistosome species pathogenic to man. The analysis of allegedly drug-related adverse reactions often revealed their presence before treatment already, particularly in intestinal schistosomiasis. Irrespective of origin all symptoms and reactions were generally mild, transient and did not require additional treatment. No drug-related risks were detectable in patients with hepatosplenic and other complications of advanced stages of infection. High cure rates were also obtained in infections due to C. sinensis, O. viverrini and Paragonimus species. Infections with Metagonimus yokogawai, Fasciolopsis buski and Heterophyes heterophyes responded well to treatment, too.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6391500

  8. LC determination of praziquantel in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Ridtitid, Wibool; Wongnawa, Malinee; Mahatthanatrakul, Werawath; Punyo, Jarurat; Sunbhanich, Methi

    2002-04-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of praziquantel in human plasma was developed and validated. The present method was described by adding drop-wise 0.2 M Zinc sulfate and acetonitrile to plasma sample for deproteinization. This method used a reversed-phase Spherisorb ODS 2 column (5 microm), 250 x 4.6 mm i.d. as a stationary phase with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile- methanol-water (36:10:54, v/v/v), a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and UV detection wavelength of 217 nm. Diazepam was used as internal standard. The standard calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 100-2000 ng/ml (r=0.999). The equation of a linear regression line was y=8.05E-04+7.25E-04x with slope and intercept values of 0.0007 and 0.0008, respectively. The limit of detection was 12.25 ng/ml and the limit of quantification was set at 100 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-day assay coefficients of variation (CV) were 3.0+/-1.7 and 6.3+/-1.9%, respectively. The percentage of recovery was 102.1+/-5.6. Therefore, the HPLC method described here was simple, rapid and reproducible since it did not require extraction and evaporation processes in sample preparation, which will reduce time-consuming or expensive sample preparation. PMID:11861122

  9. Praziquantel degradation in marine aquarium water

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Matthew R.; Ellis, Helen; Stamper, M. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is a drug commonly utilized to treat both human schistosomiasis and some parasitic infections and infestations in animals. In the aquarium industry, PZQ can be administered in a “bath” to treat the presence of ectoparasites on both the gills and skin of fish and elasmobranchs. In order to fully treat an infestation, the bath treatment has to maintain therapeutic levels of PZQ over a period of days or weeks. It has long been assumed that, once administered, PZQ is stable in a marine environment throughout the treatment interval and must be mechanically removed, but no controlled experiments have been conducted to validate that claim. This study aimed to determine if PZQ would break down naturally within a marine aquarium below its 2 ppm therapeutic level during a typical 30-day treatment: and if so, does the presence of fish or the elimination of all living biological material impact the degradation of PZQ? Three 650 L marine aquarium systems, each containing 12 fish (French grunts: Haemulon flavolineatum), and three 650 L marine aquariums each containing no fish were treated with PZQ (2 ppm) and concentrations were measured daily for 30 days. After one round of treatment, the PZQ was no longer detectable in any system after 8 (±1) days. The subsequent two PZQ treatments yielded even faster PZQ breakdown (non-detectable after 2 days and 2 ± 1 day, respectively) with slight variations between systems. Linear mixed effects models of the data indicate that day and trial most impact PZQ degradation, while the presence of fish was not a factor in the best-fit models. In a completely sterilized marine system (0.5 L) PZQ concentration remained unchanged over 15 days, suggesting that PZQ may be stable in a marine system during this time period. The degradation observed in non-sterile marine systems in this study may be microbial in nature. This work should be taken into consideration when providing PZQ bath treatments to marine animals to ensure maximum drug administration. PMID:27069797

  10. Praziquantel degradation in marine aquarium water.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Amber; Dawson, Matthew R; Ellis, Helen; Stamper, M Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is a drug commonly utilized to treat both human schistosomiasis and some parasitic infections and infestations in animals. In the aquarium industry, PZQ can be administered in a "bath" to treat the presence of ectoparasites on both the gills and skin of fish and elasmobranchs. In order to fully treat an infestation, the bath treatment has to maintain therapeutic levels of PZQ over a period of days or weeks. It has long been assumed that, once administered, PZQ is stable in a marine environment throughout the treatment interval and must be mechanically removed, but no controlled experiments have been conducted to validate that claim. This study aimed to determine if PZQ would break down naturally within a marine aquarium below its 2 ppm therapeutic level during a typical 30-day treatment: and if so, does the presence of fish or the elimination of all living biological material impact the degradation of PZQ? Three 650 L marine aquarium systems, each containing 12 fish (French grunts: Haemulon flavolineatum), and three 650 L marine aquariums each containing no fish were treated with PZQ (2 ppm) and concentrations were measured daily for 30 days. After one round of treatment, the PZQ was no longer detectable in any system after 8 (±1) days. The subsequent two PZQ treatments yielded even faster PZQ breakdown (non-detectable after 2 days and 2 ± 1 day, respectively) with slight variations between systems. Linear mixed effects models of the data indicate that day and trial most impact PZQ degradation, while the presence of fish was not a factor in the best-fit models. In a completely sterilized marine system (0.5 L) PZQ concentration remained unchanged over 15 days, suggesting that PZQ may be stable in a marine system during this time period. The degradation observed in non-sterile marine systems in this study may be microbial in nature. This work should be taken into consideration when providing PZQ bath treatments to marine animals to ensure maximum drug administration. PMID:27069797

  11. [Efficacy of praziquantel injectable solution against feline and canine tapeworms.].

    PubMed

    Tüzer, Erkut; Bilgin, Zahide; Oter, Kerem; Erçin, Süleyman; Tinar, Recep

    2010-01-01

    Praziquantel, which has been used in the treatment and control of canine and feline tapeworm infections for about 35 years, has not been tested against these parasites for a long period in Turkey. This study was performed to evaluate the current efficacy of praziquantel against dog and cat tapeworms. Praziquantel injectable solution was administered to 26 dogs (14 of them were infected with Dipylidium caninum, 8 with Taenia spp and 2 with Echinococcus granulosus, 2 with both Dipylidium caninum and Taenia spp) and 2 cats (infected with Joyeuxiella pasqualei) subcutaneously at a dose of 0.1 ml/kg (5.68 mg active ingredient/kg). After treatment, animals were put in individual cages and their feces were taken daily for examination. Feces were examined macroscopically for tapeworm segments and scolexes and microscopically for tapeworm eggs by Fülleborn's flotation and Teleman's sedimentation (for fatty stools). To confirm results of analysis the examinations after treatment were repeated until two subsequent fecal analyses were negative. The parasites disappeared from the feces of all infected animals in 2 or 3 days after the treatment and the drug was found to be 100% effective against both dog and cat tapeworms. No adverse reactions were observed in both dogs and cats treated. PMID:20340081

  12. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tablets. 520.1872 Section 520.1872 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1872 Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet or chewable tablet contains either: (1) Tablet No. 1: 22.7 milligrams praziquantel, 22.7 milligrams...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tablets. 520.1872 Section 520.1872 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1872 Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet or chewable tablet contains either: (1) Tablet No. 1: 22.7 milligrams praziquantel, 22.7 milligrams...

  15. Human fascioliasis in Cajamarca/Peru. I. Diagnostic methods and treatment with praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, J; Delgado, E; Alvarez, A; Reymann, U; Bialek, R

    1985-06-01

    In a prospective study 34 Peruvian fascioliasis patients were followed up for three months after treatment with praziquantel. The rapid sedimentation of faeces was demonstrated to be the most appropriate parasitological technique for the diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica infections in man compared to the MIF concentration or the examination of duodenal fluid by Enterotest. After therapy with different doses of praziquantel only 21% of the patients stopped to excrete worm eggs although 17 patients had been treated repeatedly. During the period of observation all patients presented a decreasing number of symptoms. It is concluded that praziquantel is not very active against F. hepatica in man. PMID:4023557

  16. 75 FR 54018 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Praziquantel and Pyrantel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... sizes of praziquantel and pyrantel pamoate tablets used in cats and kittens for the removal of various... pyrantel pamoate) Tablets used in cats and kittens for the removal of various internal parasites....

  17. Biological characteristics of praziquantel-resistant and -susceptible isolates of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y S; Coles, G C; Dai, J R; Zhu, Y C; Doenhoff, M J

    2001-10-01

    If there is a change in the biological characteristics of schistosomes associated with the development of resistance to praziquantel, this could affect the transmission and pathology of the diseases they cause. To investigate this possibility, the host-parasite relationships of five praziquantel-resistant and five praziquantel-susceptible isolates of Schistosoma mansoni were compared in Biomphalaria glabrata snails and outbred CD(1) albino mice. Whether praziquantel-resistant or -susceptible, all the laboratory-selected isolates gave similar results in B. glabrata. However, the snails infected with any of three field-collected isolates from Senegal, each of which has been shown to be praziquantel-resistant, shed fewer cercariae and survived longer than the snails infected with the drug-susceptible or laboratory-selected, drug-resistant isolates. There were no differences between isolates in terms of their infectivity to mice. However, mice infected with any of four of the five drug-resistant isolates shed more eggs in their faeces than mice carrying the drug-susceptible parasites, and mice infected with any of the resistant isolates also had larger numbers of eggs in their tissues. Although granuloma sizes were generally similar for all isolates, the praziquantel-resistant isolates may be more pathogenic in mice than the susceptible ones because of their relatively high egg productions. PMID:11784425

  18. Efficacy of 6-, 12-, and 24-h praziquantel bath treatments against Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Praziquantel is an effective antihelmintic that has been used in dogs and cats as a de-wormer. It has also been used successfully against tapeworms and trematodes in fish. The current study tested the efficacy of praziquantel bath treatments at various concentrations (0.187, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0,...

  19. Pathways involved in trifluoperazine-, dibucaine- and praziquantel-induced hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Malheiros, S V; Meirelles, N C; de Paula, E

    2000-01-17

    This work elucidates differences in the hemolytic pathway developed by the antipsychotic trifluoperazine (TFP), the local anesthetic dibucaine (DBC) and the antihelminthic praziquantel (PZQ). Their partition coefficients (P) were measured at pH 7.4 between n-octanol, microsomes, liposomes, erythrocyte ghosts and n-octanol/water. The effective drug:lipid molar ratios for the onset of membrane solubilization (ReSAT) and complete hemolysis (ReSOL) were calculated from the experimental P values and compared with a classical surface-active compound treatment Lichtenberg, D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 821 (1985) 470-478[. The contribution of charged/uncharged forms of TFP and DBC for the hemolytic activity was also analyzed. In all cases the hemolytic phenomena could be related to the monomeric drug insertion into the membrane. Only for TFP at isosmotic condition lysis occurs at concentrations beyond the CMC of the drug, indicating that micellization facilitates TFP hemolytic effect, while DBC and PZQ reach a real membrane saturation at their monomeric form. PMID:10672415

  20. THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF RECENT ISOLATES OF Schistosoma mansoni TO PRAZIQUANTEL

    PubMed Central

    MENDONÇA, Adriana Maria B.; FEITOSA, Ana Paula S.; VERAS, Dyana L.; MATOS-ROCHA, Thiago J.; CAVALCANTI, Marília G. dos Santos; BARBOSA, Constança Clara G. S.; BRAYNER, Fábio A.; ALVES, Luiz C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), but concerns over PZQ resistance have renewed interest in evaluating the in vitro susceptibility of recent isolates of Schistosoma mansoni to PZQ in comparison with well-established strains in the laboratory. Material and methods: The in vitro activity of PZQ (6.5-0.003 µg/mL) was evaluated in terms of mortality, reduced motor activity and ultrastructural alterations against S. mansoni. Results: After 3 h of incubation, PZQ, at 6.5 µg/mL, caused 100% mortality of all adult worms in the three types of recent isolates, while PZQ was inactive at concentrations of 0.08-0.003 µg/mL after 3 h of incubation. The results show that the SLM and Sotave isolates basically presented the same pattern of susceptibility, differing only in the concentration of 6.5 µg/mL, where deaths occurred from the range of 1.5 h in Sotave and just in the 3 h range of SLM. Additionally, this article presents ultrastructural evidence of rapid severe PZQ-induced surface membrane damage in S. mansoni after treatment with the drug, such as disintegration, sloughing, and erosion of the surface. Conclusion: According to these results, PZQ is very effective to induce tegument destruction of recent isolates of S. mansoni. PMID:26910445

  1. Ureteric obstruction secondary to schistosomiasis 2 years after praziquantel therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Olajide, Abimbola Olaniyi; Olajide, Folakemi Olajumoke; Aremu, Ademola Adegoke; Komolafe, Akinkunmi Oluwole

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the oldest and commonest parasitic infestations of mankind and one of the leading infestations of public health concern. Hitherto, praziquantel has been the only drug for mass eradication of Schistosomiasis. Few reports have shown possible resistance of the schistosome to praziquantel in some part of the world with global concern about the future of the drug. We report this case to illustrate progression of Schistosomiasis to surgical complication despite treatment, with bizarre presentation misleading attending physicians. Diagnosis was finally confirmed at post-operation histological examination of specimen. PMID:22891090

  2. Evaluation of oral therapy on Mansonial Schistosomiasis using single dose of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Koko, W S; Abdalla, H S; Galal, M; Khalid, H S

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit mesocarp was compared with praziquantel in mice infected with Sudanese strain of Schistosoma mansoni. Infected mice were given a single dose of 200 mg/kg body weight of B. aegyptiaca fruit mesocarp and 200 mg/kg b.w. of praziquantel after 6 weeks from the onset of the infection. A significant reduction was observed in EPG (egg count per gram of faeces), eggs burden in tissues and recovery of adult worms (P<0.05) for both the plant and the drug-treated animals. PMID:15664459

  3. Pharmacokinetics of combined treatment with praziquantel and albendazole in neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hector H; Lescano, Andres G; Lanchote, Vera L; Pretell, E Javier; Gonzales, Isidro; Bustos, Javier A; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Bonato, Pierina S; Horton, John; Saavedra, Herbert; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    AIMS Neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in the world. Antiparasitic treatment of viable brain cysts is of clinical benefit, but current antiparasitic regimes provide incomplete parasiticidal efficacy. Combined use of two antiparasitic drugs may improve clearance of brain parasites. Albendazole (ABZ) has been used together with praziquantel (PZQ) before for geohelminths, echinococcosis and cysticercosis, but their combined use is not yet formally recommended and only scarce, discrepant data exist on their pharmacokinetics when given together. We assessed the pharmacokinetics of their combined use for the treatment of neurocysticercosis. METHODS A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of ABZ and PZQ in 32 patients with neurocysticercosis was carried out. Patients received their usual concomitant medications including an antiepileptic drug, dexamethasone, and ranitidine. Randomization was stratified by antiepileptic drug (phenytoin or carbamazepine). Subjects had sequential blood samples taken after the first dose of antiparasitic drugs and again after 9 days of treatment, and were followed for 3 months after dosing. RESULTS Twenty-one men and 11 women, aged 16 to 55 (mean age 28) years were included. Albendazole sulfoxide concentrations were increased in the combination group compared with the ABZ alone group, both in patients taking phenytoin and patients taking carbamazepine. PZQ concentrations were also increased by the end of therapy. There were no significant side effects in this study group. CONCLUSIONS Combined ABZ + PZQ is associated with increased albendazole sulfoxide plasma concentrations. These increased concentrations could independently contribute to increased cysticidal efficacy by themselves or in addition to a possible synergistic effect. PMID:21332573

  4. Praziquantel Treatment Decreases Schistosoma mansoni Genetic Diversity in Experimental Infections

    PubMed Central

    Coeli, Regina; Baba, Elio H.; Araujo, Neusa; Coelho, Paulo M. Z.; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis has a considerable impact on public health in many tropical and subtropical areas. In the new world, schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni. Chemotherapy is the main measure for controlling schistosomiasis, and the current drug of choice for treatment is praziquantel (PZQ). Although PZQ is efficient and safe, its repetitive large-scale use in endemic areas may lead to the selection of resistant strains. Isolates less susceptible to PZQ have been found in the field and selected for in the laboratory. The impact of selecting strains with a decreased susceptibility phenotype on disease dynamics and parasite population genetics is not fully understood. This study addresses the impact of PZQ pressure on the genetics of a laboratory population by analyzing frequency variations of polymorphic genetic markers. Methodology Infected mice were treated with increasing PZQ doses until the highest dose of 3×300 mg/Kg was reached. The effect of PZQ treatment on the parasite population was assessed using five polymorphic microsatellite markers. Parasitological and genetic data were compared with those of the untreated control. After six parasite generations submitted to treatment, it was possible to obtain a S. mansoni population with decreased susceptibility to PZQ. In our experiments we also observed that female worms were more susceptible to PZQ than male worms. Conclusions The selective pressure exerted by PZQ led to decreased genetic variability in S. mansoni and increased endogamy. The understanding of how S. mansoni populations respond to successive drug pressure has important implications on the appearance and maintenance of a PZQ resistance phenotype in endemic regions. PMID:24367712

  5. Praziquantel sensitivity of Kenyan Schistosoma mansoni isolates and the generation of a laboratory strain with reduced susceptibility to the drug

    PubMed Central

    Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Sanchez, Melissa C.; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Agola, Lelo E.; Runo, Steven M.; Cupit, Pauline M.; Cunningham, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by blood-dwelling flukes of the genus Schistosoma. While the disease may affect as many as 249 million people, treatment largely relies on a single drug, praziquantel. The near exclusive use of this drug for such a prevalent disease has led to concerns regarding the potential for drug resistance to arise and the effect this would have on affected populations. In this study, we use an in vitro assay of drug sensitivity to test the effect of praziquantel on miracidia hatched from eggs obtained from fecal samples of Kenyan adult car washers and sand harvesters as well as school children. Whereas in a previous study we found the car washers and sand harvesters to harbor Schistosoma mansoni with reduced praziquantel sensitivity, we found no evidence for the presence of such strains in any of the groups tested here. Using miracidia derived from seven car washers to infect snails, we used the shed cercariae to establish a strain of S. mansoni with significantly reduced praziquantel sensitivity in mice. This was achieved within 5 generations by administering increasing doses of praziquantel to the infected mice until the parasites could withstand a normally lethal dose. This result indicates that while the threat of praziquantel resistance may have diminished in the Kenyan populations tested here, there is a strong likelihood it could return if sufficient praziquantel pressure is applied. PMID:25516840

  6. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  7. Reduction in hookworm infection after praziquantel treatment among children and young adults in Leyte, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia G; Aggarwal, Nitin; Acosta, Luz P; Jiz, Mario A; Wu, Hai-Wei; Leenstra, Tjalling; Coutinho, Hannah M; Olveda, Remigio M; Kurtis, Jonathan D; McGarvey, Stephen T; Friedman, Jennifer F

    2010-08-01

    One small previous study found that praziquantel reduced hookworm infection. In this study, 607 subjects were enrolled in a longitudinal study. At enrollment and every 3 months for 18 months, three stool samples were collected, and the intensity of infection with Schistosoma japonicum and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) was quantified. All subjects were treated with 60 mg/kg praziquantel at baseline. Three months post-treatment, the percent of subjects who were hookworm-infected decreased to 46.5% from 61% at baseline. The putative cure rate was 23.7%. The 95% confidence interval around the change in hookworm egg counts from baseline to 6 and 12 months post-treatment was negative and did not include zero. The percent reduction in hookworm egg counts from baseline to 3 months post-treatment was 40.8%. Praziquantel treatment did not decrease the infection intensity of STHs. Control programs using praziquantel may have the added benefit of reducing hookworm infection and anemia in areas of coendemnicity. PMID:20682892

  8. Dosing of Praziquantel by Height in Sub-Saharan African Adults

    PubMed Central

    Palha De Sousa, Chiquita A.; Brigham, Tracy; Chasekwa, Bernard; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Tielsch, James M.; Humphrey, Jean H.; Prendergast, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The cornerstone of schistosomiasis control is mass praziquantel treatment in high prevalence areas. Adults are an important target population, given increasing recognition of the burden of male and female genital schistosomiasis. However, use of weighing scales to calculate praziquantel dosing in rural areas can be challenging. For school-age children, the World Health Organization (WHO) has approved a dose pole to simplify praziquantel dosing based on height. We modified the pediatric dose pole by adding two height categories and incorporating a simple overweight/obesity adjustment, for simplified mass treatment of adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Using the rural Zimbabwean Demographic and Health Survey data, we show that the modified dose pole with body mass index adjustment would result in > 98% of adults receiving an acceptable dose (30–60 mg/kg), with only 1.4% and 0.3% receiving an inadequate dose (< 30 mg/kg) or high dose (> 60 mg/kg), respectively. An adult dose pole may provide a more feasible alternative to weighing scales in community-based praziquantel treatment programs. PMID:24591432

  9. Tetrasubstituted pyrazinones derived from the reaction of praziquantel with N-bromosuccinimide

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qingjie; Wang, Chunkai; Ezell, Edward L.; Dong, Yuxiang; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    When praziquantel was exposed to N-bromosuccinimide in the presence of ethanol, a tricyclic 3-bromo-1-ethoxy pyrazinone was formed. From this and the analogous 1,3-dibromopyrazinone, a small library of 3-alkylamino-1-ethoxy, 1,3-dialkoxy, 3-alkoxy-1-bromo, and 3-alkylamino-1-bromo substituted pyrazinones were synthesized in high yields. PMID:25125709

  10. Combination of Praziquantel and Aspirin Minimizes Liver Pathology of Hamster Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Associated Cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sudsarn, Pakkayanee; Boonmars, Thidarut; Ruangjirachuporn, Wipaporn; Namwat, Nisana; Loilome, Watcharin; Sriraj, Pranee; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Nadchanan, Wonkchalee; Jiraporn, Songsri

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is one of the major risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in northeastern Thailand. An effective drug for killing this parasite is praziquantel. Recently, several reports have shown that with frequent use, praziquantel may itself be a CCA risk and can cause liver cell damage from an immunopathological response after parasite death. Aspirin has many properties including anti-inflammation and anti-cancer. Therefore, we use of aspirin (As) and praziquantel (Pz) to improve hepatobiliary system function in hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) and or administered N-nitrosodimethylamine (ND). Livers of OVNDAsPz, appeared healthy macroscopically, suggesting slow progression of cholangiocarcinoma evident by extent of fibrosis and bile duct cell proliferation was less than OVND although aggregations of inflammatory cells remained. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cytokeratin 19 (CK19), and cancer antigen (CA19-9) staining were strongly positive in OVND, but were only slight in OVNDAs. Moreover, OVNDAsPz, appeared a few inflammatory infiltrations, bile duct proliferation, fibrosis and CCA area than the OVNDAs group. Thirty seven point five percent of hamster in this group could not develop CCA. These findings suggest that using aspirin combination with praziquantel treatment can improve the hepatobiliary system after O. viverrini infection and reduce the risk of CCA. PMID:26277607

  11. Uso de modelos mecânicos em curso informal de astronomia para deficientes visuais. Resgate de uma experiência

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, E. T., Jr.; Klafke, J. C.

    2003-08-01

    O presente trabalho propõe-se a resgatar uma experiência que teve lugar no Planetário de São Paulo nos anos 60. Em 1962, o Sr. Acácio, então com 37 anos, deficiente visual desde os 27, passou a assistir às aulas ministradas pelo Prof. Aristóteles Orsini aos integrantes do corpo de servidores do Planetário. O Sr. Acácio era o único deficiente da turma e, embora possuísse conhecimentos básicos e relativamente avançados de matemática, enfrentava dificuldades na compreensão e acompanhamento da exposição, como também em estudos posteriores. Com o intuito de auxiliá-lo na superação desses problemas, o Prof. Orsini solicitou a construção de modelos mecânicos que, através do sentido do tato, permitissem o acompanhamento das aulas e a transposição do modelo para o "constructo" mental. Essa prática mostrou-se tão eficaz que facilitou sobejamente o aprendizado da matéria pelo sujeito. O Sr. Acácio passou a integrar o corpo de professores do Planetário/Escola Municipal de Astrofísica, tendo ficado responsável pelo curso de "Introdução à Astronomia" por vários anos. Além disso, a experiência foi tão bem sucedida que alguns dos modelos tiveram seus elementos constitutivos pintados diferencialmente para serem utilizados em cursos regulares do Planetário, tornando-se parte integrante do conjunto de recursos didáticos da instituição. É pensando nessa eficácia, tanto em seu objetivo original permitir o aprendizado de um deficiente visual quanto no subsidiário recurso didático sistemático da instituição que decidimos resgatar essa experiência. Estribados nela, acreditamos ser extremamente produtivo, em termos educacionais, o aperfeiçoamento dos modelos originais, agora resgatados e restaurados, e a criação de outros que pudessem ser utilizados no ensino dessa ciência a deficientes visuais.

  12. Efficacy of oxamniquine and praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infection: a controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, M. L. A.; Coelho, P. M. Z.; Antunes, C. M. F.; Tavares, C. A. P.; da Cunha, A. S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of oxamniquine and praziquantel, the two most clinically important schistosomicide drugs, and to compare the accuracy of faecal examination with the accuracy of oogram in testing for Schistosoma mansoni infection. METHODS: In a triple-masked and randomized controlled trial, 106 patients infected with S. mansoni were randomly allocated to one of three statistically homogeneous groups. One group was given 60 mg/kg praziquantel per day for three consecutive days, another was given two daily doses of 10 mg/kg oxamniquine, and the placebo group received starch. Faecal examinations (days 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 after treatment) and biopsy of rectal mucosa by quantitative oogram (days 30, 60, 120, and 180) were used for the initial diagnosis and for evaluating the degree of cure. The chi2 test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare variables in the three groups. Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier) and the log-rank test were used to evaluate the efficacy of the treatments. FINDINGS: The sensitivity of stool examinations ranged from 88.9% to 94.4% when patients presented with >5000 S. mansoni eggs per gram of tissue (oogram); when the number of eggs dropped to <1000 eggs per gram, sensitivity was reduced (range, 22.7-34.0%). When cure was evaluated by stool examination, oxamniquine and praziquantel had cure rates of 90.3% and 100%, respectively. However, when the oogram was used as an indicator of sensitivity, the oxamniquine cure rate dropped dramatically (to 42.4%), whereas the rate for praziquantel remained high, at 96.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Praziquantel was significantly more effective than oxamniquine in treating S. mansoni infection. The oogram was markedly more sensitive than stool examinations in detecting S. mansoni eggs and should be recommended for use in clinical trials with schistosomicides. PMID:12764515

  13. Effect of praziquantel on adult Echinostoma paraensei worms in experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Juliana; Souza, Joyce; Costa-Silva, Michele; Torres, Eduardo; Santana, André; Lanfredi, Reinalda; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Garcia, Juberlan

    2012-07-01

    Echinostomiasis is a food-borne intestinal, snail-mediated parasitosis caused principally by ingestion of snails infected with digenean trematodes of the Echinostoma genus. The treatment and control of trematodiasis is usually done by administration of praziquantel (PZQ). In this study, we evaluated the effect on Echinostoma paraensei of different doses of praziquantel through analysis of morphological parameters using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal scanning laser microscopy along with parasitological data. We used 30 female mice aged 4 weeks. Each animal was given 40 metacercarie of E. paraensei by gavage. The animals were divided into five groups, each group containing six animals, where one group was utilized as untreated control. Two weeks after infection, the mice were given praziquantel by gavage at total dosages of 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg by body weight. Two days after treatment, the mice were euthanized in a CO(2) chamber for recovery of helminths in the small intestine. The doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg of praziquantel eliminated all the worms. There were significant differences (p<0.05) between all the treated groups when compared to the control group. The body morphology showed contraction with vacuolization of the parenchyma, and the spine of the peristomic collar was not evident by light microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy revealed that the other doses caused retraction of spines of the peristomic collar and also the tegument spines at the body edge, as well as the development of vesicles and peeling; all these alterations were more evident at the dose of 25 mg/kg. In turn, the confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed vacuolization and disorganization of spines and vitelline glands. E. paraensei responds differently to experimental treatment with praziquantel according to the doses utilized causing morphological alteration and even worm elimination. PMID:22249761

  14. Efficacy of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature and immature cestode infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Iris; Altreuther, Gertraut; Schimmel, Annette; Deplazes, Peter; Kok, Dawid J; Schnyder, Manuela; Krieger, Klemens J

    2009-08-01

    The efficacy of a novel flavoured tablet formulation of emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) against intestinal cestodes was investigated in four randomised, blinded placebo-controlled dose confirmation studies in dogs experimentally infected with Echinococcus granulosus or E. multilocularis and in dogs naturally infected with Dipylidium caninum or Taenia spp. The tablets were used at the minimum recommended dose of 1 mg emodepside and 5 mg praziquantel per kg body weight. The studies demonstrated 100% efficacy against mature and immature E. granulosus and E. multilocularis and mature Taenia spp. and D. caninum. Additionally, one of the studies demonstrated non-interference of emodepside with the efficacy of praziquantel against D. caninum. No side effects of the treatment were observed. It is concluded that emodepside plus praziquantel tablets are safe and effective against mature and immature stages of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis and mature stages of Taenia spp. and D. caninum. PMID:19575223

  15. Safety of the Combined Use of Praziquantel and Albendazole in the Treatment of Human Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alvela-Suárez, Lucía; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Belhassen-Garcia, Moncef; Novo-Veleiro, Ignacio; Pardo-Lledías, Javier; Romero-Alegría, Angela; Pérez del Villar, Luis; Valverde-Merino, María Paz; Cordero-Sánchez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    There is still no well-established consensus about the clinical management of hydatidosis. Currently, surgery continues to be the first therapeutic option, although treatment with anti-parasitic drugs is indicated as an adjuvant to surgery to decrease the number of relapses and hydatid cyst size. When surgery is not possible, medical treatment is indicated. Traditionally, albendazole was used in monotherapy as the standard treatment. However, combined therapy with albendazole plus praziquantel appears to improve anti-parasitic effectiveness. To date, no safety studies focusing on such combined therapy have been published for the treatment of hydatidosis. In this work, we analyze the adverse effects seen in 57 patients diagnosed with hydatidosis who were treated with praziquantel plus albendazole combined therapy between 2006 and 2010. PMID:24615131

  16. Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) in treatment of cestode infections in domestic and laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Eom, Kee Seon; Kim, Seung Ho; Rim, Han Jong

    1988-06-01

    Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) by intramuscular (I.M.) route against cestode infections was evaluated. Total 93 domestic or laboratory animals such as dogs, cats, rats, mice, goats, deers and chickens were used. Animals were infected with Dipylidium caninum, Spirometra sp., Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis nana, Moniezia expansa, Moniezia sp. or Raillietina sp. A single dose of praziquantel, 6 mg/kg of body weight, was highly effective (97.9%) against cestodes of various kinds disregarding the host species or their intensity of infection. At high dose above 6 mg/kg, the cure rate was 100%. All the cestodes treated were expelled from the host within 48 hours. The discharged proglottids were damaged severely except Hymenolepis nana and Moniezia expansa. Intramuscular injection of this drug evoked a brief pain response in a dog, but no other side reactions were observed. PMID:12811058

  17. Acute visceral cysticercosis by Taenia hydatigena in lambs and treatment with praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Scala, A; Urrai, G; Varcasia, A; Nicolussi, P; Mulas, M; Goddi, L; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Genchi, M; Bandino, E

    2016-01-01

    An acute outbreak of Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis, causing mortality in 5 of 21 (23.8%) female lambs, is reported. Gross post-mortem examinations and histology showed Cysticercus tenuicollis as the cause of death. Biochemical parameters in infected lambs confirmed severe hepatitis. Praziquantel, given once at 15 mg/kg body weight (bw), was administered and a dramatic improvement in the clinical condition and biochemical parameters was observed up to 30 days following treatment. PMID:25120032

  18. Aspects of decontamination of ivermectin and praziquantel from environmental waters using advanced oxidation technology.

    PubMed

    Havlkov, Lucie; atnsk, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2016-02-01

    Recently performed environmental risk assessments of ivermectin demonstrated the need to complete the information regarding the fate of ivermectin in environment. There is also a lack of information concerning the fate and stability of praziquantel. The forced degradation study and photocatalytic degradation pathways in aqueous TiO2 suspensions of the two anthelmintics ivermectin and praziquantel were investigated and compared. The degradation efficiency increased for both compounds with the increase in the TiO2 concentration from 0.25 to 2.00gL(-1), and then remained constant. The estimated k-values were from 0.36h(-1) to 0.64h(-1) for IVE and from 0.29h(-1) to 0.47h(-1) for PZQ, respectively. The degradation rate was not significantly impacted by the change of the pH value (pH 3, 5, 7, and 9) at 2.0gL(-1) of TiO2. The photo degradation was about 90% for both compounds after 5h of irradiation and it was significantly inhibited in the presence of iodide anion and isopropyl alcohol, which indicated, that hydroxyl radicals as well as holes contributed to the degradation of both anthelmintics. The contribution of hydroxyl radicals and holes was 92.1% for IVE and 93.2% for PZQ, respectively. Photocatalytic process of ivermectin resulted in three degradation intermediates; another two were formed during acidic and basic hydrolysis. Praziquantel underwent degradation to six degradation intermediates; four of them were formed under photocatalytic irradiation. The intermediates were identified using UHPLC-MS/MS. UV/TiO2 photolysis has been found as an effective advanced oxidation technology for the decontamination of ivermectin and praziquantel. PMID:26344145

  19. Verapamil does not block the spastic response of Praziquantel on the larvae of Taenia pisiformis.

    PubMed

    Martnez Zedillo, G; Hoyo Badillo, C; Amezcua, J; Gonzlez Barranco, D

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes that the previous addition of Verapamil does not block the spastic response to Praziquantel (Pz) in larvae of Taenia pisiformis kept in vitro, where opposite results were found in the literature using mammalian tissue. It is possible that Pz stimulates other Ca++ transport channels not sensitive to Verapamil action and promotes Ca++ liberation from calcareous corpuscles stimulating phospholipase C of the tegument surface generating inositol triphosphate. These hypotheses require experimental approaches to define the exact mechanism of action. PMID:1308797

  20. Mutagenicity studies with praziquantel, a new anthelmintic drug, in mammalian systems.

    PubMed

    Machemer, L; Lorke, D

    1978-01-25

    Praziquantel, a new anthelmintic drug with antischistosomal and anticestodal properties, was tested in comparison with a placebo control and a 'positive control' with cyclophosphamide in mammalian test system in vivo for potential mutagenic effects. The test systems used and the tested doses of Praziquantel were: (1) Dominant lethal test on male NMRI mice, 12 mating periods of 4 days each, 1 X 1200 mg/kg BW by mouth; (2) Dominant lethal test on female NMRI mice, treatment during pre-estrus, 1 X 1200 mg/kg BW by mouth; (3) Micronucleus test on male and female NMRI mice, two doses with a 24-h interval and preparation of the femoral marrow 6 h after the second dose, 2 X 300 mg/kg and 2 X 600 mg/kg BW by mouth; (4) Spermatogonial test on the Chinese hamster, two doses with a 24-h interval and preparation of the spermatogonia 48 h after the second dose, 2 X 600 mg/kg BW by mouth. The 1200 mg/kg BW dose corresponded to approximately 1/2 of the LD50 after oral application in the mouse and about 40 times the therapeutic dose (1 X 30 mg/kg BW). The cyclophosphamide doses in the test systems were 1 X 200 mg/kg or 2 X 200 mg/kg BW by mouth. No indication was found of any mutagenic potency of Praziquantel. This agrees with the results of point-mutation tests done by other authors. PMID:580366

  1. Toxicological profile of praziquantel, a new drug against cestode and schistosome infections, as compared to some other schistosomicides.

    PubMed

    Frohberg, H; Schulze Schencking, M

    1981-01-01

    2-Cyclohexylcarbonyl-1,2,3,6,7,11b-hexahydro-4H-pyrazino[2,1-a] isoquinolin-4-one (praziquantel, EMBAY 8440, Biltricide), a new anthelminthic drug with activity against all species of schistosomes pathogenic to man, and against a wide range of cestodes, did not reveal any undesired pharmacodynamic effects. After oral administration praziquantel is quantitatively and rapidly absorbed, metabolized and excreted as a variety of metabolites predominantly via the kidneys by all species tested, including man. Its acute toxicity tested in rats, mice, rabbits and dogs is very low as compared with other schistosomicidal drugs. After repeated oral administration rats tolerated daily doses of up to 1000 mg/kg for four weeks, and dogs up to 180 mg/kg for thirteen weeks without any organ damage. In contrast to some other schistosomicidal drugs praziquantel did not disturb the whole reproductive process (up to F2-generation) in rats, nor did it reveal teratogenic effects in mice, rats and rabbits. In extensive mutagenicity trials performed in different European laboratories in a variety of test systems no induction of point mutations, nor of gene conversion, nor of DNA-repair, nor of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), nor of X-linked recessive lethals was detected. Besides, Salmonella tests with urines of praziquantel-treated mice, rats, healthy and Schistosoma-infected persons gave no indication of a mutagenic effect. In different in vivo mammalian assays praziquantel was not mutagenic either. In contrast to these findings other schistosomicidal drugs demonstrated mutagenic potential, in bacterial tests at least. According to the results available so far from carcinogenicity studies with oral doses of 100 and 250 mg praziquantel/kg, given once weekly to Syrian hamsters for 80 weeks and to rats for 104 weeks, there is no hint of a carcinogenic potential of praziquantel in small rodents, while hycanthone had cancerogenic effects in mice and niridazole was carcinogenic in mice, rats and Syrian hamsters. PMID:7195246

  2. Novel praziquantel treatment regime for controlling Asian tapeworm infections in pond-reared fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iles, Alison C.; Archdeacon, Thomas P.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus achelognathii is an intestinal fish parasite that is nonnative to but widespread throughout the southwestern United States. Praziquantel is an anthelminthic drug commonly used to treat fish for Asian tapeworm; however, it does not kill tapeworm eggs, so the water in ponds used for fish rearing must be exchanged after treatment. Our objective was to determine whether a system containing both an intermediate copepod host and a definitive fish host for Asian tapeworm could be treated without exchanging the water by using a follow-up treatment for any tapeworms that developed from eggs released before or during the first treatment. Here, we have described a new praziquantel treatment regimen to control Asian tapeworm infections in freshwater-reared fish. To evaluate the efficacy of this regimen, we stocked 50 red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis and an intermediate copepod host, Cyclops vernalis, into each of six pond mesocosms containing artificial macrophytes, sand, and gravel to simulate natural pools and provide suitable substrate for the copepod's life history. The test fish population had been naturally infected with B. achelognathii and had an initial infection prevalence of 14% and an infection intensity of 2.14 ± 2.19 (mean ± SD) worms per fish. Three mesocosms were treated twice, each with 2.5 mg/L praziquantel; 19 d passed between treatments to allow for possible reinfection to occur. After a 2.5-month posttreatment period to allow any remaining tapeworms to reestablish themselves, we killed and dissected all of the remaining fish. No worms were found in treated fish; however, the control group had an infection prevalence of 18 ± 6% and an infection intensity of 3.45 ± 2.1 worms per fish. Based on these results, we concluded that the praziquantel treatment regime administered was efficacious and suggest testing it on a larger scale. We caution that praziquantel has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use on fish but can be used legally in some situations.

  3. Ultrastructural investigations on the effects of praziquantel on human trematodes from Asia: Clonorchis sinensis, Metagonimus yokogawai, Opisthorchis viverrini, Paragonimus westermani and Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, H; Kojima, S; Rim, H J; Ruenwongsa, P; Andrews, P; Thomas, H; Bunnag, B

    1983-01-01

    The effect of praziquantel (Biltricide) on the ultrastructure of trematodes pathogenic to man in Asia was investigated in: Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma japonicum, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. The different parasites were isolated from their respective experimental hosts and uniformly incubated for 5, 15, 30 or 60 min at 37 degrees C in medium TC 199 containing 0, 1, 10 or 100 micrograms praziquantel/ml. All parasites exposed to praziquantel were contracted and displayed tegumental alterations. 1. Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Schistosoma japonicum reacted with severe tegumental vacuolisation within 5 min after exposure to 1 microgram praziquantel/ml. The extent of the damage induced increased with exposure time. 2. In vivo treated Opisthorchis viverrini worms had the same damages as in vitro treated ones. 3. Metagonimus yokogawai displayed the same degree of vacuolisation after exposure to all concentrations of praziquantel. Complete destruction of the tegumental surface was not achieved, however, possibly because of the presence of numerous tegumental hooks. 4. Paragonimus westermani was least sensitive to praziquantel. Only very few vacuoles were formed after incubation in 100 micrograms/ml for 60 min. It is assumed that the very dense texture of the thick tegument is responsible for the relative refractoriness to praziquantel in vitro. However, in vivo the parasite is successfully eliminated by praziquantel. PMID:6338885

  4. Field efficacy of praziquantel oral paste against naturally acquired equine cestodes in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, A M; Innocent, G; Proudman, C J; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J; Faith, B; Love, S

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of an oral formulation of praziquantel (Equitape, Horse paste, Fort Dodge) in the reduction of cestode egg counts and serum antibody level against Anoplocephala perfoliata was assessed in 44 donkeys under field conditions. The donkeys were confirmed both by faecal examination and serum antibody assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to have natural infection with tapeworms. The donkeys were randomly allocated into treatment (n?=?22) and control (n?=?22) groups. The treatment group was treated with both praziquantel and ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial) at a dose rate of 1mg/kg and 200?g/kg, respectively while the control group was treated only with ivermectin. Faecal samples were collected before treatment (day-0) and 2, 6, 8, 12, and 16weeks post-treatment while blood samples were collected before treatment and 8 and 16weeks after treatment and analysed. The results of the study demonstrated that praziquantel paste was highly effective in reducing cestode eggs in donkeys and had an efficacy of more than 99% until week 16 (day?112). No cestode egg reappearance by 16weeks post-treatment in any animal in the treatment group was observed while donkeys in the control group continued shedding cestode eggs. The immunological assay also showed a significant reduction in serum antibody level against A. perfoliata in treated donkeys compared to the control group (p?=?0.0001). This marked decrease in serum antibody level indicates reduced risk of cestode-associated colic and other gastrointestinal disorders and clinical diseases. No adverse reactions or clinical effects were encountered in any animal within either group throughout the trial period. PMID:23001508

  5. Learning Astronomy by Playing in a Park. (Spanish Title: Aprender AstronoMía Jugando en Una Plaza.) Aprender Astronomia Brincando em Uma Praça

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camino, Néstor

    2012-12-01

    Some public-square games are presented in this paper, considered as didactic modules to help children imagine astronomical processes, based on the concept that learning in Astronomy should be developed to strengthen the relationship of our body with three-dimensional space and time, much in the same way we experience when observing the actual sky, holding a permanent "dialogue" between the actual world and what is to be learned. The games presented (merry-go-rounds and slides) were designed to work on the astronomical concepts related to the translation of the Earth around the Sun, the phases of the Moon and gravity, and on what is perceived by an observer about those phenomena. The description of each game, their physical and astronomical foundations, and a critical comment about their didactical importance are the key parts of the paper. Finally, a recommendation is given about the role teachers should play to be essential partners in the process of learning Astronomy by means of the interaction with these games. Se presentan en este trabajo algunos juegos de plaza, considerados como módulos didácticos para imaginar procesos astronómicos, a partir de la concepción de que el aprendizaje en Astronomía debe desarrollarse fortaleciendo la relación del propio cuerpo con el espacio tridimensional y con el tiempo, tal como se vive al observar el cielo, construyendo un "diálogo" entre el mundo real y los aprendizajes a construir. Los juegos presentados (calesitas y toboganes) fueron diseñados para trabajar sobre la traslación de la Tierra en torno al Sol, las fases de la Luna y la gravedad, y sobre lo que un observador percibe de los mismos. Se da la descripción de cada juego, se discuten sus fundamentos físicos y astronómicos, y se desarrolla una crítica didáctica de los mismos. Finalmente, se comenta el rol que deberían tener los docentes en el acompañamiento a los aprendices en el proceso de interacción con los juegos presentados. Apresentam-se neste trabalho alguns jogos de praça, considerados como módulos didáticos para imaginar processos astronômicos, a partir da concepção de que a aprendizagem em Astronomia deve-se desenvolver fortalecendo a relação do próprio corpo com o espaço tridimensional e com o tempo, tal como se vive ao observar o céu, construindo um "diálogo" entre o mundo real e as aprendizagens a construir. Os jogos apresentados (carrosséis e tobogãs) foram desenhados para trabalhar sobre a translação da Terra em torno do Sol, as fases da Lua e a gravidade, e sobre o que um observador percebe dos mesmos. Dá-se a descrição de cada jogo, discutem-se seus fundamentos físicos e astronômicos, e desenvolve-se uma crítica didática dos mesmos. Finalmente, comenta-se o papel que deveriam ter os docentes no apoio aos aprendizes no processo de interação com os jogos apresentados.

  6. Synthesis of new praziquantel analogues: potential candidates for the treatment of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Sadhu, Partha Sarathi; Kumar, Singam Naveen; Chandrasekharam, Malapaka; Pica-Mattoccia, Livia; Cioli, Donato; Rao, Vaidya Jayathirtha

    2012-01-15

    An efficient synthesis of antischistosomal drug praziquantel and analogues was achieved and the synthetic route designed was to afford structurally diverse analogues for better structure-activity relationship understanding. Total of nineteen PZQ analogues with structural variations at amide, piperazine and aromatic moieties have been synthesized and fully characterized. Among all the new analogues tested for antischistosomal activity, one dimethoxy tetrahydroisoquinoline analogue and two tetrahydro-?-carboline analogues exhibited moderate activity against adult Schistosoma mansoni. Tetrahydro-?-carboline analogues showed moderate activity whereas the presence of p-trifluoromethylbenzoyl and p-toluenesulphonyl moieties resulted in complete suppression of antischistosomal activity. PMID:22217873

  7. Mutagenicity studies with praziquantel, a new anthelmintic drug: tissue-, host-, and urine-mediated mutagenicity assays.

    PubMed

    Obermeier, J; Frohberg, H

    1977-09-28

    Praziquantel, a new anthelmintic drug with activity against all species of schistosomes pathogenic to man, and against a wide range of Cestodes, was tested for mutagenic potential. For the detection of both base substitutions and frameshift mutations, Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 and TA 98 were used as tester strains. Using the plate assay with and without added S-9, host-mediated assay and urine-mediated assay without and after incubation with beta-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase, no mutagenic activity could be detected. PMID:334117

  8. Praziquantel induced oxidative stress and apoptosis-like cell death in Raillietina echinobothrida.

    PubMed

    Giri, Bikash Ranjan; Roy, Bishnupada

    2016-07-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is an anthelmintic drug used against trematode and cestode parasites of humans and veterinary animals. Since praziquantel was introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic, numerous studies described its successful use against helminth parasites, but its exact mechanism of action is feebly understood. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the possible role of PZQ induced oxidative stress in apoptosis-like cell death in the poultry tapeworm Raillietina echinobothrida. Parasite viability assay revealed a time-dependent reduction in the worm viability compared to the control. Transmission electron microscopy showed typical apoptotic features like condensed nucleus, damaged nuclear envelope and altered mitochondrial membrane in PZQ exposed parasites. Results revealed chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation in PZQ exposed parasites. There was a notable decline in the level of glutathione and glutathione-s-transferase activity leading to the augmented generation of reactive oxygen species. This led to the alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential with increased active caspase-3/7, confirms the involvement of mitochondria in the event. The present study suggests that PZQ exerts oxidative stress leading to apoptosis-like events in the parasites resulting their death. PMID:27005397

  9. Development of antischistosomal drugs in China, with particular consideration to praziquantel and the artemisinins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shu-Hua

    2005-01-01

    Remarkable achievements have been made in the control of schistosomiasis in China, with chemotherapy playing a seminal role. From the early 1950s through the early 1980s, Chinese scientists made considerable progress in discovery and development of compounds with antischistosomal properties, including antimonials, non-antimonials and various effective principles stemming from traditional herbs. However, only few compounds entered clinical testing, while others were abandoned mainly due to their toxicity and poor efficacy. The advent of praziquantel in the 1970s changed the landscape of research and development of drugs for treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis. The main Chinese contributions to enhance the understanding of the antischistosomal drug praziquantel are reviewed here, including issues of metabolism, antibody-dependency, host immune factors, stage-specific susceptibility and resistance. Over the past 25 years, researchers from China successfully developed artemether and artesunate, two derivatives from the antimalarial artemisinin, as promising drugs against Schistosoma japonicum. Laboratory investigations showed that the artemisinins display their highest activity against the juvenile stages of the parasite. These findings were consistently confirmed in randomised controlled trials; repeated oral administration of artemether or artesunate was safe and efficacious in the prevention of patent S. japonicum infections. The key findings are reviewed here, and emphasis is placed on how it stimulated research outside of China on other human schistosome species. PMID:16112072

  10. Elimination of Asian fish tapeworms from grass carp with praziquantel bath treatments: The need for 24 hour exposures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several states require that imported fish be free of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel has been used for several years to treat fish with Asian fish tapeworms but rates and exposure periods necessary to eliminate these tapeworms from infected fish have not been ade...

  11. Sex- and stage-related sensitivity of Schistosoma mansoni to in vivo and in vitro praziquantel treatment.

    PubMed

    Pica-Mattoccia, Livia; Cioli, Donato

    2004-03-29

    The efficacy of praziquantel against a Puerto Rican strain of Schistosoma mansoni was assessed using both in vivo and in vitro approach. The drug effective dose (50%) in the infected mouse model was about 30 times higher when determined against 28-day-old infections than against 7-week-old parasites. Single-sex female infections were also largely refractory to treatment and single-sex male infections moderately refractory, in comparison with bisexual infections. The in vitro approach consisted of overnight exposure of parasite cultures to various drug concentrations, followed by several days of culture in drug-free medium. In vitro results confirmed in vivo data and allowed for the observation of schistosome morphological phenomena after praziquantel exposure. Early worm contraction was observed in all cases, even after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of praziquantel or upon exposure of the largely refractory 28-day-old schistosomes. In these instances, however, worms resumed movements and normal shape upon drug removal and were able to survive. The inference of these observations on the clinical use of praziquantel and on its mechanism of action is discussed. PMID:15013742

  12. Toward Measuring Schistosoma Response to Praziquantel Treatment with Appropriate Descriptors of Egg Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Olliaro, Piero L.; Vaillant, Michel; Diawara, Aïssatou; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Garba, Amadou; Keiser, Jennifer; King, Charles H.; Knopp, Stefanie; Landouré, Aly; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Raso, Giovanna; Scherrer, Alexandra U.; Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Stete, Katarina; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Background The control of schistosomiasis emphasizes preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel, which aims at decreasing infection intensity and thus morbidity in individuals, as well as transmission in communities. Standardizing methods to assess treatment efficacy is important to compare trial outcomes across settings, and to monitor program effectiveness consistently. We compared customary methods and looked at possible complementary approaches in order to derive suggestions for standardizing outcome measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed data from 24 studies conducted at African, Asian, and Latin American sites, enrolling overall 4,740 individuals infected with Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, or S. japonicum, and treated with praziquantel at doses of 40–80 mg/kg. We found that group-based arithmetic and geometric means can be used interchangeably to express egg reduction rates (ERR) only if treatment efficacy is high (>95%). For lower levels of efficacy, ERR estimates are higher with geometric than arithmetic means. Using the distribution of individual responses in egg excretion, 6.3%, 1.7% and 4.3% of the subjects treated for S. haematobium, S. japonicum and S. mansoni infection, respectively, had no reduction in their egg counts (ERR = 0). The 5th, 10th, and 25th centiles of the subjects treated for S. haematobium had individual ERRs of 0%, 49.3%, and 96.5%; the corresponding values for S. japonicum were 75%, 99%, and 99%; and for S. mansoni 18.2%, 65.3%, and 99.8%. Using a single rather than quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smear excluded 19% of S. mansoni-infected individuals. Whilst the effect on estimating ERR was negligible by individual studies, ERR estimates by arithmetic means were 8% lower with a single measurement. Conclusions/Significance Arithmetic mean calculations of Schistosoma ERR are more sensitive and therefore more appropriate to monitor drug performance than geometric means. However, neither are satisfactory to identify poor responders. Group-based response estimated by arithmetic mean and the distribution of individual ERRs are correlated, but the latter appears to be more apt to detect the presence and to quantitate the magnitude of suboptimal responses to praziquantel. PMID:26086551

  13. Efficacy of Milbemax (milbemycin oxime + praziquantel) in the treatment of dogs experimentally infected with Crenosoma vulpis.

    PubMed

    Conboy, G; Bourque, A; Miller, L; Seewald, W; Schenker, R

    2013-12-01

    Crenosoma vulpis, the fox lungworm, infects wild and domestic canids and is a cause of chronic respiratory disease in dogs in North America and Europe. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of milbemycin oxime (0.5mg/kg)/praziquantel (5mg/kg) (Milbemax; Novartis Animal Health, Inc.) against C. vulpis infection in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study using experimentally infected dogs. Sixteen beagles (8 males, 8 females) were each given 100 infective third-stage larvae of C. vulpis. Fecal samples were examined for first-stage larvae by quantitative Baermann examination pre-exposure and at days 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 post-infection (PI). All of the dogs were shedding larvae in the feces at 21 days PI. The dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups. At 28 days PI, Group 1 (4 males, 4 females) received placebo only while Group 2 (4 males, 4 females) received a single treatment of milbemycin oxime (0.5mg/kg) and praziquantel (5mg/kg). The 16 dogs were euthanized and necropsied at 49 days PI. Lungs were removed, assessed for gross lesions (graded on a subjective scale 0-3 with 0 being normal) and C. vulpis were collected by lung-flush and counted. Samples of lung tissue were preserved for evaluation of histopathology and the lesions graded on a subjective scale (0-3 with 0 being normal). Gross and histopathology lesions were detected in all 8 untreated Group 1 dogs with mean subjective lesion scores of 1.8 ± 0.7 (range 1-3) and 3.0 ± 0.0 (range 3), respectively. Gross lesions were observed in 3/8 and histopathology lesions in all 8 of the treated Group 2 dogs with mean subjective lesion scores of 0.4 ± 0.5 (range 0-1) and 1.3 ± 0.4 (range 1-2), respectively. The mean (geometric) number for adult C. vulpis recovered in untreated dogs was 48.3 (range 25-70) compared with 0.65 (range 0-2) in animals treated with Milbemax. The resulting efficacy against C. vulpis was 98.7%. The number of C. vulpis was significantly lower for treated dogs than the burden in the untreated group (p=0.0002). A single dose of Milbemax (milbemycin oxime 0.5mg/kg+praziquantel 5mg/kg) was highly effective for the treatment of patent C. vulpis infection in dogs. A dosing interval for the prevention of clinical disease in dogs exposed to natural infections has not been established. PMID:24144516

  14. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against naturally acquired nematode and cestode infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Altreuther, Gertraut; Radeloff, Isabelle; LeSueur, Christophe; Schimmel, Annette; Krieger, Klemens J

    2009-08-01

    A controlled, blinded and randomised multicentre field study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new anthelmintic tablet formulation containing emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) in the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode and cestode infections in dogs in France, Germany, Portugal and Slovakia. Dogs positive for nematodes and/or cestodes (demonstrated by faecal egg counts and/or the presence of proglottids) were treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (n = 239) or the reference product containing milbemycin oxime and praziquantel (Milbemax [n = 115]) at the recommended dose rate. Two faecal samples collected between 7 and 13 days after treatment were evaluated for proglottids, nematode and cestode eggs. No suspected adverse drug reactions were observed in the study. The following parasite species were identified: Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Mesocestoides spp. Geometric mean nematode egg counts in dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets were reduced by 99.9 % compared with a reduction of 99.6 % for the reference product. Statistical analysis demonstrated noninferiority of investigational versus reference product (p = 0.0342). None of the dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel or reference product remained positive for cestodes after treatment. The study demonstrated that emodepside plus praziquantel tablets are safe and highly efficacious against a broad spectrum of nematodes and cestodes under field conditions. PMID:19575222

  15. The Role of Efflux Pumps in Schistosoma mansoni Praziquantel Resistant Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Armada, Ana; Belo, Silvana; Carrilho, Emanuel; Viveiros, Miguel; Afonso, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease caused by a trematode of the genus Schistosoma that is second only to malaria in public health significance in Africa, South America, and Asia. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice to treat this disease due to its high cure rates and no significant side effects. However, in the last years increasingly cases of tolerance to PZQ have been reported, which has caused growing concerns regarding the emergency of resistance to this drug. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe the selection of a parasitic strain that has a stable resistance phenotype to PZQ. It has been reported that drug resistance in helminths might involve efflux pumps such as members of ATP-binding cassette transport proteins, including P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein families. Here we evaluate the role of efflux pumps in Schistosoma mansoni resistance to PZQ, by comparing the efflux pumps activity in susceptible and resistant strains. The evaluation of the efflux activity was performed by an ethidium bromide accumulation assay in presence and absence of Verapamil. The role of efflux pumps in resistance to PZQ was further investigated comparing the response of susceptible and resistant parasites in the absence and presence of different doses of Verapamil, in an ex vivo assay, and these results were further reinforced through the comparison of the expression levels of SmMDR2 RNA by RT-PCR. Conclusions/Significance This work strongly suggests the involvement of Pgp-like transporters SMDR2 in Praziquantel drug resistance in S. mansoni. Low doses of Verapamil successfully reverted drug resistance. Our results might give an indication that a combination therapy with PZQ and natural or synthetic Pgp modulators can be an effective strategy for the treatment of confirmed cases of resistance to PZQ in S. mansoni. PMID:26445012

  16. Elucidating the guest-host interactions and complex formation of praziquantel and cyclodextrin derivatives by (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Arra, Eva C; Ferreira, M Joo G; Salomon, Claudio J; Nunes, Teresa G

    2015-12-30

    Praziquantel is the drug of choice to treat several parasitic infections including the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis. Due to its low aqueous solubility, cyclodextrins have been tested as potential host candidates to prepare praziquantel inclusion complexes with improved solubility. For the first time, the interactions of praziquantel with ?-cyclodextrin and ?-cyclodextrin derivatives (methyl-?-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin) were investigated using high resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The results of this work confirmed that solid-state NMR experiments provided structural characterization, demonstrating the formation of inclusion complexes most probably with PZQ adopting an anti conformation, also the most likely in amorphous raw PZQ. Further information on the interaction of praziquantel with methyl-?-cyclodextrin was obtained from proton rotating-frame relaxation time measurements, sensitive to kilohertz-regime motions but modulated by spin-diffusion. Evidences were presented in all cases for praziquantel complexation through the aromatic ring. In addition, 1:2 drug:carrier molar ratio appears to be the most probable and therefore suitable stoichiometry to improve pharmaceutical formulations of this antischistosomal drug. PMID:26602291

  17. Repeated praziquantel treatments remodel the genetic and spatial landscape of schistosomiasis risk and transmission.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lúcio M; Reis, Eliana A; Dos Santos, Cláudio R A; Costa, Jackson M; Carmo, Theomira M; Aminu, Peace T; Pitanga, Thassila N; Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Blank, Walter A; Silva, Luciano K; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E

    2016-05-01

    Repeated treatments with praziquantel reduce schistosomiasis prevalence and morbidity, but transmission persists and populations often recover within a few years. To identify factors associated with persistence, we surveyed and treated all identified Schistosoma mansoni infections in two rural Brazilian communities (Jenipapo and Volta do Rio) in 2009, 2012 and 2013. Eggs were collected from all infected individuals and genotyped with 11 microsatellite markers to evaluate parasite differentiation and diversity. After successive rounds of community-wide treatment, prevalence decreased from 45% to 24% then 16%. Intensity of infection decreased by 57% over this period, and the number of eggs transmitted to the environment decreased by 92%. During all time periods the majority of eggs were excreted by those >15years of age. The incidence was 23% in 2012 and 15% in 2013, consistent with a decrease in transmission. There was little immigration or gene flow over a distance of 6km. On reinfection, infrapopulations were moderately differentiated indicating that pretreatment multilocus genotypes were not fully reacquired. The effective population size responded to census population decline more rapidly than differentiation. Reinfection was concentrated in the downstream portion of Jenipapo, consistent with the observed increased human fecal contamination. At this scale and in this area S. mansoni infections exist on a fragmented landscape with a highly focal pattern of transmission that may facilitate future elimination. PMID:26953255

  18. Praziquantel treatment for yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi): dose and duration safety study.

    PubMed

    Forwood, James M; Bubner, Erin J; Landos, Matt; D'Antignana, Trent; Deveney, Marty R

    2016-02-01

    Regulatory approval is being sought to use praziquantel (PZQ) to treat flukes infecting yellowtail kingfish (YTK), but accurate safety data were not available. We investigated the effect of increased doses or prolonged exposure of orally administered PZQ on YTK by assessing changes in haematological and biochemical characteristics, and mortality. Fish were intubated daily for 3 days with 0, 100, 300 and 500 mg PZQ kg(-1) BW day(-1) or once daily for 9 days at 0 and 100 mg PZQ kg(-1) BW day(-1). Blood was taken 24 h after the cessation of treatment. There was no significant difference between any of the haematological or biochemical indices in YTK treated with PZQ and controls, indicating that PZQ is safe for use at 100 mg PZQ kg(-1) BW day(-1) in YTK and that exposure to high doses or prolonged duration does not have negative effects on the YTK haematological or biochemical parameters we measured. PMID:26314575

  19. Ca2+ channels and Praziquantel: a view from the free world

    PubMed Central

    Chan, John D.; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Marchant, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Targeting the cellular Ca2+ channels and pumps that underpin parasite Ca2+ homeostasis may realize novel antihelmintic agents. Indeed, the antischistosomal drug praziquantel (PZQ) is a key clinical agent that has been proposed to work in this manner. Heterologous expression data has implicated an action of PZQ on voltage-operated Ca2+ channels, although the relevant in vivo target of this drug has remained undefined over three decades of clinical use. The purpose of this review is to bring new perspective to this issue by discussing the potential utility of free-living planarian flatworms for providing new insight into the mechanism of PZQ action. First, we discuss in vivo functional genetic data from the planarian system that broadly supports the molecular data collected in heterologous systems and the ‘Ca2+ hypothesis’ of PZQ action. On the basis of these similarities we highlight our current knowledge of platyhelminth voltage operated Ca2+ channels, their unique molecular pharmacology and the downstream functional PZQ interactome engaged by dysregulation of Ca2+ influx that has potential to yield novel antischistosomal targets. Overall the broad dataset underscore a common theme of PZQ-evoked disruptions of Ca2+ homeostasis in trematodes, cestodes and turbellarians, and showcase the utility of the planarian model for deriving insight into drug action and targets in parasitic flatworms. PMID:23246536

  20. An Artemisinin Derivative of Praziquantel as an Orally Active Antischistosomal Agent

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinglei; Sun, Huan; Qiao, Chunhua; Xia, Chao-ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a major health problem in tropical and sub-tropical areas caused by species of trematode belonging to the genus Schistosoma. The treatment and control of this disease has been relying on the use of a single drug praziquantel. However, the drug resistance concern urged the development of new drugs against schistosoma. Here, we report our systematic biological evaluation of DW-3-15, a new lead compound developed based on our conjugation design rationale as an effective anti-schistosomal agent. Methodology/Principal Findings The antischistosomal activity of DW-3-15 was systematically evaluated in S. japonicum infected mouse model for its stage-sensitivity and dose response. The results revealed that DW-3-15 exhibited 60–85% worm reduction rate against different development stage of worm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicated that DW-3-15 may damage to the tegument of male schistosomes. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that DW-3-15 showed potent anti-schistosomal activities in vivo. The results strongly support our conjugation design strategy of artemisinin analogs and further development of DW-3-15 as a new lead compound as anti-schistosomal agent. PMID:25386745

  1. Persisting antibody reaction in paragonimiasis after praziquantel treatment is elicited mainly by egg antigens

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yoon; Yun, Doo-Hee; Kang, Shin-Yong; Kim, Lee-Soo; Chung, Young-Bae; Yang, Hyun-Jong

    2000-01-01

    Antibody responses in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with active and chronic paragonimiasis and in sera from patients on whom follow-up studies were done after praziquantel treatment were analyzed using antigens of Paragonimus westermani prepared from eggs, metacercariae, juveniles of 4- and 7-week old, adult worms and recombinant protein of 28 kDa cruzipain-like cysteine protease (rPw28CCP). The patient sera/CSFs of active and chronic paragonimiasis revealed strong antibody reactions against the crude extracts of 4- and 7-week old juveniles as well as against those from egg and adult. rPw28CCP also showed specific reaction to the sera with active paragonimiasis. After the treatment, levels of specific antibodies in the sera gradually decreased to negative range in most patients. In some cases with persisting high antibody levels, however, the reactions at 27 kDa egg protein were sustained throughout the observation period of 34 months. The reactions at 35 and 32 kDa in adult extract and rPw28CCP disappeared rapidly after the treatment. Persistent antibody reactions even after successful treatment are provoked by continuous antigenic challenge from eggs which were not resolved by treatment. PMID:10905068

  2. Pharmacokinetics of a new ivermectin/praziquantel suspension after intramuscular administration in sheep.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shusheng; Chen, Linlin; Qian, Minyi; Hao, Lihua; Xiao, Xilong

    2016-05-15

    A new oil suspension containing 0.10% ivermectin (IVM) and 15% praziquantel (PZQ) (Tivm+pzq) for intramuscular injection was developed for sheep, and its pharmacokinetics was investigated in sheep. The quality of the new product met the technical standards set by the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China. In pharmacokinetics, the commercially available single-component products approved by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture and widely used in the livestock industry in China were selected as reference products (Rivm and Rpzq). The results showed that all of the IVM pharmacokinetic parameters of Tivm+pzq were similar to those of the reference. However, after adminstraion of Tivm+pzq, mean residence time (MRT) and plasma elimination half-life (t1/2z) were 20.36h and 11.65h, which were 2.61 and 3.22 times longer than those of Rpzq (7.81h and 3.62h). In summary, the MRT and t1/2z of PZQ in Tivm+pzq were prolonged and IVM pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to commerical product, therefore the new injection may be an alternative choice for sheep to control parasites sensitive to IVM and PZQ. PMID:27084471

  3. Efficacy of combined antiparasitic therapy with praziquantel and albendazole for neurocysticercosis: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hector H; Gonzales, Isidro; Lescano, Andres G; Bustos, Javier A; Zimic, Mirko; Escalante, Diego; Saavedra, Herbert; Gavidia, Martin; Rodriguez, Lourdes; Najar, Enrique; Umeres, Hugo; Pretell, E Javier

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Neurocysticercosis causes a substantial burden of seizure disorders worldwide. Treatment with either praziquantel or albendazole has suboptimum efficacy. We aimed to establish whether combination of these drugs would increase cysticidal efficacy and whether complete cyst resolution results in fewer seizures. We added an increased dose albendazole group to establish a potential effect of increased albendazole concentrations. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, patients with viable intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis were randomly assigned to receive 10 days of combined albendazole (15 mg/kg per day) plus praziquantel (50 mg/kg per day), standard albendazole (15 mg/kg per day), or increased dose albendazole (22·5 mg/kg per day). Randomisation was done with a computer generated schedule balanced within four strata based on number of cysts and concomitant antiepileptic drug. Patients and investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was complete cyst resolution on 6-month MRI. Enrolment was stopped after interim analysis because of parasiticidal superiority of one treatment group. Analysis excluded patients lost to follow-up before the 6-month MRI. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00441285. Findings Between March 3, 2010 and Nov 14, 2011, 124 patients were randomly assigned to study groups (41 to receive combined albendazole plus praziquantel [39 analysed], 43 standard albendazole [41 analysed], and 40 increased albendazole [38 analysed]). 25 (64%) of 39 patients in the combined treatment group had complete resolution of brain cysts compared with 15 (37%) of 41 patients in the standard albendazole group (rate ratio [RR] 1·75, 95% CI 1·10–2·79, p=0·014). 20 (53%) of 38 patients in the increased albendazole group had complete cyst resolution at 6-month MRI compared with 15 (37%) of 41 patients in the standard albendazole group (RR 1·44, 95% CI 0·87–2·38, p=0·151). No significant differences in adverse events were reported between treatment groups (18 in combined treatment group, 11 in standard albendazole group, and 19 in increased albendazole group). Interpretation Combination of albendazole plus praziquantel increases the parasiticidal effect in patients with multiple brain cysticercosis cysts without increased side-effects. A more efficacious parasiticidal regime without increased treatment-associated side-effects should improve the treatment and long term prognosis of patients with neurocysticercosis. Funding National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health. PMID:24999157

  4. Evaluation of Oxfendazole, Praziquantel and Albendazole against Cystic Echinococcosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Naturally Infected Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Barron, Eduardo A.; Ninaquispe, Berenice; Llamosas, Monica; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Robinson, Colin; Gilman, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cystic Echinococosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by larval stage Echinococcus granulosus. We determined the effects of high dose of Oxfendazole (OXF), combination Oxfendazole/Praziquantel (PZQ), and combination Albendazole (ABZ)/Praziquantel against CE in sheep. Methodology/Principal Findings A randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on 118 randomly selected ewes. They were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1) placebo; 2) OXF 60 mg/Kg of body weight (BW) weekly for four weeks; 3) ABZ 30 mg/Kg BW + PZQ 40 mg/Kg BW weekly for 6 weeks, and 4) OXF 30 mg/Kg BW+ PZQ 40 mg/Kg BW biweekly for 3 administrations (6 weeks). Percent protoscolex (PSC) viability was evaluated using a 0.1% aqueous eosin vital stain for each cyst. Noninfective sheep were those that had no viable PSCs; low-medium infective were those that had 1% to 60% PSC viability; and high infective were those with more than 60% PSC viability. We evaluated 92 of the 118 sheep. ABZ/PZQ led the lowest PSC viability for lung cysts (12.7%), while OXF/PZQ did so for liver cysts (13.5%). The percentage of either noninfective or low-medium infective sheep was 90%, 93.8% and 88.9% for OXF, ABZ/PZQ and OXF/PZQ group as compared to 50% noninfective or low-medium infective for placebo. After performing all necropsies, CE prevalence in the flock of sheep was 95.7% (88/92) with a total number of 1094 cysts (12.4 cysts/animal). On average, the two-drug-combination groups resulted pulmonary cysts that were 6 mm smaller and hepatic cysts that were 4.2 mm smaller than placebo (p<0.05). Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that Oxfendazole at 60 mg, combination Oxfendazole/Praziquantel and combination Albendazole/Praziquantel are successful schemas that can be added to control measures in animals and merits further study for the treatment of animal CE. Further investigations on different schedules of monotherapy or combined chemotherapy are needed, as well as studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Oxfendazole in humans. PMID:20186332

  5. Additional evidence that rosacea pathogenesis may involve demodex: new information from the topical efficacy of ivermectin and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Abokwidir, Manal; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-01-01

    Additional evidence that Demodex folliculorum may contribute to the pathogenesis of papulopustular rosacea are new studies of two topical antiparasitic agents. Ivermectin and praziquantel have recently been shown to be effective in decreasing the severity of papulopustular rosacea. These two agents significantly differ in molecular structure, but yield similar antiparasitic mechanisms of action. Higher numbers of Demodex mites are found in the skin of patients with rosacea than in people with normal skin. If Demodex play a role in pathogenesis, then hypersensitivity to the mites, their flora, or their products could explain the observed efficacy of antidemodectic therapy. PMID:26437294

  6. Inhibition or Knockdown of ABC Transporters Enhances Susceptibility of Adult and Juvenile Schistosomes to Praziquantel

    PubMed Central

    Kasinathan, Ravi S.; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Cunningham, Charles; Webb, Thomas R.; Greenberg, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects hundreds of millions. Treatment of schistosomiasis depends almost entirely on the drug praziquantel (PZQ). Though essential to treating and controlling schistosomiasis, a major limitation of PZQ is that it is not active against immature mammalian-stage schistosomes. Furthermore, there are reports of field isolates with heritable reductions in PZQ susceptibility, and researchers have selected for PZQ-resistant schistosomes in the laboratory. P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1) and other ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters remove a wide variety of toxins and xenobiotics from cells, and have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). Changes in ABC transporter structure or expression levels are also associated with reduced drug susceptibility in parasitic helminths, including schistosomes. Here, we show that the activity of PZQ against schistosome adults and juveniles ex vivo is potentiated by co-administration of either the highly potent Pgp inhibitor tariquidar or combinations of inhibitors targeting multiple ABC multidrug transporters. Adult worms exposed to sublethal PZQ concentrations remain active, but co-administration of ABC transporter inhibitors results in complete loss of motility and disruption of the tegument. Notably, juvenile schistosomes (34 weeks post infection), normally refractory to 2 M PZQ, become paralyzed when transporter inhibitors are added in combination with the PZQ. Experiments using the fluorescent PZQ derivative (R)-PZQ-BODIPY are consistent with the transporter inhibitors increasing effective intraworm concentrations of PZQ. Adult worms in which expression of ABC transporters has been suppressed by RNA interference show increased responsiveness to PZQ and increased retention of (R)-PZQ-BODIPY consistent with an important role for these proteins in setting levels of PZQ susceptibility. These results indicate that parasite ABC multidrug transporters might serve as important targets for enhancing the action of PZQ. They also suggest a potentially novel and readily-available strategy for overcoming reduced PZQ susceptibility of schistosomes. PMID:25330312

  7. Inhibition of Granulomatous Inflammation and Prophylactic Treatment of Schistosomiasis with a Combination of Edelfosine and Praziquantel

    PubMed Central

    Yepes, Edward; Varela-M, Rubén E.; López-Abán, Julio; Rojas-Caraballo, Jose; Muro, Antonio; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is the third most devastating tropical disease worldwide caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. This parasitic disease is due to immunologic reactions to Schistosoma eggs trapped in tissues. Egg-released antigens stimulate tissue-destructive inflammatory and granulomatous reactions, involving different immune cell populations, including T cells and granulocytes. Granulomas lead to collagen fibers deposition and fibrosis, resulting in organ damage. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for treating all species of schistosomes. However, PZQ kills only adult Schistosoma worms, not immature stages. The inability of PZQ to abort early infection or prevent re-infection, and the lack of prophylactic effect prompt the need for novel drugs and strategies for the prevention of schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings Using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we have found that the alkylphospholipid analog edelfosine kills schistosomula, and displays anti-inflammatory activity. The combined treatment of PZQ and edelfosine during a few days before and after cercariae infection in a schistosomiasis mouse model, simulating a prophylactic treatment, led to seven major effects: a) killing of Schistosoma parasites at early and late development stages; b) reduction of hepatomegaly; c) granuloma size reduction; d) down-regulation of Th1, Th2 and Th17 responses at late post-infection times, thus inhibiting granuloma formation; e) upregulation of IL-10 at early post-infection times, thus potentiating anti-inflammatory actions; f) down-regulation of IL-10 at late post-infection times, thus favoring resistance to re-infection; g) reduction in the number of blood granulocytes in late post-infection times as compared to infected untreated animals. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these data suggest that the combined treatment of PZQ and edelfosine promotes a high decrease in granuloma formation, as well as in the cellular immune response that underlies granuloma development, with changes in the cytokine patterns, and may provide a promising and effective strategy for a prophylactic treatment of schistosomiasis. PMID:26191954

  8. Pharmacokinetics and residue depletion of praziquantel in rice field eels Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Dong, Jing; Yang, Yibin; Ai, Xiaohui

    2016-04-12

    We investigated the pharmacokinetic characteristics of praziquantel (PZQ) in rice field eels Monopterus albus. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined following a single intravenous administration (5 mg kg-1 body weight [bw]) and a single oral administration (10 mg kg-1 bw) at 22.0 ± 0.7°C. We also evaluated residue depletion in tissues following daily administration of PZQ (10 mg kg-1 bw) that was given orally for 3 consecutive days at 22.0 ± 0.7°C. Following intravenous treatment, the plasma concentration-time curve was best described by a 3-compartment open model, with distribution half-life (t1/2α), elimination half-life (t1/2β), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 0.54 h, 17.10 h, and 14505.12 h µg l-1, respectively. After oral administration, the plasma concentration-time curve was best described by a 1-compartment open model with first-order absorption, with absorption half-life (t1/2Ka), elimination half-life (t1/2Ke), peak concentration (Cmax), time-to-peak concentration (Tmax), and AUC estimated to be 2.28 h, 6.66 h, 361.29 µg l-1, 5.36 h, and 6065.46 h µg l-1, respectively. The oral bioavailability (F) was 20.9%. With respect to residue depletion of PZQ, the t1/2β values of muscle, skin, liver, and kidney were 20.2, 28.4, 14.9, and 54.1 h, respectively. Our results indicated rapid absorption, rapid elimination, and low bioavailability of PZQ in rice field eels at the tested dosing conditions. PMID:27068504

  9. Inhibition or knockdown of ABC transporters enhances susceptibility of adult and juvenile schistosomes to Praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Kasinathan, Ravi S; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Cunningham, Charles; Webb, Thomas R; Greenberg, Robert M

    2014-10-01

    Parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects hundreds of millions. Treatment of schistosomiasis depends almost entirely on the drug praziquantel (PZQ). Though essential to treating and controlling schistosomiasis, a major limitation of PZQ is that it is not active against immature mammalian-stage schistosomes. Furthermore, there are reports of field isolates with heritable reductions in PZQ susceptibility, and researchers have selected for PZQ-resistant schistosomes in the laboratory. P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1) and other ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters remove a wide variety of toxins and xenobiotics from cells, and have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). Changes in ABC transporter structure or expression levels are also associated with reduced drug susceptibility in parasitic helminths, including schistosomes. Here, we show that the activity of PZQ against schistosome adults and juveniles ex vivo is potentiated by co-administration of either the highly potent Pgp inhibitor tariquidar or combinations of inhibitors targeting multiple ABC multidrug transporters. Adult worms exposed to sublethal PZQ concentrations remain active, but co-administration of ABC transporter inhibitors results in complete loss of motility and disruption of the tegument. Notably, juvenile schistosomes (3-4 weeks post infection), normally refractory to 2 µM PZQ, become paralyzed when transporter inhibitors are added in combination with the PZQ. Experiments using the fluorescent PZQ derivative (R)-PZQ-BODIPY are consistent with the transporter inhibitors increasing effective intraworm concentrations of PZQ. Adult worms in which expression of ABC transporters has been suppressed by RNA interference show increased responsiveness to PZQ and increased retention of (R)-PZQ-BODIPY consistent with an important role for these proteins in setting levels of PZQ susceptibility. These results indicate that parasite ABC multidrug transporters might serve as important targets for enhancing the action of PZQ. They also suggest a potentially novel and readily-available strategy for overcoming reduced PZQ susceptibility of schistosomes. PMID:25330312

  10. Synergy of Omeprazole and Praziquantel In Vitro Treatment against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Leticia; Venancio, Thiago M.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Miyasato, Patrícia A.; Rofatto, Henrique K.; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Nakano, Eliana; Oliveira, Guilherme; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), and the selection of resistant worms under repeated treatment is a concern. Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand the molecular effects of PZQ on schistosomes and to investigate alternative or synergistic drugs against schistosomiasis. Methodology We used a custom-designed Schistosoma mansoni expression microarray to explore the effects of sublethal doses of PZQ on large-scale gene expression of adult paired males and females and unpaired mature females. We also assessed the efficacy of PZQ, omeprazole (OMP) or their combination against S. mansoni adult worms with a survival in vitro assay. Principal Findings We identified sets of genes that were affected by PZQ in paired and unpaired mature females, however with opposite gene expression patterns (up-regulated in paired and down-regulated in unpaired mature females), indicating that PZQ effects are heavily influenced by the mating status. We also identified genes that were similarly affected by PZQ in males and females. Functional analyses of gene interaction networks were performed with parasite genes that were differentially expressed upon PZQ treatment, searching for proteins encoded by these genes whose human homologs are targets of different drugs used for other diseases. Based on these results, OMP, a widely prescribed proton pump inhibitor known to target the ATP1A2 gene product, was chosen and tested. Sublethal doses of PZQ combined with OMP significantly increased worm mortality in vitro when compared with PZQ or OMP alone, thus evidencing a synergistic effect. Conclusions Functional analysis of gene interaction networks is an important approach that can point to possible novel synergistic drug candidates. We demonstrated the potential of this strategy by showing that PZQ in combination with OMP displayed increased efficiency against S. mansoni adult worms in vitro when compared with either drug alone. PMID:26402251

  11. Phase III clinical trials with praziquantel in S. japonicum infections in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Santos, A T; Blas, B L; Portillo, G; Noseas, J S; Poliquit, O; Papasin, M

    1984-01-01

    Following successful Phase II clinical studies with praziquantel (2-cyclohexylcarbonyl-1,2,3,6,7,11b-hexahydro-4H-pyrazino [2,1-a]isoquinolin-4-one, EMBAY 8440, Biltricide), expanded field trials of Phase III were conducted in Mindoro Oriental, Leyte and Davao Norte, to reassess efficacy, safety and acceptability of the drug on a larger scale. A total of 6,134 cases were treated with the best tolerated and effective dose of 60 mg/kg bwt which for practical purposes was given in 2 instead of 3 divided doses as applied in the earlier trials. Two aliquots of one stool from each individual were examined quantitatively by a modification of the thick smear method one week before, six and twelve months after treatment. Although 67.8% were noted to have drug-related side effects, most were mild to moderate, with only 1.2% considered as severe. Severe reactions consisted mainly of colicky abdominal pain, occurring about 1 h after drug intake, usually accompanied by fever, sweating, urge to defecate, and occasionally by discharge of bloody stool. These reactions, however, required only symptomatic treatment with antispasmodics and antipyretics. Stool follow-up 6 months after treatment showed 89.2% of EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) negativity, with an overall egg reduction of 91.1%. Twelve months after treatment, practically the same results were obtained with 87.5% still negative cases and an egg reduction of 90.5%. This study confirms safety and efficacy of the drug as well as its acceptability when given on a community wide scale. PMID:6391506

  12. Liposomal-praziquantel: efficacy against Schistosoma mansoni in a preclinical assay.

    PubMed

    Frezza, Tarsila Ferraz; Gremio, Maria Palmira Daflon; Zanotti-Magalhes, Eliana Maria; Magalhes, Luiz Augusto; de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2013-10-01

    Currently, schistosomiasis mansoni is treated clinically with praziquantel (PZQ). Nevertheless, cases of tolerance and resistance to this drug have been reported, creating the need to develop new drugs or to improve existing drugs. Considering the small number of new drugs against Schistosoma mansoni, the design of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems is an important strategy in combating this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of PZQ containing liposome (lip.PZQ) on S. mansoni, BH strain. Mice were treated orally with different concentrations of PZQ and lip.PZQ 30 and 45 days following infection. The number of worms, recovered by perfusion of the hepatic portal system, and the number of eggs found in the intestine and liver were analysed. Parasite egg counts were also performed. The most active formulation for all parameters was 300mg/kg of lip.PZQ, since as it decreased the total number of worms by 68.8%, the number of eggs in the intestine by 79%, and the number of hepatic granulomas by 98.4% compared to untreated controls. In addition, this concentration decreased egg counts by 55.5%. The improved efficacy of the treatment with lip.PZQ, especially when administered 45 days following infection, compared with the positive-control group (untreated) and the groups that received free PZQ, can be explained by greater bioavailability in the host organism; the preferred target of lip.PZQ is the liver, and lip.PZQ is better absorbed by the tegument of S. mansoni, which has an affinity for phospholipids. PMID:23811113

  13. Transdermal praziquantel administration attenuates hepatic granulomatosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Li-zhi, Wu; Xin-Sheng, Zheng; Jiang-shan, Dong; Yi, Wang; Bao-an, Yao

    2015-04-01

    Liver granuloma is a major pathogenic factor responsible for schistosomiasis, and no effective drugs or therapy methods to treat it have been found so far. Praziquantel (PZQ) has shown some anti-schistosomal effect, but little information is available about the effect of PZQ-prolonged administration on granuloma formation around schistosome eggs. Herein, we investigated the effect of PZQ on hepatic granuloma formation by treating the mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum using a long-term PZQ transdermal delivery. The results showed that the mean area of granulomas in the group treated with PZQ transdermal agent was (175.47 ± 116.73) × 10(3) μm(2) at the 49th day postinfection and (71.96 ± 45.99) × 10(3) μm(2) at the 56th day, while that in the control group was (304.51 ± 140.55) × 10(3) μm(2) and (526.44 ± 268.06) × 10(3) μm(2), respectively. The content of hydroxyproline in the livers of mice approached to the normal level on the 154th day in the treatment group, but it continued to increase from the 28th day to the 154th day after infection in the control group and nontreatment group. The ALT activity in serum of mice in the treatment group was also significantly lower than that in the control group (*P ≤ 0.05). Our results suggest that the long-term PZQ transdermal delivery is critical in the therapeutic approach to control the progress of hepatic schistosomiasis induced by egg granulomas. PMID:25630695

  14. Efficacy of Artesunate + Sulfamethoxypyrazine/Pyrimethamine versus Praziquantel in the Treatment of Schistosoma haematobium in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sissoko, Mahamadou S.; Dabo, Abdoulaye; Traoré, Hamidou; Diallo, Mouctar; Traoré, Boubacar; Konaté, Drissa; Niaré, Boubacar; Diakité, Moussa; Kamaté, Bourama; Traoré, Abdrahamane; Bathily, Aboudramane; Tapily, Amadou; Touré, Ousmane B.; Cauwenbergh, Sarah; Jansen, Herwig F.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of the antimalarial artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) artesunate +sulfamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine (As+SMP), administered in doses used for malaria, to treat Schistosoma haematobium in school aged children. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted in Djalakorodji, a peri-urban area of Bamako, Mali, using a double blind setup in which As+SMP was compared with praziquantel (PZQ). Urine samples were examined for Schistosoma haematobium on days −1, 0, 28 and 29. Detection of haematuria, and haematological and biochemical exams were conducted on day 0 and day 28. Clinical exams were performed on days 0, 1, 2, and 28. A total of 800 children were included in the trial. The cure rate obtained without viability testing was 43.9% in the As+SMP group versus 53% in the PZQ group (Chi2 = 6.44, p = 0.011). Egg reduction rates were 95.6% with PZQ in comparison with 92.8% with As+SMP, p = 0.096. The proportion of participants who experienced adverse events related to the medication was 0.5% (2/400) in As+SMP treated children compared to 2.3% (9/399) in the PZQ group (p = 0.033). Abdominal pain and vomiting were the most frequent adverse events in both treatment arms. All adverse events were categorized as mild. Conclusions/Significance The study demonstrates that PZQ was more effective than As+SMP for treating Schistosoma haematobium. However, the safety and tolerability profile of As+SMP was similar to that seen with PZQ. Our findings suggest that further investigations seem justifiable to determine the dose/efficacy/safety pattern of As+SMP in the treatment of Schistosoma infections. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00510159 PMID:19802383

  15. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of a praziquantel bolus in kingfish Seriola lalandi.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, L A; Tingle, M D

    2006-04-01

    Oral praziquantel (PZQ) preparations have recently been investigated for the treatment of monogeneans that infect the skin and gills of kingfish Seriola lalandi cultured in sea-cages. To evaluate an oral PZQ dosing strategy, the pharmacokinetics of a dissolved and in feed oral PZQ preparation (40 mg kg(-1) body weight) were compared with an intravenous bolus in kingfish plasma and skin using HPLC. Compared with intravenous administration, PZQ bioavailability (area under curve, AUC0-24h) was slightly improved when the drug was administered with food in both kingfish plasma (56.8% in feed vs. 50.8% in solution) and skin (55.5% in feed vs. 50.3% in solution). After oral dosing, maximum drug concentrations in skin were approximately one-third of those achieved in plasma and higher when the drug was administered in solution (5.26 microg ml(-1)) than in feed (3.96 microg ml(-1)); additionally, the time to achieve maximum PZQ concentration was similar in plasma and skin, although markedly reduced when the drug was administered in solution (1 h) than in feed (6 h). However, clearance of the drug was delayed in skin; administered as an oral formulation, PZQ concentrations in the systemic circulation fell below the limit of quantification after 24 h, but remained quantifiable (0.3 microg g(-1)) in skin at this time. These initial studies indicate that a daily treatment interval will lead to the exposure of parasites to highly variable anthelmintic concentrations, which may be sub-optimal for the treatment of monogeneans in this finfish species. PMID:16724567

  16. Comparative clinical studies of nitazoxanide, albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis in children from Peru.

    PubMed

    Juan, Jave Ortiz; Lopez Chegne, Nicholas; Gargala, Gilles; Favennec, Loic

    2002-01-01

    Three randomized clinical studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate the efficacy of nitazoxanide paediatric suspension compared to albendazole in the treatment of ascariasis and trichuriasis and praziquantel in the treatment of hymenolepiasis in children from Cajamarca, Peru. Nitazoxanide was administered at a dose of 100 mg (age 1-3 years) or 200 mg (age 4-11 years) twice daily for 3 days, albendazole as a 400-mg single dose and praziquantel as a 25-mg/kg single dose. Post-treatment parasitological examinations were carried out on 3 faecal samples, each collected on a different day between 21 and 30 days following initiation of treatment. Nitazoxanide cured 89% (25/28), 89% (16/18) and 82% (32/39) of the cases of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis respectively compared with 91% (32/35), 58% (11/19) and 96% (47/49) for the comparator drugs. Each of the drugs produced egg reduction rates in excess of 98%. There were no significant adverse events or abnormalities in haematology or clinical chemistry values or urinalysis. PMID:12055813

  17. Polymeric Nanostructured Systems for Liquid Formulation of Praziquan-tel: Development and in vitro Assessment.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Vania E B; Silva, Julia A; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; Mansur, Claudia R E; Conti, Denise S; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2016-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is widely used in the treatment of several parasitic infections in both humans and animals, and is the first choice in the treatment of Schistosomiasis in humans. However, PZQ is a hydrophobic drug, and its low aqueous solubility has been a significant barrier to the development of oral liquid formulations that may provide improved bioavailability, pharmacokinetic profile, and compliance. The aim of this study was thus (i) to develop an oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsion(NE)-based platform for the delivery of PZQ in liquid form; (ii) to study the transport of PZQ formulated in NEs across an in vitro model of the intestinal epithelium; and (iii) to determine the toxicity profile of the NEs and their individual components on the model epithelium. We also sought to compare the toxicity and transport profiles of the proposed formulations, with those of PZQ in a solid nanostructured particle system - PZQ encapsulated within poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). Two essential oils were selected as the oil phase in the NEs, namely clove and orange. The NEs were prepared with selected non-ionic surfactants and had high solubilization capacity towards PZQ, and average diameters well below 100nm. The NEs also showed long term physical stability at both simulated physiological and gastric conditions. NEs with clove oil (NEC-PZQ) were observed to have a lower cytotoxic profile when compared to the orange oil NEs (NEO-PZQ). The results also showed that the transport of PZQ formulated within such nanostructured systems was much greater and larger rates across confluent and polarized Caco-2 monolayers when compared to free PZQ. Interestingly, little difference in PZQ transport between the NEs and NPs was observed. These results point to NEs as potentially viable strategies for the liquid formulation of PZQ in particular, and more broadly to the formulation of other hydrophobic therapeutics that may be employed in the fight against important neglected diseases such as Schistosomiasis, which alone affects more than 240 million people worldwide. PMID:26321094

  18. Solid lipid nanoparticle suspension enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel against tapeworm

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Baoliang; Shi, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Ming; Zhou, Wenzhong

    2011-01-01

    Hydatid disease caused by tapeworm is an increasing public health and socioeconomic concern. In order to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) against tapeworm, PZQ-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticle (PZQ-HCO-SLN) suspension was prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The stability of the suspension at 4°C and room temperature was evaluated by the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles and in-vitro release pattern of the suspension. Pharmacokinetics was studied after subcutaneous administration of the suspension in dogs. The therapeutic effect of the novel formulation was evaluated in dogs naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The results showed that the drug recovery of the suspension was 97.59% ± 7.56%. Nanoparticle diameter, polydispersivity index, and zeta potential were 263.00 ± 11.15 nm, 0.34 ± 0.06, and −11.57 ± 1.12 mV, respectively and showed no significant changes after 4 months of storage at both 4°C and room temperature. The stored suspensions displayed similar in-vitro release patterns as that of the newly prepared one. SLNs increased the bioavailability of PZQ 5.67-fold and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 56.71 to 280.38 hours. Single subcutaneous administration of PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension obtained enhanced therapeutic efficacy against tapeworm in infected dogs. At the dose of 5 mg/kg, the stool-ova reduction and negative conversion rates and tapeworm removal rate of the suspension were 100%, while the native PZQ were 91.55%, 87.5%, and 66.7%. When the dose reduced to 0.5 mg/kg, the native drug showed no effect, but the suspension still got the same therapeutic efficacy as that of the 5 mg/kg native PZQ. These results demonstrate that the PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension is a promising formulation to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PZQ. PMID:22072873

  19. Praziquantel in a Clay Nanoformulation Shows More Bioavailability and Higher Efficacy against Murine Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Wael S.; Nasr, Hanaa E.; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M.; Seif el-Din, Sayed H.; Botros, Sanaa S.

    2015-01-01

    Consideration of existing compounds always simplifies and shortens the long and difficult process of discovering new drugs specifically for diseases of developing countries, an approach that may add to the significant potential cost savings. This study focused on improving the biological characteristics of the already-existing antischistosomal praziquantel (PZQ) by incorporating it into montmorillonite (MMT) clay as a delivery carrier to overcome its known bioavailability drawbacks. The oral bioavailability of a PZQ-MMT clay nanoformulation and its in vivo efficacy against Schistosoma mansoni were investigated. The PZQ-MMT clay nanoformulation provided a preparation with a controlled release rate, a decrease in crystallinity, and an appreciable reduction in particle size. Uninfected and infected mice treated with PZQ-MMT clay showed 3.61- and 1.96-fold and 2.16- and 1.94-fold increases, respectively, in area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 8 h (AUC0–8) and maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax), with a decrease in elimination rate constant (kel) by 2.84- and 1.35-fold and increases in the absorption rate constant (ka) and half-life (t1/2e) by 2.11- and 1.51-fold and 2.86- and 1.34-fold, respectively, versus the corresponding conventional PZQ-treated groups. This improved bioavailability has been expressed in higher efficacy of the drug, where the dose necessary to kill 50% of the worms was reduced by >3-fold (PZQ 50% effective dose [ED50] was 20.25 mg/kg of body weight for PZQ-MMT clay compared to 74.07 mg/kg for conventional PZQ), with significant reduction in total tissue egg load and increase in total immature, mature, and dead eggs in most of the drug-treated groups. This formulation showed better bioavailability, enhanced antischistosomal efficacy, and a safer profile despite the longer period of residence in the systemic circulation. Although the conventional drug's toxicity was not examined, animal mortality rates were not different between groups receiving the test PZQ-clay nanoformulation and conventional PZQ. PMID:25845870

  20. Design and synthesis of molecular probes for the determination of the target of the anthelmintic drug praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Cupit, Pauline M; Goronga, Tino; Webb, Thomas R; Cunningham, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a highly prevalent neglected tropical disease caused by blood-dwelling helminths of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug available widely for the treatment of this disease and is administered in racemic form, even though only the (R)-isomer has significant anthelmintic activity. Progress towards the development of a second generation of anthelmintics is hampered by a lack of understanding of the mechanism of action of PZQ. In this Letter, we report an efficient protocol for the small-scale separation of enantiomers of 2 (hydrolyzed PZQ) using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The enantiopure 2 was then used to develop several molecular probes, which can potentially be used to help identify the protein target of PZQ and study its mode of action. PMID:24775301

  1. Design and synthesis of molecular probes for the determination of the target of the anthelmintic drug praziquantel

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Cupit, Pauline M.; Goronga, Tino; Webb, Thomas R.; Cunningham, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a highly prevalent neglected tropical disease caused by blood-dwelling helminths of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug available widely for the treatment of this disease and is administered in racemic form, even though only the (R)-isomer has significant anthelmintic activity. Progress towards the development of a second generation of anthelmintics is hampered by a lack of understanding of the mechanism of action of PZQ. In this letter, we report an efficient protocol for the small-scale separation of enantiomers of 2(hydrolyzed PZQ) using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The enantiopure 2 were then used to develop several molecular probes, which can potentially be used to help identify the protein target of PZQ and study its mode of action. PMID:24775301

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Praziquantel in Preschool-Aged Children in an Area Co-Endemic for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Jean T.; N'Gbesso, Yve K.; Knopp, Stefanie; Keiser, Jennifer; N'Goran, Elizer K.; Utzinger, Jrg

    2012-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa the recommended strategy to control schistosomiasis is preventive chemotherapy. Emphasis is placed on school-aged children, but in high endemicity areas, preschool-aged children are also at risk, and hence might need treatment with praziquantel. Since a pediatric formulation (e.g., syrup) is not available outside of Egypt, crushed praziquantel tablets are used, but the efficacy and safety of this treatment regimen is insufficiently studied. Methodology We assessed the efficacy and safety of crushed praziquantel tablets among preschool-aged children (<6 years) in the Azagui district, south Cte d'Ivoire, where Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium coexist. Using a cross-sectional design, children provided two stool and two urine samples before and 3 weeks after treatment. Crushed praziquantel tablets, mixed with water, were administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Adverse events were assessed and graded 4 and 24 hours posttreatment by interviewing mothers/guardians. Principal Findings Overall, 160 preschool-aged children had at least one stool and one urine sample examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette for S. mansoni, and urine filtration for S. haematobium diagnosis before and 3 weeks after praziquantel administration. According to the Kato-Katz and urine filtration results, we found high efficacy against S. mansoni (cure rate (CR), 88.6%; egg reduction rate (ERR), 96.7%) and S. haematobium (CR, 88.9%; ERR, 98.0%). POC-CCA revealed considerably lower efficacy against S. mansoni (CR, 53.8%). Treatment was generally well tolerated, but moderately severe adverse events (i.e., body and face inflammation), were observed in four Schistosoma egg-negative children. Conclusions/Significance Crushed praziquantel administered to preschool-aged children at a dose of 40 mg/kg is efficacious against S. mansoni and S. haematobium in a co-endemic setting of Cte d'Ivoire. Further research is required with highly sensitive diagnostic tools and safety must be investigated in more depth. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN53172722 PMID:23236526

  3. Clinical Efficacy and Tolerability of Praziquantel for Intestinal and Urinary Schistosomiasis—A Meta-analysis of Comparative and Non-comparative Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zwang, Julien; Olliaro, Piero L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive use of praziquantel for treatment and control of schistosomiasis requires a comprehensive understanding of efficacy and safety of various doses for different Schistosoma species. Methodology/Principal Findings A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative and non-comparative trials of praziquantel at any dose for any Schistosoma species assessed within two months post-treatment. Of 273 studies identified, 55 were eligible (19,499 subjects treated with praziquantel, control treatment or placebo). Most studied were in school-aged children (64%), S. mansoni (58%), and the 40 mg/kg dose (56%); 68% of subjects were in Africa. Efficacy was assessed as cure rate (CR, n = 17,017) and egg reduction rate (ERR, n = 13,007); safety as adverse events (AE) incidence. The WHO-recommended dose of praziquantel 40 mg/kg achieved CRs of 94.7% (95%CI 92.2–98.0) for S. japonicum, 77.1% (68.4–85.1) for S. haematobium, 76.7% (95%CI 71.9–81.2) for S. mansoni, and 63.5% (95%CI 48.2–77.0) for mixed S. haematobium/S. mansoni infections. Using a random-effect meta-analysis regression model, a dose-effect for CR was found up to 40 mg/kg for S. mansoni and 30 mg/kg for S. haematobium. The mean ERR was 95% for S. japonicum, 94.1% for S. haematobium, and 86.3% for S. mansoni. No significant relationship between dose and ERR was detected. Tolerability was assessed in 40 studies (12,435 subjects). On average, 56.9% (95%CI 47.4–67.9) of the subjects receiving praziquantel 40 mg/kg experienced an AE. The incidence of AEs ranged from 2.3% for urticaria to 31.1% for abdominal pain. Conclusions/Significance The large number of subjects allows generalizable conclusions despite the inherent limitations of aggregated-data meta-analyses. The choice of praziquantel dose of 40 mg/kg is justified as a reasonable compromise for all species and ages, although in a proportion of sites efficacy may be lower than expected and age effects could not be fully explored. PMID:25412105

  4. Sensitivity and Specificity of Multiple Kato-Katz Thick Smears and a Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test for Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre- and Post-repeated-Praziquantel Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lamberton, Poppy H. L.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Oguttu, David W.; Fenwick, Alan; Webster, Joanne P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Two Kato-Katz thick smears (Kato-Katzs) from a single stool are currently recommended for diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni infections to map areas for intervention. This ‘gold standard’ has low sensitivity at low infection intensities. The urine point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test (POC-CCA) is potentially more sensitive but how accurately they detect S. mansoni after repeated praziquantel treatments, their suitability for measuring drug efficacy and their correlation with egg counts remain to be fully understood. We compared the accuracies of one to six Kato-Katzs and one POC-CCA for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in primary-school children who have received zero to ten praziquantel treatments. We determined the impact each diagnostic approach may have on monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and drug-efficacy findings. Method/Principle Findings In a high S. mansoni endemic area of Uganda, three days of consecutive stool samples were collected from primary school-aged children (six - 12 years) at five time-points in year one: baseline, one-week-post-, four-weeks-post-, six-months-post-, and six-months-one-week-post-praziquantel and three time-points in years two and three: pre-, one-week-post- and four-weeks-post-praziquantel-treatment/retreatment (n = 1065). Two Kato-Katzs were performed on each stool. In parallel, one urine sample was collected and a single POC-CCA evaluated per child at each time-point in year one (n = 367). At baseline, diagnosis by two Kato-Katzs (sensitivity = 98.6%) or one POC-CCA (sensitivity = 91.7%, specificity = 75.0%) accurately predicted S. mansoni infections. However, one year later, a minimum of three Kato-Katzs, and two years later, five Kato-Katzs were required for accurate diagnosis (sensitivity >90%) and drug-efficacy evaluation. The POC-CCA was as sensitive as six Kato-Katzs four-weeks-post and six-months-post-treatment, if trace readings were classified as positive. Conclusions/Significance Six Kato-Katzs (two/stool from three stools) and/or one POC-CCA are required for M&E or drug-efficacy studies. Although unable to measure egg reduction rates, one POC-CCA appears to be more sensitive than six Kato-Katzs at four-weeks-post-praziquantel (drug efficacy) and six-months-post-praziquantel (M&E). PMID:25211217

  5. Helminth-Associated Systemic Immune Activation and HIV Co-receptor Expression: Response to Albendazole/Praziquantel Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chachage, Mkunde; Podola, Lilli; Clowes, Petra; Nsojo, Anthony; Bauer, Asli; Mgaya, Onesmo; Kowour, Dickens; Froeschl, Guenter; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Saathoff, Elmar; Geldmacher, Christof

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that helminth infections increase HIV susceptibility by enhancing systemic immune activation and hence contribute to elevated HIV-1 transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective To study systemic immune activation and HIV-1 co-receptor expression in relation to different helminth infections and in response to helminth treatment. Methods HIV-negative adults with (n = 189) or without (n = 57) different helminth infections, as diagnosed by Kato-Katz, were enrolled in Mbeya, Tanzania. Blinded to helminth infection status, T cell differentiation (CD45RO, CD27), activation (HLA-DR, CD38) and CCR5 expression was determined at baseline and 3 months after Albendazole/Praziquantel treatment. Plasma cytokine levels were compared using a cytometric bead array. Results Trichuris and Ascaris infections were linked to increased frequencies of “activated” CD4 and/or CD8 T cells (p<0.05), whereas Hookworm infection was associated with a trend towards decreased HLA-DR+ CD8 T cell frequencies (p = 0.222). In Trichuris infected subjects, there was a linear correlation between HLA-DR+ CD4 T cell frequencies and the cytokines IL-1β and IL-10 (p<0.05). Helminth treatment with Albendazole and Praziquantel significantly decreased eosinophilia for S. mansoni and Hookworm infections (p<0.005) but not for Trichuris infection and only moderately modulated T cell activation. CCR5 surface density on memory CD4 T cells was increased by 1.2-fold during Trichuris infection (p-value: 0.053) and reduced after treatment (p = 0.003). Conclusions Increased expression of T cell activation markers was associated with Trichuris and Ascaris infections with relatively little effect of helminth treatment. PMID:24675895

  6. Prevention of Lactogenic Toxocara cati Infections in Kittens by Application of an Emodepside/Praziquantel Spot-on (Profender) to the Pregnant Queen.

    PubMed

    Bhm, Claudia; Petry, Gabriele; Schaper, Roland; Wolken, Sonja; Strube, Christina

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an emodepside 2.1 % (w/v)/praziquantel 8.6 % (w/v) topical solution (Profender spot-on for cats) in the prevention of lactogenic Toxocara cati infections. A controlled test was performed with two groups of 8 cats with confirmed pregnancy. All cats were infected with daily doses of 2000 T. cati eggs for 10 consecutive days starting 50 days post conception to produce an acute infection. Treatment was performed 60 days post conception. Queens in the treatment group received the emodepside/praziquantel solution at the minimum therapeutic dose (3 mg/kg emodepside and 12 mg/kg praziquantel), while the control group was treated with a placebo spot-on. Efficacy was evaluated 56 days post partum by necropsy of one randomly selected kitten of each litter and comparison of the worm burdens between the study groups. Additionally the necropsy results were supported by quantification of worms expelled with the faeces after deworming of the remaining kittens and all queens. The treatment in late pregnancy resulted in an efficacy of 98.7 % (p < 0.0001). All necropsied control kittens were infected (geometric mean 30.6). Seven of 8 kittens from treated mothers were free of T. cati (geometric mean 0.4). Worm counts after deworming reflected the results obtained at necropsy. No side effects of the treatment were observed. It is concluded that treatment with an emodepside/praziquantel spot-on solution during late pregnancy effectively prevents lactogenic transmission of T. cati to the offspring. The study design facilitated the generation of reliable data, while at the same time a minimum number of animals was sacrificed. PMID:26152418

  7. The Accuracy of Praziquantel Dose Poles for Mass Treatment of Schistosomiasis in School Girls in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Baan, Marije; Galappaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Gagai, Silindile; Aurlund, Christine G.; Vennervald, Birgitte J.; Taylor, Myra; van Lieshout, Lisette; Kjetland, Eyrun F.

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 260 million people live with schistosomiasis and regular mass-treatment should be implemented to prevent morbidity. Praziquantel, dosed at 40 milligrams per kilogram bodyweight, is the drug of choice. During the last decades the WHO Tablet Pole–which estimates tablet need by height as representing weight–has been used as a practical and cheap tool in mass treatment. In South Africa this method could be inaccurate given the prevalence of overweight and obesity. In this study in female pupils in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we explored the accuracy of the WHO Tablet Pole and the recently developed Modified Dose Pole for adults with two additional intervals and correction for body mass index (BMI). Methodology In randomly selected primary and secondary schools of schistosomiasis-endemic areas, height and weight of female pupils were measured. The WHO Tablet Pole and Modified Dose Pole were used to indicate the amount of praziquantel according to height and the dose in milligrams per kilogram bodyweight was calculated. The BMI correction was performed by adding 600 milligrams (1 tablet) to the indicated dose if a person was overweight/obese. Principal Findings 3157 female students were investigated and 35% were found to be overweight/obese. Using the WHO Tablet Pole, 73% would have received an adequate dose (range 30–60 mg/kg). When correcting for BMI, this would have been 94%. Using the Modified Dose Pole with BMI correction, 97% would have been adequately treated. Conclusions This study shows that the WHO Tablet Pole will be inaccurate in estimating the dose of praziquantel in South African girls due to high prevalence of overweight/obesity. Under-dosing of individuals who appear overweight/obese could be largely prevented by adding an extra praziquantel tablet to the recommended dose. Further research must be done to explore if subjective weight estimates are reliable. PMID:27139497

  8. Effect of Maternal Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Praziquantel Treatment During Pregnancy on Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Immune Responsiveness among Offspring at Age Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Tweyongyere, Robert; Naniima, Peter; Mawa, Patrice A.; Jones, Frances M.; Webb, Emily L.; Cose, Stephen; Dunne, David W.; Elliott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Offspring of Schistosoma mansoni-infected women in schistosomiasis-endemic areas may be sensitised in-utero. This may influence their immune responsiveness to schistosome infection and schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on risk of S. mansoni infection among offspring, and on their immune responsiveness when they become exposed to S. mansoni, are unknown. Here we examined effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on prevalence of S. mansoni and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years. Methods In a trial in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32849447/elliott), offspring of women treated with praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy were examined for S. mansoni infection and for cytokine and antibody responses to SWA and SEA, as well as for T cell expression of FoxP3, at age five years. Results Of the 1343 children examined, 32 (2.4%) had S. mansoni infection at age five years based on a single stool sample. Infection prevalence did not differ between children of treated or untreated mothers. Cytokine (IFNγ, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13) and antibody (IgG1, Ig4 and IgE) responses to SWA and SEA, and FoxP3 expression, were higher among infected than uninfected children. Praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy had no effect on immune responses, with the exception of IL-10 responses to SWA, which was higher in offspring of women that received praziquantel during pregnancy than those who did not. Conclusion We found no evidence that maternal S. mansoni infection and its treatment during pregnancy influence prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection or effector immune response to S. mansoni infection among offspring at age five years, but the observed effects on IL-10 responses to SWA suggest that maternal S. mansoni and its treatment during pregnancy may affect immunoregulatory responsiveness in childhood schistosomiasis. This might have implications for pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:24147175

  9. Analysis of the Presence of Content about Astronomy in a Decade of the National High School Examination (1998-2008). (Spanish Title: Análisis de la Presencia de Contenidos de Astronomía em Uma Década del Examen Nacional de Enseñaza Secundária (1998-2008).) Análise da Presença de Conteúdos de Astronomia em Uma DÉcada do Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (1998-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomide, Hanny Angeles; Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we analyzed the presence of contents of Astronomy in the National High School Examination (ENEM) in its first decade (1998-2008). We verified the number of questions addressing this topic that were present over the years, as well as the most recurrent subjects. We discussed the results from what is proposed by the official documents regarding the teaching of Astronomy in the Elementary and Secondary Education and we entertain future expectations about the presence of contents of this science in future official examinations. En este trabajo realizamos un análisis de la presencia de contenidos de Astronomía em las pruebas del Examen Nacional de Enseñanza Secundaria (ENEM) em su primera década de existência (1998-2008). Contabilizamos la cantidad de preguntas incluyendo este tema que estuvieron presentes en el transcurso de los años, así como los temas más recurrentes. Discutimos los resultados a partir de lo propuesto por los documentos oficiales en relación a la enseñanza de Astronomía en la Educación Básica y elaboramos algunos apuntes sobre futuras expectativas em relación a la presencia de contenidos de esta ciencia en examenes oficiales. No presente trabalho fizemos uma análise da presença de conteúdos de Astronomia nas provas do Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (ENEM), em sua primeira década de existência (1998-2008). Verificamos a quantidade de questões envolvendo essa temática que estiveram presentes no decorrer dos anos, assim como os temas mais recorrentes. Discutimos os resultados a partir do que é proposto pelos documentos oficiais em relação ao ensino de Astronomia na Educação Básica e tecemos alguns apontamentos sobre a expectativa futura quanto à presença de conteúdos dessa ciência nesse exame oficial.

  10. Praziquantel form, dietary application method and dietary inclusion level affect palatability and efficacy against monogenean parasites in yellowtail kingfish.

    PubMed

    Partridge, G J; Michael, R J; Thuillier, L

    2014-05-13

    The bitterness of racemic praziquantel (PZQ) currently constrains its use as an in-feed treatment against monogenean flukes in finfish aquaculture. In an effort to increase the palatability of diets containing racemic PZQ for yellowtail kingfish, the palatability and efficacy of 2 forms of racemic PZQ (powder or powder within microcapsules) against natural infestations of skin and gill flukes were compared using 2 different dietary application methods (incorporated within the pellet mash prior to extrusion or surface-coated after extrusion) at active dietary inclusion levels of 8, 16 and 25 g kg-1 in large (3.5-4 kg) yellowtail kingfish. There was no clear benefit of incorporating PZQ into diets prior to extrusion. PZQ microcapsules improved the palatability of PZQ-containing diets but did not completely mask the bitter flavour. At the lowest active dietary inclusion level of 8 g kg-1, ingestion of the diet containing PZQ microcapsules was equal to the control and significantly better than that containing PZQ powder. At an inclusion level of 16 g kg-1, ingestion of the PZQ microcapsule diet was significantly better than that containing the same inclusion of PZQ powder but significantly lower than the control. Consumption of the diet containing 25 g kg-1 of PZQ microcapsules was poor. All fish consuming medicated feeds had a significant reduction in flukes relative to control fish; however, efficacy data and blood serum analysis suggested that diets containing PZQ microcapsules had lower bioavailability than those containing PZQ powder. PMID:24991743

  11. Improvement of the in vitro dissolution of praziquantel by complexation with alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Becket, G; Schep, L J; Tan, M Y

    1999-03-01

    Although praziquantel (PZQ) is the primary drug of choice in the treatment of schistosomiasis, its poor solubility has restricted its delivery via the oral route. In spite of its poor solubility, PZQ is well absorbed across the gastrointestinal tract, but large doses are required to achieve adequate concentrations at the target sites. Improving the solubility would enable the parenteral route to be used, thereby avoiding significant first pass metabolism. The aqueous solubility of PZQ was improved by forming inclusion complexes with alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins (CDs). These complexes were assessed and confirmed by solubility analysis, Fourier transform infrared analysis, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry. Dissolution of PZQ from the alpha-, beta- and gamma-CD complexes was 2.6-, 5- and 8-fold greater, respectively, than that of the pure drug. However, only the beta-complex had a stability constant in the optimum range for pharmaceutical use, suggesting that the preferred complex for further development would be a water-soluble beta-CD derivative. PMID:10053203

  12. Efficacy of orally administered praziquantel against Zeuxapta seriolae and Benedenia seriolae (Monogenea) in yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rissa E; Ernst, Ingo; Chambers, Clinton B; Whittington, Ian D

    2007-10-15

    We investigated the efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) administered orally to yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi in sea-cage aquaculture in South Australia) against the monogeneans Zeuxapta seriolae and Benedenia seriolae infesting gills and skin, respectively. PZQ was administered to fish by surface-coating feed pellets (Trial 1) or by direct intubation of the stomach (Trial 2). In both trials 4 daily doses were administered: 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW) d(-1) for 6 d, and 100 and 150 mg kg(-1) BW d(-1) for 3 d. Mean parasite intensity was compared between medicated fish and unmedicated control fish. In Trial 1, fish fed lower daily doses of PZQ for 6 d (50 and 75 mg kg(-1) BW d(-1)) had fewer Z. seriolae and B. seriolae than fish fed higher daily doses for 3 d (100 and 150 mg kg(-1) BW d(-1)). Fish rejected feed pellets surface-coated with PZQ, suggesting PZQ affected palatability of feed, and may explain differences in efficacy between treatments. In Trial 2, where PZQ was administered by intubation, there were fewer Z. seriolae and B. seriolae in medicated fish than control fish. Intubated PZQ was also effective against newly recruited Z. seriolae and B. seriolae. PZQ could be developed as a useful treatment for Z. seriolae and B. seriolae parasitising S. lalandi in sea-cage aquaculture if suspected palatability problems are resolved. PMID:18062471

  13. Efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Kok, Dawie J; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Alva, Roberto; Irwin, Jennifer; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) at 0.12 mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10mg fipronil+12 mg S-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ≥ 99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (P<0.01). All cats accepted the treatment well based on health observations post-treatment and daily health observations. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability of the novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against a broad range of feline intestinal nematode and cestode infections. PMID:24703071

  14. Preclinical pharmacokinetic evaluation of praziquantel loaded in poly (methyl methacrylate) nanoparticle using a HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Malhado, Mayara; Pinto, Douglas P; Silva, Aline C A; Silveira, Gabriel P E; Pereira, Heliana M; Santos, Jorge G F; Guilarducci-Ferraz, Carla V V; Viçosa, Alessandra L; Nele, Márcio; Fonseca, Laís B; Pinto, José Carlos C S; Calil-Elias, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug recommended by the World Health Organization for treatment of schistosomiasis. However, the treatment of children with PZQ tablets is complicated due to difficulties to adapt the dose and the extremely bitter taste of PZQ. For this reason, poly (methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles loaded with Praziquantel (PZQ-NP) were developed for preparation of a new formulation to be used in the suspension form. For this reason, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of PZQ-NP, through HPLC-MS/MS assays. Analyses were performed with an Omnisphere C18 column (5.0 μm×4.6 mm×150.0 mm), using a mixture of an aqueous solution containing 0.1 wt% of formic acid and methanol (15:85-v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.800mL/min. Detection was performed with a hybrid linear ion-trap triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with multiple reactions monitoring in positive ion mode via electrospray ionization. The monitored transitions were m/z 313.18>203.10 for PZQ and m/z 285.31>193.00 for the Internal Standard. The method was validated with the quantification limit of 1.00 ng/mL, requiring samples of 25 μL for analyses. Analytic responses were calibrated with known concentration data, leading to correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.99. Validation performed with rat plasma showed that PZQ was stable for at least 10 months when stored below -70 °C (long-term stability), for at least 17 h when stored at room temperature (RT, 22 °C) (short-term stability), for at least 47 h when stored at room temperature in auto-sampler vials (post-preparative stability) and for at least 8 successive freeze/thaw cycles at -70 °C. For PK assays, Wistar rats, weighing between 200 and 300 g were used. Blood samples were collected from 0 to 24 h after oral administration of single doses of 60 mg/kg of PZQ-NP or raw PZQ (for the control group). PZQ was extracted from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction with terc-butyl methyl ether. The values obtained for maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under curve (AUC) for the PZQ-NP group were about 3 times smaller than the respective values obtained for the control group. However, the time for achieving maximum concentration (T(max)), the elimination constant (Ke) and the half-life time of elimination (T(½β)) were not statistically different. These results suggest that PZQ absorption is probably the rate-limiting step for obtainment of better PK parameters for PZQ-NP. Thus, further studies are needed to understand both the PZQ-NP absorption mechanisms and the drug diffusion process through the polymer matrix in vivo, in order to improve the PZQ-NP release profile. PMID:26440288

  15. Chemometric quality inspection control of pyrantel pamoate, febantel and praziquantel in veterinary tablets by mid infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piantavini, Mário S.; Pontes, Flávia L. D.; Uber, Caroline P.; Stremel, Dile P.; Sena, Marcelo M.; Pontarolo, Roberto

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new multivariate calibration method based on diffuse reflectance mid infrared spectroscopy for direct and simultaneous determination of three veterinary pharmaceutical drugs, pyrantel pamoate, praziquantel and febantel, in commercial tablets. The best synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) model was obtained by selecting three spectral regions, 3715-3150, 2865-2583, and 2298-1733 cm-1, preprocessed by first derivative and Savitzky-Golay smoothing followed by mean centering. This model was built with five latent variables and provided root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) equal or lower than 0.69 mg per 100 mg of powder for the three analytes. The method was validated according the appropriate regulations through the estimate of figures of merit, such as trueness, precision, linearity, analytical sensitivity, bias and residual prediction deviation (RPD). Then, it was applied to three different veterinary pharmaceutical formulations found in the Brazilian market, in a situation of multi-product calibration, since the excipient composition of these commercial products, which was not known a priori, was modeled by an experimental design that scanned the likely content range of the possible constituents. The results were verified with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and were in agreement with the predicted values at 95% confidence level. The developed method presented the advantages of being simple, rapid, solvent free, and about ten times faster than the HPLC ones.

  16. Development of flexible and dispersible oral formulations containing praziquantel for potential schistosomiasis treatment of pre-school age children.

    PubMed

    Trastullo, Ramona; Dolci, Luisa Stella; Passerini, Nadia; Albertini, Beatrice

    2015-11-10

    Praziquantel (PZQ), an anthelmintic drug used in developing countries for the treatment of schistosome infections, was processed using the fluid bed wet granulation technology to prepare fast dispersible granules, as an appropriate and flexible dosage form for pre-school-aged children. Granulation experiments were performed incorporating PZQ either in the powder mixture, according to the traditional way, or in the liquid phase containing wetting agents. In the powder mixture several excipients were tested: Flowlac 100 as filler, Galeniq 721 (isomalt) and Neosorb P 100 T (D-sorbitol) as sweeteners and PVP K30 as binder; while in the liquid phase Lutrol F68, Cremophor RH 40 or Tween 80 as surfactants were investigated. Different formulations loaded with 10% w/w (batches 1-8) and 20% w/w of PZQ (batches 9-13) were produced The majority of granules displayed good flow properties and uniform drug content. X-ray powder diffraction showed that PZQ remained in its original crystalline state, while differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform-infrared analysis evidenced the formation of chemical interactions among the ingredients. The solubilisation test performed in non-sink condition to reproduce the actual condition in which a child of 4 years takes the medicine revealed that granules quickly formed a very fine suspension in water (dV90=39.9 μm). Although after the granulation process the solubility of raw PZQ was not increased, adding the aqueous suspension to 500 ml of buffer solution of pH 1.5, simulating the fasted state of a child, 50% of the drug was dissolved after 30 min. After granule manipulation with milk and fruit juices, no PZQ degradation was observed during time. Finally, the selected granule formulation provided evidence to be stable even at hot and very humid climate (30°C/75% RH), at least for the examined time. PMID:26386139

  17. Morphological Characteristics of Schistosoma mansoni PZQ-Resistant and -Susceptible Strains Are Different in Presence of Praziquantel

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Almeida, António; Mendes, Tiago; de Oliveira, Rosimeire Nunes; Corrêa, Sheila de Andrade Penteado; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Belo, Silvana; Tomás, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas; Carrilho, Emanuel; Afonso, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most common human parasitic diseases whose socioeconomic impact is only surpassed by malaria. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug commercially available for the treatment of all schistosome species causing disease in humans. However, there has been stronger evidences of PZQ-resistance on Schistosoma mansoni and thus it is very important to study the phenotypic characteristics associated with it. The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological alterations in S. mansoni PZQ-resistant adult worms and eggs, by comparing a PZQ- resistant strain obtained under PZQ drug pressure with a PZQ-susceptible strain. For this, scanning electronic microscopy was used to assess tegumental responsiveness of both strains under PZQ exposure, and optical microscopy allowed the monitoring of worms and eggs in the presence of the drug. Those assays showed that PZQ-susceptible worms exposed to the drug had more severe tegumental damages than the resistant one, which had only minor alterations. Moreover, contrary to what occurred in the susceptible strain, resistant worms were viable after PZQ exposure and gradually regaining full motility after removal of the drug. Eggs from resistant strain parasites are considerably smaller than those from susceptible strain. Our results suggest that there might be a difference in the tegument composition of the resistant strain and that worms are less responsive to PZQ. Changes observed in egg morphology might imply alterations in the biology of schistosomes associated to PZQ-resistance, which could impact on transmission and pathology of the disease. Moreover, we propose a hypothetical scenario where there is a different egg tropism of the S. mansoni resistant strain. This study is the first comparing two strains that only differ in their resistance characteristics, which makes it a relevant step in the search for resistance determinants. PMID:27199925

  18. Anthelmintic efficacies of a tablet formula of ivermectin-praziquantel on horses experimentally infected with three Strongylus species.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Stephane; Maynard, Laurence; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Kok, Dawid; Eun, Hyone-Myong

    2009-09-01

    In this blinded randomized and controlled study, the anthelmintic efficacy of a tablet formula of ivermectin-praziquantel was evaluated in horses experimentally infected with three species of Strongylus larvae. Eighteen previously dewormed horses were inoculated on study day 0 with third-stage larvae of Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus equinus, and Strongylus edentatus. The horses were randomly allocated to three groups (n = 6): test-drug (tablet formula), positive-control (reference gel), and negative-control (placebo tablet). On day 56, the horses were treated once with the respective drugs. On day 95, the horses were sacrificed, and necropsy examinations were performed to assess the status of the parasite burden (L4 and immature L5) and pathological lesions on selected organs and tissues. By the criteria of worm counts, the test-drug and positive-control showed, respectively, 100% and 97.3% anthelmintic efficacies on S. vulgaris, 100% and 81.4% on S. equinus, and equally 100% on S. edentatus. However, the efficacies on S. equinus and S. edentatus should be taken only as face values considering their respective low worm counts in the placebo group. The S. vulgaris-induced arterial lesions were also reduced in the test-drug and positive-control groups with efficacies of 73.9% and 62.9%, respectively. No adverse reactions were observed with either of the drugs. Our data demonstrate that the Equimax tablet formula was as safe and efficacious as the gel formula anthelmintic on large strongyles in horses. PMID:19488785

  19. Chemometric quality inspection control of pyrantel pamoate, febantel and praziquantel in veterinary tablets by mid infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Piantavini, Mário S; Pontes, Flávia L D; Uber, Caroline P; Stremel, Dile P; Sena, Marcelo M; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new multivariate calibration method based on diffuse reflectance mid infrared spectroscopy for direct and simultaneous determination of three veterinary pharmaceutical drugs, pyrantel pamoate, praziquantel and febantel, in commercial tablets. The best synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) model was obtained by selecting three spectral regions, 3715-3150, 2865-2583, and 2298-1733 cm(-1), preprocessed by first derivative and Savitzky-Golay smoothing followed by mean centering. This model was built with five latent variables and provided root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) equal or lower than 0.69 mg per 100 mg of powder for the three analytes. The method was validated according the appropriate regulations through the estimate of figures of merit, such as trueness, precision, linearity, analytical sensitivity, bias and residual prediction deviation (RPD). Then, it was applied to three different veterinary pharmaceutical formulations found in the Brazilian market, in a situation of multi-product calibration, since the excipient composition of these commercial products, which was not known a priori, was modeled by an experimental design that scanned the likely content range of the possible constituents. The results were verified with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and were in agreement with the predicted values at 95% confidence level. The developed method presented the advantages of being simple, rapid, solvent free, and about ten times faster than the HPLC ones. PMID:24566119

  20. Inflammation Caused by Praziquantel Treatment Depends on the Location of the Taenia solium Cysticercus in Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Cangalaya, Carla; Zimic, Mirko; Marzal, Miguel; González, Armando E.; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.; García, Hector H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC), infection of the central nervous system by Taenia solium cysticerci, is a pleomorphic disease. Inflammation around cysticerci is the major cause of disease but is variably present. One factor modulating the inflammatory responses may be the location and characteristics of the brain tissue adjacent to cysticerci. We analyzed and compared the inflammatory responses to cysticerci located in the parenchyma to those in the meninges or cysticerci partially in contact with both the parenchyma and the meninges (corticomeningeal). Methodology/Principal Findings Histological specimens of brain cysticerci (n = 196) from 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysticerci were used. Four pigs were sacrificed after 2 days and four after 5 days of a single dose of praziquantel; 3 pigs did not receive treatment. All pigs were intravenously injected with Evans Blue to assess disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The degree of inflammation was estimated by use of a histological score (ISC) based on the extent of the inflammation in the pericystic areas as assessed in an image composed of several photomicrographs taken at 40X amplification. Parenchymal cysticerci provoked a significantly greater level of pericystic inflammation (higher ISC) after antiparasitic treatment compared to meningeal and corticomeningeal cysticerci. ISC of meningeal cysticerci was not significantly affected by treatment. In corticomeningeal cysticerci, the increase in ISC score was correlated to the extent of the cysticercus adjacent to the brain parenchyma. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier was associated with treatment only in parenchymal tissue. Significance Inflammatory response to cysticerci located in the meninges was significantly decreased compared to parenchymal cysticerci. The suboptimal inflammatory response to cysticidal drugs may be the reason subarachnoid NCC is generally refractory to treatment compared to parenchymal NCC. PMID:26658257

  1. Observed Reductions in Schistosoma mansoni Transmission from Large-Scale Administration of Praziquantel in Uganda: A Mathematical Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    French, Michael D.; Churcher, Thomas S.; Gambhir, Manoj; Fenwick, Alan; Webster, Joanne P.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria

    2010-01-01

    Background To date schistosomiasis control programmes based on chemotherapy have largely aimed at controlling morbidity in treated individuals rather than at suppressing transmission. In this study, a mathematical modelling approach was used to estimate reductions in the rate of Schistosoma mansoni reinfection following annual mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel in Uganda over four years (2003–2006). In doing this we aim to elucidate the benefits of MDA in reducing community transmission. Methods Age-structured models were fitted to a longitudinal cohort followed up across successive rounds of annual treatment for four years (Baseline: 2003, Treatment: 2004–2006; n = 1,764). Instead of modelling contamination, infection and immunity processes separately, these functions were combined in order to estimate a composite force of infection (FOI), i.e., the rate of parasite acquisition by hosts. Results MDA achieved substantial and statistically significant reductions in the FOI following one round of treatment in areas of low baseline infection intensity, and following two rounds in areas with high and medium intensities. In all areas, the FOI remained suppressed following a third round of treatment. Conclusions/Significance This study represents one of the first attempts to monitor reductions in the FOI within a large-scale MDA schistosomiasis morbidity control programme in sub-Saharan Africa. The results indicate that the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative, as a model for other MDA programmes, is likely exerting a significant ancillary impact on reducing transmission within the community, and may provide health benefits to those who do not receive treatment. The results obtained will have implications for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis control programmes and the design of monitoring and evaluation approaches in general. PMID:21124888

  2. Effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen for experimental treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni using praziquantel-free and encapsulated into liposomes: assay in adult worms and oviposition.

    PubMed

    Frezza, Tarsila Ferraz; de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Prado, César Corat Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Claudineide Nascimento Fernandes; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon; Giorgio, Selma; Dolder, Mary Anne Heidi; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of schistosomiasis depends on a single drug: praziquantel (PZQ). However, this treatment presents limitations such as low and/or erratic bioavailability that can contribute to cases of tolerance. Improvements to the available drug are urgently needed and studies with a controlled system of drug release, like liposomes, have been gaining prominence. The present study evaluated the activity and synergy between liposomal-praziquantel (lip.PZQ) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). Mice received doses of 60 or 100mg/kg PZQ or lip.PZQ, 50 days post-infection, and after the treatment, were exposed to HBO (3 atmosphere absolute - ATA) for 1h. The viability of adult worms and oviposition were analyzed, by necropsy and Kato-Katz examination performed after 15 days of treatment. A concentration of 100mg/kg of lip.PZQ+HBO was more effective (48.0% reduction of worms, 83.3% reduction of eggs/gram of feces) and 100% of the mice had altered of oograms (indicating interruption of oviposition) compared to other treatments and to the Control group (infected and untreated). It is known that PZQ requires participation of the host immune system to complete its antischistosomal activity and that HBO is able to stimulate the immune system. The drug became more available in the body when incorporated into liposomes and, used with HBO, the HBO worked as an adjuvant. This explains the decreases of oviposition and worms recovered form hepatic portal system. PMID:26215128

  3. Efficacy in cats of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, praziquantel, against induced infestations of Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Tielemans, Eric; Manavella, Coralie; Visser, Martin; Theodore Chester, S; Rosentel, Joseph

    2014-04-28

    Although foxes are the main reservoir of Echinococcus multilocularis, it is recognized that dogs and cats also may become infected. In cats the infection and egg production rates are usually low. Nevertheless, cats are a potential source of transmission of E. multilocularis. Due to the high human medical significance of E. multilocularis infection, it is important in endemic areas that owned cats are dewormed regularly. This paper presents the efficacy results of a new topical formulation, Broadline(®) (Merial) tested against E. multilocularis infection in cats. Two blinded laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate this novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel against E. multilocularis. In each study, purpose-bred cats were assigned randomly to two treatment groups of 10 cats each: one untreated control group and one group treated at the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight to deliver 10mg fipronil, 12 mg (S)-methoprene, 0.5mg eprinomectin and 10mg praziquantel/kg bodyweight. The cats were inoculated orally with E. multilocularis protoscolices, 22 or 23 days before treatment. Based on necropsy and intestinal worm count, 8 or 11 days after treatment, the two studies confirmed 100% efficacy of Broadline(®) against adult E. multilocularis. PMID:24703072

  4. [Comparison of the efficacy and safety of praziquantel administered in single dose of 40 versus 60 mg/kg for treating urinary schistosomiasis in Mauritania].

    PubMed

    Ouldabdallahi, M; Ousmane, B; Ouldbezeid, M; Mamadou, D; Konaté, L; Chitsulo, L

    2013-08-01

    During the last twenty years, praziquantel (PZQ) was the drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis in the majority of national programs. However, a lower rate of cure had been significantly noted on the left bank of the Senegal River. To explain this unusual rate of cure, the assumption of a possible resistance to the drug as well as under-dosing was considered. With an aim of testing this hypothesis of underdosing, we compared the amount of a single dose of 60 mg/kg of PZQ versus the standardized dose of 40 mg/kg used in curing urinary schistosomiasis in Mauritania. One hundred and fifty-one children aged from 10 to 19 years, including 77 in the group of 60 mg/kg and 74 in the group of 40 mg/ kg, were included in the study. The rates of cure were respectively 64.8% for 60 mg/kg and 67.5% for 40 mg/kg three weeks after the administration of the treatment without statistically significant difference. For the majority of the patients, the drug was well tolerated and no serious adverse events were noted; however, clinical signs in the form of abdominal pain associated or not with diarrhea and vomiting were noted. Praziquantel remains an effective and well-tolerated drug: the amount of 40 mg/kg of body weight can still be maintained for the treatment of schistosomiasis in Mauritania. PMID:23681759

  5. Epidemiological Interactions between Urogenital and Intestinal Human Schistosomiasis in the Context of Praziquantel Treatment across Three West African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Sarah C. L.; Webster, Bonnie L.; Garba, Amadou; Sacko, Moussa; Diaw, Oumar T.; Fenwick, Alan; Rollinson, David; Webster, Joanne P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis co-occur, and mixed species infections containing both Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni can be common. During co-infection, interactions between these two species are possible, yet the extent to which such interactions influence disease dynamics or the outcome of control efforts remains poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we analyse epidemiological data from three West African countries co-endemic for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis (Senegal, Niger and Mali) to test whether the impact of praziquantel (PZQ) treatment, subsequent levels of re-infection or long-term infection dynamics are altered by co-infection. In all countries, positive associations between the two species prevailed at baseline: infection by one species tended to predict infection intensity for the other, with the strength of association varying across sites. Encouragingly, we found little evidence that co-infection influenced PZQ efficacy: species-specific egg reduction rates (ERR) and cure rates (CR) did not differ significantly with co-infection, and variation in treatment success was largely geographical. In Senegal, despite positive associations at baseline, children with S. mansoni co-infection at the time of treatment were less intensely re-infected by S. haematobium than those with single infections, suggesting competition between the species may occur post-treatment. Furthermore, the proportion of schistosome infections attributable to S. mansoni increased over time in all three countries examined. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that while co-infection between urinary and intestinal schistosomes may not directly affect PZQ treatment efficacy, competitive interspecific interactions may influence epidemiological patterns of re-infection post-treatment. While re-infection patterns differed most strongly according to geographic location, interspecific interactions also seem to play a role, and could cause the community composition in mixed species settings to shift as disease control efforts intensify, a situation with implications for future disease management in this multi-species system. PMID:26469347

  6. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against larval and adult stages of the cat lungworm, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Kühnert, Axel; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 8.3% w/v, (S)-methoprene 10% w/v, eprinomectin 0.4% w/v, and praziquantel 8.3% w/v (BROADLINE(®),(1) Merial) against larval and adult Aelurostrongylus abstrusus lungworms in cats was assessed in a controlled laboratory study. The study included 48 purpose-bred, short-haired cats which were each inoculated with 225 infective A. abstrusus larvae. The cats were formed into eight blocks based on pre-treatment bodyweight and were then, within each block, randomly allocated to one of six treatment groups: untreated control; treated once when A. abstrusus were expected to be third-stage larvae (4 days post inoculation [dpi]), fourth-stage larvae (7 dpi), immature adults (14 dpi) or adult nematodes (32 dpi), or treated twice, once when A. abstrusus were expected to be third-stage larval and once again when A. abstrusus were expected to be adult nematodes (4 dpi+32 dpi). Cats weighing ≥ 0.8-2.5 kg received one 0.3 mL applicator and cats weighing >2.5-7.5 kg received one 0.9 mL applicator. For determination of the efficacy of treatments, lungworm larval counts were established on faecal samples collected from all cats 32, 39, 46, 53 and 60 dpi. At each occasion from 46 dpi on, cats treated with fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel had significantly lower A. abstrusus larval counts than the untreated controls with percentage reductions of 91.6% (cats treated 14dpi; P=0.012), ≥ 98.9% (cats treated either 4 dpi, 7 dpi or 32 dpi; P<0.001) or >99.9% (cats treated 4 dpi+32 dpi; P<0.001) at 60 dpi. Thus, the novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was highly effective in the prevention and treatment of A. abstrusus lungworm infection in cats. PMID:24703080

  7. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against experimental infections of Toxascaris leonina in cats.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Theodore Chester, S; Rosentel, Joseph; Visser, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination product (BROADLINE(®), Merial) was evaluated against adult Toxascaris leonina ascarids in experimentally infected cats in two controlled studies under an identical protocol. For each study, 30 nematode-naive, purpose-bred European Short Hair cats were inoculated orally with approximately 300 larvated T. leonina eggs. Twenty-two and 24 cats, respectively, that were shown to be positive for Toxascaris eggs by pre-treatment faecal examination were subsequently included in the two studies. In each study, the animals were allocated randomly to an untreated (control) group or to a treatment group. The treatment was a novel topical combination: fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4% w/v) and praziquantel (8.3% w/v). Treatment was applied on Day 0 at 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely seven days after treatment and necropsied. All untreated cats harboured adult T. leonina (range, 1-31 nematodes). The treatment provided a high level of efficacy against adult T. leonina in both studies (95.8% and 98.1%, respectively p<0.001). All cats accepted the treatment well based on hourly post-treatment observations for 4h and daily observations thereafter. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. Thus the data indicate that this novel combination product will provide a safe and effective treatment against T. leonina in cats. PMID:24703075

  8. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against feline urinary bladder worm (Capillaria plica) infection.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Shukullari, Enstela; Rosentel, Joseph; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-04-28

    Infection with urinary capillarid bladder worms has been observed in cats worldwide. Although considered as generally causing no or little harm, infection with urinary capillarids may be associated with clinical disease which requires an appropriate treatment including the use of anthelmintics. Therefore, the efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v), and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) was evaluated against urinary capillarids in naturally infected cats. Sixteen European Short Hair cats (5 male, 11 female) with capillarid eggs in their urine pre-treatment were included in the study. At the time of treatment, the cats were approximately ten months to eight years old and weighed 1.6-3.6 kg. Cats were ranked based on decreasing bodyweight and then randomly allocated within replicates of two animals to one of the treatment groups. Each cat in the treated group received one topical application of the combination product at the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.12 mL/kg body weight delivering 10mg fipronil+12 mg (S)-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kilogram of body weight while the cats allocated to the control group remained untreated. For parasite recovery, identification and count, cats were euthanized humanely 14 days after treatment. All untreated cats harboured Capillaria plica in their urinary bladders (range 4-12), while no capillarids were recovered from the eight treated cats. Thus, the efficacy of the novel topical combination against C. plica was 100%. All cats accepted the treatment well based on post-treatment observations and daily observations thereafter. No adverse events or other health problems were observed during the study. PMID:24703076

  9. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against adult and larval stages of Toxocara cati in cats.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Baker, Christine F; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v), and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) was evaluated against adult and larval Toxocara cati in four controlled studies. All studies included experimentally infected, purpose-bred, short-haired cats. In two studies, 22 or 20 cats harbouring patent infections as confirmed by pre-treatment faecal examination, were included. Within each study, cats were allocated to one of two groups: control or treated. In a further two studies, 30 cats were included in each; cats were allocated to one of three groups: control, treated when T. cati were expected to be either migrating third and/or fourth-stage larvae, or treated when T. cati were expected to be fourth-stage larvae. Cats allocated to the treated groups received a single topical application of the combination product at 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight (10mg fipronil+12 mg (S)-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg). For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely at different intervals after treatment. In the studies targeting adult T. cati, ascarids were recovered from all controls (range 1-150) while only two worms were isolated from one treated cat. Thus, the efficacy of the novel combination was 99.4% and 100% against adult T. cati. For studies targeting larval T. cati, up to 21 worms were recovered from each of seven or eight of the control cats per study. No T. cati were recovered from the treated cats in two studies, corresponding to 100% efficacy against both, migrating third and/or fourth-stage larvae and luminal fourth-stage larvae. All cats accepted the treatment well and no adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. PMID:24703074

  10. Uma Krishnaswami and International Imaginings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldama, Frederick Luis

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with South Asian children's book and young adult fiction writer, Uma Krishnaswami. The interviewer states that "in all her creative endeavors Uma's keen sense of detail, narrative voice, and characterization complicate and humanize portrayals of multicultural peoples worldwide." In this interview, Krishnaswami…

  11. Human IgG1 Responses to Surface Localised Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 Family Members Drop following Praziquantel Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Iain W.; Fitzsimmons, Colin M.; Brown, Martha; Pierrot, Christine; Jones, Frances M.; Wawrzyniak, Jakub M.; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.; Khalife, Jamal; Hoffmann, Karl F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The heptalaminate-covered, syncytial tegument is an important anatomical adaptation that enables schistosome parasites to maintain long-term, intravascular residence in definitive hosts. Investigation of the proteins present in this surface layer and the immune responses elicited by them during infection is crucial to our understanding of host/parasite interactions. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel tegumental surface proteins including three (SmCD59a, SmCD59b and Sm29) containing uPAR/Ly6 domains (renamed SmLy6A SmLy6B and SmLy6D in this study). While vaccination with SmLy6A (SmCD59a) and SmLy6D (Sm29) induces protective immunity in experimental models, human immunoglobulin responses to representative SmLy6 family members have yet to be thoroughly explored. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a PSI-BLAST-based search, we present a comprehensive reanalysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 family (SmLy6A-K). Our examination extends the number of members to eleven (including three novel proteins) and provides strong evidence that the previously identified vaccine candidate Sm29 (renamed SmLy6D) is a unique double uPAR/Ly6 domain-containing representative. Presence of canonical cysteine residues, signal peptides and GPI-anchor sites strongly suggest that all SmLy6 proteins are cell surface-bound. To provide evidence that SmLy6 members are immunogenic in human populations, we report IgG1 (as well as IgG4 and IgE) responses against two surface-bound representatives (SmLy6A and SmLy6B) within a cohort of S. mansoni-infected Ugandan males before and after praziquantel treatment. While pre-treatment IgG1 prevalence for SmLy6A and SmLy6B differs amongst the studied population (7.4% and 25.3% of the cohort, respectively), these values are both higher than IgG1 prevalence (2.7%) for a sub-surface tegumental antigen, SmTAL1. Further, post-treatment IgG1 levels against surface-associated SmLy6A and SmLy6B significantly drop (p = 0.020 and p < 0.001, respectively) when compared to rising IgG1 levels against sub-surface SmTAL1. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, these results expand the number of SmLy6 proteins found within S. mansoni and specifically demonstrate that surface-associated SmLy6A and SmLy6B elicit immunological responses during infection in endemic communities. PMID:26147973

  12. The Universe in a Box: Introduction to the Study of Astronomy in the Initial Formation of Physics Teachers. (Spanish Title: El Universo Representado en Una Caja: Introducción al Estudio de la Astronomía en la Formación Inicial de Profesores de Física.) O Universo Representado em Uma Caixa: Introdução ao Estudo da Astronomia NA Formação Inicial de Professores de Física

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This is a report of an activity of introduction to the study of Astronomy developed with a group of future Physics teachers at a Brazilian public university. Such activity had the goal of giving privileged emphasis to notions of spatiality, alternative conceptions of the participants and the process of interaction among peers, and consisted of the representation, in a three dimensional space, of the models of the universe that the participants had. The results, which were categorized as miscellaneous, geocentric, heliocentric and acentric models of the universe, were qualitatively analyzed. Analyses of the activity in the perspective of the participants are indicated and additional considerations are made regarding its use as a resource for teaching Astronomy and for teacher training. Este es el informe de una actividad para presentar un estudio introductorio de la Astronomía, desarrollado con una clase de futuros profesores de física en una universidad pública brasileña. Esta actividad tuvo como objetivo centrar las nociones de espacialidad, las concepciones alternativas de los participantes y el proceso de interacción entre pares, y consistió en la representación en un espacio tridimensional, de los modelos del universo que los participantes habían. Los resultados, que se clasificaron en universo miscelania, geocéntrico, heliocéntrico y acentrico, se analizaron cualitativamente. Son identificadas análisis de la actividad por los participantes, e hizo observaciones sobre su uso como recurso para la enseñanza de la astronomía y la formación de docentes. Trata-se do relato de uma atividade de introdução ao estudo da Astronomia, desenvolvida com uma turma de futuros professores de Física, em uma universidade pública brasileira. Tal atividade teve como meta privilegiar noções de espacialidade, as concepções alternativas dos participantes e o processo de interação entre pares e constou da representação, em um espaço tridimensional, dos modelos de universo que os participantes possuíam. Os resultados, que foram categorizados em universo miscelânea, geocêntrico, heliocêntrico e acêntrico, foram analisados qualitativamente. São apontadas as análises da atividade na ótica dos participantes, além de tecidas considerações sobre seu emprego como recurso ao ensino de Astronomia e na formação docente.

  13. Therapeutic efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel oral formulation (Milbemax®) against Thelazia callipaeda in naturally infested dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last few decades, canine and feline thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda eye worms has gained the attention of the veterinary community due to the spread of this ocular infestation in geographical areas previously regarded as non endemic. The therapeutic efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel tablets (Milbemax®) against T. callipaeda was tested in naturally infested dogs and cats. Methods From January 2009 to July 2011 a placebo controlled and randomized field study was conducted in T. callipaeda endemic areas of Switzerland (CH) and Italy (ITA) involving client-owned animals. Dogs (n = 56) and cats (n = 31) were physically examined at enrolment Day 0 (D0) and twice afterwards (D7 and D14). Infested animals were orally treated with Milbemax® or with placebo tablets on D0 and, if an animal was found still infested with T. callipaeda, also on D7. On D14 nematodes were flushed from the conjunctiva, identified and counted. Results Out of 56 dogs, 43 were included in the statistical analysis, whereas 13 were excluded because the products under investigation were not administered with food, as required by the label. On D7 and D14, 72.7% and 90.9% of treated dogs were eye worm free, whereas in the placebo group 95.2% and 76.2% still harbored nematodes, resulting in a mean percentage worm count reduction for the Milbemax® group of 86.1% and 96.8%, respectively. Both results were significantly higher (p = 0.0001) than the placebo group. Out of the 31 cats included in the study at D7 and D14, 53.3% and 73.3% treated with Milbemax® were free of T. callipaeda, while 81.3% and 73.3 in the placebo group were still harbouring eye worms, resulting in a mean percentage worm count reduction for the treated group of 62.2% and 80.0%, respectively. Both results were significantly higher (p = 0.0106 and p = 0.0043) than the placebo group. Conclusions The commercial formulation of milbemycin oxime at the minimal dose of 0.5 mg/kg and 2 mg/k in dogs and cats, respectively, showed a high therapeutic efficacy in curing T. callipaeda infestations. The advantages of an oral application are additionally increased by the large spectrum of activity of praziquantel and milbemycin oxime against Cestodes and Nematodes infesting dogs and cats. PMID:22541136

  14. Closing the praziquantel treatment gap: new steps in epidemiological monitoring and control of schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    STOTHARD, J. RUSSELL; SOUSA-FIGUEIREDO, JOSÉ C.; BETSON, MARTHA; GREEN, HELEN K.; SETO, EDMUND Y. W.; GARBA, AMADOU; SACKO, MOUSSA; MUTAPI, FRANCISCA; VAZ NERY, SUSANA; AMIN, MUTAMAD A.; MUTUMBA-NAKALEMBE, MARGARET; NAVARATNAM, ANNALAN; FENWICK, ALAN; KABATEREINE, NARCIS B.; GABRIELLI, ALBIS F.; MONTRESOR, ANTONIO

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Where very young children come into contact with water containing schistosome cercariae, infections occur and schistosomiasis can be found. In high transmission environments, where mothers daily bathe their children with environmentally drawn water, many infants and preschool-aged children have schistosomiasis. This ‘new’ burden, inclusive of co-infections with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni, is being formally explored as infected children are not presently targeted to receive praziquantel (PZQ) within current preventive chemotherapy campaigns. Thus an important PZQ treatment gap exists whereby infected children might wait up to 4–5 years before receiving first treatment in school. International treatment guidelines, set within national treatment platforms, are presently being modified to provide earlier access to medication(s). Although detailed pharmacokinetic studies are needed, to facilitate pragmatic dosing in the field, an extended ‘dose pole’ has been devised and epidemiological monitoring has shown that administration of PZQ (40 mg/kg), in either crushed tablet or liquid suspension, is both safe and effective in this younger age-class; drug efficacy, however, against S. mansoni appears to diminish after repeated rounds of treatment. Thus use of PZQ should be combined with appropriate health education/water hygiene improvements for both child and mother to bring forth a more enduring solution. PMID:21861945

  15. Murine cysticercosis model: influence of the infection time and the time of treatment on the cysticidal efficacy of albendazole and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Pinzón-Estrada, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    In the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, Taenia crassiceps ORF strain cysticerci have been used instead of T. solium for in vitro studies. Up to date, the main criteria for the use of the murine cysticercosis model for drug efficacy evaluation have not been assessed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of two of the main variables related to the in vivo efficacy: the length of drug treatment and the starting time of treatment after experimental infection, using albendazole (ABZ) and praziquantel (PZQ) as test drugs. Additionally, the relationship between the number of cysts and the parasite weight was assessed. For the study, female BALB/c mice were experimentally infected with T. crassiceps cysts. Three different post-infection periods (10, 20 and 30 days) and three different lengths of treatment with ABZ or PZQ (10, 20 and 30 days) were selected. The efficacy of each treatment was evaluated by comparison with a control group. Our results show that for in vivo efficacy studies, the best time to start the drug treatment is 10 days post-infection and that a minimum of 20 days of treatment is required when ABZ or PZQ are used as positive control. Moreover, in this model the parasite weight can be used as a rapid tool to measure the in vivo drug activity. PMID:25500213

  16. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against induced infections of Ancylostoma spp. nematodes of cats.

    PubMed

    Prullage, Joseph B; Knaus, Martin; Bowman, Dwight D; Chester, S Theodore; Visser, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen; Rosentel, Joseph

    2014-04-28

    Four studies were conducted to examine the efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel (BROADLINE(®), Merial) against Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Ancylostoma braziliense hookworms of cats. In each study, purpose-bred cats were randomly assigned to treatment groups of 10 or 12 cats per group. In three studies the cats were inoculated with A. tubaeforme and in one study with A. braziliense. The inoculations were undertaken on a schedule which resulted in the hookworms reaching the fourth larval stage in two of the studies, or the adult stage in four of the studies, by the day of treatment. In each study there was also an untreated control and 1 or 2 groups treated with the novel combination. In the two studies where efficacy against the fourth larval stage of A. tubaeforme was tested, the efficacy recorded was 100%. In the three studies where efficacy against the adult stage of A. tubaeforme was tested, efficacy of 100% was also confirmed. In the study where efficacy against the adult stage of A. braziliense was tested efficacy was 99.5%. PMID:24703073

  17. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel, against the ticks, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis, on cats.

    PubMed

    Tielemans, E; Prullage, J; Knaus, M; Visser, M; Manavella, C; Chester, S T; Young, David; Everett, William R; Rosentel, J

    2014-04-28

    Five controlled, blinded and randomized studies were conducted to examine the efficacy of a single topical application of a combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel (BROADLINE(®), Merial) against induced infestations with Ixodes ticks on cats. Three studies investigated the efficacy against Ixodes ricinus and two against Ixodes scapularis. In each study, purpose-bred cats were assigned at random to an untreated group or to a treated group. For the studies using I. ricinus, cats were infested with 50 female ticks and a similar number of males 2 days before treatment application, and weekly afterwards on between four and six occasions. For the studies using I. scapularis, cats were infested with a total of 50 ticks (approximately 25 females and 25 males) according to the same schedule as for I. ricinus. Tick counts for the evaluation of efficacy were performed 48 h after treatment and 48 h after the subsequent weekly infestations. Weekly attachment rates to untreated cats of at least 29% for I. ricinus and at least 30% for I. scapularis demonstrated consistently that the ticks were vigorous and that the attachment rates were adequate for efficacy evaluation. In the I. ricinus studies, an efficacy of at least 93% was demonstrated for up to 37 days after the treatment. In the I. scapularis studies, the efficacy level was at least 95% 30 days after the treatment. The product was well tolerated and caused no adverse reaction. PMID:24703079

  18. Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells combined with praziquantel as a potential therapy for Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hammam, Olfat A.; Elkhafif, Nagwa; Attia, Yasmeen M.; Mansour, Mohamed T.; Elmazar, Mohamed M.; Abdelsalam, Rania M.; Kenawy, Sanaa A.; El-Khatib, Aiman S.

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is one of the most serious consequences of S. mansoni infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effect of human Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) combined with praziquantel (PZQ) in S. mansoni-infected mice. S. mansoni-infected mice received early (8th week post infection) and late (16th week post infection) treatment with WJMSCs, alone and combined with oral PZQ. At the 10th month post infection, livers were collected for subsequent flow cytometric, histopathological, morphometric, immunohistochemical, gene expression, and gelatin zymographic studies. After transplantation, WJMSCs differentiated into functioning liver-like cells as evidenced by their ability to express human hepatocyte-specific markers. Regression of S. mansoni-induced liver fibrosis was also observed in transplanted groups, as evidenced by histopathological, morphometric, and gelatin zymographic results besides decreased expression of three essential contributors to liver fibrosis in this particular model; alpha smooth muscle actin, collagen-I, and interleukin-13. PZQ additionally enhanced the beneficial effects observed in WJMSCs-treated groups. Our results suggest that combining WJMSCs to PZQ caused better enhancement in S. mansoni-induced liver fibrosis, compared to using each alone. PMID:26876222

  19. A DFT study of infrared spectra and Monte Carlo predictions of the solvation shell of Praziquantel and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, C. X.; Ferreira, N. S.; Mota, G. V. S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report a theoretical study of the inclusion complexes of Praziquantel (PZQ) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in liquid water. The starting geometry has been carried out by molecular mechanics simulations, and afterwards optimized in B3LYP level with a 6-311G(d) basis set. Monte Carlo simulations have been used to calculate the solvation shell of the PZQ/β-CD inclusion complexes. Moreover, the vibrational frequencies and the infrared intensities for the PZQ/β-CD complex were computed using the B3LYP method. It is demonstrated that this combined model can yield well-converged thermodynamic data even for a modest number of sample configurations, which makes the methodology particularly adequate for understanding the solute-solvent interaction used for generating the liquid structures of one solute surrounded by solvent molecules. The complex solvation shell showed an increase of the water molecule level in relation to the isolated PZQ molecule because of the hydrophilic effect of the CD molecule. The infrared spectra showed that the contribution that originated in the PZQ molecule was not predominant in the upper-wave number region in the drug/β-CD. The movement that purely originated in the PZQ molecule was localized in the absorption band, ranging from 1328 to 1688 cm- 1.

  20. Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells combined with praziquantel as a potential therapy for Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hammam, Olfat A; Elkhafif, Nagwa; Attia, Yasmeen M; Mansour, Mohamed T; Elmazar, Mohamed M; Abdelsalam, Rania M; Kenawy, Sanaa A; El-Khatib, Aiman S

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is one of the most serious consequences of S. mansoni infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effect of human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) combined with praziquantel (PZQ) in S. mansoni-infected mice. S. mansoni-infected mice received early (8(th) week post infection) and late (16(th) week post infection) treatment with WJMSCs, alone and combined with oral PZQ. At the 10(th) month post infection, livers were collected for subsequent flow cytometric, histopathological, morphometric, immunohistochemical, gene expression, and gelatin zymographic studies. After transplantation, WJMSCs differentiated into functioning liver-like cells as evidenced by their ability to express human hepatocyte-specific markers. Regression of S. mansoni-induced liver fibrosis was also observed in transplanted groups, as evidenced by histopathological, morphometric, and gelatin zymographic results besides decreased expression of three essential contributors to liver fibrosis in this particular model; alpha smooth muscle actin, collagen-I, and interleukin-13. PZQ additionally enhanced the beneficial effects observed in WJMSCs-treated groups. Our results suggest that combining WJMSCs to PZQ caused better enhancement in S. mansoni-induced liver fibrosis, compared to using each alone. PMID:26876222

  1. A DFT study of infrared spectra and Monte Carlo predictions of the solvation shell of Praziquantel and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex in liquid water.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, C X; Ferreira, N S; Mota, G V S

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, we report a theoretical study of the inclusion complexes of Praziquantel (PZQ) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in liquid water. The starting geometry has been carried out by molecular mechanics simulations, and afterwards optimized in B3LYP level with a 6-311G(d) basis set. Monte Carlo simulations have been used to calculate the solvation shell of the PZQ/β-CD inclusion complexes. Moreover, the vibrational frequencies and the infrared intensities for the PZQ/β-CD complex were computed using the B3LYP method. It is demonstrated that this combined model can yield well-converged thermodynamic data even for a modest number of sample configurations, which makes the methodology particularly adequate for understanding the solute-solvent interaction used for generating the liquid structures of one solute surrounded by solvent molecules. The complex solvation shell showed an increase of the water molecule level in relation to the isolated PZQ molecule because of the hydrophilic effect of the CD molecule. The infrared spectra showed that the contribution that originated in the PZQ molecule was not predominant in the upper-wave number region in the drug/β-CD. The movement that purely originated in the PZQ molecule was localized in the absorption band, ranging from 1328 to 1688cm(-1). PMID:26296254

  2. Simultaneous determination of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate, febantel and its active metabolites, oxfendazole and fenbendazole, in dog plasma by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Klausz, Gabriella; Keller, Éva; Sára, Zoltán; Székely-Körmöczy, Péter; Laczay, Péter; Ary, Kornélia; Sótonyi, Péter; Róna, Kálmán

    2015-12-01

    A liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry method (LC/MS) has been developed and validated for determination of praziquantel (PZQ), pyrantel (PYR), febantel (FBT), and the active metabolites fenbendazole (FEN) and oxfendazole (OXF), in dog plasma, using mebendazole as internal standard (IS). The method consists of solid-phase extractions on Strata-X polymeric cartridges. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Phenomenex Gemini C6 -Phenyl column using binary gradient elution containing methanol and 50 mm ammonium-formate (pH 3). The method was linear (r(2)  ≥ 0.990) over concentration ranges of 3-250 ng/mL for PYR andFEB, 5-250 ng/mL for OXF and FEN, and 24-1000 ng/mL for PZQ. The mean precisions were 1.3-10.6% (within-run) and 2.5-9.1% (between-run), and mean accuracies were 90.7-109.4% (within-run) and 91.6-108.2% (between-run). The relative standard deviations (RSD) were <9.1%. The mean recoveries of five targeted compounds from dog plasma ranged from 77 to 94%.The new LC/MS method described herein was fully validated and successfully applied to the bioequivalence studies of different anthelmintic formulations such as tablets containing PZQ, PYR embonate and FBT in dogs after oral administration. PMID:26104502

  3. Efficacy of Drontal Flavour Plus (50 mg praziquantel, 144 mg pyrantel embonate, 150 mg febantel per tablet) against Giardia sp in naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Ana; Dado, Diana; Mateo, Marta; Espinosa, Carmen; Miró, Guadalupe

    2008-10-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate and febantel (Drontal Flavour Plus) for three and five consecutive days was evaluated for treating naturally acquired giardiasis in dogs. In the study, 24 dogs naturally infected with Giardia were divided into three groups of eight dogs each. Dogs were treated at the recommended dosage for three or five consecutive days, and a control group remained untreated. Faecal samples from each dog were submitted to coprological examination from day-4 to -2 and at days 5, 7, 9 and 11. Faecal consistency was also assessed daily to study end. All dogs in the control group remained positive until study end. Giardia cysts were not detected in faeces of six of the eight dogs in the group treated on three consecutive days, and in faeces of five of the dogs in the group treated on five consecutive days. Unformed to diarrhoeic faeces were more often reported in dogs in the untreated control group than in dogs in both treatment groups. Efficacy of treatment for five consecutive days was not statistically better than treatment for three consecutive days. PMID:18661153

  4. Halema'uma'u vent

    Several collapses early this morning exposed more of the lava pond deep within the Halema`uma`u vent cavity. For the last several days, glowing and spattering holes (top image) have been active on the floor of the vent cavity, at a depth of about 200 m below the vent rim. At 3:06 am, a parti...

  5. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  6. [Long-term impact of a mass treatment by praziquantel on morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium in two hyperendemic villages of Niger].

    PubMed

    Garba, A; Campagne, G; Tassie, J M; Barkire, A; Vera, C; Sellin, B; Chippaux, J P

    2004-02-01

    Although it is established that the treatment by praziquantel reduces the urinary lesions due to Schistosoma haematobium, the frequency of mass treatment necessary to maintain a low morbidity level remains poorly known. The objective of this work was to study the impact over three years of a single praziquantel mass treatment on schistosomiasis morbidity in two different systems of disease transmission in Niger. The study was performed in 2 villages hyperendemic for schistosomiasis in the South-West of Niger presenting respectively 2 different systems of schistosomiasis transmission: Koutoukalé-Zéno (K Zéno), located close to an irrigated area of the Niger River Valley where the transmission is permanent, and Téguey located along a temporary pond where the transmission is seasonal. After the initial evaluation (1994), we carried out a survey 3 years later (1997) except in K. Zéno where an intermediate evaluation was performed 10 months after the initial survey (1995). Approximately 300 randomised people have been examined as follows: macroscopic examination of urine and reagent sticks for macro- and micro-haematuria, filtration and microscopic examination of urine for Schistosoma eggs, and ultrasound scan of the urinary tract for morbidity. The therapeutic coverage has reached 69.9% in K. Zéno and 78.2% in Téguey. The prevalence of infestation decreased from 74.1% to 56.4 % in K. Zéno (p < 0.001) and from 65.3% to 30.4% in Téguey (p < 0.001) at the end of the 3 years. The prevalence of heavy infestation (eggs > or = 50) went in the same time from 9.9% to 12.8% (p = 0.3) in K. Zéno and from 9.1% to 3.3% in Téguey (p = 0.01). Using ultrasound scan, the prevalence of the bladder lesions reached its previous level in both villages. However the prevalence of hydronephrosis decreased from 21.1% to 3.9% in K. éno (p < 0.001) and from 12.6% to 4.2% in Téguey (p < 0.001). Three years after the single mass treatment, the morbidity did not reach the initial level. The effectiveness of the treatment is better in the pond system where the transmission is seasonal. The lesions of the upper tract decreased more slowly than the bladder lesions, but a long time after the treatment. The re-infestation induced the re-appearance of the bladder lesions sooner than the lesions of the upper tract. The periodicity of the treatment should be variable according to the transmission system. It should occur every 2 years in irrigated areas and could be delayed (3 years) in temporary ponds. The control was beneficial in the pond system and induced a significant reduction of the severe lesions. PMID:15104149

  7. Factors associated with coverage of praziquantel for schistosomiasis control in the community-direct intervention (CDI) approach in Mali (West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the progress made in the control of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD), schistosome and soil-transmitted helminth infections are far from being effectively managed in many parts of the world. Chemotherapy, the key element of all control strategies, is faced with some difficulties in terms of access to treatment. Our study aims to describe the factors involved in the success or failure of the community-directed intervention (CDI) approach through control programmes, which aims to achieve consistent high coverage at affordable and sustainable costs in endemic areas. Methods The CDI approach was carried out from December 2007 to October 2008 in ten villages of the district of Diéma, Mali. At inclusion, each child part of the study’s sample was interviewed and submitted for a physical examination. The study focused on: data collection, treatment of the eligible population, evaluation of the treatment coverage, performance of community drug distributors (CDDs), and the involvement and perception of populations. Results A total of 8,022 eligible people were studied with a mean coverage rate of 76.7%. Using multiple regression, it was determined that receiving praziquantel as treatment was associated with five factors: belonging to the Fulani or Moorish ethnic minority versus the Bambara/Soninke, use of the central versus the house-to-house drug distribution mode, the ratio of the population to the number of CDDs, the lack of supervision and belonging to the age group of 15 years or above (p<0.05). As well as that, it was found that the presence of parallel community-based programmes (HIV, tuberculosis) that provide financial incentives for community members discouraged many CDDs (who in most cases are volunteers) to participate in the CDI approach due to a lack of incentives. Conclusions The findings indicate that the success of the CDI approach depends on, amongst other things, the personal characteristics of the respondents, as well as on community factors. PMID:23849481

  8. Profiling Nonrecipients of Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis and Hookworm Infections: A Comprehensive Analysis of Praziquantel and Albendazole Coverage in Community-Directed Treatment in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Chami, Goylette F.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, Erwin; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Repeated mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapies is the mainstay of morbidity control for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, yet the World Health Organization recently reported that less than one-third of individuals who required preventive chemotherapies received treatment. Methods. Coverage of community-directed treatment with praziquantel (PZQ) and albendazole (ALB) was analyzed in 17 villages of Mayuge District, Uganda. National drug registers, household questionnaires, and parasitological surveys were collected to track 935 individuals before and after MDA. Multilevel logistic regressions, including household and village effects, were specified with a comprehensive set of socioeconomic and parasitological variables. The factors predicting who did not receive PZQ and ALB from community medicine distributors were identified. Results. Drug receipt was correlated among members within a household, and nonrecipients of PZQ or ALB were profiled by household-level socioeconomic factors. Individuals were less likely to receive either PZQ or ALB if they had a Muslim household head or low home quality, belonged to the minority tribe, or had settled for more years in their village. Untreated individuals were also more likely to belong to households that did not purify drinking water, had no home latrine, and had no members who were part of the village government. Conclusions. The findings demonstrate how to locate and target individuals who are not treated in MDA. Infection risk factors were not informative. In particular, age, gender, and occupation were unable to identify non-recipients, although World Health Organization guidelines rely on these factors. Individuals of low socioeconomic status, minority religions, and minority tribes can be targeted to expand MDA coverage. PMID:26409064

  9. Efficacy of praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosoma haematobium infection among school-age children in rural communities of Abeokuta, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ) has been the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control over the last two decades. Being the only available drug for the treatment of over 200 million people worldwide, continuous monitoring of PZQ efficacy under the pressure of widespread use is therefore advocated. Methods The efficacy of taking two doses of oral PZQ for the treatment of Schistosoma haematobium was examined among school children in Nigeria. Urine specimens were collected from 350 school children and examined using the filtration technique. Blood was collected for packed cell volume (PCV) estimation, and the weight and height of each child were estimated. S. haematobium egg positive pupils were treated with two oral doses of PZQ at 40 mg/kg with a four-week interval in between. Drug efficacy was determined based on the egg reduction rate (ERR). Results Among 350 school children, 245 (70.0%) – of which 132 were males and 113 were females, with an age range of 4 to 15 years – were diagnosed with S. haematobium. All the 245 infected children received a single oral dose of 40 mg/kg PZQ twice with a four-week interval in between and were followed up for 12 weeks. At four, eight and twelve weeks post treatment, the ERR was 57.1%, 77.6% and 100%, respectively. The ERR was significantly higher among the children with a light infection compared to those with a heavy infection. One hundred and twenty-one children were egg negative at four weeks post treatment, among which 1 (6.3) and 120 (52.4%) had heavy and light infections, respectively. Following the second round of treatment, the cure rate at eight weeks and twelve weeks was 85.3% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrated the efficacy of taking two doses of oral PZQ for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in Nigeria. PMID:25215186

  10. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against adult and immature stages of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) on cats.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christine; Tielemans, Eric; Prullage, Joseph B; Chester, S Theodore; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen; Fourie, Josephus J; Young, David R; Everett, William R; Rosentel, Joseph K

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v) and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v) (BROADLINE(®)) was tested against adult and immature stages of Ctenocephalides felis fleas in six studies. For that purpose, fleas from different colonies from North America, Germany and South Africa were used to induce infestations in cats under laboratory conditions. In each study, between 12 and 16 cats were allocated randomly to 2 groups. Cats in Group 1 were not treated and served as controls. Cats in Group 2 were treated once on Day 0 with BROADLINE(®) at the minimum recommended dosage of 0.12 mg/kg body weight. In 4 studies, all animals were infested experimentally with unfed C. felis (100 ± 5) on Days 2 (or 1), 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Live fleas were counted 24h post-treatment or infestation. In 2 additional studies, animals were infested at the same frequency with gravid C. felis fleas (100 ± 5) that were fed previously on an untreated host. Forty-eight hours post-infestation, flea eggs were collected, counted and incubated for the evaluation of the reduction of emergence of adults. The combined curative efficacy against adult fleas at 24h after treatment was 94.3% and the combined preventive efficacy values remained greater than 95.9% at 24h after 5 subsequent weekly infestations. In addition, the product reduced dramatically the emergence of new adult fleas for at least 5 weeks (>98.1% for one month and 93.2% at 5 weeks after infestation), demonstrating its efficiency in preventing environmental contamination by immature stages. PMID:24703078

  11. Preventive efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil--(S)-methoprene--eprinomectin--praziquantel against ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestation of cats through a natural infestation model.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Bouhsira, Emilie; Halos, Lénaïg; Franc, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A study based on naturally infested cats was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a single treatment with a topical formulation containing fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel, for the prevention of Otodectes cynotis infestation in cats. Six treated cats and six untreated cats were housed with three chronically Otodectes cynotis-infested cats, respectively. The cats of each group were kept together in a 20-m(2) room for 1 month. Both clinical examination and ear mite counts were conducted on Day 28. All donor cats were confirmed to be chronically infested with Otodectes cynotis on Day -1 and Day 28. From untreated control cats, 129 live mites were recovered on Day 28 and all cats were found to be infested. In the treated group, three cats were found to be infested, with a total of five live mites recovered, the difference between the two groups being significant (p = 0.003). One treatment corresponded to 96% preventive efficacy at Day 28 based on ear mite counts. With regard to cerumen, the clinical score increased significantly for untreated cats between Day -1 and Day 28 (p = 0.00026) and not for treated cats (p = 0.30). The difference in cerumen abundance was significant between untreated and treated cats on Day 28 (p = 0.0035). Concerning the pruritic reflex in at least one ear, all cats were negative at inclusion. All six untreated cats became positive and showed a reflex on Day 28, whereas no treated cat showed ear pruritus (p = 0.00026). PMID:25148648

  12. Lipid peroxidation and etheno DNA adducts in white blood cells of liver fluke-infected patients: protection by plasma alpha-tocopherol and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Dechakhamphu, Somkid; Pinlaor, Somchai; Sitthithaworn, Paiboon; Nair, Jagadeesan; Bartsch, Helmut; Yongvanit, Puangrat

    2010-01-01

    Chronic infection by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a strong risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma. To clarify the involvement of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation-derived DNA damage, etheno (epsilon)-DNA adducts (epsilondA, epsilondC) in WBC and plasma alpha-tocopherol were measured in samples collected from O. viverrini-infected Thai patients (n = 50) and healthy noninfected volunteers (n = 20). epsilondA and epsilondC levels were three to five times higher (P < 0.001) in infected patients than in controls; O. viverrini infection also increased two to three times in the plasma inflammatory indicators, 8-isoprostane, malondialdehyde, and nitrate/nitrite. Mean plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were two times lower in patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.001). Two months after a single dose to infected patients of the antiparasitic drug praziquantel, epsilondA and epsilondC levels in WBC were decreased to control level (P < 0.03); plasma 8-isoprostane, malondialdehyde, nitrate/nitrite, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were concomitantly lowered. epsilondA and epsilondC levels in WBC were positively correlated with plasma 8-isoprostane, malondialdehyde, and nitrate/nitrite levels and ALP activity, whereas plasma alpha-tocopherol levels showed inverse correlations. We conclude that chronic O.viverrini infection induces an accumulation of lipid peroxidation-derived DNA damage through oxidative/nitrative stress, which is lowered by the plasma alpha-tocopherol and by antiparasitic drug therapy. Etheno adducts in WBC and urine should be explored as a risk marker for opisthorchiasis-related cholangiocarcinoma, and to assess the efficacy of preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:20056652

  13. CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells and Cytokine Responses in Human Schistosomiasis before and after Treatment with Praziquantel

    PubMed Central

    Janse, Jacqueline J.; de Gier, Brechje; Adegnika, Ayôla A.; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G.; Smits, Hermelijn H.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic schistosomiasis is associated with T cell hypo-responsiveness and immunoregulatory mechanisms, including induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, little is known about Treg functional capacity during human Schistosoma haematobium infection. Methodology CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ cells were characterized by flow cytometry and their function assessed by analysing total and Treg-depleted PBMC responses to schistosomal adult worm antigen (AWA), soluable egg antigen (SEA) and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in S. haematobium-infected Gabonese children before and 6 weeks after anthelmintic treatment. Cytokines responses (IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17 and TNF) were integrated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Proliferation was measured by CFSE. Principal Findings S. haematobium infection was associated with increased Treg frequencies, which decreased post-treatment. Cytokine responses clustered into two principal components reflecting regulatory and Th2-polarized (PC1) and pro-inflammatory and Th1-polarized (PC2) cytokine responses; both components increased post-treatment. Treg depletion resulted in increased PC1 and PC2 at both time-points. Proliferation on the other hand, showed no significant difference from pre- to post-treatment. Treg depletion resulted mostly in increased proliferative responses at the pre-treatment time-point only. Conclusions Schistosoma-associated CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+Tregs exert a suppressive effect on both proliferation and cytokine production. Although Treg frequency decreases after praziquantel treatment, their suppressive capacity remains unaltered when considering cytokine production whereas their influence on proliferation weakens with treatment. PMID:26291831

  14. Evaluation of immunological, parasitological and molecular methods for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection before and after chemotherapy treatment with praziquantel in experimentally infected Nectomys squamipes.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Rosana; Gonçalves, Margareth Maria Lessa; da Costa Neto, Sócrates Fraga; da Costa, Maristella Matos; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Peralta, José Mauro

    2011-08-25

    In low endemicity areas of schistosomiasis, the recommended diagnostic method of coprological examination results in an underestimation of infection cases. Alternative diagnostic methods have been developed, such as immunodiagnostic and molecular techniques. In this study we evaluated three methods used in the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection: parasitological (Kato-Katz), immunological (ELISA) and molecular (real time PCR), and also investigated the sensitivity of each technique in the cure determination after treatment with praziquantel using the water rat Nectomys squamipes, a natural reservoir for S. mansoni, as an experimental model. Two infection laboratory experiments were carried out. The first experiment aimed to observe the evolution of the immunological response in the first moments after infection and in the first months after treatment. The second experiment aimed to compare the efficacy of the three diagnostic techniques after infection and after treatment over a more extended time period. In the first experiment, 44% of the infected animals showed IgG reactivity after two weeks of infection, and 94% were positive based on serology 30 days after infection. The serological IgG titers increased just after infection but decreased gradually after treatment. In the second experiment, 89% of the animals showed positive IgG titers 22 days after infection. Only 68% of the animals showed positive results on the coproscopic diagnostic analysis and 79% did so by qPCR, 50 days after infection. Treated animals showed negative results on coproscopy one month after treatment but remained positive by serology even 12 months after treatment, although showing a decline in immunologic reaction after treatment. By qPCR analysis, all animals showed negative results three months after treatment, except for one animal. The parasitosis can be detected by coproscopy only six weeks after infection, and by serology 14 days after infection. The qPCR was a better diagnostic method for confirming the infection cure of S. mansoni. In early infection, this method was less efficient than serology but was slightly more efficient than the Kato-Katz method. We suggest that the methods should be used in low endemic areas as follows: serology should be used in the initial diagnosis in a population with potential positive cases; subsequently, coproscopy should be used in IgG positive cases to confirm the current infection; and qPCR should be used to evaluate the infection cure after treatment and is also a very valuable tool when there are cases showing positive IgG and negative coproscopy. PMID:21458922

  15. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of eprinomectin in cats when administered in a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Kvaternick, Valerie; Kellermann, Michael; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen; Rosentel, Joseph

    2014-04-28

    Four studies were conducted to determine the pharmacokinetic characteristics and in vitro metabolism of eprinomectin, a semi-synthetic avermectin, in cats. Pharmacokinetic parameters including bioavailability of eprinomectin were determined in a parallel study design comprised of one group of eight cats which were treated once topically at 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight with BROADLINE(®), a novel combination product (fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v) and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v)), delivering a dose of 0.5mg eprinomectin per kg body weight, and a group of six cats which received 0.4% (w/v) eprinomectin at 0.4 mg/kg bodyweight once by intravenous injection. For cats treated by topical application, the average eprinomectin (B1a component) maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 20 ng/mL. The maximum concentrations were reached 24h after dosing in the majority of the animals (six of eight cats). The average terminal half-life was 114 h due to slow absorption ('flip-flop' kinetics). Following intravenous administration the average Cmax was 503 ng/mL at 5 min post-dose, and the mean elimination half-life was 23 h. Eprinomectin was widely distributed with a mean volume of distribution of 2,390 mL/kg, and the clearance rate was 81 mL/h/kg. Mean areas under the plasma concentration versus time curves extrapolated to infinity were 2,100 ngh/mL and 5,160 ngh/mL for the topical and intravenous doses, respectively. Topical eprinomectin was absorbed with an average absolute bioavailability of 31%. In a second parallel design study, the dose proportionality of eprinomectin after single topical administration of BROADLINE(®) was studied. Four groups of eight cats each were treated once topically with 0.5, 1, 2 or 5 times the minimum recommended dose of the combination, 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight. Based on comparison of areas under the plasma concentration versus time curves from the time of dosing to the last time point at which eprinomectin B1a was quantified, and Cmax, dose proportionality was established. In addition, the metabolic pathway of eprinomectin using cat liver microsomes, and plasma protein binding using cat, rat, and dog plasma were studied in vitro. Results of the analyses of eprinomectin B1a described here showed that it is metabolically stable and highly protein bound (>99%), and thus likely to be, as with other species, excreted mainly as unchanged parent drug in the feces of cats. PMID:24703069

  16. Single Versus Double Dose Praziquantel Comparison on Efficacy and Schistosoma mansoni Re-Infection in Preschool-Age Children in Uganda: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nalugwa, Allen; Nuwaha, Fred; Tukahebwa, Edridah Muheki; Olsen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosoma mansoni infection is proven to be a major health problem of preschool-age children in sub-Saharan Africa, yet this age category is not part of the schistosomiasis control program. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of single and double dose praziquantel (PZQ) treatment on cure rates (CRs), egg reduction rates (ERRs) and re-infection rates 8 months later, in children aged 1-5 years living along Lake Victoria, Uganda. Methodology/Principal Findings Infected children (n= 1017) were randomized to receive either a single or double dose of PZQ. Initially all children were treated with a single standard oral dose 40 mg/kg body weight of PZQ. Two weeks later a second dose was administered to children in the double dose treatment arm. Side effects were monitored at 30 minutes to 24 hours after each treatment. Efficacy in terms of CRs and ERRs for the two treatments was assessed and compared 1 month after the second treatment. Re-infection with S. mansoni was assessed in the same children 8 months following the second treatment. CRs were non-significantly higher in children treated with two 40 mg/kg PZQ doses (85.5%; 290/339) compared to a single dose (83.2%; 297/357). ERRs were significantly higher in the double dose with 99.3 (95%CI: 99.2-99.5) compared with 98.9 (95%CI: 98.7-99.1) using a single dose, (P = 0.01). Side effects occurred more frequently during the first round of drug administration and were mild and short-lived; these included vomiting, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. Overall re-infection rate 8 months post treatment was 44.5%. Conclusions PZQ is efficacious and relatively safe to use in preschool-age children but there is still an unmet need to improve its formulation to suit small children. Two PZQ doses lead to significant reduction in egg excretion compared to a single dose. Re-infection rates with S. mansoni 8 months post treatment is the same among children irrespective of the treatment regimen. PMID:26011733

  17. Cytokine Responses to the Anti-schistosome Vaccine Candidate Antigen Glutathione-S-transferase Vary with Host Age and Are Boosted by Praziquantel Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Claire D.; Nausch, Norman; Rujeni, Nadine; Appleby, Laura J.; Trottein, Franois; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mutapi, Francisca

    2014-01-01

    Background Improved helminth control is required to alleviate the global burden of schistosomiasis and schistosome-associated pathologies. Current control efforts rely on the anti-helminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ), which enhances immune responses to crude schistosome antigens but does not prevent re-infection. An anti-schistosome vaccine based on Schistosoma haematobium glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is currently in Phase III clinical trials, but little is known about the immune responses directed against this antigen in humans naturally exposed to schistosomes or how these responses change following PZQ treatment. Methodology Blood samples from inhabitants of a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area were incubated for 48 hours with or without GST before (n?=?195) and six weeks after PZQ treatment (n?=?107). Concentrations of cytokines associated with innate inflammatory (TNF?, IL-6, IL-8), type 1 (Th1; IFN?, IL-2, IL-12p70), type 2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), type 17 (IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23p19) and regulatory (IL-10) responses were quantified in culture supernatants via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to analyse multiple cytokines simultaneously. Principal Findings A combination of GST-specific type 2 (IL-5 and IL-13) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines was significantly lower in 1012 year olds, the age group at which S. haematobium infection intensity and prevalence peak, than in 49 or 13+ year olds. Following PZQ treatment there was an increase in the number of participants producing detectable levels of GST-specific cytokines (TNF?, IL-6, IL-8, IFN?, IL-12p70, IL-13 and IL-23p19) and also a shift in the GST-specific cytokine response towards a more pro-inflammatory phenotype than that observed before treatment. Participant age and pre-treatment infection status significantly influenced post-treatment cytokine profiles. Conclusions/Significance In areas where schistosomiasis is endemic host age, schistosome infection status and PZQ treatment affect the cellular cytokine response to GST. Thus the efficacy of a GST-based vaccine may also be shaped by the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of targeted populations. PMID:24810615

  18. Sustaining Control of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Western Côte d’Ivoire: Results from a SCORE Study, One Year after Initial Praziquantel Administration

    PubMed Central

    Assaré, Rufin K.; Tian-Bi, Yves-Nathan T.; Yao, Patrick K.; N’Guessan, Nicaise A.; Ouattara, Mamadou; Yapi, Ahoua; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Meïté, Aboulaye; Hürlimann, Eveline; Knopp, Stefanie; Utzinger, Jürg; N’Goran, Eliézer K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) has launched several large-scale trials to determine the best strategies for gaining and sustaining control of schistosomiasis and transitioning toward elimination. In Côte d’Ivoire, a 5-year cluster-randomized trial is being implemented in 75 schools to sustain the control of schistosomiasis mansoni. We report Schistosoma mansoni infection levels in children one year after the initial school-based treatment (SBT) with praziquantel and compare with baseline results to determine the effect of the intervention. Methodology The baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011/early 2012 and the first follow-up in May 2013. Three consecutive stool samples were collected from 9- to 12-year-old children in 75 schools at baseline and 50 schools at follow-up. Stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. Directly observed treatment (DOT) coverage of the SBT was assessed and the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection compared between baseline and follow-up. Principal Findings The S. mansoni prevalence in the 75 schools surveyed at baseline was 22.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 19.5–24.4%). The DOT coverage was 84.2%. In the 50 schools surveyed at baseline and one year after treatment, the overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection decreased significantly from 19.7% (95% CI: 18.5–20.8%) to 12.8% (95% CI: 11.9–13.8%), while the arithmetic mean S. mansoni eggs per gram of stool (EPG) among infected children slightly increased from 92.2 EPG (95% CI: 79.2–105.3 EPG) to 109.3 EPG (95% CI: 82.7–135.9 EPG). In two of the 50 schools, the prevalence increased significantly, despite a DOT coverage of >75%. Conclusions/Significance One year after the initial SBT, the S. mansoni prevalence had decreased. Despite this positive trend, an increase was observed in some schools. Moreover, the infection intensity among S. mansoni-infected children was slightly higher at the 1-year follow-up compared to the baseline situation. Our results emphasize the heterogeneity of transmission dynamics and provide a benchmark for the future yearly follow-up surveys of this multi-year SCORE intervention study. PMID:26789749

  19. Efficacy against nematode and cestode infections and safety of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination product in domestic cats under field conditions in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Capári, Balazs; Duscher, Georg; Keidane, Dace; Kirkova, Zvezdelina; Petkevičius, Saulius; Rapti, Dhimiter; Wagner, Annegret; Wagner, Thomas; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Tielemans, Eric; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Kley, Katrin; Knaus, Martin

    2014-04-28

    A novel topical combination product (BROADLINE(®), Merial) composed of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was evaluated for safety and efficacy against nematode and cestode infections in domestic cats. The study comprised a multi-centre, positive control, blinded, field study, using a randomized block design based on order of presentation for allocation. In total 196 client-owned cats, confirmed as positive for naturally acquired infections of nematodes and/or cestodes by pre-treatment faecal examination, were studied in seven countries in Europe. Pre-treatment faecal examination revealed the presence of Toxocara, hookworm, Capillaria and/or spirurid nematode infections in 129, 73, 33 or 1 cat(s), respectively; infections with taeniid and Dipylidium cestodes were demonstrated in 39 and 17 cats, respectively. Cats were allocated randomly to one of two treatments in a ratio of 2, topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial; 130 cats); and 1, topical PROFENDER(®) Spot-On (Bayer; 66 cats) and treated once on Day 0. For evaluation of efficacy, two faecal samples were collected, one prior to treatment (Day -4 ± 4 days) and one at the end of the study (Day 14 ± 5 days). These were examined for fecal forms of nematode and cestode parasites. For evaluation of safety, cats were examined by a veterinarian before treatment and at the end of the study, and cat owners recorded the health status of their cats daily until the end of the study. For cats treated with Broadline(®), the efficacy was >99.9%, 100%, and 99.6% for Toxocara, hookworms, and Capillaria, respectively; and the efficacy was >99.9%, >99.9%, and 98.5%, respectively, for the cats treated with Profender(®) (p<0.001 for all nematodes and both treatments). Efficacy was 100% for both cestodes for both treatments (p<0.001). No treatment related adverse experiences were observed throughout the study. For both treatments, every cat that completed the study was given a safety score of 'excellent' for both local and systemic evaluations. The topical combination product of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was shown to have an excellent safety profile and demonstrated high levels of efficacy when administered once as topical solution to cats infected with nematodes and cestodes under field conditions. PMID:24703070

  20. Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

  1. Halema'uma'u Vent Gas Plume

    Over the past several days, the lava surface within the vent in Halema'uma'u has occasionally, and temporarily, reached to within about 115 m (375 ft) below the floor of Halema'uma'u Crater, as seen in this photo. During these high-lava stands, the gas plume is generally fairly wispy, providing the ...

  2. Halema'uma'u Vent Gas Plume

    Kilauea's active summit vent is on the southeast side of Halema'uma'u Crater. In this photo, the floor of Halema'uma'u stretches out beyond the vent, and the summit of Kilauea Volcano is at upper right. The observation tower at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is the highest bump in the photo at Kil...

  3. Efficacy of a single dose of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel combination tablets, Milpro(®), against adult Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and both adult and immature E. multilocularis in young cats.

    PubMed

    Cvejic, Dejan; Schneider, Claudia; Fourie, Josephus; de Vos, Christa; Bonneau, Stephane; Bernachon, Natalia; Hellmann, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Two single-site, laboratory, negatively controlled, masked, randomised dose confirmation studies were performed: one in dogs, the other in cats. After a period of acclimatisation, both the dogs and cats were orally infected with Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces. In the dog study, 10 dogs received a single dose of Milpro® tablets at a minimum dose of 0.5 mg/kg milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg praziquantel 18 days post-infection and 10 dogs received no treatment. In the cat study, 10 cats received a single dose of Milpro® tablets at a minimum dose of 2 mg/kg milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg praziquantel 7 days post-infection, 10 cats received a single dose of the treatment 18 days post-infection and 10 cats remained untreated. In both studies, intestinal worm counts were performed 23 days post-infection at necropsy. No worms were retrieved from any of the 30 treated animals. Nine of 10 control dogs had multiple worms (geometric mean 91, arithmetic mean 304) and all 10 control cats had multiple worms (geometric mean 216, arithmetic mean 481). The difference in worm counts between all three treated groups and their controls was highly significant (ANOVA p values of log transformed data <0.0001). Efficacy of 100 % was demonstrated for the elimination of adult E. multilocularis in dogs and cats as well as for elimination of immature E. multilocularis in cats as evidenced by the effectiveness of treatment 7 days post-infection. The treatments were well accepted and tolerated, and there were no adverse drug reactions observed. PMID:26660919

  4. UMA/GAN network architecture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liang; Li, Wensheng; Deng, Chunjian; Lv, Yi

    2009-07-01

    This paper is to critically analyze the architecture of UMA which is one of Fix Mobile Convergence (FMC) solutions, and also included by the third generation partnership project(3GPP). In UMA/GAN network architecture, UMA Network Controller (UNC) is the key equipment which connects with cellular core network and mobile station (MS). UMA network could be easily integrated into the existing cellular networks without influencing mobile core network, and could provides high-quality mobile services with preferentially priced indoor voice and data usage. This helps to improve subscriber's experience. On the other hand, UMA/GAN architecture helps to integrate other radio technique into cellular network which includes WiFi, Bluetooth, and WiMax and so on. This offers the traditional mobile operators an opportunity to integrate WiMax technique into cellular network. In the end of this article, we also give an analysis of potential influence on the cellular core networks ,which is pulled by UMA network.

  5. Praziquantel treatment of school children from single and mixed infection foci of intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis along the Senegal River Basin: monitoring treatment success and re-infection patterns.

    PubMed

    Webster, Bonnie L; Diaw, Oumar T; Seye, Mohmoudane M; Faye, Djibril S; Stothard, J Russell; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C; Rollinson, David

    2013-11-01

    Following major water development schemes in the 1980s, schistosomiasis has become a serious parasitic disease of children living in the Senegal River Basin. Both urogenital (Schistosoma haematobium) and intestinal (Schistosoma mansoni) schistosomiasis can be highly prevalent in school-aged children, with many individuals infected with both parasites. In order to investigate the transmission and re-infection dynamics of both parasite species, single and mixed infection foci at three villages (Nder and Temeye; S. mansoni and S. haematobium foci and Guia; S. haematobium focus) were studied. In each focus infected children were identified and selected for a 12-month study involving two treatments with praziquantel (40mg/kg) three weeks apart at the beginning of the study and again 6 months into the study. Urine and stool samples were examined for schistosome eggs before and at 6 weeks and 6 months after chemotherapy. Prevalence and intensity of infection were recorded for each child at each time point. Before treatment, in all three villages, the prevalence and intensity of infection was extremely high for both S. mansoni (79-100%) and S. haematobium (81-97%). With the first round of chemotherapy sufficient cure rates (CRs) of both species were achieved in all villages (38-96%) with high egg reduction rates (ERRs) (97-99%). The data show that high and rapid re-infection rates occur, especially for S. mansoni, within a six-month period following treatment. Re-infection must be highly linked to ecological and seasonal factors. The persistence of S. mansoni in Nder could raise concern as levels of infection intensity remain high (geometric mean intensity at baseline 653epg changed to 705epg at 12 months) after four rounds of chemotherapy. This phenomenon could be explained by extremely rapid re-infection dynamics or a sub-optimal efficacy of praziquantel against S. mansoni in this village. High intensities in mixed infections may influence disease epidemiology and control warranting further studies. The disease situation in the SRB must be monitored closely and new treatment regimes should be designed and implemented to control schistosomiasis in the school-age population. PMID:23022016

  6. Halema'uma'u Maintains Basic Geometry

    The lava lake at Halema'uma'u has maintained the same basic geometry since February of this year. This thermal image was taken during a helicopter overflight, and shows the lava surface deep within the vent cavity. The lava surface is kidney-shaped and approximately 60 x 90 meters in size, and situa...

  7. Halema'uma'u Lava Activity

    Spectacular eruptive activity has been occurring deep within the collapse pit in Halema`uma`u Crater at Kīlauea's summit. At times, a river of lava poured into a deeper plunge pool of lava, which had a dome fountain on its right-hand side....

  8. Halema'uma'u Lava Activity

    Spectacular eruptive activity has been occurring deep within the collapse pit in Halema`uma`u Crater at K?lauea's summit. At times, a river of lava poured into a deeper plunge pool of lava, which had a dome fountain on its right-hand side....

  9. Halema'uma'u Vent Gas Plume

    The largely crusted surface of the lava lake in the Halema'uma'u vent slowly moves from north (top of the photo) to south. During high lava stands, like that shown here, this circulation is so slow as to be nearly imperceptible to the naked eye....

  10. Thermal Image of Halema'uma'u

    This image was collected from a thermal camera at the Halema`uma`u Overlook, and shows the current activity at the summit. The active lava pond, about 40 m across, is situated deep within the vent cavity, at a depth of about 200 m. The lava surface consists of slowly migrating crustal plates...

  11. Astronomia cultural e meio ambiente segundo uma abordagem holística

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho ampliamos a discussão da abordagem holística para o ensino de astronomia que temos desenvolvido nos últimos anos, analisamos novos resultados e apresentamos exemplos práticos para interessados em experimentá-la. A constatação básica a orientar este enfoque é que cursos introdutórios em astronomia costumam ser excessiva e prematuramente técnicos, além de assumirem uma visão tradicional, muito estreita, do que seja educação científica, herdada da era cartesiana e positivista da ciência. Fundamentamos porque é importante que elementos de astronomia cultural ofereçam o mote e constituam o eixo norteador daqueles cursos e porque é urgente revermos a visão que temos da relação entre astronomia e meio ambiente. Um ponto central nesta abordagem é explorar formas de reativar e atualizar uma relação orgânica com o meio e excitar a consciência de nossa inevitável e profunda interdependência com ele em nível cósmico. Neste trabalho exemplificamos a possibilidade de concretização desta proposta em três diferentes situações: disciplinas de cursos de licenciatura em geografia e em física; escolas de nível fundamental; e, neste caso ainda a ser implementada, comunidades carentes. Estes casos envolvem públicos e espaços diferenciados para educação formal e não-formal. Dos casos já implementados, destacamos os resultados alcançados pelos alunos: enriquecimento cultural, aprendizagem significativa de conteúdos astronômicos tradicionais; mudanças de comportamento, incorporando contato diário com o céu; e freqüentes vivências de sentimentos empáticos que redirecionam a relação com a natureza e a consciência ecológica global. Além disto, para interessados em aplicar esta proposta, também socializamos procedimentos e cuidados para a implementação de ações alternativas consonantes com a mesma. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  12. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de normalizadas, en el desempeño de los estudiantes en estos dos asuntos foram pequenas, 0.26 e 0.13 respectivamente. El razonamiento espacial de los estudiantes fue medido utilizando un instrumento específico desarrollado para este trabaljo. Las correlaciones entre los resultados de los tests astronómicos y este instrumento específico, antes y después del curso mostraron una relación entre moderada y fuerte, sugiriendo que la relación entre el razonamiento espacial y el conocimiento astronómico puede explicar hasta un 25% de la variación em el desempeño de los estudiantes. A comunidade da educação em astronomia tem suposto de forma implícita que o aprendizado da astronomia consiste em um domínio conceitual fundamentado no raciocínio espacial. Como um primeiro passo para identificar formalmente uma relação empírica entre estas duas coisas, utilizamos como amostra os estudantes de graduação de carreiras não científicas de um curso exploratório em uma universidade norte-americana do meio-oeste de médio porte com programa de Doutorado em andamento, onde estes estudantes foram submetidos a um diagnóstico de raciocino espacial e conceitos astronômicos antes e depois do mesmo. As ferramentas utilizadas foram o Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) e o questionário What do you know? Utilizando somente dados completamente consistentes para esta análise, nossa amostra consistiu de 86 estudantes de graduação. As melhoras, depois de normalizadas, do desempenho dos estudantes nos dois quesitos foram pequenas, 0.26 e 0.13 respectivamente. O raciocínio espacial dos estudantes foi medido utilizando um instrumento específico desenhado para este trabalho. As correlações entre os resultados dos testes astronômicos e este instrumento específico antes e depois do curso mostraram uma relação entre moderada e forte, sugerindo que a relação entre o raciocínio espacial e o conhecimento astronômico pode explicar até um 25% na variação no desempenho dos estudantes.

  13. Flip-flop Activity on the W UMa-type Binary System HH UMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Zhang, Xiaobin; Deng, Licai; Luo, Changqing; Luo, Yangping; Zhang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    We report the discovery of flip-flop activity in a W UMa-type binary. A long-term multi-color photometric surveillance of HH UMa was carried out with three sets of light curves obtained over six weeks. The light curves of the eclipsing binary presented marked asymmetry and rapid interchange between the two light maxima. During the observations from 2014 February to 2014 April, the spot distortion phase jumped between phases 0.25 and 0.75 twice, a typical indication of flip-flop activity. We applied the Wilson-Devinney method to analyze the three light curves. The results indicate that HH UMa is a partially eclipsing contact system of A subtype with an obviously asymmetric light curve. The observed light curves can be modeled by assuming that there are two dark spots on the massive primary component that are almost persistently located around phases 0.25 and 0.75, but can interchange their intensities. We further suggest that a plausible scenario for explaining the properties of those dark spots is strong surface magnetic activity with a sudden reversal of the more active longitude. We therefore conclude that HH UMa is very likely a W UMa-type system displaying flip-flop activity.

  14. Preventive efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil – (S)-methoprene – eprinomectin – praziquantel against ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestation of cats through a natural infestation model

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Bouhsira, Émilie; Halos, Lénaïg; Franc, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A study based on naturally infested cats was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a single treatment with a topical formulation containing fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel, for the prevention of Otodectes cynotis infestation in cats. Six treated cats and six untreated cats were housed with three chronically Otodectes cynotis-infested cats, respectively. The cats of each group were kept together in a 20-m2 room for 1 month. Both clinical examination and ear mite counts were conducted on Day 28. All donor cats were confirmed to be chronically infested with Otodectes cynotis on Day −1 and Day 28. From untreated control cats, 129 live mites were recovered on Day 28 and all cats were found to be infested. In the treated group, three cats were found to be infested, with a total of five live mites recovered, the difference between the two groups being significant (p = 0.003). One treatment corresponded to 96% preventive efficacy at Day 28 based on ear mite counts. With regard to cerumen, the clinical score increased significantly for untreated cats between Day −1 and Day 28 (p = 0.00026) and not for treated cats (p = 0.30). The difference in cerumen abundance was significant between untreated and treated cats on Day 28 (p = 0.0035). Concerning the pruritic reflex in at least one ear, all cats were negative at inclusion. All six untreated cats became positive and showed a reflex on Day 28, whereas no treated cat showed ear pruritus (p = 0.00026). PMID:25148648

  15. Development and validation of an enantioselective LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of the anthelmintic drug praziquantel and its main metabolite in human plasma, blood and dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Meister, Isabel; Leonidova, Anna; Kovač, Jana; Duthaler, Urs; Keiser, Jennifer; Huwyler, Jörg

    2016-01-25

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is the treatment of choice against various trematode and cestode infections. To study the pharmacokinetics of PZQ in patients infected with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, we developed and validated an enantioselective liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of R - and S -PZQ and its R -trans-4-OH-PZQ metabolite in human plasma, blood and dried blood spots (DBS). The analytes were detected in the positive mode using selected reaction monitoring (R- and S-PZQ: m/z 312.2 → 202.2; R-trans -4-OH-PZQ: m/z 328.0 → 202.0). Prior to the chiral separation with a cellulose tris(3-chloro-4-methylphenylcarbamate) column, the analytes were purified from matrix contaminants and concentrated on a C-18 trapping column. The analytical range for each PZQ enantiomer was 0.01-2.5 μg/mL, and 0.1-25 μg/mL for the metabolite. The method met the requirements regarding precision (± 15%, ± 20% at the lower limit of quantification-LLOQ), intra- and inter-assay accuracy (85-115%, 80-120% at LLOQ), and linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.998). The analytes were stable in stock solutions as well as in plasma, blood and DBS. For DBS, the influences of hematocrit and blood spot size were considered as minor. Our validation results show that the method presented here is precise, accurate and selective, and can be used for pharmacokinetic studies. Moreover, the enantioselective separation was achieved with a run time of 11.5 min and a simple sample processing method. PMID:26517852

  16. Uma Viso do Universo Segundo um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Mdio de So Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Arajo, M.; Amaral, L. H.; Voelzke, M. R.; Arajo, M.

    2005-08-01

    A astronomia, embora seja uma cincia popular, com inmeras descobertas de interesse pblico, ainda apresentada desconsiderando-se os aspectos histricos e cientficos relacionados ao seu desenvolvimento, sendo geralmente veiculada nos meios de comunicao de maneira pouco esclarecedora e no raro com imprecises. Neste trabalho analisou-se a concepo de um grupo de estudantes de Ensino Mdio sobre conceitos de astronomia, visando identificar sua viso de mundo a respeito do Universo, envolvendo idias sobre espao e tempo. Para issso, foi aplicado um questionrio em trs escolas da grande So Paulo em um espao amostral de 270 alunos. Constatou-se que, embora o ensino de astronomia esteja previsto nos PCNEM, os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que h grande deficincia no conhecimento dos temas investigados. Nesse sentido, verificou-se que apenas 20% dos alunos eram capazes de relacionar a sucesso das semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estaes do ano inclinao do eixo de rotao da Terra. Por outro lado, somente 23% dos alunos tinham noes das distncias entre os objetos celestes prximos da Terra e 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo. Finalmente, constatou-se que 37% reconheciam o ano-luz como uma unidade de distncia e 60% reconheciam o Sol como sendo uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem que a escola a principal fonte para aquisio dos conhecimentos de astronomia, conclui-se que seus conceitos nessa rea ainda so inadequados, havendo necessidade de ampliao e aprimoramento da abordagem desses contedos nos ambientes escolares.

  17. Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    "Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

  18. High speed photometry of AN UMa

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, J.N.; Steiman-Cameron, T.Y.; Durisen, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    As a class, the AM Her objects exhibit temporal variability on time scales ranging from seconds to years. Most of the variations can be adequately described by ''shot noise'' models (Cordova and Mason 1982). Exceptions to this are the strictly periodic features modulated on the orbital periods of the systems (typically several hours) and the one to two second features which show up as ''excesses'' of power in the time averaged power spectra of AN UMa (Middleditch 1982) and E1405-451 (Mason et al. 1983; Larsson 1985). It has been suggested that the short time scale features are due to an oscillatory ''instability'' of radiative accretion shocks discovered by Langer, Chanmugam, and Shaviv (1981, 1982). This is an interesting suggestion because, if true, it would allow the masses of the accreting white dwarfs to be inferred and would provide other significant constraints on the physics of the accretion flows (see Langer et al. 1981, 1982; Chevalier and Imamura 1982; Imamura, Wolff, and Durisen 1984; Imamura 1985). Unfortunately, a direct physical relationship between the one to two second optical variations and shock oscillations has not yet been demonstrated. Because of the potential importance of such a result further study of these systems is clearly warranted. In this work, we examine the short time scale behavior of AN UMa in more detail and improve on the work of Middleditch (1982) by resolving the feature in time.

  19. Chemical Compatibility and Safety of Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) Concomitantly Used with Imidacloprid/Moxidectin (Advocate®, Advantage® Multi) and Emodepside/Praziquantel (Profender®) Spot-on Formulations.

    PubMed

    Krüdewagen, Eva Maria; Remer, Carolin; Deuster, Katrin; Schunack, Bettina; Wolken, Sonja; Crafford, Dionne; Fourie, Josephus; Stanneck, Dorothee

    2015-08-01

    Safety of concomitant use of veterinary products is of clinical interest. A series of studies was performed to evaluate the chemical compatibility and short term dermal and systemic safety of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®)/ Foresto(®), Bayer) used concomitantly with spot-on or tablet formulations.Chemical compatibility was evaluated in-vitro (study reference A) on collar pieces, followed by two small, non-controlled clinical studies (study reference B) in both, cats and dogs. The studies showed, that certain solvents affected the collar in-vitro, but not in their marketed formulations.Dermal and systemic safety of different spot-on or tablet formulations was first evaluated in a small, non-controlled clinical study (study reference C) in cats and dogs, via clinical observations only, followed by controlled clinical safety studies of concomitant use with imidacloprid/ moxidectin (Advocate(®)/ Advantage(®) Multi, Bayer) in dogs and cats (study reference D) and emodepside/ praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) in cats (study reference E), assessing safety aspects by clinical observations and statistical analyses of hematology and clinical chemistry parameters compared to baseline values and between treated and control groups.Dermal safety findings over all clinical studies (study references B to E) matched those already described for the respective products and included transient cosmetic changes (oily hair and crystal formation) at the site of spot-on application and broken hair, transient alopecia and skin alterations at the site of collar application. There were no indications of these findings aggravating under the conditions of concurrent use. There were no systemic safety findings of clinical significance in any of the clinical safety studies (study reference C to E). Assessment of blood parameters revealed some deviations from baseline levels and from the reference range in dogs as well as in cats, but no clinical relevance could be deduced. Hematology and clinical chemistry results confirmed the safety of the concomitant treatment. It is concluded that Seresto(®) is chemically compatible with solvents used in major spot-on formulations on the market and is dermally and systemically safe for adult dogs and cats when used concomitantly with Advocate(®) and Profender(®) spot-on formulations. PMID:26152409

  20. Pharmacokinetic Study of Praziquantel Enantiomers and Its Main Metabolite R-trans-4-OH-PZQ in Plasma, Blood and Dried Blood Spots in Opisthorchis viverrini-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Isabel; Kovac, Jana; Duthaler, Urs; Odermatt, Peter; Huwyler, Jörg; Vanobberghen, Fiona; Sayasone, Somphou; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Praziquantel (PZQ) is the treatment of choice for infections with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, a major health problem in Southeast Asia. However, pharmacokinetic (PK) studies investigating the disposition of PZQ enantiomers (R- and S-PZQ) and its main metabolite, R-trans-4-OH-PZQ, in diseased patients are lacking. The implementation of a dried blood spot (DBS) sampling technique would ease the performance of PK studies in remote areas without clinical facilities. The aim of the present study is to provide data on the disposition of PZQ enantiomers and R-trans-4-OH-PZQ in opisthorchiasis patients and to validate the use of DBS compared to plasma and blood sampling. Methodology/Principal Findings PZQ was administered to nine O. viverrini-infected patients at 3 oral doses of 25 mg/kg in 4 h intervals. Plasma, blood and DBS were simultaneously collected at selected time points from 0 to 24 h post-treatment. PK parameters were determined using non-compartmental analysis. Drug concentrations and areas under the curve (AUC0–24h) measured in the 3 matrices were compared using Bland-Altman analysis. We observed plasma AUC0–24hs of 1.1, 9.0 and 188.7 μg/ml*h and half-lives of 1.1, 3.3 and 6.4 h for R-PZQ, S-PZQ and R-trans-4-OH, respectively. Maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) of 0.2, 0.9 and 13.9 μg/ml for R-PZQ, S-PQZ and R-trans-4-OH peaked at 7 h for PZQ enantiomers and at 8.7 h for the metabolite. Individual drug concentration measurements and patient AUC0–24hs displayed ratios of blood or DBS versus plasma between 79–94% for R- and S-PZQ, and between 108–122% for R-trans-4-OH. Conclusions/Significance Pharmacodynamic (PD) in vitro studies on PZQ enantiomers and R-trans-4-OH-PZQ are necessary to be able to correlate PK parameters with efficacy. DBS appears to be a valid alternative to conventional venous sampling for PK studies in PZQ-treated patients. PMID:27152952

  1. Thermal Image of Halema'uma'u Crater

    This thermal image (white is hot, dark blue is cold), taken during today's helicopter overflight, shows the current vent configuration at Halema`uma`u crater. The vent cavity is about 130 meters (430 ft) wide, and has consumed portions of the wall and floor of Halema`uma`u crater. Th...

  2. View Into Halema'uma'u Overlook Vent

    Looking into the Halema'uma'u Overlook vent during a lava high stand. In the lower half of the vent, several glowing cracks in the crusted lava surface can be seen through the diffuse fume. The remaining portion of the Halema'uma'u Overlook fence is at the bottom of the photograph....

  3. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  4. Propriedades de estruturas temporais rápidas submilimétricas durante uma grande explosão solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.-P.; Kaufmann, P.; Gimenez de Castro, C. G.; Pacini, A. A.; Makhmutov, V.; Levato, H.; Rovira, M.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos novas propriedades de variações rápidas da emissão submilimétrica durante uma das maiores explosões solares do ciclo solar 23. Os dados analisados neste estudo foram obtidos com o Telescópio Solar Submilimétrico (SST), que observa o Sol em 212 GHz e 405 GHz, e comparados com emissões em Raios-X duros e Raios-gama (fótons de energia > 10 MeV), que foram obtidas pelo experimento GRS do Yohkoh. Aplicamos diferentes metodologias para detectar e caracterizar, ao longo do evento, os pulsos submilimétricos (duração de 50-300 ms) detectados acima de uma componente mais lenta (alguns minutos). Os resultados mostram que durante a fase impulsiva, num instante próximo ao tempo do máximo do evento, houve um aumento da ocorrência de maiores e de mais rápidas estruturas temporais. Também identificamos uma boa correlação com as emissões em raios-X e raios-gama (até a faixa de energia 10-100 MeV), indicando que os pulsos rápidos submilimétricos refletiram injeções primárias de energia durante o evento.O espectro do fluxo desses pulsos é crescente com a freqüência entre 212 and 405 GHz, na maioria dos casos, ao contrário do observado para a componente gradual. As posições calculadas para as estruturas rápidas são discretas, compactas e localizadas em toda a área da região ativa, o que é previsto nos modelos de explosões solares decorrentes de instabilidades múltiplas em diferentes pequenas regiões. Por outro lado, a posição calculada para a componente lenta é estável durante a fase impulsiva. Assim, a comparação entre as características do espectro de fluxo e da localização da emissão, para os pulsos rápidos e para a componente gradual, sugere que as respectivas emissões são de natureza diferente.

  5. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  6. MR UMa superoutburst coverage requested for HST observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-03-01

    Dr. Boris Gaensicke (Warwick University) requested AAVSO observations of the currently-outbursting SU UMa-type cataclysmic variable MR UMa in preparation for and support of HST observations scheduled for the week of 2013 April 4-7. Since MR UMa appears to be in superoutburst, the HST observations might offer an unplanned opportunity to measure the post-outburst cooling of the WD in this system. Nightly V and visual observations are requested 2013 March 8 through at least April 10; as the HST observations draw closer, the cadence of observations may be revised. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. For outburst details and behavioral history of MR UMa, see full Alert Notice.

  7. Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

  8. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...). Administer directly by mouth or crumbled and in feed. (ii) Indications for use—(A) For removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis. (B) For removal of the canine cestode Echinococcus granulosus, and for removal and control of the canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. (iii)...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...). Administer directly by mouth or crumbled and in feed. (ii) Indications for use—(A) For removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis. (B) For removal of the canine cestode Echinococcus granulosus, and for removal and control of the canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. (iii)...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use. For removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and removal and control of canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. (iii) Limitations. Federal...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...). Administer directly by mouth or crumbled and in feed. (ii) Indications for use—(A) For removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis. (B) For removal of the canine cestode Echinococcus granulosus, and for removal and control of the canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. (iii)...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... use. For removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and removal and control of canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. (iii) Limitations. Federal...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...). Administer directly by mouth or crumbled and in feed. (ii) Indications for use—(A) For removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis. (B) For removal of the canine cestode Echinococcus granulosus, and for removal and control of the canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. (iii)...

  14. A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase evolutiva S.

  15. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de emissão e a relação dos índices espectrais, dpés > dtopo prioriza as interpretações com difusão em ângulo de passo devida a colisões Coulombianas. Nesta difusão o déficit de elétrons energéticos na precipitação seria uma conseqüência natural da dependência em e-3/2 das colisões elétron-próton (onde e é a energia dos elétrons).

  16. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  17. Detecção da fase impulsiva de uma explosão solar gigante até 405 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.-P.; Makhmutov, V.; Kaufmann, P.; Pacini, A. A.; Luethi, T.; Hudson, H. S.; Gary, D. E.; Yoshimori, M.

    2003-08-01

    A explosão ocorrida no dia 25/08/2001 foi uma das mais intensas do presente ciclo solar em ondas de rádio de altas frequências. Foram medidas em ondas milimétricas e submilimétricas, aproximadamente, 105 e vários milhares de unidades de fluxo solar, respectivamente. Apresentamos um estudo deste evento em múltiplas frequências, desde microondas (1GHz), até ondas submilimétricas (405 GHz) detectadas pelo Telescópio Solar para ondas Submilimétricas (SST). Esta base de dados foi complementada utilizando-se o experimento Yohkoh, incluindo a emissão em raios-X duros e raios-g (até 100 MeV), e imagens em raios-X moles da região ativa envolvida. Enfocamos e discutimos principalmente os seguintes aspectos da fase impulsiva do evento: (i) as implicações deduzidas do espectro eletromagnético, obtido pela primeira vez até 405 GHz; (ii) a dinâmica da região ativa. Os resultados mostram que para explicar o espectro rádio observado, são necessários entre 3.5×1037 e 1.5×1039 elétrons acelerados acima de 20 keV em uma região de campo magnético entre 300 e 800 Gauss. A estimativa do fluxo de fótons que seria produzido por estes elétrons, mostra que grande parte deles não precipitou na baixa atmosfera. A evolução temporal da emissão em raios-X moles revela que a configuração magnética da região ativa foi muito dinâmica durante a fase impulsiva da explosão. Em particular, mostramos que a produção dos elétrons altamente energéticos foi iniciada junto com a aparição, na baixa coroa solar, de um novo sistema compacto de estruturas magnéticas. Este fato sugere que os locais de aceleração estão localizados na baixa atmosfera do Sol, como resultado da interação entre o novo sistema compacto e o campo magnético ambiente da região ativa.

  18. Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-08-01

    Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma estrutura maior.

  19. Thermal Image of Halema'uma'u Vent

    This thermal image shows the view of the Halema`uma`u vent from today's overflight. The kidney-shaped lava pond, about 90 meters long, is deep within the vent cavity. The mostly-crusted lava migrates from the north (right in this photo), where it upwells from depth, to the south, where is si...

  20. Another W UMa stellar system of the antipodean sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, C. T.

    2012-04-01

    UV Grus, a W UMa star in the southern hemisphere, was observed in V filter using personal telescopes in South Africa during the 2006/7/8 season. An ephemeris of UV Grus is presented. Software modeling packages of BINARY MAKER 3 and PHOEBE were employed to constrain the parameters of the binary components. The result of the modeling exercise is presented.

  1. Neural network analysis of W UMa eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeraatgari, F. Z.; Abedi, A.; Farshad, M.; Ebadian, M.; Riazi, N.

    2015-04-01

    We try five different artificial neural models, four models based on PNN (Perceptron Neural Network), and one using GRNN (Generalized Regression Neural Network) as tools for the automated light curve analysis of W UMa-type eclipsing binary systems. These algorithms, which are inspired by the Rucinski method, are designed and trained using MATLAB 7.6. A total of 17,820 generated contact binary light curves are first analyzed using a truncated cosine series with 11 coefficients and the most significant coefficients are applied as inputs of the neural models. The required sample light curves are systematically generated, using the WD2007 program (Wilson and Devinney 2007). The trained neural models are then applied to estimate the geometrical parameters of seven W UMa-type systems. The efficiency of different neural network models are then evaluated and compared to find the most efficient one.

  2. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do público em questão.

  3. Comparative Speed of Kill, Repellent (anti-feeding) and Acaricidal Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and a Fipronil/(S)-Methoprene/Eprinomectin/Praziquantel Spot-on (Broadline®) against Ixodes ricinus (Linné, 1758) on Cats.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus J; Horak, Ivan G; de Vos, Christa; Deuster, Katrin; Schunack, Bettina

    2015-08-01

    Speed of kill, repellent (anti-feeding) and acaricidal efficacy of an imidacloprid 10 % (w/w) /flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) and a spot-on formulation of fipronil 8.3 % (w/v) /(S)-methoprene 10 % (w/v) /eprinomectin 0.4 % (w/v) /praziquantel 8.3 % (w/v) (Broadline(®), Merial) against artificiallyinduced infestations with Ixodes ricinus on cats, were assessed in a parallel group design, randomised, controlled study. Twenty-four cats were included and randomly allocated to treatment groups or a non-treated control group. Starting on Day (D) 7 after treatment until D28, cats were each infested with 50 I. ricinus at weekly intervals. Ticks were counted in situ on the cats at 6, 12 and 24 h and upon removal 48 h after each infestation. Based on arithmetic means, Seresto(®) proved to be 100 % effective against adult I. ricinus at all assessment times (6, 12, 24 and 48 h after infestation) throughout the month-long study. Broadline(®) was 0 % to 16.7 % effective at 6 h, 26.8 % to 50.0 % effective at 12 h, while at 24 h after infestation efficacy peaked at 81.5 % on D15 declining to 31.5 % on D29. Based on the 48 h tick counts, the efficacy of Broadline(®) peaked at 100 % on D16 after treatment and decreased to 83.2 % by D30. The Seresto(®) collar provided significantly faster speed of kill and better persistent acaricidal effectiveness against Ixodes ricinus on cats compared to Broadline(®) spot-on. The additional repellent (anti-feeding) effect of Seresto(®) prevents parasites from taking a blood meal and thereby reduces the risk of vector-borne disease pathogen transmission. PMID:26152412

  4. Transmission electron microscopic observations on ultrastructural alterations in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from C57BL/6 mice treated with radiation-attenuated vaccine and/or praziquantel in addition to passive immunization with normal and vaccinated rabbit sera against infection.

    PubMed

    El-Shabasy, Eman A; Reda, Enayat S; Abdeen, Sherif H; Said, Ashraf E; Ouhtit, Allal

    2015-04-01

    Although the current treatment of schistosomiasis relies largely on praziquantel (PZQ), it has not been successful in significantly reducing the overall rate of disease cases, one of the suggested reasons being the inevitable resistance to PZQ. Previous studies showed that radiation-attenuated vaccine provides protection against Schistosoma mansoni in a host of various species. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of various vaccination strategies in C57BL/6 mice, including single or multiple vaccination strategy, subcurative dose (20 mg/kg) of PZQ, and a combination of single vaccination with subcurative dose of PZQ. Treatment either with subcurative dose of PZQ or with a single vaccination of attenuated cercariae (500 per mouse), caused significant reduction in total worm burden, hepatic, and intestinal ova counts of 43.03, 73.2, and 59.5 and 37.97, 52.02, and 26.3%, respectively. Furthermore, tegumental changes were observed. In multiple vaccinated group, there was an extensive lysis in tegumental layers. High deformations in gastrodermis, testis cells, vitelline cells, and oocytes were recorded. Also, this study is to explore the role of humoral immunity using highly resistant rabbits that had been exposed to three immunizations with ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated cercariae (8000 per rabbit in each immunization), and their sera were tested for their ability to transfer protection. The reduction in challenge worm burden had reached 32.76-43.64% when compared with recipients of normal serum or no serum. The reduction in hepatic and intestinal ova counts reached to 74.4 and 71.08% in group immunized with vaccinated rabbit sera. Swelling and extensive lysis of tegumental layers, gastrodermis lumen, spermatocytes, and deformation of oocytes were recorded with more severity than that recorded in normal rabbit sera group. Our findings recorded that multiple vaccination strategy is the most effective strategy then passive transfer of vaccinated rabbit. This gives guiding in the design the appropriate therapeutic strategy. PMID:25786393

  5. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two directional techniques were employed, resulting in three mapped, potential epicenters. The remaining, weaker signals presented similar directionality results to more epicentral locations. In addition, the directional results of the Timpson field tests lead to the design and construction of a third prototype antenna. In a laboratory setting, experiments were created to fail igneous rock types within a custom-designed Faraday Cage. An antenna emplaced within the cage detected EM emissions, which were both reproducible and distinct, and the laboratory results paralleled field results. With a viable system and continuous monitoring, a fracture cycle could be established and observed in real-time. Sequentially, field data would be reviewed quickly for assessment; thus, leading to a much improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursor determined by this method may surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

  6. Planetary Obliquity Evolution in the 47 Uma Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erikson, A.; Skoglöv, E.

    2003-04-01

    In two studies by Laskar and Robuterl (1993) and Laskar et al. (1993) the obliquity evolution of the major planets of the Solar System was investigated. It was found that the terrestrial planets have a high probability of encountering chaotic regimes and thereby initiating large variations in their obliquities. Such variations are expected to have had profound implications for the long-term atmosphere and surface conditions of the planets. The recent discovery of an extra solar planetary system (47 Uma), with a habitable zone that could potentially harbor small terrestrial planets (e.g. Jones and Sleep, 2002 and Thébault et al. 2002), have raised questions about the conditions for habitability in such a system (e.g. Franck et al. 2001 and Cuntz et al. 2003). In that context the effects of the obliquity evolution might be of importance and has been numerically simulated for hypothetical planets located in the habitable zone of 47 Uma. The results found will be presented and discussed in detail. Cuntz et al. 2003. Icarus in press. - Franck et al. 2001. Naturwissenschaften 88, 416. - Jones and Sleep 2002. A&A 393, 1015. - Laskar and Robuterl 1993. Nature 361, 608. - Laskar et al. 1993. Nature 361, 615. - Thébault et al. 2002. A&A 384, 594.

  7. Uma análise do fenômeno “alternância de línguas” na fala de bilíngues intermodais (Libras e Português)

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Aline Nunes; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2013-01-01

    Um interessante fenômeno lingüístico presente nas interações das pessoas bilíngues é a alternância de línguas. Neste trabalho, estamos investigando a alternância entre a língua portuguesa oral e a língua de sinais brasileira – Libras, numa mesma cadeia enunciativa, com o objetivo de identificar e analisar o uso dessa alternância na fala de uma criança e de um adulto (ambos ouvintes, filhos de pais surdos), interagindo em uma situação de bilinguismo intermodal, com interlocutores surdos e ouvintes. A alternância de línguas, nesse caso, ocorre quando se para de falar em português e se alterna para sinalizar. O presente trabalho se caracteriza como um estudo inicial, com análise qualitativa de dados. Fazem parte do nosso corpus nove sessões de interações em Libras e em português oral, gravadas em vídeo, que fazem parte do Projeto Desenvolvimento Bilíngue Bimodal da UFSC. Os dados revelam que as características da alternância de línguas pelo adulto e pela criança parecem ter semelhanças e diferenças. O sujeito adulto parece ter feito um uso da alternância mais preocupado com o curso da interação. A criança, por sua vez, não parece tê-la usado com propósitos pragmáticos específicos. Quanto à extensão das alternâncias, pode-se perceber que tanto a criança quanto o adulto utilizaram enunciados maiores do que uma única palavra isolada. O papel dos interlocutores parece ter sido decisivo nas interações aqui investigadas – especialmente nas do adulto, já que a criança ainda está em processo de tomada de consciência do papel do interlocutor na interação. PMID:24379831

  8. First photometric study of W UMa binary star LU Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, W.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhao, E.-G.; Jiang, L.-Q.

    2014-08-01

    LU Lac is a neglected W UMa binary star in photometric investigations. In this paper, we present BVRI CCD photometric light curves obtained on one night in 2012. The first photometric solutions of this system are computed by using the Wilson-Devinney code. It is shown that LU Lac is a marginal contact W-type system with a degree of contact factor of f=8.9%, a mass ratio of q=2.085 and a high inclination of i=82°.20. From the first analyses of orbital period changes, we found the period variation of the system includes an oscillation (A3=0.0125 days and T3=51.92 years). The cyclic change may be attributed to the light-travel time effect through the presence of a third body.

  9. Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre ou tras coi sas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no Ensino Médio não tem contribuído de forma significativa para uma maior compreensão dos fenòmenos e conceitos.

  10. Everyday EMS leadership.

    PubMed

    Porter, Warren J

    2004-06-01

    As EMS professionals, you influence others every day by your actions, knowledge and the way you communicate. You lead teams in critical moments in people's lives; you make a difference. Your attitude, the manner and effect of your communication and your actions will determine whether you will influence people and become a true leader. Become a better paramedic/EMT and leader by ensuring that your influence on others is positive rather than negative. No matter who you are or your position, start today to build your team, put others first and follow your vision. PMID:15216602

  11. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. At the Southern California field sites, one loop antenna was positioned for omni-directional reception and also detected a strong First Schumann Resonance; however, additional Schumann Resonances were absent. At the Timpson, TX field sites, loop antennae were positioned for directional reception, due to earthquake-induced, hydraulic fracturing activity currently conducted by the oil and gas industry. Two strong signals, one moderately strong signal, and approximately 6-8 weaker signals were detected in the immediate vicinity. The three stronger signals were mapped by a biangulation technique, followed by a triangulation technique for confirmation. This was the first antenna mapping technique ever performed for determining possible earthquake epicenters. Six and a half months later, Timpson experienced two M4 (M4.1 and M4.3) earthquakes on September 2, 2013 followed by a M2.4 earthquake three days later, all occurring at a depth of five kilometers. The Timpson earthquake activity now has a cyclical rate and a forecast was given to the proper authorities. As a result, the Southern California and Timpson, TX field results led to an improved design and construction of a third prototype antenna. With a loop antenna array, a viable communication system, and continuous monitoring, a full fracture cycle can be established and observed in real-time. In addition, field data could be reviewed quickly for assessment and lead to a much more improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursors determined by this method appear to surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

  12. View From The Active Lava Surface in Halema'uma'u Crater

    Following several collapses and small explosive events that deposited spatter on the floor of Halema'uma'u crater around noon, the lava surface in Halema'uma'u was roiling and agitated for the remainder of the afternoon, with numerous points of upwelling and spattering....

  13. Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

  14. Perda de massa em ventos empoeirados de estrelas supergigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Em praticamente todas as regiões do diagrama HR, as estrelas apresentam evidências observacionais de perda de massa. Na literatura, pode-se encontrar trabalhos que tratam tanto do diagnóstico da perda de massa como da construção de modelos que visam explicá-la. O amortecimento de ondas Alfvén tem sido utilizado como mecanismo de aceleração de ventos homogêneos. Entretanto, sabe-se que os envelopes de estrelas frias contêm grãos sólidos e moléculas. Com o intuito de estudar a interação entre as ondas Alfvén e a poeira e a sua conseqüência na aceleração do vento estelar, Falceta-Gonçalves & Jatenco-Pereira (2002) desenvolveram um modelo de perda de massa para estrelas supergigantes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo do modelo acima proposto para avaliar a dependência da taxa de perda de massa com alguns parâmetros iniciais como, por exemplo, a densidade r0, o campo magnético B0, o comprimento de amortecimento da onda L0, seu fluxo f0, entre outros. Sendo assim, aumentando f0 de 10% a partir de valores de referência, vimos que aumenta consideravelmente, enquanto que um aumento de mesmo valor em r0, B0 e L0 acarreta uma diminuição em .

  15. Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

  16. Evolução química em galáxias compactas azuis (BCGs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfranchi, G. A.; Matteucci, F.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho, a formação estelar e evolução quí mica em galáxias Compactas Azuis (Blue Compact Galaxies - BCGs) foram estudadas através da comparação de previsões de modelos de evolução quí mica a várias razões de abundância quí mica observadas nestas galáxias. Modelos detalhados com recentes dados de nucleossí ntese e que levam em consideração o papel desempenahdo por supernovas de ambos os tipos (II e Ia) na evolução galáctica foram desenvolvidos para as BCGs permitindo seguir a evolução de vários elementos quí micos (H, D, He, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Ca, e Fe). O modelo é caracterizado pelas prescrições adotadas para a formação estelar, a qual ocorre em vários surtos de atividade separados por longos perí odos quiescentes. Após ajustar os melhores modelos aos dados observacionais, as previsões destes modelos foram comparadas também a razões de abundância observadas em sistemas Damped Lyman alpha (DLAs) e a origem do N (primária ou secundária) foi discutida. Alguns dos resultados obtidos são: i) as razões de abundância observadas nas BCGs são reproduzidas por modelos com 2 a 7 surtos de formação estelar com eficiência entre n = 0.2-0.9 Gano-1; ii) os baixos valores de N/O observados nestas galáxias são um resultado natural de uma formação estelar em surtos; iii) os modelos para BCGs podem reproduzir os dados dos DLAs, iv) uma quantidade "baixa" de N primário produzido em estrelas de alta massa pode ser uma explicação para os baixos valores de [N/a] observados em DLAs.

  17. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e é tal situação que este trabalho busca, em parte, reverter.

  18. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxies in the UMa cluster complex (Karachentsev+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Nasonova, O. G.; Courtois, H. M.

    2015-04-01

    A nearby friable cloud in Ursa Majoris contains 270 galaxies with radial velocities 500UMa complex. According to Makarov & Karachentsev (2011MNRAS.412.2498M, Cat. J/MNRAS/412/2498), most of the UMa galaxies belong to seven bound groups, which have the following median parameters: velocity dispersion of 58k/s, harmonic projected radius of 300kpc, virial mass of 2x1012M⊙ and virial mass-to-K-band luminosity ratio of 27M⊙/L⊙. Almost a half of the UMa cloud population are gas-rich dwarfs (Ir, Im, BCD) with active star formation seen in the GALEX UV-survey. The UMa groups reside within 15-19Mpc from us, being just at the same distance as the Virgo cluster. The total virial mass of the UMa groups is 4x1013M⊙, yielding the average density of dark matter in the UMa cloud to be Ωm=0.08, i.e. a factor of 3 lower than the cosmic average. This is despite the fact that the UMa cloud resides in a region of the Universe that is an apparent overdensity. A possible explanation for this is that most mass in the Universe lies in the empty space between clusters. Herewith, the mean distances and velocities of the UMa groups follow nearly undisturbed Hubble flow without a sign of the 'Z-wave' effect caused by infall towards a massive attractor. This constrains the total amount of dark matter between the UMa groups within the cloud volume. (1 data file).

  20. Rotação do jato em DG tau próximo à região de sua formação: análise comparativa das velocidades radiais simuladas e observadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.

    2003-08-01

    Os modelos magneto-centrífugos utilizados para explicar a formação dos jatos Herbig-Haro assumem a presença de um disco de acresção em rotação kepleriana na base de lançamento do jato. Neste cenário, o jato transmite a informação da rotação do disco para regiões distantes da fonte central, além da superfície de Alfvén, na região de colimação inicial do jato. Recentemente, Bacciotti et al. (2002, ApJ, 537, L49) obtiveram pela primeira vez uma evidência observacional de rotação em um jato HH, o jato em DG Tau, em regiões próximas da fonte central, compatível (qualitativa e quantitativamente) com o esperado a partir dos modelos magneto-centrífugos para a produção e colimação inicial de jatos HH. No presente trabalho, apresentamos mapas de velocidade radial, obtidos através de simulações numéricas tri-dimensionais SPH, para um jato com características semelhantes ao jato em DG Tau, objetivando uma comparação com os mapas de velocidade radiais obtidos por Bacciotti et al.. Nossos resultados, embora preliminares, indicam que a inclusão de efeitos como a precessão, evidenciada em DG Tau (Dougados et al. 2000, A&A, 357, L61) devem ser levadas em consideração na análise da presença de rotação não só em DG Tau mas em qualquer sistema, com o uso das velocidades radias observadas. A ausência de um grau elevado de simetria axial (quebrada, por exemplo, pela precessão do eixo do jato; ou pela presença de uma superfície interna de trabalho, ou seja, um bow shock interno), implica também em uma maior complexidade nos mapas, com conseqüências relevantes para suas interpretações.

  1. Análise da medição do raio solar em ultravioleta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. C. V.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Costa, J. E. R.; Selhorst, C. L.; Simões, P. J. A.

    2003-08-01

    A medição acurada do raio solar em qualquer banda do espectro eletromagnético é de relevância na formulação e calibração de modelos da estrutura e atmosfera solar. Esses modelos atribuem emissão do contínuo do Sol calmo em microondas à mesma região da linha Ha do Hell. Apresentamos a medição do raio solar em UV com imagens do EIT (Extreme Ultraviolet Image Telescope) entre 1996 e 2002, no comprimento de onda 30,9 nm (Ha do Hell), que se forma na região de transição/cromosfera solar. A técnica utilizada para o cálculo do raio UV foi baseada na transformada Wavelet B3spline. Fizemos um banco de dados com 1 imagem por dia durante o período citado. Obtivemos como resultado o raio médio da ordem de 975.61" e uma diminuição do mesmo para o período citado variando em média -0,45" /ano. Comparamos estes dados com os valores obtidos pelo ROI (Radio Observatório de Itapetinga) em 22/48 GHz e Nobeyama Radio Heliograph em 17 GHz mostrando que os raios médios são muito próximos o que indica que a região de formação nessas freqüências é a mesma conforme os modelos. Comparamos os resultados também com outros índices de atividade solar.

  2. Observações no infravermelho médio de objetos estelares jovens em NGC 3576

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, C.; Damineli, A.; Blum, R.; Conti, P.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos os resultados de observações no infravermelho médio de candidatos a objetos estelares jovens e massivos em NGC 3576. As imagens de alta resolução foram obtidas no observatório Gemini Sul com o uso dos filtros em 10,8, 7,9, 9,8, 12,5 e 18,2 mm. Nossas imagens mostram a fonte IRS 1 resolvida em 4 objetos pela primeira vez em 10 mm. Para cada objeto obtivemos a distribuição espectral de energia de 1.2 até 18 mm, bem como a temperatura de cor, a distribuição espacial e a profundidade óptica em 9,8 mm da poeira circunstelar. Apresentamos uma estimativa das massas dos objetos estudados, baseados na luminosidade emitida no infravermelho médio, bem como um modelo para explicar as diferentes características observadas de cada objeto. Finalmente discutimos a possível localização da(s) fonte(s) de ionização de NGC 3576.

  3. Código para imageamento indireto de estrelas em sistemas binarios: simulação de variações elipsoidais e do perfil das linhas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, T. R.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    As estrelas secundárias em variáveis cataclí smicas (VCs) e binárias-x de baixa massa (BXBMs) são cruciais para o entendimento da origem, evolução e comportamento destas binárias interagentes. Elas são estrelas magneticamente ativas submetidas a condições ambientais extremas [e.g., estão muito próximas de uma fonte quente e irradiante; têm rotação extremamente rápida e forma distorcida; estão perdendo massa a taxas de 10-8-10-10 M¤/ano] que contribuem para que suas propriedades sejam distintas das de estrelas de mesma massa na seqüência principal. Por outro lado, o padrão de irradiação na face da secundária fornece informação sobre a geometria das estruturas de acréscimo em torno da estrela primária. Assim, a obtenção de imagens da superfície destas estrelas é de grande interesse astrofísico. A Tomografia Roche usa as variações no perfil das linhas de emissão/absorção da estrela secundária em função da fase orbital para mapear a distribuição de brilho em sua superfície. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados iniciais do desenvolvimento de um programa para o mapeamento da distribuição de brilho na superfí cie das estrelas secundárias em VCs e BXBMs com técnicas de astro-tomografia. Presentemente temos em operação um código que simula as variações no perfil das linhas em conseqüência de efeito Doppler resultante da combinação de rotação e translação de uma estrela em forma de lobo de Roche em torno do centro de massa da binária, em função da distribuição de brilho na superfície desta estrela. O código igualmente produz a curva de luz resultante das variações de aspecto da estrela em função da fase orbital (variações elipsoidais).

  4. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reinfection occurs, treatment may be repeated. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium... stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis) in dogs and puppies....

  5. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations....

  6. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations....

  7. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reinfection occurs, treatment may be repeated. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium... stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis) in dogs and puppies....

  8. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations....

  9. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations....

  10. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reinfection occurs, treatment may be repeated. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium... stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis) in dogs and puppies....

  11. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reinfection occurs, treatment may be repeated. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium... stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis) in dogs and puppies....

  12. 21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... multilocularis. (iii) Limitations. For subcutaneous or intramuscular use; not intended for use in puppies less...) Limitations. For subcutaneous or intramuscular injection only. Not intended for use in kittens less than...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... multilocularis. (iii) Limitations. For subcutaneous or intramuscular use; not intended for use in puppies less...) Limitations. For subcutaneous or intramuscular injection only. Not intended for use in kittens less than...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; Large-mouth Stomach Worms (adults)—Habronema muscae; Bots (oral and gastric stages)—Gasterophilus spp...; Hairworms (adults)—Trichostrongylus axei; Large-mouth Stomach Worms (adults)—Habronema muscae; Bots...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; Large-mouth Stomach Worms (adults)—Habronema muscae; Bots (oral and gastric stages)—Gasterophilus spp...; Hairworms (adults)—Trichostrongylus axei; Large-mouth Stomach Worms (adults)—Habronema muscae; Bots...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; Large-mouth Stomach Worms (adults)—Habronema muscae; Bots (oral and gastric stages)—Gasterophilus spp...; Hairworms (adults)—Trichostrongylus axei; Large-mouth Stomach Worms (adults)—Habronema muscae; Bots...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; Large-mouth Stomach Worms (adults)—Habronema muscae; Bots (oral and gastric stages)—Gasterophilus spp...; Hairworms (adults)—Trichostrongylus axei; Large-mouth Stomach Worms (adults)—Habronema muscae; Bots...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; Large-mouth Stomach Worms (adults)—Habronema muscae; Bots (oral and gastric stages)—Gasterophilus spp...; Hairworms (adults)—Trichostrongylus axei; Large-mouth Stomach Worms (adults)—Habronema muscae; Bots...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; Gyalocephalus capitatus; and Petrovinema poculatus; small strongyles: undifferentiated lumenal larvae; encysted cyathostomes (late L3 and L4 mucosal cyathostome larvae); ascarids: Parascaris equorum (adults and L4...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; Gyalocephalus capitatus; and Petrovinema poculatus; small strongyles: undifferentiated lumenal larvae; encysted cyathostomes (late L3 and L4 mucosal cyathostome larvae); ascarids: Parascaris equorum (adults and L4...

  1. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  2. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; Gyalocephalus capitatus; and Petrovinema poculatus; small strongyles: undifferentiated lumenal larvae; encysted cyathostomes (late L3 and L4 mucosal cyathostome larvae); ascarids: Parascaris equorum (adults and L4...

  4. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  5. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; Gyalocephalus capitatus; and Petrovinema poculatus; small strongyles: undifferentiated lumenal larvae; encysted cyathostomes (late L3 and L4 mucosal cyathostome larvae); ascarids: Parascaris equorum (adults and L4...

  7. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; Gyalocephalus capitatus; and Petrovinema poculatus; small strongyles: undifferentiated lumenal larvae; encysted cyathostomes (late L3 and L4 mucosal cyathostome larvae); ascarids: Parascaris equorum (adults and L4...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... milliliters (170.4 milligrams). (ii) Indications for use. For removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and removal and control of canine cestode...

  10. Alveolar Echinococcosis: Characterization of Diagnostic Antigen Em18 and Serological Evaluation of Recombinant Em18

    PubMed Central

    Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Gottstein, Bruno; Lightowers, Marshall W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Ito, Akira

    2002-01-01

    The Echinococcus multilocularis protein Em18 is one of the most promising antigens for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in human patients. Here we identify an antigenic relationship between Em18 and a 65-kDa immunodominant E. multilocularis surface protein previously identified as either EM10 or EmII/3. The NH2-terminal sequence of native Em18 was determined, revealing it to be a fragment of EM10. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of proteinase inhibitors on the degradation of EM10 in crude extracts of E. multilocularis protoscoleces. Em18 was found to be the product of degradation of EM10 by cysteine proteinase. A recombinant Em18 (RecEm18, derived from 349K to 508K of EM10) was successfully expressed by using Escherichia coli expression system and then evaluated for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. RecEm18 was recognized by 27 (87.1%) and 28 (90.3%) of 31 serum samples from clinically and/or pathologically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, respectively. Of 33 serum samples from cystic echinococcosis patients, 1 was recorded as having a weak positive reaction to RecEm18; however, none of the serum samples which were tested from neurocysticercosis patients (n = 10) or healthy people (n = 15) showed positive reactions. RecEm18 has the potential for use in the differential serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. PMID:12149326

  11. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  12. Elemental Abundance Analyses with DAO Spectrograms. XXXIX. The Am Stars 2 UMa and 15 Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çay, İpek H.; Teker Yelkenci, Aysegul; Adelman, Saul J.

    2016-05-01

    We derived the elemental abundances of the metallic-line stars 2 UMa (=HR 3354; spectral type A2m) and 15 Vul (=HR 7653; spectral type A4 III), using high-dispersion, high signal-to-noise ratio (≥200) optical region spectrograms obtained with CCD detectors at the long Coudé camera of the 1.22 m telescope of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) and Kurucz's ATLAS9 and WIDTH9 programs. The star 2 UMa has not been the subject of a modern detailed elemental abundances analysis. It is relatively sharp-lined and sufficiently hot (T eff = 8050 K) that the continuum placement is not a major problem in the optical region. Comparison of the results of this new study of 15 Vul with the last complete study shows a 0.15 dex mean increase in the derived abundances and a reduction in the standard deviations of the mean values. The abundance anomalies of 2 UMa are usually larger than those of 15 Vul. The greater spectral coverage of 15 Vul compared with 2 UMa results in a larger number of abundances being derived. The abundances of 2 UMa are typical for those of classical Am stars that have similar effective temperatures and surface gravities. 15 Vul, characterized by a similar effective temperature and smaller surface gravity, is a more evolved star.

  13. High-frequency variations of hydrogen spectral lines in the B3V star η UMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhvala, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    We reported the detection of high-frequency variations in the hydrogen Balmer lines in the hot star η UMa of spectral class B3V. Spectral observations of η UMa were carried out with slitless spectrograph (R˜100) installed on the 60 cm Carl Zeiss telescope in the Andrushivka Observatory. Spectra were obtained with a time resolution in the sub-second range. It has been found that the η UMa shows rapid variations in the hydrogen lines Hα, Hβ, Hγ, as well as variations in the atmospheric oxygen lines. The intensity variations in the hydrogen lines varies from 0.2% to 0.5% , and that of the oxygen lines is approximately 2%.

  14. Correlation of the NBME Advanced Clinical Examination in EM and the National EM M4 exams

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Katherine; Miller, Emily S.; Lawson, Luan; Wald, David; Beeson, Michael; Heitz, Corey; Morrissey, Thomas; House, Joseph; Poznanski, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since 2011 two online, validated exams for fourth-year emergency medicine (EM) students have been available (National EM M4 Exams). In 2013 the National Board of Medical Examiners offered the Advanced Clinical Examination in Emergency Medicine (EM-ACE). All of these exams are now in widespread use; however, there are no data on how they correlate. This study evaluated the correlation between the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams. Methods From May 2013 to April 2014 the EM-ACE and one version of the EM M4 exam were administered sequentially to fourth-year EM students at five U.S. medical schools. Data collected included institution, gross and scaled scores and version of the EM M4 exam. We performed Pearson’s correlation and random effects linear regression. Results 303 students took the EM-ACE and versions 1 (V1) or 2 (V2) of the EM M4 exams (279 and 24, respectively). The mean percent correct for the exams were as follows: EM-ACE 74.8 (SD-8.83), V1 83.0 (SD-6.41), V2 78.5 (SD-7.70). Pearson’s correlation coefficient for the V1/EM-ACE was 0.51 (0.42 scaled) and for the V2/EM-ACE was 0.59 (0.41 scaled). The coefficient of determination for V1/EM-ACE was 0.72 and for V2/EM-ACE = 0.71 (0.86 and 0.49 for scaled scores). The R-squared values were 0.25 and 0.30 (0.18 and 0.13, scaled), respectively. There was significant cluster effect by institution. Conclusion There was moderate positive correlation of student scores on the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams. PMID:25671023

  15. Influência da presença de endossimbionte em Brevipalpus phoenicis na aquisição e transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A leprose dos citros destaca-se como uma fitovirose de grande impacto econômico e ambiental à citricultura, elevando o custo de produção para o controle do vetor B. phoenicis. É conhecido que a presença de endossimbiontes do gênero Cardinium em ácaros Brevipalpus spp. causa a feminilização dos ácaro...

  16. FUSE Observations of the Bright, Eclipsing Nova-like Cataclysmic Variable, UX UMa (FUSE 2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Knox; Froning, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    This was a project to study the disk and wind of the eclipsing nova-like variable UX UMa, in order to better define the wind geometry of the system, including the nature of the transition region between the disk photosphere and the supersonic wind. We proposed to use phase resolved spectroscopy of the system, taking advantage of the fact that UX UMa is an eclipsing system, to isolate different regions of the wind and to use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simulate the spectra through the eclipse.

  17. Ensino de gravitação clássica no nível médio: uma proposta de abordagem e resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, G. C. M.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    O ensino de gravitação clássica é comumente realizado de maneira formal e descontextualizado da experiência com a força-peso e da história do tema. Fustigados por anos de experiência de ensino no assunto, nem sempre com bons resultados, propomos uma abordagem ancorada nos eixos: a) contextualização histórica; e b) reconhecimento do peso como a força de atração gravitacional. O primeiro eixo integra o tema no desenvolvimento cultural do ser humano, praticando a interdisciplinaridade. O segundo eixo embasa construtivamente a abordagem, levando o aluno a realizar experiências e a vivenciar o reconhecimento de uma força universal. A abordagem foi construída através das etapas: 1) análise crítica do tema em livros didáticos; 2) elaboração de um curso para professores das várias disciplinas do ensino médio, identificando conexões para a prática da interdisciplinaridade; 3) elaboração de material didático; e 4) avaliação da eficácia da abordagem. No trabalho discutimos em detalhe as quatro etapas. Como resultados, adiantamos que: tabulamos a abordagem de gravitação nos livros didáticos, ainda muito tradicional e carecedora de atividades criativas que poderiam melhor explorar esse assunto; mapeamos, junto aos professores, padrões de conceitos espontâneos e erros associados ao tema; e, no curso, adaptamos e testamos a eficiência de materiais instrucionais existentes e criamos outros novos (e.g., para trabalhar excentricidades das órbitas planetárias), além disto elaboramos roteiros e figuras para tratamentos qualitativo e quantitativo da lei da gravitação universal. As avaliações feitas pelos professores foram muito animadoras. O espaço da presente reunião será aproveitado para socializar a proposta e os resultados obtidos e para submeter o projeto à análise crítica. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  18. População nuclear e extranuclear em rádio-galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Quintana, H.; Alloin, D.; Hunstead, R.; Wisotzki, L.

    2003-08-01

    A natureza do contínuo UV/ótico em rádio-galáxias é muito importante para o seu entendimento. Em baixos redshifts existem evidências de que muitas delas são dominadas no ótico por luz de estrelas velhas, características de galáxias early-type e em altos redshifts a característica dominante é um excesso de luz no UV, freqüentemente associado com estruturas que estão alinhadas aos eixos das estruturas rádio em grande escala. Inicialmente esse excesso foi interpretado como devido a episódios intensos de formação estelar nas galáxias hospedeiras. Entretanto, as descobertas dos alinhamentos entre as estruturas UV e rádio modificaram essa idéia. Foi proposto que a formação estelar é iniciada pela passagem do jato rádio através do meio interestelar das galáxias hospedeiras. A natureza do excesso UV começou a ser compreendida em um estudo detalhado do continuo ótico da 3C321, onde se concluiu que o contínuo desta galáxia tem origem multicomponente, com contribuições de populações velhas e intermediárias, de luz espalhada oriunda de um quasar obscurecido e do contínuo nebular. No presente trabalho estudamos a população nuclear e extranuclear de uma amostra de 24 rádio-galáxias, utilizando espectros óticos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal/ruído. Através do método de síntese espectral de populações estelares, foram estimadas as contribuições de populações estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contínuo tipo lei de potência devido a um AGN, FC) para a luz integrada das galáxias, em 4020Å. As principais conclusões deste trabalho são: apenas quatro dos objetos estudados têm contribuições significativas (maiores do que 10%) das populações de 100 milhões de anos ou mais jovens (ou de FC) ao longo da região espacial estudada (6 kpc centrais); nenhuma das rádio-galáxias de tipo FRI estudadas tem contribuição significativa destas populações ao longo desta região; duas (de oito) de tipo FRII tem contribuições significativas da luz que vem do AGN, na região nuclear; uma tem contribuição significativa das populações de 100 milhões de anos e mais jovens ao longo dos 4 kpc centrais, indicando claramente a presença de formação estelar recente. Comparando estes resultados com aqueles obtidos para uma amostra de galáxias não ativas de mesmo tipo de Hubble das rádio, encontramos que a principal diferença entre as duas amostras está na contribuição da população de 1 bilhão de anos, geralmente maior nas rádio-galáxias.

  19. Complaints against an EMS system.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Christopher B; Pons, Peter T; Pi, Randy

    2003-11-01

    Complaints against Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies represent a concerning and potentially time-consuming problem for all involved in the delivery of prehospital emergency medical care. The objective of this study was to identify the source of complaints against an EMS system to help focus quality and performance improvement and customer service efforts. We conducted a retrospective review of complaints filed against a busy urban EMS agency over a 6-year period. All complaints were included, totaled by season and by year, and categorized by originator and nature of the complaint. A total of 286 complaints were registered during the 6-year period, with an average of 48 per year and 9.3 per 10,000 responses. The most common originators of complaints were patients (53%) followed by medical personnel (19%) and family members or friends (12%). Rude behavior accounted for 23% of the complaints registered, followed by technical skills (20%), transport problems (18%), and loss of belongings (13%). The identification of areas of dissatisfaction will allow focused quality and performance improvement programs directed at customer service and risk management. PMID:14654181

  20. 1998 Superoutburst of the Large-Amplitude SU UMa-Type Dwarf Nova WX Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nogami, Daisaku; Morikawa, Koichi; Kiyota, Seiichiro

    2001-10-01

    We observed the 1998 November superoutburst of WX Cet, a dwarf nova originally proposed as a WZ Sge-like system. The observation established that WX Cet is an SU UMa-type dwarf nova with a mean superhump period of 0.05949(1)d, which is 2.1% longer than the reported orbital period. The lack of early superhumps at the earliest stage of the superoutburst, the rapid development of usual superhumps, and the possible rapid decay of late superhumps seem to support that WX Cet is a fairly normal large-amplitude SU UMa-type dwarf nova, rather than a WZ Sge-type dwarf nova with a number of peculiarities. However, a period increase of superhumps at a rate \\dot{P}/P = +8.5 ± 1.0 × 10-5 was observed, which is one of the largest \\dot{P}/P ever observed in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. A linear decline of light, with a rate of 0.10 mag d-1, was observed in the post-superoutburst stage. This may be an exemplification of the decay of the viscosity in the accretion disk after the termination of a superoutburst, mechanism of which is proposed to explain a variety of post-superoutburst phenomena in some SU UMa-type dwarf novae.

  1. Estudo espectral em raios-X duros de fontes do tipo Z com o HEXTE/RXTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, F.; Heindl, W. A.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de um estudo espectral em raios-X de fontes do tipo Z. As fontes do tipo Z são binárias de raios-X de baixa massa (BXBM) com campo magnético intermediário (B~109G). Esta classe de fontes é composta por apenas 6 fontes Galácticas (a saber: ScoX-1, 9, 7, CygX-2, 5 e 0). A nossa análise se concentra na faixa de raios-X duros (E ~ 20keV), até cerca de 200keV, faixa ótima de operação do telescópio "High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment" (HEXTE), um dos três telescópios de raios-X à bordo do Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Nossa motivação para tal estudo, uma busca de caudas em raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z, foi o pouco conhecimento sobre a emissão nesta faixa de energia das referidas fontes quando comparadas, por exemplo, as fontes do tipo atoll (também BXBM). Apresentam-se a análise/redução de dados e explicita-se a maneira como o HEXTE mede o ru1do de fundo. Especial atenção é direcionada a este item devido a localização das fontes do tipo Z e também ao problema de contaminação por fontes próximas. Com exceção de ScoX-1, nenhuma cauda em raios-X duros foi encontrada para as outras fontes, a despeito de resultados de detecção dessas caudas em algumas fontes pelo satélite BeppoSAX. As interpretações deste resultado serão apresentadas. Do ponto de vista deste estudo, nós deduzimos que a produção de caudas de raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z é um processo disparado quando, pelo menos, uma condição é satisfeita: o brilho da componente térmica do espectro precisa estar acima de um certo valor limiar de ~4´1036ergs-1.

  2. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM fissionable material operations. In addition, the report includes projections of future EM needs and associted recommendations.

  3. EM international activities. February 1997 highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.

  4. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  5. Absolute and geometric parameters of the W UMa type contact binary V546 And

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, Birol; Bradstreet, David H.; Okan, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa-type binary V546 And from analyzed CCD (BVRI) light curves and radial velocity data. The photometric data were obtained in 2010 and 2011 at Ankara University Observatory (AUO) and the spectroscopic observations were made in 2010 at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG). Light and radial velocity observations were analyzed simultaneously by using the Wilson-Devinney (2013 revision) code to obtain absolute and geometrical parameters. The system was determined to be a W-type W UMa system. Combining our photometric solution with the spectroscopic data we derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system to be M1 = 0.275M⊙,M2 = 1.083M⊙,R1 = 0.661R⊙ and R2 = 1.229R⊙ . We finally discuss the evolutionary status of the system.

  6. Superhump-like variation during the anomalous state of SU UMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, T.

    2002-03-01

    We observed an anomalously outbursting state of SU UMa which occurred in 1992. Time-resolved photometry revealed the presence of signals with a period of 0.0832+/-0.0019 d, which is 3.6sigma longer than the orbital period (0.07635 d) of this system. We attributed this signal to superhumps, based on its deviation from the orbital period and its characteristic profile. During this anomalous state of SU UMa, normal outbursts were almost suppressed, in spite of relatively regular occurrences of superoutbursts. We consider that an ensuing tidally unstable state following the preceding superoutburst can be a viable mechanism to effectively suppress normal outbursts, resulting in an anomalously outbursting state.

  7. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  8. NT Aps, a southern sky W UMa stellar system with a decreasing period.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, C. T.

    2012-04-01

    NT Aps, a W UMa star in the southern hemisphere, was observed in white light in 2007 and Band V filter in 2008 using personal telescopes from South Africa. From the Hipparcos ephemeris of 1991 a decrease in period of ~125 seconds per year for the binary is detected. Furthermore, software modeling packages of BINARY MAKER 3 and PHOEBE were employed to constrain the parameters of the binary components. The result of the modeling exercise is presented.

  9. V448 Cen, a previously unexplored W UMa system of the antipodean sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, C. T.

    2012-02-01

    V448 Cen, a W UMa star in the southern hemisphere, was observed using personal telescopes in South Africa during the 2007/8 season. An ephemeris of V448 Cen is presented. Software modeling packages of BINARY MAKER 3 and PHOEBE were employed to constrain the parameters of the binary components. The result of the modeling exercise is presented. Of interest in this system is the large mass ratio (q) of ~0.72.

  10. The First Photometric Analysis of the Overcontact Binary MQ UMa with an Additional Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Qian, S.-B.; Liao, W.-P.; Zhao, E.-G.; Wang, J.-J.; Jiang, L.-Q.

    2015-09-01

    The first V Rc Ic band light curves of MQ UMa are presented and analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) program. It is discovered that MQ UMa is an A-subtype contact binary with a high fill-out (f = 82%) and a low mass ratio (q = 0.195), which indicates that it is in the late evolutionary stage of late-type tidal-locked binary stars. The mass of the primary and secondary stars is estimated and the evolutionary status of the two components are placed on the H-R diagram. The W-D solutions also indicate that MQ UMa may be a triple system with an additional F5V type component. A sample of 16 high fill-out, low mass ratio overcontact binaries is collected and their possible evolution scenarios are discussed. Using the five times of minimum light recently observed together with those collected from the literature, the authors find that the observed-calculated (O - C) curve exhibits cyclic period variation. The cyclic period change also reveals the presence of a tertiary component, which may play an important role in the formation and evolution of this binary system by drawing angular momentum from the central system.

  11. The absolute parameters of two W UMa type binaries in Ursa Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y?lmaz, M.; Ba?trk, .; zavc?, ?.; ?enavc?, H. V.; Selam, S. O.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of simultaneous Wilson-Devinney analyses of light and radial velocity curves of two contact binaries in the constellation Ursa Majoris. We found that HH UMa is an A-subtype W UMa binary, which conflicts with the classification of Han et al. (2014) as a W-subtype. Seasonal variations observed in the light curves of the system are well explained with two cool stellar spots in our solution as opposed to the hot-spot based solution by Han et al. (2014), the presence of which would not cause such rapid period variations. The evolutionary status of the system is in agreement with the findings of our study. We modeled II UMa, another A-subtype overcontact binary, without surface spots and found that its both components have rather low surface gravities indicating an advanced state of evolution pointing to evolved subgiants. The high contact degree (f=74%) supports this viewpoint. Our analysis shows that there is a significant third light contribution, contradicting some of the previous analyses, which lack the detection of the secondary minima as total eclipses because they were not as evident as they are in our light curves.

  12. UBVRI analysis of the totally eclipsing extreme mass ratio W UMa binary, GSC 3208 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Samec, R. G.; Kring, J. D.; Robb, Russell; Van Hamme, W.; Faulkner, D. R.

    2015-03-01

    GSC 3208 1986 is an NSVS and TYCHO binary, first observed from 1999 to 2000. It is a W UMa binary with a period of 0.405 days. The present observations were taken in 2012 September and are of high precision, averaging a standard deviation of better than 5 mmag. The amplitude of the light curve is very nearly 0.5 mag yet it undergoes total eclipses. Dominion Astrophysical Observatory spectra give an F3V type (T∼6900 K) for the system, the earliest of the extreme mass ratio W UMa binaries. The linear period determination of 0.4045672 days was calculated with the two sets of epochs available. An early NSVS light curve reveals that the period has been smoothly decreasing over its past 12,000 orbits. The binary may be undergoing sinusoidal oscillations due to the presence of a third body, possibly with a period of 23±3 years. The high inclination of 85° results in a long duration secondary total eclipse, lasting some 49.5 minutes. Findings indicate that GSC 3208 1986 is an immaculate extreme mass ratio, q(m{sub 2}/m{sub 1}) = 0.24, A-type W UMa binary.

  13. Curious Variables Experiment (CURVE). Superhump Period Change Pattern in KS UMa and Other Dwarf Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olech, A.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Kedzierski, P.; Zloczewski, K.; Mularczyk, K.; Wisniewski, M.

    2003-06-01

    We report extensive photometry of the dwarf nova KS UMa throughout its 2003 superoutburst till quiescence. During the superoutburst the star displayed clear superhumps with a mean period of P_sh=0.070092(23) days. In the middle stage of superoutburst the period was increasing with a rate of dot P/P=(21+/-12)*10^-5 and later was decreasing with a rate of dot P/P=-(21+/-8)*10^-5. At the end of superoutburst and during first dozen days of quiescence the star was showing late superhumps with a mean period of P_late=0.06926(2) days. This phenomenon was observed even 30 days after beginning of the superoutburst. In quiescence the star shows quasi-periodic modulations with amplitude reaching 0.5 mag. The most common structure observed during this stage was sinusoidal wave characterized by a period of about 0.1 days. Comparing KS UMa to other SU UMa stars we conclude that this group of dwarf novae shows decreasing superhump periods at the beginning and the end of superoutburst but increasing period in the middle phase.

  14. Ultraviolet spectroscopic study of EU UMa and ST LMi from HST and IUE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanad, M. R.; Bobrowsky, M.

    2015-04-01

    We present the first orbit-resolved ultraviolet spectroscopic observations of the two polar systems EU UMa and ST LMi obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph (HST FOS) and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) during their intermediate- and low-luminosity states in the period between 1982 and 2003. Different line profiles of the two systems showing variations of line fluxes at different orbital phases are presented. This paper focuses on the C IV emission line at 1550 Å produced in the accretion stream, presenting calculations of spectral line fluxes, ultraviolet luminosities, and accretion rates for the two systems. Our analysis of the spectroscopic data reveals changes with orbital phase of the emission line profiles that correspond to the light curve variations of both EU UMa and ST LMi in the optical and infrared bands. The variations of line fluxes are attributed to variations of both density and temperature as a result of a changing rate of mass transfer from the secondary star to the white dwarf. The ultraviolet luminosity and accretion rate of EU UMa are smaller than the ultraviolet luminosity and accretion rate of ST LMi.

  15. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

  16. V344 Lyr: an unusual large-amplitude SU UMa-type dwarf nova with a short supercycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Poyner, Gary; Kinnunen, Timo

    2002-02-01

    We studied the large-amplitude SU UMa-type dwarf nova V344 Lyr. A combination of our observations and reports from the Variable Star Network (VSNET) yields an extensive coverage of outbursts between 1994 July and 2001 June. The analysis of these data showed a mean supercycle length of 109.6d. This value is one of the smallest among known SU UMa-type dwarf novae (except unusual ER UMa-type dwarf novae). The outburst amplitude of V344 Lyr (~5.5mag) is found to be much larger than those of SU UMa-type dwarf novae with similar supercycle lengths. Such a deviation of the amplitude of V344 Lyr is difficult to explain using the inclination effect. The extreme outburst parameters of V344 Lyr would require an additional mechanism to effectively reduce the quiescent luminosity or to increase the outburst frequency.

  17. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  18. Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

    2003-08-01

    Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao final, temos uma lista de linhas atômicas com mais de 24.000 linhas e uma lista molecular com as moléculas CN, CH, OH, NH, MgH, C2, TiO Gama, CO, FeH, adequadas ao estudo de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas.

  19. Correlação de longo alcance em sistemas binários de raios-x usando remoção de flutuações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Moret, M. A.; Zebende, G. F.; Nogueira, E., Jr.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é proposta uma metodologia de analise de series temporais de fontes astrofísicas, baseada no método proposto por Peng et al. (1994) e Liu et al. (1999), o qual consiste na idéia de que uma série temporal correlacionada pode ser mapeada por um processo de busca de auto-similaridades em diversas escalas de tempo n. Removendo as eventuais tendências e integrando o sinal observado, é obtida uma medida do desvio médio quadrático das flutuações do sinal integrado F(n)~na, onde a representa o fator de escala associado com a auto-similaridade da correlação de longo alcance do sinal. Baseado nos valores obtidos de a, é possível distinguir entre os casos de sinais não-correlacionados, tipo ruído branco (a = 0,5), sinal anti-persistentes (a < 0,5) e sinal persistente (a > 0,5). Usando esta metodologia, foram analisadas 129 curvas de luz de sistemas binários de raios-X, provenientes do banco de dados públicos de observações feitas pelo instrumento All Sky Monitor, a bordo do satélite Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (ASM-RXTE). Foram identificadas a presença de a'0,5 em mais de 90% dos sistemas estudados, implicando em dizer que as flutuações de intensidade observadas apresentam correlação de auto-similaridade, sem entretanto, indícios de apresentarem uma escala de tempo característica das flutuações de intensidade. Sistemas onde são observadas erupções (flares), apresentam sistematicamente a > 0,5, característica esta, possivelmente associada com persistência das flutuações de densidade de disco ou taxa de acréscimo de massa. Os sistemas com curvas de luz onde nao são observadas as erupções apresentam uma distribuição normal centrada em a~0,62+/-0,10. Referências ¾ Peng, C.-K., Buldyrev, S.V., Havlin, S., Simons, M., Stanley, H.E., e Goldberg, A.L., Phys. Rev. E, (49), 1685 (1994). ¾ Liu, Y., Gopikrishnan, P., Cizeau, P., Meyer, M., Peng,C.-K., e Stanley, H.E., Phys. Rev. E, (60), 1390 (1999).

  20. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

  1. Variação temporal do gradiente radial de o/h a partir de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, W. J.; Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.

    2003-08-01

    Gradientes radiais de abundância são observados no disco de nossa Galáxia e também em outras galáxias espirais. No caso da Galáxia, o principal problema relativo aos gradientes é sua variação temporal, que constitui um dos principais vínculos aos modelos de evolução química da Galáxia. As nebulosas planetárias são particularmente interessantes no estudo dos gradientes e suas variações, tanto espaciais como temporais. São objetos brilhantes, podendo ser observadas a grandes distâncias, e têm abundâncias relativamente precisas de diversos elementos químicos. Além disso, sendo originadas de estrelas com massas entre 0.8 e 8 massas solares na sequência principal, incluem objetos com idades e populações diferentes, o que as torna especialmente interessantes ao estudo da variação temporal dos gradientes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos resultados recentes sobre a variação temporal do gradiente de O/H a partir de uma amostra contendo cerca de 200 nebulosas, para as quais obtivemos distâncias por métodos estatísticos. As abundâncias foram parcialmente obtidas a partir de observações em Itajubá e La Silla, sendo as restantes obtidas da literatura. Os resultados mostram, pela primeira vez, evidências de um achatamento do gradiente de O/H, de -0.11 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 9 giga-anos ou de -0.08 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 5 giga-anos. Esses valores apresentam um bom acordo com alguns modelos recentes para a evolução química da Galáxia. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  2. A distribuição de velocidades na linha de visada em galáxias barradas vistas de face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo cinemático da componente vertical de barras em galáxias, obtivemos espectros de fenda longa de alta razão S/N ao longo dos eixos maior e menor de 14 galáxias barradas vistas de face, nos telescópios de 1.52m do ESO em La Silla, Chile, e de 2.3m do Steward Observatory em Kitt Peak, Arizona. Estes dados nos permitiram determinar a distribuição de velocidades das estrelas ao longo do eixo vertical das barras e discos destes sistemas, tanto no centro como em pontos que distam cerca de 5 e 20 segundos de arco do núcleo, correspondendo a distâncias de cerca de 0.7 e 2.8 kpc, respectivamente. Desta forma, a variação radial da distribuição de velocidades também pôde ser avaliada. Este tipo de análise tem raros exemplos na literatura por ser caro em termos de tempo de telescópio. Entretanto, é de fácil justificativa, considerando que traz novas informações que podem ser utilizadas para aperfeiçoar modelos teóricos acerca da formação e evolução de galáxias. Um algoritmo por nós desenvolvido foi utilizado para obter as distribuições de velocidades como Gaussianas generalizadas (polinômios de Gauss-Hermite), o que traz um ingrediente a mais neste tipo de estudo que, tradicionalmente, se utiliza de Gaussianas puras, uma hipótese nem sempre razoável. Apresentaremos os resultados deste trabalho, que incluem um diagnóstico para a identificação de barras recém formadas, e testes para o modelo isotérmico de discos. Mostraremos que: (i) a escolha das estrelas padrão em velocidade, e dos parâmetros da Gaussiana, deve ser muito bem justificada já que tem influência significativa nos resultados; (ii) muitas galáxias apresentam uma depressão na dispersão de velocidades na região central, que pode estar associada a um disco interno; e (iii) a dispersão de velocidades é constante ao longo da barra, nos eixos maior e menor, mas cai substancialmente quando se passa da barra para o disco.

  3. NY Serpentis: SU UMa-type nova in the period gap with diversity of normal outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, Elena P.; Kato, Taichi; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Ohshima, Tomohito; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Antonyuk, Kirill A.; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A.; Baklanov, Alex V.; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Pit, Nikolaj V.; Nakata, Chikako; Masi, Gianluca; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Andreev, Maksim V.; Kuznyetsova, Yuliana G.; Vasiliskov, Kirill A.

    2014-12-01

    We present a photometric study of NY Ser, an in-the-gap SU UMa-type nova, in 2002 and 2013. We determined the duration of its superoutburst and the mean period of its superhump are 18 d and 0.10458 d, respectively. We detected in 2013 that NY Ser showed two distinct states separated by a superoutburst. A state of rather infrequent normal outbursts lasted at least 44 d before the superoutburst, and a state of frequent outbursts started immediately after the superoutburst and lasted at least 34 d. Unlike a typical SU UMa star with a bimodal distribution of outburst duration, NY Ser displayed a diversity of normal outbursts. In the state of infrequent outbursts, we detected a wide ˜ 12 d outburst accompanied by 0.098 d orbital modulation but without superhumps ever established in NY Ser. We classified this as a "wide normal outburst." The orbital period was dominant both in quiescence and during normal outbursts in this state. In the state of the most frequent normal outbursts, the 0.10465 d positive superhump period was dominant and coexisted with the orbital modulation. In 2002 we detected the normal outburst of "intermediate" 5-6 d duration that was also accompanied by orbital modulations.

  4. Ultraviolet spectroscopic investigation of HU Aqr and AN UMa with the data from HST and IUE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanad, M. R.

    We present ultraviolet spectroscopic study of two polar systems, HU Aqr and AN UMa, observed with the Hubble Space Telescope's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) and with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) during the period 1979--2003, to diagnose the ultraviolet fluxes of C IV 1550 Å and He II 1640 Å emission lines originating in an accretion stream during different orbital phases. The reddening of two systems is determined from the 2200 Å absorption feature. Different spectra for both systems, showing the variations in line fluxes at different orbital phases, are presented. We concentrated on calculating the line fluxes of C IV and He II emission lines. From HST and IUE data, we derived accretion luminosities and accretion rates for the two systems. The average temperature of the accretion stream for HU Aqr and AN UMa is about 5000 K and 6000 K, respectively. Our results show that there are variations in line fluxes, accretion luminosities and accretion rates with time for the two systems. These modulations are attributed to the variations of both density and temperature as a result of a changing rate of mass transfer from the secondary star to the primary star. These results from the HST and IUE observations support the irradiation model producing sufficient ultraviolet flux for orbital modulations.

  5. The highest rate orbital period increasing contact binary LP UMa revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, D.-F.; Li, K.; Hu, S.-M.; Jiang, Y.-G.; Gao, D.-Y.; Chen, X.

    2016-04-01

    Complete BV(RI)c photometry for the contact binary LP UMa was derived on 2015 February 23 using the 1.0 m telescope at Weihai Observatory of Shandong University. By compiling 66 newly determined times of light minimum with those published in the literature, we investigated the orbital period variation of this binary star. A possible cyclic variation, with a period of 14.84 years and an amplitude of 0.0031 days, was discovered to be superimposed on a long-term period increase (9.32 s century-1). The highest rate of orbital period increase was confirmed, which can be explained by the mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. The cyclic period oscillation was possibly caused by the light travel time effect due to the presence of a third body. The multiple light curves were simultaneously analysed using the W-D program. It was found that LP UMa has a mass ratio of q = 0.331 , a contact degree of f = 7.9 % , and the temperature difference between the two components was only about 90 K, which are quite different with the previous results. A hot spot on the primary component was employed to explain the asymmetric light curve of this binary.

  6. Chromospheric activity on late-type star DM UMa using high-resolution spectroscopic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, LiYun; Pi, QingFeng; Han, Xianming L.; Chang, Liang; Wang, Daimei

    2016-06-01

    We present new 14 high-resolution echelle spectra to discuss the level of chromospheric activity of DM UMa in {He I} D3, {Na I} D1, D2, Hα, and {Ca II} infrared triplet lines (IRT). It is the first time to discover the emissions above the continuum in the {He I} D3 lines on 2015 February 9 and 10. The emission on February 9 is the strongest one ever detected for DM UMa. We analysed these chromospheric active indicators by employing the spectral subtraction technique. The subtracted spectra reveal weak emissions in the {Na I} D1, D2 lines, strong emission in the Hα line, and clear excess emissions in the {Ca II} IRT lines. Our values for the EW8542/EW8498 ratio are on the low side, in the range of 1.0-1.7. There are also clear phase variations of the level of chromospheric activity in equivalent width (EW) light curves in these chromospheric active lines (especially the Hα line). These phenomena might be explained by flare events or rotational modulations of the level of chromospheric activity.

  7. Chromospheric activity on late-type star DM UMa using high resolution spectroscopic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, LiYun; Pi, QingFeng; Han, Xianming L.; Chang, Liang; Wang, Daimei

    2016-03-01

    We present new 14 high-resolution echelle spectra to discuss the level of chromospheric activity of DM UMa in He I D3, Na I D1, D2, Hα, and Ca II infrared triplet lines (IRT). It is the first time to discover the emissions above the continuum in the He I D3 lines on Feb. 9 and 10, 2015. The emission on Feb. 9 is the strongest one ever detected for DM UMa. We analyzed these chromospheric active indicators by employing the spectral subtraction technique. The subtracted spectra reveal weak emissions in the Na I D1, D2 lines, strong emission in the Hα line, and clear excess emissions in the Ca II IRT lines. Our values for the EW8542/EW8498 ratio are on the low side, in the range of 1.0 - 1.7. There are also clear phase variations of the level of chromospheric activity in equivalent width (EW) light curves in these chromospheric active lines (especially the Hα line). These phenomena might be explained by flare events or rotational modulations of the level of chromospheric activity.

  8. LONG-TERM PHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE ACTIVE W UMa-TYPE SYSTEM TU BOOTIS

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Dale, Horace A. III; Williamon, Richard M.

    2008-09-15

    We present multicolor light curves for the W UMa-type eclipsing binary TU Boo for two epochs separated by 22 years. An analysis of the O - C diagram indicates the earlier observations took place right in the middle of a major period change, thus allowing for a unique study on mass transfer and period changes in this W UMa-type system. We compute model fits to our light curves, along with the only other published set, using the Wilson-Devinney program, and find temporally correlated changes in the size of the secondary component with anomalies in the O - C diagram. We investigate the cause of these changes and find support for the existence of rapid, large-scale mass transfer between the components. We postulate that this interaction allows them to maintain nearly equal surface temperatures despite having achieved only marginal contact. We also find support for the evolutionary scenario in which TU Boo has undergone a mass ratio reversal in the past, due to large-scale mass transfer so that what is presently the secondary component of TU Boo is in an advanced evolutionary state, oversized due to a helium-enriched core, with a total system age of {>=}10 Gyr.

  9. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  10. A eficiência de formação estelar em Musca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickel, G. R.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.; Roberto, A. J.., Jr.; Khan, R. P.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos os resultados de um survey no infravermelho próximo (bandas J e H), executado no Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, na direção da nuvem escura em forma de filamento de Musca (observamos ao longo de todo o filamento, além de todas as fontes pontuais IRAS e/ou fontes ROSAT brilhantes a uma distância de 2o da nuvem). Nosso objetivo é determinar a eficiência de formação estelar para esta nuvem escura (massa de estrelas formadas/massa da nuvem), procurando por objetos estelares jovens de pequena massa no seu interior e/ou evoluídos o suficiente para estarem afastados do local de nascimento, mas ainda mostrando características de objetos pré-seqüência principal como emissão de raios-X e excesso de emissão no infravermelho próximo. Este survey não estabeleceu nenhum viés na seleção de fontes pontuais IRAS ou fontes ROSAT, uma vez que a imensa maioria das fontes pontuais IRAS nesta região têm qualidade de fluxo ruim. Os candidatos a objetos estelares jovens foram selecionados pelo excesso no índice de cor (J-H), descontados os efeitos da extinção interestelar na linha de visada, determinada através da emissão estendida no infravermelho distante (IRAS). Estimativas de massa foram feitas para estes candidatos, através da relação massa-luminosidade, para calcular a eficiência de formação estelar de Musca.

  11. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  12. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  13. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  14. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  15. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  16. EMS in the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan Zayed Khalifah

    2009-07-01

    The Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in Oman is a relatively new project in the country. It has been developed based on the Anglo-American system of EMS. Currently, it is run by trained Omani Advanced Emergency Medical Technicians (AEMT) under the auspices of the Royal Oman Police (ROP) Ambulance Division. The system covers most of the country and responds to medical and trauma emergencies. It is state-funded and free of charge for all people in Oman. There are plans to incorporate aero-medical services into the system, to support the land ambulance service, and there are also plans to expand its coverage to the whole country by 2012. The EMS in Oman has hard challenges ahead but there are also promising plans in place to improve the system. PMID:19467757

  17. Survey of Period Variations of Superhumps in SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae. IV. The Fourth Year (2011-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Masi, Gianluca; Miller, Ian; Noguchi, Ryo; Akasaka, Chihiro; Aoki, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nakazato, Takuma; Nomoto, Takashi; Ogura, Kazuyuki; Ono, Rikako; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Stein, William; Henden, Arne; de Miguel, Enrique Kiyota, Seiichiro; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Takagi, Ryosuke; Wakabayashi, Yuya; Ogi, Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Ulowetz, Joseph; Morelle, Etienne; Pickard, Roger D.; Ohshima, Tomohito; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Antonyuk, Kirill; Samsonov, Denis; Pit, Nikolaj; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Littlefield, Colin; Sabo, Richard; Ruiz, Javier; Krajci, Thomas; Dvorak, Shawn; Oksanen, Arto; Hirosawa, Kenji; Goff, William N.; Monard, Berto; Shears, Jeremy; Boyd, David; Voloshina, Irina B.; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Miyashita, Atsushi; Pietz, Jochen; Katysheva, Natalia; Itoh, Hiroshi; Bolt, Greg; Andreev, Maksim V.; Parakhin, Nikolai; Malanushenko, Viktor; Martinelli, Fabio; Denisenko, Denis; Stockdale, Chris; Starr, Peter; Simonsen, Mike; Tristram, Paul J.; Fukui, Akihiko; Tordai, Tamas; Fidrich, Robert; Paxson, Kevin B.; Itagaki, Koh-ichi; Nakashima, Youichirou; Yoshida, Seiichi; Nishimura, Hideo; Kryachko, Timur V.; Samokhvalov, Andrey V.; Korotkiy, Stanislav A.; Satovski, Boris L.; Stubbings, Rod; Poyner, Gary; Muyllaert, Eddy; Gerke, Vladimir; MacDonald, Walter, II; Linnolt, Michael; Maeda, Yutaka; Hautecler, Hubert

    2013-02-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 86 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, mainly observed during the 2011-2012 season. We confirmed general trends recorded in our previous studies, such as the relation between period derivatives and orbital periods. There are some systems showing positive period derivatives despite the long orbital period. We observed the 2011 outburst of the WZ Sge-type dwarf nova BW Scl, and recorded an O - C diagram similar to those of previously known WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. The WZ Sge-type dwarf nova OT J184228.1+483742 showed an unusual pattern of double outbursts composed of an outburst with early superhumps and one with ordinary superhumps. We propose an interpretation that a very small growth rate of the 3:1 resonance due to an extremely low mass-ratio led to quenching the superoutburst before the ordinary superhump appeared. We systematically studied ER UMa-type dwarf novae, and found that V1159 Ori showed positive superhumps similar to ER UMa in the 1990s. The recently recognized ER UMa-type object BK Lyn dominantly showed negative superhumps, and its behavior was very similar to the present-day state of ER UMa. The pattern of period variations in AM CVn-type objects was very similar to that of short-period hydrogen-rich SU UMa-type dwarf novae, making them a helium analogue of hydrogen-rich SU UMa-type dwarf novae. SBS 1108+574, a peculiar hydrogen-rich dwarf nova below the period minimum, showed a very similar pattern of period variations to those of short-period SU UMa-type dwarf novae. The mass-ratio derived from the detected orbital period suggests that this secondary is a somewhat evolved star whose hydrogen envelope was mostly stripped during the mass-exchange. CC Scl, MASTER OT J072948.66+593824.4, and OT J173516.9+154708 showed only low-amplitude superhumps with complex profiles. These superhumps are likely to be a combination of two closely separated periods.

  18. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication at RFETS is lively and involves important issues, but often does not inform participants about true ''risk reduction.''

  19. College surprised by shortened EMS payback

    SciTech Connect

    Hume, M.

    1984-02-20

    The staff's close work with the energy management system (EMS) will enable Broward Community College, in Fort Lauderdale to recover its $590,000 investment in only 1.7 years instead of the projected 2.7 years. The college lowered electricity use by 24% with an Andover Controls Corporation AC 256 Master and Slave. Operating ease, careful planning, and staff involvement enhanced the system's efficiency at the nearly all-electric college. The EMS controls 400 point and monitors 800, primarily chillers, air handlers and other heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment, as well as outdoor lighting.

  20. Sonification of Kepler Field SU UMa Cataclysmic Variable Stars V344 Lyr and V1504 Cyg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tutchton, Roxanne M.; Wood, Matt A.; Still, Martin D.; Howell, Steve B.; Cannizzo, John K.; Smale, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    Sonification is the conversion of quantitative data into sound. In this work we explain the methods used in the sonification of light curves provided by the Kepler instrument from Q2 through Q6 for the cataclysmic variable systems V344 Lyr and V1504 Cyg . Both systems are SU UMa stars showing dwarf nova outbursts and superoutbursts as well as positive and negative superhumps. Focused sonifications were done from average pulse shapes of each superhump, and separate sonifications of the full, residual light curves were done for both stars. The audio of these data reflected distinct patterns within the evolutions of supercycles and superhumps that matched pervious observations and proved to be effective aids in data analysis.

  1. Orbital Period Investigations of Two W UMa-type Binaries: AH Aur and V728 Her

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Hu, Ke

    2016-04-01

    The orbital period changes of two W UMa-type binaries, AH Aur and V728 Her, are investigated based on all available times of the light minimum taken from the databases and literature. It is revealed that the orbital period of AH Aur shows a long-term decrease at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=-2.491× {10}-7 days yr-1. For V728 Her, we find that the orbital period exhibits a secular increase at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=3.793× {10}-7 days yr-1. The secular period changes suggest that AH Aur and V728 Her are undergoing rapid mass transfer between the primary star and the secondary companion.

  2. Mapping of surface activity on the W UMa-type system VW Cephei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradstreet, David H.; Guinan, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    After multifilter photometry of the W UMa-type contact binary VW Cep (P = 6.67 hr; G5V + K0V) in 1986/87 revealed large asymmetries in the light curves believed to be caused by large, cool starspot regions on the surface of the larger stars, in Apr. 1987 it was observed with IUE to study the chromospheres and transition regions of the components. During one complete orbital cycle, three SWP and four LWP low dispersion spectra were obtained, including and then excluding the suspected active region. Phase dependent TR line emission strengths were found, most notably C IV, which is 50 percent stronger when the spot region is most visible. The results could be important because VW Cep represents an extreme case for studying stellar dynamo theory and observations can play a crucial role in the unterstanding of magnetic fields and activity cycles in rapidly rotating solar-like stars.

  3. Photometric and Period Investigation of the Late F-type Overcontact Binary II UMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, B.; Kreiner, J.

    2016-03-01

    II UMa is a late F-type (F5) contact binary with a close-in tertiary and a distant visual companion. According to the four-color (B V RcIc) light curves’ solutions of II UMa, it is a high fill-out (f = 86.6%) and low-mass ratio (q = 0.172) contact binary system, which indicates that it is at the late evolutionary stage of late-type tidal-locked binary stars. The masses of the primary star and secondary star are calculated to be {M}1=1.99{M}⊙ and {M}2=0.34{M}⊙ . The primary star has evolved from the zero-age main sequence, but it still appeared before the terminal-age main sequence, and the secondary star is even more evolved. Considering the mass ratio ({M}3/{M}1=0.67) obtained by spectroscopic observations, the mass of the close-in tertiary is estimated to be {M}3=1.34{M}⊙ . The period variations of the binary system are investigated for the first time. According to the observed-calculated (O-C) curve analysis, a continuous period increase at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=4.88× {10}-7 {day} {{yr}}-1 is determined. The parabolic variation in the O-C curve may be part of a cyclic period of change, or the combined period of change of a parabolic variation and a cyclic one. More instances of minimum light are needed to confirm this. The presence of the tertiary component may play an important role in the formation and evolution of this binary system by drawing angular momentum from the central system during the pre-contact stage.

  4. EMS response to an airliner crash.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor

    2012-06-01

    This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained. PMID:22853919

  5. Mercury pollution in the Ems estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essink, K.

    1980-03-01

    From approximately 1960 to 1975 the Ems estuary received several tons of mercury per year from a chlor-alkali plant, a pesticide factory and some minor sources. The discharge has been reduced drastically from 1976 onwards. In 1975 and 1976 measurements were made on the distribution of mercury in the sediment. The horizontal distribution revealed a strong local enrichment of the sediment near the point of discharge. The vertical distribution was found to be in accordance with the local deposition rates. In the water phase no significant change in mercury content from 1975 to 1978/79 could be demonstrated. In 1978/79 a difference between Ems estuary and Dutch Wadden Sea was not significant. In 1978 mercury contents of eelpout Zoarces viviparus in the Ems estuary were about twice as high as in the Wadden Sea. In the Ems estuary a decrease of these contents was found between 1974/75 and 1978. A similar decline in the Wadden Sea may be related to a decreased mercury discharge by the River Rhine.

  6. Do earthquakes generate EM signals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Christina; Onacha, Stephen; Malin, Peter; Shalev, Eylon; Lucas, Alan

    2010-05-01

    In recent years there has been significant interest in the seismoelectric effect which is the conversion of acoustic energy into electromagnetic energy. At the onset of the earthquake and at layer interfaces, it is postulated that the seismoelectric signal propagates at the speed of light and thus travels much faster than the acoustic wave. The focus has mainly been to use this method as a tool of predicting earthquakes. Our main objective is to study the possibility of using the seismoelectric effect to determine the origin time of an earthquake, establish an accurate velocity model and accurately locate microearthquakes. Another aspect of this research is to evaluate the possibility of detecting porous zones where seismic activity is postulated to generate fluid movement through porous medium. The displacement of pore fluid relative to the porous medium solid grains generates electromagnetic signals. The Institute of Earth Science and Engineering (IESE) has installed electromagnetic coils in 3 different areas to investigate the seismoelectric effect. Two of the research areas (Krafla in Iceland and Wairakei in New Zealand) are in active geothermal fields where high microearthquake activity has been recorded. The other area of research is at the site of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) at Parkfield area on the active San Andreas Fault which is associated with repeating earthquakes. In the Wairakei and Parkfield cases a single borehole electromagnetic coil close to borehole seismometers has been used whereas in the Krafla study area, 3 borehole electromagnetic coils coupled to borehole seismometers have been used. The technical difficulties of working in the borehole environment mean that some of these deployments had a short life span. Nevertheless in all cases data was gathered and is being analysed. At the SAFOD site, the electromagnetic coil recorded seismoelectric signals very close to a magnitude 2 earthquake. In the Wairakei and Krafla study areas, large swarms of earthquakes were located very close to the electromagnetic coils. This abstract focuses on the data from the Wairakei area. Preliminary data analysis has been carried out by band pass filtering and removing of the harmonics of the 50 Hz power line frequency. The initial results clearly show that electromagnetic signals accompany the seismic P and S waves (coseismic signal). Further data analysis involves the extraction of the seismoelectric signal generated at the onset of the earthquake and at interfaces from the coseismic signal and other ‘noise' sources. This processing step exhibits a major challenge in seismoelectric data processing. Unlike in other studies we measured the EM field and the seismic field at one location. Therefore the seismoelectric wave travelling at the speed of light cannot be determined as easily in the arrival times as when an array of coils is used. This makes the determination of the origin time much more difficult. Hence other processing techniques need to be explored.

  7. In-the-gap SU UMa-type dwarf nova, Var73 Dra with a supercycle of about 60 days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, D.; Uemura, M.; Ishioka, R.; Kato, T.; Torii, K.; Starkey, D. R.; Tanabe, K.; Vanmunster, T.; Pavlenko, E. P.; Goranskij, V. P.; Barsukova, E. A.; Antoniuk, O.; Martin, B.; Cook, L. M.; Masi, G.; Mallia, F.

    2003-06-01

    An intensive photometric-observation campaign of the recently discovered SU UMa-type dwarf nova, Var73 Dra was conducted from 2002 August to 2003 February. We caught three superoutbursts in 2002 October, December and 2003 February. The recurrence cycle of the superoutburst (supercycle) is indicated to be ~ 60 d, the shortest among the values known so far in SU UMa stars and close to those of ER UMa stars. The superhump periods measured during the first two superoutbursts were 0.104885(93) d, and 0.10623(16) d, respectively. A 0.10424(3)-d periodicity was detected in quiescence. The change rate of the superhump period during the second superoutburst was 1.7*E-3, which is an order of magnitude larger than the largest value ever known. Outburst activity has changed from a phase of frequent normal outbursts and infrequent superoutbursts in 2001 to a phase of infrequent normal outbursts and frequent superoutbursts in 2002. Our observations are negative to an idea that this star is an related object to ER UMa stars in terms of the duty cycle of the superoutburst and the recurrence cycle of the normal outburst. However, to trace the superhump evolution throughout a superoutburst, and from quiescence more effectively, may give a fruitful result on this matter.

  8. Plume Created From a Collapse of the Upper Portion of the Halema'uma'u Vent Cavity

    With lava retreating deeper into the Halema'uma'u vent cavity over the past two days, the cavity walls have experienced more frequent collapses. At 2:23pm today (March 7), a collapse from the upper portion of the vent cavity produced a robust brown plume, but did not eject any large particles....

  9. Modelling and design for PM/EM magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Anand, D. K.; Johnson, R. G.; Zmood, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model of a permanent magnet/electromagnet (PM/EM) radially active bearing is presented. The bearing is represented by both a reluctance model and a stiffness model. The reluctance model analyzes the magnetic circuit of the PM/EM bearings. By combining the two models, the performance of the bearing can be predicted given geometric dimensions, permanent magnet strength, and the parameters of the EM coils. The overall bearing design including the PM and EM design is subject to the performance requirement and physical constraints. A study of these requirements and constraints is discussed. The PM design is based on the required magnetic flux for proper geometric dimensions and magnet strength. The EM design is based on the stability and force slew rate consideration, and dictates the number of turns for the EM coils and the voltage and current of the power amplifier. An overall PM/EM bearing design methodology is proposed and a case study is also demonstrated.

  10. Evolução temporal da explosão solar de 06 de junho de 2000 apresentando estruturas finas em rádio freqüências

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Caracini, A. G.; Vats, H. O.; Karlický, M.; Meszarosova, H.

    2003-08-01

    Em 06 de junho de 2000 (~15: 00-17: 00 UT), o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS) registrou uma explosão solar intensa no intervalo de freqüência de (1000-2000) MHz, com alta resolução temporal (100 ms) e espectral (5 MHz). A atividade solar relacionada a esta explosão associada à região ativa (AR) 9026 e classificada como X2.3 foi grande. O Ondrejov Observatory registrou rádio emissões até 4,5 GHz. O satélite SOHO registrou uma série de erupções solares, incluindo uma Ejeção de Massa Coronal (CME) tipo "full-halo" (~15: 54 UT). Explosões tipo II/IV também foram registradas. Na faixa de ondas decimétricas, este evento apresentou dois picos distintos (~15: 21 UT e ~16: 42 UT). O primeiro pico coincide com a explosão registrada em raios-X moles (GOES) e em raios-X duros (Yohkoh). Os espectros dinâmicos com alta resolução do BSS revelaram várias estruturas finas, principalmente emissões tipo "zebra" e "fibra", rádio pulsações, emissões tipo III e do único caso de emissões "zebra" harmônicas observado na faixa decimétrica. Neste trabalho, analisamos a evolução temporal e o comportamento global do evento de 06 de junho de 2000, com ênfase na identificação e associação da ocorrência de cada tipo de estrutura fina registrada em rádio com cada etapa da explosão. Resultados preliminares mostraram que, na fase pré-flare, as estruturas finas apresentaram taxa de deriva negativa (~ 70-190 MHz/s). As emissões tipo "zebra" concentram-se na fase de descida do primeiro pico impulsivo e na de subida do segundo pico. Enquanto que as emissões tipo "fibra" ocorrem em ambas fases, mas preferivelmente durante a fase de descida. Os resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  11. The association between EMS workplace safety culture and safety outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Matthew D.; Wang, Henry E.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Patterson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Prior studies have highlighted wide variation in EMS workplace safety culture across agencies. We sought to determine the association between EMS workplace safety culture scores and patient or provider safety outcomes. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to EMS workers affiliated with a convenience sample of agencies. We recruited these agencies from a national EMS management organization. We used the EMS Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (EMS-SAQ) to measure workplace safety culture and the EMS Safety Inventory (EMS-SI), a tool developed to capture self-reported safety outcomes from EMS workers. The EMS-SAQ provides reliable and valid measures of six domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, perceptions of working conditions, stress recognition, and job satisfaction. A panel of medical directors, paramedics, and occupational epidemiologists developed the EMS-SI to measure self-reported injury, medical errors and adverse events, and safety-compromising behaviors. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the association between EMS-SAQ scores and EMS-SI safety outcome measures. Results Sixteen percent of all respondents reported experiencing an injury in the past 3 months, four of every 10 respondents reported an error or adverse event (AE), and 90% reported safety-compromising behaviors. Respondents reporting injury scored lower on 5 of the 6 domains of safety culture. Respondents reporting an error or AE scored lower for 4 of the 6 domains, while respondents reporting safety-compromising behavior had lower safety culture scores for 5 of 6 domains. Conclusions Individual EMS worker perceptions of workplace safety culture are associated with composite measures of patient and provider safety outcomes. This study is preliminary evidence of the association between safety culture and patient or provider safety outcomes. PMID:21950463

  12. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Orbit and Component Masses of the Intermediate-age, Late-type Binary NO UMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Maire, Anne-Lise; Desidera, Silvano; Hinz, Philip; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Leisenring, Jarron; Bailey, Vanessa; Defrère, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Weber, Michael; Biller, Beth A.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird M.; Crepp, Justin R.; Eisner, Josh A.; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Henning, Thomas; Morzinski, Katie M.; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E.

    2016-02-01

    We present high-resolution Large Binocular Telescope LBTI/LMIRcam images of the spectroscopic and astrometric binary NO UMa obtained as part of the LBT Interferometer Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt exoplanet imaging survey. Our H-, Ks-, and L‧-band observations resolve the system at angular separations <0.″09. The components exhibit significant orbital motion over a span of ∼7 months. We combine our imaging data with archival images, published speckle interferometry measurements, and existing spectroscopic velocity data to solve the full orbital solution and estimate component masses. The masses of the K2.0 ± 0.5 primary and K6.5 ± 0.5 secondary are 0.83 ± 0.02 M⊙ and 0.64 ± 0.02 M⊙, respectively. We also derive a system distance of d = 25.87 ± 0.02 pc and revise the Galactic kinematics of NO UMa. Our revised Galactic kinematics confirm NO UMa as a nuclear member of the ∼500 Myr old Ursa Major moving group, and it is thus a mass and age benchmark. We compare the masses of the NO UMa binary components to those predicted by five sets of stellar evolution models at the age of the Ursa Major group. We find excellent agreement between our measured masses and model predictions with little systematic scatter between the models. NO UMa joins the short list of nearby, bright, late-type binaries having known ages and fully characterized orbits. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescope in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC.

  13. Ternarity, Activity, and Evolutionary State of the W UMa-Type Binary UX Eridani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; Yuan, J.-Z.; Xiang, F.-Y.; Soonthornthum, B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; He, J.-J.

    2007-11-01

    Charge-coupled device photometric observations of the W UMa-type binary star UX Eridani are presented. Comparing the B light curve with that obtained by Binnendijk in 1964-1965, the variation of the light curve around the primary minimum was found. Photometric solutions of Binnendijk's and our light curves were derived by using the new version of the Wilson-Devinney program. Our solutions confirmed that UX Eri is a marginal W-type overcontact binary system with a very low degree of overcontact, f < 15%. The change of the light curve around the primary minimum was explained as the disappearance of a dark spot on the more massive component star. This suggests that UX Eri shows strong magnetic activity, which is in agreement with its having the highest X-ray flux among 57 W UMa-type binary stars studied by Stepien et al. The high level of magnetic activity was interpreted as the result of a shallow common convective envelope. Orbital period changes were analyzed using several newly determined CCD times of light minimum together with others collected from the literature. A cyclic period change (T = 45.3 yr) was found to be superimposed on a long-term increase (dP/dt = +7.7 × 10-8 days yr-1). The period oscillation and the existence of third light both confirm that UX Eri contains a tertiary component. Since no spectroscopic companion was found, it is estimated that the mass of the third body is M3 < 0.56 Modot. The tertiary component star is moving in an eccentric orbit (e' = 0.72) with an orbital inclination of i' > 44.5°. The tertiary component may have played an important role in the formation of the progenitor of UX Eri by transferring angular momentum during the Kozai oscillation. In that way, the detached progenitor could evolve into overcontact configuration via magnetic braking. It was found that the timescale of the period increase is close to the thermal timescale of the less massive component, which suggests that UX Eri is in an evolutionary state of thermally conservative mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one.

  14. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  15. THE MULTI-COLOR LIGHT CURVES OF THE W UMa TYPE CONTACT BINARY EP ANDROMEDAE

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, W.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, K.; He, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G.; Zhou, X.

    2013-10-01

    New multi-color CCD photometric light curves of the eclipsing binary EP And were obtained over six nights in 2006, 2011, and 2012. Using the Wilson-Devinney code, we computed the photometric elements of this system. It was discovered that EP And is a W-type W UMa contact binary system with a mass ratio of q = 2.685 and a degree of contact factor f = 24.9%, rather than an A-type system. Combining 28 newly determined times of minimum light derived from 1999 to 2012 with others collected from the literature, a long-term increase (dP/dt = +5.22 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} days yr{sup -1}) with a sinusoidal variation (A = 0.0109 days; T = 40.89 yr) in the orbital period was found. The orbital period secular increases may be interpreted as conservative mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one, and cyclic variations of the orbital period may be caused by the light-travel time effect through the presence of a third body. The evolutionary status and the age of the system are also discussed.

  16. FIRST MODERN PHOTOMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE PUZZLING W UMa TYPE CLOSE BINARY SYSTEM OF TZ BOOTIS

    SciTech Connect

    Christopoulou, P.-E.; Parageorgiou, A.; Chrysopoulos, I.

    2011-10-15

    New CCD photometric BVRI observations of the puzzling W UMa type binary star, TZ Bootis, are presented from our observations in 2010. By using the updated version of the Wilson-Devinney code, the first modern photometric solution is deduced from new photometric observations and published spectroscopic data. This low mass ratio binary turns out to be a deep overcontact system with f = 52% of A-subtype. A spot model has been applied to fit the particular features of light curves. Based on our seven new light minimum times and all others compiled from the literature over 70 yr, we studied the orbital period from the O-C curve. It is found that a 31.2 yr cyclic variation exists with an amplitude of 0.033 days, overlaying a secular decrease at a rate of dP/dt = -2.1 x 10{sup -8} days yr{sup -1}. The cyclic period change may indicate that TZ Boo is a triple or a quadruple system as confirmed from the published spectroscopic data. The long-term orbital period decrease is interpreted by mass transfer from the more to the less massive component and/or angular momentum loss by the magnetic breaking which would cause the overcontact degree to increase and finally the binary will evolve into a single rapidly rotating star.

  17. Curious Variables Experiment (CURVE). RZ LMi - the Most Active SU UMa Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olech, A.; Wisniewski, M.; Zloczewski, K.; Cook, L. M.; Mularczyk, K.; Kedzierski, P.

    2008-06-01

    We report extensive photometry of the frequently outbursting dwarf nova RZ Leo Minoris. During two seasons of observations we detected 12 superoutbursts and 7 normal outbursts. The V magnitude of the star varied in range from 16.5 mag to 13.9 mag. The superoutbursts occur quite regularly flashing every 19.07(4) days and lasting slightly over 10 days. The average interval between two successive normal outbursts is 4.027(3) days. The mean superhump period observed during the superoutbursts is P_sh=0.059396(4) days (85.530+/-0.006 min). The period of the superhumps was constant except for one superoutburst when it increased with a rate of dot P/P_sh=7.6(1.9)x10^-5. Our observations indicate that RZ LMi enters the stage of permanent superhumps, both in superoutbursts and quiescence. This may indicate that decoupling of thermal and tidal instabilities play important role in ER UMa systems. No periodic light variations which can be connected with orbital period of the binary were seen, thus the mass ratio and evolutionary status of RZ LMi are still unknown.

  18. Complex Period Variations of the Neglected W UMa-type Binary System NY Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.

    2009-04-01

    Orbital-period variations of the neglected W UMa-type binary star, NY Lyr, were analyzed based on two newly determined eclipse times together with the others compiled from the literature. A cyclic oscillation with a period of 82.1 yr and an amplitude of 0.0247 d was discovered to be superimposed on a continuous period increase (dP/dt = +1.33 × 10-7 d yr-1). After the long-term period increase and the large-amplitude cyclic oscillation were removed from the O-C diagram, the residuals suggest that there is another small-amplitude period oscillation (A4 = 0.0053 d, P4 = 19.4 years) in the orbital period changes. As in the cases of AH Cnc and AD Cnc, both the continuous period increase and the two cyclic period oscillations make NY Lyr an interesting system to study in the future. In order to understand the evolutionary state of the binary system, new photometric and spectroscopic observations and a careful investigation on those data are needed.

  19. Ultra-weak magnetic fields in Am stars: β UMa and θ Leo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazère, A.; Petit, P.; Lignières, F.; Aurière, M.; Ballot, J.; Böhm, T.; Folsom, C.; Ariste, A. López; Wade, G. A.

    2015-10-01

    An extremely weak circularly-polarized signature was recently detected in the spectral lines of the Am star Sirius A. With a prominent positive lobe, the shape of the phase-averaged Stokes V line profile is atypical of stellar Zeeman signatures, casting doubts on its magnetic origin. We report here on ultra-deep spectropolarimetric observations of two more bright Am stars: β Uma and θ Leo. Stokes V line signatures are detected in both objects, with a shape and amplitude similar to the one observed on Sirius A. We demonstrate that the amplitude of the Stokes V line profiles depend on various line parameters (Landé factor, wavelength, depth) as expected from a Zeeman signature, confirming that extremely weak magnetic fields are likely present in a large fraction of Am stars. We suggest that the strong asymmetry of the polarized signatures, systematically observed so far in Am stars and never reported in strongly magnetic Ap stars, bears unique information about the structure and dynamics of the thin surface convective shell of Am stars.

  20. A photometric study of the W UMa-type system U Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djurašević, G.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.; Rovithis, P.; Erkapić, S.; Milovanović, N.

    2001-03-01

    In the present study, the activity of the eclipsing binary of the W UMa-type system U Peg is examined by analysing the photoelectric observations covering the period from 1950 to 1989. During this period, the light curves show significant differences and asymmetries. The analysis of the corresponding light curves is made using Djurašević's inverse problem method. To explain the light-curve asymmetries and variations, we used a Roche model that involved regions containing spots on the components. The analysis shows that the system U Peg is in an overcontact configuration (fover ~ 14.9%). The Roche model with spotted areas on the cooler component yields a good fit of the observations for the whole set of the analysed light curves without any changes of the basic system parameters. This indicates that the complex nature of the light-curve variations during the examined period can be explained by the evolution and motion of spotted areas on the cooler component. According to the obtained results, the spotted areas cover a significant part of the stellar surface; the changes in their location and size with time are examined.

  1. Orbital Period Variation and Morphological Light Curve Studies for the W UMa Binary BB Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Magdy A.; Awadalla, Nabil S.

    2011-06-01

    The photometric light curves of the W-type W UMa eclipsing contact binary system BB Pegasi have been found to be extremely asymmetric over all the observed 63 years in all wavelengths UBVR. The light curves have been characterized by occultation primary minima. So, the morphology of these light curves has been studied in view of these different asymmetric degrees. The system shows a distinct O'Connell effect as well as depth variation. A 22.96 years cycle, of dark spots group, has been determined for the system combined with about the same cycling for the depth variations (22.78 yr). Also, an analysis of the measurements of mid-eclipse times of BB Peg has been presented. The analysis indicates a period decrease of 5.62× 10-8 d/yr, which can be interpreted in terms of mass transfer of rate -4.38 × 10-8 M_⊙/yr, from the more to the less massive component. The O-C diagram shows a damping sine wave covering two different cycles of 17.0 yr and 12.87 yr with amplitudes equal to 0.0071 and 0.0013 day, respectively. These unequal durations show a non periodicity which may be explained as a result of magnetic activity cycling variations due to star spots. The obtained characteristics are consistent when applying Applegate's (1992) mechanism.

  2. Crosshole EM in steel-cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Lee, K.H.; Becker, A.; Spies, B.; Wang, B.

    1996-07-01

    The application of crosshole EM methods through steel well-casing was investigated in theoretical, laboratory and field studies. A numerical code was developed that calculates the attenuation and phase delay of an EM dipole signal propagated through a steel well casing lodged in a homogeneous medium. The code was validated with a scale model and used for sensitivity studies of casing and formation properties. Finally, field measurements were made in an oil field undergoing waterflooding. Our most important findings are that (1) crosshole surveys are feasible using a well pair with one metallic and one non-metallic casing. (2) The casing effect seems be localized within the pipe section that includes the sensor. (3) The effects of the casing can be corrected using simple means and (4) crosshole field data that are sensitive to both formation and casing were acquired in a working environment.

  3. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C.D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  4. Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Stephen H.; Arthur, Annette O.

    2012-01-01

    Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS) utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems. PMID:22203905

  5. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. V. The fifth year (2012-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Masi, Gianluca; Nocentini, Francesca; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Ogi, Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Krajci, Thomas; Miller, Ian; de Miguel, Enrique; Henden, Arne; Noguchi, Ryo; Ishibashi, Takehiro; Ono, Rikako; Kawabata, Miho; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Nishino, Hirochika; Furukawa, Hisami; Masumoto, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Katsura; Littlefield, Colin; Ohshima, Tomohito; Nakata, Chikako; Honda, Satoshi; Kinugasa, Kenzo; Hashimoto, Osamu; Stein, William; Pickard, Roger D.; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Antonyuk, Kirill; Samsonov, Denis; Pit, Nikolaj; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Oksanen, Arto; Harlingten, Caisey; Tyyskä, Jenni; Monard, Berto; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Yutaka; Hirosawa, Kenji; Itoh, Hiroshi; Sabo, Richard; Ulowetz, Joseph; Morelle, Etienne; Michel, Raúl; Suárez, Genaro; James, Nick; Dvorak, Shawn; Voloshina, Irina B.; Richmond, Michael; Staels, Bart; Boyd, David; Andreev, Maksim V.; Parakhin, Nikolai; Katysheva, Natalia; Miyashita, Atsushi; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Bolt, Greg; Padovan, Stefano; Nelson, Peter; Starkey, Donn R.; Buczynski, Denis; Starr, Peter; Goff, William N.; Denisenko, Denis; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Prieto, José L.; Itagaki, Koh-ichi; Kaneko, Shizuo; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy; Shears, Jeremy; Schmeer, Patrick; Poyner, Gary; Rodríguez-Marco, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Continuing the project described in Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for SU UMa-type dwarf novae mainly observed during the 2012-2013 season. We found three objects (V444 Peg, CSS J203937, and MASTER J212624) having strongly positive period derivatives despite the long orbital period (Porb). By using the period of growing stage (stage A) superhumps, we obtained mass ratios for six objects. We characterized nine new WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. We made a pilot survey of the decline rate in the slowly fading parts of SU UMa-type and WZ Sge-type outbursts. The decline time scale was found to generally follow an expected P_orb^{1/4} dependence, and WZ Sge-type outbursts also generally follow this trend. There are some objects which show slower decline rates, and we consider these objects good candidates for period bouncers. We also studied unusual behavior in some objects, including BK Lyn which made a transition from an ER UMa-type state to a novalike (standstill) state in 2013, and unusually frequent occurrences of superoutbursts in NY Ser and CR Boo. We applied the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) power spectral analysis, which has been proven to be very effective in analyzing the Kepler data, to the ground-based photometry of BK Lyn, and detected a dramatic disappearance of the signal of negative superhumps in 2013. We suggested that the mass-transfer rates did not strongly vary between the ER UMa-type state and novalike state in BK Lyn, and this transition was less likely caused by a systematic variation of the mass-transfer rate.

  6. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  7. Plume chemistry and potential impacts of the plume from the recent activity at Halemaumau, Kilauea, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, T. A.; Witt, M. L.; Martin, R.; Aiuppa, A.; Bagnato, E.; Sutton, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    Since the 19 March 2008 explosion within Halemaumau that formed the new vent at Kilaueas summit, degassing rates have been greatly elevated above the levels typical of previous years. The location and subsequent dispersion of this new degassing presents its own specific problems compared to that in the east rift zone. For example, throughout 2008 the Halemaumau plume was generally blown through the Kau desert, directly affecting downwind communities. In this study we present measurements made in July 2008. We characterize the gas chemistry in terms of SO2 and halogens (HF, HCl, HBr and HI) in the new plume from Halemaumau in order to compare them with other plumes worldwide, including those from subduction zone settings and other emissions from Kilauea itself. Further to this we characterize the plumes chemistry in terms of emissions of environmentally important metallic species both in the size-segregated aerosol (important for determining atmospheric lifetime and potential speciation) and in the case of Hg in the gas phase (both in the elemental form and reactive forms). To complement this plume characterization we also looked at preliminary environmental samples of grasses, rainwater and fog in order to investigate potential future avenues for research into the environmental consequences of Kilaueas volcanic emissions.

  8. Patterns of behavior in Kilauea's Halema`uma`u lava lake during 2011 and 1911

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, M. R.; Orr, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    The past three and a half years of activity in the Halema`uma`u vent, at the summit of Kilauea Volcano, have provided a robust observational dataset and allowed us to generalize on many aspects of behavior in the lava lake. The current lava lake normally has been 100-150 m in diameter and contained deep (70-220 m) within a slowly enlarging, fume-filled crater. The lava level fluctuates over both long- and short-term intervals, over a total height range of about 150 m. Over the long term (days to weeks) the lava level correlates directly with summit tilt at a consistent rate, sympathetic with the frequent summit deflation-inflation (DI) events, indicating the lava level is related, in large part, to the pressure state of the summit magma reservoir. On a short term, the lava level experiences rise-fall cycles ("gas pistoning") of 10-20 m height changes, with time spans of minutes to hours, which are due to shallow accumulation and release of gas. The lava lake also abruptly dropped about 150 m during the March 2011 east-rift intrusion and Kamoamoa eruption, presumably due to the rapid evacuation of magma from the summit reservoir. The lava surface is composed of large (decameter-scale) crustal plates, whose size is inversely related to the surface migration velocity. The surface crust moves at a relatively slow velocity (often 0.2-1 m/s), similar to velocities at other lava lakes on Kilauea (Mauna Ulu, Kupaianaha) and elsewhere worldwide (Erebus, Erta Ale), and usually in a direction that is maintained for months. Spattering is generally continuous and directly linked to the circulation pattern; spattering normally occurs at the spot of lava downwelling. Spattering intensity correlates directly with seismic tremor levels, suggesting that the bulk of summit tremor is related to gas release from the lava surface. These characteristics of the modern lava lake have both important similarities and differences compared to the Halema`uma`u lava lake observed by volcanologist Frank Perret in the summer of 1911 and other scientists until 1924. The lava lake then was in a much larger pit than it is today, and the surface structure of the lake, composed of grottoes, islands, divergent flow patterns and subordinate ponds, appears to have been more segmented, complex and expansive than the simple surface geometry today. Short-term lava level fluctuations, resembling gas pistoning in description, also appear to have been present and caused by shallow gas build-up and release. The lava level, in general, was 100-150 m higher than it is today. Like today, spattering in the lake was persistent at the site of lava downwelling and, in many cases, stable through time. Also like today, the spattering behavior was tied to the lava circulation pattern in a consistent manner. The shared behaviors, including short-term lava level fluctuations (gas pistoning) and the relation between spattering and circulation pattern, of the early and modern lava lakes may point to processes that are inherent to lava lakes in general and give insight on the nature of gas flow and lava circulation in lava lakes. Differences, such as overall lava level and lake expansiveness, may be due to the difference in rift zone activity, magma supply rate or superficial vent geometry.

  9. Physical parameters and dynamical properties of the multiple system ι UMa (ADS 7114)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuchkov, R. Ya.; Malogolovets, E. V.; Kiyaeva, O. V.; Orlov, V. V.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Balega, Yu. Yu.

    2012-07-01

    We analyze the physical parameters, orbital elements, and dynamic stability of the multiple system ι UMa (HD 76644 = ADS 7114). We have used the positions from the WDS catalog and our own observations on the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish Telescope (Antalya, Turkey). We have obtained more precise orbital parameters of the subsystems, and spectral types, absolute magnitudes, and masses of the components. The primary has Sp = F0 V-IV, M = 1.7 ± 0.1 M ⊙, T eff = 7260 ± 70 K, and log g = 4.30 ± 0.07. The companion in the close A a subsystem is most likely a white dwarf with a mass of approximately 1.0 ± 0.3 M ⊙. The spectral types and masses of the components in the BC subsystem are M3V, M4V and 0.35 ± 0.05 M ⊙, 0.30 ± 0.05 M ⊙, respectively. The total mass is 3.4 ± 0.4 M ⊙. The A a subsystem probably has an orbital period of 4470d = 12.2y and an eccentricity of approximately 0.6. The outer subsystem seems to have a period of approximately 2084 yrs and an eccentricity of approximately 0.9. We have carried out simulations using the stability criteria and shown that for all possible variations in the component parameters, the multiple system is unstable on a time scale of less than 106 years with a probability exceeding 0.98. Possible reasons for this instability are discussed.

  10. An extensive analysis of the triple W UMa type binary FI BOO

    SciTech Connect

    Christopoulou, P.-E.; Papageorgiou, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the interesting W UMa binary FI Boo in view of the spectroscopic signature of a third body through photometry, period variation, and a thorough investigation of solution uniqueness. We obtained new BVR{sub c}I{sub c} photometric data that, when combined with spectroscopic data, enable us to analyze the system FI Boo and determine its basic orbital and physical properties through PHOEBE, as well as the period variation by studying the times of the minima. This combined approach allows us to study the long-term period changes in the system for the first time in order to investigate the presence of a third body and to check extensively the solution uniqueness and the uncertainties of derived parameters. Our modeling indicates that FI Boo is a W-type moderate (f = 50.15% ± 8.10%) overcontact binary with component masses of M {sub h} = 0.40 ± 0.05 M {sub ☉} and M {sub c} = 1.07 ± 0.05 M {sub ☉}, temperatures of T {sub h} = 5746 ± 33 K and T {sub c} = 5420 ± 56 K, and a third body, which may play an important role in the formation and evolution. The results were tested by heuristic scanning and parameter kicking to provide the consistent and reliable set of parameters that was used to obtain the initial masses of the progenitors (1.71 ± 0.10 M {sub ☉} and 0.63 ± 0.01 M {sub ☉}, respectively). We also investigated the evolutionary status of massive components with several sets of widely used isochrones.

  11. First Photometric Investigation of the Newly Discovered W UMa-type Binary Star MR Com

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; Liu, N.-P.; Liao, W.-P.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G.

    2013-08-01

    By analyzing multi-color light curves of the newly discovered W UMa-type binary, MR Com, we discovered that it is a shallow-contact binary with a degree of contact factor of f = 10.0% 2.1%. Photometric solutions reveal that MR Com is a W-type system with a mass ratio of q = 3.9 where the less massive component is about 90 K hotter than the more massive one. By investigating all of the available times of minimum light, we found that the general trend of the Observed-Calculated (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation while it undergoes a cyclic variation with a small amplitude of 0.0031 days and a period of 10.1 yr. The downward parabolic change corresponds to a long-term decrease in the orbital period at a rate of \\dot{P}=-5.3\\times {10^{-7}} days yr-1 that may be caused by a combination of a mass transfer and an angular momentum loss (AML) via magnetic braking. Among the 16 shallow-contact systems with a decreasing orbital period, MR Com has the lowest mass ratio (e.g., 1/q = 0.26). The shallow-contact configuration, the low-mass ratio, and the long-term period decrease all suggest that systems similar to MR Com are on the AML-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. They will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and evolve into a deep contact with a higher mass ratio. The small-amplitude cyclic change in the O - C curve was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

  12. Survey of Period Variations of Superhumps in SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Imada, Akira; Uemura, Makoto; Nogami, Daisaku; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Ishioka, Ryoko; Baba, Hajime; Matsumoto, Katsura; Iwamatsu, Hidetoshi; Kubota, Kaori; Sugiyasu, Kei; Soejima, Yuichi; Moritani, Yuuki; Ohshima, Tomohito; Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Junpei; Sasada, Mahito; Arai, Akira; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Tanabe, Kenji; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Kunitomi, Nanae; Kunihiro, Kenji; Taguchi, Hiroki; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Yamada, Norimi; Nishi, Yuichi; Kida, Mayumi; Tanaka, Sawa; Ueoka, Rie; Yasui, Hideki; Maruoka, Koichi; Henden, Arne; Oksanen, Arto; Moilanen, Marko; Tikkanen, Petri; Aho, Mika; Monard, Berto; Itoh, Hiroshi; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Dancikova, Radka; Vanmunster, Tonny; Pietz, Jochen; Bolt, Greg; Boyd, David; Nelson, Peter; Krajci, Thomas; Cook, Lewis M.; Torii, Ken'ichi; Starkey, Donn R.; Shears, Jeremy; Jensen, Lasse-Teist; Masi, Gianluca; Hynek, Tomáš; Nová; K, Rudolf; Kociá; N, Radek; Krá; L, Lukáš; Kučá; Ková, Hana; Kolasa, Marek; Štastný, Petr; Staels, Bart; Miller, Ian; Sano, Yasuo; de Ponthière, Pierre; Miyashita, Atsushi; Crawford, Tim; Brady, Steve; Santallo, Roland; Richards, Tom; Martin, Brian; Buczynski, Denis; Richmond, Michael; Kern, Jim; Davis, Stacey; Crabtree, Dustin; Beaulieu, Kevin; Davis, Tracy; Aggleton, Matt; Morelle, Etienne; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Andreev, Maksim; Baklanov, Alexander; Koppelman, Michael D.; Billings, Gary; Urbancok, L'ubomír; Ögmen, Yenal; Heathcote, Bernard; Gomez, Tomas L.; Voloshina, Irina; Retter, Alon; Mularczyk, Krzysztof; Zoczewski, Kamil; Olech, Arkadiasz; Kedzierski, Piotr; Pickard, Roger D.; Stockdale, Chris; Virtanen, Jani; Morikawa, Koichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Garradd, Gordon; Gualdoni, Carlo; Geary, Keith; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Michel, Raul; Cárdenas, A. A.; Gazeas, Kosmas D.; Niarchos, Panos G.; Yushchenko, Alexander V.; Mallia, Franco; Fiaschi, Marco; Good, Gerry A.; Walker, Stan; James, Nick; Douzu, Ken-Ichi; Julian, Wm Mack, II; Butterworth, Neil D.; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Volkov, Igor; Chochol, Drahomir; Katysheva, Natalia; Rosenbush, Alexander E.; Khramtsova, Maria; Kehusmaa, Petri; Reszelski, Maciej; Bedient, James; Liller, William; Pojmanski, Grzegorz; Simonsen, Mike; Stubbings, Rod; Schmeer, Patrick; Muyllaert, Eddy; Kinnunen, Timo; Poyner, Gary; Ripero, Jose; Kriebel, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    We systematically surveyed period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae based on newly obtained data and past publications. In many systems, the evolution of the superhump period is found to be composed of three distinct stages: an early evolutionary stage with a longer superhump period, a middle stage with systematically varying periods, and a final stage with a shorter, stable superhump period. During the middle stage, many systems with superhump periods of less than 0.08 d show positive period derivatives. We present observational characteristics of these stages and give greatly improved statistics. Contrary to an earlier claim, we found no clear evidence for a variation of period derivatives among different superoutbursts of the same object. We present an interpretation that the lengthening of the superhump period is a result of the outward propagation of an eccentricity wave, which is limited by the radius near the tidal truncation. We interpret that late-stage superhumps are rejuvenated excitation of a 3:1 resonance when superhumps in the outer disk are effectively quenched. The general behavior of the period variation, particularly in systems with short orbital periods, appears to follow a scenario proposed in Kato, Maehara, and Monard (2008, PASJ, 60, L23). We also present an observational summary of WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. Many of them have shown long-enduring superhumps during a post-superoutburst stage having longer periods than those during the main superoutburst. The period derivatives in WZ Sge-type dwarf novae are found to be strongly correlated with the fractional superhump excess, or consequently with the mass ratio. WZ Sge-type dwarf novae with a long-lasting rebrightening or with multiple rebrightenings tend to have smaller period derivatives, and are excellent candidates for those systems around or after the period minimum of evolution of cataclysmic variables.

  13. A New Photometric Investigation of the W UMa-Type Binary BI CVn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Liao, W. P.

    2008-12-01

    New photometric observations and their investigation of the W UMa-type binary, BI CVn, are presented. The variations of the orbital period were analyzed based on 12 new determined times of light minimum together with the others compiled from the literature. It is discovered that the period of BI CVn shows a long-term period decrease at a rate of \\dot{P}=-1.51(± 0.12)× {10^{-7}} days year-1 while it undergoes a cyclic variation with a period of 27.0 years and an amplitude of 0fd0151. Photometric solutions determined with the Wilson-Devinney method suggest that BI CVn is a contact binary with a degree of contact of 18.0(±1.7)%. The asymmetry of the light curves was interpreted by the presence of dark spots on both components, and absolute parameters were determined by combining the photometric elements with the spectroscopic solutions given by Lu. The observed period decrease can be plausibly explained by a combination of the mass transfer from the primary to the secondary and angular momentum loss via magnetic braking. The cyclic period oscillation suggests that BI CVn is a triple system containing a tertiary component with a mass no less than 0.58 M sun in a 27.0 year orbit. As in the cases of the other contact binaries (e.g., AH Cnc, AP Leo, AD Cnc, and UX Eri), it is possible that this tertiary companion played an important role for the formation and evolution of the contact system by removing angular momentum from the central system via Kozai oscillation or a combination of Kozai cycle and tidal friction, which causes the eclipsing pair to have a short initial orbital period (e.g., P < 5d). In that case, can the initially detached system evolve into the present contact configuration via a combination of magnetic torques from stellar winds and a case A mass transfer?

  14. V344 LYRAE: A TOUCHSTONE SU UMa CATACLYSMIC VARIABLE IN THE KEPLER FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Matt A.; Still, Martin D.; Howell, Steve B.; Cannizzo, John K.

    2011-11-10

    We report on the analysis of the Kepler short-cadence (SC) light curve of V344 Lyr obtained during 2009 June 20 through 2010 March 19 (Q2-Q4). The system is an SU UMa star showing dwarf nova (DN) outbursts and superoutbursts, and promises to be a touchstone for CV studies for the foreseeable future. The system displays both positive and negative superhumps with periods of 2.20 and 2.06 hr, respectively, and we identify an orbital period of 2.11 hr. The positive superhumps have a maximum amplitude of {approx}0.25 mag, the negative superhumps have a maximum amplitude of {approx}0.8 mag, and the orbital period at quiescence has an amplitude of {approx}0.025 mag. The quality of the Kepler data is such that we can test vigorously the models for accretion disk dynamics that have been emerging in the past several years. The SC data for V344 Lyr are consistent with the model that two physical sources yield positive superhumps: early in the superoutburst, the superhump signal is generated by viscous dissipation within the periodically flexing disk, but late in the superoutburst, the signal is generated as the accretion stream bright spot sweeps around the rim of the non-axisymmetric disk. The disk superhumps are roughly anti-phased with the stream/late superhumps. The V344 Lyr data also reveal negative superhumps arising from accretion onto a tilted disk precessing in the retrograde direction and suggest that negative superhumps may appear during the decline of DN outbursts. The period of negative superhumps has a positive P-dot in between outbursts.

  15. A CCD photometric study of the W UMa contact binary Y Sextantis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yulan; Liu, Qingyao

    2003-07-01

    A V light curve of the W UMa contact binary Y Sex is presented in this paper. From the observations, two times of minimum light was determined and from the present times of minimum light and those collected from the references, the change in the orbital period of the system was analyzed with the method of Kalimeris et al. [A&A 282 (1994) 775]. The result reveals that the orbital period of the system oscillates with a cycle of about 50 years and an amplitude of 1.1×10 -6 days. The light curve was analyzed by means of the latest version of the Wilson-Devinney code, which was also used to correct photometric effects on the radial-velocity curve obtained by McLean and Hilditch [MNRAS 203 (1983) 1]. The results suggest that Y Sex is an A-subtype contact binary with a mass ratio of q=0.180(2). In the new photometric solution, a positive value of the third light of the system suggests that the sinusoidal variation of the period could be caused by a third component in the system. The absolute dimensions of Y Sex are found to be: M1=1.21(18) M ⊙, M2=0.22(3) M ⊙, R1=1.50(2) R ⊙, R2=0.75(1) R ⊙, L1=3.00(44) L ⊙, L2=0.69(10) L ⊙, A=2.66(11) R ⊙.

  16. Photometric Analysis of the Recently Discovered W UMa Star NR Camelopardalis: Period Change and Spot Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoup, Jenae; Reed, Phillip A.; Joner, Michael D.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Collins, Karen A; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    NR Cam is a short period (P=0.26 days) eclipsing binary of the W UMa type that was relatively recently discovered in the ROTSE1 data of the Northern Sky Variability Survey (NSVS) and was originally listed in the New Catalog of Suspected Variable Stars (NSV) with the identifier NSV 3754. Here we present the first known detailed study of NR Cam, which includes multi-band light curves, color curves, and a photometric orbital solution. NR Cam exhibits a strong O'Connell effect that can be attributed to magnetically induced spot activity on one of the components. Absolute photometry was performed in B and V at the Kutztown University Observatory in 2013 October and November and complementary high precision differential light curves were obtained in BVRI at the same time, as part of the KELT follow-up network, at Brigham Young University's West Mountain Observatory, Swarthmore College's Peter Van de Kamp Observatory, and the University of Louisville's Moore Observatory. After the B-V color curves were used to approximate the stellar surface temperatures and spot locations, the Wilson-Devinney code was employed with a differential corrections routine to determine the most likely stellar properties and orbital parameters. Our solution indicates that the two stars are in contact, sharing a common envelope, and their surface temperatures are approximately 4500 K and 4200 K. The inclination of the orbit was determined to be 68.0 (±0.6) degrees. When compared with the NSVS data, we find that the orbital period of NR Cam has changed over the past decade and that the strength of the O'Connell effect, and the associated spot activity, has also varied significantly.

  17. FIRST PHOTOMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE NEWLY DISCOVERED W UMa-TYPE BINARY STAR MR Com

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.-B.; Liu, N.-P.; Liao, W.-P.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G.

    2013-08-01

    By analyzing multi-color light curves of the newly discovered W UMa-type binary, MR Com, we discovered that it is a shallow-contact binary with a degree of contact factor of f = 10.0% {+-} 2.1%. Photometric solutions reveal that MR Com is a W-type system with a mass ratio of q = 3.9 where the less massive component is about 90 K hotter than the more massive one. By investigating all of the available times of minimum light, we found that the general trend of the Observed-Calculated (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation while it undergoes a cyclic variation with a small amplitude of 0.0031 days and a period of 10.1 yr. The downward parabolic change corresponds to a long-term decrease in the orbital period at a rate of P-dot = -5.3 x 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1} that may be caused by a combination of a mass transfer and an angular momentum loss (AML) via magnetic braking. Among the 16 shallow-contact systems with a decreasing orbital period, MR Com has the lowest mass ratio (e.g., 1/q = 0.26). The shallow-contact configuration, the low-mass ratio, and the long-term period decrease all suggest that systems similar to MR Com are on the AML-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. They will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and evolve into a deep contact with a higher mass ratio. The small-amplitude cyclic change in the O - C curve was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

  18. THE FIRST PHOTOMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE NEGLECTED W-UMa-TYPE BINARY STAR UZ CMi

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.-B.; Li, K.; Liao, W.-P.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; He, J.-J.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G.

    2013-04-15

    UZ CMi was a W-UMa-type binary star found more than 80 years ago. However, it has been neglected in photometric investigations. Here, the first complete light curves in the B, V, R, and I bands are presented and analyzed using the Wilson and Devinney method. It is discovered that UZ CMi is a contact binary (f = 38.4({+-} 2.3)%) with a mass ratio of 0.45. The derived orbital inclination (i = 87 Degree-Sign ) indicates that it is a total eclipsing binary, which suggests that the determined parameters are reliable. By using 17 new eclipse times together with those collected from the literature, we found that the general trend of the observed-calculated (O - C) curve shows an upward parabolic variation that corresponds to a long-term increase in the orbital period at a rate of P-dot = +4.1 x 10{sup -8} days yr{sup -1}. The continuous increase may be caused by a mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. This suggests that UZ CMi is in the thermal relaxation oscillation controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. UZ CMi will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and the contact configuration cannot be broken. After the upward parabolic change was removed, the (O - C){sub 2} curve of the photoelectric and charge-coupled device data revealed a cyclic variation with a small amplitude of 0.0026 days and a period of 21.1 yr. The cyclic change was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

  19. Infrasonic harmonic tremor and degassing bursts from Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fee, David; Garcés, Milton; Patrick, Matt; Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phil; Swanson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    The formation, evolution, collapse, and subsequent resurrection of a vent within Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, produced energetic and varied degassing signals recorded by a nearby infrasound array between 2008 and early 2009. After 25 years of quiescence, a vent-clearing explosive burst on 19 March 2008 produced a clear, complex acoustic signal. Near-continuous harmonic infrasonic tremor followed this burst until 4 December 2008, when a period of decreased degassing occurred. The tremor spectra suggest volume oscillation and reverberation of a shallow gas-filled cavity beneath the vent. The dominant tremor peak can be sustained through Helmholtz oscillations of the cavity, while the secondary tremor peak and overtones are interpreted assuming acoustic resonance. The dominant tremor frequency matches the oscillation frequency of the gas emanating from the vent observed by video. Tremor spectra and power are also correlated with cavity geometry and dynamics, with the cavity depth estimated at ~219 m and volume ~3 x 106 m3 in November 2008. Over 21 varied degassing bursts were observed with extended burst durations and frequency content consistent with a transient release of gas exciting the cavity into resonance. Correlation of infrasound with seismicity suggests an open system connecting the atmosphere to the seismic excitation process at depth. Numerous degassing bursts produced very long period (0.03-0.1 Hz) infrasound, the first recorded at Kilauea, indicative of long-duration atmospheric accelerations. Kilauea infrasound appears controlled by the exsolution of gas from the magma, and the interaction of this gas with the conduits and cavities confining it.

  20. Orbital Solutions and Absolute Elements of the W UMa Binary MW Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Gabriella E.; Sowell, James R.; Williamon, Richard M.; Lapasset, Emilio

    2015-08-01

    We present differential UBV photoelectric photometry obtained by Williamon of the short-period A-type W UMa binary MW Pav. With the Wilson-Devinney analysis program, we obtained a simultaneous solution of these observations with the UBV photometry of Lapasset, the V measurements by the ASAS program, and the double-lined radial velocity measurements of Rucinski and Duerbeck. Our solution indicates that MW Pav is in an overcontact state, where both components exceed their critical Roche lobes. We derive masses of M1 = 1.514 ± 0.063 Msolar and M2 = 0.327 ± 0.014 Msolar, and equal-volume radii of R1 = 2.412 ± 0.034 Rsolar and R2 = 1.277 ± 0.019 Rsolar for the primary and secondary, respectively. The system is assumed to have a circular orbit and is seen at an inclination of 86.39° ± 0.63°. The effective temperature of the primary was held fixed at 6900 K, whereas the secondary's temperature was found to be 6969 ± 10 K. The asymmetry of the light curves requires a large, single star spot on the smaller, less massive secondary component. A consistent base solution, with different spot characteristics for the Williamon, Lapasset, and ASAS data, was found. The modeled spot varied little during the 40-year range of photometric observations. The combined solution utilized a third light component and found that the period is changing at a rate of dP/dt = (6.50 ± 0.19) × 10-10.

  1. Infrasonic harmonic tremor and degassing bursts from Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, David; GarcéS, Milton; Patrick, Matt; Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phil; Swanson, Don

    2010-11-01

    The formation, evolution, collapse, and subsequent resurrection of a vent within Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, produced energetic and varied degassing signals recorded by a nearby infrasound array between 2008 and early 2009. After 25 years of quiescence, a vent-clearing explosive burst on 19 March 2008 produced a clear, complex acoustic signal. Near-continuous harmonic infrasonic tremor followed this burst until 4 December 2008, when a period of decreased degassing occurred. The tremor spectra suggest volume oscillation and reverberation of a shallow gas-filled cavity beneath the vent. The dominant tremor peak can be sustained through Helmholtz oscillations of the cavity, while the secondary tremor peak and overtones are interpreted assuming acoustic resonance. The dominant tremor frequency matches the oscillation frequency of the gas emanating from the vent observed by video. Tremor spectra and power are also correlated with cavity geometry and dynamics, with the cavity depth estimated at ˜219 m and volume ˜3 × 106 m3 in November 2008. Over 21 varied degassing bursts were observed with extended burst durations and frequency content consistent with a transient release of gas exciting the cavity into resonance. Correlation of infrasound with seismicity suggests an open system connecting the atmosphere to the seismic excitation process at depth. Numerous degassing bursts produced very long period (0.03-0.1 Hz) infrasound, the first recorded at Kilauea, indicative of long-duration atmospheric accelerations. Kilauea infrasound appears controlled by the exsolution of gas from the magma, and the interaction of this gas with the conduits and cavities confining it.

  2. V344 Lyrae: A Touchtone SU UMa Cataclysmic Variable in the Kepler Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smale, Alan P.; Wood, Matt A.; Still, Martin D.; Howell, Steve B.; Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the analysis of the Kepler short-cadence (SC) light curve of V344 Lyr obtained during 2009 June 20 through 2010 Mar 19 (Q2-Q4). The system is an SU UMa star showing dwarf nova outbursts and superoutbursts, and promises to be a touchstone for CV studies for the foreseeable future. The system displays both positive and negative super humps with periods of 2.20 and 2.06-hr, respectively, and we identify an orbital period of 2.11-hr. The positive super humps have a maximum amplitude of approximately 0.025-mag, the negative super humps a maximum amplitude of approximately 0.8 mag, and the orbital period at quiescence has an amplitude of approximately 0.025 mag. The quality of the Kepler data is such that we can test vigorously the models for accretion disk dynamics that have been emerging in the past several years. The SC data for V344 Lyr are consistent with the model that two physical sources yield positive superhumps: early in the superoutburst. the superhump signal is generated by viscous dissipation within the periodically flexing disk. but late in the superoutburst, the signal is generated as the accretion stream bright spot sweeps around the rim of the non-axisymmetric disk. The disk super humps are roughly anti-phased with the stream/late superhumps. The V344 Lyr data also reveal negative super humps arising from accretion onto a tilted disk precessing in the retrograde direction, and suggest that negative superhumps may appear during the decline of DN outbursts. The period of negative superhumps has a positive P(raised dot) in between outbursts.

  3. UBVRI Observations, Analysis and Spectra of the Mature W UMa Contact Binary, V444 And

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebs, Travis; Samec, R. G.; Monroe, S.; Faulkner, D. R.; Robb, R. M.; Van Hamme, W. V.; Chamberlain, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first precision UBVRI light curves, synthetic light curve solution, a period study and spectra for the V444 Andromedae, an FO V contact W UMa binary. Observations were taken at Lowell Observatory with the 0.81-m reflector from 28 through 30 September 2012 and the spectra at Dominion Astrophysical Observatory’s (DAO) with the 1.8m telescope on 22 July 2013 at a resolution of 60 Å/mm. We determined three times of minimum light from these observations, JD Hel Min I = 2456199.0239±0.0011, 2456199.9616± 0.0015 and JD Hel Min II = 2456198.7907±0.0005. From our period study we determined an improved linear ephemeris, J.D. Hel Min I = 2456199.9618±0.0003d + 0.46877942±0.00000005×E The period has been stable over the past 9.6 years 7500 orbits). After an extensive mass ratio-search, the lowest residual mass ratio was found to be 0.48. Our final Wilson-Devinney Program computation determined that the system is an A-type W U Ma contact binary with a fill-out of nearly 51%. Despite its temperature (7200-7300 K), two magnetic spots were found on the primary component, a 10 degree radius equatorial dark spot, T-factor=0.88 and a 23 degree radius near polar hot spot, T-factor=1.10. The component temperature difference is only ~80K. These parameters tell us that the V444 And is a mature solar type binary.

  4. BVRI Photometric Analysis of the W UMa Binary, V428, in the field of NGC188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samec, Ronald G.; Maloney, David Edward; Clark, Jeremy; Caton, Daniel B.; Faulkner, Danny R.

    2015-01-01

    V428 is a faint 15th magnitude binary observed in a study of the open cluster NGC188. However, its distance from the core of the cluster might exclude its membership. Its light curve was classified as a short period EB type eclipsing binary with a period of 0.3079 d and amplitude of ~0.7 mags in all curves. V428 was observed as a part of our student/professional collaborative studies of interacting binaries from data taken from Dark Sky Observatory of Appalachian State University, North Carolina. The difference in component temperatures is some DT =180 K and its fill-out is 35%. This undoubtedly has a semi-extreme mass ratio (q) otherwise its fill-out might dictate a smaller ?T. A brief, 2.5 year period study gives, as expected, a constant period, P=0.3076789 d. Five times of minimum light were calculated, 3 primary and 2 secondary eclipses from our present observations:HJD I = 2456598.67460.0007, 2456599.59900.0014, 2456600.82920.0013HJD II = 2456598.82990.0026, 2456599.75480.0025.The improved linear ephemeris is:JD Hel MinI = 2456599.5990(0.0010) + 0.30767885(0.00000043)d X E (1)More monitoring is needed to determine its true orbital evolution. The inclination, 80 is not quite enough to produce total eclipses, so a q-search was performed. Our best solution gives a q=0.4. A cool spot was modeled on the primary component to take care of the light curve asymmetries. It is a K-type W UMa contact binary.

  5. Aquecimento alfvênico viscoso-resistivo em discos de acresção ao redor de estrelas T Tauri clássicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, W. M.; Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Com a crescente disponibilidade de dados observacionais sobre estrelas T Tauri, a busca por modelos mais precisos vem se tornando cada vez maior. Estes modelos devem explicar, entre outras coisas, o mecanismo dissipativo responsável pelo transporte de momento angular no disco de acresção que acredita-se, circunda estas estrelas. O mecanismo mais viável, do ponto de vista teórico, é uma instabilidade MHD conhecida como "instabilidade magnetorotacional ou Balbus-Hawley" (IBH). Esta instabilidade veio mostrar que o campo magnético desempenha um papel importante na evolução destes objetos mas requer, no entanto, um acoplamento mínimo entre o gás e o campo magnético no disco que não é atingido para os valores de temperatura obtidos do modelo padrão. Contudo, alguns mecanismos de aquecimento para o disco precisam ser examinados. Neste trabalho, propomos a dissipação de ondas Alfvén como uma fonte de aquecimento para o disco. Se o gás apresentar uma condutividade elétrica finita e viscosidade, teremos um tipo de amortecimento para as ondas denominado amortecimento viscoso-resistivo que será aqui considerado. Este mecanismo é aplicado ao modelo de disco em camadas. Calculam-se as taxas de aquecimento Alfvênico, a temperatura efetiva do disco bem como as taxas de ionização decorrentes deste aquecimento e do aquecimento gerado pela absorção de raios cósmicos. Comparações com os dados observacionais de Kitamura et. al. (2001) são efetuadas, ressaltando-se os pontos comuns entre suas observações e nossos dados teóricos.

  6. A monoclonal antibody against Echinococcus multilocularis Em2 antigen.

    PubMed

    Deplazes, P; Gottstein, B

    1991-08-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb G11) species-specific to the Em2 antigen of Echinococcus multilocularis was generated for (i) further biological characterization of the Em2 antigen, (ii) easy affinity-purification of Em2 antigen for immunodiagnostic and immunological investigations and (iii) development of a sandwich-ELISA for the detection of Em2 antigen in diagnostic samples and thus species-specific identification of E. multilocularis metacestode material. The MAb G11 was used in an antibody sandwich-ELISA to detect soluble Em2 antigen with a methodical sensitivity of 80 ng E. multilocularis antigen/ml of solution. MAb G11 specifically detected Em2 antigen in all of 15 E. multilocularis-isolates originating from various geographical areas and in none of other helminth isolates (e.g. Echinococcus granulosus, E. vogeli, and others). Further biological analysis by FITC-labelled MAb G11 demonstrated unique binding activity to the laminated layer of the metacestode. Also, oncospheres were binding FITC-labelled MAb G11 on an outer layer synthesized during cultivation in vitro for 13 days after hatching. Application of the MAb G11 antibody sandwich-ELISA for investigation of solubilized oncospheres confirmed the in vitro synthesis of Em2 antigen by oncospheres on day 13 p.i. Adult stages (somatic antigens) and freshly hatched oncospheres were always MAb G11 negative. Solid-phase MAb G11 was used for purification of the corresponding Em2 antigen by affinity chromatography. A preliminary serological evaluation of the Em2(G11) antigen by ELISA revealed identical immunodiagnostic characteristics, compared to Em2 obtained by classical means, thus suggesting the presented method for future isolation of large-scale Em2 antigen. PMID:1945524

  7. Experiências internacionais da aplicação de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica em gastroenterologia

    PubMed Central

    Tenório, Josceli Maria; Hummel, Anderson Diniz; Sdepanian, Vera Lucia; Pisa, Ivan Torres; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever as experiências recentes com a aplicação de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica em gastroenterologia, de forma a estabelecer o nível de desenvolvimento, testes e vantagens conferidas à prática médica com a introdução desses softwares. Métodos Foi realizada busca nas bases de dados PubMed, LILACS e ISI Web of Knowledge, utilizando termos relacionados à sistemas de apoio à decisão e à gastroenterogia, incluindo artigos originais publicados no período entre 2005 e 2010. Foram recuperadas 104 publicações, na busca inicial e, após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram eleitos nove estudos para leitura do texto completo. Resultados Os sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica apresentam grande multiplicidade de problemas clínicos e investigação de doenças. Em 89% dos casos, são descritos modelos experimentais para o desenvolvimento de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica. A descrição dos resultados obtidos por técnicas de inteligência artificial em 78% das publicações. Em dois dos estudos foram realizadas comparações com o médico e em apenas uma publicação um estudo controlado foi descrito, mostrando evidências de melhorias na prática médica. Conclusão Os estudos mostram potenciais benefícios dos sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica à prática médica, porém, estudos controlados em ambiente real devem ser realizados para comprovar esta perspectiva. PMID:26491625

  8. e/m Experiment Analysis Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Michael; Pruitt, Bryce; Velasquez, Kevin; Schelp, Rich

    2011-10-01

    Thomson's e/m experiment is widely popular in undergraduate courses to help gain an understanding of the properties of the electron. Our results using a standard apparatus, however, reveal significant systematic errors. We examine possible reasons for the discrepancy with the aim of modeling effects that were not included in the original analysis. We conclude that the energy loss of the electron beam as it travels through the helium and the distortion of the beam radius measurement by the curved glass of the tube are the two factors which dominate the discrepancy.

  9. EM threat analysis for wireless systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

  10. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  11. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... natural disaster has occurred in a county, resulting in severe physical losses. If the FSA Administrator determines that such a natural disaster has occurred, then EM can be made available to eligible farmers for... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DISASTER DESIGNATIONS AND NOTIFICATIONS § 759.6 EM to be made available. (a)...

  12. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... natural disaster has occurred in a county, resulting in severe physical losses. If the FSA Administrator determines that such a natural disaster has occurred, then EM can be made available to eligible farmers for... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DISASTER DESIGNATIONS AND NOTIFICATIONS § 759.6 EM to be made available. (a)...

  13. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... name(s) of the county(ies) determined eligible for Federal disaster assistance; (C) The type of... disaster declaration date to explain the purpose and the assistance available under the EM loan program...) Appropriate County Supervisor(s) to commence processing EM loan applications in appropriate county(ies)....

  14. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua contínua avaliação durante o processo, culmina com a elaboração de uma história em quadrinhos envolvendo as fases da Lua. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma proposta de atividade didática diferenciada sustentada pelos princípios teóricos da aprendizagem significativa aplicada ao ensino das fases da Lua durante as aulas de Física no ensino médio. En este trabajo se presenta uno de los contenidos de la Astronomía y el evidente fracaso en la enseñanza del tema en la escuela secundaria, a pesar del hecho que los documentos oficiales apuntan para la necesidad de trabajar contenidos de Astronomía en este nivel. Entre los conceptos alternativos en Astronomía que los alumnos secundarios llevan consigo, aún después de terminados los estudios, destacamos aquí el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna. El desarrollo de diferentes estrategias en relación con los métodos tradicionales, dirigidas al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en este tema fue considerado en este trabajo como uno de los resultados obtenidos a la luz de los referenciales del aprendizaje significativo, tal como fueron fundamentados por Ausubel. Según la propuesta que aquí se presenta, la participación activa de los estudiantes en la ejecución de una actividad experimental y otras actividades educativas destinadas a la evaluación continua durante el proceso culminó en la elaboración de una historieta respecto de las fases de la Luna. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de actividad de enseñanza diferenciada con el apoyo de los principios teóricos del aprendizaje significativo aplicado a la enseñanza de las fases de la luna durante las clases de física del ciclo secundario.

  15. WZ Cephei: A Dynamically Active W UMa-Type Binary Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jang-Hae; Kim, Chun-Hwey

    2011-09-01

    An intensive analysis of 185 timings of WZ Cep, including our new three timings, was made to understand the dynamical picture of this active W UMa-type binary. It was found that the orbital period of the system has complexly varied in two cyclical components superposed on a secularly downward parabola over about 80y. The downward parabola, corresponding to a secular period decrease of -9.d97 10-8 y-1, is most probably produced by the action of both angular momentum loss (AML) due to magnetic braking and mass-transfer from the massive primary component to the secondary. The period decrease rate of -6.d72 10-8 y-1 due to AML contributes about 67% to the observed period decrease. The mass flow of about 5.16 10-8 M? y-1 from the primary to the secondary results the remaining 33% period decrease. Two cyclical components have an 11.y8 period with amplitude of 0.d0054 and a 41.y3 period with amplitude of 0.d0178. It is very interesting that there seems to be exactly in a commensurable 7:2 relation between their mean motions. As the possible causes, two rival interpretations (i.e., light-time effects (LTE) by additional bodies and the Applegate model) were considered. In the LTE interpretation, the minimum masses of 0.30 M? for the shorter period and 0.49 M? for the longer one were calculated. Their contributions to the total light were at most within 2%, if they were assumed to be main-sequence stars. If the LTE explanation is true for the WZ Cep system, the 7:2 relation found between their mean motions would be interpreted as a stable 7:2 orbit resonance produced by a long-term gravitational interaction between two tertiary bodies. In the Applegate model interpretation, the deduced model parameters indicate that the mechanism could work only in the primary star for both of the two period modulations, but could not in the secondary. However, we couldn't find any meaningful relation between the light variation and the period variability from the historical light curve data. At present, we prefer the interpretation of the mechanical perturbation from the third and fourth stars as the possible cause of two cycling period changes.

  16. Click-EM for imaging metabolically tagged nonprotein biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Ngo, John T; Adams, Stephen R; Deerinck, Thomas J; Boassa, Daniela; Rodriguez-Rivera, Frances; Palida, Sakina F; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Ellisman, Mark H; Tsien, Roger Y

    2016-06-01

    EM has long been the main technique for imaging cell structures with nanometer resolution but has lagged behind light microscopy in the crucial ability to make specific molecules stand out. Here we introduce click-EM, a labeling technique for correlative light microscopy and EM imaging of nonprotein biomolecules. In this approach, metabolic labeling substrates containing bioorthogonal functional groups are provided to cells for incorporation into biopolymers by endogenous biosynthetic machinery. The unique chemical functionality of these analogs is exploited for selective attachment of singlet oxygen-generating fluorescent dyes via bioorthogonal 'click chemistry' ligations. Illumination of dye-labeled structures generates singlet oxygen to locally catalyze the polymerization of diaminobenzidine into an osmiophilic reaction product that is readily imaged by EM. We describe the application of click-EM in imaging metabolically tagged DNA, RNA and lipids in cultured cells and neurons and highlight its use in tracking peptidoglycan synthesis in the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:27110681

  17. Modelo de atmosfera solar ajustado às observações do raio solar em 17GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Silva, A. V. R.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo das variações do raio solar durante o ciclo de atividades do Sol e das diferenças em relação à sua distribuição angular nos fornece informações importantes sobre as mudanças na estrutura da atmosfera solar. Neste trabalho foram analisados mais de 3600 mapas do Sol em 17 GHz obtidos pelo Rádio Heliógrafo de Nobeyama (NoRH), durante 1 ciclo de atividade solar (1992-2003). O raio solar foi definido no ponto onde a temperatura de brilho do mapa era equivalente à metade da temperatura do Sol calmo (temperatura mais comum no mapa).Em relação à sua variação ao longo do ciclo solar, o estudo foi dividido em duas partes: a) ajuste de uma circunferência a pontos distribuídos ao redor do Sol todo. Este estudo mostrou uma variação correlacionada com o ciclo de atividade do Sol. b) ajuste da circunferência a pontos situados somente nas regiões polares. Neste caso os resultados mostraram que o raio polar sofre pouca variação durante o ciclo, com tendência à anticorrelação com este. Além disto, a média do raio polar, durante o período analisado, foi 1" menor que o raio medido no Sol todo. Para estudar a distribuição angular do raio solar, comparamos a média da distribuição de 10 mapas no período de mínima atividade solar com a média de 10 mapas no período de máximo, este estudo mostrou um grande aumento do raio na região equatorial no período de máxima atividade solar. As medidas do raio foram usadas como um dos parâmetros para a criação de um modelo atmosférico (além da temperatura de brilho do Sol e do abrilhantamento do limbo observado), onde mostramos que um modelo atmosférico com a região de transição situada a 3500 km fornece um raio 5" menor que as medidas observacionais. Esta incompatibilidade do modelo com os dados observacionais foi contornada com a inclusão de espículas, estas fazem com que o raio solar aumente proporcionalmente à altura que estas atingem na atmosfera solar. A anticorrelação do raio polar com ciclo de atividade pode ser interpretada como reflexo do aumento de abrilhantamento de limbo nos pólos, visto que este está anticorrelacionado com o ciclo solar. Porém, a presença de espículas, não é capaz de explicar os valores muito altos do raio solar medidos na região equatorial, que acreditamos ser devido às mudanças intrínsecas na estrutura local da atmosfera solar.

  18. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. VII. The seventh year (2014-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Monard, Berto; Miller, Ian; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Masumoto, Kazunari; Fukushima, Daiki; Kinoshita, Hiroki; Maeda, Kazuki; Mikami, Jyunya; Matsuda, Risa; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Kawabata, Miho; Takenaka, Megumi; Matsumoto, Katsura; de Miguel, Enrique; Maeda, Yutaka; Ohshima, Tomohito; Isogai, Keisuke; Pickard, Roger D.; Henden, Arne; Kafka, Stella; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Otani, Noritoshi; Ishibashi, Sakiko; Ogi, Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Stein, William; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Vanmunster, Tonny; Starr, Peter; Oksanen, Arto; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Antonyuk, Kirill A.; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A.; Pit, Nikolaj V.; Babina, Julia V.; Sklyanov, Aleksandr; Novák, Rudolf; Dvorak, Shawn; Michel, Raúl; Masi, Gianluca; Littlefield, Colin; Ulowetz, Joseph; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Golysheva, Polina Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Krushevska, Viktoriia; Ruiz, Javier; Tordai, Tamás; Morelle, Etienne; Sabo, Richard; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Richmond, Michael; Katysheva, Natalia; Hirosawa, Kenji; Goff, William N.; Dubois, Franky; Logie, Ludwig; Rau, Steve; Voloshina, Irina B.; Andreev, Maksim V.; Shiokawa, Kazuhiko; Neustroev, Vitaly V.; Sjoberg, George; Zharikov, Sergey; James, Nick; Bolt, Greg; Crawford, Tim; Buczynski, Denis; Cook, Lewis M.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Prieto, José L.; Denisenko, Denis; Nishimura, Hideo; Mukai, Masaru; Kaneko, Shizuo; Ueda, Seiji; Stubbings, Rod; Moriyama, Masayuki; Schmeer, Patrick; Muyllaert, Eddy; Shears, Jeremy; Modic, Robert J.; Paxson, Kevin B.

    2015-12-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 102 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, observed mainly during the 2014-2015 season, and characterized these objects. Our project has greatly improved the statistics of the distribution of orbital periods, which is a good approximation of the distribution of cataclysmic variables at the terminal evolutionary stage, and has confirmed the presence of a period minimum at a period of 0.053 d and a period spike just above this period. The number density monotonically decreased toward the longer period and there was no strong indication of a period gap. We detected possible negative superhumps in Z Cha. It is possible that normal outbursts are also suppressed by the presence of a disk tilt in this system. There was no indication of enhanced orbital humps just preceding the superoutburst, and this result favors the thermal-tidal disk instability as the origin of superoutbursts. We detected superhumps in three AM CVn-type dwarf novae. Our observations and recent other detections suggest that 8% of objects showing dwarf nova-type outbursts are AM CVn-type objects. AM CVn-type objects and EI Psc-type objects may be more abundant than previously recognized. OT J213806, a WZ Sge-type object, exhibited remarkably different features between the 2010 and 2014 superoutbursts. Although the 2014 superoutburst was much fainter, the plateau phase was shorter than the 2010 one, and the course of the rebrightening phase was similar. This object indicates that the O - C diagrams of superhumps can indeed be variable, at least in WZ Sge-type objects. Four deeply eclipsing SU UMa-type dwarf novae (ASASSN-13cx, ASASSN-14ag, ASASSN-15bu, and NSV 4618) were identified. We studied long-term trends in supercycles in MM Hya and CY UMa and found systematic variations of supercycles of ˜20%.

  19. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. VI. The sixth year (2013-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Miller, Ian; Ohshima, Tomohito; Nakata, Chikako; Kawabata, Miho; Nishino, Hirochika; Masumoto, Kazunari; Mizoguchi, Sahori; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Katsura; Sakai, Daisuke; Fukushima, Daiki; Matsuura, Minami; Bouno, Genki; Takenaka, Megumi; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Noguchi, Ryo; Iino, Eriko; Pickard, Roger D.; Maeda, Yutaka; Henden, Arne; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; de Miguel, Enrique; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Monard, Berto; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Kirill; Pit, Nikolaj; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Ruiz, Javier; Richmond, Michael; Oksanen, Arto; Harlingten, Caisey; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Masi, Gianluca; Nocentini, Francesca; Schmeer, Patrick; Bolt, Greg; Nelson, Peter; Ulowetz, Joseph; Sabo, Richard; Goff, William N.; Stein, William; Michel, Raúl; Dvorak, Shawn; Voloshina, Irina B.; Metlov, Vladimir; Katysheva, Natalia; Neustroev, Vitaly V.; Sjoberg, George; Littlefield, Colin; Dębski, Bartłomiej; Sowicka, Paulina; Klimaszewski, Marcin; Curyło, Małgorzata; Morelle, Etienne; Curtis, Ivan A.; Iwamatsu, Hidetoshi; Butterworth, Neil D.; Andreev, Maksim V.; Parakhin, Nikolai; Sklyanov, Aleksandr; Shiokawa, Kazuhiko; Novák, Rudolf; Irsmambetova, Tat'yana R.; Itoh, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshiharu; Hirosawa, Kenji; Denisenko, Denis; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Prieto, José L.; Itagaki, Koh-ichi; Stubbings, Rod; Ripero, Jose; Muyllaert, Eddy; Poyner, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Continuing the project undertaken by Kato et al. (2009), we collected times of superhump maxima for 56 SU UMa-type dwarf novae mainly observed during the 2013-2014 season and characterized these objects. We detected negative superhumps in VW Hyi and indicated that the low number of normal outbursts in some supercycles can be interpreted as a result of disk tilt. This finding, combined with the Kepler observation of V1504 Cyg and V344 Lyr, suggests that disk tilt is responsible for modulating the outburst pattern in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. We also studied the deeply eclipsing WZ Sge-type dwarf nova MASTER OT J005740.99+443101.5 and found evidence of a sharp eclipse during the phase of early superhumps. The profile can be reproduced by a combination of the eclipse of the axisymmetric disk and the uneclipsed light source of early superhumps. This finding shows the lack of evidence for a greatly enhanced hot spot during the early stage of WZ Sge-type outburst. We detected growing (stage A) superhumps in MN Dra and give a suggestion that some of SU UMa-type dwarf novae situated near the critical condition of tidal instability may show long-lasting stage A superhumps. The large negative period derivatives reported in such systems can be understood as a result of the combination of stage A and B superhumps. Two WZ Sge-type dwarf novae, AL Com and ASASSN-13ck, showed a long-lasting (plateau-type) rebrightening. In the early phase of their rebrightenings, both objects showed a precursor-like outburst, suggesting that the long-lasting rebrightening is triggered by a precursor outburst.

  20. Time sequence spectroscopy of AW UMa. The 518 nm Mg I triplet region analyzed with broadening functions

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Slavek M.

    2015-02-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic observations of AW UMa, obtained on three consecutive nights with a median time resolution of 2.1 minutes, have been analyzed using the broadening function method in the spectral window of 22.75 nm around the 518 nm Mg i triplet region. Doppler images of the system reveal the presence of vigorous mass motions within the binary system; their presence puts into question the solid-body rotation assumption of the contact binary model. AW UMa appears to be a very tight, semi-detached binary; the mass transfer takes place from the more massive to the less massive component. The primary, a fast-rotating star with Vsini=181.42.5 km s{sup ?1}, is covered with inhomogeneities: very slowly drifting spots and a dense network of ripples more closely participating in its rotation. The spectral lines of the primary show an additional broadening component (called the pedestal) that originates either in the equatorial regions, which rotate faster than the rest of the star by about 50 km s{sup ?1}, or in an external disk-like structure. The secondary component appears to be smaller than predicted by the contact model. The radial velocity field around the secondary is dominated by accretion of matter transferred from (and possibly partly returned to) the primary component. The parameters of the binary are Asini=2.730.11 R{sub ?} and M{sub 1}sin{sup 3}i=1.290.15 M{sub ?}, M{sub 2}sin{sup 3}i=0.1280.016 M{sub ?}. The mass ratio, q{sub sp}=M{sub 2}/M{sub 1}=0.0990.003, while still the most uncertain among the spectroscopic elements, is substantially different from the previous numerous and mutually consistent photometric investigations which were based on the contact model. It should be studied why photometry and spectroscopy give such discrepant results and whether AW UMa is an unusual object or if only very high-quality spectroscopy can reveal the true nature of W UMa-type binaries.

  1. First Ground-Based Photometry and Light Curve Analysis of the Recently Discovered Contact Binary Hx Uma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selam, S.; Albayrak, B.; Yilmaz, M.; Şenavci, H. V.; Özavci, I.; Çetintaş, C.

    2005-04-01

    Photoelectric UBV light curves of the recently discovered eclipsing binary HX UMa were obtained and studied to determine the preliminary physical parameters of the system for the first time. The observations were taken at the TÜBİTAK1 Turkish National Observatory (TUG) on three nights in April 2003. A simultaneous analysis of the light and radial velocity curves yields a typical A-type contact binary with a high degree of overcontact. The influence of the close visual companion to the total light of the system was taken into account during the analysis.

  2. The 2008-2009 Eruption in Halema`uma`u Crater, Kilauea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauahikaua, J. P.; Orr, T. R.; Patrick, M. R.; Swanson, D.; Poland, M. P.; Miklius, A.; Wilson, D.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.; Thornber, C. R.; Wooten, K.

    2009-12-01

    Early in the 26th year of Kilauea volcano’s ongoing east rift zone eruption, a distinct increase in activity was detected at Kilauea summit. By February 2008, the southern part of the summit caldera was bathed in high concentrations of SO2 prompting Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park to close public access. A vigorous fuming area at the base of the east wall of Halema`uma`u Crater was noted on March 12, and the first throat-clearing explosion occurred from that location a week later. This, the first explosive eruption of Kilauea's summit since 1924, was followed by 7 more before the first major vent collapse in early December 2008 buried the lava column beneath rubble, extinguished vent glow, and reduced gas emissions. The vent slowly came back to life in early 2009, exhibiting behavior similar to that in 2008, until another major collapse in mid-2009 reburied the vent and again extinguished glow and reduced gas emissions. As of August 2009, glow had returned and gas emissions had increased, a total of 2,200 tonnes of lithic and juvenile tephra had been erupted, and the dimensions of the vent opening in the crater floor increased to 125 x 133 m. Chemical uniformity of magma erupted from the summit and rift zone vents unambiguously demonstrate their direct connection. The low explosive intensity and location of the 2008-9 explosive activity within the heavily monitored and easily accessible summit have allowed a number of near-vent studies. Near-daily ashfall measurements have revealed temporal variations in tephra production and changes in the proportion of juveniles and lithics. Direct views of the lava surface within the vent allowed cross-correlation with seismic and geodetic signals to suggest new interpretations of tremor, infrasound, and tilt data. Near-source emission measurements allowed uniquely full characterization of gas content and associated hazards. Additional hazards posed by the summit activity include near-vent ballistic impacts and low air quality due to increased sulfur dioxide emissions. The continuing high rate emissions of SO2 directly impacted downwind communities, resulting in multiple exceedances of federal and state air quality standards for SO2 and particles on the Island of Hawai`i, agricultural losses, and long-term health concerns. The change in eruptive character for Kilauea volcano started in 2003 when line-length monitoring across the summit showed a switch from contraction, the norm since 1983, to extension. By 2004, summit carbon dioxide emissions, an indicator of magma supply, had nearly doubled. East rift zone sulfur dioxide emissions, used as a proxy for effusion rate, increased substantially in 2005. Since 2007, summit CO2 emissions have decreased and deformation has returned to deflation, both suggesting an end to the period of increased magma supply but not an end to activity. Depressurization of the magma-bloated summit may have helped to spur the largely explosive 2008-09 summit eruptive activity simultaneous with continuing east rift eruption.

  3. Mass Flux of Tephra Sampled Frequently During the Ongoing Halema`uma`u Eruption (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, D.; Wooten, K.; Orr, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    The ongoing summit eruption of Kilauea provides an unparalleled opportunity to track, almost daily, the production of tephra. The eruption began on 19 March 2008, and tephra has been erupted every day since then to the end of August 2009. Most of the time, tephra is ejected quasi-continuously from the vent accompanied by a light gray to white gas plume, occasionally broken by a more vigorous pulse (“brown plume”) richer in ejecta. In early April 2008, an array of 10 plastic buckets was placed within 400 m of the new vent in Halema`uma`u down the prevailing NE wind direction. The configuration of the array, spanning an area of about 73,000 m2, has not changed since then. Buckets are emptied frequently, initially every day and, since summer 2008, on all weekdays. The contents are dried and weighed, and an “average network accumulation rate” is calculated in g/m2/hour. In addition, componentry analyses are made of the >0.5-mm size fraction from a bucket near the vent, in order to categorize the tephra into juvenile and lithic fractions. To estimate the total mass of tephra ejected from the vent for a given collection, we first drew isomass contours for several daily collections and plotted isomass versus square root of area to obtain the total mass of the deposit. From this, we developed an empirical multiplication factor that allows us to estimate, within ~25 percent, the total ejected mass per day in kilograms from the total collected mass in grams. The tephra is a mix of vitric and lithic pyroclasts, mostly ash in size. The vitric clasts, interpreted as juvenile, include Pele’s hair and tears, hollow spherules, dumbbells, pumice, and bits of coarsely vesicular glass. All these clasts were probably produced by weak spattering at the top of the lava column, which has rarely been seen. Especially since fall 2008, some vitric clasts are partly coated with secondary minerals or rock dust. We interpret such clasts as recycled, first erupted during spattering but falling back into the vent, where they resided until some later event lifted them to the crater rim. The daily juvenile mass flux, including recycled clasts but excluding 8 discrete explosive eruptions in 2008, ranged from 0 to 13,000 kg and was generally a few tens to a few hundreds of kilograms. We interpret the lithic clasts as derived from rock falls into the new vent and crater. Many have partial coatings of secondary minerals including anhydrite. The daily lithic mass flux varied from 1 to 6,900 kg. Much of the lithic material is perhaps better considered as rock-fall “dust” than as actual tephra. To date, about 400 tonnes of tephra have been ejected quasi-continuously, composing 18 percent of all tephra produced during the eruption. The rest resulted from the 8 discrete explosive eruptions, which ejected, in a few tens of seconds, masses more than ~7,000 kg (as high as ~ 800,000 kg). The total mass produced by these 8 eruptions is ~1,800 tonnes. The total mass of all tephra produced by the eruption is ~2,200 tonnes, with subequal amounts of juvenile and lithic components. The volume of lithic tephra (~1100 m3, assuming a deposit density of 1,000 kg/m3) is less than 1 percent of the volume of the new crater, currently ~130 m wide and 200 m deep. Clearly the crater has formed by collapse into underground void space.

  4. Basic Concepts of Astronomy: a Methodological Proposal. (Spanish Title: Conceptos Básicos de Astronomía: Una Propuesta Metodológica.) Conceitos Básicos de Astronomia: Uma Proposta Metodológica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Heineck, Renato; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel

    2011-12-01

    In this report, the development of a methodological proposal which approaches basic concepts of astronomy-grounded pedagogically on Meaningful Learning is described. The proposal, which consists of four meetings, was developed by teachers and academics of the course of Professor in Physics of the University of Passo Fundo (UPF), through an extension course to a group of highschool students of a public school of the town of Passo Fundo, RS. The work was focused into basic concepts of astronomy. The signs of Meaningful Learning have been obtained by means of research and evaluation tools that were applied at the end of each meeting. The evaluation of the proposal has been conducted by means of a final questionnaire which was answered by the participants at the end ofthe development of activities. By means of the results obtained from the different instruments, and the comments made by the participants during the activities and by means of the high rates of approval obtained in the final questionnaire, we think that the proposal reached the established goals and it may be repeated with the certainty of success. En este relato se describe una propuesta de desarrollo metodológico que aborda conceptos básicos de astronomía fundamentada pedagógicamente en el Aprendizaje Significativo. La propuesta que comprende cuatro encuentros, fue desarrollada por profesores y académicos del curso de Licenciatura en Física de la Universidad de Passo Fundo (UPF), a través de un curso de extensión para un grupo de Liceo del 6º año de una Escuela Pública de la ciudad de Passo Fundo/RS. El trabajo tuvo como eje principal los "conceptos básicos de astronomía". Los indicios de Aprendizaje Significativo fueron obtenidos por instrumentos de pesquisa y evaluación, siempre aplicados después de cada encuentro. La evaluación de la propuesta fue hecha a través de un cuestionario final y contestado por los participantes al finalizar el desarrollo de actividades. Por los resultados obtenidos en diferentes momentos, por los comentarios efectuados por los participantes durante las actividades y por los altos índices de aprobación al final de la etapa, consideramos que la propuesta atingió los objetivos establecidos y puede ser repetida con certeza de éxito. Neste relato, descreve-se o desenvolvimento de uma proposta metodológica que aborda conceitos básicos de astronomia fundamentada pedagogicamente na Aprendizagem Significativa. A proposta, que compreende quatro encontros, foi desenvolvida por professores e acadêmicos do curso de Licenciatura em Física da Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF), através de um curso de extensão, a um grupo de dez estudantes do ensino médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Passo Fundo, RS. O trabalho centrou-se em conceitos básicos de astronomia. Os indícios da aprendizagem significativa foram obtidos por instrumentos de pesquisa e avaliação aplicados ao término de cada encontro. A avaliação da proposta foi efetuada através de um questionário final respondido pelos participantes ao término do desenvolvimento das atividades. Pelos resultados obtidos nos diferentes instrumentos, pelos comentários efetuados pelos participantes durante as atividades e pelos altos índices de aprovação alcançados no questionário final, consideramos que a proposta atingiu os objetivos estabelecidos e pode ser repetida com convicção de sucesso.

  5. Evaluation of Fracture Azimuth by EM Wave and Elastic Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Wang, Q.; Liu, C.; Lu, Q.; Zeng, Z.; Liang, W.; Yu, Y.; Ren, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Fracture system plays an important role in the development of underground energy, for example enhanced geothermal system (EGS), oil shale and shale gas, etc. Therefore, it becomes more and more important to detect and evaluate the fracture system. Geophysical prospecting is an useful method to evaluate the characteristics of the subsurface fractures. Currently, micro-seismology, multi-wave seismic exploration, and electromagnetic (EM) survey are reported to be used for the purpose. We are studying a method using both elastic wave and EM wave to detect and evaluate the fracture azimuth in laboratory. First, we build a 3D horizontal transverse isotropy (HTI) model, shown in the figure 1, by dry parallel fractures system, which was constructed by plexiglass plates and papers. Then, we used the ultrasonic system to obtain reflected S-wave data. Depending on the shear wave splitting, we evaluated the fracture azimuth by the algorithm of Pearson correlation coefficient. In addition, we used the full Polarimetric ultra wide band electromagnetic (FP-UWB-EM) wave System, shown in the figure 2, to obtain full polarimetric reflected EM-wave data. Depending on the rotation of the EM wave polarimetry, we evaluated the fracture azimuth by the the ration between maximum amplitude of co-polarimetric EM wave and maximum amplitude of cross-polarimetric EM wave. Finally, we used both EM-wave data and S-wave data to evaluate the fracture azimuth by the method of cross plot and statistical mathematics. To sum up, we found that FP-UWB-EM wave can be used to evaluated the fracture azimuth and is more accurate than ultrasound wave. Also joint evaluation using both data could improve the precision.

  6. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  7. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K.; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5–4.5 Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders’ overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  8. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability. PMID:25710091

  9. Energy use held steady without EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Ponczak, G.

    1986-03-17

    A Chicago bank was able to maintain energy efficiency despite a computer breakdown of its energy management system. Plans to install a digital EMS will limit demand but will leave some equipment for manual control because of skepticism over the effectiveness of digital over pneumatic systems. The bank plans to operate the old and new controls in parallel to compare their cost effectiveness. The energy manager argues that they can make a good estimate of the most efficient time to start equipment, although they will not be as accurate as the computer in optimal start and stop functions. The new system should lower electricity cost in the all-electric building by $10,000 a month, mostly from savings in demand charges.

  10. Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A.

    1998-07-01

    In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.

  11. Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522). Annual report, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522) is one of three divisions within the Office of Technology Integration and Environmental Education and Development (EM-52) in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The primary design criterion for EM-522 education activities is directly related to meeting EM`s goal of environmental compliance on an accelerated basis and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. Therefore, EM-522`s efforts are directed specifically toward stimulating knowledge and capabilities to achieve the goals of EM while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific, mathematical, and technical literacy and competency. This report discusses fiscal year 1993 activities.

  12. Comparing the precision 2009 and 2012 light curves of the precontact W UMa binary V1001 Cassiopeia

    SciTech Connect

    Samec, R. G.; Koenke, S. S.; Faulkner, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    A 2012 follow up to the analysis of 2009 observations is presented for the very short period (∼0.43 days) precontact W UMa binary (PCWB) V1001 Cassiopeia. Its short period, similar to the majority of W UMa binaries, and its distinct EA light curve make it a very rare and interesting system for continuing photometric investigation. Previous photometric VRI standard magnitudes give a K4 spectral type. Our solutions of light curves separated by some three years give approximately the same physical parameters. However, the spots have radically changed in temperature, area, and position. While only one dark spot was used to model the first curves, two hot spots are now needed. This affects the overall shape of the light curve, especially in the secondary eclipses in B and V. Additional eclipse timings now show that the orbital period is changing. We conclude that spots are very active on this solar-type dwarf system and that it may mimic its larger cousins, the RS CVn binaries. The conclusion is that analysis now needs to be directed at the continuous time evolution of PCWBs.

  13. A New Look at the Eclipse Timing Variation Diagram Analysis of Selected 3-body W UMa Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopoulou, P.-E.; Papageorgiou, A.

    2015-07-01

    The light travel effect produced by the presence of tertiary components can reveal much about the origin and evolution of over-contact binaries. Monitoring of W UMa systems over the last decade and/or the use of publicly available photometric surveys (NSVS, ASAS, etc.) has uncovered or suggested the presence of many unseen companions, which calls for an in-depth investigation of the parameters derived from cyclic period variations in order to confirm or reject the assumption of hidden companion(s). Progress in the analysis of eclipse timing variations is summarized here both from the empirical and the theoretical points of view, and a more extensive investigation of the proposed orbital parameters of third bodies is proposed. The code we have developed for this, implemented in Python, is set up to handle heuristic scanning with parameter perturbation in parameter space, and to establish realistic uncertainties from the least squares fitting. A computational example is given for TZ Boo, a W UMa system with a spectroscopically detected third component. Future options to be implemented include MCMC and bootstrapping.

  14. Photometric Analyses and Spectral Identification of the Early-Spectral Type W UMa Contact Binary V444 Andromedae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samec, R. G.; Robb, R.; Faulkner, D. R.; Van Hamme, W.

    2015-06-01

    Presented here are the first precision UBVRcIc light curves, synthetic light curve solutions, a period study, and spectrum for V444 Andromedae, an F0V contact W UMa binary. Observations were taken with the Lowell Observatory 0.81-m reflector during 28 through 30 September 2012. From our period study we determined a linear ephemeris showing that the period has been stable over the past 9.6 years (~7,500 orbits). The period during this interval is 0.46877942 d. After a q-search, the lowest residual mass ratio was found to be 0.48 with a Roche-lobe fill-out of nearly 51%. Despite its rather high temperature, 7,300 K, two magnetic spots were modeled on the primary component, a 10° radius equatorial dark spot with a T-factor of 0.88 and a 23° radius near-polar hot spot of T-factor 1.10. The component temperature difference was only ~80 K. These parameters point to a mature, early type, W UMa binary.

  15. Telescópio de pequeno porte como suporte ao ensino em cidades com intensa poluição luminosa II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Para a maioria dos estudantes, sua passagem pelo ensino formal fundamental envolve a transmissão de fatos que devem ser guardados para um exame, a habilidade para lembrar fórmulas e, eventualmente, a repetição de experimentos que devem produzir resultados exigidos pelo professor. O resultado deste modelo de ensino, ao longo dos anos, é conhecido por todos: desconhecimento e descontentamento, por parte dos estudantes, de temas relativos ao papel e aos processos da ciência. Acreditamos que a Astronomia, pelo seu caráter observacional, é uma das áreas do conhecimento que pode contribuir neste cenário. A Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro possui um telescópio Meade LX-200 (25cm) que, juntamente com as câmeras CCD ST-7E e ST8E, tem sido utilizado em projetos voltados aos estudantes do ensino médio desde o ano 2000. Tais projetos envolvem a condução de um projeto de pesquisa observacional num nível apropriado, e possibilitam o contato com técnicas e novas tecnologias: computador, software para manipulação de dados e gráficos, programas de tratamento e redução de dados, uso de equipamentos óptico-eletrônicos (telescópio e CCD), bem como o processo de aquisição de conhecimento. Dentro da proposta dos anos anteriores, priorizamos projetos de uma noite, ou seja, procuramos trabalhar com fenômenos que apresentem variabilidade com intervalo de recorrência relativamente curto. Em todos os casos, optamos pela fotometria diferencial, que tem se mostrado bastante eficiente para o céu luminoso como o da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Neste painel, apresentamos alguns dos projetos desenvolvidos no último ano, com 25 estudantes. Apresentamos os resultados da observação da variável pulsante AI Vel (V = 6,6) e da variável cataclísmica FO Aqr (V = 13,5), e do monitoramento do trânsito da lua de Júpiter, Europa, ocorrido em 30 de abril de 2003. As curvas de luz produzidas para as primeiras estão concordantes com as da literatura, assim como os respectivos períodos encontrados (1h20min e 4h48min). No caso do FO Aqr, ficou evidente, também, a modulação decorrente da rotação da anã branca receptora (21min). O erro estimado é de 0,01 magnitude. Propomos uma maior utilização de telescópios de pequeno porte, como suporte ao ensino (médio e superior) em cidades com poluição luminosa. Escolas e Planetários seriam ambientes propícios para a localização do telescópio. Os critérios adotados na escolha dos objetos e o método observacional empregado são também apresentados.

  16. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  17. E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

    2005-10-03

    A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

  18. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  1. Impact of Annual Praziquantel Treatment on Urogenital Schistosomiasis in a Seasonal Transmission Focus in Central Senegal.

    PubMed

    Senghor, Bruno; Diaw, Omar Talla; Doucoure, Souleymane; Seye, Mouhamadane; Diallo, Adiouma; Talla, Idrissa; Bâ, Cheikh T; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2016-03-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, urogenital schistosomiasis remains a significant public health problem, causing 150.000 deaths/year with approximately 112 million cases diagnosed. The Niakhar district is a disease hotspot in central Senegal where transmission occurs seasonally with high prevalences. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of annual treatment over 3 years on the seasonal transmission dynamics of S. haematobium in 9 villages in the Niakhar district. Adults and children aged between 5 and 60 years were surveyed from 2011 to 2014. Urine samples were collected door-to-door and examined for S. haematobium eggs at baseline in June 2011, and all participants were treated in August 2011 with PZQ (40 mg/kg). After this initial examination, evaluations were conducted at 3 successive time points from September 2011 to March 2014, to measure the efficacy of the annual treatments and the rates of reinfection. Each year, during the transmission period, from July to November-December, malacological surveys were also carried out in the fresh water bodies of each village to evaluate the infestation of the snail intermediate hosts. At baseline, the overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 57.7%, and the proportion of heavy infection was 45.3%, but one month after the first treatment high cure rates (92.9%) were obtained. The overall infection prevalence and proportion of heavy infection intensities were drastically reduced to 4.2% and 2.3%, respectively. The level of the first reinfection in February-March 2012 was 9.5%. At follow-up time points, prevalence levels varied slightly between reinfection and treatment from 9.5% in June 2012 to 0.3% in March 2013, 11.2 in June 2013, and 10.1% April 2014. At the end of the study, overall prevalence was significantly reduced from 57.7% to 10.1%. The overall rate of infested Bulinid snails was reduced after repeated treatment from 0.8% in 2012 to 0.5% in 2013. Repeated annual treatments are suggested to have a considerable impact on the transmission dynamics of S. haematobium in Niakhar, due to the nature of the epidemiological system with seasonal transmission. Thus, to maintain this benefit and continue to reduce the morbidity of urogenital schistosomiasis, other approaches should be integrated into the strategy plans of the National program to achieve the goal of urogenital schistosomiasis elimination in seasonal foci in Senegal. PMID:27015646

  2. 77 FR 47511 - New Animal Drugs; Cephalexin; Fentanyl; Milbemycin Oxime and Praziquantel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    .... superficial bacterial pyoderma in dogs caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. 141... in dogs caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. (iii) Limitations....

  3. 77 FR 4225 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Milbemycin Oxime, Lufenuron, and Praziquantel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... various internal parasites in dogs. DATES: This rule is effective January 27, 2012. FOR FURTHER... whipworm, and adult tapeworm infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 6 weeks.... 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) (d) Conditions of use--(1) Dogs--(i) Amount. 0.5 mg milbemycin...

  4. Impact of Annual Praziquantel Treatment on Urogenital Schistosomiasis in a Seasonal Transmission Focus in Central Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Senghor, Bruno; Diaw, Omar Talla; Doucoure, Souleymane; Seye, Mouhamadane; Diallo, Adiouma; Talla, Idrissa; Bâ, Cheikh T.; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2016-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, urogenital schistosomiasis remains a significant public health problem, causing 150.000 deaths/year with approximately 112 million cases diagnosed. The Niakhar district is a disease hotspot in central Senegal where transmission occurs seasonally with high prevalences. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of annual treatment over 3 years on the seasonal transmission dynamics of S. haematobium in 9 villages in the Niakhar district. Adults and children aged between 5 and 60 years were surveyed from 2011 to 2014. Urine samples were collected door-to-door and examined for S. haematobium eggs at baseline in June 2011, and all participants were treated in August 2011 with PZQ (40 mg/kg). After this initial examination, evaluations were conducted at 3 successive time points from September 2011 to March 2014, to measure the efficacy of the annual treatments and the rates of reinfection. Each year, during the transmission period, from July to November-December, malacological surveys were also carried out in the fresh water bodies of each village to evaluate the infestation of the snail intermediate hosts. At baseline, the overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 57.7%, and the proportion of heavy infection was 45.3%, but one month after the first treatment high cure rates (92.9%) were obtained. The overall infection prevalence and proportion of heavy infection intensities were drastically reduced to 4.2% and 2.3%, respectively. The level of the first reinfection in February-March 2012 was 9.5%. At follow-up time points, prevalence levels varied slightly between reinfection and treatment from 9.5% in June 2012 to 0.3% in March 2013, 11.2 in June 2013, and 10.1% April 2014. At the end of the study, overall prevalence was significantly reduced from 57.7% to 10.1%. The overall rate of infested Bulinid snails was reduced after repeated treatment from 0.8% in 2012 to 0.5% in 2013. Repeated annual treatments are suggested to have a considerable impact on the transmission dynamics of S. haematobium in Niakhar, due to the nature of the epidemiological system with seasonal transmission. Thus, to maintain this benefit and continue to reduce the morbidity of urogenital schistosomiasis, other approaches should be integrated into the strategy plans of the National program to achieve the goal of urogenital schistosomiasis elimination in seasonal foci in Senegal. PMID:27015646

  5. NASA EM Followup of LIGO-Virgo Candidate Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Lindy L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy for a follow-up of LIGO-Virgo candidate events using offline survey data from several NASA high-energy photon instruments aboard RXTE, Swift, and Fermi. Time and sky-location information provided by the GW trigger allows for a targeted search for prompt and afterglow EM signals. In doing so, we expect to be sensitive to signals which are too weak to be publicly reported as astrophysical EM events.

  6. EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

    2005-11-15

    This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

  7. Estimation of multiple sound sources with data and model uncertainties using the EM and evidential EM algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xun; Quost, Benjamin; Chazot, Jean-Daniel; Antoni, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of identifying multiple sound sources from acoustical measurements obtained by an array of microphones. The problem is solved via maximum likelihood. In particular, an expectation-maximization (EM) approach is used to estimate the sound source locations and strengths, the pressure measured by a microphone being interpreted as a mixture of latent signals emitted by the sources. This work also considers two kinds of uncertainties pervading the sound propagation and measurement process: uncertain microphone locations and uncertain wavenumber. These uncertainties are transposed to the data in the belief functions framework. Then, the source locations and strengths can be estimated using a variant of the EM algorithm, known as the Evidential EM (E2M) algorithm. Eventually, both simulation and real experiments are shown to illustrate the advantage of using the EM in the case without uncertainty and the E2M in the case of uncertain measurement.

  8. Episodic outgassing and lava level fluctuations at Kilauea Volcano's summit lava lake in Halema`uma`u Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, M. R.; Orr, T. R.; Sutton, A. J.; Lev, E.; Fee, D.

    2014-12-01

    Kilauea's ongoing summit eruption began in March 2008 and has been characterized by a lava lake deep within an enlarging pit in Halema'uma'u Crater. The level of lava in the lake has exhibited cyclic rise and fall behavior, accompanied by episodic seismic and infrasonic tremor. From 2010 on, this episodic behavior has involved the lake abruptly switching between "spattering" and "non-spattering" regimes. Spattering phases consist of spattering and passive outgassing from the lake, as well as elevated tremor and a vigorous gas plume. Non-spattering phases are associated only with passive outgassing from the lake, with unusually low tremor and a weak gas plume. Non-spattering phases usually last several hours and often correspond with the lava lake level abruptly rising, in some cases up to 20 m. We consider these episodic lava level fluctuations a type of "gas pistoning", and focus on events in 2010 and 2013-2014. We interpret the gas pistoning to be driven by shallow gas accumulation near the top of the lava lake, based on long-term multidisciplinary monitoring including seismicity, infrasound, gas emission and geochemistry, lake level and surface motion, and robust visual and time-lapse camera observations which comprise a comprehensive characterization of gas pistoning at Kilauea. Competing models for gas pistoning, such as deeply sourced gas slugs, or dynamic pressure balances, are not consistent with the gas geochemistry or other observations at Halema'uma'u. The observed spattering regime represents significant decoupling of gas bubbles in the lake, while the non-spattering regime represents gas bubbles largely coupled, and downwelling, with the circulating lava. Gas pistons reflect a slight imbalance in gas influx/outflux at the lake surface during the non-spattering phases, associated with gas accumulating beneath the lake surface. These data illustrate the complex and episodic nature of gas emission from a lava lake. Unlike other lava lakes which have cyclic behavior that is thought to be controlled by deeply sourced processes external to the lake itself, the lake at Halema`uma`u Crater provides an example of lava lake fluctuations driven by cycles of activity that are shallowly rooted.

  9. Emergency medical services information systems and a future EMS national database.

    PubMed

    Mears, Gregory; Ornato, Joseph P; Dawson, Drew E

    2002-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, various publications and legislation have contributed to the development of emergency medical services (EMS) information systems and databases. Yet, even today, EMS systems vary in their ability to collect patient and systems data and to put these data to use. In addition, no means currently exists to easily link disparate EMS databases to allow analysis at local, state, and national levels. For this reason, the National Association of State EMS Directors is working with its federal partners at the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Trauma and EMS program of the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA's) Maternal and Child Health Bureau to develop a national EMS database. Such a database would be useful in developing nationwide EMS training curricula, evaluating patient and EMS system outcomes, facilitating research efforts, determining national fee schedules and reimbursement rates, and providing valuable information on other issues related to EMS care. PMID:11789641

  10. A History and Informal Assessment of the <em>Slacker Astronomyem> Podcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Gay, Pamela; Searle, Travis; Brissenden, Gina

    Slacker Astronomyem> is a weekly podcast that covers a recent astronomical news event or discovery. The show has a unique style consisting of irreverent, over-the-top humor combined with a healthy dose of hard science. According to our demographic analysis, the combination of this style and the unique podcasting distribution mechanism allows the show to reach audiences younger and busier than those reached via traditional channels. We report on the successes and challenges of the first year of the show, and provide an informal assessment of its role as a source for astronomical news and concepts for its approximately 15,500 weekly listeners.

  11. Image segmentation by EM-based adaptive pulse coupled neural networks in brain magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, J C; Chen, C C; Chai, J W; Wong, S T C; Li, I C

    2010-06-01

    We propose an automatic hybrid image segmentation model that integrates the statistical expectation maximization (EM) model and the spatial pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is developed to fine tune the PCNN parameters. The EM model serves two functions: evaluation of the PCNN image segmentation and adaptive adjustment of the PCNN parameters for optimal segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN, we use it to segment MR brain image into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN is compared with that of the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and Bias Corrected Fuzzy C-Means (BCFCM) algorithms. The result is four sets of boundaries for the GM and the brain parenchyma (GM+WM), the two regions of most interest in medical research and clinical applications. Each set of boundaries is compared with the golden standard to evaluate the segmentation performance. The adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and BCFCM algorithms in gray mater segmentation. In brain parenchyma segmentation, the adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the BCFCM only. However, the adaptive EM-PCNN is better than the non-adaptive EM-PCNN and EM on average. We conclude that of the three approaches, the adaptive EM-PCNN yields the best results for gray matter and brain parenchyma segmentation. PMID:20042313

  12. First BVR light curves and preliminary results of a recently discovered W UMa-type binary: V1848 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriwattanawong, W.; Poojon, P.

    2014-04-01

    First complete photometric light curves of a recently discovered contact binary, V1848 Ori, are presented. BVR imaging data were used to derive photometric solutions, using Wilson-Devinney code. We discovered that this system is a weak-contact binary, with a fillout factor of f = 13.14%(1.44%). Preliminary results showed that V1848 Ori is an A-type W UMa system, with a mass ratio of q = 0.7615. The more massive component was found about 400 K hotter than the other one. This system has varied from W-type to A-type during the last decade. According to the preliminary physical parameters, the weak-contact configuration of this system, with the mass ratio close to unity, and no sign of long-term orbital period change yet, is unlikely to be broken. The contact configuration is expected to be maintained and become deeper or not, depending on effect of the AML mechanism.

  13. BVR{sub c}I{sub c} observations and analyses on V2421 Cygni, a precontact W UMa binary

    SciTech Connect

    Samec, R. G.; Shebs, Travis S.; Faulkner, D. R.; Van Hamme, W.; Mathis, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first precision BVRI light curves, synthetic light curve solutions, and a period study for the high amplitude solar type binary, V2421 Cygni. The light curves have the appearance of an Algol (EA) type; however, it is made up of dwarf solar type components in a detached mode with a period of only 0.6331 days with an amplitude of about a full magnitude, i.e., it is a precontact W UMa binary. Flare-like disruptions occur in the light curves following the primary and secondary eclipses possibly due to the line-of-sight track of a gas stream. An associated stream spot and splash spot cause bright equatorial spots on the stellar surface of the primary star. The more massive star is the gainer, making this system a classic, albeit dwarf, Algol.

  14. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  15. Observação do abrilhantamento de limbo solar e de estruturas filamentares em 48 ghz utilizando a técnica de regularização adaptativa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, W. R. S.; Mascarenhas, N.; Costa, J. E. R.; Silva, A. V. R.

    2003-08-01

    O radiotelescópio do Itapetinga tem sido utilizado em campanhas de observações de explosões solares gerando um grande número de mapas diários em 48 GHz como sub-produto destas observações. A resolução espacial do telescópio de 14m do Itapetinga nesta freqüência é de aproximadamente dois minutos de arco. Estruturas de interesse para análise da atmosfera solar quiescente tais como os filamentos e o anel de abrilhantamento do limbo são de dimensão angular moderada da ordem ou ligeiramente menores que a resolução do telescópio. É conhecido que a convolução da função de espalhamento do telescópio, PSF (padrão de ganho do feixe) borra as estruturas de dimensão angular abaixo do HPBW (largura a meia potência do feixe) e portanto é comum a busca por técnicas de restauração que eliminem pelo menos em parte este borramento. Estudamos a restauração destas radioimagens usando a técnica de regularização adaptativa e os resultados ressaltam estas estruturas espaciais de pequeno contraste. O algoritmo da regularização adaptativa faz uso de k imagens, chamadas protótipos, obtidas através da variação de parâmetros de um filtro de regularização. Para controle da qualidade da restauração utilizamos uma imagem de alta resolução espacial obtida na linha H-a e a PSF do Itapetinga para borrá-la. Pequenos desvios, entre a PSF utilizada para o borramento e a PSF utilizada na restauração, produziram alguns desvios notáveis na imagem restaurada porém a adição de ruído nas simulações de restauração foram mais influentes no cálculo da rugosidade da imagem e portanto mais limitante para a restauração. Apresentamos como nosso primeiro resultado uma imagem em 48 GHz com a presença clara do abrilhantamento de limbo que não estava evidente na imagem original e traços de estruturas filamentares, porém ainda sem grande evidência.

  16. Degradation of Benzodiazepines after 120 Days of EMS Deployment

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Jason T.; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. Objective To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Methods Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May–August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). Results 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7–98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7–100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6–99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7–92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1–36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Conclusions Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure. PMID:24548058

  17. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  18. FitEM2EM--tools for low resolution study of macromolecular assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Ziv; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth; Eisenstein, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value of each grid point depends on its position with regard to the interior, surface or exterior of the object. The grids are correlated using fast Fourier transformations producing either matches of related objects or docking models depending on the details of the grid representations. The procedures incorporate thickening and smoothing of the surfaces of the objects which effectively compensates for differences in the resolution of the matched/docked objects, circumventing the need for resolution modification. The presented matching tool FitEM2EMin successfully fitted electron microscopy structures obtained at different resolutions, different conformers of the same structure and partial structures, ranking correct matches at the top in every case. The differences between the grid representations of the matched objects can be used to study conformation differences or to characterize the size and shape of substructures. The presented low-to-low docking tool FitEM2EMout ranked the expected models at the top. PMID:18974836

  19. Learning when to Hold'em and When to Fold'em: ERS's Budget Hold'em Game Facilitates the Budget Development Process in Memphis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2010

    2010-01-01

    If your school district is facing a budget issue, it might surprise you to learn that the solution might very well lie in a game of cards. That certainly was the case earlier this year for the city schools of Memphis, Tennessee. The game is called Budget Hold'em, and it was developed by Education Resource Strategies (ERS) of Watertown,…

  20. Do EMS Professionals Think They Should Participate in Disease Prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Fernandez, Antonio R.; Shah, Manish N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine EMS professionals’ opinions regarding participation in disease and injury prevention programs. A secondary objective was to determine the proportion of EMS professionals who had participated in disease prevention programs. Methods As part of National Registry of Emergency Medical Technician’s biennial re-registration process, EMS professionals re-registering in 2006 were asked to complete an optional survey regarding their opinions on and participation in disease and injury prevention. Demographic characteristics were also collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and 99% confidence intervals. The chi square test was used to compare differences by responder demographics (α=0.01). A 10% difference between groups was determined to be clinically significant. Results The survey was completed by 27,233 EMS professionals. 82.7% (99%CI: 82.1 – 83.3) felt that EMS professionals should participate in disease prevention, with those working 20 to 29 hours per week being the least likely to think they should participate (67.4%, p<0.001). 33.8% (99% CI: 33.1 – 34.6) of respondents reported having provided prevention services, with those having a graduate degree (43.5%, p<0.001), those working in EMS for more than 21 years (44%, p<0.001), those working for the military (57%, p<0.001), those working 60 to 69 hours per week (41%, P<.001), and those responding to 0 emergency calls in a typical week (43%, P<0.001) being the most likely to report having provided prevention services. 51.1% (99%CI: 50.4 – 51.9) of respondents agreed that prevention services should be provided during emergency calls and 7.7% (99%CI: 7.3 – 8.1) of respondents reported providing prevention services during emergency calls. No demographic differences existed. Those who had participated in prevention programs were more likely to respond that EMS professionals should participate in prevention (92% versus 82%, p<0.001). Further, those who had provided prevention services during emergency calls were more likely to think EMS professionals should provide prevention services during emergency calls (81% versus 51%, p<0.001). Conclusion The majority of EMS professionals thought that they should participate in disease and injury prevention programs. The respondents were mixed as to whether prevention services should be provided while on emergency calls, but those with experience providing these services were more likely to agree with providing them during emergency calls. PMID:19145527

  1. Ultraviolet spectral behavior of IP Peg and DW UMa in high, intermediate and low states from the HST and IUE satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanad, M. R.

    2014-02-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of IP Peg and DW UMa observed with Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph & Faint Object Spectrograph (HST STIS FOS) and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellites were analyzed during the period between 1989-1994 and 1985-2004. Different profiles of two systems showing variations of line fluxes at different orbital phases are presented. Both IP Peg and DW UMa are characterized by emission lines in high, intermediate and low states. DW UMa is characterized by absorption lines in an unusual low state. This paper focuses on the C IV emission line at 1550 Å produced in an accretion disk for two systems (Saito et al., 2005; Knigge et al., 2000), by calculating spectral line fluxes. Our results show that there are significant variations of line fluxes with time for two systems. The variations of line fluxes are attributed to the variations of both density and temperature as a result of a changing rate of mass transfer from the secondary star to the white dwarf (Saito et al., 2005; Knigge et al., 2000). These results from the IUE and HST observations support a white dwarf model atmospheres of IP Peg and DW UMa producing sufficient UV flux for orbital modulations.

  2. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  3. A Computerized Evaluation Methodology for Pre-Hospital EMS Cardiac Care

    PubMed Central

    Nagurney, Frank K.

    1980-01-01

    The computerized application of cardiac care protocols for pre-hospital EMS care is presented. The program logic is reviewed and an example of its application is provided. Uses of the results of the program in EMS management are suggested.

  4. Influence of PCB and Attached Line of Hardware on Electromagnetic (EM) Information Leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yu-Ichi; Ohmura, Kouhei; Mizuki, Takaaki; Sone, Hideaki

    Electromagnetic (EM) radiation from information hardware under normal operating conditions can compromise secret information (EM information leakage), for example, operations or processed data contained in the hardware. Methods for analyzing EM radiation with the intention of extracting secret information have been proposed, and EM side-channel attacks on cryptographic hardware are a major concern. This paper investigates how EM information leakage changes with the configuration of information hardware, focusing on the frequency characteristics of the hardware. We assume that frequency characteristics of the EM radiation correspond to physical aspects of the hardware configuration. To address the issue of information leakage, this paper presents a novel analysis of EM radiation from information hardware by using a model circuit board. Through this model we show that the intensity of EM emission can be related to the layout of the hardware.

  5. Recent technical advancements enabled atomic resolution CryoEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueming, Li

    2016-01-01

    With recent breakthroughs in camera and image processing technologies single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM) has suddenly gained the attention of structural biologists as a powerful tool able to solve the atomic structures of biological complexes and assemblies. Compared with x-ray crystallography, CryoEM can be applied to partially flexible structures in solution and without the necessity of crystallization, which is especially important for large complexes and assemblies. This review briefly explains several key bottlenecks for atomic resolution CryoEM, and describes the corresponding solutions for these bottlenecks based on the recent technical advancements. The review also aims to provide an overview about the technical differences between its applications in biology and those in material science. Project supported by Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, China.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: TU UMa light curves and maxima, CL Aur minima (Liska+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liska, J.; Skarka, M.; Mikulasek, Z.; Zejda, M.; Chrastina, M.

    2016-02-01

    Differential photometry for RR Lyrae star TU UMa in the 1st and 2nd file. The measurements were obtained using 24-inch and 1-inch telescopes, respectively. The observations were performed at the Masaryk University Observatory in Brno (3 nights, 24-inch), and at the private observatory in Brno (16 nights, 1-inch) in the Czech Republic from December 2013 to June 2014. Observing equipments consisted of 24-inch Newtonian telescope (600/2780mm, diameter/focal length) and a Moravian Instruments CCD camera G2-4000 with Stromgren photometric filters vby, and of 1-inch refractor (a photographic lens Sonnar 4/135mm, lens focal ratio/focal length) and ATIK 16IC CCD camera with green photometric filter with similar throughput as the Johnson V filter. Exposures were v - 60s, b - 30s, y - 30s, green - 30s. For the small aperture telescope, five frames were combined to a single image to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio. The time resolution of a such combined frame is about 170s. CCD images were calibrated in a standard way (dark frame and flat field corrections). The C-Munipack software (Motl 2009) was used for this processing as well as for differential photometry. The comparison star BD+30 2165 was the same for both instruments, but the control stars were BD+30 2164 (for the 24-inch telescope) and HD 99593 (for the 1-inch telescope). The 3rd file contains maxima timings of TU UMa adopted from the GEOS RR Lyr database, from the latest publications, together with maxima timings determined in our study. Times of maxima were calculated from our observations, sky-surveys data (Hipparcos, NSVS, Pi of the Sky, SuperWASP), photographic measurements (project DASCH), and from several published datasets, in which the maxima were omitted or badly determined - Boenigk (1958AcA.....8...13B), Liakos, Niarchos (2011IBVS.6099....1L, 2011IBVS.5990....1L), Liu, Janes (1989ApJS...69..593L), Preston et al. (1961ApJ...133..484P). The 4th file contains minima timings of eclipsing binary CL Aur adopted from O-C Gateway database. (5 data files).

  7. Developments in the EM-CCD camera for OGRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutt, James H.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; DeRoo, Casey; Schultz, Ted; Miles, Drew M.; Zhang, William; Murray, Neil J.; Holland, Andrew D.; Cash, Webster; Rogers, Thomas; O'Dell, Steve; Gaskin, Jessica; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Evagora, Anthony M.; Holland, Karen; Colebrook, David

    2014-07-01

    The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE) is a sub-orbital rocket payload designed to advance the development of several emerging technologies for use on space missions. The payload consists of a high resolution soft X-ray spectrometer based around an optic made from precision cut and ground, single crystal silicon mirrors, a module of off-plane gratings and a camera array based around Electron Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) technology. This paper gives an overview of OGRE with emphasis on the detector array; specifically this paper will address the reasons that EM-CCDs are the detector of choice and the advantages and disadvantages that this technology offers.

  8. The photon: EM fields, electrical potentials, and AC charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, A.; Hudgins, W. R.; Penland, R. F.

    2015-09-01

    Photons are here considered to be resonant oscillations (solitons) in four dimensions (space/time) of an undefined `field' otherwise generally existing at a local energy minimum. The photons' constituent EM fields result in elevated energy, and therefore potentials, within that field. It is in the context of the standing waves of and between photons that the EM fields and potentials lead to a description of alternating (AC) `currents' (of some form) of unquantized alternating `charge' (of some sort). The main topic of this paper is the alternating charge.

  9. Waste fuel, EMS may save plant $1M yearly

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.

    1982-05-24

    A mixture of paper trash and coal ash fueling an Erie, Pa. General Electric plant and a Network 90 microprocessor-based energy-management system (EMS) to optimize boiler efficiency will cost about $3 million and have a three-to-four-year payback. Over half the savings will come from the avoided costs of burning plant-generated trash. The EMS system will monitor fuel requirements in the boiler and compensate for changes in steam demand. It will also monitor plant electrical needs and control the steam diverted for cogeneration. (DCK)

  10. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  11. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Holzrichter, J F; Larson, P E

    2001-10-25

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation.

  12. Item Parameter Estimation via Marginal Maximum Likelihood and an EM Algorithm: A Didactic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Bock and Aitkin Marginal Maximum Likelihood/EM (MML/EM) approach to item parameter estimation is an alternative to the classical joint maximum likelihood procedure of item response theory. This paper provides the essential mathematical details of a MML/EM solution and shows its use in obtaining consistent item parameter estimates. (TJH)

  13. Photometric studies of two W UMa type variables in the field of distant open cluster NGC 6866

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Yogesh Chandra; Jagirdar, Rukmini; Joshi, Santosh

    2016-04-01

    We present photometric analysis of the two W UMa type binaries identified in the field of distant open star cluster NGC 6866. Although these systems, namely ID487 and ID494, were reported by Joshi et al., a detailed study of these stars has not been carried out before. The orbital periods of these stars are found to be 0.415110±0.000001 day and 0.366709±0.000004 day, respectively. Based on the photometric and infrared colors, we find their respective spectral types to be K0 and K3. The photometric light variations of both stars show the O'Connell effect which can be explained by employing a dark spot on the secondary components. The V and I band light curves are analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney (WD) code and relations given by Gazeas which yield radii and masses for the binary components of star ID487 of R1 = 1.24 ± 0.01 R⊙, R2 = 1.11 ± 0.02 R⊙, and M1 = 1.24 ± 0.02 M⊙, M2 = 0.96 ± 0.05 M⊙ and for star ID494 of R1 = 1.22±0.02R⊙, R2 = 0.81±0.01 R⊙, and M1 = 1.20±0.06 M⊙, M2 = 0.47±0.01 M⊙.

  14. Survey of Period Variations of Superhumps in SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae. III. The Third Year (2010-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Miller, Ian; Ohshima, Tomohito; Miguel, Enrique De; Tanabe, Kenji; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Kunitomi, Nanae; Takagi, Ryosuke; Nose, Mikiha; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Samsonov, Denis; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Antonyuk, Kirill; Andreev, Maksim V.; Morelle, Etienne; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Oksanen, Arto; Masi, Gianluca; Krajci, Thomas; Pickard, Roger D.; Sabo, Richard; Itoh, Hiroshi; Stein, William; Dvorak, Shawn; Henden, Arne; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Noguchi, Ryo; Iino, Eriko; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nishitani, Hiroki; Aoki, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Chihiro; Bolt, Greg; Shears, Jeremy; Ruiz, Javier; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Parakhin, Nikolai A.; Monard, Berto; Shiokawa, Kazuhiko; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Staels, Bart; Miyashita, Atsushi; Starkey, Donn R.; Ögmen, Yenal; Littlefield, Colin; Katysheva, Natalia; Sergey, Ivan M.; Denisenko, Denis; Tordai, Tamas; Fidrich, Robert; Goranskij, Vitaly P.; Virtanen, Jani; Crawford, Tim; Pietz, Jochen; Koff, Robert A.; Boyd, David; Brady, Steve; James, Nick; Goff, William N.; Itagaki, Koh-Ichi; Nishimura, Hideo; Nakashima, Youichirou; Yoshida, Seiichi; Stubbings, Rod; Poyner, Gary; Maeda, Yutaka; Korotkiy, Stanislav A.; Sokolovsky, Kirill V.; Ueda, Seiji

    2012-02-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected the times of superhump maxima for 51 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, mainly observed during the 2010-2011 season. Although most of the new data for systems with short superhump periods basically confirmed the findings by Kato et al. (ibid.) and Kato et al. (2010, PASJ, 62, 1525), the long-period system GX Cas showed an exceptionally large positive-period derivative. An analysis of public Kepler data of V344 Lyr and V1504 Cyg yielded less-striking stage transitions. In V344 Lyr, there was a prominent secondary component growing during the late stage of superoutbursts, and this component persisted for at least two more cycles of successive normal outbursts. We also investigated the superoutburst of two conspicuous eclipsing objects: HT Cas and the WZ Sge-type object SDSS J080434.20+510349.2. Strong beat phenomena were detected in both objects, and late-stage superhumps in the latter object had an almost constant luminosity during repeated rebrightenings. The WZ Sge-type object SDSS J133941.11+484727.5 showed a phase reversal around the rapid fading from the superoutburst. The object showed a prominent beat phenomenon, even after the end of the superoutburst. A pilot study of superhump amplitudes indicated that the amplitude of superhumps is strongly correlated with the orbital period, and the dependence on the inclination is weak in systems with inclinations smaller than 80°.

  15. Speciation, population structure, and demographic history of the Mojave Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma scoparia), a species of conservation concern.

    PubMed

    Gottscho, Andrew D; Marks, Sharyn B; Jennings, W Bryan

    2014-06-01

    The North American deserts were impacted by both Neogene plate tectonics and Quaternary climatic fluctuations, yet it remains unclear how these events influenced speciation in this region. We tested published hypotheses regarding the timing and mode of speciation, population structure, and demographic history of the Mojave Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma scoparia), a sand dune specialist endemic to the Mojave Desert of California and Arizona. We sampled 109 individual lizards representing 22 insular dune localities, obtained DNA sequences for 14 nuclear loci, and found that U. scoparia has low genetic diversity relative to the U. notata species complex, comparable to that of chimpanzees and southern elephant seals. Analyses of genotypes using Bayesian clustering algorithms did not identify discrete populations within U. scoparia. Using isolation-with-migration (IM) models and a novel coalescent-based hypothesis testing approach, we estimated that U. scoparia diverged from U. notata in the Pleistocene epoch. The likelihood ratio test and the Akaike Information Criterion consistently rejected nested speciation models that included parameters for migration and population growth of U. scoparia. We reject the Neogene vicariance hypothesis for the speciation of U. scoparia and define this species as a single evolutionarily significant unit for conservation purposes. PMID:25360285

  16. Speciation, population structure, and demographic history of the Mojave Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma scoparia), a species of conservation concern

    PubMed Central

    Gottscho, Andrew D; Marks, Sharyn B; Jennings, W Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The North American deserts were impacted by both Neogene plate tectonics and Quaternary climatic fluctuations, yet it remains unclear how these events influenced speciation in this region. We tested published hypotheses regarding the timing and mode of speciation, population structure, and demographic history of the Mojave Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma scoparia), a sand dune specialist endemic to the Mojave Desert of California and Arizona. We sampled 109 individual lizards representing 22 insular dune localities, obtained DNA sequences for 14 nuclear loci, and found that U. scoparia has low genetic diversity relative to the U. notata species complex, comparable to that of chimpanzees and southern elephant seals. Analyses of genotypes using Bayesian clustering algorithms did not identify discrete populations within U. scoparia. Using isolation-with-migration (IM) models and a novel coalescent-based hypothesis testing approach, we estimated that U. scoparia diverged from U. notata in the Pleistocene epoch. The likelihood ratio test and the Akaike Information Criterion consistently rejected nested speciation models that included parameters for migration and population growth of U. scoparia. We reject the Neogene vicariance hypothesis for the speciation of U. scoparia and define this species as a single evolutionarily significant unit for conservation purposes. PMID:25360285

  17. Signs and Guides: Wayfinding Alternatives for the EMS Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Johanna H.

    Concerned with increasing the accessibility of the collection of the Engineering/Math Sciences (EMS) Library at the University of California at Los Angeles through the use of self guidance systems, this practical study focused on the problem context, general library guides, and library signage in reviewing the literature, and conducted a survey of

  18. A shape constrained MAP-EM algorithm for colorectal segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huafeng; Li, Lihong; Song, Bowen; Han, Fangfang; Liang, Zhengrong

    2013-02-01

    The task of effectively segmenting colon areas in CT images is an important area of interest in medical imaging field. The ability to distinguish the colon wall in an image from the background is a critical step in several approaches for achieving larger goals in automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The related task of polyp detection, the ability to determine which objects or classes of polyps are present in a scene, also relies on colon wall segmentation. When modeling each tissue type as a conditionally independent Gaussian distribution, the tissue mixture fractions in each voxel via the modeled unobservable random processes of the underlying tissue types can be estimated by maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm in an iterative manner. This paper presents, based on the assumption that the partial volume effect (PVE) could be fully described by a tissue mixture model, a theoretical solution to the MAP-EM segmentation algorithm. However, the MAP-EM algorithm may miss some small regions which also belong to the colon wall. Combining with the shape constrained model, we present an improved algorithm which is able to merge similar regions and reserve fine structures. Experiment results show that the new approach can refine the jagged-like boundaries and achieve better results than merely exploited our previously presented MAP-EM algorithm.

  19. Reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring with crosshole EM

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Torres-Verdin, C.

    1995-06-01

    Crosshole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 m. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile using the LLNL frequency domain crosshole EM system. Field data were collected before the initiation of a steam drive to map the distribution of the oil sands and then 6 and 12 months later to monitor the progress of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the EM data before steam injection clearly delineate the distribution and dipping structure on the target oil sands. Difference images, from data collected before and after steam flooding, show resistivity changes that indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the deeper oil sands although steam injection occurred in all three sand layers.

  20. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to

  1. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

  2. Airborne EM for geothermal and hydrogeological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menghini, A.; Manzella, A.; Viezzoli, A.; Montanari, D.; Maggi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, Airborne EM data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The system deployed was SkyTEM, a time-domain helicopter electromagnetic system designed for hydrogeophysical, environmental and mineral investigations. The AEM data provide, after data acquisition, analysis, processing, and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Since the project required, among other issues, to define geothermal resources at shallow level, it was decided to perform a test with an airborne electromagnetic geophysical survey, to verify the advantages offered by the system in covering large areas in a short time. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, over two test sites named "Termini" and "Western Sicily". The two areas were chosen on different basis. "Termini" area is covered by extensive geological surveys, and was going to be investigated also by means of electrical tomography in its northern part. Since geological condition of Sicily, even at shallow depth, is very complex, this area provided a good place for defining the resistivity values of the main geological units outcropping in the region. "Termini" survey has been also an occasion to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The "Western Sicily" area cover the main thermal manifestations of western Sicily, and the research target was to establish whether they are characterized by common hydrogeological or tectonic features that could be mapped by resistivity. SkyTEM data have been acquired in a series of flight lines and were then processed and inverted. In the "Termini" area the flight line spacing had 150 m separation. In the "Western Sicily" area two different line spacing were used: the 1 km spacing was used for the regional mapping, whereas for infill areas, around the main hydrothermal springs, the flight lines had 100 m spacing. The total number of flight line was 4580 km, and the explored surface was in excess of 2000 km2. After acquisition, data were processed to eliminate coupling with infrastructures, and noise. Inversions was then carried out using the quasi 3-D Spatially Constrained Inversion. The obtained resistivity volume has then been the base for a detailed lithological and geothermal interpretation. Lithological and geological maps were used to constrain surface condition and to understand the resistivity ranges of the different lithological units. On the base of resistivity values, lithological units were combined to establish the main litho-resistive units, then modeled at depth, down to achievable investigation depth. This detailed interpretative modeling was also the occasion of recognizing resistivity anomalies within carbonate units, which may possibly represent hydrogeological or hydrothermal bodies. The litho-resitive 3D model is now under investigation to verify how it can represent a viable way to image thermal conductivity variations at depth.

  3. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  4. Application of Electromagnetic (EM) Separation Technology to Metal Refining Processes: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Shengqian; Dong, Anping; Gao, Jianwei; Damoah, Lucas Nana Wiredu

    2014-12-01

    Application of electromagnetic (EM) force to metal processing has been considered as an emerging technology for the production of clean metals and other advanced materials. In the current paper, the principle of EM separation was introduced and several schemes of imposing EM field, such as DC electric field with a crossed steady magnetic field, AC electric field, AC magnetic field, and traveling magnetic field were reviewed. The force around a single particle or multi-particles and their trajectories in the conductive liquid under EM field were discussed. Applications of EM technique to the purification of different liquid metals such as aluminum, zinc, magnesium, silicon, copper, and steel were summarized. Effects of EM processing parameters, such as the frequency of imposed field, imposed magnetic flux density, processing time, particle size, and the EM unit size on the EM purification efficiency were discussed. Experimental and theoretical investigations have showed that the separation efficiency of inclusions from the molten aluminum using EM purification could as high as over 90 pct. Meanwhile, the EM purification was also applied to separate intermetallic compounds from metal melt, such as α-AlFeMnSi-phase from the molten aluminum. And then the potential industrial application of EM technique was proposed.

  5. ATTRACT-EM: A New Method for the Computational Assembly of Large Molecular Machines Using Cryo-EM Maps

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Zacharias, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Many of the most important functions in the cell are carried out by proteins organized in large molecular machines. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is increasingly being used to obtain low resolution density maps of these large assemblies. A new method, ATTRACT-EM, for the computational assembly of molecular assemblies from their components has been developed. Based on concepts from the protein-protein docking field, it utilizes cryo-EM density maps to assemble molecular subunits at near atomic detail, starting from millions of initial subunit configurations. The search efficiency was further enhanced by recombining partial solutions, the inclusion of symmetry information, and refinement using a molecular force field. The approach was tested on the GroES-GroEL system, using an experimental cryo-EM map at 23.5 Å resolution, and on several smaller complexes. Inclusion of experimental information on the symmetry of the systems and the application of a new gradient vector matching algorithm allowed the efficient identification of docked assemblies in close agreement with experiment. Application to the GroES-GroEL complex resulted in a top ranked model with a deviation of 4.6 Å (and a 2.8 Å model within the top 10) from the GroES-GroEL crystal structure, a significant improvement over existing methods. PMID:23251350

  6. Environmental differences in substrate mechanics do not affect sprinting performance in sand lizards (Uma scoparia and Callisaurus draconoides).

    PubMed

    Korff, Wyatt L; McHenry, Matthew J

    2011-01-01

    Running performance depends on a mechanical interaction between the feet of an animal and the substrate. This interaction may differ between two species of sand lizard from the Mojave Desert that have different locomotor morphologies and habitat distributions. Uma scorparia possesses toe fringes and inhabits dunes, whereas the closely related Callisaurus draconoides lacks fringes and is found on dune and wash habitats. The present study evaluated whether these distribution patterns are related to differential locomotor performance on the fine sand of the dunes and the course sand of the wash habitat. We measured the kinematics of sprinting and characterized differences in grain size distribution and surface strength of the soil in both habitats. Although wash sand had a surface strength (15.46.2 kPa) that was more than three times that of dune sand (4.72.1 kPa), both species ran with similar sprinting performance on the two types of soil. The broadly distributed C. draconoides ran with a slightly (22%) faster maximum speed (2.20.2 m s(-1)) than the dune-dwelling U. scorparia (1.80.2 m s(-1)) on dune sand, but not on wash sand. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in maximum acceleration or the time to attain maximum speed between species or between substrates. These results suggest that differences in habitat distribution between these species are not related to locomotor performance and that sprinting ability is dominated neither by environmental differences in substrate nor the presence of toe fringes. PMID:21147976

  7. Period Changes of Two W UMa-Type Contact Binaries: RW Comae Berenices and CC Comae Berenices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yulan; Liu, Qingyao

    2003-06-01

    From the present times of minimum light and those collected from the literature, changes in the orbital period of the two W UMa-type contact binaries RW Com and CC Com are analyzed. The results reveal that the period changes of these two systems show the same natures, with a short-term oscillation superposed on the secular decrease. For RW Com, its period shows a secular decrease at a rate of dP/dt=0.43×10-7 days yr-1. An oscillation with a periodicity of 13.7 yr and an amplitude of ΔP=5.4×10-7 days is superposed on the secular decrease. For CC Com, its period shows a secular decrease at a rate of dP/dt=0.40×10-7 days yr-1. An oscillation with a periodicity of 16.1 yr and an amplitude of ΔP=2.8×10-7 days is superposed on the secular decrease. The period secular decreases of the two systems may be explained by a mass-transfer rate of dm/dt=0.29×10-7 Msolar yr-1 for RW Com and dm/dt=0.52×10-7 Msolar yr-1 for CC Com. The period short-term oscillations of the two systems may be explained by the magnetic activity cycle model given by Applegate, and the parameters for the magnetic activity cycle model are presented.

  8. Projeto educação em ciências com observatórios virtuais: a participação da Escola Moppe no período 2000-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuensche, C. A.; Gavioli, E.; Oliveira, A. L. P. R. S.; da Silva, C.; Cardoso, H. P.; Estácio, S.

    2003-08-01

    O projeto Educação em Ciências com Observatórios Virtuais foi concebido pelo Instituto Astronômico e Geofísico da USP, agregando diversas instituições de ensino e pesquisa no país para desenvolver competências diversas na educação fundamental, média e superior utilizando a astronomia como ferramenta multidisciplinar. Este trabalho descreve a participação da MOPPE, escola-piloto do INPE no projeto, no período de 2000-2003. Serão apresentadas 1) a criação de um clube de ciências (1999 a 2001) cujo tema foi a colonização de Marte e 2) a ementa de astronomia trabalhada com as 7a. e 8a. séries do ensino fundamental. A proposta do projeto Colonizando Marte foi estudar diversos aspectos de uma missão interplanetária e construir experiementos que permitissem quantificar esses aspectos. Os resultados obtidos incluiram apresentações nas SBPC Jovem em 2000 e 2001. Discutiremos também as ementas de astronomia trabalhadas desde 2001 e o envolvimento dos alunos com atividades ligadas a astronomia, fora da aula de ciências. A inclusão de astronomia no currículo das últimas séries motivou a participação de mais alunos culminando com a conquista de duas medalhas para alunos da 7a. série na Olimpiada Brasileira de Astronomia em 2002. Houve também um aumento no número de participantes na OBA 2003 e nos projetos de astronomia mais elaborados nas Feira de Ciências de 2001 e 2002. Destacamos em 2003 a inclusão da MOPPE no projeto TIE - Telescopes in Education - da NASA, que utiliza o telescópio do Observatório de Mount Wilson (EUA) para observações remotas em projetos pedagógicos para o ensino de astronomia.

  9. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  10. EMS Providers and Exception From Informed Consent Research: Benefits, Ethics, and Community Consultation

    PubMed Central

    Ripley, Elizabeth; Ramsey, Cornelia; Prorock-Ernest, Amy; Foco, Rebecca; Luckett, Solomon; Ornato, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    As attention to, and motivation for, EMS-related research continues to grow, particularly exception from informed consent (EFIC) research, it is important to understand the thoughts, beliefs, and experiences of EMS providers who are actively engaged in the research. Study Objective We explored the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of EMS providers regarding their involvement in prehospital emergency research, particularly EFIC research. Method Using a qualitative design, 24 participants were interviewed including Nationally Registered Paramedics and Virginia certified Emergency Medical Technicians employed at Richmond Ambulance Authority, the participating EMS agency. At the time of our interviews, the EMS agency was involved in an exception from informed consent trial. Transcribed interview data were coded and analyzed for themes. Findings were presented back to the EMS agency for validation. Results Overall, there appeared to be support for prehospital emergency research. Participants viewed research as necessary for the advancement of the field of EMS. Improvement in patient care was identified as one of the most important benefits. A number of ethical considerations were identified: individual risk versus public good and consent. EMS providers in our study were open to working with EMS researchers throughout the community consultation and public disclosure process. Conclusions EMS providers in our study value research and are willing to participate in studies. Support for research was balanced with concerns and challenges regarding the role of providers in the research process. PMID:22823963

  11. Effect of the nuclear factors EmBP1 and viviparous1 on the transcription of the Em gene in HeLa nuclear extracts.

    PubMed

    Razik, M A; Quatrano, R S

    1997-10-01

    Templates constructed from the wheat Em and maize rab28 promoters are efficiently and accurately transcribed in the well-characterized cell-free transcription system prepared from HeLa nuclei. Deletion analysis of the Em promoter indicates that a G-box (CACGTG) element (Em1b) is required for transcription. USF, a Myc transcription factor in HeLa nuclear extracts, activates transcription by binding to Em1b, as shown by the ability of an antibody raised against USF to inhibit transcription and to interfere with Em1b complex formation in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The addition of the recombinant Viviparous1 protein from maize to HeLa nuclear extracts specifically stimulated transcription of the Em promoter but was dependent on the presence of USF in the extract. In USF-depleted extracts, the addition of recombinant EmBP1, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor from wheat, activated transcription through Em1b as well as from a similar G-box in the adenovirus major late promoter. Our study demonstrates that the basic transcriptional apparatus in HeLa nuclear extract supports transcription from plant promoters and can be used to assay the function of certain plant nuclear proteins, thereby helping to determine their effects on transcription. PMID:9368416

  12. Translation of EMS: clinical practice and system oversight from core content study guide to best practices implementation in an Urban EMS system.

    PubMed

    Tataris, Katie; Mercer, Mary; Brown, John

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, the seminal text in emergency medical services (EMS) medicine has been used to guide the academic development of the new subspecialty but direct application of the material into EMS oversight has not been previously described. The EMS/Disaster Medicine fellowship program at our institution scheduled a monthly meeting to systematically review the text and develop a study guide to assist the fellow and affiliated faculty in preparation for the board examination. In addition to the summary of chapter content, the review included an assessment of areas from each chapter subject where our EMS system did not exhibit recommended characteristics. A matrix was developed in the form of a gap analysis to include specific recommendations based on each perceived gap. Initial review and completion dates for each identified gap enable tracking and a responsible party. This matrix assisted the fellow with development of projects for EMS system improvement in addition to focusing and prioritizing the work of other interested physicians working in the system. By discussing expert recommendations in the setting of an actual EMS system, the faculty can teach the fellow how to approach system improvements based on prior experiences and current stakeholders. This collaborative environment facilitates system-based practice and practice-based learning, aligning with ACGME core competencies. Our educational model has demonstrated the success of translating the text into action items for EMS systems. This model may be useful in other systems and could contribute to the development of EMS system standards nationwide. PMID:25290737

  13. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-05-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  14. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This booklet introduces the reader to the mission and functions of a major new unit within the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The Secretary of Energy established EM in November 1989, implementing a central purpose of DOE's first annual Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan, which had appeared three months earlier. The contents of this booklet, and their arrangement, reflect the annual update of the Five-Year Plan. The Five-Year Plan supports DOE's strategy for meeting its 30-year compliance and cleanup goal. This strategy involves: focusing DOE's activities on eliminating or reducing known or recognized potential risks to worker and public health and the environment, containing or isolating, removing, or detoxifying onsite and offsite contamination, and developing technology to achieve DOE's environmental goals.

  15. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-01-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  16. Advanced communication infrastructure for pre-hospital EMS care.

    PubMed

    Orthner, Helmuth; Mazza, Giovanni; Mazza, Giovanni Giorgio; Shenvi, Rohit; Battles, Marcie

    2008-01-01

    The traditional communication infrastructure of the pre-hospital Emergency Medical System (EMS) is limited to voice communication using radio or cell phone technologies. With the emergence of 3rd Generation wireless networks (3G) and enhanced mobile devices capable of data communication (e.g., mobile tablets, PDAs with cell phones, or cell phones with PDA capabilities), the voice communication can be enhanced with interactive data messaging and perhaps even with interactive video communication. However, video requires substantially more bandwidth which 4th Generation (4G) systems are promising. However, their availability is limited. We present an infrastructure that allows dynamic selection of the best data transport mode in the pre-hospital EMS environment. PMID:18999315

  17. Small sample learning of superpixel classifiers for EM segmentation.

    PubMed

    Parag, Toufiq; Plaza, Stephen; Scheffer, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Pixel and superpixel classifiers have become essential tools for EM segmentation algorithms. Training these classifiers remains a major bottleneck primarily due to the requirement of completely annotating the dataset which is tedious, error-prone and costly. In this paper, we propose an interactive learning scheme for the superpixel classifier for EM segmentation. Our algorithm is 'active semi-supervised' because it requests the labels of a small number of examples from user and applies label propagation technique to generate these queries. Using only a small set (< 20%) of all datapoints, the proposed algorithm consistently generates a classifier almost as accurate as that estimated from a complete groundtruth. We provide segmentation results on multiple datasets to show the strength of these classifiers. PMID:25333142

  18. EM susceptibility studies and measurements on electro explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, G. K.; Mukherjee, M.

    Electroexplosive devices (EEDs) are susceptible to stray electromagnetic (EM) fields near high-power communications and radar transmitters. Experiments have been carried out to measure the exact susceptibility of EED resistive squibs in pulsed and continuous EM environments, respectively. The susceptibility test procedure consisted of individual measurements of direct current sensitivity (mA); impulse sensitivity; RF impedance measurements; and safety margin calculations. A stray energy monitor was used to evaluate the safe performance of a hybrid weapons system. It is found that the RF sensitivity of the squib was influenced by the transmission characteristics of the transmission line connected to it. RF absorption peaks were observed above the EED sensitivity threshold of 120 MHz. Methods of EMI control are discussed, including: low-pass pin filters; lossy line filters for all dc power line interconnections; and twisting and shielding of the wires.

  19. Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

    2008-01-01

    Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation. PMID:17767990

  20. EMS users find solutions to voltage-surge problems

    SciTech Connect

    Galvin, C.

    1983-01-24

    The microchips in energy-management systems (EMS) are especially vulnerable to damage due to voltage surges, but the addition of surge suppressors to cut off the peak of spikes at a certain level or the use of fiber-optic cable that transmits light signals instead of electricity can overcome the problem. Users are often unaware that lightning, utility-grid switching, or the shutting down of large equipment can cause surges that garble computer information. (DCK)

  1. Principles of cryo-EM single-particle image processing.

    PubMed

    Sigworth, Fred J

    2016-02-01

    Single-particle reconstruction is the process by which 3D density maps are obtained from a set of low-dose cryo-EM images of individual macromolecules. This review considers the fundamental principles of this process and the steps in the overall workflow for single-particle image processing. Also considered are the limits that image signal-to-noise ratio places on resolution and the distinguishing of heterogeneous particle populations. PMID:26705325

  2. Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

  3. Conjoined Use of EM and NMR in RNA Structure Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhou; Schwieters, Charles D.; Tang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    More than 40% of the RNA structures have been determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. NMR mainly provides local structural information of protons and works most effectively on relatively small biomacromolecules. Hence structural characterization of large RNAs can be difficult for NMR alone. Electron microscopy (EM) provides global shape information of macromolecules at nanometer resolution, which should be complementary to NMR for RNA structure determination. Here we developed a new energy term in Xplor-NIH against the density map obtained by EM. We conjointly used NMR and map restraints for the structure refinement of three RNA systems — U2/U6 small-nuclear RNA, genome-packing motif (ΨCD)2 from Moloney murine leukemia virus, and ribosome-binding element from turnip crinkle virus. In all three systems, we showed that the incorporation of a map restraint, either experimental or generated from known PDB structure, greatly improves structural precision and accuracy. Importantly, our method does not rely on an initial model assembled from RNA duplexes, and allows full torsional freedom for each nucleotide in the torsion angle simulated annealing refinement. As increasing number of macromolecules can be characterized by both NMR and EM, the marriage between the two techniques would enable better characterization of RNA three-dimensional structures. PMID:25798848

  4. Debris Avalanche Formation at Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S. N.; Wilson, D.

    2005-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano near Grenada is the most active volcanic center in the Lesser Antilles arc. Multibeam surveys of the volcano by NOAA in 2002 revealed an arcuate fault scarp east of the active cone, suggesting flank collapse. More extensive NOAA surveys in 2003 demonstrated the presence of an associated debris avalanche deposit, judging from their surface morphologic expression on the sea floor, extending at least 15 km and possibly as much as 30 km from the volcano, into the Grenada Basin to the west. Seismic air-gun profiles of the region show that these are lobate deposits, that range in thickness from tens to hundreds of meters. The debris avalanche deposit is contained within two marginal levees, that extend symmetrically from the volcano to the west. A conservative estimate of the volume of the smaller debris avalanche deposit is about 10 km3. Age dating of the deposits and the flank failure events is in progress, by analysis of gravity cores collected during the 2003 survey. Reconstruction of the pre-collapse volcanic edifice suggests that the ancestral Kick'em Jenny volcano might have been at or above sea level. Kick'em Jenny is dominantly supplied by basalt to basaltic andesite magmas, that are extruded now as submarine pillow lavas and domes or ejected as tephra in relatively minor phreatomagmatic explosions. Geochemical evolution of this volcano has not, however, reached the stage of generation of volatile-rich silicic magmas that might form highly explosive eruptions.

  5. The US DOE-EM International Program - 13004

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Williams, Alice C.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  6. A Bayesian View on Cryo-EM Structure Determination

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single-particle analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) images requires many parameters to be determined from extremely noisy data. This makes the method prone to overfitting, that is, when structures describe noise rather than signal, in particular near their resolution limit where noise levels are highest. Cryo-EM structures are typically filtered using ad hoc procedures to prevent overfitting, but the tuning of arbitrary parameters may lead to subjectivity in the results. I describe a Bayesian interpretation of cryo-EM structure determination, where smoothness in the reconstructed density is imposed through a Gaussian prior in the Fourier domain. The statistical framework dictates how data and prior knowledge should be combined, so that the optimal 3D linear filter is obtained without the need for arbitrariness and objective resolution estimates may be obtained. Application to experimental data indicates that the statistical approach yields more reliable structures than existing methods and is capable of detecting smaller classes in data sets that contain multiple different structures. PMID:22100448

  7. Integrated GW-EM Follow-up Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, Kendall; Eikenberry, Stephen; Klimenko, Sergey; LSC Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Advanced Gravitational-Wave (GW) detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo are expected to become operational for observation runs in 2015, with an expected ultimate improvement in sensitivity over previous configurations by a factor of 10 by 2019. There are many potential electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to GWs including short and long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and kilonovae. While SGRBs and LGRBs predominantly emit in the X-ray, and the recently-observed kilonova primarily in the infrared, all three sources are expected to have detectable traces in the optical band, albeit requiring very sensitive optical telescopes. In order to aid in the optimization of GW trigger follow-up procedures, we perform an end-to-end analysis feasibility study using synthesized Advanced detector data simulating a GW detection with a theoretical EM counterpart injected into archival optical images. We use images from Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) and Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and inject candidate events following observed lightcurves of SGRBs, LGRBs, and kilonovae. The use of Zernike PSF decomposition on candidate objects offers a fast way to identify point sources, speeding up the automated identification of transient sources in the images. We present our method of transient recovery and the latest results of our feasibility study of a joint GW-EM observation.

  8. Surface to Borehole EM for Shallow site Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilt, M.; Alumbaugh, D.; Tseng, H.

    2005-12-01

    Surface to borehole EM is a promising but seldom used tool for shallow site investigations and clean-up monitoring. Boreholes offer improved site access and field systems, adapted from geophysical mineral exploration instruments, offer effective range and sensitivity for near surface applications. With the abundance of plastic cased wells at many sites high frequency field data collection is possible and this can provide good sensitivity to subsurface geology and the potential capability of imaging 3D structures. In addition the 3D numerical tools necessary for this type of imaging are now becoming available. Unfortunately shallow sites are often situated in geologically complex vadose zone environments. In addition, interesting sites are often located in urban environments, with a lot of surface clutter and high levels of external electrical noise. These attributes makes collection of high quality data problematic and interpreting these data challenging. In this talk we will examine the state of the art in near surface to well EM focusing our attention on a recently collected data set in an urban environment in northern California. In particular we will discuss a field survey in the San Francisco Bay area where repeated surface to borehole measurements made over a 6-month period were used to track salt-water injection. The surveys overcame noise problems due to grounded fences, and resistivity changes due to an unexpected rainfall, to provide a 3D image of the injected salt-water plume consistent with hydrologic model and a second crosswell EM survey.

  9. Essential ethics for EMS: cardinal virtues and core principles.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Gregory Luke; Fowler, Raymond Logan

    2002-11-01

    Dutiful attention to virtue, teamwork, beneficence, justice, and respect for patient autonomy provides a coherent approach to addressing many ethical dilemmas in the out-of-hospital setting. Most of the great risks of EMS--abandonment, competence, and safe-driving skills--lie at the ethike or character of those who ply the prehospital art. Proactively fostering the personal and professional virtue of team members may be a kind of moral vaccination against the ethical pitfalls inherent in emergency medical service provision. Future training, education, disaster preparedness drills, and related exercises must include opportunities for character and team building before optimal performance and accountability can be assured. In the steady, almost glacial, maturation of the specialty of EMS medicine, truly the character of those who serve in the "line of fire" of evaluation, management, and transport in the out-of-hospital arena must be girded with more than the armor and shields of technology. Since September 11, 2001, it has become increasingly clear that EMS workers must strengthen their ability to bear the "slings and arrows of outrageous fortune," armed with swords of discipline, virtue, and character to provide the breadth of care that only a well orchestrated team can deliver. Ultimately, humans perform best when they share themselves unselfconsciously, surrendering to an enterprise and cause far greater than themselves. Our citizens, patients, and heroic colleagues deserve no less. PMID:12476886

  10. BVRI Photometric Study of the Short Period Solar Type Near-Contact W UMa Binary, FF Vulpeculae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Samec, Ronald G.; Nyaude, Ropafadzo; Van Hamme, Walter V.

    2016-01-01

    High precision BVRcIc light curves of FF Vul were observed during the Fall, 2015 season at the Dark Sky Observatory 0.81-m reflector of Appalachian State University, and the SARA North 0.91-m reflector at KPNO. It is an eclipsing binary with a period of only 0.444983 (2) d. This is the shortest period of our recently studied Pre Contact W UMa Binary (PCWB's), V2421 Cyg, V1043 Cas, ZZ Eri, V500 Peg, and Mis V1287. Our Binary Maker fits and our Wilson-Devinney solution show that the binary is a near-contact, semidetached binary, i.e., a V1010 Oph type configuration (the more massive component has filled its critical lobe while the secondary component is under-filling). Five times of minimum light were calculated, 3 primary and 2 secondary eclipses from our present observations:HJD I = 2457285.7262 ±0.0002, 2457306.6425 ±0.0002, 2457310.6469 ±0.0002HJD II = 2457279.7222 ±0.0006, 2457280.6124 ±0.0017.The following quadratic ephemerides was determined from all available times of minimum light:JDHelMinI=2457310.6473±0.0007d + 0.4449758±0.0000002 X E -0.00000000006± 0.00000000001 X E2The continuous 20 year period study reveals a period decrease in the orbital period at about the 6 sigma level. Our modeling shows a near-equatorial hot spot on the following side of the secondary component. This is probably due to a matter transfer onto the secondary component. The light curve has a large difference in primary and secondary amplitudes and the light curve solution gives a component temperature difference of more than 1500 K. The solution shows a total secondary eclipse of 23 minutes duration. As expected in binaries of this type, it has a cool spot region on its primary component.

  11. Inhomogeneous Media 3D EM Modeling with Integral Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, Q.; Wang, R.; An, Z.; Fu, C.; Xu, C.

    2010-12-01

    In general, only the half space of earth is considered in electromagnetic exploration. However, for the long bipole source, because the length is close to the height of ionosphere and also most offsets between source and receivers are equal or larger than the height of ionosphere, the effect of ionosphere on the electromagnetic (EM) field should be considered when observation is carried at a very far (about several thousands kilometers) location away from the source. At this point the problem becomes one which should contain ionosphere, atmosphere and earth that is “earth-ionosphere” case. There are a few of literatures to report the electromagnetic field results which is including ionosphere, atmosphere and earth media at the same time. We firstly calculate the electromagnetic fields with the traditional controlled source (CSEM) configuration using integral equation (IE) method for a three layers earth-ionosphere model. The modeling results agree well with the half space analytical results because the effect of ionosphere for this small scale bipole source can be ignorable. The comparison of small scale three layers earth-ionosphere modeling and half space analytical resolution shows that the IE method can be used to modeling the EM fields for long bipole large offset configuration. In order to discuss EM fields’ characteristics for complicate earth-ionosphere media excited by long bipole source in the far-field and wave-guide zones, we first modeled the decay characters of electromagnetic fields for three layers earth-ionosphere model. Because of the effect of ionosphere, the earth-ionosphere electromagnetic fields’ decay curves with given frequency show that there should be an extra wave guide zone for long bipole artificial source, and there are many different characters between this extra zone and far field zone. They are: 1) the amplitudes of EM fields decay much slower; 2) the polarization patterns change; 3) the positions better to measure Zxy and Zyx change; 4) there exits the polarization ellipse of electric and magnetic fields; 5) the long axis direction of the polarization ellipse in wave guide zone changes comparing to quasi static EM fields. In order to further model the EM fields for complex inhomogeneous media, we conducted the EM fields modeling for Biyang depressed basin of China. The bottom depth of the oil basin is about 8km. We added one ionosphere layer with thickness 100km and resistivity 104 Ohm-m and one atmosphere layer with thickness 100km and resistivity 1014 Ohm-m over the solid earth surface during the forward modeling. For easily to compare with the 2D seismic exploration result, we conducted the apparent resistivity modeling of equatorial array for the same survey line as seismic did for an 50km long bipole source with offset 400km and the same frequencies as that used for above three layers model. The modeling apparent resistivity pseudo-section has clearly shown the oil basin geology structure.

  12. Standard errors for EM estimates in generalized linear models with random effects.

    PubMed

    Friedl, H; Kauermann, G

    2000-09-01

    A procedure is derived for computing standard errors of EM estimates in generalized linear models with random effects. Quadrature formulas are used to approximate the integrals in the EM algorithm, where two different approaches are pursued, i.e., Gauss-Hermite quadrature in the case of Gaussian random effects and nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation for an unspecified random effect distribution. An approximation of the expected Fisher information matrix is derived from an expansion of the EM estimating equations. This allows for inferential arguments based on EM estimates, as demonstrated by an example and simulations. PMID:10985213

  13. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3.

    PubMed

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J; Gerrard, Juliet A; Mitra, Alok K; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination. PMID:26817416

  14. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  15. Size-resolved chemistry of aerosols produced by Halema'uma'u eruption 2008-2009, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, E.; Martin, R.; Edmonds, M.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.; Werner, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    A dense quiescent plume has been emitted continuously from the 2008 eruptive vent in Halema'uma'u crater since March 2008. Aerosol particles were sampled near-source in the young plume (<30 s old) in May 2008 and April 2009, and at 10 km downwind (April 2009 only). We also sampled the plume from Pu'u O'o vent both near-source and 8-10 km downwind (2007 to 2009). Sampling was performed using filter packs and a cascade impactor that collects and segregates PM10 (particle matter <10 μm) into 14 size fractions. The collected PM was analysed for SO42-, F-, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Our results show a distinctive peak of sulphate abundance at ~0.3-0.5 μm in the 2008 and 2009 summit samples. The total SO42- mass concentration collected in each sampling run correlates well with that of metals but poorly with Cl- and F-. Downwind measurements of PM from Halema'uma'u and Pu'u O'o show SO42- in the same narrow size bin (0.3-0.5 μm) with concentrations similar to, or higher than at source. It is noteworthy that the particles appear not to have grown when the plume has drifted 5-10 km downwind. However, a 1 μm size mode of SO42- seen at Pu'u O'o crater rim (not seen at Halema'uma'u) is absent from the downwind plume. This result leads us to believe that the particles grow rapidly after emission but get scavenged efficiently once they reach a certain size (>0.5 μm). The formation of aerosol measured downwind is dominated by oxidation of SO2 to SO42- in the plume. The ratio of Cl-/SO42- is higher downwind than at the source in both Halema'uma'u and Pu'u O'o plumes, and increases further during rainfall; we propose that the Cl--bearing aerosol is formed by dissolution of HCl gas into water droplets in the plume.

  16. Accuracy of EMS-Reported Last Known Normal Times in Suspected Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Curfman, David; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Moy, Hawnwan Philip; Heitsch, Laura; Panagos, Peter; Lee, Jin-Moo; Tan, David K.; Ford, Andria L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The last known normal (LKN) time is a critical determinant of IV tPA eligibility; however, the accuracy of EMS-reported LKN times is unknown. We determined the congruence between EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times and identified predictors of incongruent LKN times. Methods We prospectively collected EMS-reported LKN times for patients brought into the ED with suspected acute stroke and calculated the absolute difference between the EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times (|ΔLKN|). We determined the rate of inappropriate IV tPA use if EMS-reported times had been used in place of neurologist-determined times. Univariate and multivariable linear regression assessed for any predictors of prolonged |ΔLKN|. Results Of 251 patients, mean and median |ΔLKN| were 28 and 0 minutes, respectively. |ΔLKN| was <15 min in 91% of the entire cohort and was <15 min in 80% of patients with a diagnosis of stroke (n=86). Of patients who received IV tPA, none would have been incorrectly excluded from IV tPA if the EMS LKN time had been used. Conversely, of patients who did not receive IV tPA, 6% would have been incorrectly included for IV tPA consideration had the EMS time been used. In patients with wake-up stroke symptoms, EMS underestimated LKN times: mean EMS LKN time - neurologist LKN time = −208 minutes. The presence of wake-up stroke symptoms (p<0.0001) and older age (p=0.019) were independent predictors of prolonged |ΔLKN|. Conclusions EMS-reported LKN times were largely congruent with neurologist-determined times. Focused EMS training regarding wake-up stroke symptoms may further improve accuracy. PMID:24643409

  17. General 4-week toxicity study with EMS in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Thomas; Eichinger-Chapelon, Anne

    2009-11-12

    In this subacute toxicity study, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) was administered daily by oral gavage to SPF-bred Wistar rats of both sexes at dose levels of 20, 60 and 180/120 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for a period of 28 days (for 19 days in the high-dose group). A control group was treated similarly with the vehicle, bidistilled water, only. The groups comprised 10 animals per sex, which were sacrificed after 28 days, respectively 19 days in the high-dose group, of treatment. Additional five rats per sex and group were treated accordingly and then allowed a 14 days treatment-free recovery period. Additional six rats per sex and group (three rats per sex in the control group) were treated accordingly and used for hemoglobin adduct analysis after EMS exposure. All animals survived until their scheduled necropsy. Treatment with EMS had a direct dose-dependent effect on food consumption and consequently on body weight at doses > or =20mg/kgbw/day in male rats and at > or =60 mg/kgbw/day in females rats. Hence, treatment with the high dose of 180 mg/kgbw/day had to be interrupted for 9 days after which, the animals were re-dosed at 120 mg/kgbw/day. This dose was also poorly tolerated over the remaining two treatment weeks causing again a marked reduction in food consumption and body weight. A dose of 60 mg/kgbw/day was moderately tolerated over 4 weeks treatment with mean daily food consumption and body weight distinctly lower than in controls. Primary targets of systemic toxicity were the hematopoietic system, thymolymphatic system and sexual organs. Characteristic changes in hematology parameters were decreased red blood cell counts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin concentration. White blood cell counts were also decreased due to reduced lymphocyte and granulocyte populations of each fraction. The corresponding histopathology findings were fatty atrophy of bone marrow and minimal hypocellularity of the white pulp of the spleen. Similarly, treatment with EMS caused an involution of the thymolymphatic system characterized by decreased organ weight of thymus, lymph nodes, and spleen microscopically associated with atrophy of the thymus and hypocellularity of Peyer's patches, lymph nodes and the white pulp of the spleen. The effects on sexual organs included lower organ weight/reduced size for testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles, prostate, and uterus. Tubular atrophy, single cell necrosis of the germ cells and in epididymides reduced spermatozoa were recorded microscopically. The described findings occurred at doses of 60 and 180/120 mg/kgbw/day and were dose-dependent with regard to incidence and severity. Other target organs were the pancreas (acinar cell vacuolation), thyroid gland (follicular cell hypertrophy), and salivary gland (secretory depletion of convoluted ducts). The systemic exposure to EMS was monitored by hemoglobin ethylvaline adduct measurement. The concentration of hemoglobin ethylvaline adducts was linear with the dose and accumulated 11-26-fold over the treatment period. In summary, decreases in food consumption and body weight were the dose-limiting effects of treatment with EMS. Organ toxicity was characterized by depression of cell proliferation (hematopoiesis and spermatogenesis) and changes suggestive of reduced metabolism and/or physiological imbalances (e.g. thymolymphatic system and thyroid gland) without signs of inflammatory or necrotic lesions. For some findings, especially the effects on the thymolymphatic system and sexual organs, it cannot be excluded that starvation-like condition contributed to the occurrence of such changes. The low dose of 20 mg/kgbw/day was basically free of adverse effects despite of a clear evidence for hemoglobin adducts. PMID:19442710

  18. Long Term Monitoring of EM signals near Parkfield CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappler, K.; Morrison, H. F.; Egbert, G. D.

    2006-12-01

    Fluctuations of resistivity and anomalous electromagnetic (EM) signals have often been reported as precursors to earthquakes. There has been considerable controversy about the reliability of the reported EM precursory phenomena. In an attempt to assess the validity of these reports, and to understand how such signals might be generated, anomalous EM signals and resistivity have been monitored since 1995 using magnetotelluric (MT) instruments at Parkfield, CA. This EM monitoring array was fully operational and producing high quality data when the long awaited 28 Sept Mw=6.0 Parkfield earthquake occured. The Parkfield MT site provided unprecedented observations of EM signals at a well calibrated site in very close proximity to a moderate (M~6) earthquake. A calibrated remote reference (RR) MT site at Hollister, CA was also functioning well before, during, and after the earthquake. Previously a crude analysis of these data was presented using all data from a four-year time window about the earthquake [2002-2005]. These data have been found to be highly contaminated by cultural sources and instrument malfunctions. We have carefully hand editted a four-year time window of data resulting in a refined dataset. Although the refined dataset does not show any unambiguos precursors to the 28 September Earthquake, there is clear evidence for a seasonal effect in Electric field SNR which is not mirrored by Magnetic SNR. This suggests increased noise levels rather than decreased signal strength. We analyse the seasonal variations in electric and magnetic field strength independantly, and compare these with local rainfall records. The seasonal Electric field SNR variation appears to be site dependant, which suggests that the local geology is a factor in controlling the noise levels. It is possible that ions being liberated into solution by rainfall are resulting in local chemical gradients and hence streaming potentials active at the Parkfield site. Also ionic liberation in a heterogenoeus near surface layer would be a likely cause for conductivity anomalies which appear and disappear over seasonal timescales. We analyse the seasonal effect in the apparent resistivity data using a Groom and Bailey distortion decomposition in order to gain a better understanding of the geometery of the seasonal effect. The distortion effect appears rapidly at the onset of the wet season. It is nearly frequency independantand shows no obvious variation in character unitl after the ground starts drying out. This strengthens the case for conductivity anomalies in the near surface, while weakening the argument that chemical potentials are causing the increased noise, as chemical potentials ought to equilibriate over time. We perform an MA-index averaging of the 40Hz data for a 120 day window around the earthquake for all magnetic channels in the refined dataset. We also examine the RR residual E and B fields for several frequencies over the year 2004 using the refined data. We also include an analysis of coseismically observed magnetic fields which we model as being attributed to the motion of induction coils in the dipole field. Multivariate statistical analysis, including principal components and canonical coherence analysis have also been applited to the refined data, allowing alternate views of temporal variations of signal and noise characteristics. Although there are some anomalous signals deserving more careful study, there is no evidence from this analysis for significant anomalous EM signals preceeding the Parkfield earthquake.

  19. Epidemiology of major incidents: an EMS study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A major incident is defined as an event that owing to the number of casualties has the potential to overwhelm the available resources. This paper attempts to describe the incidence and epidemiology of major incidents dealt with by a government-run emergency medical service (EMS) in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a developing country in South Asia. A major incident in this EMS is defined as any incident that produces three or more patients, or any incident in which extraordinary resources are needed. Methods All the calls received by an EMS Rescue 1122 were studied over a 6-month period. Calls that were defined as major incidents were identified, and further details were sought from the districts regarding these incidents. Questions specifically asked were the type of incident, time of the incident, response time for the incident, the resources needed, and the number of dead and injured casualties. Retrospective data were collected from the submitted written reports. Results Road traffic crashes (RTCs) emerged as the leading cause of a major incident in the province of Punjab and also led to the greatest number of casualties, followed by fire incidents. The total number of casualties was 3,380, out of which 73.7% were RTC victims. There was a high rate of death on the scene (10.4%). Certain other causes of major incidents also emerged, including violence, gas explosions and drowning. Conclusion Road traffic crashes are the most common cause of a major incident in developing countries such as Pakistan. Injury prevention initiatives need to focus on RTCs. PMID:21798011

  20. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  1. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  2. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma segmentation via HMRF-EM with maximum entropy.

    PubMed

    Kai-Wei Huang; Zhe-Yi Zhao; Qian Gong; Juan Zha; Liu Chen; Ran Yang

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a novel automatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma segmentation approach used in magnetic resonance images. Adaptive calculation of the nasopharyngeal region location is first performed. The contour of the tumor is determined through distance regularized level set evolution with the initial contour obtained by the nearest neighbor graph model. To further refine the segmentation, a hidden Markov random field model with maximum entropy (HMRF-EM) is introduced to model the spatial information with prior knowledge. The proposed method is tested on magnetic resonance images of 26 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, and achieves good results. PMID:26736915

  3. State of the Art in EM Field Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.; Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.; Chen, S.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Jiang, H.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.-Q.; Li, Z.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Ko, K.; /SLAC

    2006-09-25

    This paper presents the advances in electromagnetic (EM) field computation that have been enabled by the US DOE SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project which supports the development and application of a suite of electromagnetic codes based on the higher-order finite element method. Implemented on distributed memory supercomputers, this state of the art simulation capability has produced results which are of great interest to accelerator designers and with realism previously not possible with standard codes. Examples from work on the International Linear Collider (ILC) project are described.

  4. Single-particle cryo-EM at crystallographic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Until only a few years ago, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) was usually not the first choice for many structural biologists due to its limited resolution in the range of nanometer to subnanometer. Now, this method rivals X-ray crystallography in terms of resolution and can be used to determine atomic structures of macromolecules that are either refractory to crystallization or difficult to crystallize in specific functional states. In this review, I discuss the recent breakthroughs in both hardware and software that transformed cryo-microscopy, enabling understanding of complex biomolecules and their functions at atomic level. PMID:25910205

  5. A compulsator driven rapid-fire EM-gun

    SciTech Connect

    Pratap, S.B.; Bird, W.L.

    1984-03-01

    A compulsator-driven railgun is an attractive alternative to the homopolar generator-inductor-switch configuration, especially for repetitive duty. A conceptual design of a rapid-fire EM-gun system is presented. The generator is sized to accelerate a 0.08-kg projectile to 2 to 3 km/s at a 60 pulse-per-second repetition rate. Initial design parameters are discussed, and example current and velocity waveforms are given. The generator is discharged at the proper phase angle to provide a current zero just as the projectile exits the muzzle of the railgun.

  6. The Spot Variability and Related Brightness variations of the Solar Type PreContact W UMa Binary System V1001 Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samec, Ronald George; Koenke, Sam S.; Faulkner, Danny R.

    2015-08-01

    A new classification of eclipsing binary has emerged, Pre Contact WUMa Binaries (PCWB’s, Samec et al. 2012). These solar-type systems are usually detached or semidetached with one or both components under filling their critical Roche lobes. They usually have EA or EB-type light curves (unequal eclipse depths, indicating components with substantially different temperatures). The accepted scenario for these W UMa binaries is that they are undergoing steady but slow angular momentum losses due to magnetic braking as stellar winds blow radially away on stiff bipolar field lines. These binaries are believed to come into stable contact and eventually coalesce into blue straggler type, single, fast rotating A-type stars (Guinan and Bradstreet,1988). High precision 2012 and 2009 light curves are compared for the very short period (~0.43d) Precontact W UMa Binary (PCWB), V1001 Cassiopeia. This is the shortest period PCWB found so far. Its short period, similar to the majority of W UMa’s, in contrast to its distinct Algol-type light curve, make it a very rare and interesting system. Our solutions of light curves separated by some three years give approximately the same physical parameters. However the spots radically change, in temperature, area and position causing a distinctive variation in the shape of the light curves. We conclude that spots are very active on this solar type dwarf system and that it may mimic its larger cousins, the RS CVn binaries.

  7. Developing State and National Evaluation Infrastructures- Guidance for the Challenges and Opportunities of EM&V

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2011-06-24

    Evaluating the impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for state policymakers and program administrators given legislative mandates and regulatory goals and increasing reliance on energy efficiency as a resource. In this paper, we summarize three activities that the authors have conducted that highlight the expanded role of evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V): a study that identified and analyzed challenges in improving and scaling up EM&V activities; a scoping study that identified issues involved in developing a national efficiency EM&V standard; and lessons learned from providing technical assistance on EM&V issues to states that are ramping up energy efficiency programs. The lessons learned are summarized in 13 EM&V issues that policy makers should address in each jurisdiction and which are listed and briefly described. The paper also discusses how improving the effectiveness and reliability of EM&V will require additional capacity building, better access to existing EM&V resources, new methods to address emerging issues and technologies, and perhaps foundational documents and approaches to improving the credibility and cross jurisdictional comparability of efficiency investments. Two of the potential foundational documents discussed are a national EM&V standard or resource guide and regional deemed savings and algorithm databases.

  8. Covariance Structure Model Fit Testing under Missing Data: An Application of the Supplemented EM Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Lee, Taehun

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Supplemented EM algorithm (Meng & Rubin, 1991) to address a chronic problem with the "two-stage" fitting of covariance structure models in the presence of ignorable missing data: the lack of an asymptotically chi-square distributed goodness-of-fit statistic. We show that the Supplemented EM algorithm provides a convenient…

  9. Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

  10. Method for evaluating compatibility of commercial electromagnetic (EM) microsensor tracking systems with surgical and imaging tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; von Jako, Ron

    2008-03-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems have been successfully used for Surgical Navigation in ENT, cranial, and spine applications for several years. Catheter sized micro EM sensors have also been used in tightly controlled cardiac mapping and pulmonary applications. EM systems have the benefit over optical navigation systems of not requiring a line-of-sight between devices. Ferrous metals or conductive materials that are transient within the EM working volume may impact tracking performance. Effective methods for detecting and reporting EM field distortions are generally well known. Distortion compensation can be achieved for objects that have a static spatial relationship to a tracking sensor. New commercially available micro EM tracking systems offer opportunities for expanded image-guided navigation procedures. It is important to know and understand how well these systems perform with different surgical tables and ancillary equipment. By their design and intended use, micro EM sensors will be located at the distal tip of tracked devices and therefore be in closer proximity to the tables. Our goal was to define a simple and portable process that could be used to estimate the EM tracker accuracy, and to vet a large number of popular general surgery and imaging tables that are used in the United States and abroad.

  11. EMS Instructor Training Program. National Standard Curriculum. Instructor Guide. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This guide for teaching a course to prepare emergency medical service (EMS) trainers focuses on the skills necessary to present any of the Department of Transportation (DOT), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) EMS courses. Course topics are as follows: (1) introduction; (2) instructor roles and responsibilities; (3) legal…

  12. A Generalized Fast Frequency Sweep Algorithm for Coupled Circuit-EM Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rockway, J D; Champagne, N J; Sharpe, R M; Fasenfest, B

    2004-01-14

    Frequency domain techniques are popular for analyzing electromagnetics (EM) and coupled circuit-EM problems. These techniques, such as the method of moments (MoM) and the finite element method (FEM), are used to determine the response of the EM portion of the problem at a single frequency. Since only one frequency is solved at a time, it may take a long time to calculate the parameters for wideband devices. In this paper, a fast frequency sweep based on the Asymptotic Wave Expansion (AWE) method is developed and applied to generalized mixed circuit-EM problems. The AWE method, which was originally developed for lumped-load circuit simulations, has recently been shown to be effective at quasi-static and low frequency full-wave simulations. Here it is applied to a full-wave MoM solver, capable of solving for metals, dielectrics, and coupled circuit-EM problems.

  13. Fabrication and EM shielding properties of electrospining PANi/MWCNT/PEO fibrous membrane and its composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Jiang, Xueyong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, Polyaniline-based fibrous membranes were fabricated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by the electrospinning method. And then PANi/PEO/MWCNT fibrous membranes reinforced epoxy based nanocomposite was then fabricated. The morphology and electrical properties of PANi /MWCNT /PEO fibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphologies of the membranes indicate that the electrospining method can fabricate well nano structures fibrous membrane. The EM properties of the composite reinforced with the electrospining fibrous membrane were measured by vector network analyzer. The results show that the permittivity real, image parts and permeability real part of the composite increase by filling with PANI/PEO and PANI/CNT/PEO membrane. The EM shielding and absorb performance is base on the dielectric dissipation. And different membranes made of different materials show different EM parameter, and different EM shielding performance, which can be used to the EM shielding and stealth material design and fabrication.

  14. Phase 2 cost quality management assessment report for the Office of Technology Development (EM-50)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) Head quarters (HQ) Cost Quality Management Assessment (CQMA) evaluated the practices of the Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The CQMA reviewed EM-50 management documents and reported results in the HQ CQMA Phase 1 report (March 1993). In this Assessment Phase, EM-50 practices were determined through interviews with staff members. The interviews were conducted from the end of September through early December 1993. EM-50 management documents (Phase 1) and practices (Phase 2) were compared to the Performance Objectives and Criteria (POCs) contained in the DOE/HQ Cost Quality Management Assessment Handbook. More detail on the CQMA process is provided in section 2. Interviewees are listed in appendix A. Documents reviewed during Phase 2 are listed in appendix B. Section 3 contains detailed observations, discussions, and recommendations. A summary of observations and recommendations is presented.

  15. AVALIAÇÃO DA PRESENÇA DE ENDOSSIMBIONTES Cardinium em DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE ARTRÓPODES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A presença de endossimbiontes do gênero Cardinium em alguns grupos de artrópodes foi recentemente relatada e relacionada com diversas alterações reprodutivas em seus hospedeiros, tais como feminilização de ácaros, partenogênese em parasitóides, incompatibilidade citoplasmática e aumento da fecundida...

  16. Contactless ultrasonic treatment of melts using EM induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarevics, V.; Djambazov, G.; Lebon, G. S. B.; Pericleous, K. A.

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound Treatment (UT) is commonly used in light alloys during solidification to refine microstructure, or disperse immersed particles. A sonotrode probe introduced into the melt generates sound waves that are strong enough to produce cavitation of dissolved gases. The same method cannot be used in high temperature melts, or for highly reactive alloys, due to probe erosion and melt contamination. An alternative, contactless method of generating sound waves is proposed and investigated theoretically in this paper, using electromagnetic (EM) induction. In addition to strong vibration, the EM induction currents generate strong stirring in the melt that aids distribution of the UT effect to large volumes of material. In a typical application, the same induction coil surrounding the crucible used to melt the alloy may be adopted for UT with suitable frequency tuning. Alternatively - or in addition - a top coil may be used. For industrial use, instead of multiple sonotrodes as has been the practice in scaling up, modelling shows that one simply has to alter the coil geometry and current to suit. To reach sinusoidal pressure fluctuations suitable for cavitation it may be necessary to tune the induction coil frequency for resonance, given the crucible dimensions.

  17. The Search for Gravitational Wave EM Counterparts with Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennea, Jamie; Evans, Phil; Swift GW follow-up Team

    2016-04-01

    We present the plan to search for electromagnetic counterparts of Gravitational Waves (GWs) discovered during the current and upcoming runs of the LIGO and Virgo detectors. As we enter a period where the sensitivity of the current generation of GW detectors approaches a high probability of the first detection of a real GW signal, confirmation of the reality of these triggers will be greatly improved if an EM counterpart can be found. Swift’s ability to rapidly respond to high priority target-of-opportunity observations, it’s multi-wavelength capabilities and low overhead observing make it a seemingly ideal follow-up facility. However comparing the size of the expected GW error regions with the fields of view of the Swift XRT and UVOT telescopes, we find that covering the large GW error regions would require a unreasonably large number of pointings. We present our method of meeting this challenge, by both reducing the problem using Galaxy targeting, and by operating Swift in an entirely new way in order to cover the still large number of fields needed to chase down the EM counterpart before it disappears.

  18. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  19. A Strategy for Collecting and Analyzing Multiple Electromagnetic (EM) Data Sets for Pre- Earthquake Signal Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleier, T. E.; Cutler, D.; Dunson, C.; Bortnik, D.; Calais, D.; Dautermann, T.; Maniscalco, M.

    2006-12-01

    There have been a number of reports of interesting electromagnetic (EM) signals detected prior to large earthquakes, but the subsequent analyses have been hampered by insufficient instrumentation to cover large geographical areas, and enough data history to allow statistical analyses of potential "earthquake signatures". The EM data analysis requires that several basic questions be addressed: "What are the "normal" background signatures (both natural and man-made) for each instrument during non-earthquake days?" and "What are the statistically "unique" signatures associated with large earthquakes?" Both ground and space sensors are subjected to a wide variety of non-earthquake EM noise (geomagnetic micropulsations, SRS, Schumann Resonance and man-made EM noise). We first show the top-level strategy developed by QuakeFinder and our partners to collect large volumes of satellite EM data (DEMETER and QuakeSat), and ground EM data (from QuakeFinder's CalMagNet and Berkeley's magnetometer network, and total electron content (TEC) data from both US and Japanese GPS networks). We show a wide variety of algorithms used to identify and characterize natural and man-made EM noise, and then compare the information from multiple instrument platforms and algorithms to help discriminate between "normal" EM noise sources and potentially "earthquake-generated" EM noise. This data collection, algorithm generation, and analysis processes are evolving from a simple "post quake" analysis, to a daily ingest, data fusion, and strategy refinement at our QuakeFinder Data Center. We also recognize that there may never be enough instrumentation located at the right place and at the right time, so we also include the strategy to use multiple, portable instruments to collect and measure potential post-quake EM signals near the epicenter area.

  20. Volatiles in gases and melt inclusions erupted during the 2008-9 Halema`uma`u eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, G. M.; Sides, I.; Martin, R.; Mead, I.; Roberts, T. J.; Jones, R.; Tsanev, V. I.; Herd, R.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.; Werner, C. A.; Swanson, D.; Allard, P.; Oppenheimer, C.; Edmonds, M.

    2009-12-01

    Parental magmas ascending beneath Kilauea Volcano degas volatile species in the order of their solubility, with deep degassing (up to a few tens of kilometres depth) dominated by carbon dioxide and shallow degassing (less than 1 km depth), by water and sulphur gases. The 2008-9 Halema`uma`u eruption provides a unique opportunity to measure the composition of primary, unfractionated volcanic gas as part of a young and highly concentrated plume, using new miniature gas sensors. The eruption also offers a chance to test models of volatile fractionation and degassing at Kilauea that were originally proposed a quarter century ago and, in doing so, extend our understanding of magma and degassing pathways at this long-lived and well-studied volcano. In April 2009, the composition of volcanic gas was measured by non-dispersive infra-red spectrometers, electrochemical sensors and FTIR spectroscopy on the Halema`uma`u crater rim. CO2 concentration was measured by two 21 cm-pathlength miniature NDIR spectrometers, deployed side by side. SO2, H2S and CO concentrations were measured simultaneously by an array of electrochemical sensors adjacent to the CO2 sensors. Sampling rates of ~1 Hz were achieved on all sensors. The data sets were cross-correlated with one another and gas ratios derived for the summit gas plume. Open-path active source FTIR measurements carried out close to the sensors yielded independent ratios between the major volatile species. Tephra erupted from the new Halema`uma`u vent in September 2008 was sampled, and olivine-hosted melt inclusions were isolated and exposed for analysis by electron microprobe and SIMS for major elements and volatile species. We present S, Cl, F, H2O and CO2 concentrations in melt inclusions and matrix glasses, as well as major and trace element data, in order to establish degassing and melt evolution trends. We compare the data to those collected previously for East Rift eruptions, for the Summit plume during rift eruptions, for previous Summit eruptions and for other historical eruptions of Kilauea Volcano to assess whether relative abundances of volatile species can elucidate pre-eruptive magma dynamics, and whether the volatile content of parental magmas has an influence on eruptive style for this volcano. Preliminary results indicate that the 2008 Summit eruption tephra has a relatively low pre-eruptive H2O concentration compared to tephra produced during earlier Summit eruptions, which might indicate magma chamber convection, a difference in parental magma composition, or magma mixing.

  1. The EM SSAB Annual Work Plan Process: Focusing Board Efforts and Resources - 13667

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Ralph

    2013-07-01

    One of the most daunting tasks for any new member of a local board of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is to try to understand the scope of the clean-up activities going on at the site. In most cases, there are at least two or three major cleanup activities in progress as well as monitoring of past projects. When planning for future projects is added to the mix, the list of projects can be long. With the clean-up activities involving all major environmental media - air, water, soils, and groundwater, new EM SSAB members can find themselves totally overwhelmed and ineffective. Helping new members get over this initial hurdle is a major objective of EM and all local boards of the EM SSAB. Even as members start to understand the size and scope of the projects at a site, they can still be frustrated at the length of time it takes to see results and get projects completed. Many project and clean-up timelines for most of the sites go beyond 10 years, so it's not unusual for an EM SSAB member to see the completion of only 1 or 2 projects over the course of their 6-year term on the board. This paper explores the annual work planning process of the EM SSAB local boards, one tool that can be used to educate EM SSAB members into seeing the broader picture for the site. EM SSAB local work plans divide the site into projects focused on a specific environmental issue or media such as groundwater and/or waste disposal options. Projects are further broken down into smaller segments by highlighting major milestones. Using these metrics, local boards of the EM SSAB can start to quantify the effectiveness of the project in achieving the ultimate goal of site clean-up. These metrics can also trigger board advice and recommendations for EM. At the beginning of each fiscal year, the EM SSAB work plan provides a road map with quantifiable checkpoints for activities throughout the year. When the work plans are integrated with site-specific, enforceable regulatory milestones, they can provide a comprehensive work plan for not only the board, but also regulators, site contractors, and DOE. Because the work plans are reviewed and approved by DOE, they carry some weight in holding local boards of the EM SSAB accountable. This structure provides the basis for local boards to achieve their primary function, to provide DOE with information, advice, and recommendations concerning issues affecting the EM program at the site. (authors)

  2. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observación de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un pequeño progreso en la proporción de respuestas aceptables científicamente cuando se cotejó el octavo grado de la enseñanza primaria con el quinto, y el último año de la enseñanza secundaria con el primero, se observó un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relación a la mayoría de los temas explorados, que continuó hasta los últimos años de la educación básica. Una comparación con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação sobre a compreensão de conceitos astronômicos básicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Um teste com 20 questões de múltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concepções mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concepções alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos horários; as estações do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimensões e distâncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observação da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na proporção de respostas cientificamente aceitáveis ao se cotejar a oitava série do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira série do Ensino Médio com a primeira, houve o predomínio de concepções alternativas em relação à maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram até o último ano da Educação Básica. A comparação com dados encontrados em investigações realizadas em outros contextos socioculturais revelaram, em muitos aspectos, noções e dificuldades similares manifestadas pelos estudantes.

  3. Cimetidine synergizes with Praziquantel to enhance the immune response of HBV DNA vaccine via activating cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoping; Geng, Shuang; Liu, Hu; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Yuqin; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have reported that either CIM or PZQ, 2 clinical drugs, could be used to develop as adjuvants on HBV DNA vaccine to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. Here, we demonstrate that combinations of CIM and PZQ as adjuvants for a HBV DNA vaccine, could induce much stronger antigen specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses compared either with CIM or PZQ alone. The synergistic effects of CIM plus PZQ to HBV DNA vaccine were observed on a higher IgG2a/IgG1 ratio, an increase of HBsAg-specific CD4(+) T cells capable of producing IFN-? or IL-17A and a robust IFN-?-, IL-17A-, or TNF-?-producing CD8(+) T cells to HBsAg. Most importantly, the antigen-specific CTL response was also elevated significantly, which is critical for the eradication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected cells. Using an HBsAg transgenic mouse model, the expression of HBsAg in the hepatic cells was also significantly reduced after immunized with pCD-S 2 in the presence of 0.5% CIM and 0.25% PZQ. Further investigations demonstrated that the synergistic effects of combination of CIM and PZQ were dependent on enhanced cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, which was correlated with impaired activities of regulatory T cells. Therefore, combinations of CIM and PZQ have great potential to be used as effective adjuvants on DNA-based vaccinations for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. PMID:24643207

  4. Schistosoma haematobium infection levels determine the effect of praziquantel treatment on anti-schistosome and anti-mite antibodies

    PubMed Central

    RUJENI, N; NAUSCH, N; MIDZI, N; MDULUZA, T; TAYLOR, D W; MUTAPI, F

    2012-01-01

    Field studies show an association between schistosome infection and atopy, but the effects of anti-helminthic treatment on this association have not yet been investigated in human populations with different schistosome endemicity levels. This study aimed to compare the effects of anti-helminthic treatment on responses directed against the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Derp1) and Schistosoma haematobium in Zimbabwean populations living in high and low schistosome infection areas. Derp1- and schistosome-specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies were quantified by ELISA before and 6 weeks after anti-helminthic treatment. Following treatment, there were changes in the immune responses, which varied with place of residence. After allowing for the effects of sex, age and baseline infection intensity, there was no significant treatment effect on the change in anti-schistosome IgE and IgG4 in the high infection area. However, the anti-schistosome IgE/IgG4 ratio increased significantly, while anti-Derp1 IgE responses decreased as a result of treatment. In the low infection area, treatment resulted in a significant increase in anti-worm IgE levels, but there was no significant treatment effect on anti-schistosome or anti-Derp1 IgE/IgG4 ratios. Thus, the study shows that the level of schistosome endemicity affects the host responses to schistosome and mite antigens following anti-helminthic treatment. PMID:22429049

  5. Age-acquired resistance and predisposition to reinfection with Schistosoma haematobium after treatment with praziquantel in Mali.

    PubMed

    Etard, J F; Audibert, M; Dabo, A

    1995-06-01

    The effect of age, previous intensity of infection, and exposure on reinfection with Schistosoma haematobium after treatment was studied in a cohort of 468 subjects six years of age and over living in an irrigation scheme area in Mali. Prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection were measured each year between 1989 and 1991, but the reinfection study period was restricted to the last year of the follow-up. Observations were made at the principal water contact sites where the number of Bulinus truncatus shedding furcocercous cercariae was recorded. A cumulative index of exposure taking into account time, duration and type of contact, and malacologic data was calculated for each subject. Univariate analysis showed that the reinfection risk decreased with age and increased with exposure and pretreatment intensity. These results were confirmed by fitting a logistic model that showed that this risk was seven times lower among those 15 years of age and older than among the 6-14-year-old children, while linear trends with exposure to infection and pretreatment intensity were significant. This study supports the concept of an age-acquired resistance to reinfection and is in favor of a predisposition to infection that raises the question of a genetic factor controlling susceptibility/resistance to S. haematobium infection. PMID:7611564

  6. Main error factors, affecting inversion of EM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, M. A.; Magomedov, M.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Inversions of EM data are complicated by a number of factors that need to be taken into account. These factors might contribute by tens of percents in data values, concealing responses from target objects, which usually contribute at the level of few percents only. We developed the exact analytical solutions of the EM wave equations that properly incorporate the contributions of the following effects: 1) A finite source size effect, where conventional dipole (zero-size) approximation brings 10-40% error compare to a real size source, needed to provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio. 2) Complex topography. A three-parametrical approach allows to keep the data misfits in 0.5% corridor while topography effect might be up to 40%. 3) Grounding shadow effect, caused by return ground currents, when Tx-line vicinity is horizontally non-uniform. By keeping survey setup within some reasonable geometrical ratios, the shadow effect comes to just one frequency-independent coefficient, which can be excluded from processing by using logarithmical derivatives. 4) Layer's wide spectral range effect. This brings to multi-layer spectral overlapping, so each frequency is affected by many layers; that requires wide spectral range processing, making the typical 'few-frequency data acquisition' non-reliable. 5) Horizontal sensitivity effect. The typical view at the target signal, reflected from a Tx-Rx mid-point is valid only for a ray approximation, reliable in a far-field zone. Unlike this, the real EM surveys usually work in near-field zone. Thus Tx-Rx mid-point does not represent the layer, so a sensitivity distribution function must be computed for each layer for the following 3D-unification process. 6) Wide range Rx-directions from mid-line Tx. Survey terrain often prevents placing Rx perpendicular to Tx-line, and even small deviations without proper corrections cause a significant inaccuracy. A radical simplification of the effect's description becomes possible after applying a special Angular Theorem. 7) Apparent conductivity spectral splitting factor. For some of the inversion approaches an averaged Earth's conductivity σA(ω) is the first step for the inversion to stratified Earth. The related spectral response from the loop-source splits such σA onto two branches: σA(ωHigh) and σA(ωLow), similar to early and late resistivities in time domain processing. 8) Calibration factor. A manufacturer-based internal calibration often leads to many percents of non-controllable systematic error at low and high frequency ends, as well as temperature changes. A special approach allows an external pre-survey calibration to achieve the required accuracy.

  7. THE WHITE DWARF IN EM CYGNI: BEYOND THE VEIL

    SciTech Connect

    Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M.; Barrett, Paul E.; Linnell, Albert P. E-mail: edward.sion@villanova.edu E-mail: linnell@astro.washington.edu

    2009-07-10

    We present a spectral analysis of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of the eclipsing double-line spectroscopic binary EM Cygni (EM Cyg), a Z Cam DN system. The FUSE spectrum, obtained in quiescence, consists of four individual exposures (orbits): two exposures, at orbital phases {phi} {approx} 0.65 and {phi} {approx} 0.90, have a lower flux; and two exposures, at orbital phases {phi} = 0.15 and 0.45, have a relatively higher flux. The change of flux level as a function of the orbital phase is consistent with the stream material (flowing over and below the disk from the hot spot region to smaller radii) partially masking the white dwarf. We carry out a spectral analysis of the FUSE data, obtained at phase 0.45 (when the flux is maximal), using synthetic spectra generated with the codes TLUSTY and SYNSPEC. Using a single white dwarf spectral component, we obtain a white dwarf temperature of 40, 000 K {+-} 1000 K, rotating at 100 km s{sup -1}. The white dwarf, or conceivably, the material overflowing the disk rim, shows suprasolar abundances of silicon, sulphur, and possibly nitrogen. Using a white dwarf+disk composite model, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature could be even as high as 50,000 K, contributing more than 90% of the FUV flux, and the disk contributing less than 10% must have a mass accretion rate reaching 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The single white dwarf model fits the absorption lines better than the white dwarf+disk model, but the white dwarf+disk model fits better the continuum in the shorter wavelengths. In both cases, however, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature is much higher than previously estimated. We emphasize the importance of modeling the spectra of EM Cyg around phase {phi} < 0.5, when the white dwarf and disk are facing the observer, and we suggest that the discrepancy between the present analysis and previous spectral analysis might be due to the occulting effect of the stream veiling the white dwarf and disk.

  8. Linear array implementation of the EM algorithm for PET image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, K.; Patnaik, L.M.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1995-08-01

    The PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm has several attractive advantages over the conventional convolution back projection algorithms. However, the PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm is computationally burdensome for today`s single processor systems. In addition, a large memory is required for the storage of the image, projection data, and the probability matrix. Since the computations are easily divided into tasks executable in parallel, multiprocessor configurations are the ideal choice for fast execution of the EM algorithms. In tis study, the authors attempt to overcome these two problems by parallelizing the EM algorithm on a multiprocessor systems. The parallel EM algorithm on a linear array topology using the commercially available fast floating point digital signal processor (DSP) chips as the processing elements (PE`s) has been implemented. The performance of the EM algorithm on a 386/387 machine, IBM 6000 RISC workstation, and on the linear array system is discussed and compared. The results show that the computational speed performance of a linear array using 8 DSP chips as PE`s executing the EM image reconstruction algorithm is about 15.5 times better than that of the IBM 6000 RISC workstation. The novelty of the scheme is its simplicity. The linear array topology is expandable with a larger number of PE`s. The architecture is not dependant on the DSP chip chosen, and the substitution of the latest DSP chip is straightforward and could yield better speed performance.

  9. DOE-EM privatization and the 2006 Plan: Principles for procurement policies and risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Jones, D.W.; Duemmer, C.L.

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Remediation and Waste Management (EM) has recently set in place programs to restructure the strategic planning mechanism that will drive its clean-up schedule, The 2006 Plan, and to create a new set of business relationships with private contractors that will reduce costs--privatization. Taken together, the 2006 Plan and privatization will challenge EM to create new business practices to recast its risk management policies to support these initiatives while ensuring that its responsibilities toward the environment, human health, and worker safety (ES and H) are maintained. This paper argues that the 2006 Plan has transformed EM`s traditional, bottoms-up approach based on technical dictates to a top-down approach based on management goals--a transformation from an engineering problem to an economic problem. The 2006 Plan evolved from EM`s Ten-Year Plan, and seeks to convert the largely open-ended planning approach previously undertaken by EM to a plan bounded by time and dollars. The plan emphasizes making tradeoffs and choosing activities that deliver the most clean-up for the dollar. It also recognizes that each major player--stakeholders, DOE, OMB and Congress--has distinct interests that must be resolved if the process is to succeed. This, in turn, has created the need for a corresponding transformation in risk management practices from compliance-driven to benefit/cost-driven.

  10. Variation and covariation of seed weight and its components in wheat following irradiation, EMS, and hybridization.

    PubMed

    Khadr, F H

    1970-01-01

    Seeds from two hexaploid wheat varieties, 'Giza 150' and 'Sonora 64', and the F2 seeds of their hybrid were given two mutagenic treatments, gamma irradiation and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), to study the type of variation and covariation in seed weight, width, and length induced by irradiation, EMS, and hybridization. Measurements of seed weight and its components were taken on 30 replicated lines derived from each treated and non-treated material.Both irradiation and EMS produced significant variability in seed weight and its components in the pure genetic background. The hybrid genetic background somewhat depressed the expression of irradiation-induced variability. The variations resulting from EMS and hybridization were to a great extent independent and cumulative.Neither EMS nor irradiation caused any significant shift in the means of seed weight, width, and length. The positive association between inheritance of width and length in irradiation-derived materials did not increase the mean seed weight compared with the control.The magnitude of the genetic correlations in irradiation varieties was double that obtained from hybrid-or EMS-derived materials. It is suggested that EMS mainly produced mutations of genes and/or minute chromosomal aberrations, whereas the genetic variation produced by gamma irradiation was accompanied by the loss and/or gain of large segments of the chromosomes. PMID:24435849

  11. BVR{sub c}I{sub c} OBSERVATIONS AND ANALYSES OF THE DWARF DETACHED BINARY V1043 CASSIOPEIA AND A COMMENT ON PRECONTACT W UMa'S

    SciTech Connect

    Samec, R. G.; Smith, P. M.; Chamberlain, H.; Faulkner, D. R.; Van Hamme, W.

    2013-01-01

    Complete Bessel BVR{sub c}I{sub c} light curves of V1043 Cassiopeia [2MASS J00371195+5301324, Mis V1292, USNO-A2.0 1425-00875743, {alpha}(2000) = 00{sup h}37{sup m}11.{sup s}95, {delta}(2000) = +53 Degree-Sign 01'32.''5] are analyzed. The system is a member of the small group of pre-contact W UMa binaries (PCWBs). Its light curve has the appearance of an Algol (EA) light curve, however it is made up of dwarf solar type components in a detached mode with a period of only 0.6616 days. The analysis includes a period study, an improved ephemeris, a mass ratio search, and a simultaneous BVR{sub c}I{sub c} Wilson-Devinney solution. We document about 20 other PCWBs given in the literature. Several have RS CVn-like properties.

  12. Surface-Constrained 3D Reconstruction in Cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Andrew C; Tagare, Hemant; Sigworth, Fred J

    2011-01-01

    Random spherically-constrained (RSC) reconstruction is a new form of single particle reconstruction (SPR) using cryo-EM images of membrane proteins embedded in spherical lipid vesicles to generate a 3D protein structure. The method has many advantages over conventional SPR, including a more native environment for protein particles and an initial estimate of the particle's angular orientation. These advances allow us to determine structures of membrane proteins such as ion channels and derive more reliable structure estimates. We present an algorithm that relates conventional SPR to the RSC model, and generally, to projection images of particles embedded with an axis parallel to the local normal of a general 2D manifold. We illustrate the performance of this algorithm in the spherical system using synthetic data. PMID:24477184

  13. EM Properties of Magnetic Minerals at RADAR Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillman, D. E.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous missions to Mars have revealed that Mars surface is magnetic at DC frequency. Does this highly magnetic surface layer attenuate RADAR energy as it does in certain locations on Earth? It has been suggested that the active magnetic mineral on Mars is titanomaghemite and/or titanomagnetite. When titanium is incorporated into a maghemite or magnetite crystal, the Curie temperature can be significantly reduced. Mars has a wide range of daily temperature fluctuations (303K - 143K), which could allow for daily passes through the Curie temperature. Hence, the global dust layer on Mars could experience widely varying magnetic properties as a function of temperature, more specifically being ferromagnetic at night and paramagnetic during the day. Measurements of EM properties of magnetic minerals were made versus frequency and temperature (300K- 180K). Magnetic minerals and Martian analog samples were gathered from a number of different locations on Earth.

  14. Updated bathymetric survey of Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlington, R. A.; Wilson, W. D.; Johns, W. E.; Nelson, C.

    High-resolution bathymetric data obtained in July 1996 during a survey of the Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano north of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles revealed changes in the structure of the volcanic edifice compared to previously available surveys. The volcano's summit, at 178 m below sea level, was found to be approximately 18 m farther from the surface than was reported by Bouysse et al. (1988) and others. No dome was observed. Instead, an open crater, surrounded by walls that dropped significantly in elevation from one side to the opposite, suggest that eruptions, earthquakes, rockfalls or explosions may have altered the structure since the last detailed survey. The deepest contour of the volcano's crater was found 106 m below the summit.

  15. DOE-EM'S In-Situ Decommissioning Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Negin, C.A.; Urland, C.S.; Szilagyi, A.P.

    2008-07-01

    This paper addressed the current status of decommissioning projects within the Department of Energy (DOE) that have an end state of permanent entombment, referred to as in-situ decommissioning (ISD). The substance of a Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) review of ISD and the development of a strategy are summarized. The strategy first recognizes ISD as a viable decommissioning end state; secondly addresses the integration of this approach within the external and internal regulatory regimes; subsequently identifies tools that need developing; and finally presents guidance for implementation. The overall conclusion is that ISD is a viable mode of decommissioning that can be conducted within the existing structure of rules and regulations. (author)

  16. Suspended-Patch Antenna With Inverted, EM-Coupled Feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2004-01-01

    An improved suspended-patch antenna has been designed to operate at a frequency of about 23 GHz with linear polarization and to be one of four identical antennas in a rectangular array. The antenna includes a parasitic patch on top of a suspended dielectric superstrate, an active patch on top of a suspended dielectric substrate, a microstrip on the bottom of the dielectric substrate, and a ground plane. The microstrip, the ground plane, the airgap between them, and the dielectric substrate together constitute a transmission line that has an impedance of 50 Ohm and is electromagnetically (EM) coupled to the active patch. The parasitic patch is, in turn, excited by the active patch. The microstrip feed is characterized as inverted because the microstrip is on the bottom of the substrate, whereas microstrips are usually placed on the tops of dielectric substrates

  17. Detection of karst structures using airborne EM and VLF

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.P. Nyquist, J.E.; Carpenter, P.J.

    1994-12-31

    Through the combined use of multi-frequency helicopter electromagnetic and VLF data, it is possible to detect and delineate a wide variety of karst structures and possibly to assess their interconnectedness. Multi-frequency EM Can detect karst features if some element of the structure is conductive. This conductive aspect may derive from thick, moist soils in the depression commonly associated with a doline, from conductive fluids in the cavity, or from conductive sediments in the cavity if these occupy a significant portion of it. Multiple loop configurations may also increase the likelihood of detecting karst features. Preliminary evidence indicates total field VLF measurements may be able to detect interconnected karst pathways, so long as the pathways are water or sediment filled. Neither technique can effectively detect dry, resistive air-filled cavities.

  18. Making connections. Voice and data solutions for EMS.

    PubMed

    Careless, James; Erich, John

    2008-08-01

    Communications used to be so simple-1) grab the radio, 2) push and talk. Now we're besieged by a confusing assortment of technology and terms-wideband, broadband, VoIP, RoIP, ect.- and a constand thrumming imperative to achieve and improve and perfect some mystical state of full interoperability. Frankly, it can all be a bit much. With this supplement, we hope to clarify you options. We examine the importance of broadband for EMS, with its potential for larger data "pipes" between the hospital and the field; advances in the promising technologies of Voice over IP and Radio over IP; and how some systems are improving their interconnectedness and resulting operations. The jargon can be overwhelming, but the ideas are worth understanding. PMID:18814746

  19. EM modeling of RF drive in DTL tank 4

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    2012-06-19

    A 3-D MicroWave Studio model for the RF drive in the LANSCE DTL tank 4 has been built. Both eigensolver and time-domain modeling are used to evaluate maximal fields in the drive module and RF coupling. The LANSCE DTL tank 4 has recently been experiencing RF problems, which may or may not be related to its replaced RF coupler. This situation stimulated a request by Dan Rees to provide EM modeling of the RF drive in the DTL tank 4 (T4). Jim O'Hara provided a CAD model that was imported into the CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and after some modifications became a part of a simplified MWS model of the T4 RF drive. This technical note describes the model and presents simulation results.

  20. Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software

    SciTech Connect

    D.N. Smithe, D. Karipides, P. Stoltz, G. Cheng, H. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference time-domain simulation tool. We highlight thermal benchmarking work with a complex HOM feed-through geometry, done in collaboration with researchers at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, and discuss upcoming design studies with this emerging tool. This work is part of an effort to generalize the VORPAL framework to include generalized PDE capabilities, for wider multi-physics capabilities in the accelerator, vacuum electronics, plasma processing and fusion R&D fields, and we will also discuss user interface and algorithmic upgrades which facilitate this emerging multiphysics capability.