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Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel is the drug of choice for the treatment of all forms of schistosomiasis. This review summarizes the main features of the drug, with special attention being given to those aspects that may be of interest to the practicing physician. After a brief mention of the history, the chemistry, the major available brands and their costs, doses and administration schedules

Donato Cioli; Livia Pica-Mattoccia



In vitro responses of praziquantel-resistant and -susceptible Schistosoma mansoni to praziquantel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance status of five praziquantel-susceptible and five praziquantel-resistant isolates was confirmed by chemotherapy in CD1 mice with 3×200mg\\/kg micronised praziquantel. Micronised praziquantel had higher efficacy than two other praziquantel formulations (prepared without milling). The five resistant isolates were less responsive to praziquantel than the five susceptible isolates (59–74% reduction in worm burden in resistant isolates compared with 92–100% in

You-Sheng Liang; Gerald C Coles; Michael J Doenhoff; Vaughan R Southgate



Bloody Diarrhoea after Praziquantel Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four out of 20 patients with Schistosoma japonicum infection who received praziquantel developed a syndrome of severe abdominal pain followed by bloody diarrhea. Symptoms occurred shortly after completion of the 60 mg per kg course of treatment and were s...

G. L. Watt P. C. Baldovino J. T. Castro M. T. Fernando C. P. Ranoa



Schistosome resistance to praziquantel: Fact or artifact?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel is the current drug of choice for human schistosomiasis. Recent reports from laboratory and field studies concerning reduced praziquantel efficacy against Schistosoma mansoni have generated some controversy. The prevailing question is whether the emergence of strains of schistosome resistant to praziquantel is a fact, or an artifact resulting from erroneous field or laboratory experimentation. In this article, Padraic Fallon,

P. G. Fallon; L. F. Tao; M. M. Ismail; J. L. Bennett



21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications ...contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg) praziquantel. (2) 11.5 or 23 mg...



Praziquantel: An urgent and exciting challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthelmintic drug praziquantel has proved useful in the treatment of schistosomiasis. The precise mechanism by which praziquantel kills the parsites has yet to be elucidated. Here, John Kusel and colleagues review the current theories on praziquantel action and suggest future avenues for research, which becomes urgent in the light of some reports of drug resistance.

C. A. Redman; A. Robertson; P. G. Fallon; J. Modha; J. R. Kusel; M. J. Doenhoff; R. J. Martin




Microsoft Academic Search

Nas últimas décadas, verificou-se uma mudança no comportamento do consumidor no sentido de adotar uma postura mais consciente em relação aos produtos que adquire. No setor alimentício, essa evolução é nítida, em função da busca por uma maior qualidade de vida, agregando à dieta questões de saúde, incluindo produtos com menor conteúdo de gorduras e calorias, rico em fibras, pobre

Joao Guilherme de Camargo Ferraz Machado; Timoteo Ramos Queiroz; Andrea Rossi Scalco



21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Moxidectin and praziquantel gel. 520.1453 Section 520...DRUGS § 520.1453 Moxidectin and praziquantel gel. (a) Specifications ...moxidectin and 125 mg (12.5 percent) praziquantel. (b) Sponsor . See No....



21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1200 Section 520...1200 Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications ...fenbendazole, and 57 milligrams (mg) praziquantel; or (2) 27 µg ivermectin,...



21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1200 Section 520...1200 Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications ...fenbendazole, and 57 milligrams (mg) praziquantel; or (2) 27 µg ivermectin,...



21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1199 Section 520...1199 Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications pyrantel pamoate, and 28.5 mg praziquantel; (2) 68 mcg ivermectin, 57...



Therapeutic effect of praziquantel against Taeniasis asiatica.  


Eight Japanese adult patients infected with Taenia asiatica were treated with a single 600 mg dose of praziquantel. The patients' body weights ranged from 47 to 87 kg (mean 67.1±12.7 kg). All patients expelled the strobila after taking praziquantel, and all of them were free from proglottids the day after praziquantel administration, hence all patients were considered to be cured. No side effects due to praziquantel were noted. Although the number of patients is small, our results indicate that praziquantel is a drug of choice for the treatment of taeniasis asiatica and that a single dose of 7-13 mg/kg (9.3±1.9 mg/kg) is effective. PMID:23618773

Ohnishi, Kenji; Sakamoto, Naoya; Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi



Realce de Bordas em Imagens Digitais: Uma Abordagem por Números Fuzzy  

Microsoft Academic Search

O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma nova abordagem para a extração de bordas em imagens em tons de cinza. A abordagem proposta é baseada na teoria de números fuzzy. Os números fuzzy são apropriados para lidar com incertezas, uma vez que quantificam matematica- mente termos lingüísticos do tipo \\

Inês Ap; Gasparotto Boaventura; Adilson Gonzaga


MCR synthesis of praziquantel derivatives.  


Schistosomiasis, a high volume neglected tropical disease affecting more than 200 million people worldwide, can only be effectively treated by the tetrahydroisoquinoline drug praziquantel (PZQ). Herein, we describe an efficient approach to access PZQ derivatives by the Ugi 4-component reaction followed by the Pictet-Spengler reaction in a two-step, one-pot procedure. 30 novel PZQ derivatives are described based on the Ugi 4-component reaction and an X-ray structure of a novel derivative revealing different conformation compared with PZQ is discussed. Several analogues comparable in activity to the drug PZQ have been identified based on an in vitro Schistosoma mansoni worm viability assay. PMID:22151001

Liu, Haixia; William, Samia; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Botros, Sanaa; Dömling, Alexander



Results of toxicological studies on praziquantel.  


Praziquantel (2-cyclohexylcarbonyl-1,2,3,6,7, 11b-hexahydro-4H-pyrazino[2,1-a]isoquinolin-4-one, EMBAY 8440, Biltricide) is an anthelminthic drug with activity against all species of schistosomes pathogenic to man and a wide range of cestodes, including the cysticerci of Taenia solium in human tissues and organs, also the CNS. Praziquantel does not reveal any undesired pharmacodynamic effects. After oral administration praziquantel is quantitatively and rapidly absorbed, metabolized and excreted as a variety of metabolites predominantly via the kidneys. The acute toxicity in rats, mice, rabbits and dogs is very low. Rats tolerated by oral administration doses of up to 1000 mg/kg repeated daily for four weeks, and dogs up to 180 mg/kg for 13 weeks without any organ damage. Praziquantel did not disturb reproduction in rats (up to F2-generation), nor did it reveal teratogenic effects in mice, rats and rabbits. In extensive mutagenicity trials performed by different laboratories worldwide, in a variety of test systems, no induction of point mutations, gene conversion, DNA-repair, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), or X-linked recessive lethals was detected. Besides, Salmonella tests with urines of praziquantel treated mice, rats, healthy and Schistosoma-infected persons gave no indication of a mutagenic effect. In different in vivo mammalian assays praziquantel not mutagenic either. Low toxicity of praziquantel was not mutagenic either. Low toxicity of praziquantel was demonstrated also in the combined chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity tests which were performed in rats and Syrian hamsters. In none of these species praziquantel exerted a carcinogenic action, and both doses were tolerated. PMID:6542381

Frohberg, H



Determination of ED 50 values for praziquantel in praziquantel-resistant and -susceptible Schistosoma mansoni isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dose of praziquantel required to kill 50% of adult worms in vivo (i.e. the ED50) was estimated for nine different isolates of Schistosoma mansoni in infected mice. Four of the isolates were selected because they had not knowingly been in contact with the drug (i.e. they were putatively praziquantel-susceptible). Five putatively praziquantel-resistant isolates were chosen because they had been

Donato Cioli; Sanaa S Botros; Katherine Wheatcroft-Francklow; Amadou Mbaye; Vaughan Southgate; Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté; Livia Pica-Mattoccia; Anna Rita Troiani; Sayed H Seif el-Din; Abdel-Nasser A Sabra; Jan Albin; Dirk Engels; Michael J Doenhoff



Praziquantel in Treatment of Cerebral Schistosomiasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effectiveness of standard single-day praziquantel treatment (60 mg/kg) was prospectively evaluated in nine patients with seizures caused be cerebral Schistosma japonicum infection. Eight patients were cured when discharged from the study, an average o...

G. Watt G. W. Long C. P. Ranoa B. Adapon M. T. Fernando



Praziquantel analogs with activity against juvenile Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six amide and four urea derivatives of praziquantel were synthesized and tested for antischistosomal activity against juvenile and adults stages of Schistosoma mansoni in infected mice. Only one of these had significant activity against adult worms, but, unlike praziquantel, six of these had low to modest activity against juvenile worms. A praziquantel ketone derivative had the best combination of activity

Yuxiang Dong; Jacques Chollet; Mireille Vargas; Nuha R. Mansour; Quentin Bickle; Yazen Alnouti; Jiangeng Huang; Jennifer Keiser; Jonathan L. Vennerstrom



21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Ivermectin and praziquantel paste. 520.1198 Section 520...DRUGS § 520.1198 Ivermectin and praziquantel paste. (a) Specifications ...ivermectin and 0.0775 mg (7.75 percent) praziquantel. (2) 0.0187 mg (1.87...



21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Praziquantel and pyrantel. 520.1871 Section...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1871 Praziquantel and pyrantel. (a) Specifications...tablet contains 13.6 milligrams (mg) praziquantel and 54.3 mg pyrantel base (as...



21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Praziquantel and pyrantel. 520.1871 Section...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1871 Praziquantel and pyrantel. (a) Specifications...tablet contains 18.2 milligrams (mg) praziquantel and 72.6 mg pyrantel (as...



21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel. 520.1445 Section 520.1445...520.1445 Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel. (a) Specifications. milbemycin oxime and 22.8 mg praziquantel; (2) 5.75 mg milbemycin...



21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Ivermectin and praziquantel paste. 520.1198 Section 520...DRUGS § 520.1198 Ivermectin and praziquantel paste. (a) Specifications ...ivermectin and 0.0775 mg (7.75 percent) praziquantel. (2) 0.0187 mg (1.87...



Perfil da automedicação em idosos participantes de grupos da terceira idade de uma cidade do sul do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Introdução: A automedicação tem sido objeto de muitas pesquisas e assume uma importância maior quando é realizada por idosos, pois geralmente representam um grupo polimedicado. Objetivo: Avaliar a automedicação em idosos participantes de grupos da terceira idade localizados em uma cidade do sul do Brasil. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal baseado em entrevistas com idosos participantes de grupos

Edézio Antunes Cascaes; Maria Luiza Falchetti; Dayani Galato


A Paragonimiasis Patient with Allergic Reaction to Praziquantel and Resistance to Triclabendazole: Successful Treatment after Desensitization to Praziquantel  

PubMed Central

Paragonimiasis is an infectious disease caused by trematodes of the genus Paragonimus. This trematode can be treated successfully with praziquantel in more than 90% of the cases. Although praziquantel is generally well tolerated, anaphylactic reactions to this drug have been reported in a few cases. We report here a 46-year-old Korean female with paragonimiasis, presumed to be due to Paragonimus westermani, who displayed an allergic reaction to praziquantel and resistance to triclabendazole treatment. The patient was successfully treated with praziquantel following a rapid desensitization procedure. Desensitization to praziquantel could be considered when no alternative drugs are available.

Kyung, Sun Young; Cho, Yong Kyun; Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Jeong-Woong; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jae-Ik; Sung, Yon Mi



A paragonimiasis patient with allergic reaction to praziquantel and resistance to triclabendazole: successful treatment after desensitization to praziquantel.  


Paragonimiasis is an infectious disease caused by trematodes of the genus Paragonimus. This trematode can be treated successfully with praziquantel in more than 90% of the cases. Although praziquantel is generally well tolerated, anaphylactic reactions to this drug have been reported in a few cases. We report here a 46-year-old Korean female with paragonimiasis, presumed to be due to Paragonimus westermani, who displayed an allergic reaction to praziquantel and resistance to triclabendazole treatment. The patient was successfully treated with praziquantel following a rapid desensitization procedure. Desensitization to praziquantel could be considered when no alternative drugs are available. PMID:21461273

Kyung, Sun Young; Cho, Yong Kyun; Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Jeong-Woong; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jae-Ik; Sung, Yon Mi; Lee, Sang Pyo



Praziquantel binds Schistosoma mansoni adult worm actin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel (PZQ) is widely used for the treatment of schistosomiasis. It induces worm muscle contractions and tegumental disruption, followed by exposure of parasite surface membrane antigens to the host immunological defence mechanisms. It may be assumed that PZQ, like cholesterol, is too hydrophobic to traverse the schistosome outer lipid bilayers by passive diffusion and probably requires binding to a surface

Hatem Tallima; Rashika El Ridi



Treatment of Bilharzial Obstructive Uropathy with Praziquantel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We selected ten Egyptian boys aged nine to 17 years who were infected with Schistosoma haematobium and who had obstructive uropathy (evident on iv pyelography) for treatment with praziquantel. All had hematuria and dysuria of one to two year's duration. Q...

Z. Farid N. A. El-Masry S. Bassily B. Trabolsi C. K. Wallace



Praziquantel – quality, dosages and markers of resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fourth and last meeting of Concerted Action on Praziquantel (PZQ), sponsored by the European Commission 1–3, was held in Rome, Italy from 31 March to 1 April, 2001. Highlights of the meeting were new findings on the quality of generic drugs, an initiative to promote the Africa-wide distribution of PZQ and new results in the search for markers of

Chris C Appleton; Amadou Mbaye



21 CFR 520.1447 - Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1447 Section 520... Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications...oxime, 46 mg lufenuron, and 22.8 mg praziquantel; (2) 5.75 mg milbemycin...



Susceptibility or resistance of praziquantel in human schistosomiasis: a review.  


Since praziquantel was developed in 1970s, it has replaced other antischistosomal drugs to become the only drug of choice for treatment of human schistosomiases, due to high efficacy, excellent tolerability, few and transient side effects, simple administration, and competitive cost. Praziquantel-based chemotherapy has been involved in the global control strategy of the disease and led to the control strategy shifting from disease control to morbidity control, which has greatly reduced the prevalence and intensity of infections. Given that the drug has been widely used for morbidity control in endemic areas for more than three decades, the emergence of resistance of Schistosoma to praziquantel under drug selection pressure has been paid much attention. It is possible to induce resistance of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum to praziquantel in mice under laboratorial conditions, and a reduced susceptibility to praziquantel in the field isolates of S. mansoni has been found in many foci. In addition, there are several schistosomiasis cases caused by Schistosoma haematobium infections in which repeated standard treatment fails to clear the infection. However, in the absence of exact mechanisms of action of praziquantel, the mechanisms of drug resistance in schistosomes remain unclear. The present review mainly demonstrates the evidence of drug resistance in the laboratory and field and the mechanism of praziquantel resistance and proposes some strategies for control of praziquantel resistance in schistosomes. PMID:23052781

Wang, Wei; Wang, Li; Liang, You-Sheng



Praziquantel, a new broad-spectrum antischistosomal agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel, (2-cyclohexylcarbonyl)-1,2,3,6,7,11b-hexa-hydro-2H pyrazino[2,1a]isoquinolin-4-one, belongs to a new series of antischistosomal compounds. The results of a detailed study of the efficacy of praziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni in mice, Mastomys and Syrian hamsters are described.

R. Gönnert; P. Andrews



Are Ca 2+ channels targets of praziquantel action?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel is the current drug of choice for the control of schistosomiasis. It is highly effective against all species of schistosomes and shows minimal adverse effects. Though introduced for the treatment of schistosomiasis more than 20 years ago, the mode of action of praziquantel remains to be elucidated. This review will focus on advances in defining the molecular target of

Robert M. Greenberg



Uma comparação entre técnicas de propagação de erros em astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recentemente Dhillon & Watson (2001) criticaram o procedimento de determinação de erros via simulações de Monte Carlo no caso do imageamento indireto de estrelas, por introduzir ruído nos dados e resultar em erros superestimados. Estes autores propuseram a utilização alternativa do método de Bootstrap como uma técnica superior para a estimativa de erros. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados de um estudo comparativo da performance das técnicas de simulação por Monte Carlo e por Bootstrap para a determinação de erros em duas situações de interesse: (i) ajuste de modelos a espectros observados e (ii) imageamento indireto de discos de acréscimo com técnicas de mapeamento por eclipse. No caso (i), os dados de entrada são espectros de emissão simples de hidrogênio aos quais é adicionado ruído gaussiano de amplitude selecionada. No caso (ii), são produzidas curvas de luz do eclipse de uma distribuição de brilho seguindo a lei TµR-3/4 para discos estacionários cuja taxa de acréscimo varia ao longo do eclipse segundo uma distribuição gaussiana de amplitude selecionada, simulando o ruído. A avaliação da performance é feita com o auxílio de um diagrama do erro relativo na grandeza ajustada, conforme obtido por cada método, versus o erro relativo (ruído/sinal) dos dados de entrada. O estudo mostra que as duas técnicas produzem resultados semelhantes nos dois casos, e que a suposta superioridade do método de Bootstrap não se confirma.

Waelkens, A. H.; Janot Pacheco, E.




Microsoft Academic Search

Este artigo é resultante da utilização de duas ferramentas de gestão aplicadas a definição de problemas prioritários em uma propriedade rural especializada em cria de bovinos de corte. Contudo, este estudo foi composto de levantamento de dados e informações coletados a partir de entrevistas estruturadas aplicadas aos profissionais responsáveis pela produção, mercadologia, sistema de informações, finanças, gestão de pessoas e

Odilon Jose De Oliveira Neto; Jose Jeronimo de Lima; Vagner Antonio Maximo Cesar; Simone Oliveira Rezende; Reginaldo Santana Figueiredo



The efficacy of praziquantel against cestodes in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel (EMBAY 8440, Droncit®) is a new type of acylated isoquinoline-pyrazine. A single oral or subcutaneous dose of the compound is reliably effective against juvenile and adult cestodes in mice and rats.

H. Thomas; R. Gönnert



Comparison of Praziquantel, Amoscanate and Hexachloroparaxylol in Clonorchiasis Sinensis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Efficacy of praziquantel, amoscanate, hexachloroparaxylol (HCX) and a combination of the latter 2 in 98 cases of clonorchiasis are compared in a controlled study. Each drug has certain therapeutic effects, but HCX polyethylene glycol (PEG) droplet pill is...

W. Qinan L. Jibai L. Yuehan C. Rongxin Q. Zhongda



Field evaluation of moxidectin/praziquantel oral gel in horses.  


The safety and efficacy of 2% moxidectin/12.5% praziquantel oral gel administered at a rate of 0.4 mg moxidectin and 2.5 mg praziquantel/kg was studied in client-owned horses under field use conditions. Four hundred horses (300 treated with moxidectin/praziquantel oral gel and 100 treated with vehicle) were enrolled, feces were collected, and eggs were counted. Investigators as well as horse owners were masked to treatment assignment. No adverse reactions to treatment were observed in any horses. Moxidectin/praziquantel gel reduced Anoplocephala spp by more than 99% and provided a significant (P <.05) reduction (> 98%) in the strongyle egg count of treated horses. PMID:15136986

Grubbs, Steven T; Amodie, Debbie; Rulli, Dino; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan; Reinemeyer, Craig; Yazwinski, Tom; Tucker, Chris; Hutchens, Doug; Smith, Larry; Patterson, Deborah



Hypersensitive Reaction to Praziquantel in a Clonorchiasis Patient  

PubMed Central

Praziquantel is the drug of choice for clonorchiasis. Since clonorchiasis is endemic in most river basins, praziquantel has been widely used for 30 years in Korea. A 54-year-old Korean woman suffered from hypersensitive reactions, such as nausea, dyspnea, rash, and urticaria after taking the first dose of praziquantel to treat clonorchiasis. She ingested one dose again and the same symptoms appeared, and she was treated at a clinic with anti-histamines. She tried one more dose with anti-histamines but found the same symptoms. Later, she was found to pass eggs of Clonorchis sinensis and medicated with flubendazole. The hypersensitive reaction to praziquantel is rare but occurs. This is the 5th case report in the world.

Lee, Jung-Min; Lim, Hyun-Sul



Synthesis and SAR studies of praziquantel derivatives with activity against Schistosoma japonicum.  


The synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of praziquantel derivatives with activity against adult Schistosoma japonicum are described. Several of them showed better worm killing activity than praziquantel and could serve as leads for further optimization. PMID:23912271

Wang, Wen-Long; Song, Li-Jun; Chen, Xia; Yin, Xu-Ren; Fan, Wen-Hua; Wang, Gu-Ping; Yu, Chuan-Xin; Feng, Bainian



75 FR 54018 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Praziquantel and Pyrantel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 sizes of praziquantel and pyrantel pamoate tablets used in cats and kittens for the removal of various internal parasites and...DRONTAL (praziquantel and pyrantel pamoate) Tablets used in cats and kittens for the removal of various internal parasites....



In vitro uptake of ¹⁴C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode  

Microsoft Academic Search

¹⁴C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H.

P. Andrews; H. Thomas; H. Weber



Tegumental changes in adult Schistosoma mansoni harboured in mice treated with praziquantel enantiomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel administered to the host causes damage to the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni. In this study, the effects of racemic praziquantel (Pra) and its enantiomers, levo-praziquantel (l-Pra) and dextro-praziquantel (d-Pra) were compared using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mice infected with S. mansoni for 49 days were treated with a single dose of Pra (300 mg\\/kg), l-Pra (150 mg\\/kg) or d-Pra

Xiao Shuhua; Shen Binggui; Jacques Chollet; Marcel Tanner



In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode  

SciTech Connect

/sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.



21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1872 Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets...Tablet No. 1: 22.7 milligrams praziquantel, 22.7 milligrams pyrantel...



Acute toxicity of praziquantel (an anthelmintic) to grass carp and golden shiners  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Praziquantel is an anthelmintic that can be applied to the water to kill tapeworm and trematode parasites in fish. Effective praziquantel treatment rates have been determined but there is little information on the toxicity of this chemical to fish hosts of the parasites. Acute praziquantel toxicit...


Interseccionalidade em uma era de globalização: As implicações da Conferência Mundial contra o Racismo para práticas feministas transnacionais  

Microsoft Academic Search

R R R R Resumo: esumo: esumo: esumo: esumo: Este relatório analisa a interseccionalidade como uma abordagem feminista com significante impacto nos discursos e debates durante o Fórum de ONGs e a Conferência Mundial Contra o Racismo, em Durban, África do Sul. O termo 'interseccionalidade' se refere às articulações entre a discriminação de gênero, a homofobia, o racismo e a




Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni in a community of western Côte d’Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel is efficacious against the adult stages of all human schistosome parasites, and has become the drug of choice for morbidity control of schistosomiasis. There is concern that resistance to praziquantel might develop or already exists, and could be further facilitated through new control initiatives relying on large-scale administration of praziquantel. Therefore, monitoring praziquantel efficacy in different epidemiological settings is

Giovanna Raso; Eliézer K N’Goran; Abale Toty; Anne Luginbühl; Cynthia A Adjoua; Norbert T Tian-Bi; Isaac I Bogoch; Penelope Vounatsou; Marcel Tanner; Jürg Utzinger




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo A busca por metodologias e formas de gestão capazes de garantir uma maior competitividade mundial exige que as organizações criem e implementem alternativas cada vez mais inovadoras. A terceirização como uma prática de gestão, vem suprir uma necessidade de especialização nas organizações. Criada inicialmente para atender as atividades denominadas atividade-meio. A terceirização evoluiu e já está sendo aplicada a

Mário César; Barreto Moraes; Sandra Regina; Bernardes Tratt; Graziela Dias Alperstedt; Sandro dos Santos



Reversal of Hepatic Fibrosis after Praziquantel Therapy of Murine Schistosomiasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reprint examined the effect of parasitologic cure of S. mansoni infection on liver fibrosis in mice. Praziquantel, 250 mg/kg body weight, was administered orally to mice 8 weeks after infection with 50 S. mansoni cercariae. The authors assessed liver...

S. H. Morcos M. T. Khayyal M. M. Mansour S. Saleh E. A. Ishak



Oxamniquine, praziquantel and lovastatin association in the experimental Schistosomiasis mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, Brasil The activity of lovastatin associated with oxamniquine or praziquantel against schistosomiasis mansoni was evaluated in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Forty days after infection, mice were treated with lovastatin, 400 mg\\/kg for five consecutive days by oral route, and on the last day of this sequence with 50 mg\\/kg oxamniquine or

Neusa Araújo; Ana Carolina Alves de Mattos; Ana Karine Sarvel; Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho; Naftale Katz



Praziquantel Affects the Regulatory Myosin Light Chain of Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for schistosomiasis and probably is the only highly effective drug currently available for treating schistosomiasis-infected individuals. The mode of action of PZQ involves increasing the calcium uptake of the parasite, resulting in tegumental damage and death of the parasite. Despite its remarkable function, the target of PZQ has not been identified yet. To

Munirathinam Gnanasekar; Ashok M. Salunkhe; A. Krishna Mallia; Yi Xun He; Ramaswamy Kalyanasundaram



Efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni in northern Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two treatments with praziquantel (PZQ) 40 mg\\/kg, 40 d apart, were given to individuals in a recently established (< 6 years) Schistosoma mansoni focus in the Senegal River Basin (SKB). Efficacy of treatment was evaluated 4 weeks after each treatment. Among 130 individuals who provided stool samples on days 0, 118 and 153 and were treated on days 85 and

Michel Picquet; Jozef Vercruysse; Darren J. Shaw; Mamadou Diop; Abdoulaye Ly



Resistance of Schistosoma mansoni to praziquantel: is there a problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for resistance to praziquantel (PZQ) in Schistosoma mansoni has been sought in parasites taken from treated, but uncured human patients, and in a laboratory isolate of S. mansoni subjected to successive passages under drug pressure. Patients from villages in Egypt and Senegal have yielded isolates that can tolerate higher dosages of PZQ than other ostensible control isolates when passaged

Michael J. Doenhoff; John R. Kusel; Gerald C. Coles; Donato Cioli



21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.903d Febantel-praziquantel...Limitations. Do not use in pregnant animals. Federal law restricts this...considerations. Consider alternative therapy or use with caution in animals with pre-existing liver...



Praziquantel and Fasciola hepatica Infection. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report on 6 patients, 5 adult women and one young boy, in whom praziquantel in a dose of 75 mg/kg body weight given daily in 3 divided doses for 7 consecutive days failed to cure established F. hepatica infection. All 6 patients were referred to the ho...

Z. Farid M. Kamal N. Mansour



Anthelmintic activity of praziquantel on Raillietina tetragona in chickens.  


Praziquantel was tested against mature (17-day-old) and immature (7-day-old) Raillietina tetragona in experimentally infected chickens using single oral doses of 10, 7.5, 5, or 2.5 mg/kg body wt. The compound showed potent anticestodal activity, with 100% efficacy at 10, 7.5, and 5 mg/kg against immature worms and an efficacy of 100% 97.1%, and 95% against mature worms when given at 10, 5, and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively. Residual worms surviving drug treatment had less biomass than the controls. Praziquantel appears to be well tolerated by chickens, and treated birds showed no clinical reactions at any of the doses tested. PMID:2771931

Nurelhuda, I E; Elowni, E E; Hassan, T




Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the genetic basis of the resistance of Schistosoma mansoni to praziquantel (PZQ) and to understand whether the resistance is dominant or recessive trait, a schistosome cross was undertaken between a PZQ-susceptible and a PZQ-resistant isolate using infections of the single-sex cercariae which were identified by a direct W1-specific PCR technique. The resistances of F1 and F2 generation to

You-Sheng Liang; Jian-Rong Dai; Yin-Chang Zhu; Gerald C Coles; Michael J Doenhoff


High-Dose Praziquantel for Neurocysticercosis: Efficacy and Tolerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard therapeutic regimens of praziquantel for neurocysticercosis use daily doses of 50 mg\\/kg for 15–21 days, with prolonged remission being achieved in 60–80% patients. In this prospective study, 100 mg\\/kg daily was used for 10 days in 13 patients aged 32 ± 15 years (mean ± SD) with severe intra-, extraparenchymal or mixed forms of neurocysticercosis. Patients were monitored with

P. R. M. Bittencourt; C. M. Gracia; A. M. Gorz; S. Mazer; T. V. Oliveira



A praziquantel-ineffective fascioliasis case successfully treated with triclabendazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human fascioliasis cases in Japan have been reported infrequently and the most appropriate therapy for this disease remains to be determined. This case report describes a patient with the infection unsuccessfully treated with multiple high doses of praziquantel for over 1 year and eventually cured by the administration of triclabendazole in two single doses of 10 mg\\/kg and 12.5 mg\\/kg

Yasunori Ishii; Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama; Yukifumi Nawa



Praziquantel failure in the treatment of Fasciola hepatica  

PubMed Central

A case of human fascioliasis is presented in which the patient remained symptomatic after treatment with praziquantel and other agents but eventually responded to bithionol. The difficulties in finding an efficacious and tolerable drug therapy for this condition are reviewed with reference to the life cycle and pathogenesis of the parasite. It is concluded that while bithionol remains the current drug of choice, triclabendazole may play a dominant role in the near future.

Patrick, David Michael; Isaac-Renton, Judith



Praziquantel for treatment of schistosomiasis in patients with advanced hepatosplenomegaly.  


We evaluated praziquantel for therapy of active Schistosoma mansoni infection in 15 rural Egyptian males with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Criteria for inclusion in this study were two pre-treatment S. mansoni egg counts with a mean of greater than 100 eggs g-1 faeces and an enlarged spleen. Fourteen of 15 patients had hepatomegaly, five had ascites, and six had serum albumin below 3 g dl-1. Schistosoma haematobium infection (less than 10 eggs ml-1 urine) was present in three patients. Praziquantel was administered in a single oral dose of 30 mg kg-1 body weight. Eight of the 15 patients (53%) had mild and transient reactions in the form of fever (usually one day), gastrointestinal symptoms, headache and skin rash. Criteria for parasitological cure were the absence of live eggs in two stool samples and a negative rectal snip biopsy three months after therapy. Ten patients ceased to pass live eggs (cure rate 67%). For the five who were still passing live eggs there was a mean egg reduction of 95%. The three patients with S. haematobium demonstrated parasitological cures. We conclude that praziquantel is an effective and well tolerated drug for treatment of S. mansoni infection in patients with advanced hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, and it is the drug of choice for patients with coexisting S. haematobium infection. PMID:3938936

Bassily, S; Farid, Z; Dunn, M; el-Masry, N A; Stek, M



Elogio do cotidiano: a confiança e a arte da vida social em uma comunidade amazônica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Como antropóloga (em vez de, por exemplo, filósofa)1 meu objetivo é compreender e desvelar as visões de mundo de outras pessoas, em parti- cular as dos povos indígenas da floresta tropical amazônica. A versão local que, por muitos anos, venho tentando entender pertence aos Pia- roa, um povo que vive ao longo de tributários do rio Orinoco, na Vene- zuela.

Joanna Overing



Case report: Schistosoma mansoni infection: failure of standard treatment with praziquantel in a returned traveller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy reliance upon praziquantel for the treatment of schistosomiasis raises concerns over potential development of drug resistance. We describe a British traveller who acquired Schistosoma mansoni infection in East Africa and in whom repeated standard 40 mg\\/kg doses of praziquantel failed to clear the infection despite no opportunity for reinfection.

Stephen D. Lawn; Sebastian B. Lucas; Peter L. Chiodini



Praziquantel efficacy against schistosomiasis mansoni in schoolchildren in north-west Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of praziquantel against schistosomiasis mansoni has been measured in 10–14 years old schoolchildren in a highly endemic area of north-west Ethiopia. The egg reduction rate was 97% and the cure rate was 94%, as assessed by a single Kato smear. No evidence for praziquantel resistance was detected.

Getinet Degu; Getahun Mengistu; Janet Jones



Stability and reproductive fitness of Schistosoma mansoni isolates with decreased sensitivity to praziquantel  

Microsoft Academic Search

These studies are focused on schistosomes derived from human infections not cured by three successive doses of praziquantel that also produced infections in mice that were significantly more difficult to cure than infections with control worms. Half (three of six) of these isolates retained their decreased response to praziquantel after multiple passages through the life-cycle in the absence of therapeutic

S William; A Sabra; F Ramzy; M Mousa; Z Demerdash; J. L Bennett; T. A Day; S Botros



Interpreting low praziquantel cure rates of Schistosoma mansoni infections in Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Selective treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infections in various endemic countries usually present cure rates of >70% when using the standard dose of 40 mg kg?1 body weight of praziquantel. However, unusually low cure rates (18–38%) have been reported from Senegal, raising fears for emergence of resistance (or tolerance)

Anthony Danso-Appiah; Sake J De Vlas



Effectiveness of Praziquantel Bath Treatments against Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Grass Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many states ban the importation of fish infected with the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Treatment with an effective tapeworm parasiticide prior to shipment would allow fish to be imported that might otherwise be rejected. In this study, extended praziquantel bath treatments of infected grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were tested to determine their efficacy against Asian tapeworms. Preliminary praziquantel treatments of

Andrew J. Mitchell




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...


Deneysel Enfekte Beyaz Farelerde Strobilocercus fasciolaris'e Albendazol ve Praziquantel'in Etkisi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to analyze the effects of albendazole and praziquantel on the development and treatment of S. fasciolaris. In order to determine the prophylactic effects on the development of S. fasciolaris, the drugs (albendazole and praziquantel) were given 2 days before the infection and for a period of 30 days. Also, to determine the effects of treatment, both



Queda dos homic?dios em S?o Paulo, Brasil: uma an?lise descritiva  

PubMed Central

Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (?74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (?78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (?79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (?74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social.

Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sergio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sergio



The fate of praziquantel in the organism I. Pharmacokinetics in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The pharmacokinetics of14C-praziquantel were tested in various species.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Intravenously injected praziquantel is rapidly absorbed by the tissues in all species. The sum of unchanged drug and metabolites\\u000a is rapidly eliminated from the intravascular space at a half-life of 3 hours (phase I) and 8 hours (phase II). The elimination\\u000a for praziquantel itself, however, is considerably shorter,i. e. about 1 hour.

K. Steiner; A. Garbe; H. W. Diekmann; H. Nowak



The efficacy of praziquantel (Droncit R) against Raillietina tetragona (Molin, 1958) in domestic fowl.  


The efficacy of different dose rates of Praziquantel (Droncit R) in tablet and liquid (injectable) form against Raillietina tetragona in the domestic fowl was studied. A dose of 10 mg kg-1 of Praziquantel in tablet form and 0.15 ml kg-1 in liquid form was found to be effective against R. tetragona infection irrespective of age, sex and intensity of infestation of the host. Intramuscular (IM) administration of liquid Praziquantel was found to be more effective than subcutaneous (SC) administration. Susceptibility of the parasite to this drug increased with age. PMID:3347985

Rajendran, M; Nadakal, A M



Evidence against rapid emergence of praziquantel resistance in Schistosoma haematobium, Kenya.  

PubMed Central

We examined the long-term efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium, the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis, during a school-based treatment program in the Msambweni area of Coast Province, Kenya, where the disease is highly endemic. Our results, derived from treating 4,031 of 7,641 children from 1984 to 1993, indicate substantial year-to- year variation in drug efficacy. However, the pattern of this variation was not consistent with primary or progressive emergence of praziquantel resistance. Mathematical modeling indicated that, at current treatment rates, praziquantel resistance will likely take 10 or more years to emerge.

King, C. H.; Muchiri, E. M.; Ouma, J. H.



Synthesis of fluorescent derivatives of praziquantel: cell-imaging and interaction with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae.  


Schistosomiasis is one of the most burdensome of the neglected tropical diseases. Praziquantel is a recommended drug for treatment against all forms of schistosomiasis. To investigate the interaction between praziquantel and Schistosoma japonicum cercariae, two praziquantel derivatives (PZQ-2 and PZQ-3) and one praziquantel fluorescent derivative (PZQ-5) have been synthesized and characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and MS spectra. The cytotoxicity of PZQ-2, PZQ-3 and PZQ-5 was measured by performing the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The cell viability for them shows that the three compounds exhibit low cytotoxicity to HeLa cells. Cell imaging experiments demonstrate that PZQ-5 is biocompatible and cell-permeable, which indicates that PZQ-5 is suitable for studying their interaction. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed that PZQ-5 is mainly located at the cercarial tegument, which leads to the death of cercariae with the increase in time. PMID:23925274

Xie, Yunzhi; Li, Yibao; Wu, Yongquan; Liu, Chunhua; Li, Xiaokang; Li, Xun; Fan, Xiaolin



Praziquantel Pharmacokinetics and Side Effects in Schistosoma japonicum-Infected Patients with Liver Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Praziquantel undergoes extensive first-pass hepatic biotransformation, but there is little information on its disposition or toxicity when administered to patients with liver disease. To define the influence of liver disease on the pharmacokinetics of pra...

G. Watt N. J. White L. Padre W. Ritter M. T. Fernando



Evaluation of oral therapy on Mansonial Schistosomiasis using single dose of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits and praziquantel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit mesocarp was compared with praziquantel in mice infected with Sudanese strain of Schistosoma mansoni. Infected mice were given a single dose of 200 mg\\/kg body weight of B. aegyptiaca fruit mesocarp and 200 mg\\/kg b.w. of praziquantel after 6 weeks from the onset of the infection.A significant reduction was observed in EPG (egg count

W. S. Koko; H. S. Abdalla; M. Galal; H. S. Khalid



Chlorpromazine, other amphiphilic cationic drugs and praziquantel: effects on carbohydrate metabolism of Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the amphiphilic cationic drugs chlorpromazine, imipramine, amitriptyline, propranolol and fluoxetine and praziquantel were investigated on glucose uptake and lactate excretion ofSchistosoma mansoni. While praziquantel enhances glucose uptake and lactate excretion at a concentration of 10-7M, all the other drugs exert the same effects at concentrations above 10-5M. Generally, a constant molar ratio of 1:2 is found between

A. Harder; P. Andrews; H. Thomas



[(?(6)-Praziquantel)Cr(CO)3] derivatives with remarkable in vitro anti-schistosomal activity.  


The antischistosomal effect of two [(?(6)-praziquantel)Cr(CO)(3)] derivatives was investigated. The compounds (see figure: Cr?purple, N?blue, O?red) were prepared in a one-step procedure from commercially available praziquantel. Both derivatives show a high in vitro activity against Schistosoma mansoni, a parasitic trematode, and only a minor cytotoxic effect on selected mammalian cell lines. PMID:23296750

Patra, Malay; Ingram, Katrin; Pierroz, Vanessa; Ferrari, Stefano; Spingler, Bernhard; Gasser, Robin B; Keiser, Jennifer; Gasser, Gilles



The fate of praziquantel in the organism III. Metabolism in rat, beagle dog and rhesus monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The radioactive constituents of specimens of serum, urine and faeces of wistar rats, beagle dogs and rhesus monkeys following\\u000a peroral and intravenous administration of praziquantel-14C were analyzed by radio thin layer chromatographic techniques. Corresponding investigations were done with specimens of bile\\u000a and liver tissue of wistar rat. These investigations yielded the following results:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Praziquantel is quantitatively and rapidly absorbed and

H. W. Diekmann; K. U. Buhring



Effect of praziquantel together with artemether on Schistosoma japonicum parasites of different ages in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of combined treatment with praziquantel and artemether against infection with Schistosoma japonicum was tested on infected rabbits, in which 7–to 14-day-old schistosomules and 42-day-old adult schistosomes were simultaneously present. Rabbits were treated orally with praziquantel and artemether using various dosages and schedules. The therapeutic effects were evaluated by estimating the mean total worm burden (TWB) and female worm

Xiao Shuhua; You Jiqing; Mei Jinying; Guo Huifang; Jiao Peiying; Marcel Tanner



The Acute Toxicity of Praziquantel to Grass Carp and Golden Shiners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity and highest nonlethal concentration of praziquantel (LC0) were determined in the laboratory for grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, two cyprinids known to harbor the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with tapeworms. The 24-h and 96-h LC50 values were 55.1 and 49.7 mg\\/L for golden shiners (1.3

Andrew J. Mitchell; Melissa S. Hobbs



A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of praziquantel in plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive, selective and reproducible method based on a reversed-phase chromatography was developed for the determination of praziquantel in human plasma. Praziquantel was separated from the internal standard (diazepam) on a Luna C18 column (250mm × 4.6mm, 5?m particle size), with retention times of 4.8 and 6.2min, respectively. Ultraviolet detection was set at 217nm. The mobile phase consisted of

Warunee Hanpitakpong; Vick Banmairuroi; Benjamas Kamanikom; Anurak Choemung; Kesara Na-Bangchang



The efficacy of mebendazole and praziquantel against Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 50,000Taenia saginata eggs were given orally to bullocks. Ten weeks later, mebendazole or praziquantel was administered in the fodder in single or multiple doses. The animals were slaughtered at intervals after medication when the numbers and viability of cysticerci in various sites were recorded. Single doses of 5 mg\\/kg mebendazole or 10 mg\\/kg praziquantel had little effect on the

Z. Pawlowski; B. Kozakeiwicz; H. Wroblewski



Selective indications for the use of praziquantel in the treatment of brain cysticercosis.  

PubMed Central

The selective use of praziquantel for the treatment of brain cysticercosis in human beings is described, based upon the results of clinical tests conducted during a 2 year period. Forty patients with clinical diagnosis of cysticercosis, confirmed and documented by CT, were treated. They are divided into four groups, representative of the various forms of the disease. The results assessed by clinical evaluation and sequential CT, give a ten point criterion of the indications for praziquantel. Images

Vasconcelos, D; Cruz-Segura, H; Mateos-Gomez, H; Zenteno Alanis, G



Comparison of albendazole, mebendazole and praziquantel chemotherapy of Echinococcus multilocularis in a gerbil model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of albendazole (50 mg\\/kg\\/d), mebendazole (50 mg\\/kg\\/d) and praziquantel (500 mg\\/kg\\/d) against established intraperitoneal infections of Echinococcus multilocularis in gerbils was compared by monitoring parasite weight and making ultrastructural observations on treated and untreated material. Praziquantel was the most active protoscolicidal agent, reducing protoscolex viability to less than 2%, although it did not inhibit cyst growth. Albendazole was

D H Taylor; D L Morris; D Reffin; K S Richards



Human Schistosomiasis Resistance to Praziquantel in China: Should We Be Worried?  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of praziquantel for the treatment of Schistosoma japonicum in humans is reported from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 33 villages in Sichuan Province. Infection prevalence was found to be 5.7% (185 infected of 3,269 tested) in a region where 44–73% prevalence was found 9 years before. Collected miracidia were subjected to an in vitro test of praziquantel susceptibility. An effective concentration of praziquantel associated with 50% of miracidia changing shape was found between 10?8 and 10?7 M and 10?7 and 10?6 M for 10 and 5 minutes of exposure, respectively. After treating infected persons two times with 40-mg/kg doses of praziquantel, only one remained infected. Findings are reported from a 60-household questionnaire on attitudes and behaviors that may be associated with development of drug resistance. The low number of treatment failures and good compliance with treatment despite side effects and repeated annual treatments suggest that, in the near term, praziquantel remains effective in treating human S. japonicum infection in China.

Seto, Edmund Y. W.; Wong, Betty K.; Lu, Ding; Zhong, Bo



Praziquantel has no direct effect on (Na ++K +)-ATPases and (Ca 2+Mg 2+)ATPases of Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic concentrations of praziquantel produce a rapid and intense contraction of the human flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. As an action on ATPases responsible for calcium homeostasis arises as a possible explanation for the molecular mechanism of this effect, we tested here the effect of praziquantel on different preparations from male adult worms that were previously characterized for their content in (Na++K+)-ATPase

Valeria M. N. Cunha; François Noël



Effect of combined treatment with praziquantel and artemether on Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mansoni in experimentally infected animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel and artemether are safe and efficacious antischistosomal drugs that act against different developmental stages of the parasite: praziquantel against adult worms and artemether against schistosomula. A combined treatment has been suggested as a strategy for transmission control. Recent laboratory experiments with rabbits with a mixed infection of Schistosoma japonicum parasites of different ages confirmed the effectiveness of a combination

Jürg Utzinger; Jacques Chollet; You Jiqing; Mei Jinyan; Marcel Tanner; Xiao Shuhua



Transdermal evaporation delivery system of praziquantel for schistosomiasis japonicum chemotherapy.  


A transdermal evaporation delivery system (TEDS) of praziquantel (PZQ) was developed by selecting ethylene glycol monophenyl ether as a nonvolatile component solvent and ethanol as a volatile component solvent to control efficiently the transmission and morbidity of the global schistosomiasis, providing a convenient administration system of PZQ for both humans and domestic animals. The solubility of PZQ in TEDS was more than 400 mg/mL when the ethanol concentration was 50% (w/w) in the solvent mixture at 32 °C, enabling to adapt requirements for the treatment of schistosomiasis. The highest serum drug concentration reached 35.93 µg/mL after transdermal administration of TEDS of PZQ in rabbits, being 6.3-fold higher than that after oral administration at the same dose. The TEDS of PZQ achieved treatment efficacy with the worm reduction of 100% when it was applied in the experimental treatment of Schistosoma japonicum in rabbits. The TEDS of PZQ that provides passive and nonocclusive delivery, having the inexpensive cost, low skin irritation rates, and precise dose of administration, should find application in the transmission control and chemotherapy of global schistosomiasis. PMID:21319162

Wang, Lei; Zheng, Xinsheng; Fang, Yan; Wang, Yi; Duan, Cunzheng; Yao, Baoan



Praziquantel Synergistically Enhances Paclitaxel Efficacy to Inhibit Cancer Cell Growth  

PubMed Central

The major challenges we are facing in cancer therapy with paclitaxel (PTX) are the drug resistance and severe side effects. Massive efforts have been made to overcome these clinical challenges by combining PTX with other drugs. In this study, we reported the first preclinical data that praziquantel (PZQ), an anti-parasite agent, could greatly enhance the anticancer efficacy of PTX in various cancer cell lines, including PTX-resistant cell lines. Based on the combination index value, we demonstrated that PZQ synergistically enhanced PTX-induced cell growth inhibition. The co-treatment of PZQ and PTX also induced significant mitotic arrest and activated the apoptotic cascade. Moreover, PZQ combined with PTX resulted in a more pronounced inhibition of tumor growth compared with either drug alone in a mouse xenograft model. We tried to investigate the possible mechanisms of this synergistic efficacy induced by PZQ and PTX, and we found that the co-treatment of the two drugs could markedly decrease expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), an anti-apoptotic protein. Our data further demonstrated that down-regulation of XIAP was required for the synergistic interaction between PZQ and PTX. Together, this study suggested that the combination of PZQ and PTX may represent a novel and effective anticancer strategy for optimizing PTX therapy.

Wu, Zhen Hua; Lu, Ming-ke; Hu, Long Yu; Li, Xiaotong



Schistosoma mansoni P-glycoprotein levels increase in response to praziquantel exposure and correlate with reduced praziquantel susceptibility  

PubMed Central

One potential physiological target for new antischistosomals is the parasite’s system for excretion of wastes and xenobiotics. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of proteins, is an ATP-dependent efflux pump involved in transport of toxins and xenobiotics from cells. In vertebrates, increased expression of Pgp is associated with multidrug resistance in tumor cells. Pgp may also play a role in drug resistance in helminths. In this report, we examine the relationship between praziquantel (PZQ), the current drug of choice against schistosomiasis, and Pgp expression in Schistosoma mansoni. We show that levels of RNA for SMDR2, a Pgp homolog from S. mansoni, increase transiently in adult male worms following exposure to sublethal concentrations (100 – 500 nM) of PZQ. A corresponding, though delayed, increase in anti-Pgp immunoreactive protein expression occurs in adult males following exposure to PZQ. The level of anti-Pgp immunoreactivity in particular regions of adult worms also increases in response to PZQ. Adult worms from an Egyptian S. mansoni isolate with reduced sensitivity to PZQ express increased levels of SMDR2 RNA and anti-Pgp-immunoreactive protein, perhaps indicating a role for multidrug resistance proteins in development or maintenance of PZQ resistance.

Messerli, Shanta M.; Kasinathan, Ravi S.; Morgan, William; Spranger, Stefani; Greenberg, Robert M.



Activity of tribendimidine and praziquantel combination therapy against the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini in vitro and in vivo.  


Opisthorchiasis, caused by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, a food-borne trematode, is an important public health problem; however, only a single drug, praziquantel is available. We investigated tribendimidine-praziquantel combinations against O. viverrini in vitro and in vivo. The IC50 values of 0.16 ?g/ml and 0.05 ?g/ml were determined for praziquantel and tribendimidine, respectively, against adult O. viverrini in vitro. When O. viverrini was exposed to both drugs simultaneously (using a drug ratio based on the IC50 (1:3.2)) a synergistic effect was calculated (combination index (CI) at the IC50= 0.7). A similar result was observed when drug addition in vitro was spaced by the respective half-lives of the drugs (a CI of 0.78 at the IC50 for tribendimidine followed by praziquantel and a CI of 0.47 at the IC50 for praziquantel followed by tribendimidine). In vivo median-effect dose (ED50) values of 191 mg/kg and 147 mg/kg were calculated for praziquantel and tribendimidine, respectively. Low to moderate worm burden reductions (38-62%) were observed in O. viverrini infected hamsters when both drugs were administered simultaneously or on subsequent days, pointing to antagonistic effects in vivo. Further studies are necessary to understand the striking differences between the in vitro and in vivo observations using combinations of praziquantel and tribendimidine on O. viverrini. PMID:22892101

Keiser, J; Adelfio, R; Vargas, M; Odermatt, P; Tesana, S



Efeito do praziquantel incorporado a lipossomas nos diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento dos ovos de Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A esquistossomose mansônica é causada pelo trematódeo digenético intravascular Schistosoma mansoni. Para o tratamento dessa enfermidade o praziquantel (PZQ) e a oxamniquina (OXA) são os fármacos escolhidos. No entanto, esses fármacos apresentam limitações quanto à ação e casos de resistência ou tolerância já foram relatados. Por esse motivo, são necessários os estudos de novas alternativas que visam melhorar os

M. C. Pinto; A. L. R. Souza; S. M. Allegretti


Increase of intestinal schistosomiasis after praziquantel treatment in a Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni mixed focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent emergence of a mixed focus of Schistosoma haematobium–Schistosoma mansoni, in the lower delta of the Senegal river, requires adapted control programmes. A mass treatment with praziquantel was organised in April 1994 by local authorities in three villages where populations had been examined. A total of 2042 subjects participated. In Savoigne S. haematobium prevailed (53% for prevalence), in Diagambaly

J.-C. Ernould; K. Ba; B. Sellin



Genetic analysis of decreased praziquantel sensitivity in a laboratory strain of Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory strain of Schistosoma mansoni subjected to repeated in vivo praziquantel (PZQ) treatments for several generations has been previously found to have lesser sensitivity to the drug than the original unselected strain. In this study we have collected evidence on the mode of inheritance of the partial insensitivity exhibited by the PZQ-selected schistosomes. A single male and a single

Livia Pica-Mattoccia; Michael J. Doenhoff; Cristiana Valle; Annalisa Basso; Anna-Rita Troiani; Piero Liberti; Alfredo Festucci; Alessandra Guidi; Donato Cioli



Schistosoma mansoni : Dose-related tegumental surface changes after in vivo treatment with praziquantel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vivo effects of a range of concentrations of praziquantel (10, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 500 mg\\/kg body weight of mouse) on the tegumental surface of adultSchistosoma mansoni were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Worms were recovered from mice at 1 and 4h post-treatment.

M. K. Shaw; D. A. Erasmus



Praziquantel impairs the ability of exogenous serotonin to stimulate carbohydrate metabolism in intact Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel (PZQ) (Droncit, Biltricide) at 10 ?M completely abolishes the stimulatory effect of serotonin on glucose uptake and lactate excretion of Schistosoma mansoni. Fluoxetine (FXT) exerts similar effects on the serotonin-induced stimulation of glucose uptake and lactate excretion, however, at 100-fold higher concentrations. In comparison with PZQ, which is inhibitory at 10 ?M, FXT and other amphiphilic cationic drugs (amitriptyline,

A. Harder; J. Abbink; P. Andrews; H. Thomas



Effect of Chemotherapy with Praziquantel on the Production of Cytokines and Morbidity Associated with Schistosomiasis Mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni with praziquantel can alter significantly the immune response of patients and generate a reversal of the level of fibrosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected from, and abdominal ultrasound examinations conducted on, volunteers infected with Schistosoma mansoni and living in an area

P. Martins-Leite; G. Gazzinelli; L. F. Alves-Oliveira; A. Gazzinelli; L. C. C. Malaquias; R. Correa-Oliveira; A. Teixeira-Carvalho; A. M. S. Silveira



Reversibility of Schistosoma mansoni-associated morbidity after yearly mass praziquantel therapy: ultrasonographic assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parasitological, clinical and ultrasonographic longitudinal study was undertaken in 1993 in a focus hyperendemic for Schistosoma mansoni infection in the central highlands of Madagascar. All the inhabitants were systematically treated with praziquantel. A complete examination and treatment were repeated each year. Among the 289 villagers who underwent the complete 3 years' follow up, 65·9% excreted eggs at the initial

P. Boisier; C.-E. Ramarokoto; V. E. Ravaoalimalala; L. Rabarijaona; J. Serieye; J. Roux; P. Esterre



Treatment of Hymenolepis Nana with a Single Oral Dose of Praziquantel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hymenolepis nana infection is common in Egyptian children. Until recently the treatment of choice here has been with a seven-day course of niclosamide (NAGATY et al., 1962; EL-MASRY et al., 1974). In 1981, praziquantel became available to use for treating...

Z. Farid N. A. El-Masry C. K. Wallace




Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggest that resistance to praziquantel (PZQ) may be developing. This would not be surprising in countries like Egypt where the drug has been used aggressively for more that 10 years. The classic phenotype of drug resistance is a significant increase in the 50% effective dose value of isolates retrieved from patients not responding to the drug. In a



A benzodiazepine derivative and praziquantel: Effects on musculature of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benzodiazepine derivative (Ro 11-3128) which has central nervous effects similar to other benzodiazepines, and praziquantel (PZ), are two new antischistosomal drugs. At low concentrations these drugs will produce a marked spastic paralysis of male Schistosoma mansoni musculature. An analysis of the action of these drugs on the parasite's musculature shows that Ro 11-3128 and PZ produced a rapid rise

R. Pax; J. L. Bennett; R. Fetterer



Alternatives to bodyweight for estimating the dose of praziquantel needed to treat schistosomiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on age, height and mid upper-arm circumference (MUAC) from nearly 6000 schoolchildren in Ghana, Tanzania and Malawi (not MUAC) were used to examine their power to predict bodyweight and thus the dosage of praziquantel required to treat schistosomiasis. Height was found to provide a simple and reasonably accurate estimate of weight, and about 75% of children would have been

Andrew Hall; Catherine Nokes; Su-Tung Wen; Sam Adjei; Charles Kihamia; Lillian Mwanri; Emily Bobrow; Joseph de Graft-Johnson; Don Bundy



Schistosoma mansoni population structure and persistence after praziquantel treatment in two villages of Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel has been used to treat schistosome infections since 1979 and currently is the only chemotherapeutic agent in production for this purpose, raising concerns about the potential for the emergence of drug resistance. In practice, 10–20% of infected patients will continue to excrete eggs after treatment. It is not understood to what degree this represents selection of a resistant population

Ronald E. Blanton; Walter A. Blank; Jackson M. Costa; Theomira M. Carmo; Eliana A. Reis; Luciano K. Silva; Lúcio M. Barbosa; Mitermayer G. Reis



Albendazole, mebendazole and praziquantel. Review of non-clinical toxicity and pharmacokinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics and toxicity of albendazole, mebendazole and praziquantel are extensively reviewed, drawing on original published work and reviews in the open scientific literature and on assessments by international agencies and official regulatory bodies in Europe and the USA. Information about human and veterinary medical uses and adverse reactions is evaluated. The totality of the non-clinical information available about these

A. D Dayan



Novel Praziquantel Treatment Regime for Controlling Asian Tapeworm Infections in Pond-Reared Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus achelognathii is an intestinal fish parasite that is nonnative to but widespread throughout the southwestern United States. Praziquantel is an anthelminthic drug commonly used to treat fish for Asian tapeworm; however, it does not kill tapeworm eggs, so the water in ponds used for fish rearing must be exchanged after treatment. Our objective was to determine

Alison C. Iles; Thomas P. Archdeacon; Scott A. Bonar



New Insight into the Antifibrotic Effects of Praziquantel on Mice in Infection with Schistosoma japonicum  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease infecting more than 200 million people in the world. Although chemotherapy targeting on killing schistosomes is one of the main strategies in the disease control, there are few effective ways of dealing with liver fibrosis caused by the parasite infection in the chronic and advanced stages of schistosomiasis. For this reason, new strategies and prospective drugs, which exert antifibrotic effects, are urgently required. Methods and Findings The antifibrotic effects of praziquantel were assessed in the murine models of schistosomiasis japonica. Murine fibrosis models were established by cutaneous infection with 14±2 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. Then, the mice of both chronic (8 weeks post-infection) and advanced (15 weeks post-infection) schistosomiasis were treated by gavage of praziquantel (250 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days) to eliminate worms, and followed by praziquantel anti-fibrosis treatment (300 mg/kg, twice daily for 30 days). The fibrosis-related parameters assessed were areas of collagen deposition, content of hydroxyproline and mRNA expressions of Col1?1, Col3?1, ?-SMA, TGF-?, MMP9, TIMP1, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-? of liver. Spleen weight index, alanine aminotransferase activity and liver portal venous pressure were also measured. The results showed that anti-fibrosis treatment improved liver fibrosis, splenomegaly, hepatic function, as well as liver portal hypertension. In order to confirm the anti-fibrotic properties of praziquantel, we established a CCL4-induced model and revealed that CCL4-induced liver fibrosis was inhibited by PZQ treatment for 30 days. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of praziquantel on mouse primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). It is indicated that mRNA expressions of Col1?1, Col3?1, ?-SMA, TGF-?, MMP9 and TIMP1 of HSCs were all inhibited after praziquantel anti-parasite treatments. Conclusions The significant amelioration of hepatic fibrosis by praziquantel treatment validates it as a promising drug of anti-fibrosis and offers potential of a new chemotherapy for hepatic fibrosis resulting from schistosomiasis.

Liang, Yue-Jin; Luo, Jie; Yuan, Quan; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Ya-Ping; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Ai-Ling; Ren, Yong-Ya; Sun, Ke-Yi; Sun, Yan; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Zhao-Song



Efficacy of oxamniquine and praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infection: a controlled trial.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of oxamniquine and praziquantel, the two most clinically important schistosomicide drugs, and to compare the accuracy of faecal examination with the accuracy of oogram in testing for Schistosoma mansoni infection. METHODS: In a triple-masked and randomized controlled trial, 106 patients infected with S. mansoni were randomly allocated to one of three statistically homogeneous groups. One group was given 60 mg/kg praziquantel per day for three consecutive days, another was given two daily doses of 10 mg/kg oxamniquine, and the placebo group received starch. Faecal examinations (days 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 after treatment) and biopsy of rectal mucosa by quantitative oogram (days 30, 60, 120, and 180) were used for the initial diagnosis and for evaluating the degree of cure. The chi2 test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare variables in the three groups. Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier) and the log-rank test were used to evaluate the efficacy of the treatments. FINDINGS: The sensitivity of stool examinations ranged from 88.9% to 94.4% when patients presented with >5000 S. mansoni eggs per gram of tissue (oogram); when the number of eggs dropped to <1000 eggs per gram, sensitivity was reduced (range, 22.7-34.0%). When cure was evaluated by stool examination, oxamniquine and praziquantel had cure rates of 90.3% and 100%, respectively. However, when the oogram was used as an indicator of sensitivity, the oxamniquine cure rate dropped dramatically (to 42.4%), whereas the rate for praziquantel remained high, at 96.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Praziquantel was significantly more effective than oxamniquine in treating S. mansoni infection. The oogram was markedly more sensitive than stool examinations in detecting S. mansoni eggs and should be recommended for use in clinical trials with schistosomicides.

Ferrari, M. L. A.; Coelho, P. M. Z.; Antunes, C. M. F.; Tavares, C. A. P.; da Cunha, A. S.



Evaluation of Oxfendazole, Praziquantel and Albendazole against Cystic Echinococcosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Naturally Infected Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCystic Echinococosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by larval stage Echinococcus granulosus. We determined the effects of high dose of Oxfendazole (OXF), combination Oxfendazole\\/Praziquantel (PZQ), and combination Albendazole (ABZ)\\/Praziquantel against CE in sheep.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on 118 randomly selected ewes. They were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1) placebo; 2) OXF

Cesar M. Gavidia; Armando E. Gonzalez; Eduardo A. Barron; Berenice Ninaquispe; Monica Llamosas; Manuela R. Verastegui; Colin Robinson; Robert H. Gilman



Voltage-gated calcium channel subunits from platyhelminths: Potential role in praziquantel action?  

PubMed Central

Voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels provide the pathway for Ca2+ influxes that underlie Ca2+-dependent responses in muscles, nerves and other excitable cells. They are also targets of a wide variety of drugs and toxins. Ca2+ channels are multisubunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming ?1 subunit and other modulatory subunits, including the ? subunit. Here, we review the structure and function of schistosome Ca2+ channel subunits, with particular emphasis on variant Ca2+ channel ? subunits (Cav?var) found in these parasites. In particular, we examine the role these ? subunits may play in the action of praziquantel, the current drug of choice against schistosomiasis. We also present evidence that Cav?var homologs are found in other praziquantel-sensitive platyhelminths such as the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, and that these variant ? subunits may thus represent a platyhelminth-specific gene family.

Jeziorski, Michael C.; Greenberg, Robert M.



Short Communication: In Vitro Efficacy Testing of Praziquantel, Ivermectin, and Oxfendazole against Taenia Solium Cysts  

PubMed Central

Oxfendazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treating porcine cysticercosis. The drug does not kill brain cysts and is not registered for use in pigs. Latest its safety in the recommended dose has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate two alternative anthelminthics. The efficacy of praziquantel and ivermectin was compared to oxfendazole In Vitro on Taenia solium. Cysts of T. solium were isolated from infected pork and incubated in culture media together with the drugs. The degree of evagination was used as effect measurement and determined after 6 hours. Praziquantel had a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of value 0.006 ± 0.001??g/mL. Ivermectin did not show any impact on the evagination in concentrations from 0.001 to 30??g/mL and neither did oxfendazole in concentrations from 0.001 to 50??g/mL.

Cederberg, S.; Sikasunge, C. S.; Andersson, A.; Johansen, M. V.



Similar cellular responses after treatment with either praziquantel or oxamniquine in Schistosoma mansoni infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of treatment with either oxamniquine or praziquantel on S.mansoni specific IFN-gamma, IL-4 , IL-5 and IL-10 was compared on PBMC which were collected pre- treatment, 6 and 18 weeks post treatment. Using sandwich ELISA on the supernatants harvested from the PBMC stimulation by crude S. mansoni SEA and SWAP antigens after 5 days the levels of PBMC proliferation

Takafira Mduluza; Francisca Mutapi; Tinashe Ruwona; Daniel Kaluka; Nicholas Midzi; Patricia D. Ndhlovu



Comparative analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma bovis cercarial production under the influence of Praziquantel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snails infected withSchistosoma mansoni andS. bovis and fed with a food-Praziquantel mixture stop shedding cercariae for several days. The cercarial production restarts at different levels after stopping treatment: for someBiomphalaria glabrata, the restarting phase of production reaches a high level whereas for otherB. glabrata and all of theP. metidjensis, the level of production remains low. Histological studies revealed that at

R. Touassem; C. Combes



Current status of sensitivity to praziquantel in a focus of potential drug resistance in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decade ago, a study revealed that praziquantel (PZQ) failed to cure 1.6% of those with intestinal schistomiasis in five villages of the Nile delta region. The recommended dosage of PZQ is a single 40mg\\/kg oral dose, and each of these patients continued to pass viable Schistosoma mansoni eggs despite three successive doses at or above this level. The eggs

Sanaa Botros; Hanan Sayed; Neimat Amer; Maged El-Ghannam; James L. Bennett; Tim A. Day



Ultrastructural investigations on the effect of praziquantel on the tegument of five species of cestodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

AdultHymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, H. nana, Echinococcus multilocularis, andTaenia (Hydatigera)taeniaeformis have been exposed in vitro in media containing 0.1 to 100 µg praziquantel\\/ml. Already after 5 min characteristic tegumental lesions, that were restricted to the growth zone of the neck region, were recognized using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Within the tegument numerous vacuoles were formed that released their

B. Becker; H. Mehlhorn; P. Andrews; H. Thomas



Impact of drug dosage and brand on bioavailability and efficacy of praziquantel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of two brands (brand 1=Billricide; Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany; brand 2=Distocide; EPICO pharmaceuticals, Cairo, Egypt) of praziquantel (PZQ) in full and half doses (40 and 20 mg kg?1 monitored as percentage egg reduction and cure rate was investigated in S. mansoni infected school-children. A total of 506 school-children (8–16 years of age) were classified into three groups according

Aiesha Metwally; James Bennett; Sanaa Botros; Fatma Ebeid; Gamal-El Din M. El Attar



Comparative effect of mebendazole, albendazole, tribendimidine, and praziquantel in treatment of rats infected with Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to understand the anti-Clonorchis sinensis properties of mebendazole and albendazole, and compare to praziquantel and tribendimidine. Two hundred and thirty rats were\\u000a divided into five batches for experimental treatment. In four batches, each rat was infected orally with 50 or 100 C. sinensis metacercariae. Twenty-eight to 46 days post-infection, groups of rats were treated orally

Shu-hua Xiao; Jian Xue; Li-li Xu; Yong-nian Zhang; Hui-qin Qiang



Eurytrema pancreaticum: The in vitro effect of praziquantel and triclabendazole on the adult fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy and tolerance of the 80?g\\/ml praziquantel (PZQ) and 40?g\\/ml triclabendazole (TCZ) against adult stage Eurytrema pancreaticum in vitro were investigated at 3, 12, and 15h incubation. Motility of the flukes and histopathological changes were studied. Sudden paralysis and death were observed after exposed to PZQ as early as 3h incubation. In contrast, the TCZ treated flukes showed active

Wannee Jiraungkoorskul; Somphong Sahaphong; Tawewan Tansatit; Niwat Kangwanrangsan; Siriporn Pipatshukiat



Antiparasitic activity of an ivermectin and praziquantel combination paste in horses.  


Modern anthelmintic use in horses has decreased the prevalence of the large strongyles, which has in turn shifted the focus of parasitologists to the pathogenic importance of the small strongyles, tapeworms, and other parasites. These studies show that a combination product containing ivermectin and praziquantel allowed efficacious treatment of horses for nematode, cestode, and bot infections. The use of this combination product may be of special benefit to horses that are mainly kept outdoors and on grazing pastures. PMID:15468008

Marley, Sara E; Hutchens, Doug E; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Holste, John E; Paul, Allan J; Rehbein, Steffen



Schistosoma japonicum Reinfection after Praziquantel Treatment Causes Anemia Associated with Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a relationship between schistosomiasis and anemia, although the magnitude and exact mechanisms involved are unclear. In a cohort of 580 Schistosoma japonicum-infected 7- to 30-year-old patients from Leyte, The Philippines, we evaluated the impact of reinfection with S. japonicum after treatment with praziquantel on the mean hemoglobin level, iron-deficiency (IDA) and non-iron-deficiency anemia (NIDA), and inflammatory markers. All

Tjalling Leenstra; Hannah M. Coutinho; Luz P. Acosta; Gretchen C. Langdon; Li Su; Remigio M. Olveda; Stephen T. McGarvey; Jonathan D. Kurtis; Jennifer F. Friedman



Humoral and cellular immune response in schistosomiasis pre and post praziquantel therapy.  


Humoral and cellular immune response in schistosomiasis was studied pre and post praziquantel therapy. After treatment the mean anti SEA IgM and IgG and anti SWAP IgM levels in all cases showed significant reduction. In patients with high eosinophilic count anti SEA IgE and IgA were statistically decreased. Other specific antibodies showed negligible changes Cellular immune response was not affected. PMID:2230324

Hamadto, H H; Rashed, S M; el Said, A; Elhayawan, I A



The in vitro effect of mefloquine and praziquantel against juvenile and adult Schistosoma japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mefloquine, an antimalarial drug, has been found to be effective against various stages of schistosomes in vivo. The purpose\\u000a of the study is to explore the in vitro effect of mefloquine against adult and juvenile Schistosoma japonicum and to compare its efficacy with praziquantel. Three-hour-old schistosomula were prepared by penetrating the mouse skin with\\u000a schistosome cercariae, while schistosomes 7-, 14-,

Shu-hua Xiao; Jing-yan Mei; Pei-ying Jiao



[The effect of praziquantel on Trichobilharzia (Digenea, Schistosomatidae), a cause of swimmer's dermatitis in humans].  


Cases of swimmer's itch caused by cercariae of the genus Trichobilharzia have spread during the last years in Southwestern Germany and increased in intensity. The only consequence was to forbid swimming because no effective strategies are known which would be ecologically or financially acceptable. In this examination we therefore tried, by means of medication of ducks, the possible final hosts, to kill the different stages of Trichobilharzia in patency and prepatency in order to interrupt the parasitic cycle. For this the effectiveness of praziquantel on the parasitic stages in the final host (preadults, adults, eggs or fully developed miracidia) was tested in experimentally infected dwarf mallards (Anas platyrhynchos, hemerot.) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos). During therapy of ducks with patent Trichobilharzia infection, onefold or twofold application of this drug (1 x 500 mg/duck, 1 x 300 mg/duck, 2 x 200 mg/duck) only prevented the releasing of eggs with hatchable miracidia for up to 24 h. Only a threefold application of 200 mg/duck in 24 h intervals led to a permanent reduction of detectable miracidia. Application of praziquantel in low doses (30 or 40 mg per duck and day) did not reduce the number of released miracidia. Medication with praziquantel led to a strong shift of adult worms located in the enteric veins of the ducks to the liver veins in a little as 3 h; examinations by scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the worms' surface and damage of the tegument. During prepatency doses of 22.5 mg praziquantel per duck and day, given continuously for one week, were sufficient to completely stop the release of miracidia. In this low dosage, a special preparation of the bitter drug was voluntarily swallowed by the ducks, thus providing in principal a simple, cheap and ecologically sound method of controlling cercarial dermatitis. PMID:8220576

Müller, V; Kimmig, P; Frank, W



[Infectivity of the sparganum treated by praziquantel, gamma-irradiation and mechanical cutting].  


An experimental study was performed to observe the infectivity of sparganum (plerocercoid of Spirometra erinacei) treated by praziquantel, gamma-irradiation and mechanical cutting. The spargana were obtained from the naturally infected European grass snake, Rhabdophis tigrina, or from the experimentally infected mice. A total of 83 mice (ICR strain) were divided into 3 experimental groups by the source of the damage, fed each with 5 spargana, and sacrificed 1 month later for worm recovery. In the praziquantel group, the worms were incubated in the concentration of 10 micrograms/ml (control: Tyrode for 4 hours) for 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 hours at 36 degrees C, and fed to mice. The recovery rate from mice in praziquantel group was not different from that (80%) of control group and in the range of 76-100%. In the gamma-irradiation group, the worms were irradiated by 10-1000 Gy with Cs137. The average recovery rates of 69-100% were not different from that of control up to 100 Gy. The rate was 56% under 150 Gy, and 5% by 1000 Gy. In the mechanical cutting group, the worms were cut at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm from the anterior end of the scolex. The average recovery rates in each group were 70-90% and that of control was 90%. The present finding suggests that the sparganum be highly resistant to praziquantel, gamma-irradiation and mechanical cutting. The vitality center of the sparganum must be at the anterior end of its scolex. PMID:8343455

Sohn, W M; Hong, S T; Chai, J Y; Lee, S H



A INFLUÊNCIA DA RESPONSABILIDADE SOCIAL NOS HÁBITOS DE CONSUMO: uma análise do comportamento de consumo em universitários do curso de Administração com Habilitação em Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO As mudanças na sociedade trouxeram ao consumidor um grande poder de decisão, tornando-o responsável pela escolha de seu consumo e preferências. As empresas para acompanharem tais mudanças apostaram em transformações e adaptaram-se aos novos rumos do mercado. O marketing por sua vez, vem inovando suas estratégias e ações para atender a essas novas necessidades e determinações do consumidor e

Ana Carolina; Saad Camargo; Ligia Ghisi


Short regimen of praziquantel in the treatment of single brain enhancing lesions.  


Twenty-six patients with single enhancing brain lesion (SEL) were openly assigned to receive single-day praziquantel therapy (n=14), or not (n=12). From 14 treated patients, complete resolution was found in 11, partial resolution in two, and the remaining case was later diagnosed as an arteriovenous malformation. Side effects presented in only one patient and remitted in the same day with symptomatic treatment. Conversely, the lesions persisted unchanged in six of 12 patients in the non-treatment group. Untreated patients with persisting lesions were prescribed praziquantel treatment. After this, SELs disappeared in three cases, other diagnoses (brain tuberculoma and arteriovenous malformation) were made in two, and one was not evaluated. When analyzed in regard to the baseline serology, resolution of lesions on computed tomography was found in 13 (complete=12, partial=1) of 14 seropositive patients, whereas it only happened in six (complete=5, partial=1) of 12 seronegative patients. Serological screening defines a subset of SEL patients with good prognosis. If antiparasitic therapy is to be used in patients with SEL, and we cannot find a strong argument against it, single-day praziquantel is the regimen of choice based on duration, costs, and minimal side effects. PMID:11154807

Pretell, E J; Garcia, H H; Custodio, N; Padilla, C; Alvarado, M; Gilman, R H; Martinez, M



Comparative effect of mebendazole, albendazole, tribendimidine, and praziquantel in treatment of rats infected with Clonorchis sinensis.  


The aim of the study is to understand the anti-Clonorchis sinensis properties of mebendazole and albendazole, and compare to praziquantel and tribendimidine. Two hundred and thirty rats were divided into five batches for experimental treatment. In four batches, each rat was infected orally with 50 or 100 C. sinensis metacercariae. Twenty-eight to 46 days post-infection, groups of rats were treated orally with single doses of mebendazole, albendazole, praziquantel, tribendimidine, or multiple daily doses of albendazole. While in the remaining batch, mebendazole or praziquantel was administered to groups of rats infected each with 50 metacercariae for 7 or 14 days. In each batch of test, untreated but infected rats served as control. All rats were euthanized 2-4 weeks post-drug administration for assessment of efficacy. In the first batch of test, rats treated with mebendazole or tribendimidine at single doses of 150, 75, and 37.5 mg/kg resulted in worm burden reductions of 99.0%, 94.0%, and 73.1%, or 98.0%, 80.6%, and 60.4%, respectively. When rats were treated with albendazole at the same dose levels, no or poor effect was seen. In the second batch of test, promising effect against adult C. sinensis in rats treated with mebendazole or tribendimidine at single doses of 100 and 50 mg/kg were also observed, but under the single dose of 25 mg/kg, only tribendimidine still remained the effect. In the third batch of test, the aforementioned three single dose levels of mebendazole, albendazole and praziquantel were applied. Again, mebendazole exhibited higher effect and albendazole exhibited no or poor effect. While praziquantel, administered at a higher dose of 300 mg/kg, also showed promising effect. In the fourth batch of test, oral administration of albendazole at a daily dose of 150 or 100 mg/kg for 2 or 3 days resulted in moderate or higher efficacy with worm burden reductions of 79.2% and 91.9%, respectively. In the fifth batch of test, single mebendazole doses of 150 or 75 mg/kg exhibited promising effect against 14-day-old C. sinensis in rats with worm burden reductions of 95.3% and 86.4%, respectively, but mebendazole was short of the effect against 7-day-old worms. Under the same dose level, praziquantel possessed an effect against both 7- and 14-day-old juvenile C. sinensis. The results confirm that in infected rats, mebendazole administered orally at a single dose of 150 mg/kg exhibits potential effect against juvenile (14-day-old) and adult C. sinensis. No or less effect is obtained from albendazole under the same dose levels, but extension of treatment course may enhance the effect of albendazole against this species of fluke. The single effective dose ranges of mebendazole and tribendimidine against C. sinensis in rats are similar with a broad window, while the window for praziquantel is narrow. PMID:21136080

Xiao, Shu-hua; Xue, Jian; Xu, Li-li; Zhang, Yong-nian; Qiang, Hui-qin



Effect of praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy on intensity of infection and antibody responses to schistosome antigens: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Praziquantel treatment of schistosomiasis during pregnancy was only recommended in 2002; hence the effects of treatment during pregnancy are not fully known. We have therefore evaluated the effects on infection intensity and the immunological effects of praziquantel treatment against Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy, compared with treatment after delivery. METHODS: A nested cohort of 387 Schistosoma mansoni infected women was

Robert Tweyongyere; Patrice A Mawa; Nicholas O Emojong; Harriet Mpairwe; Frances M Jones; Trinh Duong; David W Dunne; Birgitte J Vennervald; Eli Katunguka-Rwakishaya; Alison M Elliott



Time course of the effect of praziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni attachment in vitro: comparison with its effects on worm length and motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report herein that praziquantel inhibits the capacity of adult maleSchistosoma mansoni to attach to the bottom of a glass dish and produces a diminution of worm length and motility, acting under a similar concentration and time dependency. After removal of 1 µM praziquantel from the medium, the worms progressively recuperated their initial length and motility without recovering their attachment

S. P. da Silva; F. Noël




Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment with praziquantel reduces the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, reversibility of periportal fibrosis of the liver, which potentially leads to fatal complications, is not unequiv- ocally substantiated. In the Nile District of Uganda, 460 patients were parasitologically (Kato-Katz method) and ultrasonographically examined during October 1991, October 1992, and May 1994. Treatment with praziquantel at a dosage



Are poor responses to praziquantel for the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infections in Senegal due to resistance? An overview of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosoma mansoni to praziquantel in northern Senegal. Praziquantel at 40 mg\\/kg usually cures 70-90% of S. mansoni infections. In an initial trial in an epidemic S. mansoni focus in northern Senegal, only 18% of the cases became parasitologically negative 12 weeks after treatment, although the reduction in mean egg counts was within normal ranges (86%). Among other hypotheses to explain

B. Gryseels; A. Mbaye; S. J. De Vlas; F. F. Stelma; F. Guisse ´; L. Van Lieshout; D. Faye; M. Diop; A. Ly; L. A. Tchuem-Tchuente; D. Engels; K. Polman



Efficacy of Aqui-S, formalin and praziquantel against the monogeneans, Benedenia seriolae and Zeuxapta seriolae, infecting yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi lalandi in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the efficacy of bath administrations of Aqui-S, formalin and praziquantel against adults and eggs of Benedenia seriolae and Zeuxapta seriolae, two monogenean ectoparasites of kingfish (Seriola lalandi lalandi). Our results showed that 2.5 ppm praziquantel administered for either 24 or 48 h was the most effective treatment for removing B. seriolae (>99%). However, B. seriolae treated with

N. J Sharp; B. K Diggles; C. W Poortenaar; T. J Willis



Comparative efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender ®, Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal ® for Cats) against experimental Ancylostoma ceylanicum infections in cats.  


Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common zoonotic hookworm of dogs and cats throughout Asia and has also been reported to occur within the Australasian region. The aim of this study to was to determine the efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) against experimental A. ceylanicum infections in cats. Twenty-four kittens were each subcutaneously injected with 100 infective third-stage larvae of A. ceylanicum. Kittens were stratified by egg count and randomly allocated equally into control and two treatment groups. The first group were treated with emodepside 2.1%/praziquantel 8.6% (Profender®, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The second group was treated with 80 mg pyrantel and 20mg praziquantel (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The kittens in the control group were not treated. Egg counts were performed daily until the end of the study period and compared for the treated and control groups. No eggs were detected in the treated group of kittens within 4 days of treatment and faecal samples from this group remained negative throughout the rest of the study, resulting in a treatment efficacy (egg reduction) of 100% (P<0.0001). The egg counts remained high (993 ± 666 epg) in the untreated control group for the rest of the study period. This study demonstrated that both combination products containing topical emodepside/praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel/pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) given at the recommended dose is highly effective against infection with A. ceylanicum in cats. PMID:23026558

Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Watanapongchati, Supoj; Traub, Rebecca J; Schaper, Roland



Detectable urogenital schistosome DNA and cervical abnormalities 6 months after single-dose praziquantel in women with Schistosoma haematobium infection.  


We explored response to single-dose praziquantel therapy in a cohort of 33 women with Schistosoma haematobium infection in rural Mwanza, Tanzania. Women with S. haematobium infection confirmed both by eggs in urine and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) received single-dose praziquantel and treatment of concomitant sexually transmitted infections. Macroscopic cervical abnormalities were also quantified. After 6 months, microscopically detectable egg excretion was eliminated, but 8 of 33 women (24%) were persistently positive for S. haematobium by PCR, and 11 (33%) had cervical abnormalities potentially attributable to schistosomiasis. This suggests that praziquantel treatment more frequently than every 6 months may be necessary for complete elimination of the parasite and prevention of genital tissue pathology. This aggressive therapy may in turn play a key role decreasing HIV susceptibility in millions of people living in regions in which S. haematobium is endemic. PMID:23937701

Downs, Jennifer A; Kabangila, Rodrick; Verweij, Jaco J; Jaka, Hyasinta; Peck, Robert N; Kalluvya, Samuel E; Changalucha, John M; Johnson, Warren D; van Lieshout, Lisette; Fitzgerald, Daniel W



Treatment of third-stage larvae of Toxocara cati with milbemycin oxime plus praziquantel tablets and emodepside plus praziquantel spot-on formulation in experimentally infected cats.  


Toxocara cati is the most prevalent gastrointestinal helminth in cats worldwide, with cats of all ages at risk of infection. An anthelminthic treatment that not only affects the gut-dwelling stages of this parasite but is also effective against developmental stages in the tissue has the advantage that the pathology caused by migrating larvae is minimized and the need for repeated treatments is reduced. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel tablets (Milbemax®, Novartis) against third-stage larvae of T. cati in comparison to a spot-on formulation of emodepside and praziquantel (Profender®, Bayer). Twenty-four kittens were experimentally infected with T. cati and randomly allocated to three study groups. Treatments were performed at the minimum therapeutic dosage 5 days after the experimental infection. The development of patent infections was monitored and all cats were dewormed 50 days post-infection. Efficacies were calculated based on counts of excreted worms in the treated groups compared to a negative control group. Seven of the eight cats in the negative control group developed a patent T. cati infection and all cats were excreting worms at the end of the study (geometric mean worm count 18.1). No efficacy could be observed for the milbemycin oxime-treated animals. All cats developed a patent infection and excreted worms (geometric mean worm count 27.7). The treatment with Profender® was 98.5 % effective against L3 of T. cati. One cat developed a patent infection and was excreting worms at the end of the study (geometric mean worm count 0.3). No adverse reactions were noted in either treatment group. PMID:22864864

Wolken, Sonja; Böhm, Claudia; Schaper, Roland; Schnieder, Thomas



Serum concentrations and renal excretion in humans after oral administration of praziquantel — results of three determination methods —  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The concentration-time-course in serum as well as the urinary excretion of Praziquantel and metabolites were studied, in healthy\\u000a volunteers, using the14C-labelled compound, at dose levels of 14 and 46 mg\\/kg. The analytical methods applied comprised determination of radioactivity\\u000a (Praziquantel and metabolites in toto) as well as unmetabolized drug by two specific methods (gas liquid chromatography, fluorometry).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Depending on the dose,

K. Patzschke; J. Pütter; L. A. Wegner; F. A. Horster; H. W. Diekmann



Field efficacy of praziquantel oral paste against naturally acquired equine cestodes in Ethiopia.  


The efficacy of an oral formulation of praziquantel (Equitape, Horse paste, Fort Dodge) in the reduction of cestode egg counts and serum antibody level against Anoplocephala perfoliata was assessed in 44 donkeys under field conditions. The donkeys were confirmed both by faecal examination and serum antibody assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to have natural infection with tapeworms. The donkeys were randomly allocated into treatment (n?=?22) and control (n?=?22) groups. The treatment group was treated with both praziquantel and ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial) at a dose rate of 1 mg/kg and 200 ?g/kg, respectively while the control group was treated only with ivermectin. Faecal samples were collected before treatment (day-0) and 2, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks post-treatment while blood samples were collected before treatment and 8 and 16 weeks after treatment and analysed. The results of the study demonstrated that praziquantel paste was highly effective in reducing cestode eggs in donkeys and had an efficacy of more than 99 % until week 16 (day?112). No cestode egg reappearance by 16 weeks post-treatment in any animal in the treatment group was observed while donkeys in the control group continued shedding cestode eggs. The immunological assay also showed a significant reduction in serum antibody level against A. perfoliata in treated donkeys compared to the control group (p?=?0.0001). This marked decrease in serum antibody level indicates reduced risk of cestode-associated colic and other gastrointestinal disorders and clinical diseases. No adverse reactions or clinical effects were encountered in any animal within either group throughout the trial period. PMID:23001508

Getachew, A M; Innocent, G; Proudman, C J; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J; Faith, B; Love, S



Clinical pharmacology in normal volunteers of praziquantel, a new drug against schistosomes and cestodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerance of Praziquantel (2-cyclohexylcarbonyl-1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11b-hexahydro-2H-pyrazino-[2, 1-a]isoquinoline-4-one) in oral doses of 1×20 mg\\/kg, 1×50 mg\\/kg, 3×10 mg\\/kg and 3×25 mg\\/kg body weight (t=4 h) was tested in a complex study involving 36 healthy volunteers. In addition to the usual assessment of clinical chemistry, haematology, coagulation physiology, urinalysis, clinico-physiological examination including EEG, and medical examination, clinico-psychological parameters

G. Leopold; W. Ungethiim; E. Groll; H. W. Diekmann; H. Nowak; D. H. G. Wegner



The fate of praziquantel in the organism II. Distribution in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The qualitative and quantitative distribution profile of14C-praziquantel after single and repeated i. v. and oral administration was tested in Wistar rats.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a After both modes of administration the14C-radioactivity tends to be localised mainly in the excretion organs liver and kidneys. Higher concentrations than in the\\u000a plasma were also found in the lung, pancreas, adrenals, pituitary and Gl. mandibularis. Elimination of the

K. Steiner; A. Garbe



Effects of a combinations of emodepside and praziquantel on parasites of reptiles and rodents.  


A new combination of two anthelmintic compounds containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender, Bayer AG, Levekusen, Germany) was tested in pet rodents and reptiles. Topical application of the two compounds led to the quick disappearance of nematodes and cestodes from a broad spectrum of hosts including mice, jirds, snakes, anole lizards, turtles, monitor lizards, etc. In reptiles the dosage had to be increased, since the thick outer layer of the epidermis hinders the penetration of the compounds. In animals with an extremely thick epidermis (e.g. monitor lizards, leguans) the new product was applied under the armpits. PMID:16228277

Mehlhorn, H; Schmahl, G; Frese, M; Mevissen, I; Harder, A; Krieger, K



Dose-finding study for praziquantel therapy of Schistosoma haematobium in Coast Province, Kenya.  


To assess the efficacy of low dose praziquantel regimens in comparison with standard 40 mg/kg dosing in the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis, a random allocation dose-finding trial was performed in children and adults from a Schistosoma haematobium endemic region in Coast Province, Kenya. Following an initial screening, 280 individuals with greater than or equal to 50 eggs/10 ml urine were randomly assigned to receive either 10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg of the drug in a single oral dose. Two to three months later, cure rates of 26%, 68%, 78%, and 84% were found for the 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg doses, respectively. The results of 10 mg/kg oral dosing were significantly worse than for all other doses in terms of cure rate and of post-treatment prevalence of morbidity. The 40 mg/kg dosing resulted in a significantly higher cure rate than the 20 mg/kg doses; nevertheless, there was no significant difference between 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg doses in terms of mean post-treatment intensity of infection or post-treatment prevalence of hematuria or proteinuria. For large-scale control programs, oral 20 mg/kg praziquantel therapy for urinary schistosomiasis may prove as effective as the standard oral 40 mg/kg dosing for control of infection-associated morbidity and reduction of parasite transmission. PMID:2499203

King, C H; Wiper, D W; De Stigter, K V; Peters, P A; Koech, D; Ouma, J H; Arap Siongok, T K; Mahmoud, A A



Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy.  


Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group) before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group). Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI) or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA), increased synthesis of IFN-? and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-? and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis. PMID:23401741

Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Fernandes Costa-Silva, Matheus; Cardoso de Oliveira Silveira, Amanda; Azevedo Batista, Mauricio; Alves Oliveira-Fraga, Lúcia; Soares Silveira, Alda Maria; Barbosa Alvarez, Maria Carolina; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Gazzinelli, Giovanni; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa



Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy  

PubMed Central

Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group) before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group). Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI) or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA), increased synthesis of IFN-? and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-? and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis.

Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Fernandes Costa-Silva, Matheus; Cardoso de Oliveira Silveira, Amanda; Azevedo Batista, Mauricio; Alves Oliveira-Fraga, Lucia; Soares Silveira, Alda Maria; Barbosa Alvarez, Maria Carolina; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Gazzinelli, Giovanni; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea



Efficacy of praziquantel and artemisinin derivatives for the treatment and prevention of human schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Praziquantel has been used as first-line drug for chemotherapy of schistosomiasis since 1984. Besides praziquantel, artemether and artesunate have also been used for the control of this infectious disease since late 1990s. In this article, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the antischistosomal efficacy of different medication strategies including monotherapy or combination therapies of these drugs. Results A number of 52 trials from 38 articles published in peer-reviewed journals before July 2011 were selected for analysis after searching the following literature databases: the Cochrane Library, PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Science, Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Our meta-analyses showed that a dosage of 30-60 mg/kg praziquantel compared with placebo produced a protection rate of about 76% (95% CI: 67%-83%) for treating human schistosomiasis, which varied from 70% to 76% with no significant differences among the subspecies S. haematobium, S. japonicum or S. mansoni. Protection rates were higher when praziquantel doses were elevated, as concluded from the nRCTs results: the protection rate of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg was 52% (95% CI: 49%-55%), and it increased to 91% (95% CI: 88%-92%) when the dosages were elevated to 60/80/100 mg/kg divided two or more doses. Multiple doses of artemether or artesunate over 1- or 2-week intervals resulted in protection rates of 65% to 97% for preventing schistosomiasis, and increased doses and shorter medication intervals improved their efficacies. Praziquantel and artemisinin derivatives (artemether or artesunate) in combination resulted in a higher protection rate of 84% (95% CI: 64%-91%) than praziquantel monotherapy for treatment. praziquantel and artesunate in combination had a great protection rate of 96% (95% CI: 78%-99%) for preventing schistosomes infection. Conclusions According to the results, praziquantel remains effective in schistosomiasis treatment, and multiple doses would improve its efficacy; meanwhile, praziquantel is also a good drug for preventing acute schistosomiasis morbidity. It's better to use multiple doses of artemether or artesunate with 1- or 2-week intervals for prevention against schistosome infection. Praziquantel and artemether or artesunate in combination perform better in treatment than praziquantel monotherapy, and they are especially suitable for treating the patients with repeated exposure to infected water.




Microsoft Academic Search

This trial investigated the anti-schistosomal activity of mirazid in comparison with that of praziquantel in Schistosoma mansoniinfected Egyptian patients. The sample population was composed of 1,131 individuals (459 school children and 672 household members). Screening for S. mansoni was conducted using the standard Kato Katz technique. Four slides from a single stool sample were examined before treatment, and four slides



Schistosoma mansoni: Lack of correlation between praziquantel-induced intra-worm calcium influx and parasite death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The schistosomicidal activity of praziquantel (PZQ) is accompanied by a large influx of calcium into the worms, suggesting that this phenomenon could be the source of the observed muscular contraction, surface disruption and eventual death of the parasite. We have incubated live adult schistosomes in a medium containing radioactive calcium and we were able to confirm that PZQ does indeed

Livia Pica-Mattoccia; Tiziana Orsini; Annalisa Basso; Alfredo Festucci; Piero Liberti; Alessandra Guidi; Ana-Luiza Marcatto-Maggi; Sonia Nobre-Santana; Anna-Rita Troiani; Donato Cioli; Cristiana Valle



Sequence and level of endogenous expression of calcium channel ? subunits in Schistosoma mansoni displaying different susceptibilities to praziquantel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kohn et al. [J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 36873] demonstrated that cells expressing the structurally unusual schistosome ? subunit SmCav?1 in their voltage-operated calcium channels, exhibit an increased current amplitude in the presence of praziquantel (PZQ). This suggests that the beta subunit is involved in PZQ activity and is consistent with the known pharmacological effects of the drug. If this

Cristiana Valle; Anna Rita Troiani; Alfredo Festucci; Livia Pica-Mattoccia; Piero Liberti; Adrian Wolstenholme; Katherine Francklow; Michael J Doenhoff; Donato Cioli



Development and validation of a ‘tablet pole’ for the administration of praziquantel in sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pole estimating, for each individual, the number of praziquantel tablets needed for treatment according to height was tested in 20 data sets (n = 25 688). In more than 98% of the cases the indicated dose was within the range that has proven efficacious and safe (30 and 60 mg\\/kg).

Antonio Montresor; Dirk Engels; Lester Chitsulo; Donald A. P. Bundy; Simon Brooker; Lorenzo Savioli



Schistosoma mansoni : The effects of a subcurative dose of praziquantel on the ultrastructure of worms in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vivo effects of a subcutaneously-administered subcurative dose (200mg\\/kg body weight of mouse) of praziquantel on the structure ofSchistosoma mansoni was investigated. Worms were collected at varying times post-treatment and processed for both SEM and TEM examination.

M. K. Shaw; D. A. Erasmus



Scanning and transmission electron microscope studies on the efficacy of praziquantel on Hymenolepis nana (Cestoda) in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dwarf tapeworm,Hymenolepis nana, was studied by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy after in vitro exposure to 1, 10, and 100 µg\\/ml of the anthelmintic praziquantel (Droncit®) for 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The resulting vacuolization of the tegument was exclusively confined to the neck region of the tapeworms and was already observed after treatment for 5

Benedikt Becker; Heinz Mehlhorn; Peter Andrews; Herbert Thomas



Efficacy of two praziquantel treatments among primary school children in an area of high Schistosoma mansoni endemicity, Nile Delta, Egypt.  


Praziquantel is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control. A number of reports from endemic areas suggest that resistance or tolerance to praziquantel might exist in Schistosoma mansoni. Several explanations were postulated. The present work was designed to test the hypothesis that a low praziquantel (pzq) cure rate in Egypt is due to survival and maturation of immature stages that escaped pzq, which is effective against mature S. mansoni worms only. The study sample included 1351 children attending El Rouse primary school located in El Rouse village, Nile Delta, Egypt. All children received 2 pzq doses (40 mg/kg) 4 weeks apart. Diagnosis of S. mansoni infection and cure assessment were based on examination of 2 Kato slides prepared from a single stool sample collected before and 4 weeks after the first and second treatments. The cure rate was 78·8% after the first treatment and increased significantly to 90·8% after the second treatment. Egg reduction rates were 71·2% and 77·2% after 1 and 2 treatments respectively. Pre-treatment intensity of infection has a great influence on cure and egg reduction rates. Our results confirmed that low praziquantel cure rate, in Egypt, might be attributed, even partially, to survival and maturation of the immature S. mansoni stages that escaped pzq that is effective against mature worms only. PMID:21078223

Barakat, Rashida; El Morshedy, Hala



The Sensitivity of Schistosoma japonicum to Praziquantel: A Field Evaluation in Areas with Low Endemicity of China  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the susceptibility of Schistosoma japonicum to praziquantel in low endemic foci of China. During the non-transmission period of schistosomiasis, a total of 43 of 1,242 subjects were identified as being infected with the parasite using parasitological stool examinations in two low-endemicity areas of China, with a prevalence rate of 3.46%. All stool-egg-positive subjects were treated with praziquantel in a single oral dose of 40 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg for two successive days. Six weeks post-treatment, no S. japonicum eggs were detected in the 43 treated villagers. The results indicate that the current efficacy of praziquantel against S. japonicum seems satisfactory and has not changed over the past three decades in the low endemic areas of China. It is also suggested that no evidence of tolerance or resistance to praziquantel in S. japonicum is detected in areas with low endemicity in China.

Wang, Wei; Dai, Jian-Rong; Li, Hong-Jun; Shen, Xue-Hui; Liang, You-Sheng



Comparative clinical studies of nitazoxanide, albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis in children from Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three randomized clinical studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate the efficacy of nitazoxanide paediatric suspension compared to albendazole in the treatment of ascariasis and trichuriasis and praziquantel in the treatment of hymenolepiasis in children from Cajamarca, Peru. Nitazoxanide was administered at a dose of 100 mg (age 1–3 years) or 200 mg (age 4–11 years) twice daily for 3

Juan Jave Ortiz; Nicholas Lopez Chegne; Gilles Gargala; Loic Favennec



[Efficacity of praziquantel in school-aged children in a hyperendemic zone for Schistoma haematobium (Niger, 1999)].  


Urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in the Niger river valley. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and side effects of a single oral dose of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in the treatment of schistosomiasis. The investigation took place between April 5, 1999 and May 25, 1999. A total of 318 primary school children, aged from 6 to 16 years, of a Schistosoma haematobium endemic area were included in the survey. They underwent a macroscopic and parasitological examinations of the urine before treatment and two and six weeks after treatment. Treatment with praziquantel was given at 40 mg/kg of body weight in a single dose. Side effects due to praziquantel were assessed within the first 4 hours, and 24 hours after. Side effects were frequent (53.7%), especially occurring in the first four hours. Their expression was not associated with the sex of the child nor the intensity of the infestation. We noted that elder children expressed more complaints. The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pains, headaches and pruritus. All these signs were without gravity and resolved within the first twenty-four hours. Before treatment, the prevalence of infestation was 98%. Six weeks after treatment, 32% of children remained positive despite a marked reduction of egg excretion. In this survey, the side effects of the treatment were very frequent but without gravity. Using praziquantel, 68% of the subjects were cured completely. Urinary schistosomiasis control programs can continue to use it for mass treatment without risk. PMID:11346982

Garba, A; Tohon, Z; Sidiki, A; Chippaux, J P; de Chabalier, F



Dynamics of Schistosoma haematobium egg output and associated infection parameters following treatment with praziquantel in school-aged children  

PubMed Central

Background Praziquantel is the drug of choice in preventive chemotherapy targeting schistosomiasis. Increasing large-scale administration of praziquantel requires monitoring of drug efficacy to detect early signs of development of resistance. Standard protocols for drug efficacy monitoring are necessary. Here, we determined the optimal time point for praziquantel efficacy assessment against Schistosoma haematobium and studied the dynamics of infection parameters following treatment. Methods Ninety school-aged children from south Côte d’Ivoire with a parasitologically confirmed S. haematobium infection were treated with a single oral dose of praziquantel (40?mg/kg) and followed up for 62?days post-treatment. Urine samples were collected on 23 schooldays during this period and were subjected to visual examination (macrohaematuria), urine filtration and microscopy (S. haematobium eggs) and reagent strip testing (microhaematuria, proteinuria and leukocyturia). Results Observed cure and egg reduction rates were highly dependent on the time point post-treatment. Egg reduction rates were high (>97%) in weeks 3–9 post-treatment. Cure rates were highest in weeks 6 (92.9%) and 9 (95.0%) post-treatment. The prevalence of infection-associated parameters decreased after treatment, reaching a minimum of 2.4% in weeks 5 (proteinuria) and 7 (leukocyturia) post-treatment, and 16.3% at the end of week 8 (microhaematuria). Macrohaematuria disappeared between weeks 3 and 6 post-treatment. Conclusions For monitoring praziquantel efficacy against S. haematobium, we recommend that the cure rate is assessed at week 6 post-treatment. The egg reduction rate can be evaluated earlier, from day 14 post-treatment onwards. Reagent strips are a useful additional tool for evaluating treatment outcomes in areas with high endemicity, preferably at weeks 5 and 6 post-treatment. The delayed decrease of microhaematuria confirms that lesions in the urinary tract persist longer than egg excretion post-treatment.



Efficacy of praziquantel syrup versus crushed praziquantel tablets in the treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis in Ugandan preschool children, with observation on compliance and safety.  


Preschool children (aged ?5 years) have so far been overlooked by mass treatment campaigns targeting schistosomiasis, even though praziquantel (PZQ) has been shown to be well tolerated and effective within this age group. The WHO provided the Ugandan Ministry of Health with a syrup formulation of PZQ with the aim of assessing its safety and efficacy in comparison with crushed PZQ tablets for the treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis in preschool children. This study included 1144 preschool children randomly assigned to two treatment arms (PZQ syrup or crushed PZQ tablet) regardless of infection status for direct comparison. Diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis was assessed using single stool sample, double Kato-Katz smear examinations. Parasitological cure was assessed 3 weeks after treatment. The observed cure rate was 80.9% for the PZQ syrup arm and 81.7% for the crushed PZQ tablet arm, with egg reduction rates of 86.1% and 89.0%, respectively. Pre-treatment infection intensity was observed to influence cure rates significantly, with cure rates of 88.6% for light infections, 74.5% for moderate infections and 67.4% for heavy infections. No significant difference was found in non-compliance between the PZQ syrup (11.1%) and crushed PZQ tablet (14.7%) arms. PZQ syrup and crushed PZQ tablets have very similar efficacies in the treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis in preschool children. PMID:22657533

Navaratnam, A M D; Sousa-Figueiredo, J C; Stothard, J R; Kabatereine, N B; Fenwick, A; Mutumba-Nakalembe, M J



Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of emodepside\\/praziquantel spot–on solution against naturally acquired nematode and cestode infections in domestic cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two controlled, blinded and randomized multi–site clinical field studies evaluated the efficacy and safety of emodepside\\/praziquantel spot–on in the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats. In a study conducted in Europe, faecal egg count reductions of >98% for all nematode eggs and eggs of Toxocara cati, respectively, were observed in cats treated with emodepside\\/praziquantel spot–on (Profender®, Bayer

G. Altreuther; J. Buch; S. D. Charles; W. L. Davis; K. J. Krieger; I. Radeloff



Evaluation of the efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution against cestode ( Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis , and Echinococcus multilocularis ) infections in cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was developed to provide broad–spectrum anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in cats. Eight controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a topical solution of emodepside (3 mg\\/kg) and praziquantel (12 mg\\/kg) (Profender®, BayerAG, Leverkusen, Germany) against feline infections with three species of cestodes. Studies featured naturally acquired infections of Dipylidium caninum or Taenia taeniaeformis, or

S. D. Charles; G. Altreuther; C. R. Reinemeyer; J. Buch; T. Settje; L. Cruthers; D. J. Kok; D. D. Bowman; K. R. Kazacos; D. J. Jenkins; E. Schein



Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of emodepside/praziquantel spot-on solution against naturally acquired nematode and cestode infections in domestic cats.  


Two controlled, blinded and randomized multi-site clinical field studies evaluated the efficacy and safety of emodepside/praziquantel spot-on in the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats. In a study conducted in Europe, faecal egg count reductions of >98% for all nematode eggs and eggs of Toxocara cati, respectively, were observed in cats treated with emodepside/praziquantel spot-on (Profender, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany). For a positive-control product containing selamectin (Stronghold) reductions of >95% were observed. A 100% reduction of faecal eggs and proglottids was observed in cats treated with emodepside/praziquantel spot-on that were infected with cestodes. In a study conducted in North America, cats were treated with either emodepside/praziquantel spot-on plus a placebo tablet or a combination of two control products containing, respectively, selamectin (Revolution) and epsiprantel (Cestex). Faecal egg count reduction for eggs of T. cati was >99% for both treatments. For faecal eggs and proglottids of Dipylidium caninum reductions of >99 and >97% were recorded for cats treated with emodepside/praziquantel spot-on and the control group, respectively. No adverse reactions were observed in the European study, and only mild ones of short duration in a few cats from both treatment groups of the North American study. The two studies demonstrated that emodepside/praziquantel spot-on is highly efficacious and safe under field conditions. PMID:16228276

Altreuther, G; Buch, J; Charles, S D; Davis, W L; Krieger, K J; Radeloff, I



A diagnostic challenge for schistosomiasis japonica in China: consequences on praziquantel-based morbidity control  

PubMed Central

Worldwide schistosomiasis continues to be a serious public health problem. Over the past five decades, China has made remarkable progress in reducing Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans to a relatively low level. Endemic regions are currently circumscribed in certain core areas where re-infection and repeated chemotherapy are frequent. At present, selective chemotherapy with praziquantel is one of the main strategies in China's National Schistosomiasis Control Program, and thus diagnosis of infected individuals is a key step for such control. In this paper we review the current status of our knowledge about diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis japonica. A simple, affordable, sensitive, and specific assay for field diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica is not yet available, and this poses great barriers towards full control of schistosomiasis. Hence, a search for a diagnostic approach, which delivers these characteristics, is essential and should be given high priority.



Effect of praziquantel and oxamniquine treatment on human isotype responses to Schistosoma mansoni: elevated IgE to adult worm.  


Pre- and post-treatment antibody isotype responses to Schistosoma mansoni adult worm and soluble egg antigens were compared in a study population previously used to show that IgE against adult worm correlates negatively with intensity of reinfection following chemotherapeutic cure. IgG subclass responses to adult worm were lower after treatment whereas IgM and IgE were higher. The increase in IgE to adult worm was observed with different preparations of adult worm, including the worm tegument, and with both praziquantel and oxamniquine therapy. No significant difference was observed between pre- and post-treatment isotype responses to egg antigens following either praziquantel or oxamniquine therapy. PMID:9278946

Webster, M; Fallon, P G; Fulford, A J; Butterworth, A E; Ouma, J H; Kimani, G; Dunne, D W



Evaluation of the effect of oxamniquine, praziquantel and a combination of both drugs on the intramolluscan phase of Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of oxamniquine (OXA), praziquantel (PZQ), and a combination of both drugs was evaluated at the intramolluscan phase of Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria glabrata snails infected with S. mansoni were treated with 500mg\\/kg OXA, 1000mg\\/kg PZQ or with 250mg\\/kg OXA and 500mg\\/kg PZQ, in association, at the pre-patent and patent phases of infection. The results showed that either treatments with

A. C. A. Mattos; G. C. Pereira; L. K. Jannotti-Passos; J. R. Kusel; P. M. Z. Coelho



Effect of combined praziquantel and recombinant glutathione S-transferase on resistance to reinfection in murine Schistosomiasis mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of recombinant Schistosoma mansoni-26 Glutathione S-transferase (rSm 26 GST) or soluble egg antigen (SEA) alone and in addition to praziquantel (PZQ) on the state of resistance to S. mansoni reinfection. The associated changes in the immune responses were evaluated. The experimental group of mice were injected intravenously before S. mansoni infection (80

Sanaa S. Botros; Ekram A. Makary; Kesmat M. Ahmed; Abdalla M. Ibrahim; Nawal N. Nashed; Hussein M. S. El-Nahal; Barbara L. Doughty; Hanaa I. Hassanein



Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel treatment in a highly endemic Schistosoma mansoni focus at Lake Albert, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and side effects following single and repeated (6 weeks apart) praziquantel treatment (40 mg\\/kg) in a Schistosoma mansoni-endemic focus with long-standing transmission at Lake Albert in Uganda between December 1996 and January 1997. The results were based on 482 individuals, randomly representing all age and both gender groups. The cure

N. B. Kabatereine; J. Kemijumbi; J. H. Ouma; R. F. Sturrock; A. E. Butterworth; H. Madsen; N. Ørnbjerg; D. W. Dunne; B. J. Vennnervald



Further studies on mefloquine and praziquantel alone or interaction of both drugs against Schistosoma japonicum in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to further understand and analyze the interaction of mefloquine with praziquantel against\\u000a adult Schistosoma japonicum in vitro. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae for 35–37 days were sacrificed, and adult schistosomes were collected by perfusion. Schistosomes were placed to\\u000a each of 12 wells of a Falcon plate and maintained in RPMI 1640 supplemented by

Shu-hua Xiao; Jian Xue; Hao-bing Zhang


Sex and stage-related sensitivity of Schistosoma mansoni to in vivo and in vitro praziquantel treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of praziquantel against a Puerto Rican strain of Schistosoma mansoni was assessed using both in vivo and in vitro approach. The drug effective dose (50%) in the infected mouse model was about 30 times higher when determined against 28-day-old infections than against 7-week-old parasites. Single-sex female infections were also largely refractory to treatment and single-sex male infections moderately

Livia Pica-Mattoccia; Donato Cioli



[Intestinal parasites in children in Biankouma, Ivory Coast (mountaineous western region): efficacy and safety of praziquantel and albendazole].  


Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are a global public health problem, especially among schoolchildren. The purpose of this study was to determine the overall and specific prevalences of intestinal helminth infection and to assess the clinical efficacy, tolerance, and safety of praziquantel and albendazole for treating it. A descriptive cross-sectional study based on random sampling with one degree of freedom was conducted from November 2006 to March 2007 in the primary schools of Biankouma, Côte d'Ivoire. Stool samples were collected from 386 children aged from 4 to 15 years and analyzed by direct examination, with both the simplified Ritchie and Kato techniques. Children infected by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis eggs were treated with praziquantel (40 mg/kg in a single dose), albendazole (400 mg/kg in a single dose) or both, as deemed necessary. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasite infection was 55.2%, including overall 15.4% with more than one parasite: two in 14.2% and three in 1.2%. Infection was correlated with male gender and older age. The most frequent helminths were Schistosoma mansoni (35.5%) and Necator americanus (25.9%). The efficacy rate for praziquantel, defined as parasite-free stools, was 57.7% on day 14 and 80.9% on day 90. The efficacy rate for albendazole on day 7 was 96.1% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 93% for Necator americanus and 81.3% for Trichuris trichiura. Adverse effects were common (40.8%) but minor (abdominal pain, headache, and itching) within 2 to 4 hours after intake of praziquantel. PMID:23107664

Adoubryn, K D; Kouadio-Yapo, C G; Ouhon, J; Aka, N A D; Bintto, F; Assoumou, A


Utility of Repeated Praziquantel Dosing in the Treatment of Schistosomiasis in High-Risk Communities in Africa: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundControversy persists about the optimal approach to drug-based control of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities. In a systematic review of published studies, we examined evidence for incremental benefits from repeated praziquantel dosing, given 2 to 8 weeks after an initial dose, in Schistosoma-endemic areas of Africa.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe performed systematic searches of electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE for relevant data using search

Charles H. King; Stephanie K. Olbrych; Margaret Soon; Mendel E. Singer; Jen Carter; Daniel G. Colley



Utility of Repeated Praziquantel Dosing in the Treatment of Schistosomiasis in High-Risk Communities in Africa: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Controversy persists about the optimal approach to drug-based control of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities. In a systematic review of published studies, we examined evidence for incremental benefits from repeated praziquantel dosing, given 2 to 8 weeks after an initial dose, in Schistosoma-endemic areas of Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed systematic searches of electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE for relevant data using search terms ‘schistosomiasis’, ‘dosing’ and ‘praziquantel’ and hand searches of personal collections and bibliographies of recovered articles. In 10 reports meeting study criteria, improvements in parasitological treatment outcomes after two doses of praziquantel were greater for S. mansoni infection than for S. haematobium infection. Observed cure rates (positive to negative conversion in egg detection assays) were, for S. mansoni, 69–91% cure after two doses vs. 42–79% after one dose and, for S. haematobium, 46–99% cure after two doses vs. 37–93% after a single dose. Treatment benefits in terms of reduction in intensity (mean egg count) were also different for the two species—for S. mansoni, the 2-dose regimen yielded an weighted average 89% reduction in standardized egg counts compared to a 83% reduction after one dose; for S. haematobium, two doses gave a 93% reduction compared to a 94% reduction with a single dose. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed based on Markov life path modeling. Conclusions/Significance Although schedules for repeated treatment with praziquantel require greater inputs in terms of direct costs and community participation, there are incremental benefits to this approach at an estimated cost of $153 (S. mansoni)–$211 (S. haematobium) per additional lifetime QALY gained by double treatment in school-based programs. More rapid reduction of infection-related disease may improve program adherence, and if, as an externality of the program, transmission can be reduced through more effective coverage, significant additional benefits are expected to accrue in the targeted communities.

King, Charles H.; Olbrych, Stephanie K.; Soon, Margaret; Singer, Mendel E.; Carter, Jen; Colley, Daniel G.



Safety and efficacy of praziquantel syrup (Epiquantel(®)) against Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni in preschool-aged children in Niger.  


Given the characteristic age-prevalence curve of Schistosoma infection, preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel is primarily targeted at school-aged children, whilst, in highly endemic areas, other high-risk groups might be included for regular treatment. Nevertheless, schistosomiasis can affect children well before they reach school-age, but this population group is usually excluded from preventive chemotherapy. We assessed the safety and efficacy of praziquantel syrup (Epiquantel(®)) in preschool-aged children in three villages of Niger. Children aged ?72 months provided multiple urine and stool samples that were microscopically examined using standard protocols. Schistosoma-positive children were treated with praziquantel syrup at a dose of 40mg/kg after a meal of millet porridge. Children remained under medical supervision for 4h and adverse events were recorded. Additionally, a questionnaire was administrated to the mothers/guardians 24h post-treatment for further probing of adverse events. Treatment efficacy was evaluated 3 and 6 weeks post-treatment using multiple stool and urine samples. A third of the 243 treated children reported adverse events within 4h, whilst a further 6.2% reported adverse events upon probing 24h post-treatment. Abdominal pain, bloody diarrhoea and sleepiness were the most common adverse events, but these were transient and self-limiting. Praziquantel syrup showed moderate-to-high efficacy against Schistosoma haematobium with egg reduction rates of 69.4% and 71.2% 3 and 6 weeks post-treatment and cure rates of 85.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 79.7-90.5%) and 94.9% (95% CI 90.5-97.6%), respectively. Considerably lower cure and egg reduction rates were observed against Schistosoma mansoni (e.g. cure rate at 6-week post-treatment follow-up was only 50.6% (95% CI 39.9-61.2%). Concluding, praziquantel syrup is well tolerated in preschool-aged children with moderate-to-high efficacy against S. haematobium, but considerably lower efficacy against S. mansoni in Niger. A larger study is warranted to investigate the observed differences in species-specific susceptibilities and to assess operational issues and community-effectiveness. PMID:23237719

Garba, Amadou; Lamine, Mariama S; Djibo, Ali; Tahirou, Almoustapha; Aouami, Mahamadou Aboubacar; Alfari, Aichatou; Phillips, Anna E; Fenwick, Alan; Utzinger, Jürg



Ferrocenyl derivatives of the anthelmintic praziquantel: design, synthesis, and biological evaluation.  


The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 18 ferrocenyl derivatives (4A-12A and 4B-12B) of the most well-known drug against schistosomiasis, namely praziquantel (PZQ), are reported. These compounds, which have been all isolated as racemates, were unambiguously characterized by ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis as well as by X-ray crystallography for 4A, 5A, and 7A. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that the complexes were moderately toxic toward a cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and, importantly, significantly less active toward a noncancerous cell line (MRC-5). The in vitro anthelmintic activity of the 18 ferrocenyl PZQ derivatives was tested against adult Schistosoma mansoni, and values in the micromolar range (26-68 ?M) were determined for the four most active compounds. It was also demonstrated using two compounds of the series as models (8A and 8B) that the complexes were stable when incubated for 24 h at 37 °C in human plasma. PMID:23005702

Patra, Malay; Ingram, Katrin; Pierroz, Vanessa; Ferrari, Stefano; Spingler, Bernhard; Keiser, Jennifer; Gasser, Gilles



[Coverage rate and satisfaction of populations after mass treatment with praziquantel and albendazole in Mali].  


In Mali, schistosomiasis always remains a major public health problem. In 2005, mass treatment campaigns with praziquantel and albendazole have been organized in all endemic regions. The present study aimed to assess the impact of these mass treatment campaigns and the recipient's satisfaction in two endemic areas (Mopti and Ségou). It was a cross-sectional study with one passage from February to March 2006. The study carried out on political authorities (n=142), teachers and school administers (n=70), health workers (n=46), community distributors (n=33), community members (n=2170) and pupils (n=2480). We used Lot Quality Assurance Sample (LQAS) to determine treatment coverage and recipient's satisfaction. Two types of lots were considered, villages and schools. Questionnaires were used for investigation. In Ségou, the treatment rates varied from 100% at school level and in community in Bla district to 97.2% in the community of Ségou town. In Mopti, a treatment rate of 100% was observed in Bankass and Douentza both at school and in the community. The proportion of happiest individuals (to feel well) after the mass treatment campaign was 72.3% among pupils and 76.6% in the community. The results of this study suggest that the high treatment coverage rates observed during these campaigns should be sustained by a yearly chemotherapy strategy preceded by a community's health education programmes. PMID:19666362

Sangho, H; Dabo, A; Sidibé, A; Dembélé, R; Diawara, A; Diallo, A; Konaté, S



In vitro and in vivo evaluation of praziquantel loaded implants based on PEG/PCL blends.  


In the present study, a series of praziquantel (PZQ) loaded implants based on PEG/PCL blends are fabricated by a combination of twin-screw mixing and hot-melt extrusion. In vitro drug release from these implants and the performance of the implants after implantation in rats are evaluated. XRD and DSC analysis results exhibit each component in the implants is mainly in its crystalline state. Dissolution test shows that the higher PEG content there is in the implants, the faster the drug will be released. Interestingly, PEG release from all implants is far faster than PZQ release, and complete PEG release occurs in 72 h. SEM result displays that after the in vitro drug release test, the cross-sections of implants with low PEG contents (0-5%) primarily consist of discrete pores; while those of implants with high PEG contents (10-30%) consist of interconnected pores or channels. The fitting results of drug release data with kinetic models reveal that PZQ release is governed by diffusion. After implantation, drug release becomes more moderate compared with in vitro drug release, and it tends to follow zero-order in the later stage. These results suggest that changing the composition of the PEG/PCL blends is an effective tool to adjust in vitro/in vivo drug release from the implants. PMID:20005928

Cheng, Liang; Lei, Lei; Guo, Shengrong



Eurytrema pancreaticum: the in vitro effect of praziquantel and triclabendazole on the adult fluke.  


The efficacy and tolerance of the 80 microg/ml praziquantel (PZQ) and 40 microg/ml triclabendazole (TCZ) against adult stage Eurytrema pancreaticum in vitro were investigated at 3, 12, and 15 h incubation. Motility of the flukes and histopathological changes were studied. Sudden paralysis and death were observed after exposed to PZQ as early as 3h incubation. In contrast, the TCZ treated flukes showed active mobility at all intervals. By light microscopic examination, severe damages in various organs such as tegument, muscle, and testes were observed early at 12h incubation of these drugs. PZQ caused more severe damage to flukes than TCZ. There were vigorous contraction of musculature, progressive shrinkage of circular and longitudinal muscles, vacuolization and disintegration of the tegument disrupting the worms' outer surface including detachment of spines in the PZQ treatment. The cells in testes were slightly increased in size and followed by degeneration leaving several hollow spaces. The uterus and vitelline glands remained unaffected. The direct observation of the fluke motility and light microscopic study highly suggested that PZQ was more effective than TCZ treatment for the eurytremiasis infection. PMID:16125702

Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee; Sahaphong, Somphong; Tansatit, Tawewan; Kangwanrangsan, Niwat; Pipatshukiat, Siriporn



Ca(2+) channels and praziquantel: A view from the free world.  


Targeting the cellular Ca(2+) channels and pumps that underpin parasite Ca(2+) homeostasis may realize novel antihelmintic agents. Indeed, the antischistosomal drug praziquantel (PZQ) is a key clinical agent that has been proposed to work in this manner. Heterologous expression data has implicated an action of PZQ on voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels, although the relevant in vivo target of this drug has remained undefined over three decades of clinical use. The purpose of this review is to bring new perspective to this issue by discussing the potential utility of free-living planarian flatworms for providing new insight into the mechanism of PZQ action. First, we discuss in vivo functional genetic data from the planarian system that broadly supports the molecular data collected in heterologous systems and the 'Ca(2+) hypothesis' of PZQ action. On the basis of these similarities we highlight our current knowledge of platyhelminth voltage operated Ca(2+) channels, their unique molecular pharmacology and the downstream functional PZQ interactome engaged by dysregulation of Ca(2+) influx that has potential to yield novel antischistosomal targets. Overall the broad dataset underscores a common theme of PZQ-evoked disruptions of Ca(2+) homeostasis in trematodes, cestodes and turbellarians, and showcases the utility of the planarian model for deriving insight into drug action and targets in parasitic flatworms. PMID:23246536

Chan, John D; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Marchant, Jonathan S



Evaluation of avocado/soybean unsaponifiable alone or concurrently with praziquantel in murine schistosomiasis.  


Aiming to study the influence of administration of avocado/soybean unsaponifiable (ASU) alone or concurrently with praziquantel (PZQ) on Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice, this study was established. ASU (300mg/kg) was administered orally at 3 time intervals; 30 days prior to infection, 1 day post-infection (pi), 3 weeks pi and continued until week 7 pi. All the mice were sacrificed 9 weeks pi. Administration of ASU either prior to the infection or 1 day pi resulted in significant elimination of 30.2% and 19.1% of the recovered worms, respectively, and caused mild, to moderate surface, ultrastructure damage in some worms. The reduction in worm burden was proportional to the number of coupled worms, indicating a possible uncoupling nature of ASU. ASU significantly decreased the number of eggs/g of the liver and altered oogram pattern in both infected and PZQ-treated groups. The time and duration of ASU administration clearly affected the worm and egg loads. ASU significantly reduced granuloma sizes, and the levels of the cytokines, interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), in both infected and PZQ-treated groups indicating its anti-inflammatory activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that long term administration of ASU may result in a mild course of murine schistosomiasis and may be a promising complementary treatment to PZQ. PMID:22342904

Soliman, Maha F M



Effect of praziquantel on certain immune responses of schistosomal Egyptian patients. I. Changes of specific immunoglobulins.  


Specific antischistosomal IgG, IgM, and IgE were estimated by ELISA in 117 rural school students before specific treatment with praziquantel monthly for 3-4 months thereafter. IgG and IgM were estimated as percentage of bound antibodies. IgE was estimated by avidin-biotin ELISA (AB-ELISA) as IU/ml using a panel of known IgE standards. Soluble surface Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen was used for all estimates. Total IgE was estimated in a smaller group by an ELISA kit. The percentage of specific IgE was calculated. A group of endemic controls (22 students) and non-endemic controls (17 cases) were included. Statistical analysis of results showed the specific immunoglobulins to be significantly reduced 2 months after treatment of the schistosomal cases. These reduced levels, however, were still significantly higher than those of controls. The presence of early hepatosplenomegaly and the co-existence of other parasites had no significant influence on the results. No correlation could be established between the levels of specific antischistosomal IgG, M and E and the intensity of infection. The significance of these results is discussed. PMID:3112768

Shaker, Z A; Hassanein, H I; Kamel, M M; el-Bahairy, N M; el-Kalouby, A H; el-Raziky, E H



Efficacy of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature and immature adult Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala infections in dogs.  


This paper reports the efficacy of a novel flavoured tablet formulation of emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature and immature adult hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala) in dogs. The tablets were used at the minimum recommended dose of 1 mg emodepside and 5 mg praziquantel per kg body weight. Four randomised, blinded and controlled laboratory studies demonstrated >95% efficacy against mature and immature adult stages of U. stenocephala and four randomised, blinded and controlled laboratory studies demonstrated >98% efficacy against mature and immature adult stages of A. caninum. No side effects of the treatment were observed. It is concluded that the emodepside plus praziquantel tablet is an effective and safe treatment against mature and immature hookworms. PMID:19575220

Schimmel, Annette; Altreuther, Gertraut; Schroeder, Iris; Charles, Samuel; Cruthers, Larry; Ketzis, Jennifer; Kok, Dawid J; Kraemer, Friederike; McCall, John W; Krieger, Klemens J



Effect of praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy on intensity of infection and antibody responses to schistosome antigens: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Praziquantel treatment of schistosomiasis during pregnancy was only recommended in 2002; hence the effects of treatment during pregnancy are not fully known. We have therefore evaluated the effects on infection intensity and the immunological effects of praziquantel treatment against Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy, compared with treatment after delivery. Methods A nested cohort of 387 Schistosoma mansoni infected women was recruited within a larger trial of de-worming during pregnancy. Women were randomised to receive praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy. All women were treated after delivery. Infection intensity after treatment was assessed by a single Kato-Katz examination of stool samples with duplicate slides and categorised as undetected, light (1–99 eggs per gram (epg)), moderate (100–399 epg) or heavy (?400 epg). Antibodies against S. mansoni worm and egg antigens were measured by ELISA. Results were compared between women first treated during pregnancy and women first treated after delivery. Results At enrolment, 252 (65.1%) of the women had light infection (median (IQR) epg: 35 (11, 59)), 75 (19.3%) moderate (median (IQR) epg: 179(131, 227)) and 60 (15.5%) had heavy infection (median (IQR) epg: 749 (521, 1169)) with S. mansoni. At six weeks after praziquantel treatment during pregnancy S. mansoni infection was not detectable in 81.9% of the women and prevalence and intensity had decreased to 11.8% light, 4.7% moderate and 1.6% heavy a similar reduction when compared with those first treated after delivery (undetected (88.5%), light (10.6%), moderate (0.9%) and heavy (0%), p = 0.16). Parasite specific antibody levels were lower during pregnancy than after delivery. Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy boosted anti-worm IgG isotypes and to a lesser extent IgE, but these boosts were less pronounced than in women whose treatment was delayed until after delivery. Praziquantel had limited effects on antibodies against egg antigens. Conclusion S mansoni antigen-specific antibody levels and praziquantel-induced boosts in antibody levels were broadly suppressed during pregnancy, but this was not associated with major reduction in the efficacy of praziquantel. Long-term implications of these findings in relation to resistance to re-infection remain to be explored. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number for the current study: ISRCTN32849447



Susceptibility of a Brazilian wild rodent isolate of Schistosoma mansoni to praziquantel in mice.  


The therapeutic effects of praziquantel (PZQ) against a Schistosoma mansoni isolate derived from Nectomys squamipes (isolate R) and a susceptible isolate (BH) were analyzed in Swiss mice by fecal egg counting, adult worm reduction and oogram pattern. Infected mice were orally administrated with 62.5mg/kg (group 1), 125mg/kg (group 2), 250mg/kg (group 3) and 500mg/kg (group 4), each dose divided over 3 days (49, 50 and 51 days after infection). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). In regard to isolate R, no fecal eggs were observed with 250 mg/Kg and 500 mg/kg (p<0.05), whereas BH excretion reached zero with all doses. Mean worm burden reduction was significantly (p<0.05) higher at the two highest concentrations, regardless of isolate. At 62.5mg/kg, the percentage of immature eggs varied from 17% (isolate R) to 38% (isolate BH). At 125 mg/kg, the percentage of immature eggs varied from 20% (isolate R) to 16% (isolate BH). At 250 mg/kg, immature eggs dropped significantly to 1% (isolate R) and 4% (isolate BH). At 500 mg/kg, no immature eggs were found in isolate R, whereas in BH was 8%. No dosage significantly (p>0.05) affected the percentage of mature eggs, regardless of isolate. There was a large increase (p<0.001) in the percentages of dead eggs in all treated groups of 62% and 64% in groups 3 and 4, respectively (isolate R). The percentage of dead eggs rose from 34% (group 1) to 58% (group 3) in isolate BH. Although group 4 showed lowest increase in the percentage of dead eggs (46%), it was higher (p<0.001) compared to the 8% in the control. Our findings indicate that the wild isolate from N. squamipes is susceptible to PZQ. PMID:22343042

Costa-Silva, Michele; Barros, Lucas de Andrade; Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Neves, Renata Heisler; Rodrigues-Silva, Rosângela; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Maldonado-Júnior, Arnaldo



Solid lipid nanoparticle suspension enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel against tapeworm  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease caused by tapeworm is an increasing public health and socioeconomic concern. In order to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) against tapeworm, PZQ-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticle (PZQ-HCO-SLN) suspension was prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The stability of the suspension at 4°C and room temperature was evaluated by the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles and in-vitro release pattern of the suspension. Pharmacokinetics was studied after subcutaneous administration of the suspension in dogs. The therapeutic effect of the novel formulation was evaluated in dogs naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The results showed that the drug recovery of the suspension was 97.59% ± 7.56%. Nanoparticle diameter, polydispersivity index, and zeta potential were 263.00 ± 11.15 nm, 0.34 ± 0.06, and ?11.57 ± 1.12 mV, respectively and showed no significant changes after 4 months of storage at both 4°C and room temperature. The stored suspensions displayed similar in-vitro release patterns as that of the newly prepared one. SLNs increased the bioavailability of PZQ 5.67-fold and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 56.71 to 280.38 hours. Single subcutaneous administration of PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension obtained enhanced therapeutic efficacy against tapeworm in infected dogs. At the dose of 5 mg/kg, the stool-ova reduction and negative conversion rates and tapeworm removal rate of the suspension were 100%, while the native PZQ were 91.55%, 87.5%, and 66.7%. When the dose reduced to 0.5 mg/kg, the native drug showed no effect, but the suspension still got the same therapeutic efficacy as that of the 5 mg/kg native PZQ. These results demonstrate that the PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension is a promising formulation to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PZQ.

Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Baoliang; Shi, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Ming; Zhou, Wenzhong



The inability of tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum to metabolize praziquantel.  


Biotransformation enzymes can, to a certain extent, protect parasitic worms against the toxic effects of anthelmintics and can contribute to drug-resistance development. The objective of our work was (1) to find and identify phase I and II metabolites of the anthelmintic praziquantel (PZQ) formed by the lancet fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) and the rat tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) and (2) to compare PZQ metabolites in helminths with PZQ biotransformation in rat as host species. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) was used for this purpose. During in vitro incubations, mitochondria-like and microsomes-like fractions (prepared from homogenates of adult worms or from rat liver homogenate) were incubated with 10 and 100 ?M PZQ. Liquid/liquid extraction was used for samples during in vitro experiments. In the ex vivo study, living D. dendriticum and H. diminuta adults were incubated in RPMI-1640 medium in the presence of 50 nM or 100 nM PZQ for 24h. After incubation, the worms were removed from the medium and homogenized. Homogenates of worms, medium from the incubation of worms or rat hepatocytes and rat urine (collected during 24h after oral PZQ administration) were separately extracted using solid-phase extraction. The results showed that both D. dendriticum and H. diminuta enzymatic systems are not able to metabolize PZQ. On the other hand, thirty one different phase I and four phase II PZQ metabolites were detected in rat samples using UHPLC/MS/MS analyses. These results show that our experimental helminths, as the members of tapeworm and fluke groups of parasites, are not able to deactivate PZQ, and that the biotransformation enzymes of the studied helminths do not contribute to PZQ-resistance. PMID:21996005

Vok?ál, Ivan; Jirásko, Robert; Jedli?ková, Veronika; Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Lamka, Ji?í; Hol?apek, Michal; Szotáková, Barbora



Artemether as adjuvant therapy to praziquantel in murine Egyptian schistosomiasis mansoni.  


We investigated the activity of artemether (ART) against different developmental stages of schistosomes alone and in addition to praziquantel (PZQ). ART was administered orally (400 mg/kg) 4 and 6 wk postinfection (PI), 4 and 5 wk PI, or 4 or 6 wk PI alone and in addition to oral PZQ (500 x 2 mg/kg) 6 wk PI. Mice were killed in parallel to infected untreated controls 8 wk PI. Parasitological parameters and histological changes in the liver were studied. ART given 4 and 6 wk PI reduced worm burdens by 59 and 55% and tissue egg load by 96 and 90%, respectively. Moreover, eggs in different developmental stages were not found. The reduction in worm and egg burden (63 and 58%, and 96 and 99%, respectively) in mice treated with ART 4 and 5 wk or 4 and 6 wk PI was comparable with that in ART-treated mice at 4 or 6 wk PI. Compared with PZQ alone, combined treatment of PZQ and ART (4 and 5 wk or 4 and 6 wk PI) did not enhance worm eradication, but there was a complete absence of parasite eggs. Livers revealed no granulomata when ART was given 4 and 5 wk or 4 and 6 wk PI, with minimal central necrosis in those treated 4 and 6 wk PI. In conclusion, combined treatment of ART (4 and 6 wk PI) and PZQ resulted in >90% worm eradication and amelioration of Schistosoma mansoni eggs from the tissues, with minor histological changes in the liver. PMID:15856895

Mahmoud, M R; Botros, S S



Schistosoma haematobium infections among schoolchildren in central Sudan one year after treatment with praziquantel  

PubMed Central

Background Chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ) is the mainstay of schistosomiasis control. However, there are recent concerns about tolerance or resistance to PZQ, so that monitoring its efficacy in different settings is required. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate the impact of PZQ for the treatment of Schistosoma haematobium infection among schoolchildren at Al Salamania, Central Sudan. Parasitological examinations for S. haematobium were performed in a cohort of schoolchildren (6–15?years of age) before and 1?year after treatment with a single dose of PZQ 40?mg/kg. Results Out of 562 (309 boys and 253 girls) schoolchildren recruited from three elementary schools, 420 completed one longitudinal dataset that comprised of data from two time points; baseline, and follow-up 1?year after treatment with a single dose of PZQ 40?mg/kg for S. haematobium infection. A single dose of PZQ significantly reduced the prevalence of S. haematobium infection by 83.3% (from 51.4% to 8.6%) and the geometric mean intensity of infection of positive individuals by 17.0% (from 87.7 to 72.8 eggs/10?ml of urine) 1?year after treatment. While there was no significant difference in the reduction of the prevalence of S. haematobium infection between the gender or age groups, there was a significantly higher reduction of intensity of S. haematobium infection among girls in comparison with boys. Conclusion There was a significant reduction of S. haematobium infection 1?year after PZQ treatment in this setting.



Solid lipid nanoparticle suspension enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel against tapeworm.  


Hydatid disease caused by tapeworm is an increasing public health and socioeconomic concern. In order to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) against tapeworm, PZQ-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticle (PZQ-HCO-SLN) suspension was prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The stability of the suspension at 4°C and room temperature was evaluated by the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles and in-vitro release pattern of the suspension. Pharmacokinetics was studied after subcutaneous administration of the suspension in dogs. The therapeutic effect of the novel formulation was evaluated in dogs naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The results showed that the drug recovery of the suspension was 97.59% ± 7.56%. Nanoparticle diameter, polydispersivity index, and zeta potential were 263.00 ± 11.15 nm, 0.34 ± 0.06, and -11.57 ± 1.12 mV, respectively and showed no significant changes after 4 months of storage at both 4°C and room temperature. The stored suspensions displayed similar in-vitro release patterns as that of the newly prepared one. SLNs increased the bioavailability of PZQ 5.67-fold and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 56.71 to 280.38 hours. Single subcutaneous administration of PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension obtained enhanced therapeutic efficacy against tapeworm in infected dogs. At the dose of 5 mg/kg, the stool-ova reduction and negative conversion rates and tapeworm removal rate of the suspension were 100%, while the native PZQ were 91.55%, 87.5%, and 66.7%. When the dose reduced to 0.5 mg/kg, the native drug showed no effect, but the suspension still got the same therapeutic efficacy as that of the 5 mg/kg native PZQ. These results demonstrate that the PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension is a promising formulation to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PZQ. PMID:22072873

Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Baoliang; Shi, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Ming; Zhou, Wenzhong



Therapeutic evaluation of two different dose regimens of praziquantel in a recent Schistosoma mansoni focus in Northern Senegal.  


A therapeutic trial, involving 130 Schistosoma mansoni-infected children, with no previous history of antischistosomal treatment, was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of two different dose regimens of praziquantel. The study was carried out because low cure rates were described in this recently established (1990) S. mansoni focus in northern Senegal, following treatment with a standard dosage of 40 mg/kg. The subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: one group (1) received 40 mg/kg in one oral dose, the other group (2) was treated with two oral doses of 30 mg/kg at a 6-hr interval. Parasitologic examination and circulating anodic antigen (CAA) detection were performed before, 10 days, three, six, and 21 weeks after chemotherapy. No significant differences in cure rates were found between the two groups. Six weeks after treatment, 34% and 44% of the individuals were found to be stool negative in group 1 and group 2, respectively. However, only 10-15% became completely negative according to the serum CAA antigen assay. Mean egg counts were reduced by 99% in both groups. Antigen detection confirmed the parasitologic results. Fewer side effects were observed in the group treated with 2 x 30 mg/kg, which may be explained by split dosage administration. Our study shows that the low cure rates observed in this area could not be improved by using a higher dosage of praziquantel. PMID:9180600

Guisse, F; Polman, K; Stelma, F F; Mbaye, A; Talla, I; Niang, M; Deelder, A M; Ndir, O; Gryseels, B



A comparison of the susceptibility to praziquantel of Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, S. mansoni, S. intercalatum and S. mattheei in hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of six- to eight-week-old hamsters each experimentally infected with Sudanese and South African strains of S. haematobium, Puerto Rican and Liberian strains of S. mansoni, S. japonicum from mainland China, a Congo strain of S. intercalatum and a Nelspruit South African strain of S. mattheei, were treated with different dosage regimens of a new schistosomicide — praziquantel.

G. Webbe; C. James



The susceptibility to praziquantel of Schistosoma haematobium in the baboon ( Papio anubis ) and of S. japonicum in the vervet monkey ( Cercopithecus aethiops )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baboons infected with S. haematobium and vervet monkeys infected with S. japonicum were treated orally with different dosage regimens of praziquantel. The progress of the infections in the primates was followed by weekly faecal and urine egg counts before and after treatment. The response to treatment was also monitored by observing oogram changes in rectal snips. The baboons and vervet

C. James; G. Webbe; G. S. Nelson



Performance and Safety of Praziquantel for Treatment of Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Infants and Preschool Children  

PubMed Central

Background In 2012 the WHO formally recognised that infants and preschool children are at significant risk of schistosomiasis and qualify for treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). Targeted surveys determining both the performance and safety of this drug are now needed in endemic areas. We have formally assessed parasitological cure and putative side-effects in a prospective cohort of Schistosoma mansoni-infected children (aged 5 months–7 years old) in lakeshore settings of Uganda. Methodology/Principal Findings From a total of 369 children found to be egg-patent for intestinal schistosomiasis, 305 were followed-up three to four weeks after PZQ treatment and infection status re-assessed. Separately, a previously tested side-effect questionnaire was employed before and 24 hours after PZQ treatment to assess incidence and amelioration of symptoms in young children and their mothers. While the overall observed parasitological cure was 56.4%, a significant difference was found between a sub-set of children who had a history of multiple PZQ treatments (between one and four in an 18 month period), where cure rate was 41.7%, and those who had never received treatment (cure rate was 77·6%). PZQ proved to be safe, with only mild reported side effects which cleared within a month after treatment. Prevalence of reported symptoms was significantly lower in children than in mothers, and fewer side-effects were reported upon subsequent rounds of PZQ treatment. Conclusion/Significance Our findings show that PZQ treatment of young children resulted in satisfactory cure rates, and marked reduction in egg-output, with only mild and transient reported side-effects. However, the cure rate is clearly lower in younger children and those with history of previous treatment. Cure rate, but not egg reduction rate, was also lower in children with heavier pre-intervention infection intensity. With chemotherapy now recommended as a long-term strategy for disease control in young children, research into optimising the periodicity of targeted treatment strategies is now crucial.

Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C.; Betson, Martha; Atuhaire, Aaron; Arinaitwe, Moses; Navaratnam, Annalan M. D.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Bickle, Quentin; Stothard, J. Russell



The immunopathology of human Schistosomiasis-III. Immunoglobulin isotype profiles and response to praziquantel.  


Immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype (IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM, IgD and IgE) levels were investigated, both pre- and post-treatment with praziquantel (PZQ), in 43 adults and children chronically infected with Schistosoma mansoni, by means of a two-site, isotype-specific immunoenzymometric assay. The patients were classified as responders (R) or non-responders (NR) on the basis of their circumoval precipitin test (COPT) results 12 months after treatment. In comparison with controls, pre-treatment R children showed significantly higher levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG4 (p < 0.001) and IgE (p < 0.01); and diminished IgG2 (p < 0.05), while NR children showed significantly elevated levels only of IgE (p < 0.05). Twelve months after therapy, R children maintained significantly lower levels of IgG2, but showed significantly decreased levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG4, and IgE, while the Ig isotype profile of NR children was unaltered. Adult R and NR showed similar isotype profiles before chemotherapy, with the exception of significantly elevated IgM levels in R. Twelve months after therapy, R adults showed significantly decreased levels of IgG, IgG1, and IgG4, while NR adults showed only diminished IgG4 levels. These results reveal different Ig isotype profiles in untreated adults and children chronically infected with S. mansoni. The results further show that the pre-treatment Ig isotype profile may be significantly modified after an effective R to chemotherapy, accounted for by down regulation of the IgG1 isotype in association with negative seroconversion of the COPT in R patients. The COPT reaction has been associated with the highly specific egg glycoprotein antigen omega 1, which shows a significant reduction in reactivity six months after treatment. IgG1 may thus play a main role in the response against the omega 1 antigen. PMID:9137744

Ramírez, R M; Ceballos, E; Alarcón de Noya, B; Noya, O; Bianco, N


Effect of praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy on immune responses to schistosome antigens among the offspring: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Offspring of women with schistosomiasis may exhibit immune responsiveness to schistosomes due to in utero sensitisation or trans-placental transfer of antibodies. Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy boosts maternal immune responses to schistosome antigens and reduces worm burden. Effects of praziquantel treatment during pregnancy on responses among offspring are unknown. Methods In a trial of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447;, offspring of women with Schistosoma mansoni were examined for cytokine and antibody responses to schistosome worm (SWA) and egg (SEA) antigen, in cord blood and at age one year. Relationships to maternal responses and pre-treatment infection intensities were examined, and responses were compared between the offspring of women who did, or did not receive praziquantel treatment during pregnancy. Results Of 388 S. mansoni-infected women studied, samples were obtained at age one year from 215 of their infants. Stool examination for S. mansoni eggs was negative for all infants. Cord and infant samples were characterised by very low cytokine production in response to schistosome antigens with the exception of cord IL-10 responses, which were substantial. Cord and infant cytokine responses showed no association with maternal responses. As expected, cord blood levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G to SWA and SEA were high and correlated with maternal antibodies. However, by age one year IgG levels had waned and were hardly detectable. Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy showed no effect on cytokine responses or antibodies levels to SWA or SEA either in cord blood or at age one year, except for IgG1 to SWA, which was elevated in infants of treated mothers, reflecting maternal levels. There was some evidence that maternal infection intensity was positively associated with cord blood IL-5 and IL-13 responses to SWA, and IL-5 responses to SEA, and that this association was modified by treatment with praziquantel. Conclusions Despite strong effects on maternal infection intensity and maternal immune responses, praziquantel treatment of infected women during pregnancy had no effect on anti-schistosome immune responses among offspring by age one year. Whether the treatment will impact upon the offspring's responses on exposure to primary schistosome infection remains to be elucidated. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN32849447



Efficacy and Safety of Praziquantel in Preschool-Aged Children in an Area Co-Endemic for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium  

PubMed Central

Background In sub-Saharan Africa the recommended strategy to control schistosomiasis is preventive chemotherapy. Emphasis is placed on school-aged children, but in high endemicity areas, preschool-aged children are also at risk, and hence might need treatment with praziquantel. Since a pediatric formulation (e.g., syrup) is not available outside of Egypt, crushed praziquantel tablets are used, but the efficacy and safety of this treatment regimen is insufficiently studied. Methodology We assessed the efficacy and safety of crushed praziquantel tablets among preschool-aged children (<6 years) in the Azaguié district, south Côte d'Ivoire, where Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium coexist. Using a cross-sectional design, children provided two stool and two urine samples before and 3 weeks after treatment. Crushed praziquantel tablets, mixed with water, were administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Adverse events were assessed and graded 4 and 24 hours posttreatment by interviewing mothers/guardians. Principal Findings Overall, 160 preschool-aged children had at least one stool and one urine sample examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette for S. mansoni, and urine filtration for S. haematobium diagnosis before and 3 weeks after praziquantel administration. According to the Kato-Katz and urine filtration results, we found high efficacy against S. mansoni (cure rate (CR), 88.6%; egg reduction rate (ERR), 96.7%) and S. haematobium (CR, 88.9%; ERR, 98.0%). POC-CCA revealed considerably lower efficacy against S. mansoni (CR, 53.8%). Treatment was generally well tolerated, but moderately severe adverse events (i.e., body and face inflammation), were observed in four Schistosoma egg-negative children. Conclusions/Significance Crushed praziquantel administered to preschool-aged children at a dose of 40 mg/kg is efficacious against S. mansoni and S. haematobium in a co-endemic setting of Côte d'Ivoire. Further research is required with highly sensitive diagnostic tools and safety must be investigated in more depth. Trial Registration ISRCTN53172722

Coulibaly, Jean T.; N'Gbesso, Yve K.; Knopp, Stefanie; Keiser, Jennifer; N'Goran, Eliezer K.; Utzinger, Jurg



Schistosoma haematobium Treatment in 1-5 Year Old Children: Safety and Efficacy of the Antihelminthic Drug Praziquantel  

PubMed Central

Background Morbidity due to schistosomiasis is currently controlled by treatment of schistosome infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ). Children aged up to 5 years are currently excluded from schistosome control programmes largely due to the lack of PZQ safety data in this age group. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of PZQ treatment in such children. Methods Zimbabwean children aged 1–5 years (n?=?104) were treated with PZQ tablets and side effects were assessed by questionnaire administered to their caregivers within 24 hours of taking PZQ. Treatment efficacy was determined 6 weeks after PZQ administration through schistosome egg counts in urine. The change in infection levels in the children 1–5 years old (n?=?100) was compared to that in 6–10 year old children (n?=?435). Principal Findings Pre-treatment S. haematobium infection intensity in 1–5 year olds was 14.6 eggs/10 ml urine and prevalence was 21%. Of the 104 children, 3.8% reported side effects within 24 hours of taking PZQ treatment. These were stomach ache, loss of appetite, lethargy and inflammation of the face and body. PZQ treatment significantly reduced schistosome infection levels in 1–5 year olds with an egg reduction rate (ERR) of 99% and cure rate (CR) of 92%. This was comparable to the efficacy of praziquantel in 6–10 year olds where ERR was 96% and CR was 67%. Interpretation/Significance PZQ treatment is as safe and efficacious in children aged 1–5 years as it is in older children aged 6–10 years in whom PZQ is the drug of choice for control of schistosome infections.

Mutapi, Francisca; Rujeni, Nadine; Bourke, Claire; Mitchell, Kate; Appleby, Laura; Nausch, Norman; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Os Meliponina tem ocorrência restrita a áreas tropicais e subtropicais e é na Região Neotropical que possuem a maior diversidade de espécies. A maioria faz seus ninhos preferencialmente em ocos de árvores, no entanto, algumas espécies podem nidificar em cavidades no solo, em cupinzeiros ou formigueiros (abandonados ou ativos), em ninhos de pássaros desativados ou em paredes de casas.

Estefane Leoncini SIQUEIRA; Roderic Breno MARTINES; Fernanda Helena


[Praziquantel, levamisole and diflubenzuron in the control of Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea: Branchiura) and Anacanthorus penilabiatus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae)].  


This assay evaluated the control efficacy of diflubenzuron, praziquantel and levamisole added to the diet of pacu (Piaractus mesoptamicus) infected with Anacanthorus penilabiatus and Dolops carvalhoi. 19 water tanks of 300 L capacity were utilized with 28 fish in each one. The treatments were made by mixing the active principles in the diet. The experiment was evaluated in four harvests done 1 day before and 3, 7 and 15 days after the treatment. The medicated feeding was applied for 7 days. The results of efficacy suggest that the diflubenzuron alone or associated with levamisole and praziquantel was efficient against the crustacean D. carvalhoi and the efficacy in the 3, 7 and 15 days evaluations ranged from 96.2 to 100%. Against the monogenean the drugs did not present efficacy. The results suggest the use of diflubenzuron for the control of D. carvalhoi in captive fishes in special conditions. PMID:19500462

Schalch, Sergio Henrique Canello; de Moraes, Flávio Ruas; Soares, Vando Edésio


The use of pentoxifylline as adjuvant therapy with praziquantel downregulates profibrogenic cytokines, collagen deposition and oxidative stress in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the possible use of pentoxifylline (PTX), with antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties, as adjuvant in treatment of schistosomal liver fibrosis through determination of some profibrogenic cytokines, oxidative stress and collagen deposition. Animals were classified into seven groups: normal control (i), Schistosoma mansoni-infected untreated (ii), infected treated with praziquantel (PZQ) curative, 1000mg\\/kg (iii) or sub curative, 200mg\\/kg dose (iv),

Naglaa El-Lakkany; Sayed Seif el-Din; Fatma Ebeid



Light and scanning electron microscopy studies on the effects of the enantiomers of praziquantel and its main metabolite on Schistosoma mansoni in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the effects of the enantiomers of the anthelmintic drug praziquantel (PZQ) and its main metabolitetrans-4-hydroxypraziquantel (TRANS) on pairs ofSchistosoma mansoni worms were examined in vitro. Highly purified enantiomers (optical purity, >99.9% for PZQ and 99.0% for TRANS) were used. Paired worms were incubated for 4 h in RPMI medium containing 0.01, 0.02, 0.075, 0.1, 2.5, 10,

Ute Staudt; Giintcr Schmahl; Gottfried Blaschke; Heinz Mehlhorn



Changes in IgE and Antigen-dependent histamine-release in peripheral blood of Schistosoma mansoni-infected Ugandan fishermen after treatment with praziquantel  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Parasite-specific IgE levels correlate with human resistance to reinfection with Schistosoma spp. after chemotherapy. Although the role of eosinophils in schistosomiasis has been the focus of a great deal of important research, the involvement of other Fc? receptor-bearing cells, such as mast cells and basophils, has not been investigated in relation to human immunity to schistosomes. Chemotherapy with praziquantel

Mohamed Z Satti; Pierre Cahen; Per S Skov; Sarah Joseph; Frances M Jones; Colin Fitzsimmons; Karl F Hoffmann; Claus Reimert; H Curtis Kariuki; Francis Kazibwe; Joseph K Mwatha; Gachuhi Kimani; Birgitte J Vennervald; John H Ouma; Narcis B Kabatereine; David W Dunne



Validation of sensitivity to praziquantel using Schistosoma mansoni worm muscle tension and Ca 2+-uptake as possible in vitro correlates to in vivo ED 50 determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosome worm muscle tension and [45Ca2+]-uptake were tested as possible correlates of susceptibility to praziquantel (PZQ) assessed by estimating the drug ED50. Schistosoma mansoni cercariae of PZQ sensitive (S-CD, S-MOC and S-GP) and insensitive S. mansoni isolates (I-EE2, I-BANL and I-Senegal 47) were used to infect batches of CD-1 Swiss albino mice. Seven weeks after infection, animals of each batch

Samia William; Sanaa Botros



Praziquantel side effects and efficacy related to Schistosoma mansoni egg loads and morbidity in primary school children in north-east Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 611 Schistosoma mansoni infected primary school children from three schools in north-east Ethiopia were treated with praziquantel at 40 mg\\/kg body weight in a single dose. Pre-treatment, 40.4% had no presenting symptoms and 30–40% had nausea, abdominal cramps and\\/or bloody-mucoid diarrhoea. None of the pre-treatment symptoms was related to nutritional status, intensity of S. mansoni egg excretion,

Nega Berhe; Svein Gunar Gundersen; Fekadu Abebe; Hailu Birrie; Girmay Medhin; Teferi Gemetchu



Experimental chemotherapy of Schistosoma mansoni with praziquantel and oxamniquine: differential effect of single or combined formulations of drugs on various strains and on both sexes of the parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of two Venezuelan (YT and SM) and one Brazilian (BH) strain ofSchistosoma mansoni to single oral doses of praziquantel (Pz; 250 or 500 mg\\/kg), oxamniquine (Ox; 40, 60, or 100 mg\\/kg) or to low-dose combinations of both drugs (33 mg\\/kg Pz and 25 mg\\/kg Ox; 66 mg\\/kg Pz and 12.5 mg\\/kg Ox; 250 mg\\/kg Pz and 40 mg\\/kg

V. S. Delgado; D. P. Suárez; I. M. Cesari; R. N. Incani



Light and electron microscopic studies on the effect of praziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni, Dicrocoelium dendriticum , and Fasciola hepatica (trematoda) in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structure of the tegument of three trematode species,Schistosoma mansoni, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, andFasciola hepatica, was studied by means of light scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after in vitro exposure to 0, 1,10, and 100 µg\\/ml of the anthelmintic praziquantel for 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. InS. mansoni andD. dendriticum the resulting vacuolization of the tegument was

B. Becker; H. Mehlhorn; P. Andrews; H. Thomas; J. Eckert



Efficacy of a combination product containing pyrantel, febantel and praziquantel (Drontal Plus Flavour, Bayer Animal Health) against experimental infection with the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum in dogs.  


Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common hookworm of dogs, cats and humans in Asia. More recently, this hookworm was found to infect dogs in Australia. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a combination product containing pyrantel, febantel and praziquantel (Drontal) Plus Flavour, Bayer) against A. ceylanicum in experimentally infected dogs. Twelve dogs were each subcutaneously injected with 300 infective third-stage larvae of A. ceylanicum. Pups were stratified by egg count and randomly allocated equally into control and treatment groups. The pups in the treatment group were treated orally at 20 days post-infection with a tablet containing pyrantel, febantel and praziquantel (Drontal Plus Flavour, Bayer) with the recommended dose of one tablet per 10 kg bodyweight. The dogs in the control group were not treated. Egg counts were performed daily until the end of the study period and compared for the treated and control groups. No eggs were detected in the treated group of pups within 3 days of treatment, and faecal samples from this group remained negative throughout the rest of the study resulting in a treatment efficacy (egg reduction) of 100% (p = 0.0011). The egg counts for the untreated group remained high for the rest of the study period. This trial demonstrated that a combination tablet containing pyrantel, febantel and praziquantel (Drontal Plus Flavour, Bayer) given at the manufacturer's recommended dose is effective against infection with A. ceylanicum in dogs. PMID:19911198

Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Satranarakun, Pakkawan; Traub, Rebecca J; Schaper, Roland



The contribution of host-related factors to low cure rates of praziquantel for the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni in Senegal.  


Surprisingly low cure rates were repeatedly observed after treatment with a standard dosage of praziquantel in a recently established Schistosoma mansoni focus in northern Senegal. In 4 discrete cohorts from the same population, cure rates were 18-36% and egg count reduction rates were 77-88%. Data and material of 920 compliant subjects from all 4 cohorts were further analyzed to identify possible host-related factors associated with low cure rates. The lowest cure rates were found in the highest egg count groups. However, in low and moderate egg count groups, drug efficacy was also below normal values. Cure rates were similar in males and females, showed no seasonal variation, and were independent of previous praziquantel treatment. They were significantly higher in adults than in children, also after allowing for intensity of infection. Individual water contact behavior and specific humoral immune responses were examined in 2 extreme subgroups, either without significant egg count reduction or showing complete parasitologic cure. There was no significant difference in frequency and duration of water contact between those individuals with complete cure and those that showed little effect of praziquantel treatment. Levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG3, IgG4, IgM, and IgE against adult worm antigen were not different between the 2 subgroups. Thus, the abnormally frequent failure of treatment observed in this focus could not be associated with any host-related factor, other than age and pretreatment egg counts. PMID:10586908

van Lieshout, L; Stelma, F F; Guissé, F; Falcao Ferreira, S T; Polman, K; van Dam, G J; Diakhate, M; Sow, S; Deelder, A; Gryseels, B



Effect of Maternal Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Praziquantel Treatment During Pregnancy on Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Immune Responsiveness among Offspring at Age Five Years  

PubMed Central

Introduction Offspring of Schistosoma mansoni-infected women in schistosomiasis-endemic areas may be sensitised in-utero. This may influence their immune responsiveness to schistosome infection and schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on risk of S. mansoni infection among offspring, and on their immune responsiveness when they become exposed to S. mansoni, are unknown. Here we examined effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on prevalence of S. mansoni and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years. Methods In a trial in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447,, offspring of women treated with praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy were examined for S. mansoni infection and for cytokine and antibody responses to SWA and SEA, as well as for T cell expression of FoxP3, at age five years. Results Of the 1343 children examined, 32 (2.4%) had S. mansoni infection at age five years based on a single stool sample. Infection prevalence did not differ between children of treated or untreated mothers. Cytokine (IFN?, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13) and antibody (IgG1, Ig4 and IgE) responses to SWA and SEA, and FoxP3 expression, were higher among infected than uninfected children. Praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy had no effect on immune responses, with the exception of IL-10 responses to SWA, which was higher in offspring of women that received praziquantel during pregnancy than those who did not. Conclusion We found no evidence that maternal S. mansoni infection and its treatment during pregnancy influence prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection or effector immune response to S. mansoni infection among offspring at age five years, but the observed effects on IL-10 responses to SWA suggest that maternal S. mansoni and its treatment during pregnancy may affect immunoregulatory responsiveness in childhood schistosomiasis. This might have implications for pathogenesis of the disease.

Tweyongyere, Robert; Naniima, Peter; Mawa, Patrice A.; Jones, Frances M.; Webb, Emily L.; Cose, Stephen; Dunne, David W.; Elliott, Alison M.



UMA EXPERIÊNCIA COM O PROJETO MANHATTAN NO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL An experience with the Manhattan Project in the Elementary School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O presente artigo discute uma dissertação de mestrado que utilizou uma perspectiva educacio- nal voltada à formação de cidadãos e defendida na proposta de Edgar Morin e no relatório da UNESCO sobre educação para o século XXI. Para isso, aborda a importância de uma nova prática escolar, preocupa- da em manter o estudante como centro das atividades em sala

Rafaela Samagaia; Luiz O. Q. Peduzzi


Controlling Schistosomiasis: Significant Decrease of Anaemia Prevalence One Year after a Single Dose of Praziquantel in Nigerien Schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Background In the framework of the monitoring and evaluation of the Nigerien schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth control programme, a follow-up of children took place in eight sentinel sites. The objective of the study was to assess the evolution of Schistosoma haematobium infection and anaemia in schoolchildren after a single administration of praziquantel (PZQ) and albendazole. Methods/Principal Findings Pre-treatment examination and follow-up at one year post-treatment of schoolchildren aged 7, 8, and 11 years, including interview, urine examination, ultrasound examination of the urinary tract, and measurement of haemoglobin. Before treatment, the overall prevalence of S. heamatobium infection was 75.4% of the 1,642 enrolled children, and 21.8% of children excreted more than 50 eggs/10 ml urine. Prevalence increased with age. The overall prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin <11.5 g/dl) was 61.6%, decreasing significantly with increasing age. The mean haemoglobinemia was 11 g/dl. In bivariate analysis, anaemia was significantly more frequent in children infected with S. haematobium, although it was not correlated to the intensity of infection. Anaemia was also associated with micro-haematuria and to kidney distensions. In a sub-sample of 636 children tested for P. falciparum infection, anaemia was significantly more frequent in malaria-infected children. In multivariate analysis, significant predictors of anaemia were P. falciparum infection, kidney distension, and the village. One year after a single-dose praziquantel treatment (administered using the WHO PZQ dose pole) co-administered with albendazole (400 mg single dose) for de-worming, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 38%, while the prevalence of anaemia fell to 50.4%. The mean haemoglobinemia showed a statistically significant increase of 0.39 g/dl to reach 11.4 g/dl. Anaemia was no longer associated with S. haematobium or to P. falciparum infections, or to haematuria or ultrasound abnormalities of the urinary tract. Conclusions The high prevalence of anaemia in Nigerien children is clearly a result of many factors and not of schistosomiasis alone. Nevertheless, treatment of schistosomiasis and de-worming were followed by a partial, but significant, reduction of anaemia in schoolchildren, not explainable by any other obvious intervention.

Tohon, Zilahatou B.; Mainassara, Halima B.; Garba, Amadou; Mahamane, Ali E.; Bosque-Oliva, Elisa; Ibrahim, Maman-Laminou; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Chanteau, Suzanne; Boisier, Pascal



High levels of Schistosoma mansoni infections among schoolchildren in central Sudan one year after treatment with praziquantel.  


A longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate the impact of praziquantel (PZQ) for the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infection among schoolchildren in Al Gunaid in Central Sudan. A cohort of schoolchildren (6-15 years of age) was investigated before and 1 year after treatment with a single dose of PZQ 40 mg/kg. Parasitological examinations for S. mansoni were performed before and after treatment, and prevalence and intensity of infection were analysed. Of 2741 schoolchildren recruited from six elementary schools at baseline, 2521 were successfully traced and re-examined at follow-up, with two complete sets of longitudinal parasitological data on S. mansoni. Boys showed significantly higher prevalence of S. mansoni infection than girls. A single dose of PZQ reduced the overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection by 36.7% (from 59.1 to 37.4%) and the intensity of infection by 41.1% (from 116.7 to 68.7 eggs per gram of stool) 1 year after treatment. The reduction in prevalence was significantly higher among the group of children with heavy infections (by 76.1%, from 6.7 to 1.6%) and among girls (by 54.1%, 42.3 to 19.4%) at 1 year after treatment. Thus, in spite of a significant reduction in the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection 1 year after PZQ treatment, the prevalence of the disease was still high and further research is needed on this topic. PMID:21729382

Ahmed, A M; El Tash, L A; Mohamed, E Y; Adam, I



Schistosoma japonicum calcium-binding tegumental protein SjTP22.4 immunization confers praziquantel schistosomulumicide and antifecundity effect in mice.  


A family of platyhelminth tegument-specific proteins comprising of one or two calcium ion binding EF-hand and a dynein light chain-like domain, termed tegumental proteins, are considered as candidates of vaccine. In this study, we cloned and characterized SjTP22.4, a novel membrane-anchored tegumental protein in Schistosoma japonicum with theoretic MW of 22.4. The recombinant SjTP22.4 could be recognized by S. japonicum infected sera. Immunofluorescence revealed that this protein is not only located on the surface of tegument of adult and schistosomulum and cercaria, but also in the parenchymatous tissues and intestinal epithelium. Circular dichroism (CD) measurement demonstrated rSjTP22.4 had Ca(2+)-binding ability. The rSjTP22.4 vaccination without adjuvants produced comparable high level of antibody with that of immunization with adjuvants together indicated it was an antigen of strong antigenicity. The level of IgG1 is much higher than that of IgG2a and IgE is nearly negative in S. japonicum-infected and rSjTP22.4 immunized mice. In cercaria challenge experiment, mice vaccinated with SjTP22.4 showed no reduction in adult burden and egg production, comparing with the control mice, but 41% decrease in egg mature rate and 32% reduction in liver egg granuloma area. However, the SjTP22.4 immunized mice that received praziquantel treatment at 10d post infection caused 26% reduction in adult burden and 53% decrease in egg mature rate, comparing with the control mice only received praziquantel treatment. In conclusion, SjTP22.4 is a valuable vaccine candidate for S. japonicum of anti-pathogenesis and anti-transmission effect and plays a synergetic role in praziquantel to kill schistosomulum. PMID:22683520

Zhang, Zhaoping; Xu, Hongxu; Gan, Wenjia; Zeng, Suxiang; Hu, Xuchu



Curcumin induces a nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2-driven response against oxidative and nitrative stress after praziquantel treatment in liver fluke-infected hamsters.  


Praziquantel has been used for the treatment of liver fluke infection, but an oxidative/nitrative stress may occur after a short-term treatment and participate in side effects. In an attempt to reduce the adverse effects, we administered curcumin, an anti-inflammatory agent, to Opisthorchis viverrini-infected hamsters treated with praziquantel. At 12h after treatment, curcumin decreased eosinophil infiltration and increased mononuclear cell infiltration in parallel with nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 expression at the transcriptional and protein levels. Curcumin also enhanced the expression of genes involved in the Nrf2-regulated stress pathway (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1, glutamate cysteine ligase, and activating transcription factor 3, peroxiredoxin 3, peroxiredoxin 6, manganese superoxide dismutase, and catalase), leading to increased ferric antioxidant capacity in the plasma. In contrast, curcumin decreased the level of oxidative and nitrative stress markers such as urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, plasma levels of malondialdehyde and nitrate/nitrite, and activity of plasma alanine transaminase, a liver injury marker. This correlated with the suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) and related molecules (cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-?). In conclusion, curcumin may be an effective chemopreventive agent against oxidative and nitrative stress derived from praziquantel treatment during O. viverrini infection via induction of Nrf2 and suppression of NF-?B-mediated pathways. Nrf2 may also be a novel therapeutic target for not only parasitic diseases but other types of inflammation-mediated diseases. PMID:21256849

Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Pinlaor, Porntip; Prakobwong, Suksanti; Hiraku, Yusuke; Laothong, Umawadee; Ruangjirachuporn, Wipaporn; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Pinlaor, Somchai



Gestão curricular em Matemática 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo. A gestão curricular realizada pelo professor implica uma (re)construção do currículo, tendo em conta os seus alunos e as suas condições de trabalho. Esta gestão curricular assenta, de modo central, em dois elementos. Um deles é a criação de tarefas, a partir das quais os alunos se possam envolver em actividades matematicamente ricas e produtivas. As tarefas podem ser

João Pedro da Ponte


Immunization with tegument nucleotidases associated with a subcurative praziquantel treatment reduces worm burden following Schistosoma mansoni challenge  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease caused by flatworm parasites of the Schistosoma genus and remains a high public health impact disease around the world, although effective treatment with Praziquantel (PZQ) has been available since the 1970s. Control of this disease would be greatly improved by the development of a vaccine, which could be combined with chemotherapy. The sequencing of the Schistosoma mansoni transcriptome and genome identified a range of potential vaccine antigens. Among these, three nucleotidases from the tegument of the parasite, presumably involved in purinergic signaling and nucleotide metabolism, were proposed as promising vaccine candidates: an alkaline phosphatase (SmAP), a phosphodiesterase (SmNPP-5) and a diphosphohydrolase (SmNTPDase). Herein, we evaluate the potential of these enzymes as vaccine antigens, with or without subcurative PZQ treatment. Immunization of mice with the recombinant proteins alone or in combination demonstrated that SmAP is the most immunogenic of the three. It induced the highest antibody levels, particularly IgG1, associated with an inflammatory cellular immune response characterized by high TNF-? and a Th17 response, with high IL-17 expression levels. Despite the specific immune response induced, immunization with the isolated or combined proteins did not reduce the worm burden of challenged mice. Nonetheless, immunization with SmAP alone or with the three proteins combined, together with subcurative PZQ chemotherapy was able to reduce the worm burden by around 40%. The immunogenicity and relative exposure of SmAP to the host immune system are discussed, as key factors involved in the apparently synergistic effect of SmAP immunization and subcurative PZQ treatment.

Rofatto, Henrique K.; Araujo-Montoya, Bogar O.; Miyasato, Patricia A.; Levano-Garcia, Julio; Rodriguez, Dunia; Nakano, Eliana; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Farias, Leonardo P.



Therapeutic effect of alpha lipoic acid combined with praziquantel on liver fibrosis induced by Schistosoma mansoni challenged mice.  


Schistosomiasis is an endemic disease in 74 countries causing more than 250,000 deaths every year. Accordingly, the development of an effective drug for eradication of schistosomiasis is an open research field. The current chemotherapy for control is praziquantel (PZQ). However, PZQ does not improve liver fibrosis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the combined effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) with PZQ on the liver fibrosis induced by Schistosoma mansoni challenged mice. Evaluation was based on the worm burden count, ova load, granuloma size, and histopathology of the liver. Reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured in the tissue as a biomarker for impaired antioxidant function. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was also measured in the tissue as a biomarker for oxidative stress. The serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 1 was measured as a biomarker for fibrotic status of the liver. Liver function enzymes such as ALT, AST, and GGT were also measured. Four groups of ten mice each were used in this study. The first group was infected with 50?±?10 S. mansoni cercariae. The second group was also infected and was treated with PZQ 9 weeks post-infection (PI). The third group was treated with PZQ and ALA 9 weeks PI. The fourth group was used a healthy control. The present study revealed remarkable improvement in all parameters measured (parasitological and biochemical) as well as significant improvement of hepatic pathology in the third group which was treated with PZQ and ALA. The treatment of mice with PZQ and ALA results in reduction in the worm burden, egg count, and granuloma size. Furthermore, this combined treatment increased the tissue level of the antioxidant (GSH) and decreased the tissue level of MDA in this group. PMID:22398831

Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Abdulla, Ahlam M; Aabdel-Wahab, Soha; Mosalem, Fadia A



[Comparison of the efficacy and safety of praziquantel administered in single dose of 40 versus 60 mg/kg for treating urinary schistosomiasis in Mauritania].  


During the last twenty years, praziquantel (PZQ) was the drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis in the majority of national programs. However, a lower rate of cure had been significantly noted on the left bank of the Senegal River. To explain this unusual rate of cure, the assumption of a possible resistance to the drug as well as under-dosing was considered. With an aim of testing this hypothesis of underdosing, we compared the amount of a single dose of 60 mg/kg of PZQ versus the standardized dose of 40 mg/kg used in curing urinary schistosomiasis in Mauritania. One hundred and fifty-one children aged from 10 to 19 years, including 77 in the group of 60 mg/kg and 74 in the group of 40 mg/ kg, were included in the study. The rates of cure were respectively 64.8% for 60 mg/kg and 67.5% for 40 mg/kg three weeks after the administration of the treatment without statistically significant difference. For the majority of the patients, the drug was well tolerated and no serious adverse events were noted; however, clinical signs in the form of abdominal pain associated or not with diarrhea and vomiting were noted. Praziquantel remains an effective and well-tolerated drug: the amount of 40 mg/kg of body weight can still be maintained for the treatment of schistosomiasis in Mauritania. PMID:23681759

Ouldabdallahi, M; Ousmane, B; Ouldbezeid, M; Mamadou, D; Konaté, L; Chitsulo, L



· • Estudo baseado na teoria piagetiana sobre a fidelidade em dois contos de As Mil e uma Noites na versão de Galland 1 Study based on Piaget's theory about fidelity in two stories extracted from \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Caracteriza-se por um estudo teórico numa visão piagetiana sobre dois contos da coletânea As Mil e uma Noites na versão de Galland. O objetivo é analisar, nas narrativas, a virtude e a fidelidade, verificando se as relações entre os personagens são mantidas pelo amor, pelo respeito mútuo e relações de eqüidade ou pelo medo e obediência apresentado entre os

Luana Carramillo Going


Efficacy of praziquantel and reinfection patterns in single and mixed infection foci for intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis in Cameroon.  


The regular administration of the anthelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to school-aged children (and other high-risk groups) is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control. Whilst the performance of PZQ against single schistosome species infections is well-known, performance against mixed species infections is less so, as are patterns of re-infection following treatment. To address this, a study using a double treatment with PZQ, administered at 40mg/kg spaced by 3 weeks, took place in two mixed intestinal-urogenital schistosomiasis foci in northern Cameroon (Bessoum and Ouro-Doukoudje) and in one single intestinal schistosomiasis infection focus (Makenene). A total of just under 1000 children were examined and the Schistosoma-infected children were re-examined at several parasitological follow-ups over a 1-year period posttreatment. Overall cure rates against Schistosoma spp. in the three settings were good, 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI)=77.9-87.7%) in Bessoum, 89.0% (95% CI=79.1-94.6%) in Ouro Doukoudje, and 95.3% (95% CI=89.5-98.0%) in Makenene. Interestingly, no case of mixed schistosome infection was found after treatment. Cure rates for S. mansoni varied from 99.5% to 100%, while that for S. haematobium were considerably lower, varying from 82.7% to 88.0%. Across transmission settings, patterns of re-infection for each schistosome species were different such that generalizations across foci were difficult. For example, at the 6-month follow-up, re-infection rates were higher for S. haematobium than for S. mansoni with re-infection rates for S. haematobium varying from 9.5% to 66.7%, while for S. mansoni, lower rates were observed, ranging between nil and 24.5%. At the 12-month follow-up, re-infection rates varied from 9.1% to 66.7% for S. haematobium and from nil to 27.6% for S. mansoni. Alongside these parasitological studies, concurrent malacological surveys took place to monitor the presence of intermediate host snails of schistosomiasis. In the two northern settings, three species of Bulinus (intermediate host snail of S. haematobium) were collected; i.e. Bulinus truncatus, B. globosus and B. senegalensis, however, Biomphalaria pfeifferi (intermediate host snail of S. mansoni) was much rarer despite repeated and intensive searching and was suggestive of limited local transmission potential of S. mansoni during this time. While this study highlights that performance of PZQ was satisfactory in this region, with somewhat greater impact upon intestinal than urogenital schistosomiasis, the dynamics of local transmission are shown, however, to be complex. PMID:23791803

Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Momo, Sabine C; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David



Combination therapy using Pentostam and Praziquantel improves lesion healing and parasite resolution in BALB/c mice co-infected with Leishmania major and Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Background Most natural host populations are exposed to a diversity of parasite communities and co-infection of hosts by multiple parasites is commonplace across a diverse range of systems. Co-infection with Leishmania major and Schistosoma mansoni may have important consequences for disease development, severity and transmission dynamics. Pentavalent antimonials and Praziquantel (PZQ) have been relied upon as a first line of treatment for Leishmania and Schistosoma infections respectively. However, it is not clear how combined therapy with the standard drugs will affect the host and parasite burden in concomitance. The aim of the current study was to determine the efficacy of combined chemotherapy using Pentostam and PZQ in BALB/c mice co-infected with L. major and S. mansoni. Methods The study used BALB/c mice infected with L. major and S. mansoni. A 3?×?4 factorial design with three parasite infection groups (Lm, Sm, Lm?+?Sm designated as groups infected with L. major, S. mansoni and L. major?+?S. mansoni, respectively) and four treatment regimens [P, PZQ, P?+?PZQ and PBS designating Pentostam®(GlaxoSmithKline UK), Praziquantel (Biltricide®, Bayer Ag. Leverkusen, Germany), Pentostam?+?Praziquantel and Phosphate buffered saline] as factors was applied. In each treatment group, there were 10 mice. Lesion development was monitored for 10 weeks. The parasite load, body weight, weight of the spleen and liver were determined between week 8 and week 10. Results Chemotherapy using the first line of treatment for L. major and S. mansoni reduced the lesion size and parasite loads but did not affect the growth response, spleen and liver. In the co-infected BALB/c mice, the use of Pentostam or PZQ did not result in any appreciable disease management. However, treatment with P?+?PZQ resulted in significantly (p?



Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.



Schistosomiasis and Praziquantel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We reported excellent results obtained by treating Schistosoma haematobium infection in children with a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. Indeed, this low dose was subsequently also found to be adequate in relieving urinary obstructive lesions cau...

Z. Farid B. Trabolsi M. Stek



Field evaluation of the efficacy and the safety of a combination of oxantel\\/pyrantel\\/praziquantel in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and\\/or cestode infestations in dogs in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In five multicentre field trials, the efficacy and safety of a combination of oxantel\\/pyrantel\\/praziquantel (Dolpac®, Vetoquinol SA) in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and\\/or cestode infestation in dogs was evaluated in northern and southern Europe.Forty-eight investigators from France, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Spain enrolled 329 dogs to be treated with the tested combination; 235 of these dogs complied

E. Grandemange; E. Claerebout; C. Genchi; M. Franc



A modified critical test and its use in two dose titration trials to assess efficacy of praziquantel for Anoplocephala perfoliata in equids.  


Aims of this study with 43 equids naturally infected with Anoplocephala perfoliata in two dose titration trials were to document (i) the usefulness of a critical test with a 48 h treatment to necropsy period, (ii) efficacy of an oral paste of 0.5-2.0 mg praziquantel/kg body weight, and (iii) when after treatment would fecal egg counts provide best estimates of the tapeworm's prevalence in a herd. All feces passed by an equid after treatment and collected in successive 12 h batches were examined for tapeworms. At necropsy, tapeworms were identified as attached to the mucosa or unattached. Tapeworms were examined with a stereoscope and identified as normal or abnormal. Fecal samples were taken for egg counts at treatment and at 6 h intervals thereafter. In 32 of 36 treated equids, efficacy was 100% and mean efficacies for 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg praziquantel/kg body weight were 85.5, 99.7, 100 and 100%, respectively. Two equids treated with 0.5 mg praziquantel/kg body weight had low efficacies (5.4 and 38.1%) and normal tapeworms were found attached in the ventral colon and in one equid also in the dorsal colon. In seven untreated equids, tapeworms were primarily in the cecum with 21.3% detached. "Major fragments" or worms without a scolex but otherwise nearly a complete worm were 20.5% of the number of intact worms; they were not included in the efficacy analysis but should be. If the two equids with low efficacy were eliminated and if the number of all tapeworms and major fragments are combined less than 0.5% were in feces within 12 h of treatment, about 20% were in the 12-24 h period, 42% in 24-36h, 24% in 36-48 h and 13.5% in the equids at necropsy. One horse passed all its tapeworms in 24 h. This 48 h test when compared with a 24 h one with no examination of feces was more efficient in use of trial animals and reduced underestimation and overestimation of efficacy. However, a protocol similar to the 48 h test but with a 24 or 36 h post-treatment period should be investigated. The mean egg count peaked 18-24 h after treatment and samples taken at that time would provide the best estimate of prevalence. The Cornell-Wisconsin centrifugal flotation technique had a specificity of 100% and at 18 and 24 h its sensitivity was 94%. A brief discussion on critical and controlled tests for assessing efficacy of an anthelmintic for A. perfoliata is presented. PMID:16309843

Slocombe, J Owen D




Microsoft Academic Search

O objetivo deste estudo foi prospectar cenários para a unidade em estudo; e desenvolver um diagnóstico estratégico do processo de produção de óleos vegetais da organização em estudo. Quanto à metodologia, trata-se de uma pesquisa-ação, cujos dados foram obtidos por fontes primárias e secundárias. Para retratar a análise do ambiente interno e possibilitar acompanhamento das mudanças, pela proposta de Mintzberg,

Christian Drees; Eliane Moreira De Sa Souza; Odilon Jose De Oliveira Neto; Reginaldo Santana Figueiredo



Efficacy of bath and orally administered praziquantel and fenbendazole against Lepidotrema bidyana Murray, a monogenean parasite of silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus (Mitchell).  


We investigated the efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) and fenbendazole (FBZ), each administered by bath and orally, against the monogenean Lepidotrema bidyana Murray, a gill parasite of the freshwater fish silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus (Mitchell). PZQ and FBZ were each administered by bath at 10 mg L(-1) for 48 h and on surface-coated feed pellets at 75 mg kg(-1) per body weight (BW) per day for 6 days. Bath treatments of PZQ and FBZ had an efficacy of 99% and 91%, respectively, against adult L. bidyana. Oral treatments of PZQ and FBZ had an efficacy of 79% and 95%, respectively, against adult L. bidyana. Fish rejected feed pellets surface-coated with PZQ, suggesting that palatability of surface-coated PZQ-medicated feed is poor, which undermined efficacy. In all trials, some juvenile parasites were present on fish after treatment during efficacy assessment, indicating that efficacy may be lower against juvenile parasites or that recruitment occurred post-treatment, demonstrating that repeat treatments are necessary to effectively control L. bidyana in aquaculture. PMID:23488766

Forwood, J M; Harris, J O; Deveney, M R



Impact of intense, longitudinal retreatment with praziquantel on cure rates of schistosomiasis mansoni in a cohort of occupationally exposed adults in western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate trends in the efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) suggestive of the emergence of drug resistance against Schistosoma mansoni infection after 12.5 years of intense, repeated use in a small geographic area along the shores of Lake Victoria. Methods As part of a longitudinal study, 178 men occupationally exposed to schistosomes were repeatedly tested for S. mansoni infection at 4-6 week intervals and were treated with PZQ at each reinfection. We compared cure rates by year of study and examined factors associated with cure failure in a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Overall, the cure rate after a single dose of PZQ was 66%, ranging annually from 36% to 82%. In multivariate analysis, failure to cure after 1 PZQ dose was significantly associated with high intensity of infection and having fewer previous exposures to dying worms. Even after adjustment for these factors, treatments administered in 2006 were significantly more likely to result in cure failures than treatments administered in 2004, the year in which PZQ efficacy was highest. While cure rates varied over the course of 12 years, there was no consistent downward trend towards decreased efficacy over time. In years for which malacological data were available, periods of low PZQ efficacy coincide with high rates of S. mansoni infection in nearby snail populations. Conclusion We did not find a pattern of cure failures consistent with development of clinical resistance to PZQ in our intensely treated cohort.

Black, Carla L.; Steinauer, Michelle L.; Mwinzi, Pauline N.M.; Secor, W. Evan; Karanja, Diana M. S.; Colley, Daniel G.



Closing the praziquantel treatment gap: new steps in epidemiological monitoring and control of schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool-aged children  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Where very young children come into contact with water containing schistosome cercariae, infections occur and schistosomiasis can be found. In high transmission environments, where mothers daily bathe their children with environmentally drawn water, many infants and preschool-aged children have schistosomiasis. This ‘new’ burden, inclusive of co-infections with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni, is being formally explored as infected children are not presently targeted to receive praziquantel (PZQ) within current preventive chemotherapy campaigns. Thus an important PZQ treatment gap exists whereby infected children might wait up to 4–5 years before receiving first treatment in school. International treatment guidelines, set within national treatment platforms, are presently being modified to provide earlier access to medication(s). Although detailed pharmacokinetic studies are needed, to facilitate pragmatic dosing in the field, an extended ‘dose pole’ has been devised and epidemiological monitoring has shown that administration of PZQ (40 mg/kg), in either crushed tablet or liquid suspension, is both safe and effective in this younger age-class; drug efficacy, however, against S. mansoni appears to diminish after repeated rounds of treatment. Thus use of PZQ should be combined with appropriate health education/water hygiene improvements for both child and mother to bring forth a more enduring solution.




Urine heme dipsticks are useful in monitoring the impact of Praziquantel treatment on Schistosoma haematobium in sentinel communities of Delta State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Nigeria is highly endemic for infection with Schistosoma haematobium, which most commonly manifests itself with blood in urine. To monitor the impact of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel for S. haematobium in Delta State, Nigeria, cross-sectional hematuria surveys of school children were conducted in 8 sentinel villages (SVs) at baseline (n=240) and after two annual doses (n=402). We assessed the comparability of three assessments of hematuria (child’s reported history, nurse visual diagnosis (NVD) and dipstick) to determine the need for mass treatment. Dipstick was considered to be the gold standard. Prior to treatment, history and NVD each identified only the 3 most highly prevalent SVs, and overall this represented just 37.5% of the 8 SVs in need of treatment. Following treatment, after dipstick prevalence decreased by 88.5% (p<0.001), and history and NVD identified only one of two villages still needing treatment. The study suggests that dipsticks should be the recommended method for launching and monitoring mass treatment for S. haematobium.

Emukah, Emmanuel; Gutman, Julie; Eguagie, John; Miri, Emmanuel S; Yinkore, Paul; Okocha, Ndudi; Jibunor, Victoria; Obiageli, Nebe; Ikenna, Nwoye Augustine; Richards, Frank O.



Comparison of three different treatment schedules for praziquantel (Cestocur®, Bayer) in the treatment of tapeworm infections (Moniezia spp.) and their impact on body weight gains in a German sheep flock.  


In an observational study, three different treatment schedules with praziquantel were assessed in a Merino land sheep flock from southern Germany. The herd had a known history of severe recurrent Moniezia spp. infections. After turnout to pasture, three hundred lambs between 8 and 14 weeks old were weighed and randomly allocated to three different groups. They were treated with praziquantel (Cestocur®) at a dose of 3.75 mg/kg body weight using the following schedules: group 1 treated four times at monthly intervals (Days 1, 31, 59, 91); group 2 treated three times at six-week intervals (Days 16, 59, 105), group 3 treated twice at an eight-week interval (Days 31, 91). Based on faecal examinations, all lambs were negative for Moniezia spp. on Day 1. At study end (Day 126), higher body weights were seen in group 1 (49.9 ± 5.8 kg; 49.9 kg) than in group 2 (48.7 ± 5.5 kg; 49.0 kg) and in group 3 (47.5 ± 5.4 kg; 47.5 kg) (mean ± SD; median). Overall weight gains were significantly higher in group 1 (22.5 ± 1.8 kg; 22.3 kg) compared to group 2 (20.8 ± 1.4 kg, 21.0 kg; p < 0.0001) and group 3 (19.3 ± 2.2 kg, 19.6 kg; p < 0.0001). The results show that praziquantel treatments applied early in the grazing season and in monthly intervals were more beneficial for body weight developments in lambs than applied at six-weekly or eight-weekly intervals. PMID:23749086

Strobel, Heinz; de Ponte, Martina; Knoppe, Tanja N; Bhushan, Chandra



[Long-term impact of a mass treatment by praziquantel on morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium in two hyperendemic villages of Niger].  


Although it is established that the treatment by praziquantel reduces the urinary lesions due to Schistosoma haematobium, the frequency of mass treatment necessary to maintain a low morbidity level remains poorly known. The objective of this work was to study the impact over three years of a single praziquantel mass treatment on schistosomiasis morbidity in two different systems of disease transmission in Niger. The study was performed in 2 villages hyperendemic for schistosomiasis in the South-West of Niger presenting respectively 2 different systems of schistosomiasis transmission: Koutoukalé-Zéno (K Zéno), located close to an irrigated area of the Niger River Valley where the transmission is permanent, and Téguey located along a temporary pond where the transmission is seasonal. After the initial evaluation (1994), we carried out a survey 3 years later (1997) except in K. Zéno where an intermediate evaluation was performed 10 months after the initial survey (1995). Approximately 300 randomised people have been examined as follows: macroscopic examination of urine and reagent sticks for macro- and micro-haematuria, filtration and microscopic examination of urine for Schistosoma eggs, and ultrasound scan of the urinary tract for morbidity. The therapeutic coverage has reached 69.9% in K. Zéno and 78.2% in Téguey. The prevalence of infestation decreased from 74.1% to 56.4 % in K. Zéno (p < 0.001) and from 65.3% to 30.4% in Téguey (p < 0.001) at the end of the 3 years. The prevalence of heavy infestation (eggs > or = 50) went in the same time from 9.9% to 12.8% (p = 0.3) in K. Zéno and from 9.1% to 3.3% in Téguey (p = 0.01). Using ultrasound scan, the prevalence of the bladder lesions reached its previous level in both villages. However the prevalence of hydronephrosis decreased from 21.1% to 3.9% in K. éno (p < 0.001) and from 12.6% to 4.2% in Téguey (p < 0.001). Three years after the single mass treatment, the morbidity did not reach the initial level. The effectiveness of the treatment is better in the pond system where the transmission is seasonal. The lesions of the upper tract decreased more slowly than the bladder lesions, but a long time after the treatment. The re-infestation induced the re-appearance of the bladder lesions sooner than the lesions of the upper tract. The periodicity of the treatment should be variable according to the transmission system. It should occur every 2 years in irrigated areas and could be delayed (3 years) in temporary ponds. The control was beneficial in the pond system and induced a significant reduction of the severe lesions. PMID:15104149

Garba, A; Campagne, G; Tassie, J M; Barkire, A; Vera, C; Sellin, B; Chippaux, J P



A programme to reduce the risk of infection by Echinococcus multilocularis: the use of praziquantel to control the cestode in a village in the hyperendemic region of Alaska.  


This paper reports the results of a 10-year field trial designed to reduce the risk of infection by Echinococcus multilocularis to residents of a village in a hyperendemic area (Savoonga, St. Lawrence Island). The objective was to prevent dispersal of infective eggs of the cestode within the village by means of monthly treatments of dogs with praziquantel. Northern voles, Microtus oeconomus, present in the village as commensals, served as an index of risk, as the incidence of infection in the voles provides information about the availability of eggs within the confines of the inhabited area. Voles were examined annually during early June before the population of overwintering voles was diluted by the first annual litters. The pretreatment infection-rate within the village was 29% (range 22-35%), and in control areas at some distance from the village for the entire study period it averaged 53% (284 infected voles from a sample of 533). Some fluctuation in incidence of infection in village voles occurred, apparently depending on the extent to which the residents kept their dogs chained and thus available for treatment. The success of the programme was demonstrated by the reduction in prevalence of infection to about 1% of voles in 1985, and an average infection rate during the last five years of the study of 5% (29 infected voles in a sample of 582). This 83% average reduction in the prevalence of the larval cestode within the village reflects a corresponding reduction in the risk of acquiring by the residents of the village. The method would be applicable for the control of E. multilocularis in most hyperendemic regions. Success depends, however, on elimination of unrestrained dogs and a precise schedule of treatment. PMID:2222026

Rausch, R L; Wilson, J F; Schantz, P M



The impact of single versus mixed schistosome species infections on liver, spleen and bladder morbidity within Malian children pre- and post-praziquantel treatment  

PubMed Central

Background In the developing world co-infections and polyparasitism within humans appear to be the rule rather than the exception, be it any combination of inter-specific and/or inter- and intra-Genera mixed infections. Mixed infections might generate synergistic or antagonistic interactions and thereby clinically affect individuals and/or impact parasite epidemiology. Methods The current study uniquely assesses both Schistosoma mansoni- and Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity of the liver and the bladder as assessed by ultrasound as well as spleen and liver morbidity through clinical exams. The impact of praziquantel (PZQ) treatment on such potential inter-specific schistosome interactions and resulting morbidity using uniquely detailed longitudinal data (pre- and one year post-PZQ treatment) arising from the National Schistosomiasis Control Program in three areas of Mali: Ségou, Koulikoro and Bamako, is also evaluated. At baseline, data were collected from up to 2196 children (aged 7-14 years), 844 of which were infected with S. haematobium only, 124 with S. mansoni only and 477 with both. Follow-up data were collected from up to 1265 children. Results Results suggested lower liver morbidity in mixed compared to single S. mansoni infections and higher bladder morbidity in mixed compared to single S. haematobium infections. Single S. haematobium or S. mansoni infections were also associated with liver and spleen morbidity whilst only single S. haematobium infections were associated with bladder morbidity in these children (light S. haematobium infection OR: 4.3, p < 0.001 and heavy S. haematobium infection OR: 19, p < 0.001). PZQ treatment contributed to the regression of some of the forms of such morbidities. Conclusions Whilst the precise biological mechanisms for these observations remain to be ascertained, the results illustrate the importance of considering mixed species infections in any analyses of parasite-induced morbidity, including that for the proposed Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) revised estimates of schistosomiasis morbidity.



Halema'uma'u vent  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Several collapses early this morning exposed more of the lava pond deep within the Halema`uma`u vent cavity. For the last several days, glowing and spattering holes (top image) have been active on the floor of the vent cavity, at a depth of about 200 m below the vent rim. At 3:06 am, a parti...




Microsoft Academic Search

Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a method widely used in the automotive industry. It is applied to evaluate potential failures in products and processes. Although the existing benefits of its application, it is not extensively used in other industrial sectors. This paper describes a pilot study of FMEA implementation in a machine tools company. It is a Brazilian

José Paulo; Cabral de Vasconcellos Júnior; Paulo Augusto Cauchick Miguel


Por uma agenda de pesquisa em democracia eletrônica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of democratic participation provided by the new technologies of information and communication represent the possibility of widening the public space. The creation of channels such as online discussion foruns ans public consultations brings a promissing advance, but their results were not satisfactorily studied yet. This paper revises theories which have been supported investigations in this field, characterizes recent

Danilo Rothberg



Registro Eletrônico para Acompanhamento Médico de Pacientes em uma UTI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically ill patients in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) depend on intensive care and need constant observation. This paper presents the current development and deployment status of an electronic patient record (EPR) created to manage patients in an ICU of our region. The system is able to store individualized patients data which are further processed to provide information about a

Rafael Charnovscki; Jacques R. Nascimento Filho; Giancarlo Bianchin Machado; Evânio Ramos Nicoleit



Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present research was to study the algorithmic aspects of Palladio's design method. In the first phase of the research the different methods for calculating room proportions, proposed by Palladio in I Quattro Libri dell'Archittetura, were studied. Next, an application for AutoCAD was developed in VBA for automatically generating 3D representations of all the possible combinations of

Gabriela Celani; Bianca Tiemi Kubagawa


Evaluation of immunological, parasitological and molecular methods for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection before and after chemotherapy treatment with praziquantel in experimentally infected Nectomys squamipes.  


In low endemicity areas of schistosomiasis, the recommended diagnostic method of coprological examination results in an underestimation of infection cases. Alternative diagnostic methods have been developed, such as immunodiagnostic and molecular techniques. In this study we evaluated three methods used in the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection: parasitological (Kato-Katz), immunological (ELISA) and molecular (real time PCR), and also investigated the sensitivity of each technique in the cure determination after treatment with praziquantel using the water rat Nectomys squamipes, a natural reservoir for S. mansoni, as an experimental model. Two infection laboratory experiments were carried out. The first experiment aimed to observe the evolution of the immunological response in the first moments after infection and in the first months after treatment. The second experiment aimed to compare the efficacy of the three diagnostic techniques after infection and after treatment over a more extended time period. In the first experiment, 44% of the infected animals showed IgG reactivity after two weeks of infection, and 94% were positive based on serology 30 days after infection. The serological IgG titers increased just after infection but decreased gradually after treatment. In the second experiment, 89% of the animals showed positive IgG titers 22 days after infection. Only 68% of the animals showed positive results on the coproscopic diagnostic analysis and 79% did so by qPCR, 50 days after infection. Treated animals showed negative results on coproscopy one month after treatment but remained positive by serology even 12 months after treatment, although showing a decline in immunologic reaction after treatment. By qPCR analysis, all animals showed negative results three months after treatment, except for one animal. The parasitosis can be detected by coproscopy only six weeks after infection, and by serology 14 days after infection. The qPCR was a better diagnostic method for confirming the infection cure of S. mansoni. In early infection, this method was less efficient than serology but was slightly more efficient than the Kato-Katz method. We suggest that the methods should be used in low endemic areas as follows: serology should be used in the initial diagnosis in a population with potential positive cases; subsequently, coproscopy should be used in IgG positive cases to confirm the current infection; and qPCR should be used to evaluate the infection cure after treatment and is also a very valuable tool when there are cases showing positive IgG and negative coproscopy. PMID:21458922

Gentile, Rosana; Gonçalves, Margareth Maria Lessa; da Costa Neto, Sócrates Fraga; da Costa, Maristella Matos; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Peralta, José Mauro



Efficacy and safety of two closely spaced doses of praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni and re-infection patterns in school-aged children in Niger.  


The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of two closely spaced doses of praziquantel (PZQ) against Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection in school-aged children, and to characterise re-infection patterns over a 12-month period. The study was carried out in five villages in western Niger: Falmado, Seberi and Libore (single S. haematobium infection foci), and Diambala and Namarigoungou (mixed S. haematobium-S. mansoni infection foci). Parasitological examinations consisted of triplicate urine filtrations and triplicate Kato-Katz thick smears at each visit. Two 40mg/kg oral doses of PZQ were administered 3 weeks apart. Adverse events were monitored within 4h after dosing by the survey team and 24h after treatment using a questionnaire. Our final study cohort comprised 877 children who were infected with either S. haematobium, or S. mansoni, or both species concurrently and received both doses of PZQ. Follow-up visits were conducted 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after the first dose of PZQ. At baseline, the geometric mean (GM) infection intensity of S. haematobium ranged from 3.6 (Diambala) to 30.3eggs/10ml of urine (Falmado). The GM infection intensity of S. mansoni ranged from 86.7 (Diambala) to 151.4eggs/g of stool (Namarigoungou). Adverse events were reported by 33.0% and 1.5% of the children after the first and second doses of PZQ, respectively. We found cure rates (CRs) in S. haematobium-infected children 3 weeks after the second dose of PZQ ranging between 49.2% (Falmado) and 98.4% (Namarigoungou) and moderate-to-high egg reduction rates (ERRs) (71.4-100%). Regarding S. mansoni, only moderate CRs and ERRs were found (51.7-58.8% in Diambala, 55.2-60.2% in Namarigoungou). Twelve months post-treatment, prevalence rates approached pre-treatment levels, but infection intensities remained low. In conclusion, PZQ, given in two closely spaced doses, is efficacious against S. haematobium, but the low ERR observed against S. mansoni raises concern about mounting PZQ tolerance. PMID:22940014

Garba, Amadou; Lamine, Mariama S; Barkiré, Nouhou; Djibo, Ali; Sofo, Boubacar; Gouvras, Anouk N; Labbo, Rabiou; Sebangou, Hannatou; Webster, Joanne P; Fenwick, Alan; Utzinger, Jürg



Custo de bombas centrífugas funcionando como turbinas em microcentrais hidrelétricas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A implantação de microcentrais hidrelétricas é uma das alternativas para suprir com energia comunidades pequenas e isoladas, situadas normalmente na área rural. O aproveitamento de potenciais hidráulicos de pequeno porte é uma alternativa cada vez mais viável devido não só à falta de recursos financeiros para os grandes empreendimentos, mas também pelo imenso potencial de geração em centrais de

Carlos R. Balarim; Luiz A. Targa; Jorim S. Virgens Filho; Alceu G. Andrade Filho; Giovana K. Wiecheteck



Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.



Áreas de Risco em Manaus: Inventário preliminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho pautou-se em mapear as ocorrências registradas pela Defesa Civil Municipal (SEMDEC), nos anos de 2005 a 2008, com a finalidade de identificar as áreas mais afetadas por eventos adversos (alagação e deslizamento). Para tanto, foram utilizadas a base cartográfica Google Earth e QGIS. Uma das principais dificuldades foi a localização precisa dos eventos, pois as bases cartográficas

Denise Rodrigues Cruz; Karla R. Mendes Cassiano; Reinaldo Corrêa Costa



Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.



Praziquantel treatment of school children from single and mixed infection foci of intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis along the Senegal River Basin: monitoring treatment success and re-infection patterns.  


Following major water development schemes in the 1980s, schistosomiasis has become a serious parasitic disease of children living in the Senegal River Basin. Both urogenital (Schistosoma haematobium) and intestinal (Schistosoma mansoni) schistosomiasis can be highly prevalent in school-aged children, with many individuals infected with both parasites. In order to investigate the transmission and re-infection dynamics of both parasite species, single and mixed infection foci at three villages (Nder and Temeye; S. mansoni and S. haematobium foci and Guia; S. haematobium focus) were studied. In each focus infected children were identified and selected for a 12-month study involving two treatments with praziquantel (40mg/kg) three weeks apart at the beginning of the study and again 6 months into the study. Urine and stool samples were examined for schistosome eggs before and at 6 weeks and 6 months after chemotherapy. Prevalence and intensity of infection were recorded for each child at each time point. Before treatment, in all three villages, the prevalence and intensity of infection was extremely high for both S. mansoni (79-100%) and S. haematobium (81-97%). With the first round of chemotherapy sufficient cure rates (CRs) of both species were achieved in all villages (38-96%) with high egg reduction rates (ERRs) (97-99%). The data show that high and rapid re-infection rates occur, especially for S. mansoni, within a six-month period following treatment. Re-infection must be highly linked to ecological and seasonal factors. The persistence of S. mansoni in Nder could raise concern as levels of infection intensity remain high (geometric mean intensity at baseline 653epg changed to 705epg at 12 months) after four rounds of chemotherapy. This phenomenon could be explained by extremely rapid re-infection dynamics or a sub-optimal efficacy of praziquantel against S. mansoni in this village. High intensities in mixed infections may influence disease epidemiology and control warranting further studies. The disease situation in the SRB must be monitored closely and new treatment regimes should be designed and implemented to control schistosomiasis in the school-age population. PMID:23022016

Webster, Bonnie L; Diaw, Oumar T; Seye, Mohmoudane M; Faye, Djibril S; Stothard, J Russell; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C; Rollinson, David



A Inserção Feminina no Mercado de Trabalho do Agronegócio: Uma Estudo Comparativo da Sadia e da Perdigão  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O estudo apresenta uma visão comparativa das práticas de evidenciação, no Balanço Social, dos indicadores sociais relacionados à inserção da mulher nas Empresas Sadia e Perdigão. A análise dos indicadores laborais pode oferecer informações relevantes para investidores e para a sociedade em geral quanto à proteção e ao estímulo do trabalho feminino. O estudo utiliza o banco de dados

Antonio Nunes Pereira; Vandresa Lucia Machado; Fabricio Carvalho Cipola; Claudio Jose Pinheiro; Ana Alice Vilas Boas




Microsoft Academic Search

A farinha de mandioca é o principal produto em importância alimentar servindo como fonte de energia e geração de renda para os agricultores familiares da Amazônia. A castanha-do-brasil é uma das principais fontes de proteína vegetal, geração de emprego e renda para os extrativistas da Amazônia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o arranjo produtivo local da farinha mista de

Amauri Siviero; Carlo Filipe E. Raimundo; Lauro Saraiva Lessa; Thiago Andres Delunardo; Oscar Borreani Pardinas



Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

Miloni, O. I.



Thermal Image of Halema'uma'u  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image was collected from a thermal camera at the Halema`uma`u Overlook, and shows the current activity at the summit. The active lava pond, about 40 m across, is situated deep within the vent cavity, at a depth of about 200 m. The lava surface consists of slowly migrating crustal plates...



A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase evolutiva S.

de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.



Características psicométricas do Maslach Burnout Inventory - Student Survey (MBI-SS) em estudantes universitários brasileiros  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O Inventário de Burnout de Maslach (MBI-SS) foi projetado para avaliar a síndrome de burnout em estudantes. Este artigo analisa as características psicométricas (fidedignidade e validade de construto) do MBI-SS em uma amostra de 514 estudantes. A análise fatorial identificou três fatores correlatos às três dimensões originalmente identificadas no inventário: exaustão emocional, eficácia profissional e descrença, indicando que a

Mary Sandra Carlotto; Sheila Gonçalves Câmara



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O milho é uma cultura presente em todas as regiões brasileiras; nos últimos anos, seus custos de produção aumentaram. Técnicas que proporcionem economia, sem perda de produtividade, podem incentivar seu cultivo, tão importante no sistema de rota- ção de culturas. Os adubos verdes são opções para a redução de custos, principalmente em relação ao nitrogênio. Utilizaram-se dados de



Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

Allen, D. M.



REVISÃO DA LITERATURA SOBRE CONCEITOS E DEFINIÇÕES DE FRAGILIDADE EM IDOSOS Literature review on the concepts and definitions of frailty in elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Objetivo: Apresentar as definições de Fragilidade em Idosos, prevalentes em artigos científicos de revisão sobre o tema. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática da literatura com os seguintes critérios de inclusão: (1) artigo de revisão sobre conceitos e definições de fragilidade em idosos, apresentando ênfase na inexistência de consenso sobre o termo \\

Ilka Nicéia; D'Aquino Oliveira



Antibody isotype responses to Schistosoma japonicum antigens in subjects from a schistosomiasis area with repeated praziquantel chemotherapy compared with a new endemic zone in Hunan Province, P.R. China.  


To demonstrate the dynamics of specific antibody isotypes against schistosome adult worm (AWA) and soluble egg (SEA) antigens, we evaluated (in 1999-2000) 112 subjects infected with Schistosoma japonicum from 2 regions of Hunan Province, China. Fifty-eight subjects were from Area A, a well-known endemic area with repeated chemotherapy. Area B (n = 54) is a new endemic focus in another part of the same province. Serum samples were collected prior to praziquantel (PZQ) chemotherapy, and at 2 and 12 months post-treatment. IgM, IgA, IgG, IgG2, IgG4 and IgE antibodies to AWA and SEA were measured by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pre-treatment antibody isotype levels from Area A, except IgA against AWA and SEA, were significantly higher than those from Area B. In response to chemotherapy, most antibody isotype levels fell or remained stable. However, in Area A there was a significant increase in the IgA, IgE and IgG4 responses to AWA 2 months after PZQ--which fell to approach pre-treatment levels by 12 months. A similar response was seen in Area B with IgE and IgG4 to AWA. Levels of all AWA-specific IgE and IgG4 were significantly higher in subjects from Area A compared with Area B at all time-points. AWA-IgE levels demonstrated significant linear correlations with age and number of previous PZQ treatments in Area A only. All SEA-specific isotypes in both areas fell significantly in response to treatment--except IgE, which remained stable in both area. All SEA-specific isotype levels (except IgA) were significantly higher from Area A at baseline. This significant difference was maintained through 12-months follow-up for IgE, IgG2 and IgG4 only. This study suggests that multiple episodes of schistosome infection may be required to generate antibody isotype levels that have been associated with resistance to re-infection in other studies. Further, a surrogate marker of successful chemotherapy (AWA-IgG4) performed less effectively in patients with previous treatment courses. PMID:12055818

Li, Y; Yu, D B; Li, Y S; Luo, X S; Liang, Y S; Bartley, P B; McManus, D P


Uma leitura bergsoniana da Biologia da Cognição: implicações para a educação A bergsonian reading of the Biology of Cognition: Implications to the education  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A partir da identifi cação de fortes tendências paradigmáticas em direção à complexidade, defi nida aqui como uma dinâmica de imbricamento de todas as dimensões da realidade, a autora destaca a teoria da Biologia da Cognição de Humberto Maturana e Francisco Varela como um conjunto de pressupostos fundamentais nessa nova construção. Essa importância é devida principalmente aos pressupostos revolucionários

Nize Maria Campos Pellanda



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O presente trabalho representa um estudo de caso sobre identificação humana com técnica comparativa, por meio de um método odontolegal, em que se discutem os aspectos de quantidade e qualidade de pontos de concordância necessários para se obter uma identificação positiva. É ressaltado que, apesar de alguns trabalhos estabelecerem um mínimo de doze pontos convergentes, assim como preconizado para

Rhonan Ferreira da Silva; Mauro Machado do Prado; Henrique César; Marçal de Oliveira; Eduardo Daruge Júnior


High speed photometry of an UMa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a class, the AM Her objects exhibit temporal variability on time scales ranging from seconds to years. Most of the variations can be adequately described by shot noise models (Cordova and Mason 1982). Exceptions to this are the strictly periodic features modulated on the orbital periods of the systems (typically several hours) and the one to two second features which show up as excesses of power in the time averaged power spectra of AN UMa. It has been suggested that the short time scale features are due to an oscillatory instability of radiative accretion shocks discovered by Langer, Chanmugam, and Shaviv (1981, 1982). A direct physical relationship between the one to two second optical variations and shock oscillations has not yet been demonstrated. Because of the potential importance of such a result further study of these systems is clearly warranted. In this work, we examine the short time scale behavior of AN UMa in more detail and improve on the work of Middleditch (1982) by resolving the feature in time.

Imamura, J. N.; Steiman-Cameron, T. Y.; Durisen, R. H.



High speed photometry of AN UMa  

SciTech Connect

As a class, the AM Her objects exhibit temporal variability on time scales ranging from seconds to years. Most of the variations can be adequately described by ''shot noise'' models (Cordova and Mason 1982). Exceptions to this are the strictly periodic features modulated on the orbital periods of the systems (typically several hours) and the one to two second features which show up as ''excesses'' of power in the time averaged power spectra of AN UMa (Middleditch 1982) and E1405-451 (Mason et al. 1983; Larsson 1985). It has been suggested that the short time scale features are due to an oscillatory ''instability'' of radiative accretion shocks discovered by Langer, Chanmugam, and Shaviv (1981, 1982). This is an interesting suggestion because, if true, it would allow the masses of the accreting white dwarfs to be inferred and would provide other significant constraints on the physics of the accretion flows (see Langer et al. 1981, 1982; Chevalier and Imamura 1982; Imamura, Wolff, and Durisen 1984; Imamura 1985). Unfortunately, a direct physical relationship between the one to two second optical variations and shock oscillations has not yet been demonstrated. Because of the potential importance of such a result further study of these systems is clearly warranted. In this work, we examine the short time scale behavior of AN UMa in more detail and improve on the work of Middleditch (1982) by resolving the feature in time.

Imamura, J.N.; Steiman-Cameron, T.Y.; Durisen, R.H.



LEVANTAMENTO PEDOLÓGICO E SISTEMA DE INFORMAÇÕES GEOGRÁFICAS NA AVALIAÇÃO DO USO DAS TERRAS EM SUB-BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DE MINAS GERAIS 1 Pedologic survey and geographic information system for evaluation of land use within a small watershed, Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A aptidão agrícola das terras consiste em uma classificação técnica que identifica o potencial agrícola de utilização das mesmas, considerando as limitações do solo em níveis de manejo diferenciados a partir das informações geradas em um levantamento pedológico. O cruzamento dos dados de aptidão agrícola e uso atual das terras em ambiente SIG (Sistema de Informações Geográficas) consiste numa

Michele Duarte de Menezes; Nilton Curi; João José Marques; Carlos Rogério de Mello; Alexandre Romeiro de Araújo


Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.



Uma Visão do Universo Segundo um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A astronomia, embora seja uma ciência popular, com inúmeras descobertas de interesse público, ainda é apresentada desconsiderando-se os aspectos históricos e científicos relacionados ao seu desenvolvimento, sendo geralmente veiculada nos meios de comunicação de maneira pouco esclarecedora e não raro com imprecisões. Neste trabalho analisou-se a concepção de um grupo de estudantes de Ensino Médio sobre conceitos de astronomia, visando identificar sua visão de mundo a respeito do Universo, envolvendo idéias sobre espaço e tempo. Para issso, foi aplicado um questionário em três escolas da grande São Paulo em um espaço amostral de 270 alunos. Constatou-se que, embora o ensino de astronomia esteja previsto nos PCNEM, os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que há grande deficiência no conhecimento dos temas investigados. Nesse sentido, verificou-se que apenas 20% dos alunos eram capazes de relacionar a sucessão das semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra. Por outro lado, somente 23% dos alunos tinham noções das distâncias entre os objetos celestes próximos da Terra e 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo. Finalmente, constatou-se que 37% reconheciam o ano-luz como uma unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como sendo uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem que a escola é a principal fonte para aquisição dos conhecimentos de astronomia, conclui-se que seus conceitos nessa área ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de ampliação e aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos nos ambientes escolares.

Elias, D. S.; Araújo, M.; Amaral, L. H.; Voelzke, M. R.; Araújo, M.




Microsoft Academic Search

Foi instalado um teste de procedência e progênie de Liquidambar styraciflua L. em Agudos, SP, em solo de areia quartzosa. Os materiais genéticos foram fornecidos pelo Oxford Forestry Institute, incluindo doze procedências da Guatemala, Honduras, Nicarágua, México e dos Estados Unidos, sendo testados juntamente com uma testemunha local, com duas a dez progênies por procedência. Medições efetuadas dos quatro até

Jarbas Y. Shimizu; Ivana H. Z. Spir


Evolução temporal de discos circunstelares em estrelas Be  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pesquisa do mecanismo que leva uma estrela do tipo Be a perder massa e formar um envelope circunstelar, nomeado como fenômeno Be, é uma questão em aberto, intrigante, e que adquire contornos interessantes em face às informações espectroscópicas de alta resolução. Nesta última década, consolida-se a idéia de que a forma destes envelopes é de tipo discóide, obedecendo a uma lei Kepleriana de velocidades, e mais ainda, recentemente há evidências de que a distribuição de matéria nestes discos pode assumir um caráter de anel. Medidas de algumas dimensões de discos circunstelares puderam ser obtidas pela análise de espectros de alta resolução e alta relação sinal-ruído para as estrelas Be: alpha Eri (HD 10144, B3Vpe), omicron And (HD 217675, B6IIIpe), e eta Cen (HD el972, B1.5Vne), no período dos anos de 1991 a 2001. Alguns modelos clássicos de envelope predizem uma distribuição de massa que decresce suavemente a partir da superfície estelar. Entretanto, considerando que a separação de picos de emissão em perfis de linhas do HeI e H-alpha, alargados por efeitos cinemáticos, é função do raio estelar e da velocidade rotacional projetada (vsini); nossos resultados sugerem a presença de um anel de matéria circunstelar, que aparece logo após a ejeção do material fotosférico, imediatamente acima da superfície estelar, e que se expande para raios maiores ao longo do tempo, eventualmente desconectando-se da superfície por uma região de densidade de matéria mínima. Tais interpretações revivem a idéia de que anéis de matéria circunstelar podem ser os responsáveis por algumas variabilidades em perfis de linhas de emissão, como as variações V/R.

Fernandes, M. V. M.; Leister, N. V.; Levenhagen, R. S.



Treatment of Bilharzial Colonic Polyposis with Praziquantel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previously published data indicate the effective use of niridazole(AMBILLAR) in the treatment of patients with schistosomal colonic polyposis. However, severe side effects, which included neuromuscular and psychoti c reactions, were noted in >90% of the p...

B. Trabolsi M. Stek N. A. El-Masry S. Bassily Z. Farid



[Praziquantel in the treatment of human echinococcosis].  


In the period from 1989 to 1993, 73 patients with Echinococcus granulosus cysts were treated by prazyquantel. To differentiate cysts tests of indirect immunofluoroscence and hemagglutination were used. The tests were performed during and after the completed treatment. During the treatment three patients were excluded so that 70 patients completed the treatment. Fifty five (78.9%) patients were treated only with drug with a success of 67% (37 patients). The preventive treatment, due to cyst perforation, was performed in 3 (4.3%) patients. Dissemination of illness occurred in no patients. Twelve (16.8%) patients were treated surgically. The parasite was not alive in 7 (58.5%) patients. The vitality of the parasite was controlled by microscopic examination of protoscolex and by their inoculation into rats of AO strain. The total success of treatment was 67.4% (47) of patients. In two patients the treatment was discontinued due to allergic manifestations. In our opinion, the drug treatment was the therapy of choice in patients with Echinococcus granulosus. It should be given prophylactically, preoperatively, to sterilize the cyst and also as a curative treatment. PMID:7571529

Redzi?, B; Radulovi?, S; Stankovi?, N; Redzi?-Rosko, Z


21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...caninum and Taenia pisiformis . (B) For removal of the canine cestode Echinococcus granulosus, and for removal and control of the canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis . (iii) Limitations â(A) If labeled only...



A clínica pulsional de Wilhelm Reich: uma tentativa de atualização  

Microsoft Academic Search

Busca-se propor uma fundamentação da psicoterapia corporal de inspiração reichiana dentro do quadro de referência da pri meira teoria freudiana das pulsões. Tenta-se explicar os elementos próprios da abordagem reichiana a partir da idéia de uma dinâmica psíquica baseada no conflito entre pulsão e defesa. Também são discutidas, brevemente, algumas possibilidades de ampliação desse modelo a partir de propostas oriundas

Ricardo Amaral Rego



Thermal Image of Halema'uma'u Crater  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This thermal image (white is hot, dark blue is cold), taken during today's helicopter overflight, shows the current vent configuration at Halema`uma`u crater. The vent cavity is about 130 meters (430 ft) wide, and has consumed portions of the wall and floor of Halema`uma`u crater. Th...



Gerenciamento de Projetos Baseado em Cenários: uma Abordagem de Modelagem Dinâmica e Simulação  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project management is a knowledge intensive activity. Managers use their skills and experience to make decisions during the e xecution o f a software development process. Usually experienced managers perform better than novice managers in terms of attending to project schedule, budget, and functionality. Such better results are achieved due senior managers' accumulated experiences and the knowledge that they can




Curso de Licenciatura em Matemática a Distância Uma Síntese do Projeto Pedagógico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing offer of e-learning courses in Brasil at graduate level in public institution and several undergraduate courses in private institutions, took the Ministry of Education of Brazil to establish rules to register institutions offering e- learning courses with recognized diploma. This accreditation it is only given to the Institution, when based on a evaluation of the actual offer of

João Artur de Souza; Elton Luiz Vergara Nunes; Gertrudes Aparecida Dandolini; Luiz Alberto Brettas



Microsoft Academic Search

The enterprise environment has become each more competitive in the last decades, increasing your degree of complexity, generating uncertainties about the future and demanding fast changes in the organizations and theirs employees. In this way, a valuation of the people in the organization is observed, in the direction to attempt against for questions related to the Management of Life Quality

Rita de Cássia Stadykoski; Silvio Roberto Stefano


Síndrome de Burnout e satisfação no trabalho em profissionais de uma instituição hospitalar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was investigate Burnout Syndrome in professionals of a hospital in a city of Porto Alegre metropolitan area. This work verify, too, the behavior of association with demographic variables, professionals and satisfaction at work. It used as research instrument the MBI - Maslach Burnout Inventory (HSS), the Questionnaire of Satisfaction at Work S20\\/23 and a questionnaire

Cristiane da Rosa; Mary Sandra Carlotto


Programa Embu Enxergando Melhor: uma proposta de atenção integral à saúde ocular em pré-escolares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Early detection and prompt treatment of ocu- lar disorders in children are important to avoid lifelong visual impairment. This study aimed to describe a comprehensive eye health care program for preschool children. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was car- ried out focusing eye health conditions of 23,374 children, between five and seven years old, of the public preschool system

Maria Cecília S. Lapa; Adriana Mavalli de Freitas; Glaura César Pedroso; Meiry Akiko Furusato; Renato Nabas Ventura




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY HAZARD ANALYSIS IN ANURANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE PRODUCTION FACILITY The present work provides a method for preliminary hazard analysis of an uranium hexafluoride production facility. The proposed method identifies the hazards associated with the production and evaluate the consequences of undesired events. It was found that, although the facility handles radioactive material, the main hazards may be associated with the release




A Fragilidade das Empresas de Base Tecnológica em Economias Periféricas: uma interpretação baseada na experiência brasileira  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at analysing the restraints to the creation, maturation and growth of technology-based firms (TBF) in developing countries. Although the argument is empirically based on the experience of the Brazilian economy, we do believe the analysis may apply to a much wider universe as regarding most countries in the periphery of world economy. We propose a microeconomic approach




Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years, as a result of the economy globalization, the companies were forced to get better or to change the way of administering in order to keep competitive advantage. In this scene, intangible assets such as organizational learning and knowledge creation appeared or emerged as the main factors defining the organization's competitivity structured under the concept of Intellectual

Carlos Augusto de Sous; Luiz Martello de Souza; Marcos Damião de Azevedo


Drogas e saúde na imprensa brasileira: uma análise de artigos publicados em jornais e revistas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes information recently published by the Brazilian press on the use of psychoactive drugs and its implications on health. A sample of 502 newspaper and magazine articles published in 1998 was researched using content analysis. The drugs most frequently fea- tured in the headlines were tobacco (18.1%), coca-derived drugs (9.2%), marijuana (9.2%), alco- holic beverages (8.6%), and anabolic

Ana Regina Noto; Murilo C. Baptista; Silene T. Faria; Solange A. Nappo; José Carlos F. Galduróz; Elisaldo A. Carlini



Fenologia de espécies arbóreas zoocóricas em uma floresta psamófila no sul do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palavras-chave: Brotação, fotoperíodo, queda foliar, restinga, sazonalidade ABSTRACT - (Phenology of zoochorous tree species in a sandy coastal forest in Southern Brazil). Biological phenomena are subject to abiotic factors that change according to geographical position, especially those related to environmental seasonality. This study provides a two-year assessment of vegetative and reproductive phenophases for nine species in a coastal forest on

Maria Salete Marchioretto; Julian Mauhs; Jean Carlos Budke



Fenologia reprodutiva de espécies arbóreas em uma formação secundária da floresta Atlântica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on reproductive phenology of tree species provide the knowledge needed to define strategies for forest conservation and management. Thus, the objective of this work was to characterize the reproductive phenology of woody species in secondary forests of the Atlantic Rain Forest. From June\\/1998 to July\\/1999, flowering and fructification periods of five to 41 reproductive trees of 19 species were

Marcelo Mantovani; Ademir Roberto Ruschel; Maurício Sedrez dos Reis; Ângelo Puchalski; Rubens Onofre Nodari



Esclerose múltipla: estudo descritivo de suas formas clínicas em 302 casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A esclerose múltipla é uma das causas mais comuns de incapacidade neurológica crônica em adultos jovens. Avaliamos, através de estudo retrospectivo, características epidemiológicas, formas de apresentação, manifestações clínicas, evolução e o grau de incapacitação física da esclerose múltipla em 302 pacientes. A média da idade dos pacientes foi 37,7 anos e a relação entre os gêneros foi 3,13F:1M.




MR UMa superoutburst coverage requested for HST observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dr. Boris Gaensicke (Warwick University) requested AAVSO observations of the currently-outbursting SU UMa-type cataclysmic variable MR UMa in preparation for and support of HST observations scheduled for the week of 2013 April 4-7. Since MR UMa appears to be in superoutburst, the HST observations might offer an unplanned opportunity to measure the post-outburst cooling of the WD in this system. Nightly V and visual observations are requested 2013 March 8 through at least April 10; as the HST observations draw closer, the cadence of observations may be revised. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter ( Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. For outburst details and behavioral history of MR UMa, see full Alert Notice.

Waagen, Elizabeth O.




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Investigações detalhadas das práticas alimentares dos consumidores permitem o acesso a informações importantes quanto às diferentes maneiras pelas quais os consumidores interpretam seus comportamentos. Reconhecendo que os indivíduos têm objetivos e preocupações distintas em relação a sua alimentação (diferentes representações dos alimentos), resultando modelos alimentares distintos, uma tipologia de consumidores de produtos light e ou diet foi proposta neste

Thelma Lucchese; Mario Otavio Batalha; Jean Louis Lambert


Abordagem do tema hipertensão arterial e suas relações com o tabagismo e a obesidade como forma de avaliação da aquisição e socialização de conhecimentos em Feiras de Ciências  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho apresenta a experiência vivenciada por um professor do Ensino Fundamental de Escola Pública do Paraná, na orientação de uma equipe de alunos de 8ª série, em 2008, visando o desenvolvimento de trabalhos em Feiras de Ciências. A temática da equipe enfoca a hipertensão arterial e seus fatores de risco, tabagismo e obesidade, no município de Floresta. Escolheu-se

Eduardo de Almeida Grenier; Celso Ivam Conegero



Rotação do jato em DG tau próximo à região de sua formação: análise comparativa das velocidades radiais simuladas e observadas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Os modelos magneto-centrífugos utilizados para explicar a formação dos jatos Herbig-Haro assumem a presença de um disco de acresção em rotação kepleriana na base de lançamento do jato. Neste cenário, o jato transmite a informação da rotação do disco para regiões distantes da fonte central, além da superfície de Alfvén, na região de colimação inicial do jato. Recentemente, Bacciotti et al. (2002, ApJ, 537, L49) obtiveram pela primeira vez uma evidência observacional de rotação em um jato HH, o jato em DG Tau, em regiões próximas da fonte central, compatível (qualitativa e quantitativamente) com o esperado a partir dos modelos magneto-centrífugos para a produção e colimação inicial de jatos HH. No presente trabalho, apresentamos mapas de velocidade radial, obtidos através de simulações numéricas tri-dimensionais SPH, para um jato com características semelhantes ao jato em DG Tau, objetivando uma comparação com os mapas de velocidade radiais obtidos por Bacciotti et al.. Nossos resultados, embora preliminares, indicam que a inclusão de efeitos como a precessão, evidenciada em DG Tau (Dougados et al. 2000, A&A, 357, L61) devem ser levadas em consideração na análise da presença de rotação não só em DG Tau mas em qualquer sistema, com o uso das velocidades radias observadas. A ausência de um grau elevado de simetria axial (quebrada, por exemplo, pela precessão do eixo do jato; ou pela presença de uma superfície interna de trabalho, ou seja, um bow shock interno), implica também em uma maior complexidade nos mapas, com conseqüências relevantes para suas interpretações.

Cerqueira, A. H.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.



Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.



Adoção de Padrões de Informação em Saúde: Estudo de Caso do Diagnóstico Nutricional proposto pela ADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Atualmente existem muitos padrões para a área de informação em saúde sendo especificados. Um destes foi proposto pela American Dietetic Association (ADA) para a definição do diagnóstico nutricional, que é composto por três domínios: Ingestão Nutricional, Nutrição Clínica e Comportamento Nutricional. Porém existe dificuldade na utilização destes padrões, uma vez que geralmente os critérios para determinar o diagnóstico não

Luciene Zotelli; Claudia M. C. Moro; João Dias; Cristina Martins


Descrição morfológica e fenologia floral em alfavaca do campo (Ocimum campechianum Mill.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Ocimum campechianum Mill, conhecida no nordeste brasileiro como alfavaca do campo, é uma importante fonte de óleos essenciais presentes nas folhas, inflorescências e sementes da planta adulta, cujas propriedades medicinais, aromáticas e condimentares são reconhecidas e empregadas na medicina natural e culinária regional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo da morfologia floral e fenologia da floração em

Anderson Brito da Silva; Marcela Fonseca Souza; Alisson Harley; Brito da Silva


EM International. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

Not Available



Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma estrutura maior.

Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.



On the minimum mass ratio of W UMa binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Eggleton's stellar evolution code, we study the minimum mass ratio (qmin) of W Ursae Majoris (W UMa) binaries that have different primary masses. It is found that the minimum mass ratio of W UMa binaries decreases with increasing mass of the primary if the primary's mass is less than about 1.3Msolar, while above this mass the ratio is roughly constant. By comparing the theoretical minimum mass ratio with observational data, it is found that the existence of low-q systems can be explained by the different structure of primaries with different masses. This suggests that the dimensionless gyration radius (k21) and thus the structure of the primary is very important in determining the minimum mass ratio. In addition, we investigate the mass loss during the merging process of W UMa systems and calculate the rotation velocities of the single stars formed by mergers of W UMa binaries due to tidal instability. It is found that in the case of conservation of mass and angular momentum, the merged single stars rotate with an equatorial velocity of about ~588-819kms-1, which is much larger than their break-up velocities (vb). This suggests that the merged stars should extend to a very large radius (~3.7-5.3 times the radii of the primaries) or else W UMa systems should lose a large amount of mass (~21-33 per cent of the total mass) during the merging process. If the effect of magnetic braking is considered, the mass loss decreases to ~12-18 per cent of the total mass. This implies that significant angular momentum and mass might be lost from W UMa systems in the course of the merging process, and this kind of mass and angular momentum loss might be driven by the release of orbital energy of the secondaries, similarly to common-envelope evolution.

Jiang, Dengkai; Han, Zhanwen; Wang, Jiancheng; Jiang, Tianyu; Li, Lifang



Estudo e aplicação do código de desembaraçamento espectral - Korel - em sistemas triplos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O código KOREL é uma ferramenta adicional eficiente para a determinação simultânea de parâmetros orbitais espectroscópicos para o desembaraço de espectros individuais de sistemas estelares com até cinco componentes. Estudos já realizados (Torres,KBV,2002, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG) mostram as limitações, aplicabilidade e eficiência do código para sistemas com duas componentes. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, a continuação dos estudos para sistemas com três componentes (sistemas hierárquicos), utilizando espectros sintéticos "gabaritos" de estrelas individuais em órbitas cujos parâmetros são conhecidos "a priori". Geramos os espectros compostos e verificamos como o código reproduz os parâmetros orbitais e espectros individuais em diversas situações físicas. É apresentado, ainda, uma discussão da aplicabilidade do código em sistemas reais como RV Crateris (Machado,ACM,1997, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG), um sistema triplo cujas componentes eclipsantes estão, provavelmente, ainda na fase pré-sequência principal.

Torres, K. B. V.; Vaz, L. P. R.



Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao final, temos uma lista de linhas atômicas com mais de 24.000 linhas e uma lista molecular com as moléculas CN, CH, OH, NH, MgH, C2, TiO Gama, CO, FeH, adequadas ao estudo de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas.

Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.



Light Curve Analysis of the ES UMa Binary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a number of multi-night photometric observations of the ES UMa system, carried out from 28/2/07 to 2/6/07 in B, V, R and Ic filters. From these observations, a light curve solution has been acquired.

Kleidis, S.; Tsantilas, S.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.



Selected W UMa stars of the antipodean sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Candidate W UMa stars from the southern hemisphere were observed in V filter using personal telescopes in South Africa during the 2008 season. Ephemerides of V839 Cen, V637 Cen and V653 Ara are presented. Software modelling packages of Binary Maker 3 and Phoebe were employed to constrain the parameters of the binary components. The results of the modelling exercise are presented.

Middleton, C. T.



Is EM dead?  


Since electron microscopy (EM) first appeared in the 1930s, it has held centre stage as the primary tool for the exploration of biological structure. Yet, with the recent developments of light microscopy techniques that overcome the limitations imposed by the diffraction boundary, the question arises as to whether the importance of EM in on the wane. This Commentary describes some of the pioneering studies that have shaped our understanding of cell structure. These include the development of cryo-EM techniques that have given researchers the ability to capture images of native structures and at the molecular level. It also describes how a number of recent developments significantly increase the ability of EM to visualise biological systems across a range of length scales, and in 3D, ensuring that EM will remain at the forefront of biology research for the foreseeable future. PMID:24124192

Knott, Graham; Genoud, Christel




Microsoft Academic Search

4 Enfermeira. Doutora em Filosofia da Enfermagem. Docente do Programa de Pós-Graduação e do Departamento de Enfermagem da UFSC. Resumo: A utilização de diferentes referenciais metodológicos tem sido uma busca constante na prática de pesquisa em distintas áreas do conhecimento. A enfermagem, neste sentido, tem buscado fundamentar suas pesquisas em referenciais diversificados como forma de ampliar seu corpo de conhecimentos.

Ana Izabel; Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann; Terra MG; Silva LC; Camponogara S; Santos EKA; Souza AIJ; Erdmann AL



UBVRI differential photometry of DM UMa (Rosario+, 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1993-94 and 2004-08, DM UMa was observed on a total of 82 nights in standard Johnson BV bands with the 34-cm telescope of Vainu Bappu Observatory, Kavalur. All the measurements were made with respect to BD+60 1301 during 1993-94 and with respect to BD+61 1210 during 2004-08. BD+61 1210 and BD+60 1297 were observed as check stars during the first and second periods, respectively. DM UMa was also observed with the 60-cm telescope operated by San Diego State University at Mt Laguna, CA, on a total of 213 nights simultaneously in standard Johnson UBV bands during 1988-89 and in UBVRI bands during 1990-2007. BD+60 1301 was used as the comparison and BD+60 1306 as the check star. (2 data files).

Rosario, M. J.; Heckert, P. A.; Mekkaden, M. V.; Raveendran, A. V.



População nuclear e extranuclear em rádio-galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A natureza do contínuo UV/ótico em rádio-galáxias é muito importante para o seu entendimento. Em baixos redshifts existem evidências de que muitas delas são dominadas no ótico por luz de estrelas velhas, características de galáxias early-type e em altos redshifts a característica dominante é um excesso de luz no UV, freqüentemente associado com estruturas que estão alinhadas aos eixos das estruturas rádio em grande escala. Inicialmente esse excesso foi interpretado como devido a episódios intensos de formação estelar nas galáxias hospedeiras. Entretanto, as descobertas dos alinhamentos entre as estruturas UV e rádio modificaram essa idéia. Foi proposto que a formação estelar é iniciada pela passagem do jato rádio através do meio interestelar das galáxias hospedeiras. A natureza do excesso UV começou a ser compreendida em um estudo detalhado do continuo ótico da 3C321, onde se concluiu que o contínuo desta galáxia tem origem multicomponente, com contribuições de populações velhas e intermediárias, de luz espalhada oriunda de um quasar obscurecido e do contínuo nebular. No presente trabalho estudamos a população nuclear e extranuclear de uma amostra de 24 rádio-galáxias, utilizando espectros óticos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal/ruído. Através do método de síntese espectral de populações estelares, foram estimadas as contribuições de populações estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contínuo tipo lei de potência devido a um AGN, FC) para a luz integrada das galáxias, em 4020Å. As principais conclusões deste trabalho são: apenas quatro dos objetos estudados têm contribuições significativas (maiores do que 10%) das populações de 100 milhões de anos ou mais jovens (ou de FC) ao longo da região espacial estudada (6 kpc centrais); nenhuma das rádio-galáxias de tipo FRI estudadas tem contribuição significativa destas populações ao longo desta região; duas (de oito) de tipo FRII tem contribuições significativas da luz que vem do AGN, na região nuclear; uma tem contribuição significativa das populações de 100 milhões de anos e mais jovens ao longo dos 4 kpc centrais, indicando claramente a presença de formação estelar recente. Comparando estes resultados com aqueles obtidos para uma amostra de galáxias não ativas de mesmo tipo de Hubble das rádio, encontramos que a principal diferença entre as duas amostras está na contribuição da população de 1 bilhão de anos, geralmente maior nas rádio-galáxias.

Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Quintana, H.; Alloin, D.; Hunstead, R.; Wisotzki, L.



IX Draconis, ER UMa-type dwarf nova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of our world-wide observing campaign which was dedicated to one of the most active dwarf novae, IX Draconis. We investigated photometric behaviour of the system to derive its basic parameters. This study is important in the context of our understanding of the accretion process of IX Draconis, as well as other active cataclysmic variables, especially those from the still poorly studied type of ER UMa stars.

Otulakowska-Hypka, M.; Olech, A.; de Miguel, E.; Rutkowski, A.; Koff, R.; Bakowska, K.



Higienização em Prótese Parcial removível Cleaning Way S Of RemOvable PaR tial DentUReS  

Microsoft Academic Search

resUmo: Introdução e Métodos: Este estudo tem o objetivo de fazer uma revisão de literatura sobre os meios de higienização para prótese parcial removível, já que esta necessita de cuidados diferentes da prótese total e da prótese removível provisória por possuir metal em sua composição. Dentre os meios para desinfecção estão os mecânicos (escovas, microondas e ultrasom) e químicos (peróxidos

Sugano Denise Kazuo; Ueno Camila; Satie Ferreira; Kamoi Daniela Justo; Otani Eliane Rye; Uemura Eduardo Shigueyuki


Relações solo-geoambiente em áreas de ocorrências de Ipucas na planície do Médio Araguaia - Estado de Tocantins  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Dentre as paisagens do médio rio Araguaia, destacam-se as extensas planícies e depressões sazonalmente alagadas. Nelas se inserem formações florestais higrófilas denominadas Ipucas, como enclaves peculiares pela sua fitossociologia e ambiente pedogeomorfológico. Esses fragmentos florestais naturais ocorrem na planície fluvial, em região de ecótono entre o Cerrado e a Floresta Amazônica. Neste estudo, foi selecionada uma área de

Alan Kardec Elias Martins; Carlos Ernesto G. R. Schaefer; Elias Silva; Vicente Paulo Soares; Guilherme Resende Corrêa; Bruno Araújo Furtado de Mendonça




Microsoft Academic Search

Este artigo pretende fazer uma análise literária do conto O santo que não acreditava em Deus de João Ubaldo Ribeiro, discorreremos a propósito do perfil literário do autor e partindo do exame dos aspectos pragmáticos do texto daremos ênfase aos elementos estruturais da narrativa: personagens, enredo, espaço, tempo e foco narrativo. Sendo que, para este estudo, utilizaremos como referência obras

Jesuíno Aparecido Andrade


Environmental Media Services (EMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environmental Media Services (EMS) is a nonprofit communications clearinghouse committed to the expansion of media coverage on critical environmental and public health issues. True to their mission, EMS staff "build relationships with top scientists, physicians, and other experts to bring journalists the latest and most credible information." EMS's modest homepage is free of clutter but full of content. While several sections are under construction and updates (currently) appear irregular, a series of available articles provides useful summaries of important environmental news issues over the past six months. Current articles include "The impacts of global warming on the oceans" and "Cool companies," among others.


Period Variations in the Close Binary BM UMa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of analysing of the light curve and O-C variations in the eclipsing system BM UMa, based on V-band observations which cover the period from JD 2454933 to 2454961 using two robotic remotely-controlled telescopes of Tzec Maun Observatory (USA) along with observations made with the RK-600 telescope of Odessa Astronomical Observatory. The full light curve displays a total primary eclipse with a duration 0.06 of the period, or 24 minutes, and a partial secondary eclipse, with both maxima of equal magnitude. For our obesrvations, we determined the statistically optimal values of the initial epoch of T0 = 2454944.2814 ± 0.0001 and orbital period of P = 0.d271226± 0.000002. The depths of primary and secondary minima are nearly equal, 0.m838 ± 0.006 and 0.m748 ± 0.006, respectively. The physical parameters of the system were calculated using the Wilson-Devinney code, appended with the Monte Carlo search algorithm. The result establishes BM UMa as a contact system (fillout factor 10.7%) with parameters: mass ratio 0.538 ± 0.001, inclination 86.°815 ± 0.005, and temperatures of components 4700 ± 20 K and 4510 ± 10 K. The more massive component is larger and cooler. The 72 archival and 11 newly-obtained times of light minimum cover the interval 1961-2010 and allowed us to exclude possible systematic period variations in BM UMa and to determine an initial epoch of HJD 2447927.382 and orbital period of P = 0.d2712209± 0.0000006.

Virnina, Natalia A.; Panko, Elena; Sergienko, O. G.; Murnikov, Boris A.; Gubin, E. G.; Klabukova, A. V.; Movchan, A. I.



Planetary Obliquity Evolution in the 47 Uma Habitable Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In two studies by Laskar and Robuterl (1993) and Laskar et al. (1993) the obliquity evolution of the major planets of the Solar System was investigated. It was found that the terrestrial planets have a high probability of encountering chaotic regimes and thereby initiating large variations in their obliquities. Such variations are expected to have had profound implications for the long-term atmosphere and surface conditions of the planets. The recent discovery of an extra solar planetary system (47 Uma), with a habitable zone that could potentially harbor small terrestrial planets (e.g. Jones and Sleep, 2002 and Thébault et al. 2002), have raised questions about the conditions for habitability in such a system (e.g. Franck et al. 2001 and Cuntz et al. 2003). In that context the effects of the obliquity evolution might be of importance and has been numerically simulated for hypothetical planets located in the habitable zone of 47 Uma. The results found will be presented and discussed in detail. Cuntz et al. 2003. Icarus in press. - Franck et al. 2001. Naturwissenschaften 88, 416. - Jones and Sleep 2002. A&A 393, 1015. - Laskar and Robuterl 1993. Nature 361, 608. - Laskar et al. 1993. Nature 361, 615. - Thébault et al. 2002. A&A 384, 594.

Erikson, A.; Skoglöv, E.



Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em

S. Silva E Costa



O pensamento de Antônio Gramsci como referencial teórico na pesquisa em história da Enfermagem The thought of Antonio Gramsci as a theoretical benchmark of study in the history of Nursing El pensamiento de Antonio Gramsci como referencial teórico de estudios en historia de la Enfermería  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Cada pesquisador em história da enfermagem é livre nas suas interpretações. Todos nós sentimos necessidade de ordenar nosso campo teórico, para não cairmos no niilismo do caminhar desordenado pela história. Este artigo tem por objetivo propor uma reflexão teórica sobre o pensamento de Antônio Gramsci como referencial téorico de estudos em história da enfermagem. Para GRAMSCI, as relações de

Miriam Heidemann; Maria da Luz; Barbosa Gomes; Maritza Consuelo; Ortiz Sanchez


Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

de Souza, R. S.



The Photometry of Cataclysmic Variable V1159 Ori and BZ UMa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photometry of the cataclysmic variables V1159 Ori and BZ UMa are conducted with the 1m RCC optical telescope in Yunnan Astronomical Observatory from Feb. 24th to 25th, 2008. The light curves of V1159 Ori denote superhumps during the fading period of a normal outburst. Previous observations revealed superhumps in ER UMa during normal outbursts, convincing that it is universal in ER UMa class. This photometry helps to assure superhumps' presence in ordinary outbursts of ER UMa class. As to the controversial BZ UMa, whose orbital period is below the period gap of SU Uma, no apparent observable superhumps are detected in either previous observations or that of this time. Therefore, it is more likely to side with U Gem class or WZ Sge class, with the latter of more likelihood.

Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, F. Z.; Li, Z. Y.; Zhao, Y. H.; Gu, Q. S.



by EM tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the in vitro reconstitution of sperm nuclei and small DNA templates to mitotic chroma- tin in Xenopus laevis egg extracts by three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy (EM) tomography. Using specif- ically developed software, the reconstituted chromatin was interpreted in terms of nucleosomal patterns and the overall chromatin connectivity. The condensed chromatin formed

Peter König; Michael B. Braunfeld; John W. Sedat; David A. Agard


Photometric study of W UMa type binaries in the intermediate open cluster NGC 7789  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light curve solutions of two W UMa binary systems in the intermediate open cluster NGC 7789 are presented in this paper. These variables were observed using the 2 m telescope of the IUCAA-Girawali Observatory. The V passband photometric solutions of the two W UMa binaries were obtained using the latest version of the W-D program. The result shows that both systems are H-subtype W UMa binaries with high mass ratios.

Sriram, Kandulapati; Vivekananda Rao, Pasagada



Photometry of the Cataclysmic Variables V1159 Ori and BZ UMa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

V1159 Ori is an ER UMa sub-type cataclysmic variable belonging to the SU UMa type, and the controversial BZ UMa lies between the U Gem type and the WZ Sge type, but it possesses also the periodicity characteristics of SU UMa. We have made photometric observations of these two cataclysmic variables with the 1m RCC optical telescope in Yunnan Astronomical Observatory from Feb. 24th to 25th, 2008. The obtained light curves of V1159 Ori exhibit superhumps in the descending stage of a normal outburst, this provides an observational evidence for the universal existence of superhumps in ER UMa-type stars. During our observations BZ UMa was at the maximum of an outburst, but no evident superhump period was detected. The previous observations made by AAVSO (American Association of Variable Star Observers) also have never found any definite superhump. This demonstrates that BZ UMa probably is not a SU UMa-type variable. According to the range of its magnitude variations, BZ UMa is closer to WZ Sge.

Li-Lian, Jiang; Fang-Zhou, Jiang; Zong-Yun, Li; Ying-He, Zhao; Qiu-Sheng, Gu



Estrutura e dinâmica de uma população de Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. em floresta higrófila do sudeste do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population structure and dynamics of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. in a swamp forest in Southeastern Brazil). Age and spatial structures of a population of Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) were studied in a 3600 m2 area of a swamp forest in Brotas, São Paulo State. During the first census, 1658 plants were tagged and after one year this number increased to 1706. Age





Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on addressing issues of interest concerning the transmission of knowledge on matters of Bahian cuisine, its relationship with the parties, the rituals and celebrations. To this end, it was a sketch map of popular culture in Bahia, scoring their knowledge and taste in cultural practices. Next, the study addresses issues involving food, the hybridism cultural tradition and

Mércia Socorro Ribeiro Cruz; Janete Ruiz Macedo


Uso do Solo - Ecologia da Paisagem Perspectivas de uma nova abordagem do estudo da Paisagem em Geografia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to acknowledge the basic principles and methods of Landscape Ecology, in its quantitative analysis of landscape structure - spatial pattern analysis - and its interest in the framework of Geography land use - land cover research. The present importance of land use - land cover change studies is emphasized, in the context of global

Pedro Cortesão Casimiro


Significação dos processos de comunicação e interação: conceitos dialógicos de idosos residentes em uma instituição de longa permanência  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research has as general aim present dialogs between conceptions of communication and interaction processes in aging. Among the specific objectives, we identified the symbolic representations about technology and communicative processes, analyzed the feelings and meanings of experiences livied using these devices and correlated quantitative and qualitative datas. In this study participated old adults wider or equal than 60 years

Jaqueline Colombo Ely; Adriano Daniel Pasqualotti; Eugênio Giaretta; Felipe Keller; Lia Mara Wibelinger


Excelência em Bancos de Leite Humano: Uma Visão do Futuro—The First International Congress on Human Milk Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first International Congress of Human Milk Banks—Excellence in Human Milk Banking: A Vision of the Future, held in Brazil in June 2000 and sponsored by the Brazilian Association of Milk Banks, had representation from milk banks in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Venezuela, France, the United Kingdom, and North America as well as Brazil. Arecurring theme in the discussion of

Mary Rose Tully



Aceitabilidade e funcionalidade de uma nova caneta para administração de insulina (Humapen®): experiência clínica em pacientes brasileiros  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, insulin has been injected using a syringe and a needle. How- ever, injections are frequently considered painful and traumatic, causing psychological\\/social problems in many patients with diabetes. Insulin injec- tion pens have been found to be more convenient, cause less pain and improve patients' quality of life. We studied the acceptance and func- tionality of a new reusable insulin

José E. P. Oliveira; Adolpho Milech; Mariangélica O. Silva; Leão Zagury; Ivan S. Ferraz; Ana Lúcia C. Correia; Edgard D. Niclewicz; Rosangela S. Ataide; Fadlo F. Filho; Paula Pascalli; Eucy Falcão; Marcia J. Kayath



Ensino de Sistemas de Informac ¸ ˜ ao para Cursos de Graduac ¸ ˜ ao em Computac ¸ ˜ ao: Uma Experiencia Integrada e Inovadora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching Information Systems in Computer graduation course s uses techniques already being applyed in market for some years, b ut when the aim is to integrate new technologies to systems practice at real or ganization environ- ments, new integrated and inovative approaches need to be us ed. This article presents a teaching proposal for Information Systems based on an inovative

Ghedini Ralha; Jorge Henrique Cabral Fernandes



Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the present work a polyurethane polymer derived from castor oil was used as stationary phase for capillary gas chromatography. The polymer was obtained by reaction of hydroxylated compound and isocynate (NCO), forming urethane. Columns of 25m x 0,25mm were then coated with this stationary phase (film thickness of 0,25µm) using static coating method. The Grob test mix and

Denise Domingos da Silva; Ana Paula Innocentini; Gilberto Orivaldo Chierice; Mário Sérgio Galhiane; Lucídio Sousa Santos



Microsoft Academic Search

The work aims at approaching the questions of semiosis of the poetical text on-line, arguing if the verbi-voco-visual artwork on the screen of a computer, propagated through the electronic multimedia, can still be considered as poem or if if it deals with a new form of art, with inter\\/trans- artistic characteristics. This research uses as theoretical foundation authors such as

Luciano Rodrigues Lima


O ambiente de binárias de pequena massa em formação: o caso do glóbulo cometário CG30 e IRAS08076-3556  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho, combinamos observações de polarização linear no óptico (banda R), dados no infravermelho distante (IRAS) e observações de transições moleculares em radiofreqüências (CO e espécies isotópicas, HCN e HCO+) para analisar o glóbulo cometário (GC) CG30 (na região da IRAS Vela Shell), que apresenta objetos Herbig-Haro e ejeções de matéria, além de uma fonte pontual IRAS em seu interior. Os objetivos deste estudo são: determinar a eficiência de formação estelar nos glóbulos cometários, através da relação entre a massa total do GC e da massa das estrelas em formação; determinar como o campo magnético influencia na formação de estrelas no interior destes objetos; e analisar as modificações que ejeções de matéria de estrelas em formação causam no gás e no campo magnético dos GCs. Combinando nossos dados com trabalhos já publicados, mostramos que CG30 tem uma eficiência de formação estelar em torno de 3%; que o campo magnético é importante na manutenção da estrutura global do GC e demonstra sinais de torção e compressão; e que a ejeção bipolar de matéria das estrelas do par formam uma ejeção quadripolar, a qual influencia na densidade e temperatura do gás e no grau de polarização dos grãos de poeira associados ao gás do GC.

Hickel, G. R.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.



HD 163151: a new W UMa type system (Rodriguez+ 1998)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Table 2 contains 408 simultaneous measurements collected in each of the four uvby colours of the Stromgren photometric system for the W UMa system HD 163151. The data are magnitude differences (Du, Dv, Db, Dy, D(b-y), Dm1, Dc1) of the variable star minus comparison star in the standard system versus Heliocentric Julian Day. Tables 3, 4 and 5 are the same, but for H? (65 points), Johnson B data (212 points) and Johnson V data (355 points). The comparison star is HD 166095. The origin in time is the Julian Day 2449858. The observations were carried out (by E. Rodriguez, A. Claret, J.M. Garcia, F.M. Zerbi, R. Garrido, S. Martin, C. Akan, K. Luedeke, V. Keskin, C. Ibanoglu, S. Evren, Z. Tunca, R. Pekunlu, M. Paparo, J. Nuspl, K. Krisciunas and S.Y. Jiang) in 1995 during the course of a multisite campaign. The following telescopes were used: 90cm telescope of the Sierra Nevada Observatory, Spain (uvby-H? photometry); 50cm telescope at the Ege University Observatory, Turkey (BV-uvby); 50cm telescope at Piszkesteto mountain station, Konkoly Observatory, Hungary (BV); 50cm telescope at the Merate Observatory, Italy (V); 30cm telescope at Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA (V) and 15cm telescope at Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA (V). (4 data files).

Rodríguez, E.; Claret, A.; García, J. M.; Zerbi, F. M.; Garrido, R.; Martín, S.; Akan, C.; Luedeke, K.; Keskin, V.; Ibanoglu, C.; Evren, S.; Tunca, Z.; Pekunlu, R.; Paparo, M.; Nuspl, J.; Krisciunas, K.; Jiang, S. Y.



A distribuição de velocidades na linha de visada em galáxias barradas vistas de face  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo cinemático da componente vertical de barras em galáxias, obtivemos espectros de fenda longa de alta razão S/N ao longo dos eixos maior e menor de 14 galáxias barradas vistas de face, nos telescópios de 1.52m do ESO em La Silla, Chile, e de 2.3m do Steward Observatory em Kitt Peak, Arizona. Estes dados nos permitiram determinar a distribuição de velocidades das estrelas ao longo do eixo vertical das barras e discos destes sistemas, tanto no centro como em pontos que distam cerca de 5 e 20 segundos de arco do núcleo, correspondendo a distâncias de cerca de 0.7 e 2.8 kpc, respectivamente. Desta forma, a variação radial da distribuição de velocidades também pôde ser avaliada. Este tipo de análise tem raros exemplos na literatura por ser caro em termos de tempo de telescópio. Entretanto, é de fácil justificativa, considerando que traz novas informações que podem ser utilizadas para aperfeiçoar modelos teóricos acerca da formação e evolução de galáxias. Um algoritmo por nós desenvolvido foi utilizado para obter as distribuições de velocidades como Gaussianas generalizadas (polinômios de Gauss-Hermite), o que traz um ingrediente a mais neste tipo de estudo que, tradicionalmente, se utiliza de Gaussianas puras, uma hipótese nem sempre razoável. Apresentaremos os resultados deste trabalho, que incluem um diagnóstico para a identificação de barras recém formadas, e testes para o modelo isotérmico de discos. Mostraremos que: (i) a escolha das estrelas padrão em velocidade, e dos parâmetros da Gaussiana, deve ser muito bem justificada já que tem influência significativa nos resultados; (ii) muitas galáxias apresentam uma depressão na dispersão de velocidades na região central, que pode estar associada a um disco interno; e (iii) a dispersão de velocidades é constante ao longo da barra, nos eixos maior e menor, mas cai substancialmente quando se passa da barra para o disco.

Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.



Regras Monetárias e Dinâmica Macroeconômica no Brasil: Uma Abordagem de Expectativas Racionais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neste artigo estimamos e simulamos um modelo macroeconômico aberto de expectativas racionais (Batini e Haldane (5)) para a economia brasileira, com o objetivo de identificar as características das regras monetárias óti- mas e a dinâmica de curto prazo gerada por elas. Trabalhamos com uma versão forward-looking e uma versão backward-looking a fim de comparar o desempenho de três parametrizações de

Marco Antonio Cesar Bonomo; Ricardo D. Brito



On the possibility of earth-type habitable planets around 47 UMa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate whether Earth-type habitable planets can in principle exist in the planetary system of 47 UMa. The system of 47 UMa consists of two Jupiter-size planets beyond the outer edge of the stellar habitable zone, and thus resembles our own Solar System most closely compared to all exosolar planetary systems discovered so far. Our study of habitability deliberately follows

Manfred Cuntz; Werner von Bloh; Christine Bounama; Siegfried Franck




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Neste artigo fazemos uma discussão teórica sobre a abordagem de ensino de Língua Portuguesa orientada pelos gêneros discursivos como uma forma de síntese das discussões ocorridas no PDE (Programa de Desenvolvimento Educacional) e apresentamos como contribuição pedagógica de possibilidade de trabalho gramatical contextualizado, análises de exemplares do gênero carta do leitor na revista de divulgação científica Ciência Hoje das

Sandra Regina Cecilio


O desenvolvimento da habilidade da criança para narrar experiências pessoais: uma revisão da literatura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo A participação dos pais no desenvolvimento de habilidades cognitivas e comunicacionais dos filhos vem sendo analisada, nos últimos quinze anos, especialmente a partir de uma perspectiva sociointeracionista. Pesquisas recentes indicam que as crianças aprendem a falar sobre suas memórias de eventos passados de uma maneira organizada, num contexto colaborativo de engajamento com seus pais. Alguns autores propõem que o

Lídia Macedo; Tania Mara Sperb



Correlação de longo alcance em sistemas binários de raios-x usando remoção de flutuações  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho é proposta uma metodologia de analise de series temporais de fontes astrofísicas, baseada no método proposto por Peng et al. (1994) e Liu et al. (1999), o qual consiste na idéia de que uma série temporal correlacionada pode ser mapeada por um processo de busca de auto-similaridades em diversas escalas de tempo n. Removendo as eventuais tendências e integrando o sinal observado, é obtida uma medida do desvio médio quadrático das flutuações do sinal integrado F(n)~na, onde a representa o fator de escala associado com a auto-similaridade da correlação de longo alcance do sinal. Baseado nos valores obtidos de a, é possível distinguir entre os casos de sinais não-correlacionados, tipo ruído branco (a = 0,5), sinal anti-persistentes (a < 0,5) e sinal persistente (a > 0,5). Usando esta metodologia, foram analisadas 129 curvas de luz de sistemas binários de raios-X, provenientes do banco de dados públicos de observações feitas pelo instrumento All Sky Monitor, a bordo do satélite Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (ASM-RXTE). Foram identificadas a presença de a'0,5 em mais de 90% dos sistemas estudados, implicando em dizer que as flutuações de intensidade observadas apresentam correlação de auto-similaridade, sem entretanto, indícios de apresentarem uma escala de tempo característica das flutuações de intensidade. Sistemas onde são observadas erupções (flares), apresentam sistematicamente a > 0,5, característica esta, possivelmente associada com persistência das flutuações de densidade de disco ou taxa de acréscimo de massa. Os sistemas com curvas de luz onde nao são observadas as erupções apresentam uma distribuição normal centrada em a~0,62+/-0,10. Referências ¾ Peng, C.-K., Buldyrev, S.V., Havlin, S., Simons, M., Stanley, H.E., e Goldberg, A.L., Phys. Rev. E, (49), 1685 (1994). ¾ Liu, Y., Gopikrishnan, P., Cizeau, P., Meyer, M., Peng,C.-K., e Stanley, H.E., Phys. Rev. E, (60), 1390 (1999).

Pereira, M. G.; Moret, M. A.; Zebende, G. F.; Nogueira, E., Jr.



Polarização da cárie dentária em pré-escolares cadastrados no Programa Saúde da Família do Recife Polarization of Dental Caries in Pre-scholars registered in The Family Health Plan in the City of Recife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key-words Este estudo determinou a prevalência e gravidade de cárie em crianças de 18-36 meses e 5 anos cadastradas no Programa Saúde da Família do Distrito Sanitário IV\\/Recife, em 2006. Estimou-se uma amostra probabilística de 1500 crianças: 900 de 18-36 meses e 600 de 5 anos, calculada com 27% e 65 % de prevalência e 5% e 6,5% de erro,

Márcia M; Dantas Cabral de Melo; Wayner Vieira de Souza; Maria Luiza Lima de Carvalho; Geraldo Bosco; Lindoso Couto


Praziquantel for Treatment of Schistosomiasis in Patients with Advanced Hepatosplenomegaly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Priziquante was evaluated for therapy of active Schistosoma mansoni infection in 15 rural Egyptian males with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Criteria for inclusion in this study were two per-treatment S. mansoni egg counts with a mean of > 100 eggs/g faec...

S. Bassily Z. Farid M. Dunn N. A. El-Masry M. Stek



Unsuccessful Use of Praziquantel to Treat Acute Facioliasis in Children,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parziquantel is effective against several trematode and cestode infectious. We have successfully used it to treat schistosomiasis (1, 2) and hymenolepiasis (3). Other investigators have reported good results in treating clonorchiasis (4), paragonimiasis (...

Z. Farid B. Trabolsi F. Boctor A. Hafez




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many states ban the importation of fish infested with the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Treatment with an effective tapeworm parasiticide (one that would eliminate all tapeworms) would allow the shipment of fish that would otherwise be rejected. Extended bath treatments of infected...


21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...For removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and removal and control of canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis . (iii) Limitations. For subcutaneous or...



21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...For removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and removal and control of canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis . (iii) Limitations. For subcutaneous or...



21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Dirofilaria immitis ) for 1 month (30 days) after infection and for the treatment and control of roundworm (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris...Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis ) infections. (3) Limitations . Federal law...



21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...use . For the treatment and control of hookworm infections caused by Ancylostoma tubaeforme...stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati ...stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium...



Schistosoma mansoni P-glycoprotein levels increase in response to praziquantel exposure and correlate with reduced praziquantel susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

One potential physiological target for new antischistosomals is the parasite's system for excretion of wastes and xenobiotics. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ATP-binding-cassette superfamily of proteins, is an ATP-dependent efflux pump involved in transport of toxins and xenobiotics from cells. In vertebrates, increased expression of Pgp is associated with multidrug resistance in tumor cells. Pgp may also play a

Shanta M. Messerli; Ravi S. Kasinathan; William Morgan; Stefani Spranger; Robert M. Greenberg



A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.




Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudo atua com uma ferramenta de feedback quanto aos resultados obtidos com os programas educacionais em combate ao descarte incorreto de embalagens vazias no município de Campos Gerais no Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Os objetivos são mensurar a eficiência dos -programas educativos implementados por empresas e órgãos governamentais como forma de prevenção ao impacto ambiental causado pelo

Jairo Gustavo De Lima; Marcelo Marcio Romaniello; Cristhiane Oliveira Da Graca Amancio




Microsoft Academic Search

A grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa Vog. Macbride) é uma espécie florestal nativa de grande interesse madeireiro, encontrando-se, atualmente, bastante dizimada. Em trabalhos anteriores, foi observado que as folhas novas de plantas jovens de grápia apresentaram sintomas visuais indicativos de deficiência de Fe na presença de doses crescentes de P. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar os efeitos da interação da

Evandro Luiz Missio; Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso



Evaluation and monitoring of video quality for UMA enabled video streaming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper1 deals with monitoring user perception of multimedia presentations in a Universal Multi- media Access (UMA) enabled system using objective no-reference (NR) metrics. These NR metrics are designed for an UMA-enabled system, in a novel architecture, for a multimedia viewer. The first metric measures block-edge impairments in a video frame at the receiver end, based on the observation that

R. Venkatesh Babu; Andrew Perkis; Odd Inge Hillestad



The Photometry of Cataclysmic Variable V1159 Ori and BZ UMa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photometry of the cataclysmic variables V1159 Ori and BZ UMa are conducted with the 1m RCC optical telescope in Yunnan Astronomical Observatory from Feb. 24th to 25th, 2008. The light curves of V1159 Ori denote superhumps during the fading period of a normal outburst. Previous observations revealed superhumps in ER UMa during normal outbursts, convincing that it is universal in

L. L. Jiang; F. Z. Jiang; Z. Y. Li; Y. H. Zhao; Q. S. Gu



Comportamento verbal: uma análise da abordagem skinneriana e das extensões explicativas de Stemmer, Hayes e Sidman  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Para Skinner comportamento verbal é um operante modelado e mantido por conseqüências mediadas por outros. Portanto, poderia ser explicado por meio da descrição de relações funcionais organismo- ambiente. Entretanto, ao categorizar os operantes verbais Skinner não tratou satisfatoriamente com comportamentos de tipo relacional, provavelmente em função da dificuldade em determinar suas variáveis de controle. Este trabalho procurou analisar a

Ana Leda de Faria; Brino Carlos




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo:A partir de exame bibliográfico, perspectiva interdisciplinar e observação empírica, este estudo pretende, dentro do contexto latino-americano (Brasil e América Hispânica) das ditaduras militares, discutir algumas das possíveis relações entre temas polêmicos como o feminismo, crítica literária feminista e engajamento político, debatidos em certos setores da mídia e refletidos em obras literárias. Textos da ar gentina Marta Pynch, da costaricense

Vera Lúcia Dietzel


X-ray-selected candidates for the RS CVn and W UMa classes of binary stars  

SciTech Connect

X-ray luminosity, spectral type, radial-velocity variation, rotationally broadened line profile, and Ca II H and K line emission data are used to identify 12 new candidates for the RS CVn class and seven new candidates for the W UMa class from spectroscopic binaries which are contained in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. Under the assumption that the candidates are genuine members of each class, local space density estimates of 4.47 + or - 1.19 x 10 to the -4th/cu pc for RS CVn binaries and 8.47 + or - 3.00 x 10 to the -5th/cu pc for W UMa binaries are found. Although the density estimate for the W UMa binaries is shown to be consistent with previous estimates obtained from optically selected samples, the estimate for the RS CVn binaries is more than an order of magnitude greater than previously determined space densities. 40 refs.

Fleming, T.A.; Gioia, I.M.; Maccacaro, T. (Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO (USA); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany, F.R.); Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA))



A normal and superoutburst study of the eclipsing SU UMa star: DV Ursae Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on time-resolved photometry carried out during the 1995 short outburst and the 1997 long outburst in the eclipsing dwarf nova DV UMa. The revised orbital period is 0.0858526172 (67)d. We detected gigantic superhumps with an amplitude of ~0.6mag in the mid-phase of the 1997 outburst, revealing the SU UMa nature of DV UMa. The superhump period is 0.0887 (4)d. The superhumps became less clear during the late phase of the superoutburst, and we found two possible periods of 0.0885 (15) and 0.0764 (15). During both outbursts, the eclipse was wide and shallow near the maximum, and then became narrower and deeper, which is qualitatively well explained by the current disc instability theory.

Nogami, Daisaku; Kato, Taichi; Baba, Hajime; Novák, Rudolf; Lockley, J. J.; Somers, M.



Detailed modelling and dynamic simulation of the deployment of the MBB unfurlable antenna UMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamics during deployment of large antenna reflectors with the multi body simulation code FEDEM (Finite Element Dynamics in Elastic Mechanisms). The 'Unfurlable Mesh Antenna' (UMA) from MBB was taken as an example to encounter and solve real problems. The UMA has a ribmesh type reflector. The design concept consists of 8 double foldable ribs spreading the reflector out. A motor in the center drives a cable drum. The drum transmits the driving force to pulleys mounted on the ribs.

Bjorset, L. E.; Krabberod, J.; Sivertsen, O. I.



Aquecimento alfvênico viscoso-resistivo em discos de acresção ao redor de estrelas T Tauri clássicas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Com a crescente disponibilidade de dados observacionais sobre estrelas T Tauri, a busca por modelos mais precisos vem se tornando cada vez maior. Estes modelos devem explicar, entre outras coisas, o mecanismo dissipativo responsável pelo transporte de momento angular no disco de acresção que acredita-se, circunda estas estrelas. O mecanismo mais viável, do ponto de vista teórico, é uma instabilidade MHD conhecida como "instabilidade magnetorotacional ou Balbus-Hawley" (IBH). Esta instabilidade veio mostrar que o campo magnético desempenha um papel importante na evolução destes objetos mas requer, no entanto, um acoplamento mínimo entre o gás e o campo magnético no disco que não é atingido para os valores de temperatura obtidos do modelo padrão. Contudo, alguns mecanismos de aquecimento para o disco precisam ser examinados. Neste trabalho, propomos a dissipação de ondas Alfvén como uma fonte de aquecimento para o disco. Se o gás apresentar uma condutividade elétrica finita e viscosidade, teremos um tipo de amortecimento para as ondas denominado amortecimento viscoso-resistivo que será aqui considerado. Este mecanismo é aplicado ao modelo de disco em camadas. Calculam-se as taxas de aquecimento Alfvênico, a temperatura efetiva do disco bem como as taxas de ionização decorrentes deste aquecimento e do aquecimento gerado pela absorção de raios cósmicos. Comparações com os dados observacionais de Kitamura et. al. (2001) são efetuadas, ressaltando-se os pontos comuns entre suas observações e nossos dados teóricos.

Santana, W. M.; Vasconcelos, M. J.



X-ray-selected candidates for the RS CVn and W UMa classes of binary stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray luminosity, spectral type, radial-velocity variation, rotationally broadened line profile, and Ca II H and K line emission data are used to identify 12 new candidates for the RS CVn class and seven new candidates for the W UMa class from spectroscopic binaries which are contained in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. Under the assumption that the candidates are

Thomas A. Fleming; Isabella M. Gioia; Tommaso Maccacaro; MA Cambridge



Comunicação vertical na Igreja de Pedro: uma história crítica do jornal da Diocese de Taubaté  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Este artigo tem dois objetivos distintos. O primeiro é recuperar a trajetória do jornal O Lábaro , publicado pela Diocese de Taubaté desde 1910; o segundo é mostrar, por meio da leitura crítica de sua história, como os líderes da Igreja Católica utilizaram tal mecanismo, ao longo de quase 100 anos, para disseminar suas idéias, sem que houvesse uma

Francisco de Assis


Photometric observations and frequency analysis of the Delta Scuti star IP UMa  

Microsoft Academic Search

IP UMa is a Delta Scuti star discovered by Hipparcos. 2642 observations of this target were acquired with the 20cm telescope of the Nea Lesbos Observatory in 10 nights from June 2 to July 9, 2009 using the Bessel V filter. These data confirmed the pulsation frequency of the star listed in the Hipparcos Catalogue (10 c\\/d).

D. Sinachopoulos; P. Gavras; Chr. Ducourant



V357 Her: Another W UMa-Type Eclipsing Binary Misclassified as HADS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using new CCD photometry of V357 Her we show that the star is misclassified: it is not a high-amplitude delta Scuti star as previously thought, but a W UMa-type eclipsing binary. The parameters of the system are derived.

Branicki, A.; Pigulski, A.



Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.



Project planning for EMS and SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A typical supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system or an energy management system (EMS) has an installed life of only 10 to 15 years. Because it can take five years or more to implement a new EMS or SCADA system, managing such projects is becoming a way of life for utilities. Project planning for EMS and SCADA systems is

Charles T. Lindeberg; Wayne R. Block



Triple Jump Acceleration for the EM Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the triple jump framework for ac- celerating the EM algorithm and other bound optimization methods. The idea is to extrapolate the third search point based on the previous two search points found by regu- lar EM. As the convergence rate of regular EM becomes slower, the distance of the triple jump will be longer, and thus provide

Han-shen Huang; Bou-ho Yang; Chun-nan Hsu



O volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo não é suficiente para avaliar resposta broncodilatadora em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica* Measuring forced expiratory volume in one second alone is not an accurate method of assessing response to bronchodilators in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a freqüência de variação no volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo após o uso de broncodilatador, em uma amostra de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. Correlacioná-la com dados clínicos e demográficos e avaliar a freqüência de resposta na capacidade vital forçada, capacidade vital lenta, capacidade inspiratória, volume residual, resistência das vias áreas e condutância das




Contexto sócio-econômico e percepção da saúde bucal em uma população de adultos no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: uma análise multinível Socioeconomic context and perceived oral health in an adult population in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a multilevel analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main limitations of the ecological design is aggregation bias. The problem can be addressed by designs that use small contex- tual hierarchical units with internal homoge- neity. This study aimed to compare different geographic data structures in order to explore contextual effects of socioeconomic variables on the odds of perceived poor oral health. The analyses were based

Wagner de Souza Tassinari; Antônio Ponce de León; Guilherme Loureiro Werneck; Eduardo Faerstein; Claudia S. Lopes; Dora Chor; Paulo Nadanovsky



Alveolar Echinococcosis: Characterization of Diagnostic Antigen Em18 and Serological Evaluation of Recombinant Em18  

PubMed Central

The Echinococcus multilocularis protein Em18 is one of the most promising antigens for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in human patients. Here we identify an antigenic relationship between Em18 and a 65-kDa immunodominant E. multilocularis surface protein previously identified as either EM10 or EmII/3. The NH2-terminal sequence of native Em18 was determined, revealing it to be a fragment of EM10. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of proteinase inhibitors on the degradation of EM10 in crude extracts of E. multilocularis protoscoleces. Em18 was found to be the product of degradation of EM10 by cysteine proteinase. A recombinant Em18 (RecEm18, derived from 349K to 508K of EM10) was successfully expressed by using Escherichia coli expression system and then evaluated for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. RecEm18 was recognized by 27 (87.1%) and 28 (90.3%) of 31 serum samples from clinically and/or pathologically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, respectively. Of 33 serum samples from cystic echinococcosis patients, 1 was recorded as having a weak positive reaction to RecEm18; however, none of the serum samples which were tested from neurocysticercosis patients (n = 10) or healthy people (n = 15) showed positive reactions. RecEm18 has the potential for use in the differential serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis.

Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Gottstein, Bruno; Lightowers, Marshall W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Ito, Akira



Esclarecendo Dúvidas e Validando Certezas - Uma ferramenta de apoio à construção de conhecimento no contexto de Projetos de Aprendizagem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Uma das fontes para o desenvolvimento de P.A. são os documentos da WEB, entretanto crianças do ensino fundamental encontram enormes barreiras para as suas buscas devido a fatores tais como: a linguagem de expressão do que se deseja buscar, a orientação sintática, os erros de grafia, vocabulário, falta de organizadores dos resultados, etc. Neste artigo apresentamos uma proposta para

Luis Carlos Fonseca; Crediné Silva de Menezes; Rosa Maria Vicari; Lea da Cruz


Diabetes e transtornos alimentares: Diabetes e transtornos alimentares: Diabetes e transtornos alimentares: Diabetes e transtornos alimentares: Diabetes e transtornos alimentares: uma associação de alto risco uma associação de alto risco uma associação de alto risco uma associação de alto risco uma associação de alto risco Diabetes and eating disorders: a high Diabetes and eating disorders: a high Diabetes and eating disorders: a high Diabetes and eating disorders: a high Diabetes and eating disorders: a high  

Microsoft Academic Search

O diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença crônica que cursa com várias complicações clínicas e está entre as maiores causas de morbidade e mortalidade no Brasil. A presença de comorbidades psiquiátricas, principalmente depressão e transtornos alimentares (TA), no paciente diabético, pode interferir no controle metabólico e aumen- tar as complicações da doença. Entre os vários fatores na associação entre o

Alexandre Pinto de Azevedo; Marcelo Papelbaum; Fernanda D'Elia


First Quintuplet Frequency Solution of a Blazhko Variable: Light Curve Analysis of RV UMa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RV UMa is one of the RRab stars showing regular large-amplitude light-curve modulation. Extended photoelectric observations of RV UMa obtained at the Konkoly Observatory were published by Kanyó, and the data were analysed by Kovács. After detecting an error in the reduction procedure of the published Konkoly data, corrected photometric data are presented with additional, previously unpublished measurements. The re-analysis of the combination of the corrected Konkoly data supplemented by Preston & Spinrad's observations has led to the discovery that the appropriate mathematical model of the light curve is, in fact, a quintuplet frequency solution, rather than, a triplet. This finding has crucial importance in the interpretation of the Blazhko phenomenon, as a triplet (doublet) is the preferred structure in resonance models, quintuplet in magnetic models. Period changes of both the pulsation and modulation light variations of RV UMa have been detected based on its century-long photometric observations. An overall anticorrelation between the pulsation and modulation period changes can be defined by dPBl /dP 0 = -8.6 × 104 gradient, i.e., the modulation period is longer if the pulsation period is shorter. Between 1946 and 1975 the pulsation and modulation periods showed, however, parallel changes, which points to the fact that there is no strict relation between the changes in the periods of the pulsation and modulation.

Hurta, Zs.; Jurcsik, J.; Szeidl, B.; Sódor, Á.



Risk Communication Within the EM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at





PubMed Central

Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-?=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-?=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-?=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato.

Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo



Lietuvos teritorijos žem?s plutos deformacij? ir seismotektoninio potencialo ryšys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lietuvoje yra statini?, kelian?i? ekologinio pavojaus gr?sm? (Ignalinos atomin? elektrin?, Mažeiki? naftos perdirbimo ?mon?, chemijos gamyklos Jonavoje bei K?dainiuose ir pan.). Seisminiai ?vykiai gali sutrikdyti ši? ?moni? veikl? ir net lemti didel? pavoj? aplinkai, t. y. gali b?ti sukelta didel? aplinkos tarša chemin?mis bei radioaktyviosiomis medžiagomis. Seisminius ?vykius lemia teritorijos seismotektoninis potencialas. Seismotektoninis potencialas ir Žem?s plutos deformacijos yra tarpusavyje susij? rei\\vskiniai, kuriuos sukelia dažnai tie patys giluminiai procesai Žem?s gelm?se. Žem?s plutos deformacij? tyrimas yra vienas iš informacijos šaltini? prognozuojant teritorijos seismotektonin? aktyvum?. Straipsnyje nagrin?jamos Žem?s plutos horizontaliosios deformacijos, nustatomi Žem?s plutos ?tempi? poky?iai Lietuvos teritorijoje pagal GPS matavim? duomenis. Atlikus tyrimus pagal pateikiam? Žem?s plutos horizontali?j? deformacij? ir ?tempi? tyrimo metodik?, gauti nauji horizontali?j? deformacij? charakteristik? bei ?tempi? poky?i? rezultatai ir nustatytos j? s?sajos su seismotektoniniu potencialu.

Zakarevi?ius, Algimantas; Stanionis, Arminas; Levinskait?, Daiva



Teoria das Ondas de Elliott- Uma aplicação ao mercado de ações aa Bm&Fbovespa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Os preços dos ativos negociados em bolsas de valores, assim como qualquer outro tipo de commodity do mercado financeiro, oscilam naturalmente com a procura por esses produtos. Essas oscilações, juntamente com a assimetria das informações acerca dos preços desses produtos geram processos de volatilidade. Charles Dow, no início do século XX criou índices setoriais, nos quais reunia papéis da mesma

Daniele Ferreira de Sousa


Trabalho e Progresso Técnico: Uma Análise nos Níveis de Emprego, Renda e Qualificação na Indústria Paulista  

Microsoft Academic Search

As relações entre o progresso técnico e o mercado de trabalho são estudadas por diversos autores atualmente tanto no cenário nacional como internacional, apresentando inusitadamente resultados ambíguos. No âmbito nacional, alguns estudos encontraramevidências de que firmas tecnologicamente mais avançadas apresentam trabalhadores melhor remunerados em decorrência da sua maior qualificação. Assim, com o objetivo de trazer evidências acerca da relação entre

Beatriz Selan; Danilo César Cascaldi Garcia; Sérgio Kannebley Júnior




Microsoft Academic Search

As relações entre o progresso técnico e o mercado de trabalho são estudadas por diversos autores atualmente tanto no cenário nacional como internacional, apresentando inusitadamente resultados ambíguos. No âmbito nacional, alguns estudos encontraram evidências de que firmas tecnologicamente mais avançadas apresentam trabalhadores melhor remunerados em decorrência da sua maior qualificação. Assim, com o objetivo de trazer evidências acerca da relação

Beatriz Selan; Danilo César Cascaldi Garcia; Sérgio Kannebley Júnior



Práticas educativas e problemas de comportamento: uma análise à luz das habilidades sociais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar as relações entre práticas educativas dos pais e problemas de comporta- mento dos filhos, à luz do referencial teórico-prático do treinamento em habilidades sociais. A forma como os pais educam seus filhos parece ser crucial à promoção de comportamento s socialmente adequados, porém, com freqüência, as famílias acabam estimulando comportamentos inadequados por meio de

Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva; Edna Maria Marturano



Garcinia cambogia - uma espécie vegetal como recurso terapêutico contra a obesidade?6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Atualmente, a obesidade é um problema de saúde pública mundial, tanto nos países desenvolvidos como nos em desenvolvimento, apresentando elevação de sua prevalência. A transição nutricional é um processo de modificações seqüenciais no padrão de nutrição e consumo que acompanha mudanças econômicas, sociais e demográficas, e mudanças do perfil de saúde das populações. Este trabalho objetiva abordar a comprovação

Ana C S Santos; Michelle S Alvarez; Priscila B Brandão; Ary G Silva


The habitable zone of Earth-mass planets around 47 UMa: results for land and water worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper, we showed that Earth-type habitable planets around 47 UMa are in principle possible if a distinct set of conditions is warranted. These conditions include that the Earth-type planets have successfully formed and are orbitally stable and, in addition, that the 47 UMa star-planet system is relatively young ([less, similar]6 Gyr). We now extend this study by

S. Franck; M. Cuntz; W. von Bloh; C. Bounama



DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM fissionable material operations. In addition, the report includes projections of future EM needs and associted recommendations.

Westfall, Robert Michael [ORNL; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell [ORNL



Origin of W UMa-type contact binaries - age and orbital evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, our understanding of the origin of W UMa-type contact binaries has become clearer. Initial masses of their components were successfully estimated by Y?ld?z and Do?an using a new method mainly based on observational properties of overluminous secondary components. In this paper, we continue to discuss the results and make computations for age and orbital evolution of these binaries. It is shown that the secondary mass, according to its luminosity, also successfully predicts the observed radius. While the current mass of the primary component is determined by initial masses, the current secondary mass is also a function of initial angular momentum. We develop methods to compute the age of A- and W-subtype W UMa-type contact binaries in terms of initial masses and mass according to the luminosity of the secondaries. Comparisons of our results with the mean ages from kinematic properties of these binaries and data pertaining to contact binaries in open and globular clusters have increased our confidence on this method. The mean ages of both A- and W-subtype contact binaries are found as 4.4 and 4.6 Gyr, respectively. From kinematic studies, these ages are given as 4.5 and 4.4 Gyr, respectively. We also compute orbital properties of A-subtype contact binaries at the time of the first overflow. Initial angular momentum of these binaries is computed by comparing them with the well-known detached binaries. The angular momentum loss rate derived in the present study for the detached phase is in very good agreement with the semi-empirical rates available in the literature. In addition to the limitations on the initial masses of W UMa-type contact binaries, it is shown that the initial period of these binaries is less than about 4.45 d.

Y?ld?z, M.



CCD Photometric Study of the Puzzling W UMa-type Binary TZ Boo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The puzzling W-UMa type binary TZ Boo has been monitored at the University of Patras, Observatory from March to July 2010. Photometric solutions were determined through an analysis of the complete BVRI light curves with PHOEBE (Wilson-Devinney code) and published spectroscopic data. This low mass ratio binary turns out to be a deep overcontact system with f = 52.5% of A-subtype. A conservative spot model has been applied to fit the particular features of light curves. Based on our 7 new light minimum times and all others compiled from the literature over 70 years, we studied the orbital period from the O-C curve.

Christopoulou, P.-E.; Papageorgiou, A.; Chrysopoulos, I.



Infrared photometry of the RS CVn short-period systems - XY UMa and WY Cnc  

SciTech Connect

Infrared J and K light curves of two RS CVn short-period systems, XY UMa and WY Cnc, are presented. Both systems show similar variability in the infrared to that observed in the visual. From the colors an infrared excess is inferred for the primary component of both systems. A new determination of their geometrical elements is presented and the resulting parameters are compared to those previously obtained from visible photometry. The light curves show peculiarities that may indicate the presence of gas streams in the systems. 27 refs.

Arevalo, M.J.; Lazaro, C. (Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, La Laguna (Spain))



Photometry of the Newly-Discovered SU UMa Star in Taurus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of time-resolved CCD photometry obtained with the Mount Laguna Observatory 1-m reflector of the recently-discovered variable star in Taurus (CBET #701). A total of ~20 hours of V-band photometry over six nights (2006 Oct 28 - 30; 2006 Nov 01 - 03) has enabled us to confirm its tentative identification as a previously unknown SU UMa dwarf nova, and to establish a revised superhump period of 0.05338(1) days (76.87 min).

Shafter, A. W.; Coelho, E. A.; Reed, J. K.



Clinical expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder in women with bipolar disorder Expressão clínica do transtorno obsessivo- compulsivo em uma amostra de mulheres com transtorno de humor bipolar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Objective: Objective: Objective: Objective: Objective: To study clinical and psychopathological features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in women with bipolar disorder (BD). Methods: Methods: Methods: Methods: Methods: Fifteen outpatients with concurrent bipolar disorder I (80.0%) or II (20.0%) and obsessive-compulsive disorder were studied. Most of them (80.0%) sought treatment for bipolar disorder. They were ascertained by means

Cilly Klüger Issler; José Antonio de Mello; Renata Sayuri Tamada; Angela Maria Schwartzmann; Roseli Gedanke Shavitt; Eurípedes Constantino Miguel; Beny Lafer



A geobotânica em terrenos tropicais úmidos: uma discussão conceitual e dois exemplos de sua aplicabilidade na prospecção de depósitos auríferos de origem hidrotermal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geobotany emerged as a mineral prospecting technique in the 1970´s. Due to difficulties in replicating results on the form of geobotanical anomalies in different terrains, this technique was gradually cast aside. In this paper, an alternative notion is introduced to approach geobotanical anomalies using botanic and geologic field data in gold mineralized area of a Mata Atlântica forest and preliminary

Teodoro Isnard; Ribeiro de Almeida; Caetano Juliani; Waldir Mantovani



Diagnóstico de síndromes parkinsonianas em uma clínica brasileira de distúrbios do movimento Diagnostic of parkinsonian syndrome in a Brazilian movement disorders clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Introduction. Our study aimed to see the frequency of etiologies in the patients with parkinsonism (PK). Me- thods. We analyzed retrospectively 177 profiles of patients with parkinsonism attended in the Clinics Hospital of the State University of Campinas from January 1999 through December 2001, observing the anamnesis and the neuroimaging exams. Results. Of 177 profiles, 151 (85.3%) had diagnostic

Elton Gomes Silva; Maura Aparecida Viana


Selecao Natural E Fisica de Particulas: Uma Direcao de Pesquisa Em Inteligencia Artificial (Natural Selection and Particle Physics: A Thrust for Artificial Intelligence Research).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article presents a proposal for application of the principles of natural selection and particle physics to orient research in artificial intelligence. An elementary model developed in accordance with this proposal is also presented.

G. Bittencourt



Artificial insemination in pigs, research and developments in The Netherlands, a review Inseminação artificial em suínos, pesquisa e desenvolvimento nos Países Baixos, uma revisão  

Microsoft Academic Search

highest worldwide. More than 98% of the sows in The Netherlands is mated through AI. Sow farmers put great trust in AI and are fully depending on the quality of the product. The Dutch cooperative pig AI centers put large efforts in producing high quality insemination doses as far as semen quality and genetic quality. In this paper the following

Hanneke Feitsma


Predição de unidades de mapeamento digital de solo usando modelagem sob inferência fuzzy: estudo de caso em uma área na região de Mucugê-BA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital soil mapping of an area in the region of Mucugê-BA was conducted through GIS (Geography Information System) data integration. Database derived from digital elevation model (DEM) and from vegetation and geology thematic maps was associated to the soil scientists'knowledge and weighted under fuzzy inference, as a methodological proposal. The methodology was developed and based on the soil-land inference

Claudia Csekö; Nolasco de Carvalho


Speech Modelling Using Subspace and EM Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speech waveform can be modelled as a piecewise-stationary linear stochastic state space system, and its parameters can be est imated using an expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm. One problem is the ini- tialisation of the EM algorithm. Standard initialisation s chemes can lead to poor formant trajectories. But these trajectories howev er are impor- tant for vowel intelligibility. The aim of

Gavin Smith; João F. G. De Freitas; Tony Robinson; Mahesan Niranjan



himu-em: The French Polynesian connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

himu, em i and em ii are three of the main geochemical mantle components that give rise to oceanic island basalts [1]. They represent the end members that produce the extreme isotopic compositions measured on intraplate volcanics. In French Polynesia, all three mantle components are represented in volcanic rocks. The characteristic himu signature is found in Tubuai, Mangaia and Rurutu,

Catherine Chauvel; Albrecht W. Hofmann; Philippe Vidal



EM international activities. February 1997 highlights  

SciTech Connect

EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.




National EMS Scope of Practice Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National EMS Scope of Practice Model is a continuation of the commitment of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Health Resources and Services Administration to the implementation of the EMS Agenda for the Future. It is part of a...



A New Approach to the Long-Term Activity Behavior of DM UMa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term activity character of DM UMa (K0-1 IV-III), which is one of the most active members of the RS CVn type variables, is examined using the multicolor photometric observations which spread to the time interval between 1980 and 2009. In this work, we present a new approximation for the long-term light and color variation of DM UMa using data obtained by combining our own observations obtained in the Johnson broad-band U,B,V,R filters between the years 1997 and 2008 and data published in literature. Available light and color data were examined for the long-term and seasonal variations using PERIOD04 program. The period analysis of the V-band data reveals the period estimations of 51.2 ± 2.8 years and 15.1 ± 0.7 years superposed on it. The U--B, B--V and V--R colors do not show correlation with the longer period, but they show variations with a period similar to the shorter one, except for B--V color. The amplitude variation also does not exhibit any correlation with the V light and color curves. It is found that the movement of the spot minima phases in years also indicates the migration period of nearly 15 years, similar to the period derived from the analysis of the long-term photometric observations in V-band.

Ta?, G.; Evren, S.


Early-type W UMa contact binary system: New data on V535 Ara  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the early-type W UMa system V535 Ara. New high-resolution spectra were taken at the Mt. John University Observatory in 2007. Radial velocities and spectroscopic orbital elements of the system were determined by applying KOREL spectral disentangling. The resulting orbital elements were: a1sini = 0.0047 ± 0.0001 AU, a2sini = 0.0146 ± 0.0001 AU, M1sin3i = 1.85 ± 0.01 M?, and M2sin3i = 0.59 ± 0.01 M?. The components were found to be in synchronous rotation following examination of their disentangled H? line profiles. Four photometric data-sets (1966 BV, 1967 BV, HIPPARCOS and ASAS) were modeled using the Wilson-Devinney method. The model describes V535 Ara as an A sub-type W UMa type eclipsing binary which has a fill out factor of 0.22 in marginal contact configuration. The simultaneous solution of light and radial velocity curves gave the following absolute parameters: M1 = 1.94 ± 0.04 M?, M2 = 0.59 ± 0.02 M?, R1 = 2.09 ± 0.03 R?, R2 = 1.23 ± 0.02R?, L1 = 18 ± 3 L? and L2 = 6 ± 1 L?. The distance to V535 Ara was calculated as 123 ± 20 pc using distance modulus with correction for interstellar extinction.

Özkarde?, B.; Erdem, A.



Uma nova versão da escala de autoconceito: Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS-2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo. É apresentada a adaptação portuguesa da escala americana Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS-2), recentemente revista e publicada em versão reduzida (Piers & Hertzberg, 2002). São referenciados os estudos que, entre nós, têm vindo a ser realizados com a versão adaptada em anterior estudo (Veiga, 1989), bem como os novos elementos por eles trazidos. São apresentadas as propriedades psicométricas da

Feliciano H. Veiga



Manufacturing Methods of Multi-ingredient Compost with EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is performed for increasing the integrated effect of EM by reasonable mixing of EM solution and multi-ingredient compost in agriculture. This compost has been manufactured by treating organic materials with EM and culturing other beneficial bacteria with high density, and by adding some minerals. The organic substrates were fermented by EM. There was a definite difference between organic

H. G. Ryang; M. S. Rim; Y. H. Rim; C. U. Chang; C. G. Kang; D. C. Yang


The error cause analysis in EM simulation of ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure validity and applicability of computation results, the EM characteristic of a ship must have a full embodiment in the simulation. In this paper, concerning EM environment, configuration feature and RF function requirements of a ship, illustrates EM characteristic and error cause from two aspects, i.e.EM simulation model, computation and analysis method. Aiming at a typical example, analyzes the

Wu Nan; Huang Song-gao; Wen Ding-e; Wang Chun



Light Curve Analysis for W UMa-Type Eclipsing Binary Star Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results from summer 2006 in an ongoing study of eclipsing binary stars. Our investigations have focused on the measurement and interpretation of light curves for W UMa-type systems 44i Boötis and VW Cephei. These contact binaries have component stars of spectral type G, and revolve with periods of 6.43 and 6.67 hours. Dome automation and scripting capabilities introduced this summer have significantly reduced experimental uncertainties in our data. In support of previous findings we continue to observe an increase in the orbital period of 44i Boo at a rate of 10.4 µs/epoch or 14.2 ms/yr. Residuals computed after incorporating the increasing period suggest an underlying sinusoidal oscillation with a 61.5 year period and amplitude of 648 seconds. AAPT Member Thomas Olsen is sponsoring the lead presenter, SPS Member Scott Henderson, and the co-presenter, SPS Member Nick Peach.

Henderson, Scott; Peach, N.; Olsen, T.



Biperiodic orbital period modulation of the W UMa binary system CK Bootis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the orbital period variation of the W UMa system CK Bootis is made using an extended observational time base. The biperiodicity of the orbital period modulation is emphasized. Both detected periodicities (24.14 yr and 10.62 yr) cannot be explained through the light-time effect unless the companion would be a white dwarf as suggested by other authors, too. Moreover, we also argue that, nowadays at least, it seems that there is no causal relation between the orbital period variation and the recently discovered visual companion. Consequently, we infer that at least one of the two periodicities may be related to the magnetic activity cycles in the component stars of CK Boo, while the other periodicity could be related to the presence of a fourth companion in the system.

Pop, Alexandru; Vamo?, C?lin



Consumo e Fermentação Ruminal de Proteínas em Função de Suplementação Alimentar Energética e Protéica em Novilhos1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Objetivou-se analisar o efeito de suplementação energética sobre o consumo e a fermentação ruminal de proteínas em dois níveis de proteína dietética (6 e 20%). Quatro novilhos mestiços fistulados no rúmen foram utilizados em um quadrado latino e os tratamentos arranjados em um fatorial 2 × 2, em que as dietas testadas constituíram-se de: A. só feno; B.

Natália Guarino; Souza Barbosa; Rogério de Paula Lana; Gulab Newandram Jham; Arnaldo Chaer Borges; Antônio Bento Mâncio; José Carlos Pereira; Juliana Silva Oliveira


Marine EM Climatic Parameters. Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently there has been increased interest within the U.S. Navy in the use of climatology-based products to support the planning and execution of military operations. Climatological databases of atmospheric features that impact electromagnetic (EM) propag...

A. E. Barrios P. A. Frederickson



EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.  


The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

Mallard, A S



DD Mon and XY UMa: CCD Photometry and Modeling of Two Close Binary Systems with Solar-Type Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our ground-based CCD observations of the close binary systems DD Mon and XY UMa in B, V, R and I bands. The light curves are analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney code (W-D) for the derivation of the geometric and photometric elements of the systems. We compare the methods of photometric and spectroscopic mass ratio determination in these binaries, as a function of all typical difficulties, which arise during the analysis of such systems (light curve asymmetries, third light etc). Finally, a new spot model is suggested for the eclipsing system XY UMa, which belongs to the RS CVn type of active binaries.

Gazeas, K.; Liakos, A.; Niarchos, P.



Accelerated list-mode EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

List-mode data preserves all sampling information in three-dimensional (3-D) PET imaging and can reduce storage requirements for short-time frame acquisitions. List-mode expectation maximization-maximum likelihood (EM-ML), which has been implemented in a number of forms (such as the EM algorithm for list-mode maximum likelihood, the FAIR algorithm and COSEM), is an obvious choice to reconstruct from such data sets when the

A. J. Reader; R. Manavaki; S. Zhao; P. J. Julyan; D. L. Hastings; J. Zweit



3D EM Characterization of Wafer Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper describes a method to characterize wafer probes using a 3D EM simulator. Rather than following the traditional method of building a custom test fixture for different probe setups and measuring the S-parameters, this 3D EM characterization method yields multi-port S-parameters of a specific probe structure by utilizing simulations. For a standard characterization, the S-parameters can be a

Hanyi Ding; Randy Wolf; John Ferrario



Condições físicas em galáxias HII  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galáxias HII são galáxias anãs de baixa luminosidade que apresentam alta taxa de formação estelar. Seus espectros são dominados por intensas linhas de emissão devido à fotoionização pela presença de um grande número de estrelas do tipo O e B. Nós apresentamos um catálogo espectrofotométrico de 111 galáxias HII observadas no telescópio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrógrafo Boller & Chivens. Determinamos propriedades estatísticas da amostra e derivamos condições físicas (temperatura eletrônica, densidade eletrônica) e abundâncias químicas. Para algumas galáxias, fomos também capazes de resolver espacialmente regiões de formação estelar individuais e determinar propriedades espectroscópicas para estas regiões separadamente, o que nos permitiu avaliar as flutuações das condições físico-químicas dentro das galáxias HII. Em particular, vimos que apesar das galáxias HII apresentarem formação estelar espalhada ao longo do corpo da galáxia, são objetos quimicamente homogêneos. A fim de estudar a evolução temporal dos objetos durante o tempo de vida das estrelas ionizantes construimos também alguns diagramas relacionando razões de linhas de emissão com a largura equivalente de Hb (EW(Hb)). Para interpretar tais diagramas utilizamos modelos de fotoionização para populações estelares integradas. Concluímos que as galáxias HII não correspondem a simples idéia de um burst instantâneo envolvido por um gás opaco aos fótons ionizantes e com densidade constante. As relações observadas entre razões de linhas e EW(Hb) podem ser melhor compreendidas se as galáxias HII apresentarem populações estelares mais velhas, que contribuem para o contínuo óptico observado.

Kehrig, C.; Telles, E.; Cuisinier, F.



The 2006\\/2007 photometric activity of three chromospherically active stars: V2075 Cyg, FG UMa and BM CVn  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new multiband CCD photometric observations of three chromospherically active stars with long periods (V2075 Cyg, FG UMa and BM CVn). The observations were made at the Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Observatory in 2006 and 2007. We analyzed BVRI (Bessell) CCD observations of these three RS CVn-type SB1 binaries with the following three steps: (i) Photometric rotation periods were

A. Erdem; E. Budding; E. Soydugan; H. Bakis; D. Dogru; S. S. Dogru; M. Tüysüz; Y. Kaçar; A. Dönmez; F. Soydugan



SOFIS FTS EM test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Occultation FTS for Inclined-orbit Satellite (SOFIS) is a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer developed by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) in Japan for the Global Change Observation Mission-A1 (GCOM-A1) satellite. GCOM-A1 will be placed in a 650 km non-sun-synchronous orbit, with an inclination angle of 69 degrees. ABB-Bomem is a sub-contractor of NTSpace (NEC-Toshiba Space) for the design and manufacturing of the FTS Engineering Model of SOFIS. SOFIS measures the vertical profile of the atmospheric constituents with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution for the spectral range covering 3-13 ?m. The atmospheric vertical resolution of SOFIS is 1 km. The target of SOFIS measurements is a global distribution of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, CO2, CFC-11, CFC-12, ClONO2, aerosol extinction, atmospheric pressure and temperature. NTSpace in Japan is the prime contractor of SOFIS. The spectrometer is an adapted version of the classical Michelson interferometer using an optimized optical layout and moving retro-reflectors. A solid-state laser diode operating at 1550 nm is used as metrology source of the interferometer. Its highly folded optical design results in a high performance instrument with a compact size. SOFIS FTS implements high performance control techniques to achieve outstanding speed stability of the moving mechanism. This paper describes the test activities of the SOFIS-FTS Engineering Model (EM) and preliminary results. The performances of the FTS are presented in terms of key parameters like signal-to-noise ratio, modulation efficiency and stability. Spectra acquired are shown and test methodology and analyses are presented. Lessons learned during assembly, integration and testing are described as well as improvements planned to be implemented in the Flight Model.

Soucy, Marc-Andre A.; Levesque, Luc E.; Tanii, Jun; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nakajima, Hideaki



The Multi-color Light Curves of the W UMa type Contact Binary EP Andromedae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New multi-color CCD photometric light curves of the eclipsing binary EP And were obtained over six nights in 2006, 2011, and 2012. Using the Wilson-Devinney code, we computed the photometric elements of this system. It was discovered that EP And is a W-type W UMa contact binary system with a mass ratio of q = 2.685 and a degree of contact factor f = 24.9%, rather than an A-type system. Combining 28 newly determined times of minimum light derived from 1999 to 2012 with others collected from the literature, a long-term increase (dP/dt = +5.22 × 10–8 days yr–1) with a sinusoidal variation (A = 0.0109 days T = 40.89 yr) in the orbital period was found. The orbital period secular increases may be interpreted as conservative mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one, and cyclic variations of the orbital period may be caused by the light-travel time effect through the presence of a third body. The evolutionary status and the age of the system are also discussed.

Liao, W.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, K.; He, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G.; Zhou, X.



Complex Period Variations of the Neglected W UMa-type Binary System NY Lyrae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbital-period variations of the neglected W UMa-type binary star, NY Lyr, were analyzed based on two newly determined eclipse times together with the others compiled from the literature. A cyclic oscillation with a period of 82.1 yr and an amplitude of 0.0247 d was discovered to be superimposed on a continuous period increase (dP/dt = +1.33 × 10-7 d yr-1). After the long-term period increase and the large-amplitude cyclic oscillation were removed from the O-C diagram, the residuals suggest that there is another small-amplitude period oscillation (A4 = 0.0053 d, P4 = 19.4 years) in the orbital period changes. As in the cases of AH Cnc and AD Cnc, both the continuous period increase and the two cyclic period oscillations make NY Lyr an interesting system to study in the future. In order to understand the evolutionary state of the binary system, new photometric and spectroscopic observations and a careful investigation on those data are needed.

Qian, S.-B.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.



Possible solution to the problem of the extreme mass ratio W UMa-type binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the total angular momentum of a binary system is at a critical (minimum) value, a tidal instability occurs (Darwin's instability), eventually forcing the stars to merge into a single, rapidly rotating object. The instability sets in at some critical separation which in the case of contact binaries corresponds to a minimum mass ratio depending on dimensionless gyration radius k1. If one considers n = 3 polytrope (fully radiative primary with ?1 = 4/3), k21 = 0.075 and qmin ~ 0.085-0.095. There appears to be, however, some W UMa-type binaries with q values very close, if not below these theoretical limits, implying that primary in these systems is probably more centrally condensed. We try to solve the discrepancy between theory and observations by considering rotating polytropes. We show by deriving and solving a modified Lane-Emden equation for n = 3 polytrope that including the effects of rotation does increase the central concentration and could reduce qmin to as low as 0.070-0.074, more consistent with the observed population.

Arbutina, B.



Orbital Period Variation and Morphological Light Curve Studies for the W UMa Binary BB Pegasi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photometric light curves of the W-type W UMa eclipsing contact binary system BB Pegasi have been found to be extremely asymmetric over all the observed 63 years in all wavelengths UBVR. The light curves have been characterized by occultation primary minima. So, the morphology of these light curves has been studied in view of these different asymmetric degrees. The system shows a distinct O'Connell effect as well as depth variation. A 22.96 years cycle, of dark spots group, has been determined for the system combined with about the same cycling for the depth variations (22.78 yr). Also, an analysis of the measurements of mid-eclipse times of BB Peg has been presented. The analysis indicates a period decrease of 5.62× 10-8 d/yr, which can be interpreted in terms of mass transfer of rate -4.38 × 10-8 M_?/yr, from the more to the less massive component. The O-C diagram shows a damping sine wave covering two different cycles of 17.0 yr and 12.87 yr with amplitudes equal to 0.0071 and 0.0013 day, respectively. These unequal durations show a non periodicity which may be explained as a result of magnetic activity cycling variations due to star spots. The obtained characteristics are consistent when applying Applegate's (1992) mechanism.

Hanna, Magdy A.; Awadalla, Nabil S.




Microsoft Academic Search

O trabalho apresenta uma metodologia de modelagem do material magnético através da separação das perdas por histerese, por corrente de Foucault calculadas classicamente e por excesso, e o processo experimental de determinação de seus valores. Aborda-se também as perdas no ferro sob regimes de indução distorcida. Descreve-se uma bancada protótipo de ensaio utilizada para alimentação do quadro de Epstein. A

N. J. Batistela; M. V. Ferreira da Luz; N. Sadowski; R. Carlson; J. P. A. Bastos; P. Kuo-Peng; M. A. Oliveira


Tour of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (EMS) Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These videos introduce middle- and high school-age learners to the electromagnetic spectrum. The product consists of 8 animations including an introduction to electromagnetic waves and one animation for each wavelength of the EM spectrum (Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X-Rays and Gamma Rays). Each wavelength of the EM spectrum offers a construct to illustrate and teach about NASA sensors, missions, and science. Emphasis is placed on relevant science, such as lunar exploration, and hot science topics, such as climate change. The examples and narrative for each wavelength animation build on the learnersâ prior knowledge then introduces examples from NASA missions. These examples explore the use of spectral analysis and visualizations that help scientists make discoveries about the world around us using EM waves.

Benesch, Troy



Risk Communication Within the EM Program  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication at RFETS is lively and involves important issues, but often does not inform participants about true ''risk reduction.''

Edelson, M.



Report of Feasibility Study. MAPA/HPCM EMS Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first annual revision of the Comprehensive Plan for Areawide Emergency Medical Services (EMS) of the Health Planning Council of the Midlands, and a feasibility study regarding the establishment of an areawide EMS System are presented. The feasibility ...



Rural and Frontier EMS Town Hall Meeting Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) struggle to meet the needs and demands of citizens in communities across the nation. For rural or frontier communities it is becoming even more challenging to meet the communitys needs for prehospital emergency care. EMS S...



Sinopse dos marcos em matéria de segurança alimentar na ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 1995 Seafood Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (Ponto de controle crítico para análise de risco em frutos do mar, HACCP na sigla em inglês ... More results from


Patterns of behavior in Kilauea's Halema`uma`u lava lake during 2011 and 1911  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past three and a half years of activity in the Halema`uma`u vent, at the summit of Kilauea Volcano, have provided a robust observational dataset and allowed us to generalize on many aspects of behavior in the lava lake. The current lava lake normally has been 100-150 m in diameter and contained deep (70-220 m) within a slowly enlarging, fume-filled crater. The lava level fluctuates over both long- and short-term intervals, over a total height range of about 150 m. Over the long term (days to weeks) the lava level correlates directly with summit tilt at a consistent rate, sympathetic with the frequent summit deflation-inflation (DI) events, indicating the lava level is related, in large part, to the pressure state of the summit magma reservoir. On a short term, the lava level experiences rise-fall cycles ("gas pistoning") of 10-20 m height changes, with time spans of minutes to hours, which are due to shallow accumulation and release of gas. The lava lake also abruptly dropped about 150 m during the March 2011 east-rift intrusion and Kamoamoa eruption, presumably due to the rapid evacuation of magma from the summit reservoir. The lava surface is composed of large (decameter-scale) crustal plates, whose size is inversely related to the surface migration velocity. The surface crust moves at a relatively slow velocity (often 0.2-1 m/s), similar to velocities at other lava lakes on Kilauea (Mauna Ulu, Kupaianaha) and elsewhere worldwide (Erebus, Erta Ale), and usually in a direction that is maintained for months. Spattering is generally continuous and directly linked to the circulation pattern; spattering normally occurs at the spot of lava downwelling. Spattering intensity correlates directly with seismic tremor levels, suggesting that the bulk of summit tremor is related to gas release from the lava surface. These characteristics of the modern lava lake have both important similarities and differences compared to the Halema`uma`u lava lake observed by volcanologist Frank Perret in the summer of 1911 and other scientists until 1924. The lava lake then was in a much larger pit than it is today, and the surface structure of the lake, composed of grottoes, islands, divergent flow patterns and subordinate ponds, appears to have been more segmented, complex and expansive than the simple surface geometry today. Short-term lava level fluctuations, resembling gas pistoning in description, also appear to have been present and caused by shallow gas build-up and release. The lava level, in general, was 100-150 m higher than it is today. Like today, spattering in the lake was persistent at the site of lava downwelling and, in many cases, stable through time. Also like today, the spattering behavior was tied to the lava circulation pattern in a consistent manner. The shared behaviors, including short-term lava level fluctuations (gas pistoning) and the relation between spattering and circulation pattern, of the early and modern lava lakes may point to processes that are inherent to lava lakes in general and give insight on the nature of gas flow and lava circulation in lava lakes. Differences, such as overall lava level and lake expansiveness, may be due to the difference in rift zone activity, magma supply rate or superficial vent geometry.

Patrick, M. R.; Orr, T. R.



The First Photometric Investigation of the Neglected W-UMa-type Binary Star UZ CMi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UZ CMi was a W-UMa-type binary star found more than 80 years ago. However, it has been neglected in photometric investigations. Here, the first complete light curves in the B, V, R, and I bands are presented and analyzed using the Wilson and Devinney method. It is discovered that UZ CMi is a contact binary (f = 38.4(± 2.3)%) with a mass ratio of 0.45. The derived orbital inclination (i = 87°) indicates that it is a total eclipsing binary, which suggests that the determined parameters are reliable. By using 17 new eclipse times together with those collected from the literature, we found that the general trend of the observed-calculated (O - C) curve shows an upward parabolic variation that corresponds to a long-term increase in the orbital period at a rate of \\dot{P}=+4.1× {10^{-8}} days yr-1. The continuous increase may be caused by a mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. This suggests that UZ CMi is in the thermal relaxation oscillation controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. UZ CMi will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and the contact configuration cannot be broken. After the upward parabolic change was removed, the (O - C)2 curve of the photoelectric and charge-coupled device data revealed a cyclic variation with a small amplitude of 0.0026 days and a period of 21.1 yr. The cyclic change was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

Qian, S.-B.; Li, K.; Liao, W.-P.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; He, J.-J.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G.



First Photometric Investigation of the Newly Discovered W UMa-type Binary Star MR Com  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By analyzing multi-color light curves of the newly discovered W UMa-type binary, MR Com, we discovered that it is a shallow-contact binary with a degree of contact factor of f = 10.0% ± 2.1%. Photometric solutions reveal that MR Com is a W-type system with a mass ratio of q = 3.9 where the less massive component is about 90 K hotter than the more massive one. By investigating all of the available times of minimum light, we found that the general trend of the Observed–Calculated (O – C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation while it undergoes a cyclic variation with a small amplitude of 0.0031 days and a period of 10.1 yr. The downward parabolic change corresponds to a long-term decrease in the orbital period at a rate of \\dot{P}=-5.3\\times {10^{-7}} days yr–1 that may be caused by a combination of a mass transfer and an angular momentum loss (AML) via magnetic braking. Among the 16 shallow-contact systems with a decreasing orbital period, MR Com has the lowest mass ratio (e.g., 1/q = 0.26). The shallow-contact configuration, the low-mass ratio, and the long-term period decrease all suggest that systems similar to MR Com are on the AML-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. They will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and evolve into a deep contact with a higher mass ratio. The small-amplitude cyclic change in the O – C curve was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

Qian, S.-B.; Liu, N.-P.; Liao, W.-P.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G.




SciTech Connect

We report on the analysis of the Kepler short-cadence (SC) light curve of V344 Lyr obtained during 2009 June 20 through 2010 March 19 (Q2-Q4). The system is an SU UMa star showing dwarf nova (DN) outbursts and superoutbursts, and promises to be a touchstone for CV studies for the foreseeable future. The system displays both positive and negative superhumps with periods of 2.20 and 2.06 hr, respectively, and we identify an orbital period of 2.11 hr. The positive superhumps have a maximum amplitude of {approx}0.25 mag, the negative superhumps have a maximum amplitude of {approx}0.8 mag, and the orbital period at quiescence has an amplitude of {approx}0.025 mag. The quality of the Kepler data is such that we can test vigorously the models for accretion disk dynamics that have been emerging in the past several years. The SC data for V344 Lyr are consistent with the model that two physical sources yield positive superhumps: early in the superoutburst, the superhump signal is generated by viscous dissipation within the periodically flexing disk, but late in the superoutburst, the signal is generated as the accretion stream bright spot sweeps around the rim of the non-axisymmetric disk. The disk superhumps are roughly anti-phased with the stream/late superhumps. The V344 Lyr data also reveal negative superhumps arising from accretion onto a tilted disk precessing in the retrograde direction and suggest that negative superhumps may appear during the decline of DN outbursts. The period of negative superhumps has a positive P-dot in between outbursts.

Wood, Matt A. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Still, Martin D.; Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94095 (United States); Cannizzo, John K. [CRESST and Astroparticle Physics Laboratory NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Smale, Alan P., E-mail: [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)



A New Photometric Investigation of the W UMa-Type Binary BI CVn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New photometric observations and their investigation of the W UMa-type binary, BI CVn, are presented. The variations of the orbital period were analyzed based on 12 new determined times of light minimum together with the others compiled from the literature. It is discovered that the period of BI CVn shows a long-term period decrease at a rate of \\dot{P}=-1.51(± 0.12)× {10^{-7}} days year-1 while it undergoes a cyclic variation with a period of 27.0 years and an amplitude of 0fd0151. Photometric solutions determined with the Wilson-Devinney method suggest that BI CVn is a contact binary with a degree of contact of 18.0(±1.7)%. The asymmetry of the light curves was interpreted by the presence of dark spots on both components, and absolute parameters were determined by combining the photometric elements with the spectroscopic solutions given by Lu. The observed period decrease can be plausibly explained by a combination of the mass transfer from the primary to the secondary and angular momentum loss via magnetic braking. The cyclic period oscillation suggests that BI CVn is a triple system containing a tertiary component with a mass no less than 0.58 M sun in a 27.0 year orbit. As in the cases of the other contact binaries (e.g., AH Cnc, AP Leo, AD Cnc, and UX Eri), it is possible that this tertiary companion played an important role for the formation and evolution of the contact system by removing angular momentum from the central system via Kozai oscillation or a combination of Kozai cycle and tidal friction, which causes the eclipsing pair to have a short initial orbital period (e.g., P < 5d). In that case, can the initially detached system evolve into the present contact configuration via a combination of magnetic torques from stellar winds and a case A mass transfer?

Qian, S.-B.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Liao, W. P.



Do earthquakes generate EM signals?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been significant interest in the seismoelectric effect which is the conversion of acoustic energy into electromagnetic energy. At the onset of the earthquake and at layer interfaces, it is postulated that the seismoelectric signal propagates at the speed of light and thus travels much faster than the acoustic wave. The focus has mainly been to use this method as a tool of predicting earthquakes. Our main objective is to study the possibility of using the seismoelectric effect to determine the origin time of an earthquake, establish an accurate velocity model and accurately locate microearthquakes. Another aspect of this research is to evaluate the possibility of detecting porous zones where seismic activity is postulated to generate fluid movement through porous medium. The displacement of pore fluid relative to the porous medium solid grains generates electromagnetic signals. The Institute of Earth Science and Engineering (IESE) has installed electromagnetic coils in 3 different areas to investigate the seismoelectric effect. Two of the research areas (Krafla in Iceland and Wairakei in New Zealand) are in active geothermal fields where high microearthquake activity has been recorded. The other area of research is at the site of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) at Parkfield area on the active San Andreas Fault which is associated with repeating earthquakes. In the Wairakei and Parkfield cases a single borehole electromagnetic coil close to borehole seismometers has been used whereas in the Krafla study area, 3 borehole electromagnetic coils coupled to borehole seismometers have been used. The technical difficulties of working in the borehole environment mean that some of these deployments had a short life span. Nevertheless in all cases data was gathered and is being analysed. At the SAFOD site, the electromagnetic coil recorded seismoelectric signals very close to a magnitude 2 earthquake. In the Wairakei and Krafla study areas, large swarms of earthquakes were located very close to the electromagnetic coils. This abstract focuses on the data from the Wairakei area. Preliminary data analysis has been carried out by band pass filtering and removing of the harmonics of the 50 Hz power line frequency. The initial results clearly show that electromagnetic signals accompany the seismic P and S waves (coseismic signal). Further data analysis involves the extraction of the seismoelectric signal generated at the onset of the earthquake and at interfaces from the coseismic signal and other ‘noise' sources. This processing step exhibits a major challenge in seismoelectric data processing. Unlike in other studies we measured the EM field and the seismic field at one location. Therefore the seismoelectric wave travelling at the speed of light cannot be determined as easily in the arrival times as when an array of coils is used. This makes the determination of the origin time much more difficult. Hence other processing techniques need to be explored.

Walter, Christina; Onacha, Stephen; Malin, Peter; Shalev, Eylon; Lucas, Alan



Analysis of the EM Field Distribution in Smart Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the EM field distribution in U-home which is a smart home of Kun Shan University. It is apparent that wireless devices in U-home become EM field emitters. This paper states the measurement and the analysis of the EM field distribution generated by those devices. The measurements focus on some popular frequency bands,

Churng-Jou Tsai; Bo-Yuan Tsai; Jinn-Kwei Guo; Chun-Lin Lu; Chang-Fan Liu; Yu-Sheng Lin; Yeong-Her Wang



On Convergence Properties of the EM Algorithm for Gaussian Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We build up the mathematical connection between the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm and gradient-based approaches for maximum likelihood learning of finite gaussian mixtures. We show that the EM step in parameter space is obtained from the gradient via a projection matrix P, and we provide an explicit expression for the matrix. We then analyze the convergence of EM in terms of

Lei Xu; Michael I. Jordan



Induced EM Field and Absorbed Power Density Inside Human Torsos by 1 to 500 MHZ EM Waves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented are numerical results on the internal EM field and absorbed power density inside a human torso induced by EM waves of frequencies ranging from 1 to 500 MHz and of both vertical and horizontal polarizations.

B. S. Guru K. M. Chen



Visualization of Circuit Card EM Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report for Air Force contract F(41608-96-CA)116: Visualization of Circuit Card EM Fields. Circuit cards (or circuit boards) of one type or another are used in nearly every electrical appliance used by the military or by commerce. This na...

D. Zwillinger



EM algorithms for ML factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The details of EM algorithms for maximum likelihood factor analysis are presented for both the exploratory and confirmatory models. The algorithm is essentially the same for both cases and involves only simple least squares regression operations; the largest matrix inversion required is for aq ×q symmetric matrix whereq is the matrix of factors. The example that is used demonstrates that

Donald B. Rubin; Dorothy T. Thayer



EMS response to an airliner crash.  


This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained. PMID:22853919

Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor



Mercury pollution in the Ems estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From approximately 1960 to 1975 the Ems estuary received several tons of mercury per year from a chlor-alkali plant, a pesticide factory and some minor sources. The discharge has been reduced drastically from 1976 onwards. In 1975 and 1976 measurements were made on the distribution of mercury in the sediment. The horizontal distribution revealed a strong local enrichment of the sediment near the point of discharge. The vertical distribution was found to be in accordance with the local deposition rates. In the water phase no significant change in mercury content from 1975 to 1978/79 could be demonstrated. In 1978/79 a difference between Ems estuary and Dutch Wadden Sea was not significant. In 1978 mercury contents of eelpout Zoarces viviparus in the Ems estuary were about twice as high as in the Wadden Sea. In the Ems estuary a decrease of these contents was found between 1974/75 and 1978. A similar decline in the Wadden Sea may be related to a decreased mercury discharge by the River Rhine.

Essink, K.



EM Topology: From Theory to Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the main principles of the Electromagnetic Topology theory and the way of adapting them in order to make possible efficient analysis of EM-Coupling problems. Particularly, a difference is made between a low frequency analysis for which an adaptation of the method is required and a high frequency analysis for which direct application of the method seems achievable.

J.-P. Parmantier; I. Junqua



Marine EM in GOM: Advances and outlook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine electromagnetic (EM) sounding methods provide valuable complementary information to conventional seismic exploration methods and success stories have been claimed by several oil companies: 1) as indicator of hydrocarbon presence derived from strong resistive anomalies 2) as complimentary tool in structural exploration. While 3D seismic identifies geological structures, it does not directly reveal the fluid content (hydrocarbons). Marine EM sounding exploits variations in electrical resistivity, and is directly sensitive to fluid saturation and thus resistive hydrocarbons. Under the right circumstances it can confirm the presence of hydrocarbons by identifying their resistive characteristics. This means that the possibility of drilling dry exploration wells is significantly reduced, as is the need for extensive appraisal drilling. EM data is used to resolve ambiguities in the structural interpretation of seismic data. For example, whereas the top of a diapiric salt body is often well constrained by seismic data, the position of the lower boundaries is often more elusive. Carbonate (or salt blankets, or resistive basalt) layers complicate the detection and characterization of deeper structure because of diffusive scattering in the layer. However, the resistivity contrast between these layers and the sediments below is an ideal target for EM sounding methods. Recently, two marine EM methods have become popular: The controlled source EM (CSEM) method and magnetotellurics (MT). The CSEM method uses an electric dipole source to transmit low frequency electromagnetic signals to an array of receivers that measure the electromagnetic field at the seafloor. Variation in amplitude and phase of the received signal as the source is towed through the receiver array yield the resistivity structure of the sub-surface to depths of several kilometers. The MT method uses naturally occurring electromagnetic source fields to determine the resistivity of the sub-surface. Thus, by studying the variation in response as a function of frequency, the variation in resistivity as a function of depth may be determined. These methods give complementary information about the resistivity structure of the sub-seafloor. Whereas CSEM data are primarily sensitive to resistive structures, and in particular to layers that are thin compared to their depth of burial, MT data can constrain larger scale conductive structure. By combining natural and controlled source methods better constraints on the geometry and properties of the seafloor can be gained than from either data type alone. Several case histories with large salt structures in the section illustrate that the techniques are useful for future exploration in the GOM. We see the technology moving from its present focus of deep water to include shallower water depths (where CSEM sounding is presently restricted). In addition, we envision the integration of complimentary EM techniques to get a better constrained resistivity image of the subsurface.

MacGregor, L. M.; Strack, K. M.



The association between EMS workplace safety culture and safety outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective Prior studies have highlighted wide variation in EMS workplace safety culture across agencies. We sought to determine the association between EMS workplace safety culture scores and patient or provider safety outcomes. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to EMS workers affiliated with a convenience sample of agencies. We recruited these agencies from a national EMS management organization. We used the EMS Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (EMS-SAQ) to measure workplace safety culture and the EMS Safety Inventory (EMS-SI), a tool developed to capture self-reported safety outcomes from EMS workers. The EMS-SAQ provides reliable and valid measures of six domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, perceptions of working conditions, stress recognition, and job satisfaction. A panel of medical directors, paramedics, and occupational epidemiologists developed the EMS-SI to measure self-reported injury, medical errors and adverse events, and safety-compromising behaviors. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the association between EMS-SAQ scores and EMS-SI safety outcome measures. Results Sixteen percent of all respondents reported experiencing an injury in the past 3 months, four of every 10 respondents reported an error or adverse event (AE), and 90% reported safety-compromising behaviors. Respondents reporting injury scored lower on 5 of the 6 domains of safety culture. Respondents reporting an error or AE scored lower for 4 of the 6 domains, while respondents reporting safety-compromising behavior had lower safety culture scores for 5 of 6 domains. Conclusions Individual EMS worker perceptions of workplace safety culture are associated with composite measures of patient and provider safety outcomes. This study is preliminary evidence of the association between safety culture and patient or provider safety outcomes.

Weaver, Matthew D.; Wang, Henry E.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Patterson, Daniel



Efficacy of oxamniquine and praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infection: a controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

groups. Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier) and the log-rank test were used to evaluate the efficacy of the treatments. Findings The sensitivity of stool examinations ranged from 88.9% to 94.4% when patients presented with >5000 S. mansoni eggs per gram of tissue (oogram); when the number of eggs dropped to <1000 eggs per gram, sensitivity was reduced (range, 22.7-34.0%). When cure was

M. L. A. Ferrari; P. M. Z. Coelho; C. M. F. Antunes; C. A. P. Tavares; A. S. da Cunha



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many states ban the importation of fish infested with the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Treatment with an effective tapeworm parasiticide prior to shipment would alleviate this problem and allow fish to be shipped that would otherwise be rejected. In this work, extended bath treatm...


21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria...Trichuris vulpis ) and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii)...



Spacetime-based model of EM radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spacetime based model of an electric field and a photon is presented. The model assumes that 4 dimensional spacetime has vacuum fluctuations at all frequencies up to Planck frequency. Gravitational wave theory is used to give insights into electromagnetic (EM) radiation. From gravitational wave equations it is possible to derive the impedance of spacetime and quantify energy propagating in the medium of spacetime. EM radiation is shown to experience the same impedance as gravitational waves. This implies that photons also are waves in the medium of spacetime. The distortion of spacetime produced by a photon is calculated. Experiments are suggested including an experiment that may improve the sensitivity of experiments attempting to detect gravitational waves.

Macken, John A.




Microsoft Academic Search

É cada vez mais presente a discussão sobre a polêmica em torno dos direitos e interesses de gravadoras, músicos e consumidores, ou seja, a questão da autoria, divulgação, comercialização e acesso à música. De um lado, músicos sentem-se lesados por terem seus trabalhos disseminados indiscriminadamente, sem retorno financeiro adequado e, por outro, empresas de gravação e comercialização atingem volumes de



Mercury pollution in the Ems estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

From approximately 1960 to 1975 the Ems estuary received several tons of mercury per year from a chlor-alkali plant, a pesticide\\u000a factory and some minor sources. The discharge has been reduced drastically from 1976 onwards. In 1975 and 1976 measurements\\u000a were made on the distribution of mercury in the sediment. The horizontal distribution revealed a strong local enrichment of\\u000a the

K. Essink



Topic-based language models using EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel statistical language model to capture topic-related long-range dependencies. Topics are mod- eled in a latent variable framework in which we also derive an EM algorithm to perform a topic factor decomposition based on a segmented training corpus. The topic model is combined with a standard language model to be used for on-line word

Daniel Gildea; Thomas Hofmann



Generation and Identification of Arabidopsis EMS Mutants.  


EMS mutant analysis is a routine experiment to identify new players in a specific biological process or signaling pathway using forward genetics. It begins with the generation of mutants by treating Arabidopsis seeds with EMS. A mutant with a phenotype of interest (mpi) is obtained by screening plants of the M2 generation under a specific condition. Once the phenotype of the mpi is confirmed in the next generation, map-based cloning is performed to locate the mpi mutation. During the map-based cloning, mpi plants (Arabidopsis Columbia-0 (Col-0) ecotype background) are first crossed with Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotype, and the presence or absence of the phenotype in the F1 hybrids indicates whether the mpi is recessive or dominant. F2 plants with phenotypes similar to the mpi, if the mpi is recessive, or those without the phenotype, if the mpi is dominant, are used as the mapping population. As few as 24 such plants are selected for rough mapping. After finding one marker (MA) linked to the mpi locus or mutant phenotype, more markers near MA are tested to identify recombinants. The recombinants indicate the interval in which the mpi is located. Additional recombinants and molecular markers are then required to narrow down the interval. This is an iterative process of narrowing down the mapping interval until no further recombinants or molecular markers are available. The genes in the mapping interval are then sequenced to look for the mutation. In the last step, the wild-type or mutated gene is cloned to generate binary constructs. Complementation or recapitulation provides the most convincing evidence in determining the mutation that causes the phenotype of the mpi. Here, we describe the procedures for generating mutants with EMS and analyzing EMS mutations by map-based cloning. PMID:24057369

Qu, Li-Jia; Qin, Genji



Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits  

PubMed Central

Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS) utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems.

Thomas, Stephen H.; Arthur, Annette O.



Gradientes de abundâncias em galáxias espirais  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gradientes de abundâncias obtidos através de observações de regiões H II têm um papel importante no estudo de formação e evolução de galáxias espirais. Determinações diretas de abundâncias somente são obtidas quando linhas de emissão sensíveis à temperatura eletrônica (e.g., [O III]l4363) são detectadas. Infelizmente estas linhas são fracas ou não observadas em regiões H II de baixa excitação. Nestes casos métodos empíricos são utilizados para estimar as abundâncias químicas. Entretanto, diferentes métodos têm produzido diferentes estimativas de gradientes de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, nós construímos modelos de fotoionização com o objetivo de descrever diagramas de diagnósticos construídos com dados publicados de algumas galáxias espirais normais e barradas. Comparações entre nossas estimativas de abundâncias e de outros métodos mostram que quando não há acordo entre eles, nossos modelos superestimam as abundâncias de O/H e N/H por um fator de 0.3 dex em relação a estimativas diretas de abundâncias, e por fator de 0.2 dex em relação a outros métodos empíricos. A origem da produção de nitrogênio nas galáxias estudadas é discutida.

Dors, O. L.., Jr.; Copetti, M. V. F.



Detection of the white dwarf and the secondary star in the new SU UMa dwarf nova HS 2219+1824  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the discovery of a new, non-eclipsing SU UMa-type dwarf nova, HS\\u000a2219+1824. Photometry obtained in quiescence (V ~ 17.5) reveals a double-humped\\u000alight curve from which we derive an orbital period of ~ 86.2 min. Additional\\u000aphotometry obtained during a superoutburst reaching V ~ 12.0 clearly shows\\u000asuperhumps with a period of ~ 89.05 min. The optical spectrum

P. Rodr ´ õguez-Gil; B. T. Gansicke; H.-J. Hagen; T. R. Marsh; E. T. Harlaftis; S. Kitsionas; D. Engels



Activities of Effective Microorganism (EM) on the Nutrient Dynamics of Different Organic Materials Applied to Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 56 days incubation study was set up to investigate the effects of combined application of effective microorganism (EM) with composted or fresh organic materials on soil nutrient dynamics. Treatments include; Water (W) as Control, EM, Kraal manure (KM) + W, KM + EM, Lawn clippings (LC) +W, LC+EM, Commercial compost (CC) + W and CC + EM. A CO

L. Ncube


dignidade humana e bioética: uma abordagem filosófica Human dignity and bioethics: a philosophical approach Dignidad humana y bioética: un acercamiento filosófico  

Microsoft Academic Search

REsumO: Em recorte histórico tem-se nítida impressão de que sempre houve preocupação da sociedade com a dignidade humana. No entanto, paradoxalmente, chega- se ao século XXI, assistindo a não raras ocasiões em que o ser humano é agredido em sua dignidade. Se, de um lado, acumulam-se os episódios de agressão à dignidade, de outro, crescem o sentimento e os esforços

Walter J. Silva Junior; William Saad Hossne; Franklin Leopoldo e Silva


Complete-data spaces and generalized EM algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms have been applied extensively for computing maximum-likelihood and penalized-likelihood parameter estimates in signal processing applications. Intrinsic to each EM algorithm is a complete-data space (CDS)-a hypothetical set of random variables that is related to the parameters more naturally than the measurements are. The authors describe two generalizations of the EM paradigm: (i) allowing the relationship between the

J. A. Fessler; A. O. Hero




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK


e/m Experiment Analysis Refinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thomson's e/m experiment is widely popular in undergraduate courses to help gain an understanding of the properties of the electron. Our results using a standard apparatus, however, reveal significant systematic errors. We examine possible reasons for the discrepancy with the aim of modeling effects that were not included in the original analysis. We conclude that the energy loss of the electron beam as it travels through the helium and the distortion of the beam radius measurement by the curved glass of the tube are the two factors which dominate the discrepancy.

Harmon, Michael; Pruitt, Bryce; Velasquez, Kevin; Schelp, Rich



Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS activities through VPP geographic units. In summary, the ISMS and VPP process at the INEEL provided the basic framework of management support and worker involvement to implement our EMS. A cross-functional communication team was established to facilitate the implementation with great success. Communication has been an effective tool for implementing an ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL.

Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman



Convergence in Norm for Alternating Expectation-Maximization (EM) Type Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a sufficient condition for convergence of a general class of alternating estimationmaximization(EM) type continuous-parameter estimation algorithms with respect to a given norm.This class includes EM, penalized EM, Green's OSL-EM, and other approximate EM algorithms.The convergence analysis can be extended to include alternating coordinate-maximization EM algorithmssuch as Meng and Rubin's ECM and Fessler and Hero's SAGE. The condition for

Alfred O. Hero; Jeffrey A. Fessler



Vale a pena desarmar? Uma avaliação do impacto da campanha de entrega voluntária de armas sobre as mortes com armas de fogo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da campanha de entrega de armas (política de buy-back) sobre a incidência de óbitos com armas de fogo no Estado do Paraná. Visto que neste estado esta campanha teve início seis meses antes da campanha nacional, foi possível utilizar o estimador de diferenças em diferenças, em que os municípios paranaenses constituíram

Milena Karla Soares; Luiz Guilherme Dácar Da Silva Scorzafave



Recent development in open systems for EMS\\/SCADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the current situation and emerging trends of development of EMS\\/SCADA systems throughout the world, this report examines the `open system' concept from the viewpoints of users and suppliers. Current technologies for open distributed EMS\\/SCADAs and their possible future trends are described.

Yutaka Kokai; Fumio Masuda; Satoshi Horiike; Yasuji Sekine



10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false [Reserved] E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...



A European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper analyzes the technical and market issues that influence the strategy of implementation of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the payload EMS (European Mobile System) embarked on ITALSAT F-2. The final goal is to determine services, network architecture, and added value chain that make LMSS via EMS profitable for a typical telecommunication company.

Ananasso, Fulvio; Mistretta, Ignazio



Milho para Ensilagem Colhido em Diferentes Estádios de Maturidade1  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Aluno de graduação em Agronomia - UNIFENAS 5 Aluno (a) de graduação em Zootecnia - UNIFENAS Abstract: This research work was conducted in the agricultural crop of 2005\\/2006 on the José do Rosário Vellano University farm in Alfenas\\/MG, with the purpose of evaluating the effect of the maturity stage of the corn for ensiling on the percentage of DM,

Adauton Vilela de Rezende; Hélio Henrique Vilela; Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara; André Ricardo da Silva; Geraldo Benedito de Souza Almeida; Simone Silvia Senedese


On-chip em-sensitive interconnect structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to ever greater current densities in modern IC designs, electromigration (EM) in copper interconnects has become an important reliability factor. In this paper, we analyze current densities on bus and clock networks. We observe that under certain conditions, these networks may become sensitive to EM effects and prone to failure. We perform SPICE simulations on open source Wishbone bus

Di-an Li; Malgorzata Marek-Sadowska; Bill Lee



Clustering Very Large Databases Using EM Mixture Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering very large databases is a challenge for traditional pattern recognition algorithms, e.g. the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for fitting mixture models, because of high memory and iteration requirements. Over large databases, the cost of the numerous scans required to converge and large memory requirement of the algorithm becomes prohibitive. We present a decomposition of the EM algorithm requiring a small

Paul S. Bradley; Cory Reina; Usama M. Fayyad



Optimal multiple source location estimation via the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an algorithm for multiple source localization based on the Estimate-Maximize (EM) method. The EM method is an iterative algorithm that converges to the Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimate of the unknown parameters by exploiting the stochastic syctem under consideration. In our case the algorithm will converge to the exact ML estimates of the various sources location parameters, where each

M. Feder; E. Weinstein



A Two-Round Variant of EM for Gaussian Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that, given data from a mixture of well-separated spherical Gaussians in , a sim- ple two-round variant of EM will, with high probability, learn the centers of the Gaussians to near-optimal precision, if the dimension is high ( ). We relate this to previous theoreti- cal and empirical work on the EM algorithm.

Sanjoy Dasgupta; Leonard J. Schulman



Time-resolved Photometry of the SU UMa Dwarf Novae AW Sagittae and CSS J203938-042908  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved, V-band CCD photometry of two SU UMa-type dwarf novae, AW Sagittae and CSS J203938-042908, has been obtained during their recent superoutbursts using the 1-m reflector at San Diego State University's Mount Laguna Observatory. AW Sagittae was observed for a total of ~25 hours over 4 nights during the period from 2012 July 19 to July 24, while CSS J203938-042908 was observed for a total of ~30 hours over 5 nights from 2012 August 18 to August 22. The resulting light curves will be presented and analyzed in order to determine the superhump periods of both systems, and to search for evidence of a change in these periods over the time span of our observations.

Gonzalez, Chantal P.; Shafter, A. W.



On the origin of W UMa type contact binaries - a new method for computation of initial masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

W UMa type binaries have two defining characteristics. These are (i) the effective temperatures of both components are very similar, and (ii) the secondary (currently less massive) component is overluminous for its current mass. We consider the latter to be an indication of its mass before the mass transfer event. For these stars, we define a mass difference (?M) between the mass determined from its luminosity and the present mass determined from fitting the binary orbit. We compare the observed values of the mass difference to stellar models with mass-loss. The range of initial secondary masses that we find for observed W UMa type binaries is 1.3-2.6 M?. We discover that the A- and the W-subtype contact binaries have different ranges of initial secondary masses. Binary systems with an initial mass higher than 1.8 ± 0.1 M? become A-subtype while systems with initial masses lower than this become W-subtype. Only 6 per cent of systems violate this behaviour. We also obtain the initial masses of the primaries using the following constraint for the reciprocal of the initial mass ratio: 0 < 1/qi < 1. The range of initial masses we find for the primaries is 0.2-1.5 M?, except for two systems. Finally in comparing our models to observed systems, we find evidence that the mass transfer process is not conservative. We find that only 34 per cent of the mass from the secondary is transferred to the primary. The remainder is lost from the system.

Yildiz, M.; Do?an, T.



The Cause of the Superoutburst in SU UMa Stars is Finally Revealed by Kepler Light Curve of V1504 Cygni  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the short-cadence Kepler light curve of an SU UMa star, V1504 Cyg, which covers a period of ˜630 d. All superoutbursts in V1504 Cyg have turned out to be of precursor-main types, and the superhump first appears near the maximum of the precursor. The superhumps grow smoothly from the precursor to the main superoutburst, showing that the superoutburst was initiated by a tidal instability (as evidenced by the growing superhump) as envisioned in the thermal-tidal instability (TTI) model proposed by Osaki (1989, PASJ, 41, 1005). We performed a power spectral analysis of the light curve of V1504 Cyg. One of the outstanding features is the appearance of a negative superhump extending over around 300 d, well over a supercycle. We found that the appearance of the negative superhump tends to decrease the frequency of occurrence of normal outbursts. Two types of supercycles are recognized in V1504 Cyg, which are similar to those of the Type L and Type S supercycles in the light curve of VW Hyi, a prototype SU UMa star, introduced by Smak (1985, Acta Astron., 35, 357). It is found that the Type L supercycle is the one accompanied by the negative superhump, and Type S is that without the negative superhump. If we adopt a tilted disk as an origin of the negative superhump, two types of the supercycles are understood to be due to a difference in the outburst interval, which is in turn caused by a difference in mass supply from the secondary to different parts of the disk. The frequency of the negative superhump varies systematically during a supercycle in V1504 Cyg. This variation can be used as an indicator of the disk-radius variation, and we have found that the observed disk-radius variation in V1504 Cyg fits very well with a prediction of the TTI model.

Osaki, Yoji; Kato, Taichi



Educational Program for EMS Systems Administration and Planning. Module B: EMS Systems in the United States - An Introductory Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructional module on emergency medical services (EMS) systems in the United States is presented as part of an educational program for EMS systems administration and planning. The program consists of 23 such modules, which can be adpated to a variety...

B. A. Cooper G. Gibson



DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)



Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems  

SciTech Connect

In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.

Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A. [Univ. of Padova (Italy). Dept. of Electrical Engineering