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... ingredients.tell your doctor if you are taking rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, in Rifamate, in Rifater). Your doctor ... doctor will probably tell you to stop taking rifampin four weeks before beginning treatment with praziquantel, and ...



Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel is the drug of choice for the treatment of all forms of schistosomiasis. This review summarizes the main features of the drug, with special attention being given to those aspects that may be of interest to the practicing physician. After a brief mention of the history, the chemistry, the major available brands and their costs, doses and administration schedules

Donato Cioli; Livia Pica-Mattoccia



Resolution of Praziquantel  

PubMed Central

Background Praziquantel remains the drug of choice for the worldwide treatment and control of schistosomiasis. The drug is synthesized and administered as a racemate. Use of the pure active enantiomer would be desirable since the inactive enantiomer is associated with side effects and is responsible for the extremely bitter taste of the pill. Methodology/Principal Findings We have identified two resolution approaches toward the production of praziquantel as a single enantiomer. One approach starts with commercially available praziquantel and involves a hydrolysis to an intermediate amine, which is resolved with a derivative of tartaric acid. This method was discovered through an open collaboration on the internet. The second method, identified by a contract research organisation, employs a different intermediate that may be resolved with tartaric acid itself. Conclusions/Significance Both resolution procedures identified show promise for the large-scale, economically viable production of praziquantel as a single enantiomer for a low price. Additionally, they may be employed by laboratories for the production of smaller amounts of enantiopure drug for research purposes that should be useful in, for example, elucidation of the drug's mechanism of action.

Woelfle, Michael; Seerden, Jean-Paul; de Gooijer, Jesse; Pouwer, Kees; Olliaro, Piero; Todd, Matthew H.



Metabolism of praziquantel in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The metabolism of Praziquantel in man was studied after po. administration of 44 mg\\/kg and 14 mg\\/kg14C-Praziquantel to male and female subjects. Thin layer chromatography of the radioactive constituents in serum and urine showed\\u000a that Praziquantel is rapidly metabolized in man. Already 4 hrs after po. administration — the time of maximum serum-radioactivity\\u000a — the amount of unchanged drug is

K. U. Bühring; H. W. Diekmann; H. Müller; A. Garbe; H. Nowak



21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1200 Section 520.1200 Food...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68...



Praziquantel, Mefloquine-Praziquantel, and Mefloquine-Artesunate-Praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium: A Randomized, Exploratory, Open-Label Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel. Hence, there is a pressing need to develop additional therapeutics against schistosomiasis. The antimalarial drug mefloquine shows antischistosomal activity in animal models and clinical trials, which calls for further investigations. Methodology We comparatively assessed the efficacy and tolerability of the following treatments against Schistosoma haematobium in school-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire: (i) praziquantel (40 mg/kg; standard treatment); (ii) mefloquine (25 mg/kg) combined with praziquantel (40 mg/kg); and (iii) mefloquine-artesunate (3× (100 mg artesunate +250 mg mefloquine)) combined with praziquantel (40 mg/kg) (treatments administered on subsequent days). Two urine samples were collected before, and on days 21–22 and 78–79 after the first dosing. Principal Findings Sixty-one children were present on all examination time points and had complete datasets. No difference in efficacy was observed between the three treatment groups on either follow-up. On the 21–22 day posttreatment follow-up, based on available case analysis, cure rates of 33% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11–55%), 29% (95% CI 8–50%), and 26% (95% CI 5–48%) were observed for praziquantel, mefloquine-artesunate-praziquantel, and mefloquine-praziquantel, respectively. The corresponding egg reduction rates were 94% and above. On the second follow-up, observed cure rates ranged from 19% (praziquantel) to 33% (mefloquine-artesunate-praziquantel), and egg reduction rates were above 90%. Praziquantel monotherapy was the best tolerated treatment. In the mefloquine-artesunate-praziquantel group, adverse events were reported by 91% of the participants, and in the mefloquine-praziquantel group, 95% experienced adverse events. With the exception of abdominal pain at moderate severity, adverse events were mild. Conclusions/Significance The addition of mefloquine or mefloquine-artesunate does not increase the efficacy of praziquantel against chronic S. haematobium infection. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate the effect of the combinations against acute schistosomiasis.

Keiser, Jennifer; Silue, Kigbafori D.; Adiossan, Lukas K.; N'Guessan, Nicaise A.; Monsan, N'Chou; Utzinger, Jurg; N'Goran, Eliezer K.



MCR Synthesis of Praziquantel Derivatives  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis, a high volume neglected tropical disease affecting more than 200 million people worldwide, can only be effectively treated by the tetrahydroisoquinoline drug praziquantel (PZQ). Herein, we describe an efficient approach to access PZQ derivatives by the Ugi 4-component reaction followed by the Pictet-Spengler reaction in a two-step, one-pot procedure. 30 Novel PZQ derivatives are described based on the Ugi 4-component reaction and an X-ray structure of a novel derivative revealing different conformation compared with PZQ is discussed. Several analogues comparable in activity to the drug PZQ have been identified based on an in vitro Schistosoma mansoni worm viability assay.

Liu, Haixia; William, Samia; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Botros, Sanaa; Domling, Alexander



Determination of ED 50 values for praziquantel in praziquantel-resistant and -susceptible Schistosoma mansoni isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dose of praziquantel required to kill 50% of adult worms in vivo (i.e. the ED50) was estimated for nine different isolates of Schistosoma mansoni in infected mice. Four of the isolates were selected because they had not knowingly been in contact with the drug (i.e. they were putatively praziquantel-susceptible). Five putatively praziquantel-resistant isolates were chosen because they had been

Donato Cioli; Sanaa S Botros; Katherine Wheatcroft-Francklow; Amadou Mbaye; Vaughan Southgate; Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté; Livia Pica-Mattoccia; Anna Rita Troiani; Sayed H Seif el-Din; Abdel-Nasser A Sabra; Jan Albin; Dirk Engels; Michael J Doenhoff



Metabolic profiling of praziquantel enantiomers.  


Praziquantel (PZQ), prescribed as a racemic mixture, is the most readily available drug to treat schistosomiasis. In the present study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOFMS) based metabolomics was employed to decipher the metabolic pathways and enantioselective metabolic differences of PZQ. Many phase I and four new phase II metabolites were found in urine and feces samples of mice 24h after dosing, indicating that the major metabolic reactions encompassed oxidation, dehydrogenation, and glucuronidation. Differences in the formation of all these metabolites were observed between (R)-PZQ and (S)-PZQ. In an in vitro phase I incubation system, the major involvement of CYP3A, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 in the metabolism of PZQ, and CYP3A, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 exhibited different catalytic activity toward the PZQ enantiomers. Apparent Km and Vmax differences were observed in the catalytic formation of three mono-oxidized metabolites by CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 further supporting the metabolic differences for PZQ enantiomers. Molecular docking showed that chirality resulted in differences in substrate location and conformation, which likely accounts for the metabolic differences. In conclusion, in silico, in vitro, and in vivo methods revealed the enantioselective metabolic profile of praziquantel. PMID:24821110

Wang, Haina; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zheng, Yang; Zhou, Kun; Hu, Changyan; Krausz, Kristopher W; Sun, Dequn; Idle, Jeffrey R; Gonzalez, Frank J



Praziquantel treatment of muscle Taenia solium cysticercosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro effect of Praziquantel (PZQ) onTaenia solium cysticerci was analyzed. The oxygen consumption rate of the parasites was inhibited and the release of proteins was enhanced, but no statistically significant differences were found between the control group and the experimental groups. The drug had a significant, dose-dependent negative effect on the evagination ability of the larvae; 50% effect

C. Garcia-Dominguez; D. Correa; M. T. Rabiela; A. Flisser



Promotion of rat hepatocarcinogenesis by praziquantel.  


Praziquantel, the widely used anti-helminthic agent, was investigated for hepatocarcinogenesis-promoting potential using a medium-term liver bioassay system for carcinogens. F344 male rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 200 mg/kg) and then starting 2 weeks later, received praziquantel in the diet at concentrations of 1.5 or 0.5%, or intragastrically at a dose of 1,500 mg/kg once a week for 6 weeks. Control groups received DEN or praziquantel alone. All rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy at week 3 and killed at week 8. Development of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci in the liver was significantly increased in terms of both number and area with the 1.5% dose, while only area was affected by the 0.5% dose. The results thus indicate that praziquantel at high dose has promoting potential in rat hepatocytic tumorigenesis. PMID:1683346

Shirai, T; Joong, K D; Hakoi, K; Thamavit, W; Pairojkul, C; Hoshiya, T; Hasegawa, R; Ito, N



Modelo Conceitual de Segurança para uma Arquitetura Multidomínio em Telemedicina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - A comunicação e a troca de informações de maneira rápida e segura entre centros hospitalares geograficamente distribuídos tornam-se cada vez mais importantes em um cenário de telemedicina. Nesse contexto, pode-se compartilhar informações clínicas sensíveis, como a história do paciente, a fim de se ob- ter maior qualidade e precisão no atendimento ao paciente, com custos relativos menores. Este

João F. M. Figueiredo; Eduardo P. Serafim; Walber J. A. Silva; Diego S. A. Pizzol; Gustavo H. M. B. Motta


Praziquantel Treatment in Trematode and Cestode Infections: An Update  

PubMed Central

Status and emerging issues in the use of praziquantel for treatment of human trematode and cestode infections are briefly reviewed. Since praziquantel was first introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic in 1975, innumerable articles describing its successful use in the treatment of the majority of human-infecting trematodes and cestodes have been published. The target trematode and cestode diseases include schistosomiasis, clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, heterophyidiasis, echinostomiasis, fasciolopsiasis, neodiplostomiasis, gymnophalloidiasis, taeniases, diphyllobothriasis, hymenolepiasis, and cysticercosis. However, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica infections are refractory to praziquantel, for which triclabendazole, an alternative drug, is necessary. In addition, larval cestode infections, particularly hydatid disease and sparganosis, are not successfully treated by praziquantel. The precise mechanism of action of praziquantel is still poorly understood. There are also emerging problems with praziquantel treatment, which include the appearance of drug resistance in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni and possibly Schistosoma japonicum, along with allergic or hypersensitivity reactions against praziquantel treatment. To cope with and overcome these problems, combined use of drugs, i.e., praziquantel and other newly introduced compounds such as triclabendazole, artemisinins, and tribendimidine, is being tried.



21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin and praziquantel paste. 520.1198...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1198 Ivermectin and praziquantel paste. (a) Specifications...1) 0.0155 mg (1.55 percent) ivermectin and 0.0775 mg (7.75 percent)...



21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Ivermectin and praziquantel paste. 520.1198...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1198 Ivermectin and praziquantel paste. (a) Specifications...1) 0.0155 mg (1.55 percent) ivermectin and 0.0775 mg (7.75 percent)...



Hypersensitive Reaction to Praziquantel in a Clonorchiasis Patient  

PubMed Central

Praziquantel is the drug of choice for clonorchiasis. Since clonorchiasis is endemic in most river basins, praziquantel has been widely used for 30 years in Korea. A 54-year-old Korean woman suffered from hypersensitive reactions, such as nausea, dyspnea, rash, and urticaria after taking the first dose of praziquantel to treat clonorchiasis. She ingested one dose again and the same symptoms appeared, and she was treated at a clinic with anti-histamines. She tried one more dose with anti-histamines but found the same symptoms. Later, she was found to pass eggs of Clonorchis sinensis and medicated with flubendazole. The hypersensitive reaction to praziquantel is rare but occurs. This is the 5th case report in the world.

Lee, Jung-Min; Lim, Hyun-Sul



[Treatment of bilharziasis due to Schistosoma mekongi with praziquantel].  


After a review of the mechanisms of anti-schistosomal activity of praziquantel and the treatment of Schistosoma mekongi with this drug, the authors report two cases of Schistosoma mekongi treated with praziquantel with failure. Rectal mucosa biopsies are performed and eggs are present. Light microscopic, electron microscopic and on ultra-thin sections examination of these samples don't reveal morphological alterations of Schistosoma mekongi eggs after treatment. PMID:3367765

Duong, T H; Furet, Y; Lorette, G; Barrabes, A; Arbeille, B; Combescot, C



Clinical study evaluating efficacy of praziquantel in clonorchiasis.  

PubMed Central

In 74 patients with clonorchiasis, the efficacy and safety of praziquantel was evaluated in a two-phase study: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of praziquantel versus placebo (42 patients) and an open study (32 patients). All but one of the patients were Laotians. The intensity of clonorchiasis was light in 85% (63 of 74) and moderate in 15% (11 of 74) of the patients. Cure based on our established criteria was noted in 67 of 67 patients (100%) treated with praziquantel at a dose of 75 mg/kg per day. In contrast, four patients (20%) in the placebo group, each with light infection, ceased passing eggs and were, according to our established protocol, considered spontaneous cures (P less than 0.0001). Adverse effects of praziquantel were transient and included nausea and vomiting (15%), vertigo (12%), hepatomegaly (4.5%), headache (1.5%), rash (1.5%), and hypotension (1.5%). Of 20 patients who received placebo, 1 (5%) developed transient skin rash, fever, and chills. Clinically minor and transient, but statistically significant, changes in hemoglobin, total protein in serum, and levels of uric acid, cholesterol, and bilirubin in serum were noted. Results of this study showed that praziquantel is safe, well tolerated, and effective and should be considered as the drug of choice for treatment of clonorchiasis. In moderate infections, a second course of praziquantel therapy may be necessary to eliminate infection.

Yangco, B G; De Lerma, C; Lyman, G H; Price, D L



Reconhecimento de faces humano: Uma modelagem computacional baseada em componentes polares  

Microsoft Academic Search

O sistema visual ? comumente considerado sob uma ?tica Cartesiana, mas v?rios \\u000aestudos nos quais utilizaram-se t?cnicas eletrofisiol?gicas e psicof?sicas levantaram \\u000aevid?ncias de um suposto processamento elementar em coordenadas polares \\u000a[Mahon & De Valois, 2001; Gallant et al. 1993; Gallant et al. 1996; Wilson & Wilkinson, 1998]. \\u000aConsiderando a import?ncia dessa possibilidade, definimos quatro quest?es fundamentais: \\u000a(1) Quais s?o as

Y. Zana; J. P. Mena-Chalco



Interaction between Grapefruit Juice and Praziquantel in Humans  

PubMed Central

After a single oral dose of praziquantel with 250 ml of grapefruit juice, the area under the concentration-time curve and the maximum concentration in plasma of praziquantel (Cmax) were significantly increased (Cmax for water treatment, 637.71 ± 128.5 ng/ml; and Cmax for grapefruit juice treatment, 1,037.65 ± 305.7 ng/ml, P < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found in the time to maximum concentration of drug in plasma or elimination half-life.

Castro, Nelly; Jung, Helgi; Medina, Roberto; Gonzalez-Esquivel, Dinora; Lopez, Mario; Sotelo, Julio



Efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni in northern Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two treatments with praziquantel (PZQ) 40 mg\\/kg, 40 d apart, were given to individuals in a recently established (< 6 years) Schistosoma mansoni focus in the Senegal River Basin (SKB). Efficacy of treatment was evaluated 4 weeks after each treatment. Among 130 individuals who provided stool samples on days 0, 118 and 153 and were treated on days 85 and

Michel Picquet; Jozef Vercruysse; Darren J. Shaw; Mamadou Diop; Abdoulaye Ly



Reversal of Hepatic Fibrosis after Praziquantel Therapy of Murine Schistosomiasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reprint examined the effect of parasitologic cure of S. mansoni infection on liver fibrosis in mice. Praziquantel, 250 mg/kg body weight, was administered orally to mice 8 weeks after infection with 50 S. mansoni cercariae. The authors assessed liver...

S. H. Morcos M. T. Khayyal M. M. Mansour S. Saleh E. A. Ishak



Bioavailability of Praziquantel Increases with Concomitant Administration of Food  

PubMed Central

In the present study we found that after a single oral dose of 1,800 mg of praziquantel, following a high-lipid diet and a high-carbohydrate diet, the maximum levels in plasma increased 243 and 515% and the area under the plasma concentration curve from 0 to 8 h increased 180 and 271%, respectively.

Castro, Nelly; Medina, Roberto; Sotelo, Julio; Jung, Helgi



Interseccionalidade em uma era de globalização: As implicações da Conferência Mundial contra o Racismo para práticas feministas transnacionais  

Microsoft Academic Search

R R R R Resumo: esumo: esumo: esumo: esumo: Este relatório analisa a interseccionalidade como uma abordagem feminista com significante impacto nos discursos e debates durante o Fórum de ONGs e a Conferência Mundial Contra o Racismo, em Durban, África do Sul. O termo 'interseccionalidade' se refere às articulações entre a discriminação de gênero, a homofobia, o racismo e a




The little we know about the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of praziquantel (racemate and R-enantiomer).  


Praziquantel has been the mainstay of schistosomiasis control since 1984 and widely distributed since 2006 through 'preventive chemotherapy' programmes to school-aged children or at-risk populations. In addition, preschool-aged children are now recognized as a vulnerable population and a group for targeted treatment, but they may be difficult to dose correctly with the available product--a racemate, based on the biologically active enantiomer (R-praziquantel) and the inactive distomer (S-praziquantel), which contributes the bitter taste and doubles the size of the tablets. Hence, a paediatric formulation is required, possibly enantiomerically pure. Developing such a product and extending its use to younger children should be pharmacologically guided, but limited data exist on pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic correlations for praziquantel. This article presents available data on the chemistry, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of praziquantel, as well as R-praziquantel, and points to gaps in our knowledge. PMID:24390933

Olliaro, Piero; Delgado-Romero, Petra; Keiser, Jennifer



[Pseudotumor form of hepatic distomatosis: successful treatment with praziquantel].  


Human Fasciola hepatica infection is usually discovered either early, during the acute (invasive) phase, or in the advanced phase, which is characterized by biliary complications. We report a case of liver distomatosis with nodular intra-hepatic lesions in a 58-year-old woman. Radiological investigations showed 3 nodular lesions in the VII segment, which were difficult to distinguish from liver metastases or liver abscesses. Distomatosis serology was positive with passive hemagglutination. After a 5-day treatment with praziquantel, clinical symptoms resolved quickly while serological tests became negative. Radiological images slowly decreased to a calcified scar at 13 months. No side-effects were noted. Praziquantel, whose efficacy in the common presentations of liver distomatosis has recently been demonstrated, also seems effective and well tolerated in case of nodular intra-hepatic lesions. PMID:9295980

Queneau, P E; Koch, S; Bresson-Hadni, S; Bartholomot, B; Arbez-Gindre, F; Heyd, B; Miguet, J P



Praziquantel failure in the treatment of Fasciola hepatica  

PubMed Central

A case of human fascioliasis is presented in which the patient remained symptomatic after treatment with praziquantel and other agents but eventually responded to bithionol. The difficulties in finding an efficacious and tolerable drug therapy for this condition are reviewed with reference to the life cycle and pathogenesis of the parasite. It is concluded that while bithionol remains the current drug of choice, triclabendazole may play a dominant role in the near future.

Patrick, David Michael; Isaac-Renton, Judith



High-Dose Praziquantel for Neurocysticercosis: Efficacy and Tolerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard therapeutic regimens of praziquantel for neurocysticercosis use daily doses of 50 mg\\/kg for 15–21 days, with prolonged remission being achieved in 60–80% patients. In this prospective study, 100 mg\\/kg daily was used for 10 days in 13 patients aged 32 ± 15 years (mean ± SD) with severe intra-, extraparenchymal or mixed forms of neurocysticercosis. Patients were monitored with

P. R. M. Bittencourt; C. M. Gracia; A. M. Gorz; S. Mazer; T. V. Oliveira



Pharmacokinetic investigation of albendazole and praziquantel in Thai children infected with Giardia intestinalis.  


The pharmacokinetics of albendazole/albendazole sulphoxide and praziquantel were investigated in Thai children with Giardia infection. Twenty school-age children were randomly allocated to receive either a single oral dose of albendazole (400 mg/child) or the same dose of albendazole given concurrently with a single oral dose of praziquantel (20 mg/kg). The concentrations of albendazole/albendazole sulphoxide and praziquantel in plasma samples, collected at intervals in the first 24 h post-treatment, were then quantified using HPLC with ultra-violet detection. No significant pharmacokinetic interaction between the albendazole and praziquantel was demonstrated. For albendazole sulphoxide, the active metabolite of albendazole, there was marked inter-individual variation in the maximum plasma concentration and the 'area under the curve'. The pharmacokinetics of albendazole sulphoxide were similar whether albendazole was given alone or in combination with praziquantel. PMID:15228716

Pengsaa, K; Na-Bangchang, K; Limkittikul, K; Kabkaew, K; Lapphra, K; Sirivichayakul, C; Wisetsing, P; Pojjaroen-Anant, C; Chanthavanich, P; Subchareon, A




Microsoft Academic Search

O presente estudo de caso foi realizado em duas organizações agroindustriais, a AGCO do Brasil Comércio e Indústria Ltda. e a Tecno Moageira S\\/A, tratando-se de um estudo de caso de natureza exploratória e descritiva, que objetivou analisar os motivos pelos quais essas organizações implementaram a certificação ISO 9001, em torno da seguinte problemática: Qual o real interesse da certificação

Alexandre Melo Abicht; Alessandra Carla Ceolin; Augusto Faria Correa; Paulo Rodrigo Pereira; Tania Nunes da Silva



Abundâncias químicas de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias em M51  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A derivação de abundâncias químicas de nebulosas planetárias permite a investigação dos processos de enriquecimento químico ocorridos durante a evolução das estrelas progenitoras, que têm massas entre 0.8 e 8 massas solares. Adicionalmente as abundâncias de elementos como oxigênio, argônio ou neônio, que não são produzidos por nucleossíntese na progenitora, refletem a evolução do meio interestelar: estrelas menos massivas, de evolução mais lenta, tipicamente originam-se de um meio interestelar mais pobre. Reportamos aqui a derivação de parâmetros físicos e abundâncias químicas de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias da galáxia M51, uma galáxia de tipo Seyfert 2 pertencente ao Grupo de Sculptor. As observações foram feitas com o telescópio Gemini Norte, usando o espectrógrafo GMOS no modo multi-objeto. Os resultados indicam uma distribuição de abundâncias análoga àquela das planetárias da Galáxia. A amostra observada não permite estabelecer-se com clareza a existência de um gradiente radial como é esperado pelos modelos evolutivos de galáxias expirais; espera-se que uma extensão desta amostra deva indicá-lo posteriormente. (FAPESP/CNPq)

Uchida, M. M. M.; Costa, R. D. D.; Maciel, W. J.



Praziquantel side effects during treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infected pupils in Kibwezi, Kenya.  


Four hundred and thirty six pupils in two primary schools in Kibwezi, Kenya aged between seven and sixteen years and positive for S. mansoni were treated as follows: 320 pupils with a single dose of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg body weight and 116 controls with a placebo. Immediate and delayed side effects of praziquantel were observed. The main side-effects were abdominal pain (36.3%), headache (35.3%) and nausea (13.1%). There was correlation between frequencies of these side-effects and intensity of infection measured as eggs per gram of faeces. Other side-effects included dizziness (9.7%), fever (7.8%), urticaria and bloody diarrhoea. Overall, the side-effects of praziquantel were mild and transient, and did not require any intervention. For ethical reasons, all pupils who served as controls were treated with praziquantel after the study. PMID:8898462

Jaoko, W G; Muchemi, G; Oguya, F O



Evaluation of oral therapy on Mansonial Schistosomiasis using single dose of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits and praziquantel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit mesocarp was compared with praziquantel in mice infected with Sudanese strain of Schistosoma mansoni. Infected mice were given a single dose of 200 mg\\/kg body weight of B. aegyptiaca fruit mesocarp and 200 mg\\/kg b.w. of praziquantel after 6 weeks from the onset of the infection.A significant reduction was observed in EPG (egg count

W. S. Koko; H. S. Abdalla; M. Galal; H. S. Khalid



Apoptosis-related gene expression in hamster opisthorchiasis post praziquantel treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the apoptosis-related gene expression in hamster opisthorchiasis after praziquantel\\u000a treatment. Hamsters were infected with Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae then treated with praziquantel. The expression of apoptosis-related genes [i.e., apoptosis gene Bcl-2-associated\\u000a protein X (BAX), caspase 9, p53, and protein kinase B (PKB)] was detected by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain\\u000a reaction. Histopathological analyses

T. Boonmars; P. Srirach; B. Kaewsamut; T. Srisawangwong; S. Pinlaor; P. Pinlaor; P. Yongvanit; P. Sithithaworn



In vivo efficacy of praziquantel against Echinoparyphium aconiatum (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) parasitizing the great pond snails Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae).  


The present study had a practical goal. I aimed to determine whether praziquantel could reduce the production of Echinoparyphium aconiatum (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) cercariae in infected snails Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) without killing the hosts. Praziquantel is a broad-spectrum antihelminth agent. It caused a total cessation of cercaria shedding when the praziquantel concentration in the treatment bath was 10 mg/L and the treatment time was 30 h or longer. A next research step which has to be taken before giving detailed recommendations about using praziquantel for ceasing production of E. aconiatum cercariae in parasitized snails is to follow the survivorship and performance of treated snails after a praziquantel exposure for longer than in this medium-term (3 days) experiment. PMID:21756908

Voutilainen, Ari



Enhanced efficacy of praziquantel treatment in mice vaccinated with radiation attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni.  


Normal, and vaccinated mice four weeks previously with radiation attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni (500/mouse) were challenged with normal cercariae (150/mouse), then treated one week later with praziquantel (400 mg/kg body weight, orally). Worm burden was determined to calculate the % immunity in all groups under study. Histopathological examination of liver, small and large intestine, spleen and lung was done. Serum IgE level was estimated using the immunoradiometric assay. (IRMA). The % immunity was highest among vaccinated, infected and treated group with minimal pathological changes recorded and highest IgE level. From the data collected, it was found that, the efficacy of praziquantel treatment was enhanced in vaccinated mice and that there was synergistic effect between drug treatment and vaccination when praziquantel was given seven days post-infection (challenge). PMID:7602152

el-Fakahany, A F; Ahmed, M M; Abdel-Aziz, S M; Abdalla, K F; Afifi, L M; Khamis, N S



Evaluation of oral therapy on Mansonial Schistosomiasis using single dose of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits and praziquantel.  


The efficacy of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit mesocarp was compared with praziquantel in mice infected with Sudanese strain of Schistosoma mansoni. Infected mice were given a single dose of 200 mg/kg body weight of B. aegyptiaca fruit mesocarp and 200 mg/kg b.w. of praziquantel after 6 weeks from the onset of the infection. A significant reduction was observed in EPG (egg count per gram of faeces), eggs burden in tissues and recovery of adult worms (P<0.05) for both the plant and the drug-treated animals. PMID:15664459

Koko, W S; Abdalla, H S; Galal, M; Khalid, H S



Ureteric obstruction secondary to schistosomiasis 2 years after praziquantel therapy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis is one of the oldest and commonest parasitic infestations of mankind and one of the leading infestations of public health concern. Hitherto, praziquantel has been the only drug for mass eradication of Schistosomiasis. Few reports have shown possible resistance of the schistosome to praziquantel in some part of the world with global concern about the future of the drug. We report this case to illustrate progression of Schistosomiasis to surgical complication despite treatment, with bizarre presentation misleading attending physicians. Diagnosis was finally confirmed at post-operation histological examination of specimen.

Olajide, Folakemi Olajumoke; Aremu, Ademola Adegoke; Komolafe, Akinkunmi Oluwole



Effect of praziquantel on sex hormone levels in murine schistosomiasis mansoni.  


Changes in sex hormonal levels were studied in Schistosoma mansoni infected and praziquantel treated mice (400 x 2 mg/Kg), drug control and in normal control groups. It was observed that schistosomiasis lead to increase in the level of testosterone, progesterone and 17B-esteradiol, 60 and 70 days postinfection in male and female mice, respectively. In praziquantel treated group the level of testosterone was lowered 10, 20 & 30 days post treatment, progesterone and 17 beta-estradiol fell 30 days post treatment after primary rise. The mechanism of recorded changes will be discussed in details. PMID:7844428

Abdalla, K F; Abdel-Aziz, S M; el Fakahany, A F; el-Hamshary, A S; Afifi, L M



Pharmacokinetics of combined treatment with praziquantel and albendazole in neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

AIMS Neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in the world. Antiparasitic treatment of viable brain cysts is of clinical benefit, but current antiparasitic regimes provide incomplete parasiticidal efficacy. Combined use of two antiparasitic drugs may improve clearance of brain parasites. Albendazole (ABZ) has been used together with praziquantel (PZQ) before for geohelminths, echinococcosis and cysticercosis, but their combined use is not yet formally recommended and only scarce, discrepant data exist on their pharmacokinetics when given together. We assessed the pharmacokinetics of their combined use for the treatment of neurocysticercosis. METHODS A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of ABZ and PZQ in 32 patients with neurocysticercosis was carried out. Patients received their usual concomitant medications including an antiepileptic drug, dexamethasone, and ranitidine. Randomization was stratified by antiepileptic drug (phenytoin or carbamazepine). Subjects had sequential blood samples taken after the first dose of antiparasitic drugs and again after 9 days of treatment, and were followed for 3 months after dosing. RESULTS Twenty-one men and 11 women, aged 16 to 55 (mean age 28) years were included. Albendazole sulfoxide concentrations were increased in the combination group compared with the ABZ alone group, both in patients taking phenytoin and patients taking carbamazepine. PZQ concentrations were also increased by the end of therapy. There were no significant side effects in this study group. CONCLUSIONS Combined ABZ + PZQ is associated with increased albendazole sulfoxide plasma concentrations. These increased concentrations could independently contribute to increased cysticidal efficacy by themselves or in addition to a possible synergistic effect.

Garcia, Hector H; Lescano, Andres G; Lanchote, Vera L; Pretell, E Javier; Gonzales, Isidro; Bustos, Javier A; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Bonato, Pierina S; Horton, John; Saavedra, Herbert; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H



Evaluation of praziquantel effects on Echinostoma paraensei ultrastructure.  


Echinostomiasis is a food-borne, intestinal, zoonotic, snail-mediated helminthiasis caused by digenean trematodes of the family Echinostomatidae with seven species of the genus Echinostoma infecting humans or domestic and wildlife animals. Echinostoma paraensei is a peristomic 37-collar-spined echinostome belonging to the "revolutum group". Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for treatment and control of human schistosomiasis and food-borne trematodiasis. In the present study we used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to further elucidate the trematocidal effect of PZQ on adult E. paraensei and confirmed that this trematode is a suitable model to study anthelmintic drugs. Hamsters infected with E. paraensei were treated with a single dose of 30 mg kg(-1) of PZQ. The worms were recovered 15, 30, 90 and 180 min after drug administration. There was a significant decrease in worm burden in the small intestine in the hamster-E. paraensei model at the intervals of 30, 90 and 180 min after the treatment. The worms displayed damage of the peristomic collar with internalization of the spines and erosion of the tegument of the circumoral head-collar of spines. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated an intense vacuolization of the tegument, appearance of autophagic vacuoles and swelling of the basal infolds of the tegumental syncytium. There was no change in the morphology of cells from the excretory system of adult E. paraensei, however, there was an apparent decrease of stores of glycogen particles in parenchymal cells in PZQ-treated worms. Our results demonstrated that PZQ promotes surface and ultrastructural damage of the tegument of adult E. paraensei supporting the idea that this trematode may constitute a good model to investigate drug effects mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23312867

Gonçalves, Júlia P; Oliveira-Menezes, Aleksandra; Maldonado Junior, Arnaldo; Carvalho, Técia M U; de Souza, Wanderley



Apoptosis-related gene expression in hamster opisthorchiasis post praziquantel treatment.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the apoptosis-related gene expression in hamster opisthorchiasis after praziquantel treatment. Hamsters were infected with Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae then treated with praziquantel. The expression of apoptosis-related genes [i.e., apoptosis gene Bcl-2-associated protein X (BAX), caspase 9, p53, and protein kinase B (PKB)] was detected by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological analyses of liver tissues were studies by staining the sections with hematoxylin and eosin using light microscopy. Apoptotic assay was used to localize the apoptotic cell death. The results show that BAX, Akt/PKB, p53, and caspase 9 expression level were significantly increased on day 30 post infection and at 6 h post treatment and gradually decreased nearly to the uninfected control and 24 h post treatment, perhaps due to a decrease in inflammatory cells. Apoptotic staining was positive reaction at inflammatory cells and nuclei of epithelial bile ducts. Although using praziquantel has an advantage in killing parasites, our results show the effect of praziquantel treatment from host immune response that induces increased apoptosis-related genes in the short term due to an increase in inflammatory cells surrounding the bile ducts. PMID:18058134

Boonmars, T; Srirach, P; Kaewsamut, B; Srisawangwong, T; Pinlaor, S; Pinlaor, P; Yongvanit, P; Sithithaworn, P



Assessments of pharmacokinetic drug interactions and tolerability of albendazole, praziquantel and ivermectin combinations.  


The pharmacokinetic interactions and tolerability of albendazole, praziquantel and ivermectin combinations were assessed in 23 healthy Thai volunteers (12 males and 11 females). The study was an open, randomised, three-way crossover design in which each subject attended the study on three separate occasions (Phases I, II and III), of 4 d or 8 d each, with at least 1 or 2 weeks (but not longer than 2 months) between each phase. All subjects received the three study drug regimens as follows: regimen I, oral praziquantel (40 mg/kg body weight); regimen II, oral ivermectin (200 microg/kg body weight) given concurrently with an oral dose of albendazole (400 mg); and regimen III, oral ivermectin given concurrently with albendazole and praziquantel. All treatment regimens showed acceptable tolerability profiles. The incidence of overall drug-related adverse events was significantly higher following regimens I (12/23) and III (7/23) compared with that following regimen II (0/23). Six statistically significant changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of albendazole sulphoxide (Cmax, AUC0-infinity, Vz/F, CL/F), praziquantel (Vz/F) and ivermectin (AUC0-infinity) were observed when the three drugs were given concurrently. However, based on US Food and Drug Administration criteria, these changes were not considered of clinical relevance. PMID:16271272

Na-Bangchang, K; Kietinun, S; Pawa, K K; Hanpitakpong, W; Na-Bangchang, C; Lazdins, J



Treatment of Hymenolepis Nana with a Single Oral Dose of Praziquantel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hymenolepis nana infection is common in Egyptian children. Until recently the treatment of choice here has been with a seven-day course of niclosamide (NAGATY et al., 1962; EL-MASRY et al., 1974). In 1981, praziquantel became available to use for treating...

Z. Farid N. A. El-Masry C. K. Wallace



Apoptosis-related gene expressions in hamsters re-infected with Opisthorchis viverrini and re-treated with praziquantel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to reveal whether host immune response in hamster opisthorchiasis post-praziquantel treatment could induce\\u000a apoptotic cell death in inflammatory cells. We, therefore, investigated apoptosis-related gene expression in hamsters re-infected\\u000a with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) and re-treated with praziquantel. Hamsters were re-infected with OV metacercariae then re-treated with praziquantel.\\u000a The expression of apoptosis-related genes (i.e. apoptosis gene Bcl-2 associated protein

T. Boonmars; T. Srisawangwong; P. Srirach; B. Kaewsamut; S. Pinlaor; P. Sithithaworn



New Insight into the Antifibrotic Effects of Praziquantel on Mice in Infection with Schistosoma japonicum  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease infecting more than 200 million people in the world. Although chemotherapy targeting on killing schistosomes is one of the main strategies in the disease control, there are few effective ways of dealing with liver fibrosis caused by the parasite infection in the chronic and advanced stages of schistosomiasis. For this reason, new strategies and prospective drugs, which exert antifibrotic effects, are urgently required. Methods and Findings The antifibrotic effects of praziquantel were assessed in the murine models of schistosomiasis japonica. Murine fibrosis models were established by cutaneous infection with 14±2 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. Then, the mice of both chronic (8 weeks post-infection) and advanced (15 weeks post-infection) schistosomiasis were treated by gavage of praziquantel (250 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days) to eliminate worms, and followed by praziquantel anti-fibrosis treatment (300 mg/kg, twice daily for 30 days). The fibrosis-related parameters assessed were areas of collagen deposition, content of hydroxyproline and mRNA expressions of Col1?1, Col3?1, ?-SMA, TGF-?, MMP9, TIMP1, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-? of liver. Spleen weight index, alanine aminotransferase activity and liver portal venous pressure were also measured. The results showed that anti-fibrosis treatment improved liver fibrosis, splenomegaly, hepatic function, as well as liver portal hypertension. In order to confirm the anti-fibrotic properties of praziquantel, we established a CCL4-induced model and revealed that CCL4-induced liver fibrosis was inhibited by PZQ treatment for 30 days. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of praziquantel on mouse primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). It is indicated that mRNA expressions of Col1?1, Col3?1, ?-SMA, TGF-?, MMP9 and TIMP1 of HSCs were all inhibited after praziquantel anti-parasite treatments. Conclusions The significant amelioration of hepatic fibrosis by praziquantel treatment validates it as a promising drug of anti-fibrosis and offers potential of a new chemotherapy for hepatic fibrosis resulting from schistosomiasis.

Liang, Yue-Jin; Luo, Jie; Yuan, Quan; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Ya-Ping; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Ai-Ling; Ren, Yong-Ya; Sun, Ke-Yi; Sun, Yan; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Zhao-Song



Albendazole versus Praziquantel in the Treatment of Neurocysticercosis: A Meta-analysis of Comparative Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Neurocysticercosis, infection of the brain with larvae of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm), is one of several forms of human cysticercosis caused by this organism. We investigated the role of albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis by performing a meta-analysis of comparative trials of their effectiveness and safety. Methods and Principal Findings We performed a search in the PubMed database, Cochrane Database of Controlled Trials, and in references of relevant articles. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis. Albendazole was associated with better control of seizures than praziquantel in the pooled data analysis, when the generic inverse variance method was used to combine the incidence of seizure control in the included trials (patients without seizures/[patients×years at risk]) (156 patients in 4 studies, point effect estimate [incidence rate ratio]?=?4.94, 95% confidence interval 2.45–9.98). In addition, albendazole was associated with better effectiveness than praziquantel in the total disappearance of cysts (335 patients in 6 studies, random effects model, OR?=?2.30, 95% CI 1.06–5.00). There was no difference between albendazole and praziquantel in reduction of cysts, proportion of patients with adverse events, and development of intracranial hypertension due to the administered therapy. Conclusions A critical review of the available data from comparative trials suggests that albendazole is more effective than praziquantel regarding clinically important outcomes in patients with neurocysticercosis. Nevertheless, given the relative scarcity of trials, more comparative interventional studies—especially randomized controlled trials—are required to draw a safe conclusion about the best regimen for the treatment of patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis.

Matthaiou, Dimitrios K.; Panos, Georgios; Adamidi, Eleni S.; Falagas, Matthew E.



Sequential analysis of helminth egg output in human stool samples following albendazole and praziquantel administration.  


Large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs currently is the most widely used intervention for controlling morbidity due to schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. An important issue is drug efficacy monitoring. However, the optimal time points post-treatment for assessing the efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni and albendazole against hookworm infections are not known. Forty-nine schoolchildren infected with S. mansoni and 52 infected with hookworm were treated with a single oral dose of praziquantel (40 mg/kg) and albendazole (400 mg), respectively. Stool samples were collected on 19 occasions over a 44-day post-treatment follow-up period, and two Kato-Katz thick smears per sample were examined at each time point. Both the mean egg counts and observed cure rates varied depending on the time point post-treatment. The highest reduction in the geometric mean egg counts (>97%) and the highest observed cure rate (>97%) of S. mansoni infections were found 15-20 days after praziquantel administration. Among the hookworm-infected children, egg counts decreased rapidly within the first week after albendazole administration (>95%), whereas infection rates showed high and heterogeneous (45.0-71.2%) levels at later time points. Both praziquantel and albendazole were highly efficacious in reducing the overall egg burden of S. mansoni and hookworm, respectively. We suggest that 15-20 days post-treatment is the most appropriate time point for efficacy evaluation of praziquantel against S. mansoni. Although no clear conclusion can be drawn for the optimal timing of efficacy evaluation of albendazole against hookworm, a 2-3-week time frame seems a reasonable compromise. This is justified on logistical grounds (i.e. collection of stool samples only once) and growing emphasis on integrating the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, including drug efficacy monitoring. PMID:19070583

Scherrer, Alexandra U; Sjöberg, Marita K; Allangba, Alphonse; Traoré, Mahamadou; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Tschannen, Andres B; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg



Avaliação sazonal da atividade da fenilalanina amônia-liase e dos teores de fenóis e taninos totais em Byrsonima verbascifolia Rich. ex A. Juss.: uma espécie medicinal do cerrado  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Com o objetivo de investigar a influência de variações sazonais do ambiente físico, no estado hídrico foliar, nas trocas gasosas, na atividade da fenilalanina amônia-liase e nos teores de fenóis e taninos totais em murici, um experimento foi conduzido, a uma freqüência mensal, em área de formação campestre, com fisionomia de Cerrado sensu strictu, localizada no município de Ijaci,

A. M. Soares; R. Padre José Poggel


Evaluation of Oxfendazole, Praziquantel and Albendazole against Cystic Echinococcosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Naturally Infected Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCystic Echinococosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by larval stage Echinococcus granulosus. We determined the effects of high dose of Oxfendazole (OXF), combination Oxfendazole\\/Praziquantel (PZQ), and combination Albendazole (ABZ)\\/Praziquantel against CE in sheep.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on 118 randomly selected ewes. They were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1) placebo; 2) OXF

Cesar M. Gavidia; Armando E. Gonzalez; Eduardo A. Barron; Berenice Ninaquispe; Monica Llamosas; Manuela R. Verastegui; Colin Robinson; Robert H. Gilman



Pharmacokinetic study of praziquantel administered alone and in combination with cimetidine in a single-day therapeutic regimen.  

PubMed Central

A brief therapeutic regimen of praziquantel, reduced to a single day, has been effective for treatment of neurocysticercosis. To study its pharmacokinetic characteristics, levels of praziquantel in plasma were determined for eight healthy volunteers after the administration of three oral doses of 25 mg/kg of body weight given at 2-h intervals, alone and with the simultaneous administration of cimetidine. Each volunteer received both regimens in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were taken during a period of 12 h, and praziquantel concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Levels of praziquantel in plasma remained above 300 ng/ml during a period of 12 h; they increased 100% when cimetidine was jointly administered. Compared with other regimens, the high levels obtained and the longer duration of action seem to be advantageous in prolonging the exposure of the parasites to the drug and support previous clinical experience showing that the treatment of neurocysticercosis with praziquantel can be reduced from 2 weeks to 1 day with the drug still retaining its cysticidal properties. Moreover, simultaneous administration of praziquantel and cimetidine could improve further the efficacy of the single-day therapy for cysticercosis and other parasitic diseases, such as schistosomiasis.

Jung, H; Medina, R; Castro, N; Corona, T; Sotelo, J



Pharmacokinetics of a new ivermectin/praziquantel oil suspension after intramuscular administration in pigs.  


A new oil suspension containing 0.15% ivermectin and 15% praziquantel for intramuscular injection was developed, and corresponding pharmacokinetics studies were conducted in swine. The combination product is a white- to cream-colored oil suspension and its physical properties such as settling volume ratio, redispersibility, syringeability and flowability are well consistent with the Technical Standards by the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China. The pharmacokinetic study consists of two parts. First, the experiments were carried out to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of the combination product and those same products with praziquantel or ivermectin removed merely. The results showed that no significant change in the major pharmacokinetic parameters (t(1/2z), T(max), C(max), AUC(INF), TimeDur) was observed when either of the component was removed from the combination product, indicating that ivermectin and praziquantel do not interfere with each other when being used together. Second, the pharmacokinetics of the combination product were compared with those of their respective single product. The results showed that the C(max) (15.94 ng/mL) of ivermectin in combination product was 9.01 times higher than the single product, while the AUC(INF) (1925.61 ng h/mL) was 6.02 times higher. Meanwhile, the C(max) (1.48 ?g/mL), AUC(INF) (17.08?gh/mL), t(1/2z) (20.25 h), TimeDur3 (42.01 h) and TimeDur4 (16.60 h) of praziquantel in combination product were improved with a factor of 5.48, 13.66, 8.58, 10.10 and 7.31 times when compared with the single product, respectively. Therefore, the efficacy of the combination product was significantly prolonged, especially for praziquantel, so that comprehensive efficacy of controlling parasites sensitive to ivermectin and praziquantel can be achieved with one-single use of it. PMID:22075041

Tang, Shusheng; Chen, Linlin; Guo, Zhaoxu; Hu, Xiuzhi; He, Jiakang; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Tingting; Xiao, Xilong



[Effect of praziquantel and albendazole on ultrastructure of protoscolex of Echinococcus granulosus].  


When protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus, maintained in 20% calf serum-RPMI 1640 were exposed to praziquantel 1 microgram/ml for 1-48 h, severe damages to the ultrastructure of protoscoleces were observed. The main lesions of the tegument included indistinct of the matrix, vacuolization and peeling, while vacuolization of perinuclear cytoplasma in tegumental cells, focus lysis in muscle bundles, and destruction in collection ducts and flame cells were also seen. The results suggest that the damages to the tegument, collection ducts and flame cells may interfere with the nutrition and defence functions of protoscoleces, and destroy the osmoregulatory system, which may be the major causes of death in protoscoleces during treatment with praziquantel. When protoscoleces were exposed to albendazole 20 micrograms/ml for 24-72 h, no apparent damage to the tegument was detected, except that some network-like structures appeared in the cytoplasma of tegument and parenchyma cells. PMID:2610002

Xiao, S H; Shen, B G; Yang, Y Q; You, J Q; Xu, D H; Chai, J J; Zhang, W L



Safety of the combined use of praziquantel and albendazole in the treatment of human hydatid disease.  


There is still no well-established consensus about the clinical management of hydatidosis. Currently, surgery continues to be the first therapeutic option, although treatment with anti-parasitic drugs is indicated as an adjuvant to surgery to decrease the number of relapses and hydatid cyst size. When surgery is not possible, medical treatment is indicated. Traditionally, albendazole was used in monotherapy as the standard treatment. However, combined therapy with albendazole plus praziquantel appears to improve anti-parasitic effectiveness. To date, no safety studies focusing on such combined therapy have been published for the treatment of hydatidosis. In this work, we analyze the adverse effects seen in 57 patients diagnosed with hydatidosis who were treated with praziquantel plus albendazole combined therapy between 2006 and 2010. PMID:24615131

Alvela-Suárez, Lucía; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Belhassen-Garcia, Moncef; Novo-Veleiro, Ignacio; Pardo-Lledías, Javier; Romero-Alegría, Angela; Pérez del Villar, Luis; Valverde-Merino, María Paz; Cordero-Sánchez, Miguel



Repeated exposure to Opisthorchis viverrini and treatment with the antihelminthic Praziquantel lacks carcinogenic potential.  


The effects of repeated Praziquantel administration, subsequent to infection and reinfection with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV), on lesion development in the Syrian hamster liver were investigated. Five applications of the antihelminthic drug were made (300 mg/kg body wt, i.g.), each time approximately 5 weeks after dosing with 60-80 OV metacercariae at weeks 0, 8, 16, 24 and 32. The animals were then maintained until week 40 when they were killed; histopathological investigation revealed no significant development of either hepatocellular of cholangiocellular preneoplastic/neoplastic lesions. The results indicate that repeated exposure to Praziquantel at levels sufficient for successful removal of parasite infestation does not itself carry carcinogenic risk. PMID:1740024

Thamavit, W; Moore, M A; Ruchirawat, S; Ito, N



Taste, A New Incentive to Switch to (R)Praziquantel in Schistosomiasis Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPraziquantel (PZQ) is the drug compound of choice in the control and treatment of schistosomiasis. PZQ is administered as a racemate, i. e. 1?1 mixture of enantiomers. The schistosomicidal activity arises from one PZQ-enantiomer, whereas the other enantiomer does not contribute to the activity. The WHO's Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) has assigned the low-cost

Thorsten Meyer; Harald Sekljic; Stefan Fuchs; Heiko Bothe; Dieter Schollmeyer; Christian Miculka



Schistosoma japonicum Reinfection after Praziquantel Treatment Causes Anemia Associated with Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a relationship between schistosomiasis and anemia, although the magnitude and exact mechanisms involved are unclear. In a cohort of 580 Schistosoma japonicum-infected 7- to 30-year-old patients from Leyte, The Philippines, we evaluated the impact of reinfection with S. japonicum after treatment with praziquantel on the mean hemoglobin level, iron-deficiency (IDA) and non-iron-deficiency anemia (NIDA), and inflammatory markers. All

Tjalling Leenstra; Hannah M. Coutinho; Luz P. Acosta; Gretchen C. Langdon; Li Su; Remigio M. Olveda; Stephen T. McGarvey; Jonathan D. Kurtis; Jennifer F. Friedman



Effect of Cyclodextrin Complexation on the Aqueous Solubility and Solubility\\/Dose Ratio of Praziquantel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel (PZQ), the primary drug of choice in the treatment of schistosomiasis, is a highly lipophilic drug that possesses\\u000a high permeability and low aqueous solubility and is, therefore, classified as a Class II drug according to the Biopharmaceutics\\u000a Classification System (BCS). In this work, ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) were used in order\\u000a to determine whether increasing the aqueous solubility

Stratos Maragos; Helen Archontaki; Panos Macheras; Georgia Valsami



Use of praziquantel for treatment of Diphyllobothrium sp infection in a dog.  


Eggs of a tapeworm, Diphyllobothrium sp (probably D dendriticum), were detected in feces of a healthy, 5-month-old, Siberian Husky. The dog acquired its infection in northern Canada while consuming a diet that included raw salmonid fish. Such fish serve as intermediate hosts for Diphyllobothrium spp. The infection was successfully eliminated by oral administration of a single dose of praziquantel (7.5 mg/kg of body weight. PMID:3558095

Kirkpatrick, C E; Knochenhauer, A W; Jacobson, S I



Field trial of praziquantel for control of fishborne zoonotic trematodes in reservoir hosts in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This field trial was conducted to determine whether 40 or 75mg\\/kg of praziquantel is suitable for treatment of fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) in naturally infected dogs (n=10) and cats (n=11). Three days after treatment all animals at either dose were negative for small trematode eggs. In two cats and one dog treated with 75mg\\/kg, however, a few damaged eggs were

Nguyen Thi Lan Anh; Henry Madsen; Dao Thi Ha Thanh; Anders Dalsgaard; K. Darwin Murrell



A short review of some pharmacological, therapeutic and toxicological properties of praziquantel in man and animals.  


Praziquantel is the current drug of choice against many trematodes and cestodes in both man and animals. This article summarizes the main pharmacological, therapeutic and toxicological properties of the drug, especially that have been reported during the last 10 years. In most cases, the effectiveness and safety of the drug have been confirmed, although there are currently concerns about the resistance/decreased effectiveness of the drug to certain Schistosome isolates, and also about the mutagenicity of the drug. PMID:16751131

Ali, Badreldin H



Praziquantel and albendazole damaging action on in vitro developing Mesocestoides corti (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda).  


Parasitic flatworms present several steps of body architecture rearrangement during their fast transition from one developmental stage to another, which are, at least in part, responsible for their evasion from host immune response. Besides, different developmental stages present different degrees of susceptibility to drug action, and the identification of more susceptible stages is of importance for the definition of therapeutical approaches. Mesocestoides corti (syn. Mesocestoides vogae) is considered a good model to study cestode biology because it can be easily manipulated both in vivo and in vitro and due to its relatively close relationship to cestodes of medical relevance, such as those from genera Echinococcus or Taenia. We have analyzed the damaging action of two broad spectrum anthelmintic drugs (praziquantel and albendazole) throughout the in vitro strobilization process of M. corti in order to identify developmental stages or body structures more susceptible to these drugs. Tetrathyridia (larval stage) and segmented-induced worms were cultivated and treated with praziquantel and albendazole. Whole mounted samples, taken from different developmental stages, were fixed and stained with fluorophore-labeled WGA lectin and phalloidin for the analysis of tegument and muscles, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to identify anatomical changes and lesions caused by each anthelmintic drug in a 3D view. We demonstrated that both praziquantel and albendazole cause extensive tissue damage, especially on tegument, and that adult forms were the most susceptible to drug exposure. PMID:16325461

Markoski, Melissa M; Trindade, Edvaldo S; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Laschuk, Alice; Galanti, Norbel; Zaha, Arnaldo; Nader, Helena B; Ferreira, Henrique B



Efficacy and safety of oral praziquantel against Dicrocoelium dendriticum in llamas.  


Dicrocoelium dendriticum can cause severe pathological changes of the liver and bile system in camelids, and therapeutic options for treatment are limited. To address this problem, the efficacy of two different dose rates of praziquantel was investigated in llamas suffering from natural D. dendriticum infections. 53 llamas were examined under field conditions on two occasions: before and two weeks after treatment. At the beginning of the study, the animals were weighed, randomly allocated to one of the treatment groups (n=21 each) or the control group (n=11) and dosed orally using a praziquantel-containing paste (250 mg/ml) at a dose of either 25 mg (group 1) or 50 mg (group 2) per kg of body weight. Criteria for efficacy were faecal egg count reduction (FECR) and extensity effect. Animals treated with 25 mg/kg of body weight showed a FECR of 85%. Therapy with 50 mg/kg led to a FECR of 91%. Almost twice the number of animals of group 1 (33%) still shed eggs two weeks after treatment compared with group 2. The results of this study indicate that 50 mg/kg oral praziquantel is required for efficacious dosing and that this dose rate is safe in llamas and thus is recommended for the treatment of camelids naturally infected with D. dendriticum. PMID:23845305

Dadak, Agnes M; Wieser, Claudia; Joachim, Anja; Franz, Sonja



Novel praziquantel treatment regime for controlling asian tapeworm infections in pond-reared fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus achelognathii is an intestinal fish parasite that is nonnative to but widespread throughout the southwestern United States. Praziquantel is an anthelminthic drug commonly used to treat fish for Asian tapeworm; however, it does not kill tapeworm eggs, so the water in ponds used for fish rearing must be exchanged after treatment. Our objective was to determine whether a system containing both an intermediate copepod host and a definitive fish host for Asian tapeworm could be treated without exchanging the water by using a follow-up treatment for any tapeworms that developed from eggs released before or during the first treatment. Here, we have described a new praziquantel treatment regimen to control Asian tapeworm infections in freshwater-reared fish. To evaluate the efficacy of this regimen, we stocked 50 red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis and an intermediate copepod host, Cyclops vernalis, into each of six pond mesocosms containing artificial macrophytes, sand, and gravel to simulate natural pools and provide suitable substrate for the copepod's life history. The test fish population had been naturally infected with B. achelognathii and had an initial infection prevalence of 14% and an infection intensity of 2.14 ± 2.19 (mean ± SD) worms per fish. Three mesocosms were treated twice, each with 2.5 mg/L praziquantel; 19 d passed between treatments to allow for possible reinfection to occur. After a 2.5-month posttreatment period to allow any remaining tapeworms to reestablish themselves, we killed and dissected all of the remaining fish. No worms were found in treated fish; however, the control group had an infection prevalence of 18 ± 6% and an infection intensity of 3.45 ± 2.1 worms per fish. Based on these results, we concluded that the praziquantel treatment regime administered was efficacious and suggest testing it on a larger scale. We caution that praziquantel has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use on fish but can be used legally in some situations.

Iles, Alison C.; Archdeacon, Thomas P.; Bonar, Scott A.



A comparative trial of albendazole alone versus combination of albendazole and praziquantel for treatment of Trichuris trichiura infection.  


A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the effectiveness of albendazole alone and albendazole combined with praziquantel in the treatment of Trichuris trichiura infection. The drug regimens consisted of single dose of albendazole 400 mg (A1, n=34), 3 days of albendazole 400 mg daily (A3, n=34), 5 days of albendazole 400 mg daily (A5, n=35), single dose of albendazole 400 mg plus praziquantel 40 mg/kg (AIP1, n=34), and 3 days of albendazole 400 mg plus praziquantel 40 mg/kg daily (A3P3, n=36). It was found that treatment with 3 or more consecutive days of albendazole with or without praziquantel resulted in a significant reduction in density of Trichuris eggs in stools while a single dose of such drug did not. Praziquantel was not shown to have synergistic or antagonistic effects with albendazole. A regimen of 400 mg of albendazole daily for 3 days was found to be the most suitable therapy for Trichuris infection. PMID:11556579

Sirivichayakul, C; Pojjaroen-anant, C; Wisetsing, P; Chanthavanich, P; Praevanit, R; Limkittikul, K; Pengsaa, K



Mast-cell-dependent histamine release after praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma japonicum infection: implications for chemotherapy-related adverse effects.  


As previously shown, the development of adverse effects in praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma japonicum infection involves host anaphylactic reactions associated with a rapid elevation of the level of plasma histamine. This study, using genetically mast-cell-deficient mice, aimed at identifying the major source of plasma histamine released after praziquantel treatment. Mast-cell-deficient mice and congenic normal mice were treated with praziquantel 8 weeks after infection with S. japonicum. In normal congenic mice, the plasma histamine level at 60 min after chemotherapy was substantially higher (mean+/-SD: 123.34+/-23.13 ng/ml) than that in mast-cell-deficient mice (7.02+/-3.48 ng/ml). These results show that mast cells play a predominant role in the rapid increase of the plasma histamine level. Despite their lack of increase in plasma histamine, mast-cell-deficient mice exhibited post-praziquantel systemic signs but not histopathologic alterations due to allergic reactions, suggesting that unidentified mechanism(s) also contribute to the development of adverse post-praziquantel effects. PMID:12209328

Matsumoto, Jun; Matsuda, Hajime



The toxicity of praziquantel against Mesocestoides vogae (syn. corti) tetrathyridia can be assessed using a novel in vitro system.  


We recently standardised Mesocestoides vogae (syn. corti) tetrathyridia cultures in the presence of sodium taurocholate. Parasite clustering and segmentation were observed as taurocholate-dependent effects in biphasic and monophasic media, respectively, and both were inhibited by a specific minimum inhibitory concentration (m.i.c.) of the cestocidal drugs albendazol and praziquantel. In the present study, we analysed the relationship between clustering inhibition and drug toxicity using praziquantel and a mouse experimental infection. In an "in vitro-in vivo" trial, a significant (ANOVA, P<0.05) reduction was observed in the infectivity of tetrathyridia previously cultured with praziquantel m.i.c. (0.06 micro g/ml) for 10 days. In an "in vivo-in vitro" trial, the clustering of tetrathyridia recovered from mice treated with praziquantel was found to be markedly reduced: 22%, compared with 83% cluster-containing wells of parasites from control mice. These results show that the outcome of infection and the suppression of taurocholate-induced clustering provide consistent indications of praziquantel toxicity against M. vogae, an observation confirmed by histological studies. The easily recorded clustering inhibition of M. vogae tetrathyridia in biphasic medium is a potentially useful system for the assessment of drug toxicity against cestode larvae. PMID:12658458

Saldaña, Jenny; Casaravilla, Cecilia; Marín, Mónica; Fernández, Cecilia; Domínguez, Laura



Comparative efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender ®, Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal ® for Cats) against experimental Ancylostoma ceylanicum infections in cats.  


Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common zoonotic hookworm of dogs and cats throughout Asia and has also been reported to occur within the Australasian region. The aim of this study to was to determine the efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) against experimental A. ceylanicum infections in cats. Twenty-four kittens were each subcutaneously injected with 100 infective third-stage larvae of A. ceylanicum. Kittens were stratified by egg count and randomly allocated equally into control and two treatment groups. The first group were treated with emodepside 2.1%/praziquantel 8.6% (Profender®, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The second group was treated with 80 mg pyrantel and 20mg praziquantel (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The kittens in the control group were not treated. Egg counts were performed daily until the end of the study period and compared for the treated and control groups. No eggs were detected in the treated group of kittens within 4 days of treatment and faecal samples from this group remained negative throughout the rest of the study, resulting in a treatment efficacy (egg reduction) of 100% (P<0.0001). The egg counts remained high (993 ± 666 epg) in the untreated control group for the rest of the study period. This study demonstrated that both combination products containing topical emodepside/praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel/pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) given at the recommended dose is highly effective against infection with A. ceylanicum in cats. PMID:23026558

Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Watanapongchati, Supoj; Traub, Rebecca J; Schaper, Roland



Lack of modulation effects of praziquantel on DMN-induced lesion development in the Syrian hamster liver.  


The effects of repeated praziquantel administration subsequent to dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) treatment of Syrian hamsters were investigated. The antihelminthic drug was given (200 mg/kg body wt. as a suspension in corn oil, by i.g. intubation) 11 times at 2 week intervals starting at week 4 after initial 20 mg/kg DMN i.p. injections at weeks 0 and 2. Sacrifice at week 28 revealed no differences in either hepatocellular or cholangiocellular lesion development between carcinogen-initiated groups with or without antihelminthic treatment. No lesions were observed in the praziquantel alone or untreated groups. The results thus indicate no promotion potential for praziquantel on nitrosamine-induced lesions in the hamster liver. PMID:1310892

Thamavit, W; Moore, M A; Ruchirawat, S; Ito, N



Treatment of third-stage larvae of Toxocara cati with milbemycin oxime plus praziquantel tablets and emodepside plus praziquantel spot-on formulation in experimentally infected cats.  


Toxocara cati is the most prevalent gastrointestinal helminth in cats worldwide, with cats of all ages at risk of infection. An anthelminthic treatment that not only affects the gut-dwelling stages of this parasite but is also effective against developmental stages in the tissue has the advantage that the pathology caused by migrating larvae is minimized and the need for repeated treatments is reduced. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel tablets (Milbemax®, Novartis) against third-stage larvae of T. cati in comparison to a spot-on formulation of emodepside and praziquantel (Profender®, Bayer). Twenty-four kittens were experimentally infected with T. cati and randomly allocated to three study groups. Treatments were performed at the minimum therapeutic dosage 5 days after the experimental infection. The development of patent infections was monitored and all cats were dewormed 50 days post-infection. Efficacies were calculated based on counts of excreted worms in the treated groups compared to a negative control group. Seven of the eight cats in the negative control group developed a patent T. cati infection and all cats were excreting worms at the end of the study (geometric mean worm count 18.1). No efficacy could be observed for the milbemycin oxime-treated animals. All cats developed a patent infection and excreted worms (geometric mean worm count 27.7). The treatment with Profender® was 98.5 % effective against L3 of T. cati. One cat developed a patent infection and was excreting worms at the end of the study (geometric mean worm count 0.3). No adverse reactions were noted in either treatment group. PMID:22864864

Wolken, Sonja; Böhm, Claudia; Schaper, Roland; Schnieder, Thomas



Field efficacy of praziquantel oral paste against naturally acquired equine cestodes in Ethiopia.  


The efficacy of an oral formulation of praziquantel (Equitape, Horse paste, Fort Dodge) in the reduction of cestode egg counts and serum antibody level against Anoplocephala perfoliata was assessed in 44 donkeys under field conditions. The donkeys were confirmed both by faecal examination and serum antibody assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to have natural infection with tapeworms. The donkeys were randomly allocated into treatment (n?=?22) and control (n?=?22) groups. The treatment group was treated with both praziquantel and ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial) at a dose rate of 1 mg/kg and 200 ?g/kg, respectively while the control group was treated only with ivermectin. Faecal samples were collected before treatment (day-0) and 2, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks post-treatment while blood samples were collected before treatment and 8 and 16 weeks after treatment and analysed. The results of the study demonstrated that praziquantel paste was highly effective in reducing cestode eggs in donkeys and had an efficacy of more than 99 % until week 16 (day?112). No cestode egg reappearance by 16 weeks post-treatment in any animal in the treatment group was observed while donkeys in the control group continued shedding cestode eggs. The immunological assay also showed a significant reduction in serum antibody level against A. perfoliata in treated donkeys compared to the control group (p?=?0.0001). This marked decrease in serum antibody level indicates reduced risk of cestode-associated colic and other gastrointestinal disorders and clinical diseases. No adverse reactions or clinical effects were encountered in any animal within either group throughout the trial period. PMID:23001508

Getachew, A M; Innocent, G; Proudman, C J; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J; Faith, B; Love, S



Triple Co-Administration of Ivermectin, Albendazole and Praziquantel in Zanzibar: A Safety Study  

PubMed Central

Background Public health interventions based on distribution of anthelminthic drugs against lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis have been implemented separately to date. A better use of available resources might be facilitated by a more coordinated approach to control such infections, including the possibility of co-administering the three recommended anthelminthic drugs through a single, large-scale intervention. Methodology/Principal Findings Ivermectin, albendazole and praziquantel were co-administered to 5,055 children and adults living in areas endemic for LF, STH and schistosomiasis in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, during a pilot intervention aimed at elucidating and quantifying possible side-effects. Subsequently, these drugs were co-administered to about 700,000 individuals during a countrywide intervention targeting a large part of the total population of Zanzibar. Passive and active surveillance measures carried out during both interventions showed that side-effects attributable to the three drugs given at the same time were mild and self-limiting events. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that co-administration of ivermectin, albendazole and praziquantel is safe in areas where lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis are co-endemic and where several rounds of treatment with one or two drugs have been implemented in the past. Passive surveillance measures, however, should be continued and detection, management and reporting of possible side-effects should be considered a key component of any health intervention administering drugs.

Mohammed, Khalfan A.; Haji, Hamad J.; Gabrielli, Albis-Francesco; Mubila, Likezo; Biswas, Gautam; Chitsulo, Lester; Bradley, Mark H.; Engels, Dirk; Savioli, Lorenzo; Molyneux, David H.



Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy  

PubMed Central

Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group) before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group). Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI) or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA), increased synthesis of IFN-? and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-? and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis.

Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Fernandes Costa-Silva, Matheus; Cardoso de Oliveira Silveira, Amanda; Azevedo Batista, Mauricio; Alves Oliveira-Fraga, Lucia; Soares Silveira, Alda Maria; Barbosa Alvarez, Maria Carolina; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Gazzinelli, Giovanni; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea



Comparative clinical studies of nitazoxanide, albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis in children from Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three randomized clinical studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate the efficacy of nitazoxanide paediatric suspension compared to albendazole in the treatment of ascariasis and trichuriasis and praziquantel in the treatment of hymenolepiasis in children from Cajamarca, Peru. Nitazoxanide was administered at a dose of 100 mg (age 1–3 years) or 200 mg (age 4–11 years) twice daily for 3

Juan Jave Ortiz; Nicholas Lopez Chegne; Gilles Gargala; Loic Favennec



Apoptosis-related gene expressions in hamsters re-infected with Opisthorchis viverrini and re-treated with praziquantel.  


Our objective was to reveal whether host immune response in hamster opisthorchiasis post-praziquantel treatment could induce apoptotic cell death in inflammatory cells. We, therefore, investigated apoptosis-related gene expression in hamsters re-infected with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) and re-treated with praziquantel. Hamsters were re-infected with OV metacercariae then re-treated with praziquantel. The expression of apoptosis-related genes (i.e. apoptosis gene Bcl-2 associated protein X [BAX], caspase 9, p53 and protein kinase B [PKB]) was detected by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological analyses of liver tissues were performed by staining the sections with haematoxylin and eosin using light microscopy. The results show that BAX, Akt/PKB, p53 and caspase 9 expression levels were significantly increased on day 30 post-infection and at 6 h post-treatment and gradually decreased to a level near the uninfected control and at 24 h post-treatment, perhaps because of a decrease in inflammatory cells. Apoptotic cell death was observed at the nuclei of epithelial cells of the bile ducts and of T cells. Our results suggest that repeated infection with OV and re-treatment with praziquantel induces a host immune response that increases inflammatory cells, which in turn leads to increase, apoptosis-related gene expression in the short term post-treatment. PMID:17851691

Boonmars, T; Srisawangwong, T; Srirach, P; Kaewsamut, B; Pinlaor, S; Sithithaworn, P



[Efficacity of praziquantel in school-aged children in a hyperendemic zone for Schistoma haematobium (Niger, 1999)].  


Urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in the Niger river valley. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and side effects of a single oral dose of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in the treatment of schistosomiasis. The investigation took place between April 5, 1999 and May 25, 1999. A total of 318 primary school children, aged from 6 to 16 years, of a Schistosoma haematobium endemic area were included in the survey. They underwent a macroscopic and parasitological examinations of the urine before treatment and two and six weeks after treatment. Treatment with praziquantel was given at 40 mg/kg of body weight in a single dose. Side effects due to praziquantel were assessed within the first 4 hours, and 24 hours after. Side effects were frequent (53.7%), especially occurring in the first four hours. Their expression was not associated with the sex of the child nor the intensity of the infestation. We noted that elder children expressed more complaints. The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pains, headaches and pruritus. All these signs were without gravity and resolved within the first twenty-four hours. Before treatment, the prevalence of infestation was 98%. Six weeks after treatment, 32% of children remained positive despite a marked reduction of egg excretion. In this survey, the side effects of the treatment were very frequent but without gravity. Using praziquantel, 68% of the subjects were cured completely. Urinary schistosomiasis control programs can continue to use it for mass treatment without risk. PMID:11346982

Garba, A; Tohon, Z; Sidiki, A; Chippaux, J P; de Chabalier, F



Efficacy of two praziquantel treatments among primary school children in an area of high Schistosoma mansoni endemicity, Nile Delta, Egypt.  


Praziquantel is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control. A number of reports from endemic areas suggest that resistance or tolerance to praziquantel might exist in Schistosoma mansoni. Several explanations were postulated. The present work was designed to test the hypothesis that a low praziquantel (pzq) cure rate in Egypt is due to survival and maturation of immature stages that escaped pzq, which is effective against mature S. mansoni worms only. The study sample included 1351 children attending El Rouse primary school located in El Rouse village, Nile Delta, Egypt. All children received 2 pzq doses (40 mg/kg) 4 weeks apart. Diagnosis of S. mansoni infection and cure assessment were based on examination of 2 Kato slides prepared from a single stool sample collected before and 4 weeks after the first and second treatments. The cure rate was 78·8% after the first treatment and increased significantly to 90·8% after the second treatment. Egg reduction rates were 71·2% and 77·2% after 1 and 2 treatments respectively. Pre-treatment intensity of infection has a great influence on cure and egg reduction rates. Our results confirmed that low praziquantel cure rate, in Egypt, might be attributed, even partially, to survival and maturation of the immature S. mansoni stages that escaped pzq that is effective against mature worms only. PMID:21078223

Barakat, Rashida; El Morshedy, Hala



A Novel Biological Activity of Praziquantel Requiring Voltage-Operated Ca2+ Channel ? Subunits: Subversion of Flatworm Regenerative Polarity  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 200 million people worldwide harbour parasitic flatworm infections that cause schistosomiasis. A single drug—praziquantel (PZQ)—has served as the mainstay pharmacotherapy for schistosome infections since the 1980s. However, the relevant in vivo target(s) of praziquantel remain undefined. Methods and Findings Here, we provide fresh perspective on the molecular basis of praziquantel efficacy in vivo consequent to the discovery of a remarkable action of PZQ on regeneration in a species of free-living flatworm (Dugesia japonica). Specifically, PZQ caused a robust (100% penetrance) and complete duplication of the entire anterior-posterior axis during flatworm regeneration to yield two-headed organisms with duplicated, integrated central nervous and organ systems. Exploiting this phenotype as a readout for proteins impacting praziquantel efficacy, we demonstrate that PZQ-evoked bipolarity was selectively ablated by in vivo RNAi of voltage-operated calcium channel (VOCC) ? subunits, but not by knockdown of a VOCC ? subunit. At higher doses of PZQ, knockdown of VOCC ? subunits also conferred resistance to PZQ in lethality assays. Conclusions This study identifies a new biological activity of the antischistosomal drug praziquantel on regenerative polarity in a species of free-living flatworm. Ablation of the bipolar regenerative phenotype evoked by PZQ via in vivo RNAi of VOCC ? subunits provides the first genetic evidence implicating a molecular target crucial for in vivo PZQ activity and supports the ‘VOCC hypothesis’ of PZQ efficacy. Further, in terms of regenerative biology and Ca2+ signaling, these data highlight a novel role for voltage-operated Ca2+ entry in regulating in vivo stem cell differentiation and regenerative patterning.

Nogi, Taisaku; Zhang, Dan; Chan, John D.; Marchant, Jonathan S.



Efficacy of Milbemax (milbemycin oxime + praziquantel) in the treatment of dogs experimentally infected with Crenosoma vulpis.  


Crenosoma vulpis, the fox lungworm, infects wild and domestic canids and is a cause of chronic respiratory disease in dogs in North America and Europe. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of milbemycin oxime (0.5mg/kg)/praziquantel (5mg/kg) (Milbemax; Novartis Animal Health, Inc.) against C. vulpis infection in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study using experimentally infected dogs. Sixteen beagles (8 males, 8 females) were each given 100 infective third-stage larvae of C. vulpis. Fecal samples were examined for first-stage larvae by quantitative Baermann examination pre-exposure and at days 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 post-infection (PI). All of the dogs were shedding larvae in the feces at 21 days PI. The dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups. At 28 days PI, Group 1 (4 males, 4 females) received placebo only while Group 2 (4 males, 4 females) received a single treatment of milbemycin oxime (0.5mg/kg) and praziquantel (5mg/kg). The 16 dogs were euthanized and necropsied at 49 days PI. Lungs were removed, assessed for gross lesions (graded on a subjective scale 0-3 with 0 being normal) and C. vulpis were collected by lung-flush and counted. Samples of lung tissue were preserved for evaluation of histopathology and the lesions graded on a subjective scale (0-3 with 0 being normal). Gross and histopathology lesions were detected in all 8 untreated Group 1 dogs with mean subjective lesion scores of 1.8 ± 0.7 (range 1-3) and 3.0 ± 0.0 (range 3), respectively. Gross lesions were observed in 3/8 and histopathology lesions in all 8 of the treated Group 2 dogs with mean subjective lesion scores of 0.4 ± 0.5 (range 0-1) and 1.3 ± 0.4 (range 1-2), respectively. The mean (geometric) number for adult C. vulpis recovered in untreated dogs was 48.3 (range 25-70) compared with 0.65 (range 0-2) in animals treated with Milbemax. The resulting efficacy against C. vulpis was 98.7%. The number of C. vulpis was significantly lower for treated dogs than the burden in the untreated group (p=0.0002). A single dose of Milbemax (milbemycin oxime 0.5mg/kg+praziquantel 5mg/kg) was highly effective for the treatment of patent C. vulpis infection in dogs. A dosing interval for the prevention of clinical disease in dogs exposed to natural infections has not been established. PMID:24144516

Conboy, G; Bourque, A; Miller, L; Seewald, W; Schenker, R



Randomized comparative trials of single doses of the newer antischistosomal drugs at Mwanza, Tanzania. I. Praziquantel and oxamniquine for the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni.  


Randomized single-blind comparative trials of the newer antischistosomal drugs praziquantel and oxamniquine were undertaken at Mwanza, Tanzania, an area coendemic for schistosomiasis mansoni and haematobium. The objective was to compare praziquantel, having broad-spectrum activity, with oxamniquine when administered in single doses for levels of tolerance, symptomatic relief, and reduction in schistosome egg output in schistosomiasis mansoni. Whereas the single oral doses of 40 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg for praziquantel and oxamniquine respectively were nearly equally well tolerated, praziquantel showed significantly better efficiency to commend it as a drug of choice for chemotherapy for control programmes, besides its acknowledged place in the clinical management of individual patients. PMID:6398833

Rugemalila, J B; Asila, J; Chimbe, A



A diagnostic challenge for schistosomiasis japonica in China: consequences on praziquantel-based morbidity control  

PubMed Central

Worldwide schistosomiasis continues to be a serious public health problem. Over the past five decades, China has made remarkable progress in reducing Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans to a relatively low level. Endemic regions are currently circumscribed in certain core areas where re-infection and repeated chemotherapy are frequent. At present, selective chemotherapy with praziquantel is one of the main strategies in China's National Schistosomiasis Control Program, and thus diagnosis of infected individuals is a key step for such control. In this paper we review the current status of our knowledge about diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis japonica. A simple, affordable, sensitive, and specific assay for field diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica is not yet available, and this poses great barriers towards full control of schistosomiasis. Hence, a search for a diagnostic approach, which delivers these characteristics, is essential and should be given high priority.



Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against naturally acquired nematode and cestode infections in dogs.  


A controlled, blinded and randomised multicentre field study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new anthelmintic tablet formulation containing emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) in the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode and cestode infections in dogs in France, Germany, Portugal and Slovakia. Dogs positive for nematodes and/or cestodes (demonstrated by faecal egg counts and/or the presence of proglottids) were treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (n = 239) or the reference product containing milbemycin oxime and praziquantel (Milbemax [n = 115]) at the recommended dose rate. Two faecal samples collected between 7 and 13 days after treatment were evaluated for proglottids, nematode and cestode eggs. No suspected adverse drug reactions were observed in the study. The following parasite species were identified: Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Mesocestoides spp. Geometric mean nematode egg counts in dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets were reduced by 99.9 % compared with a reduction of 99.6 % for the reference product. Statistical analysis demonstrated noninferiority of investigational versus reference product (p = 0.0342). None of the dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel or reference product remained positive for cestodes after treatment. The study demonstrated that emodepside plus praziquantel tablets are safe and highly efficacious against a broad spectrum of nematodes and cestodes under field conditions. PMID:19575222

Altreuther, Gertraut; Radeloff, Isabelle; LeSueur, Christophe; Schimmel, Annette; Krieger, Klemens J



Field efficacy of ivermectin plus praziquantel oral paste against naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes of horses in North America and Europe.  


The efficacy of an oral formulation of ivermectin plus praziquantel in the reduction of nematode and cestode egg counts in horses was assessed in 273 horses under field conditions at 15 sites in North America (n = 6) and Europe (n = 9). Horses were confirmed by fecal examination to have natural infections of strongyles (100%) and tapeworms (76%). Replicates of four horses were formed at each site, and in each replicate three animals received ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg body weight) plus praziquantel (1 mg/kg body weight) oral paste and one animal remained untreated or received vehicle paste. Fecal samples were collected for fecal nematode and cestode egg counting before and 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, and 16 days after treatment. Horses treated with ivermectin plus praziquantel oral paste had significantly (P <.01) lower posttreatment strongylid and cestode egg counts (reductions of 98% or more) than controls. Combined site analyses revealed that 95% or 96% of the horses positive for cestode eggs before treatment that were treated with ivermectin plus praziquantel were negative for cestode eggs at each posttreatment fecal examination. No adverse reactions attributable to ivermectin plus praziquantel oral paste treatments were observed. The results of the studies demonstrated that ivermectin plus praziquantel paste was highly effective in reducing egg shedding by gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes, and no adverse reactions were observed in horses treated under field conditions. PMID:15136982

Rehbein, Steffen; Holste, John E; Doucet, Michèle Y; Fenger, Clara; Paul, Allan J; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Smith, Larry L; Yoon, Stephen; Marley, Sara E



Effect of Chemotherapy with Praziquantel on the Production of Cytokines and Morbidity Associated with Schistosomiasis Mansoni?  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni with praziquantel can alter significantly the immune response of patients and generate a reversal of the level of fibrosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected from, and abdominal ultrasound examinations conducted on, volunteers infected with Schistosoma mansoni and living in an area where the disease is endemic, both prior to and one year after treatment with praziquantel. Subjects were classified into groups according to the level of pathology (i.e., absent, incipient, moderate, or severe fibrosis). PBMCs were stimulated with schistosome soluble egg antigens (SEA), and the levels of production of the cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor alpha, transforming growth factor ?, and interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, and IL-13 were determined. The chemotherapy was effective in reducing morbidity, particularly for individuals presenting with severe fibrosis. When levels of cytokine production in posttreatment PBMC cultures stimulated by SEA were categorized as low or high, significant differences in the distribution of IL-13 levels between groups presenting with or not presenting with fibrosis were established. Comparison of pre- and posttreatment SEA-induced cytokine levels in individuals who had experienced no change in the grade of fibrosis following chemotherapy revealed that the level of IFN-? decreased in subjects with fibrosis whereas that of IL-10 decreased in individuals with and without fibrosis. The data suggest that chemotherapy is effective in reducing the morbidity of the disease and that the level of IL-13 may be a useful indicator of the persistence of fibrosis following treatment.

Martins-Leite, P.; Gazzinelli, G.; Alves-Oliveira, L. F.; Gazzinelli, A.; Malaquias, L. C. C.; Correa-Oliveira, R.; Teixeira-Carvalho, A.; Silveira, A. M. S.



Antibody response in mice infected with Mesocestoides vogae (syn. Mesocestoides corti ) tetrathyridia after treatment with praziquantel and liposomised glucan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic effect of praziquantel (PZQ) involves synergy with the humoral immune response during helminth infections,\\u000a which is modulated by parasitic antigens. During experimental murine infections with the larval stage of cestoda Mesocestoides vogae (syn. M. corti), dynamic changes in the IgG and IgM antibody serum levels to both soluble somatic and secretory larval antigens were investigated\\u000a after administration of

Gabriela Hr?kova; Samuel Velebný; Grigorij Kogan



Sex and stage-related sensitivity of Schistosoma mansoni to in vivo and in vitro praziquantel treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of praziquantel against a Puerto Rican strain of Schistosoma mansoni was assessed using both in vivo and in vitro approach. The drug effective dose (50%) in the infected mouse model was about 30 times higher when determined against 28-day-old infections than against 7-week-old parasites. Single-sex female infections were also largely refractory to treatment and single-sex male infections moderately

Livia Pica-Mattoccia; Donato Cioli



Utility of Repeated Praziquantel Dosing in the Treatment of Schistosomiasis in High-Risk Communities in Africa: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Controversy persists about the optimal approach to drug-based control of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities. In a systematic review of published studies, we examined evidence for incremental benefits from repeated praziquantel dosing, given 2 to 8 weeks after an initial dose, in Schistosoma-endemic areas of Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed systematic searches of electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE for relevant data using search terms ‘schistosomiasis’, ‘dosing’ and ‘praziquantel’ and hand searches of personal collections and bibliographies of recovered articles. In 10 reports meeting study criteria, improvements in parasitological treatment outcomes after two doses of praziquantel were greater for S. mansoni infection than for S. haematobium infection. Observed cure rates (positive to negative conversion in egg detection assays) were, for S. mansoni, 69–91% cure after two doses vs. 42–79% after one dose and, for S. haematobium, 46–99% cure after two doses vs. 37–93% after a single dose. Treatment benefits in terms of reduction in intensity (mean egg count) were also different for the two species—for S. mansoni, the 2-dose regimen yielded an weighted average 89% reduction in standardized egg counts compared to a 83% reduction after one dose; for S. haematobium, two doses gave a 93% reduction compared to a 94% reduction with a single dose. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed based on Markov life path modeling. Conclusions/Significance Although schedules for repeated treatment with praziquantel require greater inputs in terms of direct costs and community participation, there are incremental benefits to this approach at an estimated cost of $153 (S. mansoni)–$211 (S. haematobium) per additional lifetime QALY gained by double treatment in school-based programs. More rapid reduction of infection-related disease may improve program adherence, and if, as an externality of the program, transmission can be reduced through more effective coverage, significant additional benefits are expected to accrue in the targeted communities.

King, Charles H.; Olbrych, Stephanie K.; Soon, Margaret; Singer, Mendel E.; Carter, Jen; Colley, Daniel G.



Time-dependent modulation of liver lesion development in Opisthorchis-infected Syrian hamster by an antihelminthic drug, praziquantel.  


In the North-east of Thailand, repeated antihelminthic therapy has been introduced for control of the opisthorchiasis known to be a major risk factor for cholangiocellular carcinomas. What influence this may have on tumorigenesis, however, remains unclear. The effects of administration of praziquantel, an antihelminthic drug, at different time points subsequent to infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) on 2,2'-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine (DHPN)-initiated lesion development in the liver of female Syrian hamsters were therefore investigated. Praziquantel (250 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) was given 4, 12 or 20 weeks after infection of DHPN-treated animals (two 1000 mg/kg i.p. injections at weeks 0 and 2) with 60 OV metacercariae (at week 4). Survivors at week 38 were killed and examined. It was found that whereas praziquantel administration at the earlier two time points was effective at reducing hepatocellular nodule development, the results for cholangiocellular lesions were less pronounced, significant reduction only being evident in hamsters treated 4 weeks after parasite infestation. The findings thus indicate that enhancement of DHPN-initiated bile duct carcinogenesis by opisthorchiasis is both rapid and to a large degree irreversible. Hepatocellular lesion development in this model, on the other hand, appears to correlate more closely with the duration of parasite-associated proliferative stimulus. PMID:8463130

Thamavit, W; Moore, M A; Sirisinha, S; Shirai, T; Ito, N



Safety and efficacy of praziquantel syrup (Epiquantel®) against Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni in preschool-aged children in Niger.  


Given the characteristic age-prevalence curve of Schistosoma infection, preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel is primarily targeted at school-aged children, whilst, in highly endemic areas, other high-risk groups might be included for regular treatment. Nevertheless, schistosomiasis can affect children well before they reach school-age, but this population group is usually excluded from preventive chemotherapy. We assessed the safety and efficacy of praziquantel syrup (Epiquantel®) in preschool-aged children in three villages of Niger. Children aged ?72 months provided multiple urine and stool samples that were microscopically examined using standard protocols. Schistosoma-positive children were treated with praziquantel syrup at a dose of 40 mg/kg after a meal of millet porridge. Children remained under medical supervision for 4h and adverse events were recorded. Additionally, a questionnaire was administrated to the mothers/guardians 24h post-treatment for further probing of adverse events. Treatment efficacy was evaluated 3 and 6 weeks post-treatment using multiple stool and urine samples. A third of the 243 treated children reported adverse events within 4h, whilst a further 6.2% reported adverse events upon probing 24h post-treatment. Abdominal pain, bloody diarrhoea and sleepiness were the most common adverse events, but these were transient and self-limiting. Praziquantel syrup showed moderate-to-high efficacy against Schistosoma haematobium with egg reduction rates of 69.4% and 71.2% 3 and 6 weeks post-treatment and cure rates of 85.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 79.7-90.5%) and 94.9% (95% CI 90.5-97.6%), respectively. Considerably lower cure and egg reduction rates were observed against Schistosoma mansoni (e.g. cure rate at 6-week post-treatment follow-up was only 50.6% (95% CI 39.9-61.2%). Concluding, praziquantel syrup is well tolerated in preschool-aged children with moderate-to-high efficacy against S. haematobium, but considerably lower efficacy against S. mansoni in Niger. A larger study is warranted to investigate the observed differences in species-specific susceptibilities and to assess operational issues and community-effectiveness. PMID:23237719

Garba, Amadou; Lamine, Mariama S; Djibo, Ali; Tahirou, Almoustapha; Aouami, Mahamadou Aboubacar; Alfari, Aichatou; Phillips, Anna E; Fenwick, Alan; Utzinger, Jürg



Effects of praziquantel and sanguinarine on expression of immune genes and susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila in goldfish (Carassius auratus) infected with Dactylogyrus intermedius.  


Praziquantel and sanguinarine have been demonstrated positive therapeutic effects on monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius; however, few studies have considered the post impacts of these antiparasitic chemicals on host after repelling the parasites. The changes of expression of selected immune genes (CCL-1, CXCL-8, IL-1?-1, IL-1?-2, TNF?-1, TNF?-2 and TGF-?) in gill, kidney and spleen and bacterial loads of Aeromonas hydrophila in gill, kidney, spleen and liver following bath administration of these antiparasitic chemicals were evaluated. The results showed that praziquantel and sanguinarine up-regulated to varying degrees of CXCL-8, IL-1?-1, IL-1?-2, TNF?-1 and TNF?-2 in gill, kidney and spleen. They both decreased the CCL-1 expression in gill while increased it in kidney and spleen. However, in all the tested tissues, the expression of TGF-? decreased in praziquantel treated goldfish whereas that increased in sanguinarine treated goldfish. The A. hydrophila challenge test showed that the praziquantel treatment enhanced the susceptibility to A. hydrophila while sanguinarine treatment decreased the susceptibility, as compared with the non-treated group. Overall, the results indicate that bath administration of praziquantel and sanguinarine modulates the immune related genes in goldfish and these may, to some extent, affect their ability to resist bacterial pathogens. PMID:23954698

Zhang, Chao; Ling, Fei; Chi, Cheng; Wang, Gao-Xue



Effect of praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy on intensity of infection and antibody responses to schistosome antigens: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Praziquantel treatment of schistosomiasis during pregnancy was only recommended in 2002; hence the effects of treatment during pregnancy are not fully known. We have therefore evaluated the effects on infection intensity and the immunological effects of praziquantel treatment against Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy, compared with treatment after delivery. Methods A nested cohort of 387 Schistosoma mansoni infected women was recruited within a larger trial of de-worming during pregnancy. Women were randomised to receive praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy. All women were treated after delivery. Infection intensity after treatment was assessed by a single Kato-Katz examination of stool samples with duplicate slides and categorised as undetected, light (1–99 eggs per gram (epg)), moderate (100–399 epg) or heavy (?400 epg). Antibodies against S. mansoni worm and egg antigens were measured by ELISA. Results were compared between women first treated during pregnancy and women first treated after delivery. Results At enrolment, 252 (65.1%) of the women had light infection (median (IQR) epg: 35 (11, 59)), 75 (19.3%) moderate (median (IQR) epg: 179(131, 227)) and 60 (15.5%) had heavy infection (median (IQR) epg: 749 (521, 1169)) with S. mansoni. At six weeks after praziquantel treatment during pregnancy S. mansoni infection was not detectable in 81.9% of the women and prevalence and intensity had decreased to 11.8% light, 4.7% moderate and 1.6% heavy a similar reduction when compared with those first treated after delivery (undetected (88.5%), light (10.6%), moderate (0.9%) and heavy (0%), p = 0.16). Parasite specific antibody levels were lower during pregnancy than after delivery. Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy boosted anti-worm IgG isotypes and to a lesser extent IgE, but these boosts were less pronounced than in women whose treatment was delayed until after delivery. Praziquantel had limited effects on antibodies against egg antigens. Conclusion S mansoni antigen-specific antibody levels and praziquantel-induced boosts in antibody levels were broadly suppressed during pregnancy, but this was not associated with major reduction in the efficacy of praziquantel. Long-term implications of these findings in relation to resistance to re-infection remain to be explored. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number for the current study: ISRCTN32849447



Reinfection of Dogs with Fish-Borne Zoonotic Trematodes in Northern Vietnam following a Single Treatment with Praziquantel  

PubMed Central

Background Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) infections including liver- and minute intestinal flukes are common in Southeast Asia in both humans and domestic animals eating raw fish and since 2010, the liver flukes are recognised as neglected tropical diseases by WHO. Mass drug treatment with praziquantel is advised for humans, but no recommendations for control of the FZT in the reservoir hosts exist. Methodology/Principal Findings A study was conducted to assess the ability of praziquantel treatment for control of FZT in farm dogs in an endemic area in Northern Vietnam. Initially, 101 dogs from 73 households were examined for small trematode eggs in their faeces. Forty seven copro-positive dogs were included in the study. Thirty eight dogs received treatment with a single dose of 40 mg/kg of praziquantel. A group of nine dogs were left untreated. Coprological examination for small trematode eggs was performed on day 0, 3, 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 post treatment. Farmers were questioned about dog keeping practises. All dogs were copro-negative for small trematode eggs on both day 3 and 10 post treatment. From day 30 onwards previously negative dogs became positive again. The reinfection rates were 26.3% (day 30), 45.5% (day 60), 53.1% (day 90), 61.3% (day 120).The nine untreated dogs remained positive throughout the study period. There was no difference in the intensity of infection at day 0 and 120 neither in the treated or untreated group. Conclusion Dogs had easy access to raw fish and did not receive treatment against flukes by their owner. More than 50% of the dogs were reinfected 3 months post treatment. We do not recommend controlling FZT infections in dogs by anthelmintic treatment alone since reinfection occurs fast under the existing farm management systems.

Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Dalsgaard, Anders; Johansen, Maria Vang



Infection with Opisthorchis viverrini and use of praziquantel among a working-age population in northeast Thailand.  


Infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) due to eating certain traditional freshwater fish dishes is the principal risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in Northeast Thailand where the infection is endemic and the incidence of this form of primary liver cancer has been the highest in the world. This paper is the second report of a prospective research project to monitor the impacts of a national liver fluke control programme in a rural community of Northeast Thailand. A sample of 684 villagers aged 20-65 years completed an interview questionnaire and were tested for infection using the Kato thick smear technique. The questionnaire was designed for the exploration of associations between OV infection, previous treatment with praziquantel, and knowledge and beliefs about the drug. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression. The overall prevalence of OV infection was 37.2% and was highest in the 20-35 year age group, in those with a university degree and in those employed in the government sector. As many as 91.8% reported eating fish dishes known to place them at risk of infection. In the multiple regression analysis, previous use of praziquantel and lack of knowledge about whether or not the drug has a protective effect against re-infection were the only factors related to OV infection (ORadj= 2.31, 95%CI =1.40-3.79 and ORadj= 1.95, 95%CI= 1.24-3.05). The findings were discussed in terms of the possibly unwise dependency on praziquantel as a primary element in a control programme. PMID:23803062

Saengsawang, Phubet; Promthet, Supannee; Bradshaw, Peter



The inability of tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum to metabolize praziquantel.  


Biotransformation enzymes can, to a certain extent, protect parasitic worms against the toxic effects of anthelmintics and can contribute to drug-resistance development. The objective of our work was (1) to find and identify phase I and II metabolites of the anthelmintic praziquantel (PZQ) formed by the lancet fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) and the rat tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) and (2) to compare PZQ metabolites in helminths with PZQ biotransformation in rat as host species. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) was used for this purpose. During in vitro incubations, mitochondria-like and microsomes-like fractions (prepared from homogenates of adult worms or from rat liver homogenate) were incubated with 10 and 100 ?M PZQ. Liquid/liquid extraction was used for samples during in vitro experiments. In the ex vivo study, living D. dendriticum and H. diminuta adults were incubated in RPMI-1640 medium in the presence of 50 nM or 100 nM PZQ for 24h. After incubation, the worms were removed from the medium and homogenized. Homogenates of worms, medium from the incubation of worms or rat hepatocytes and rat urine (collected during 24h after oral PZQ administration) were separately extracted using solid-phase extraction. The results showed that both D. dendriticum and H. diminuta enzymatic systems are not able to metabolize PZQ. On the other hand, thirty one different phase I and four phase II PZQ metabolites were detected in rat samples using UHPLC/MS/MS analyses. These results show that our experimental helminths, as the members of tapeworm and fluke groups of parasites, are not able to deactivate PZQ, and that the biotransformation enzymes of the studied helminths do not contribute to PZQ-resistance. PMID:21996005

Vok?ál, Ivan; Jirásko, Robert; Jedli?ková, Veronika; Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Lamka, Ji?í; Hol?apek, Michal; Szotáková, Barbora



Solid lipid nanoparticle suspension enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel against tapeworm.  


Hydatid disease caused by tapeworm is an increasing public health and socioeconomic concern. In order to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) against tapeworm, PZQ-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticle (PZQ-HCO-SLN) suspension was prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The stability of the suspension at 4°C and room temperature was evaluated by the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles and in-vitro release pattern of the suspension. Pharmacokinetics was studied after subcutaneous administration of the suspension in dogs. The therapeutic effect of the novel formulation was evaluated in dogs naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The results showed that the drug recovery of the suspension was 97.59% ± 7.56%. Nanoparticle diameter, polydispersivity index, and zeta potential were 263.00 ± 11.15 nm, 0.34 ± 0.06, and -11.57 ± 1.12 mV, respectively and showed no significant changes after 4 months of storage at both 4°C and room temperature. The stored suspensions displayed similar in-vitro release patterns as that of the newly prepared one. SLNs increased the bioavailability of PZQ 5.67-fold and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 56.71 to 280.38 hours. Single subcutaneous administration of PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension obtained enhanced therapeutic efficacy against tapeworm in infected dogs. At the dose of 5 mg/kg, the stool-ova reduction and negative conversion rates and tapeworm removal rate of the suspension were 100%, while the native PZQ were 91.55%, 87.5%, and 66.7%. When the dose reduced to 0.5 mg/kg, the native drug showed no effect, but the suspension still got the same therapeutic efficacy as that of the 5 mg/kg native PZQ. These results demonstrate that the PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension is a promising formulation to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PZQ. PMID:22072873

Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Baoliang; Shi, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Ming; Zhou, Wenzhong



Efficacy of Artesunate + Sulfamethoxypyrazine/Pyrimethamine versus Praziquantel in the Treatment of Schistosoma haematobium in Children  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of the antimalarial artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) artesunate +sulfamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine (As+SMP), administered in doses used for malaria, to treat Schistosoma haematobium in school aged children. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted in Djalakorodji, a peri-urban area of Bamako, Mali, using a double blind setup in which As+SMP was compared with praziquantel (PZQ). Urine samples were examined for Schistosoma haematobium on days ?1, 0, 28 and 29. Detection of haematuria, and haematological and biochemical exams were conducted on day 0 and day 28. Clinical exams were performed on days 0, 1, 2, and 28. A total of 800 children were included in the trial. The cure rate obtained without viability testing was 43.9% in the As+SMP group versus 53% in the PZQ group (Chi2?=?6.44, p?=?0.011). Egg reduction rates were 95.6% with PZQ in comparison with 92.8% with As+SMP, p?=?0.096. The proportion of participants who experienced adverse events related to the medication was 0.5% (2/400) in As+SMP treated children compared to 2.3% (9/399) in the PZQ group (p?=?0.033). Abdominal pain and vomiting were the most frequent adverse events in both treatment arms. All adverse events were categorized as mild. Conclusions/Significance The study demonstrates that PZQ was more effective than As+SMP for treating Schistosoma haematobium. However, the safety and tolerability profile of As+SMP was similar to that seen with PZQ. Our findings suggest that further investigations seem justifiable to determine the dose/efficacy/safety pattern of As+SMP in the treatment of Schistosoma infections. Trial Registration NCT00510159

Sissoko, Mahamadou S.; Dabo, Abdoulaye; Traore, Hamidou; Diallo, Mouctar; Traore, Boubacar; Konate, Drissa; Niare, Boubacar; Diakite, Moussa; Kamate, Bourama; Traore, Abdrahamane; Bathily, Aboudramane; Tapily, Amadou; Toure, Ousmane B.; Cauwenbergh, Sarah; Jansen, Herwig F.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.



Efficacy of a single milbemycin oxime administration in combination with praziquantel against experimentally induced heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection in cats.  


The efficacy of a combination of milbemycin oxime and praziquantel in preventing the establishment of experimentally induced heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection was investigated in a study involving 24 young domestic short-hair cats. The animals were inoculated with 50 infective larvae on day 0. Subsequently they were divided into two groups of 12 animals each. The animals in group 1 were treated once with medicated tablets containing 4 mg milbemycin (minimum dose 2 mg/kg body weight) and 10 mg praziquantel (MILBEMAX) on day 30 after infection. Cats in group 2 received placebo tablets on the same day. On day 183 post-infection a blood sample was taken from each animal before euthanasia and necropsy. The blood samples were tested for the presence of microfilariae and the necropsied animals were examined for the presence of adult worms. Microfilariae were not found in any of the investigated cats. No heartworms were found in the animals in group 1 (treated with medicated tablets). Out of the 12 placebo-treated cats 1 was heartworm-free, whereas all the others were found to be infected with 1-3 adult heartworms. PMID:15262006

Genchi, Claudio; Cody, Robert; Pengo, Graziano; Büscher, Gottfried; Cavalleri, Daniela; Bucci, Valeria; Junquera, Pablo



Comparative clinical studies of nitazoxanide, albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis in children from Peru.  


Three randomized clinical studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate the efficacy of nitazoxanide paediatric suspension compared to albendazole in the treatment of ascariasis and trichuriasis and praziquantel in the treatment of hymenolepiasis in children from Cajamarca, Peru. Nitazoxanide was administered at a dose of 100 mg (age 1-3 years) or 200 mg (age 4-11 years) twice daily for 3 days, albendazole as a 400-mg single dose and praziquantel as a 25-mg/kg single dose. Post-treatment parasitological examinations were carried out on 3 faecal samples, each collected on a different day between 21 and 30 days following initiation of treatment. Nitazoxanide cured 89% (25/28), 89% (16/18) and 82% (32/39) of the cases of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis respectively compared with 91% (32/35), 58% (11/19) and 96% (47/49) for the comparator drugs. Each of the drugs produced egg reduction rates in excess of 98%. There were no significant adverse events or abnormalities in haematology or clinical chemistry values or urinalysis. PMID:12055813

Juan, Jave Ortiz; Lopez Chegne, Nicholas; Gargala, Gilles; Favennec, Loic



Intestinal schistosomiasis in chimpanzees on Ngamba Island, Uganda: observations on liver fibrosis, schistosome genetic diversity and praziquantel treatment.  


Despite treatment with praziquantel (PZQ) at 40 mg/kg in food, several chimpanzees on Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary (NICS) continue to excrete eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. To monitor disease, 8 animals were closely examined under anaesthesia in March 2011 with portable ultrasonography and by rectal snip biopsy. Schistosome genetic diversity had been previously assayed within 4 of these chimpanzees, finding extensive diversity with 27 DNA barcodes encountered, although none was common to all animals. Calcified schistosome eggs were found in the rectal snips from 5 chimpanzees and liver fibrosis was clearly documented, indicative of progressive disease in 6 animals, the latter being surprisingly advanced in a younger chimpanzee. All 8 animals were treated under anaesthesia by oral gavage with PZQ at 60 mg/kg dosing that was well tolerated. These animals were again re-examined in June 2012 using stool and urine sampling. Only 1 chimpanzee appeared to be free from infection and active egg excretion was confirmed in 6 animals. If intestinal schistosomiasis is to be controlled within this setting, a long-term disease management plan is required which should combine active case-detection with an insistent treatment regime with praziquantel for these chimpanzees, exploring perhaps the performance of even higher dosing. PMID:23095137

Standley, C J; Mugisha, L; Adriko, M; Arinaitwe, M; Rukundo, J; Ajarova, L; Mopya, S; Betson, M; Kabatereine, N B; Stothard, J R



Performance and Safety of Praziquantel for Treatment of Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Infants and Preschool Children  

PubMed Central

Background In 2012 the WHO formally recognised that infants and preschool children are at significant risk of schistosomiasis and qualify for treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). Targeted surveys determining both the performance and safety of this drug are now needed in endemic areas. We have formally assessed parasitological cure and putative side-effects in a prospective cohort of Schistosoma mansoni-infected children (aged 5 months–7 years old) in lakeshore settings of Uganda. Methodology/Principal Findings From a total of 369 children found to be egg-patent for intestinal schistosomiasis, 305 were followed-up three to four weeks after PZQ treatment and infection status re-assessed. Separately, a previously tested side-effect questionnaire was employed before and 24 hours after PZQ treatment to assess incidence and amelioration of symptoms in young children and their mothers. While the overall observed parasitological cure was 56.4%, a significant difference was found between a sub-set of children who had a history of multiple PZQ treatments (between one and four in an 18 month period), where cure rate was 41.7%, and those who had never received treatment (cure rate was 77·6%). PZQ proved to be safe, with only mild reported side effects which cleared within a month after treatment. Prevalence of reported symptoms was significantly lower in children than in mothers, and fewer side-effects were reported upon subsequent rounds of PZQ treatment. Conclusion/Significance Our findings show that PZQ treatment of young children resulted in satisfactory cure rates, and marked reduction in egg-output, with only mild and transient reported side-effects. However, the cure rate is clearly lower in younger children and those with history of previous treatment. Cure rate, but not egg reduction rate, was also lower in children with heavier pre-intervention infection intensity. With chemotherapy now recommended as a long-term strategy for disease control in young children, research into optimising the periodicity of targeted treatment strategies is now crucial.

Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C.; Betson, Martha; Atuhaire, Aaron; Arinaitwe, Moses; Navaratnam, Annalan M. D.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Bickle, Quentin; Stothard, J. Russell



Field trial of the efficacy of a combination of ivermectin and praziquantel in horses infected with roundworms and tapeworms.  


Two hundred and thirty-three horses were screened for the presence of roundworms by faecal egg counts (FECs) and for tapeworms by an ELISA specific for antibodies to the immunodominant 12 kDa and 13 kDa tapeworms antigen. The 62 horses were found to be infected with both parasites were treated with a combination of 0.2 mg/kg ivermectin and 1.5 mg/kg praziquantel. The treatment suppressed the median FEC of the horses to zero for 10 weeks and significantly reduced their anti-12/13 kDa antibody levels. The estimated risk of tapeworm-associated colic in these horses was halved by 12 weeks after the treatment. PMID:15068039

Barrett, E J; Farlam, J; Proudman, C J



Design and synthesis of molecular probes for the determination of the target of the anthelmintic drug praziquantel.  


Schistosomiasis is a highly prevalent neglected tropical disease caused by blood-dwelling helminths of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug available widely for the treatment of this disease and is administered in racemic form, even though only the (R)-isomer has significant anthelmintic activity. Progress towards the development of a second generation of anthelmintics is hampered by a lack of understanding of the mechanism of action of PZQ. In this Letter, we report an efficient protocol for the small-scale separation of enantiomers of 2 (hydrolyzed PZQ) using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The enantiopure 2 was then used to develop several molecular probes, which can potentially be used to help identify the protein target of PZQ and study its mode of action. PMID:24775301

Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Cupit, Pauline M; Goronga, Tino; Webb, Thomas R; Cunningham, Charles



In vitro metabolic profile and in vivo antischistosomal activity studies of (?(6)-praziquantel)Cr(CO)3 derivatives.  


In vitro metabolic behavior was investigated for two chromium tricarbonyl derivatives of the antischistosomal drug praziquantel (PZQ) with the formula (?(6)-PZQ)Cr(CO)3 (1 and 2), by use of human liver microsomes. The metabolic profiles of the derivatives differ significantly. The optically pure (?(6)-PZQ)Cr(CO)3 derivatives (S, Sp)-1, (R, Rp)-1, (S, Rp)-2, and (R, Sp)-2 were also prepared to assess the eudysmic ratios of 1 and 2 against Schistosoma mansoni in vitro. A strong enantioselective antischistosomal activity was observed. The R-enantiomers are highly active against adult schistosomes in vitro (IC50 0.08-0.13 ?M), whereas both S-enantiomers lack activity. The in vivo activity of 1 and 2 was then studied in mice harboring a chronic S. mansoni infection. A single dose of 1 and 2 (400 mg/kg) resulted in low worm burden reductions of 24% and 29% (p > 0.05). PMID:24219617

Patra, Malay; Ingram, Katrin; Leonidova, Anna; Pierroz, Vanessa; Ferrari, Stefano; Robertson, Murray N; Todd, Matthew H; Keiser, Jennifer; Gasser, Gilles



Helminth-Associated Systemic Immune Activation and HIV Co-receptor Expression: Response to Albendazole/Praziquantel Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background It has been hypothesized that helminth infections increase HIV susceptibility by enhancing systemic immune activation and hence contribute to elevated HIV-1 transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective To study systemic immune activation and HIV-1 co-receptor expression in relation to different helminth infections and in response to helminth treatment. Methods HIV-negative adults with (n?=?189) or without (n?=?57) different helminth infections, as diagnosed by Kato-Katz, were enrolled in Mbeya, Tanzania. Blinded to helminth infection status, T cell differentiation (CD45RO, CD27), activation (HLA-DR, CD38) and CCR5 expression was determined at baseline and 3 months after Albendazole/Praziquantel treatment. Plasma cytokine levels were compared using a cytometric bead array. Results Trichuris and Ascaris infections were linked to increased frequencies of “activated” CD4 and/or CD8 T cells (p<0.05), whereas Hookworm infection was associated with a trend towards decreased HLA-DR+ CD8 T cell frequencies (p?=?0.222). In Trichuris infected subjects, there was a linear correlation between HLA-DR+ CD4 T cell frequencies and the cytokines IL-1? and IL-10 (p<0.05). Helminth treatment with Albendazole and Praziquantel significantly decreased eosinophilia for S. mansoni and Hookworm infections (p<0.005) but not for Trichuris infection and only moderately modulated T cell activation. CCR5 surface density on memory CD4 T cells was increased by 1.2-fold during Trichuris infection (p-value: 0.053) and reduced after treatment (p?=?0.003). Conclusions Increased expression of T cell activation markers was associated with Trichuris and Ascaris infections with relatively little effect of helminth treatment.

Chachage, Mkunde; Podola, Lilli; Clowes, Petra; Nsojo, Anthony; Bauer, Asli; Mgaya, Onesmo; Kowour, Dickens; Froeschl, Guenter; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Saathoff, Elmar; Geldmacher, Christof



Schistosoma haematobium Treatment in 1-5 Year Old Children: Safety and Efficacy of the Antihelminthic Drug Praziquantel  

PubMed Central

Background Morbidity due to schistosomiasis is currently controlled by treatment of schistosome infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ). Children aged up to 5 years are currently excluded from schistosome control programmes largely due to the lack of PZQ safety data in this age group. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of PZQ treatment in such children. Methods Zimbabwean children aged 1–5 years (n?=?104) were treated with PZQ tablets and side effects were assessed by questionnaire administered to their caregivers within 24 hours of taking PZQ. Treatment efficacy was determined 6 weeks after PZQ administration through schistosome egg counts in urine. The change in infection levels in the children 1–5 years old (n?=?100) was compared to that in 6–10 year old children (n?=?435). Principal Findings Pre-treatment S. haematobium infection intensity in 1–5 year olds was 14.6 eggs/10 ml urine and prevalence was 21%. Of the 104 children, 3.8% reported side effects within 24 hours of taking PZQ treatment. These were stomach ache, loss of appetite, lethargy and inflammation of the face and body. PZQ treatment significantly reduced schistosome infection levels in 1–5 year olds with an egg reduction rate (ERR) of 99% and cure rate (CR) of 92%. This was comparable to the efficacy of praziquantel in 6–10 year olds where ERR was 96% and CR was 67%. Interpretation/Significance PZQ treatment is as safe and efficacious in children aged 1–5 years as it is in older children aged 6–10 years in whom PZQ is the drug of choice for control of schistosome infections.

Mutapi, Francisca; Rujeni, Nadine; Bourke, Claire; Mitchell, Kate; Appleby, Laura; Nausch, Norman; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira



Efficacy and Safety of Praziquantel in Preschool-Aged Children in an Area Co-Endemic for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium  

PubMed Central

Background In sub-Saharan Africa the recommended strategy to control schistosomiasis is preventive chemotherapy. Emphasis is placed on school-aged children, but in high endemicity areas, preschool-aged children are also at risk, and hence might need treatment with praziquantel. Since a pediatric formulation (e.g., syrup) is not available outside of Egypt, crushed praziquantel tablets are used, but the efficacy and safety of this treatment regimen is insufficiently studied. Methodology We assessed the efficacy and safety of crushed praziquantel tablets among preschool-aged children (<6 years) in the Azaguié district, south Côte d'Ivoire, where Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium coexist. Using a cross-sectional design, children provided two stool and two urine samples before and 3 weeks after treatment. Crushed praziquantel tablets, mixed with water, were administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Adverse events were assessed and graded 4 and 24 hours posttreatment by interviewing mothers/guardians. Principal Findings Overall, 160 preschool-aged children had at least one stool and one urine sample examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette for S. mansoni, and urine filtration for S. haematobium diagnosis before and 3 weeks after praziquantel administration. According to the Kato-Katz and urine filtration results, we found high efficacy against S. mansoni (cure rate (CR), 88.6%; egg reduction rate (ERR), 96.7%) and S. haematobium (CR, 88.9%; ERR, 98.0%). POC-CCA revealed considerably lower efficacy against S. mansoni (CR, 53.8%). Treatment was generally well tolerated, but moderately severe adverse events (i.e., body and face inflammation), were observed in four Schistosoma egg-negative children. Conclusions/Significance Crushed praziquantel administered to preschool-aged children at a dose of 40 mg/kg is efficacious against S. mansoni and S. haematobium in a co-endemic setting of Côte d'Ivoire. Further research is required with highly sensitive diagnostic tools and safety must be investigated in more depth. Trial Registration ISRCTN53172722

Coulibaly, Jean T.; N'Gbesso, Yve K.; Knopp, Stefanie; Keiser, Jennifer; N'Goran, Eliezer K.; Utzinger, Jurg



Effect of praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy on immune responses to schistosome antigens among the offspring: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Offspring of women with schistosomiasis may exhibit immune responsiveness to schistosomes due to in utero sensitisation or trans-placental transfer of antibodies. Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy boosts maternal immune responses to schistosome antigens and reduces worm burden. Effects of praziquantel treatment during pregnancy on responses among offspring are unknown. Methods In a trial of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447;, offspring of women with Schistosoma mansoni were examined for cytokine and antibody responses to schistosome worm (SWA) and egg (SEA) antigen, in cord blood and at age one year. Relationships to maternal responses and pre-treatment infection intensities were examined, and responses were compared between the offspring of women who did, or did not receive praziquantel treatment during pregnancy. Results Of 388 S. mansoni-infected women studied, samples were obtained at age one year from 215 of their infants. Stool examination for S. mansoni eggs was negative for all infants. Cord and infant samples were characterised by very low cytokine production in response to schistosome antigens with the exception of cord IL-10 responses, which were substantial. Cord and infant cytokine responses showed no association with maternal responses. As expected, cord blood levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G to SWA and SEA were high and correlated with maternal antibodies. However, by age one year IgG levels had waned and were hardly detectable. Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy showed no effect on cytokine responses or antibodies levels to SWA or SEA either in cord blood or at age one year, except for IgG1 to SWA, which was elevated in infants of treated mothers, reflecting maternal levels. There was some evidence that maternal infection intensity was positively associated with cord blood IL-5 and IL-13 responses to SWA, and IL-5 responses to SEA, and that this association was modified by treatment with praziquantel. Conclusions Despite strong effects on maternal infection intensity and maternal immune responses, praziquantel treatment of infected women during pregnancy had no effect on anti-schistosome immune responses among offspring by age one year. Whether the treatment will impact upon the offspring's responses on exposure to primary schistosome infection remains to be elucidated. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN32849447



Comparative efficacy of flubendazole chewable tablets and a tablet combination of febantel, pyrantel embonate and praziquantel against Trichuris vulpis in experimentally infected dogs.  


Fourteen of 23 dogs developing patent Trichuris vulpis infections by 120 days p.i. with 5000 embryonated eggs were allocated into three groups. One group was treated with flubendazole 220 mg chewable tablets (Flubenol) at the recommended dose regimen once daily for 3 days. The second group was given the recommended single treatment with a tablet containing 150 mg febantel, 144 mg pyrantel embonate and 50 mg praziquantel in combination (Drontal Plus). The third group remained untreated. All dogs were necropsied for worm counts 10 or 11 days after (first) treatment. No worms were recovered from the flubendazole treated dogs resulting in a significant worm count reduction of 100%. In contrast, 2 of 5 animals treated with the combination of febantel, pyrantel embonate and praziquantel remained infected; the geometric mean worm burden was reduced by 99.4% as compared to the control group but did not differ significantly from those of the controls. PMID:14650738

Prelezov, P N; Bauer, C



Increasing teacher motivation and supervision is an important but not sufficient strategy for improving praziquantel uptake in Schistosoma mansoni control programs: serial cross sectional surveys in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Realization of the public health benefits of mass drug administration (MDA) for the control of schistosomiasis depends on achieving and maintaining high annual treatment coverage. In Uganda, the uptake of preventive treatment for schistosomiasis among school-age children in 2011 was only 28%. Strategies are needed to increase uptake. Methods Serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline (after MDA in 2011) and at follow-up MDA in 2012 where teacher motivation was provided and supervision strengthened in Jinja district of Uganda. Uptake of praziquantel was assessed in 1,010 randomly selected children from 12 primary schools during the baseline survey and in another set of 1,020 randomly selected children from the same primary schools during the follow-up survey. Results Self-reported uptake of praziquantel increased from 28.2% (95% CI 25.4%-30.9%) at baseline to 48.9% (95% CI 45.8%-52.0%) (p?praziquantel at baseline (49.8%, 95% CI 43.8%-55.8%) and at follow-up (46.6%, 95% CI 42%.1-51.2%) (p?=?0.50) as well as in the proportion of children with correct knowledge of schistosomiasis transmission and control between the baseline (45.9%, 95% CI 42.7%-73.7%) and follow-up (44.1%, 95% CI 41.0%- 47.2%) (p?=?0.42). Conclusion Although teacher motivation and supervision to distribute treatment increased the uptake of praziquantel among school-age children, the realized uptake is still lower than is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and apparently too low to affect the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis among the children. Additional measures are needed to increase uptake of praziquantel if school-based MDA is to achieve the objective of preventive chemotherapy.



Evidence of long term benefit of morbidity reduction due to praziquantel treatment against schistosoma mansoni in kigungu fishing village in entebbe, Uganda.  


Praziquantel (PZQ) is efficacious against Schistosoma mansoni. This was prospective cohort study. This study was carried out at Kigungu fishing village, Entebbe, Uganda. The goal of the study was to establish cost effective regiment for mass drug administration (MDA) of Praziquentel in the morbidity reduction of S.mansoni infection. In January 2004, nine hundred and forty five (945) participants were registered in this study. Our analysis was based on examining microscopically three slides prepared from each of 945 stool specimens delivered by each of the participant using modified Kato/Katz method. These included male and female, children and adults living in Kigungu fishing village in Entebbe Uganda. In total 901, cohorts were re-examined for infections clearance six months later in July 2004 and 18 months later in June 2005, 625 cohorts were again re-evaluated for S.mansoni infections after the baseline study. At baseline, (448) of 945 (47.5%) cohorts were S. mansoni positive. All these participants were treatment with a single oral dose of praziquantel at 40mg/kg. At the same time, 495 (52.5%) were S. mansoni negative. Of the 625 (66.3%) cohorts who came back for final review, 80 (12.8%) were still positive for S. mansoni while 210 (33.6%) remained negative after the base line treatment with praziquantel. On the other hand 103 (16.3%) of cohorts who were initially negative at the base line became S.mansoni positive after 18 months and 213(34.1%) remained negative for S.mansoni. The force of re-infection after six months was significant {(P=0.0001), (OR 0.47) CI at 95% (0.31-0.71)}. Nevertheless the force of reinfection was not significant after 18 months {(P=0.766), (OR 0.95) CI at 95% (0.68-1.34)}.The geometric mean eggs excretion of the 80 cohorts who were S.mansoni positive at 18 months was 151.967.This did not reach the geometric mean egg excreted by the same cohorts at baseline which was 285.05. The egg excretion was reduced by 46.8%. Similarly there was marked decrease in clinical symptoms amongst the cohorts. Our study suggests evidence of long-term benefit of praziquantel in Kigungu and that a yearly administration of praziquantel to the community could be a regiment for mass drug administration (MAD) for this community to control schistosomiasis morbidity. PMID:23878705

Odongo-Aginya, Emmanuel I; Kironde, Fk; Lyazi, Mi; Sempewo, Harman; Correa Oliveira, Rodrigo



Controlling Schistosomiasis: Significant Decrease of Anaemia Prevalence One Year after a Single Dose of Praziquantel in Nigerien Schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Background In the framework of the monitoring and evaluation of the Nigerien schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth control programme, a follow-up of children took place in eight sentinel sites. The objective of the study was to assess the evolution of Schistosoma haematobium infection and anaemia in schoolchildren after a single administration of praziquantel (PZQ) and albendazole. Methods/Principal Findings Pre-treatment examination and follow-up at one year post-treatment of schoolchildren aged 7, 8, and 11 years, including interview, urine examination, ultrasound examination of the urinary tract, and measurement of haemoglobin. Before treatment, the overall prevalence of S. heamatobium infection was 75.4% of the 1,642 enrolled children, and 21.8% of children excreted more than 50 eggs/10 ml urine. Prevalence increased with age. The overall prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin <11.5 g/dl) was 61.6%, decreasing significantly with increasing age. The mean haemoglobinemia was 11 g/dl. In bivariate analysis, anaemia was significantly more frequent in children infected with S. haematobium, although it was not correlated to the intensity of infection. Anaemia was also associated with micro-haematuria and to kidney distensions. In a sub-sample of 636 children tested for P. falciparum infection, anaemia was significantly more frequent in malaria-infected children. In multivariate analysis, significant predictors of anaemia were P. falciparum infection, kidney distension, and the village. One year after a single-dose praziquantel treatment (administered using the WHO PZQ dose pole) co-administered with albendazole (400 mg single dose) for de-worming, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 38%, while the prevalence of anaemia fell to 50.4%. The mean haemoglobinemia showed a statistically significant increase of 0.39 g/dl to reach 11.4 g/dl. Anaemia was no longer associated with S. haematobium or to P. falciparum infections, or to haematuria or ultrasound abnormalities of the urinary tract. Conclusions The high prevalence of anaemia in Nigerien children is clearly a result of many factors and not of schistosomiasis alone. Nevertheless, treatment of schistosomiasis and de-worming were followed by a partial, but significant, reduction of anaemia in schoolchildren, not explainable by any other obvious intervention.

Tohon, Zilahatou B.; Mainassara, Halima B.; Garba, Amadou; Mahamane, Ali E.; Bosque-Oliva, Elisa; Ibrahim, Maman-Laminou; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Chanteau, Suzanne; Boisier, Pascal



High levels of Schistosoma mansoni infections among schoolchildren in central Sudan one year after treatment with praziquantel.  


A longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate the impact of praziquantel (PZQ) for the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infection among schoolchildren in Al Gunaid in Central Sudan. A cohort of schoolchildren (6-15 years of age) was investigated before and 1 year after treatment with a single dose of PZQ 40 mg/kg. Parasitological examinations for S. mansoni were performed before and after treatment, and prevalence and intensity of infection were analysed. Of 2741 schoolchildren recruited from six elementary schools at baseline, 2521 were successfully traced and re-examined at follow-up, with two complete sets of longitudinal parasitological data on S. mansoni. Boys showed significantly higher prevalence of S. mansoni infection than girls. A single dose of PZQ reduced the overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection by 36.7% (from 59.1 to 37.4%) and the intensity of infection by 41.1% (from 116.7 to 68.7 eggs per gram of stool) 1 year after treatment. The reduction in prevalence was significantly higher among the group of children with heavy infections (by 76.1%, from 6.7 to 1.6%) and among girls (by 54.1%, 42.3 to 19.4%) at 1 year after treatment. Thus, in spite of a significant reduction in the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection 1 year after PZQ treatment, the prevalence of the disease was still high and further research is needed on this topic. PMID:21729382

Ahmed, A M; El Tash, L A; Mohamed, E Y; Adam, I



Preliminary evidence of transcriptional immunomodulation by praziquantel in bluefin tuna and Atlantic salmon in vitro cultures.  


Praziquantel (PZQ), long-used in veterinary and human medicine for the treatment of helminth parasites, is known to enhance humoral and cellular immune responsiveness in mammals but has unknown direct immunomodulatory capabilities in fish. In the present study, we examined the ability of PZQ to induce gene transcriptional changes in immune-competent primary tissue/organ cultures of two highly important yet evolutionarily discrete fish species - Southern bluefin tuna Thunnus maccoyii and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. These cultures consisted of mixed blood cell population for both species, as well as intestinal explants from bluefin. Although expression profiles varied between species and tissue/organ type, PZQ induced both T-cell receptor (more than twofold) and IL-8 transcriptional expression (more than fourfold). Additionally, increased expression of other inflammatory cytokines including IL-1? was detected in blood cell cultures from both species, and a general pattern of heightened antiviral signaling was observed. Specifically, elevated transcription of Type I (IFN?) and Type II (IFN?) interferon in Atlantic salmon blood cultures along with elevated expression of MHC class I in blood cultures of both species. These findings provide preliminary evidence for direct immunomodulation by PZQ in fish and insight into its potential capacity as an immune stimulant/adjuvant in the rapidly expanding aquaculture industry. PMID:24632044

Polinski, Mark; Bridle, Andrew; Neumann, Lukas; Nowak, Barbara



Influencing Factors for Cure of Clonorchiasis by Praziquantel Therapy: Infection Burden and CYP3A5 Gene Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapy of clonorchiasis with praziquantel (PZQ) is effective but about 15% of treated cases have been reported uncured. The present study investigated correlation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the cytochrome P450 gene, CYP3A5 and cure of clonorchiasis. A total of 346 egg passing residents were subjected and treated by 3 doses of 25 mg/kg PZQ. Reexamination recognized 33 (9.5%) uncured and 313 cured. Numbers of eggs per gram of feces (EPGs) before treatment were significantly lower in the cured group than in the uncured group (2,011.2±3,600.0 vs 4,998.5±7,012.0, P<0.001). DNAs of the subjects were screened for SNPs at 7 locations of CYP3A5 using PCR. In the uncured group, the SNP frequencies at g.-20555G>A and g.27526C>T of CYP3A5 were 15.2% and 9.1% while those were 3.8% and 1.0%, respectively, in the cured group. The cure rate was significantly lower in the cases with SNP at g.27526C>T and EPGs?1,000. In conclusion, EPGs and SNPs of CYP3A5 are factors which influence cure of clonorchiasis by PZQ therapy. It is strongly suggested to recommend 2-day medication for individuals with high EPGs?1,000.

Kim, Chung Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Keun; Chung, Byung-Suk; Li, Shunyu; Choi, Min-Ho



Processo de enfermagem informatizado em unidade de terapia intensiva: uma prática educativa com enfermeiros Computerized nursing process in intensive therapy unit: an educative practice with the nurses Proceso de enfermería informatizado en unidad de terapia intensiva: una práctica educativa con enfermeros  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Compreendendo-se que o processo de enfermagem é uma ferramenta imprescindível em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI), esta pesquisa convergente-assistencial objetivou avaliar a aplicação do Processo de Enfermagem informatizado, a partir da Classificação Internacional das Práticas de Enfermagem - CIPE® versão 1.0, com os enfermeiros da UTI do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Como estratégia de coleta

Daniela Couto; Carvalho BarraI; Grace Teresinha; Marcon Dal


UMA EXPERIÊNCIA COM O PROJETO MANHATTAN NO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL An experience with the Manhattan Project in the Elementary School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O presente artigo discute uma dissertação de mestrado que utilizou uma perspectiva educacio- nal voltada à formação de cidadãos e defendida na proposta de Edgar Morin e no relatório da UNESCO sobre educação para o século XXI. Para isso, aborda a importância de uma nova prática escolar, preocupa- da em manter o estudante como centro das atividades em sala

Rafaela Samagaia; Luiz O. Q. Peduzzi


Schistosoma japonicum calcium-binding tegumental protein SjTP22.4 immunization confers praziquantel schistosomulumicide and antifecundity effect in mice.  


A family of platyhelminth tegument-specific proteins comprising of one or two calcium ion binding EF-hand and a dynein light chain-like domain, termed tegumental proteins, are considered as candidates of vaccine. In this study, we cloned and characterized SjTP22.4, a novel membrane-anchored tegumental protein in Schistosoma japonicum with theoretic MW of 22.4. The recombinant SjTP22.4 could be recognized by S. japonicum infected sera. Immunofluorescence revealed that this protein is not only located on the surface of tegument of adult and schistosomulum and cercaria, but also in the parenchymatous tissues and intestinal epithelium. Circular dichroism (CD) measurement demonstrated rSjTP22.4 had Ca(2+)-binding ability. The rSjTP22.4 vaccination without adjuvants produced comparable high level of antibody with that of immunization with adjuvants together indicated it was an antigen of strong antigenicity. The level of IgG1 is much higher than that of IgG2a and IgE is nearly negative in S. japonicum-infected and rSjTP22.4 immunized mice. In cercaria challenge experiment, mice vaccinated with SjTP22.4 showed no reduction in adult burden and egg production, comparing with the control mice, but 41% decrease in egg mature rate and 32% reduction in liver egg granuloma area. However, the SjTP22.4 immunized mice that received praziquantel treatment at 10d post infection caused 26% reduction in adult burden and 53% decrease in egg mature rate, comparing with the control mice only received praziquantel treatment. In conclusion, SjTP22.4 is a valuable vaccine candidate for S. japonicum of anti-pathogenesis and anti-transmission effect and plays a synergetic role in praziquantel to kill schistosomulum. PMID:22683520

Zhang, Zhaoping; Xu, Hongxu; Gan, Wenjia; Zeng, Suxiang; Hu, Xuchu



iNOS-dependent DNA damage via NF-kappaB expression in hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini and its suppression by the antihelminthic drug praziquantel.  


Inflammation-mediated DNA damage triggered by Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection is a major risk factor of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). We have recently reported that nitrative and oxidative DNA damage participates in CCA development caused by repeated infection with OV [Pinlaor et al., Carcinogenesis 2004; 25:1535-42]. Therefore, to clarify the preventive effect of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel against cholangiocarcinogenesis, we assessed the effect of this drug on nitrative and oxidative DNA damage, including the formation of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by immunohistochemistry in OV-infected hamsters. We also examined the expression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which functions as a tumor promoter in inflammation-associated cancer. Our results showed that although 1-week treatment with praziquantel did not kill parasites completely in hamsters on days 14 and 30, this drug dramatically reduced inflammatory cell infiltration. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that drug treatment almost completely diminished OV-induced 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG formation in bile duct epithelial cells. Quantitative analysis using an electrochemical detector coupled to HPLC revealed that 8-oxodG level in the liver of OV-infected hamsters was significantly decreased by drug treatment (p<0.05). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that the expression of NF-kappaB and iNOS in bile duct epithelium was reduced by drug treatment. The amount of nitrate plus nitrite in the liver and plasma was significantly decreased after drug treatment. It is concluded that praziquantel can exhibit a preventive effect against OV-induced cholangiocarcinoma by inhibiting iNOS-dependent DNA damage through not only elimination of parasites but also a potential antiinflammatory effect. PMID:16570287

Pinlaor, Somchai; Hiraku, Yusuke; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Ma, Ning; Pinlaor, Porntip; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Sripa, Banchob; Murata, Mariko; Oikawa, Shinji; Kawanishi, Shosuke



Efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats.  


The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) at 0.12 mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10mg fipronil+12 mg S-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ? 99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (P<0.01). All cats accepted the treatment well based on health observations post-treatment and daily health observations. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability of the novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against a broad range of feline intestinal nematode and cestode infections. PMID:24703071

Knaus, Martin; Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Kok, Dawie J; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Alva, Roberto; Irwin, Jennifer; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen



Antibody response in mice infected with Mesocestoides vogae (syn. Mesocestoides corti) tetrathyridia after treatment with praziquantel and liposomised glucan.  


The therapeutic effect of praziquantel (PZQ) involves synergy with the humoral immune response during helminth infections, which is modulated by parasitic antigens. During experimental murine infections with the larval stage of cestoda Mesocestoides vogae (syn. M. corti), dynamic changes in the IgG and IgM antibody serum levels to both soluble somatic and secretory larval antigens were investigated after administration of PZQ alone and after its co-administration with the immunomodulator (l-->3)-beta-D-glucan entrapped in liposomes (lip.glucan). During the 2 weeks of follow-up after termination of therapy, specific IgG and IgM serum levels to the somatic antigens (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test) significantly decreased, whereas concentrations of the antibodies to the secretory antigens moderately increased, both in comparison with the control. Moreover, the number of immunogenic larval antigens (analysed by Western blot) was higher after combined therapy in comparison with single drug administration, which correlated with the intensity of reduction of the larval counts in the liver and peritoneal cavity of mice. Our data showed that administration of PZQ alone and in combination with lip.glucan resulted in marked changes in the dynamics of IgG and IgM antibodies to the somatic larval antigens, which were probably induced by the newly exposed antigens. In this respect, glucan can enhance chemotherapeutic activity of PZQ against larval cestodes by means of stimulation of the macrophage/monocyte effector functions, which seemed to contribute to the more intense larval damage. PMID:17252273

Hrckova, Gabriela; Velebný, Samuel; Kogan, Grigorij



Anthelmintic efficacies of a tablet formula of ivermectin-praziquantel on horses experimentally infected with three Strongylus species.  


In this blinded randomized and controlled study, the anthelmintic efficacy of a tablet formula of ivermectin-praziquantel was evaluated in horses experimentally infected with three species of Strongylus larvae. Eighteen previously dewormed horses were inoculated on study day 0 with third-stage larvae of Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus equinus, and Strongylus edentatus. The horses were randomly allocated to three groups (n = 6): test-drug (tablet formula), positive-control (reference gel), and negative-control (placebo tablet). On day 56, the horses were treated once with the respective drugs. On day 95, the horses were sacrificed, and necropsy examinations were performed to assess the status of the parasite burden (L4 and immature L5) and pathological lesions on selected organs and tissues. By the criteria of worm counts, the test-drug and positive-control showed, respectively, 100% and 97.3% anthelmintic efficacies on S. vulgaris, 100% and 81.4% on S. equinus, and equally 100% on S. edentatus. However, the efficacies on S. equinus and S. edentatus should be taken only as face values considering their respective low worm counts in the placebo group. The S. vulgaris-induced arterial lesions were also reduced in the test-drug and positive-control groups with efficacies of 73.9% and 62.9%, respectively. No adverse reactions were observed with either of the drugs. Our data demonstrate that the Equimax tablet formula was as safe and efficacious as the gel formula anthelmintic on large strongyles in horses. PMID:19488785

Bonneau, Stephane; Maynard, Laurence; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Kok, Dawid; Eun, Hyone-Myong



High excretion of etheno adducts in liver fluke-infected patients: protection by praziquantel against DNA damage.  


Chronic infection by Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) is a strong risk factor for developing cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). To clarify the involvement of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO)-derived DNA damage, the excretion of LPO-derived etheno DNA adducts was measured in urine samples collected from healthy volunteers and OV-infected Thai subjects. 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (epsilondA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (epsilondC) levels were quantified by immunoprecipitation/high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection and (32)P-postlabeling TLC. Excreted etheno adduct levels were related to indicators of inflammatory conditions [malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrate/nitrite levels in urine and plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity]. Mean epsilondA and epsilondC levels were 3 to 4 times higher in urine of OV-infected patients; MDA, nitrate/nitrite, and ALP were also increased up to 2-fold. MDA and ALP were positively related to epsilondA excretion. Two months after a single dose of the antiparasitic drug Praziquantel, epsilondA and epsilondC concentrations in urine of OV-infected subjects were decreased; MDA, nitrate/nitrite, and ALP were concomitantly lowered. We conclude that chronic OV infection through oxidative/nitrative stress leads to increased urinary excretion of the etheno-bridged deoxyribonucleosides, reflecting high LPO-derived DNA damage in vivo. These promutagenic DNA etheno adducts in bile duct epithelial cells may increase the risk of OV-infected patients to later develop CCA. Urinary epsilondA and epsilondC levels should be explored (a) as noninvasive risk markers for developing opisthorchiasis-related CCA and (b) as promising biomarkers to assess the efficacy of preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:18628417

Dechakhamphu, Somkid; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Nair, Jagadeesan; Pinlaor, Somchai; Sitthithaworn, Paiboon; Bartsch, Helmut



Observed Reductions in Schistosoma mansoni Transmission from Large-Scale Administration of Praziquantel in Uganda: A Mathematical Modelling Study  

PubMed Central

Background To date schistosomiasis control programmes based on chemotherapy have largely aimed at controlling morbidity in treated individuals rather than at suppressing transmission. In this study, a mathematical modelling approach was used to estimate reductions in the rate of Schistosoma mansoni reinfection following annual mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel in Uganda over four years (2003–2006). In doing this we aim to elucidate the benefits of MDA in reducing community transmission. Methods Age-structured models were fitted to a longitudinal cohort followed up across successive rounds of annual treatment for four years (Baseline: 2003, Treatment: 2004–2006; n?=?1,764). Instead of modelling contamination, infection and immunity processes separately, these functions were combined in order to estimate a composite force of infection (FOI), i.e., the rate of parasite acquisition by hosts. Results MDA achieved substantial and statistically significant reductions in the FOI following one round of treatment in areas of low baseline infection intensity, and following two rounds in areas with high and medium intensities. In all areas, the FOI remained suppressed following a third round of treatment. Conclusions/Significance This study represents one of the first attempts to monitor reductions in the FOI within a large-scale MDA schistosomiasis morbidity control programme in sub-Saharan Africa. The results indicate that the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative, as a model for other MDA programmes, is likely exerting a significant ancillary impact on reducing transmission within the community, and may provide health benefits to those who do not receive treatment. The results obtained will have implications for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis control programmes and the design of monitoring and evaluation approaches in general.

French, Michael D.; Churcher, Thomas S.; Gambhir, Manoj; Fenwick, Alan; Webster, Joanne P.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Basanez, Maria-Gloria



Chemometric quality inspection control of pyrantel pamoate, febantel and praziquantel in veterinary tablets by mid infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development and validation of a new multivariate calibration method based on diffuse reflectance mid infrared spectroscopy for direct and simultaneous determination of three veterinary pharmaceutical drugs, pyrantel pamoate, praziquantel and febantel, in commercial tablets. The best synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) model was obtained by selecting three spectral regions, 3715-3150, 2865-2583, and 2298-1733 cm-1, preprocessed by first derivative and Savitzky-Golay smoothing followed by mean centering. This model was built with five latent variables and provided root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) equal or lower than 0.69 mg per 100 mg of powder for the three analytes. The method was validated according the appropriate regulations through the estimate of figures of merit, such as trueness, precision, linearity, analytical sensitivity, bias and residual prediction deviation (RPD). Then, it was applied to three different veterinary pharmaceutical formulations found in the Brazilian market, in a situation of multi-product calibration, since the excipient composition of these commercial products, which was not known a priori, was modeled by an experimental design that scanned the likely content range of the possible constituents. The results were verified with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and were in agreement with the predicted values at 95% confidence level. The developed method presented the advantages of being simple, rapid, solvent free, and about ten times faster than the HPLC ones.

Piantavini, Mário S.; Pontes, Flávia L. D.; Uber, Caroline P.; Stremel, Dile P.; Sena, Marcelo M.; Pontarolo, Roberto


Efficacy in cats of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, praziquantel, against induced infestations of Echinococcus multilocularis.  


Although foxes are the main reservoir of Echinococcus multilocularis, it is recognized that dogs and cats also may become infected. In cats the infection and egg production rates are usually low. Nevertheless, cats are a potential source of transmission of E. multilocularis. Due to the high human medical significance of E. multilocularis infection, it is important in endemic areas that owned cats are dewormed regularly. This paper presents the efficacy results of a new topical formulation, Broadline(®) (Merial) tested against E. multilocularis infection in cats. Two blinded laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate this novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel against E. multilocularis. In each study, purpose-bred cats were assigned randomly to two treatment groups of 10 cats each: one untreated control group and one group treated at the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight to deliver 10mg fipronil, 12 mg (S)-methoprene, 0.5mg eprinomectin and 10mg praziquantel/kg bodyweight. The cats were inoculated orally with E. multilocularis protoscolices, 22 or 23 days before treatment. Based on necropsy and intestinal worm count, 8 or 11 days after treatment, the two studies confirmed 100% efficacy of Broadline(®) against adult E. multilocularis. PMID:24703072

Tielemans, Eric; Manavella, Coralie; Visser, Martin; Theodore Chester, S; Rosentel, Joseph



Modulation of dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine-induced liver lesion development in Opisthorchis-infected Syrian hamsters by praziquantel treatment in association with butylated hydroxyanisole or dehydroepiandrosterone administration.  


The effects of praziquantel coupled with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) administration 16 weeks subsequent to dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine (DHPN) treatment and infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) on lesion development in the liver of Syrian hamsters were investigated. Animals were given 80 OV metacercariae and then two i.p. injections of DHPN (500 mg/kg body weight) 4 and 5 weeks thereafter. At week 16, groups received praziquantel (250 mg/kg, i.g.) and were placed on normal diet or diet supplemented with BHA (1%) or DHEA (0.6%) until they were killed at week 24. Histopathological assessment revealed that, whereas antihelminthic treatment alone resulted in a clear reduction in hepatocellular lesion development, effects on cholangiocellular lesions were equivocal. BHA and DHEA, in contrast, were both associated with a significant reduction in frequency of cholangiofibrosis and cholangiocellular carcinoma. The former chemical, however, increased the numbers of liver nodules while the hormone brought about a decrease as well as a shift in the phenotype of the lesions. The results thus indicate that although cholangiocellular lesion development may, unlike generation of hepatocellular nodules, be to a certain extent independent of the continued presence of parasite, it can be influenced by exogenous treatments. PMID:9914779

Moore, M A; Thamavit, W; Tiwawech, D; Ito, N; Tsuda, H



Efficacy of praziquantel and reinfection patterns in single and mixed infection foci for intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis in Cameroon.  


The regular administration of the anthelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to school-aged children (and other high-risk groups) is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control. Whilst the performance of PZQ against single schistosome species infections is well-known, performance against mixed species infections is less so, as are patterns of re-infection following treatment. To address this, a study using a double treatment with PZQ, administered at 40 mg/kg spaced by 3 weeks, took place in two mixed intestinal-urogenital schistosomiasis foci in northern Cameroon (Bessoum and Ouro-Doukoudje) and in one single intestinal schistosomiasis infection focus (Makenene). A total of just under 1000 children were examined and the Schistosoma-infected children were re-examined at several parasitological follow-ups over a 1-year period posttreatment. Overall cure rates against Schistosoma spp. in the three settings were good, 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI)=77.9-87.7%) in Bessoum, 89.0% (95% CI=79.1-94.6%) in Ouro Doukoudje, and 95.3% (95% CI=89.5-98.0%) in Makenene. Interestingly, no case of mixed schistosome infection was found after treatment. Cure rates for S. mansoni varied from 99.5% to 100%, while that for S. haematobium were considerably lower, varying from 82.7% to 88.0%. Across transmission settings, patterns of re-infection for each schistosome species were different such that generalizations across foci were difficult. For example, at the 6-month follow-up, re-infection rates were higher for S. haematobium than for S. mansoni with re-infection rates for S. haematobium varying from 9.5% to 66.7%, while for S. mansoni, lower rates were observed, ranging between nil and 24.5%. At the 12-month follow-up, re-infection rates varied from 9.1% to 66.7% for S. haematobium and from nil to 27.6% for S. mansoni. Alongside these parasitological studies, concurrent malacological surveys took place to monitor the presence of intermediate host snails of schistosomiasis. In the two northern settings, three species of Bulinus (intermediate host snail of S. haematobium) were collected; i.e. Bulinus truncatus, B. globosus and B. senegalensis, however, Biomphalaria pfeifferi (intermediate host snail of S. mansoni) was much rarer despite repeated and intensive searching and was suggestive of limited local transmission potential of S. mansoni during this time. While this study highlights that performance of PZQ was satisfactory in this region, with somewhat greater impact upon intestinal than urogenital schistosomiasis, the dynamics of local transmission are shown, however, to be complex. PMID:23791803

Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Momo, Sabine C; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David



Efficacy of Praziquantel against Schistosoma mekongi and Opisthorchis viverrini: A Randomized, Single-Blinded Dose-Comparison Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis and opisthorchiasis are of public health importance in Southeast Asia. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for morbidity control but few dose comparisons have been made. Methodology Ninety-three schoolchildren were enrolled in an area of Lao PDR where Schistosoma mekongi and Opisthorchis viverrini coexist for a PZQ dose-comparison trial. Prevalence and intensity of infections were determined by a rigorous diagnostic effort (3 stool specimens, each examined with triplicate Kato-Katz) before and 28–30 days after treatment. Ninety children with full baseline data were randomized to receive PZQ: the 40 mg/kg standard single dose (n?=?45) or a 75 mg/kg total dose (50 mg/kg+25 mg/kg, 4 hours apart; n?=?45). Adverse events were assessed at 3 and 24 hours posttreatment. Principal Findings Baseline infection prevalence of S. mekongi and O. viverrini were 87.8% and 98.9%, respectively. S. mekongi cure rates were 75.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 56.6–88.5%) and 80.8% (95% CI: 60.6–93.4%) for 40 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg PZQ, respectively (P?=?0.60). O. viverrini cure rates were significantly different at 71.4% (95% CI: 53.4–84.4%) and 96.6% (95% CI: not defined), respectively (P?=?0.009). Egg reduction rates (ERRs) against O. viverrini were very high for both doses (>99%), but slightly lower for S. mekongi at 40 mg/kg (96.4% vs. 98.1%) and not influenced by increasing diagnostic effort. O. viverrini cure rates would have been overestimated and no statistical difference between doses found if efficacy was based on a minimum sampling effort (single Kato-Katz before and after treatment). Adverse events were common (96%), mainly mild with no significant differences between the two treatment groups. Conclusions/Significance Cure rate from the 75 mg/kg PZQ dose was more efficacious than 40 mg/kg against O. viverrini but not against S. mekongi infections, while ERRs were similar for both doses. Trial Registration ISRCTN57714676

Phongluxa, Khampheng; Aye Soukhathammavong, Phonepasong; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Keiser, Jennifer; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tanner, Marcel; Hatz, Christoph; Utzinger, Jurg; Odermatt, Peter; Akkhavong, Kongsap



Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against larval and adult stages of the cat lungworm, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus.  


The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 8.3% w/v, (S)-methoprene 10% w/v, eprinomectin 0.4% w/v, and praziquantel 8.3% w/v (BROADLINE(®),(1) Merial) against larval and adult Aelurostrongylus abstrusus lungworms in cats was assessed in a controlled laboratory study. The study included 48 purpose-bred, short-haired cats which were each inoculated with 225 infective A. abstrusus larvae. The cats were formed into eight blocks based on pre-treatment bodyweight and were then, within each block, randomly allocated to one of six treatment groups: untreated control; treated once when A. abstrusus were expected to be third-stage larvae (4 days post inoculation [dpi]), fourth-stage larvae (7 dpi), immature adults (14 dpi) or adult nematodes (32 dpi), or treated twice, once when A. abstrusus were expected to be third-stage larval and once again when A. abstrusus were expected to be adult nematodes (4 dpi+32 dpi). Cats weighing ? 0.8-2.5 kg received one 0.3 mL applicator and cats weighing >2.5-7.5 kg received one 0.9 mL applicator. For determination of the efficacy of treatments, lungworm larval counts were established on faecal samples collected from all cats 32, 39, 46, 53 and 60 dpi. At each occasion from 46 dpi on, cats treated with fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel had significantly lower A. abstrusus larval counts than the untreated controls with percentage reductions of 91.6% (cats treated 14dpi; P=0.012), ? 98.9% (cats treated either 4 dpi, 7 dpi or 32 dpi; P<0.001) or >99.9% (cats treated 4 dpi+32 dpi; P<0.001) at 60 dpi. Thus, the novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was highly effective in the prevention and treatment of A. abstrusus lungworm infection in cats. PMID:24703080

Knaus, Martin; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Kühnert, Axel; Rehbein, Steffen



Combination therapy using Pentostam and Praziquantel improves lesion healing and parasite resolution in BALB/c mice co-infected with Leishmania major and Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Background Most natural host populations are exposed to a diversity of parasite communities and co-infection of hosts by multiple parasites is commonplace across a diverse range of systems. Co-infection with Leishmania major and Schistosoma mansoni may have important consequences for disease development, severity and transmission dynamics. Pentavalent antimonials and Praziquantel (PZQ) have been relied upon as a first line of treatment for Leishmania and Schistosoma infections respectively. However, it is not clear how combined therapy with the standard drugs will affect the host and parasite burden in concomitance. The aim of the current study was to determine the efficacy of combined chemotherapy using Pentostam and PZQ in BALB/c mice co-infected with L. major and S. mansoni. Methods The study used BALB/c mice infected with L. major and S. mansoni. A 3?×?4 factorial design with three parasite infection groups (Lm, Sm, Lm?+?Sm designated as groups infected with L. major, S. mansoni and L. major?+?S. mansoni, respectively) and four treatment regimens [P, PZQ, P?+?PZQ and PBS designating Pentostam®(GlaxoSmithKline UK), Praziquantel (Biltricide®, Bayer Ag. Leverkusen, Germany), Pentostam?+?Praziquantel and Phosphate buffered saline] as factors was applied. In each treatment group, there were 10 mice. Lesion development was monitored for 10 weeks. The parasite load, body weight, weight of the spleen and liver were determined between week 8 and week 10. Results Chemotherapy using the first line of treatment for L. major and S. mansoni reduced the lesion size and parasite loads but did not affect the growth response, spleen and liver. In the co-infected BALB/c mice, the use of Pentostam or PZQ did not result in any appreciable disease management. However, treatment with P?+?PZQ resulted in significantly (p?



Efficacy of a milbemycin oxime-praziquantel combination product against adult and immature stages of Toxocara cati in cats and kittens after induced infection.  


Two studies were performed to examine the efficacy of milbemycin oxime against fourth-stage larvae or adults of Toxocara cati. In the study to determine efficacy against fourth-stage larvae, 20 domestic shorthair cats were inoculated with 500 embryonated eggs. Four weeks after inoculation, the animals were allocated to two groups, and cats in one group were treated with medicated tablets containing 4 mg milbemycin oxime and 10mg praziquantel (MILBEMAX) and cats in the other group with placebo tablets. Seven days after treatment the animals were euthanatized and necropsied for worm counting. The number of worms found was significantly (p=0.0002) lower in cats treated with medicated tablets than in cats treated with placebo tablets. The reduction in the number of worms was 96.53%. In the study to determine efficacy against mature adult worms, 13 kittens were inoculated with T. cati embryonated eggs. On day 45 after inoculation and after the infection had been confirmed through faecal examinations for 11 out of the 13 animals, the 11 infected animals were allocated to two groups and treated as in the first study. Seven days after treatment, all animals were euthanatized and necropsied for worm counting. The number of worms found was significantly (p=0.0043) lower in kittens treated with medicated tablets than in kittens treated with placebo tablets. The reduction in the number of worms was 95.90%. No adverse effects were recorded during either study. It is concluded that the milbemycin oxime-praziquantel tablets that were used are efficacious for the control of T. cati infections in cats. PMID:17140736

Schenker, R; Bowman, D; Epe, C; Cody, R; Seewald, W; Strehlau, G; Junquera, P



Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against adult and larval stages of Toxocara cati in cats.  


The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v), and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) was evaluated against adult and larval Toxocara cati in four controlled studies. All studies included experimentally infected, purpose-bred, short-haired cats. In two studies, 22 or 20 cats harbouring patent infections as confirmed by pre-treatment faecal examination, were included. Within each study, cats were allocated to one of two groups: control or treated. In a further two studies, 30 cats were included in each; cats were allocated to one of three groups: control, treated when T. cati were expected to be either migrating third and/or fourth-stage larvae, or treated when T. cati were expected to be fourth-stage larvae. Cats allocated to the treated groups received a single topical application of the combination product at 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight (10mg fipronil+12 mg (S)-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg). For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely at different intervals after treatment. In the studies targeting adult T. cati, ascarids were recovered from all controls (range 1-150) while only two worms were isolated from one treated cat. Thus, the efficacy of the novel combination was 99.4% and 100% against adult T. cati. For studies targeting larval T. cati, up to 21 worms were recovered from each of seven or eight of the control cats per study. No T. cati were recovered from the treated cats in two studies, corresponding to 100% efficacy against both, migrating third and/or fourth-stage larvae and luminal fourth-stage larvae. All cats accepted the treatment well and no adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. PMID:24703074

Knaus, Martin; Baker, Christine F; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Rehbein, Steffen



Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against feline urinary bladder worm (Capillaria plica) infection.  


Infection with urinary capillarid bladder worms has been observed in cats worldwide. Although considered as generally causing no or little harm, infection with urinary capillarids may be associated with clinical disease which requires an appropriate treatment including the use of anthelmintics. Therefore, the efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v), and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) was evaluated against urinary capillarids in naturally infected cats. Sixteen European Short Hair cats (5 male, 11 female) with capillarid eggs in their urine pre-treatment were included in the study. At the time of treatment, the cats were approximately ten months to eight years old and weighed 1.6-3.6 kg. Cats were ranked based on decreasing bodyweight and then randomly allocated within replicates of two animals to one of the treatment groups. Each cat in the treated group received one topical application of the combination product at the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.12 mL/kg body weight delivering 10mg fipronil+12 mg (S)-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kilogram of body weight while the cats allocated to the control group remained untreated. For parasite recovery, identification and count, cats were euthanized humanely 14 days after treatment. All untreated cats harboured Capillaria plica in their urinary bladders (range 4-12), while no capillarids were recovered from the eight treated cats. Thus, the efficacy of the novel topical combination against C. plica was 100%. All cats accepted the treatment well based on post-treatment observations and daily observations thereafter. No adverse events or other health problems were observed during the study. PMID:24703076

Knaus, Martin; Shukullari, Enstela; Rosentel, Joseph; Rehbein, Steffen



· • Estudo baseado na teoria piagetiana sobre a fidelidade em dois contos de As Mil e uma Noites na versão de Galland 1 Study based on Piaget's theory about fidelity in two stories extracted from \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Caracteriza-se por um estudo teórico numa visão piagetiana sobre dois contos da coletânea As Mil e uma Noites na versão de Galland. O objetivo é analisar, nas narrativas, a virtude e a fidelidade, verificando se as relações entre os personagens são mantidas pelo amor, pelo respeito mútuo e relações de eqüidade ou pelo medo e obediência apresentado entre os

Luana Carramillo Going


Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.



Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosomiasis mansoni in schoolchildren in Shesha Kekele Elementary School, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of praziquantel (PZQ) in the treatment of schistosomiasis in Ethiopia. Methods In a cross-sectional study, stool specimens were collected from randomly selected 299 school children in Shesha Kekele Elementary School, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia, in April 2010. Stool specimens were examined using a single Kato-Katz thick smear for Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) ova. Children who were found positive for S. mansoni were treated with a single oral dose of PZQ at 40 mg/kg bw and interviewed for treatment-related symptoms 24 hours after drug administration. Four weeks post-treatment, stool specimens were collected from the same children and examined following the same procedure as in the pre-treatment. Drug efficacy was determined based on cure and egg reduction rates. Results Pre-treatment prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 74.9% with geometric mean egg count of 268. The evaluated generic PZQ produced an overall cure rate of 73.6% (P<0.000 1, OR: 8.33, CI: 5.3–13.1) and egg reduction rate of 68.2% (P=0.03, F=0.64). The cure rate showed significant association with age (?2=11, P=0.004), the highest rate being observed in the 15–22 age group. 83% of S. mansoni infected children showed various treatment-related symptoms, the most frequent being headache, nausea, and abdominal pain. These symptoms were associated with age (P<0.001) and pre-treatment intensity of infection (P<0.05). Conclusions The present observations revealed relatively lower cure and egg reduction rates of the PZQ evaluated as compared to previous reports for other PZQ brands in Ethiopia. Hence, in depth studies are recommended to clarify whether the present relatively lower cure rate is the actual cure rate of the praziquantel evaluated, treatment failure, or reduced susceptibility of the parasite. Treatment-related side effects observed were transient and tolerable.

Erko, Berhanu; Degarege, Abraham; Tadesse, Konjit; Mathiwos, Asnake; Legesse, Mengistu



Therapeutic efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel oral formulation (Milbemax(R)) against Thelazia callipaeda in naturally infested dogs and cats  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last few decades, canine and feline thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda eye worms has gained the attention of the veterinary community due to the spread of this ocular infestation in geographical areas previously regarded as non endemic. The therapeutic efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel tablets (Milbemax®) against T. callipaeda was tested in naturally infested dogs and cats. Methods From January 2009 to July 2011 a placebo controlled and randomized field study was conducted in T. callipaeda endemic areas of Switzerland (CH) and Italy (ITA) involving client-owned animals. Dogs (n?=?56) and cats (n?=?31) were physically examined at enrolment Day 0 (D0) and twice afterwards (D7 and D14). Infested animals were orally treated with Milbemax® or with placebo tablets on D0 and, if an animal was found still infested with T. callipaeda, also on D7. On D14 nematodes were flushed from the conjunctiva, identified and counted. Results Out of 56 dogs, 43 were included in the statistical analysis, whereas 13 were excluded because the products under investigation were not administered with food, as required by the label. On D7 and D14, 72.7% and 90.9% of treated dogs were eye worm free, whereas in the placebo group 95.2% and 76.2% still harbored nematodes, resulting in a mean percentage worm count reduction for the Milbemax® group of 86.1% and 96.8%, respectively. Both results were significantly higher (p?=?0.0001) than the placebo group. Out of the 31 cats included in the study at D7 and D14, 53.3% and 73.3% treated with Milbemax® were free of T. callipaeda, while 81.3% and 73.3 in the placebo group were still harbouring eye worms, resulting in a mean percentage worm count reduction for the treated group of 62.2% and 80.0%, respectively. Both results were significantly higher (p?=?0.0106 and p?=?0.0043) than the placebo group. Conclusions The commercial formulation of milbemycin oxime at the minimal dose of 0.5 mg/kg and 2 mg/k in dogs and cats, respectively, showed a high therapeutic efficacy in curing T. callipaeda infestations. The advantages of an oral application are additionally increased by the large spectrum of activity of praziquantel and milbemycin oxime against Cestodes and Nematodes infesting dogs and cats.



Use of Praziquantel as an Adjuvant Enhances Protection and Tc-17 Responses to Killed H5N1 Virus Vaccine in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background H5N1 is a highly pathogenic influenza A virus, which can cause severe illness or even death in humans. Although the widely used killed vaccines are able to provide some protection against infection via neutralizing antibodies, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses that are thought to eradicate viral infections are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Aiming to promote cytotoxic responses against H5N1 infection, we extended our previous finding that praziquantel (PZQ) can act as an adjuvant to induce IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc17). We found that a single immunization of 57BL/6 mice with killed viral vaccine plus PZQ induced antigen-specific Tc17 cells, some of which also secreted IFN-?. The induced Tc17 had cytolytic activities. Induction of these cells was impaired in CD8 knockout (KO) or IFN-? KO mice, and was even lower in IL-17 KO mice. Importantly, the inoculation of killed vaccine with PZQ significantly reduced virus loads in the lung tissues and prolonged survival. Protection against H5N1 virus infection was obtained by adoptively transferring PZQ-primed wild type CD8+ T cells and this was more effective than transfer of activated IFN-? KO or IL-17 KO CD8+ T cells. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that adding PZQ to killed H5N1 vaccine could promote broad Tc17-mediated cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity, resulting in improved control of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection.

Zou, Qiang; Hu, Yanxin; Xue, Jia; Fan, Xiaoxu; Jin, Yi; Shi, Xianghua; Meng, Di; Wang, Xianzheng; Feng, Congcong; Xie, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yizhi; Kang, Youmin; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Wu, Bing; Wang, Ming; Wang, Bin



Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel, against the ticks, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis, on cats.  


Five controlled, blinded and randomized studies were conducted to examine the efficacy of a single topical application of a combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel (BROADLINE(®), Merial) against induced infestations with Ixodes ticks on cats. Three studies investigated the efficacy against Ixodes ricinus and two against Ixodes scapularis. In each study, purpose-bred cats were assigned at random to an untreated group or to a treated group. For the studies using I. ricinus, cats were infested with 50 female ticks and a similar number of males 2 days before treatment application, and weekly afterwards on between four and six occasions. For the studies using I. scapularis, cats were infested with a total of 50 ticks (approximately 25 females and 25 males) according to the same schedule as for I. ricinus. Tick counts for the evaluation of efficacy were performed 48 h after treatment and 48 h after the subsequent weekly infestations. Weekly attachment rates to untreated cats of at least 29% for I. ricinus and at least 30% for I. scapularis demonstrated consistently that the ticks were vigorous and that the attachment rates were adequate for efficacy evaluation. In the I. ricinus studies, an efficacy of at least 93% was demonstrated for up to 37 days after the treatment. In the I. scapularis studies, the efficacy level was at least 95% 30 days after the treatment. The product was well tolerated and caused no adverse reaction. PMID:24703079

Tielemans, E; Prullage, J; Knaus, M; Visser, M; Manavella, C; Chester, S T; Young, David; Everett, William R; Rosentel, J



Closing the praziquantel treatment gap: new steps in epidemiological monitoring and control of schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool-aged children  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Where very young children come into contact with water containing schistosome cercariae, infections occur and schistosomiasis can be found. In high transmission environments, where mothers daily bathe their children with environmentally drawn water, many infants and preschool-aged children have schistosomiasis. This ‘new’ burden, inclusive of co-infections with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni, is being formally explored as infected children are not presently targeted to receive praziquantel (PZQ) within current preventive chemotherapy campaigns. Thus an important PZQ treatment gap exists whereby infected children might wait up to 4–5 years before receiving first treatment in school. International treatment guidelines, set within national treatment platforms, are presently being modified to provide earlier access to medication(s). Although detailed pharmacokinetic studies are needed, to facilitate pragmatic dosing in the field, an extended ‘dose pole’ has been devised and epidemiological monitoring has shown that administration of PZQ (40 mg/kg), in either crushed tablet or liquid suspension, is both safe and effective in this younger age-class; drug efficacy, however, against S. mansoni appears to diminish after repeated rounds of treatment. Thus use of PZQ should be combined with appropriate health education/water hygiene improvements for both child and mother to bring forth a more enduring solution.




Efficacy and safety of emodepside 2.1%/praziquantel 8.6% spot-on formulation in the treatment of feline aelurostrongylosis.  


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the antiparasitic spot-on formulation containing emodepside 2.1%/praziquantel 8.6% (Profender, Bayer) in the treatment of natural feline infection with the lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda, Strongylida). Efficacy of Profender given once at the licensed dose was tested in comparison to a control oral formulation containing fenbendazole 18.75% (Panacur, Intervet) given over three consecutive days at the licensed dose. Efficacy assessment was based on larvae per gramme of faeces (LPG) counts, measured on days 28 +/- 2 following treatment and compared to counts on days -6 to -2. In total 24 cats treated either with Profender (n = 12) or with Panacur (n = 12) were included in the assessment of efficacy and safety. Mean LPG post-baseline counts (days 28 +/- 2) were 1.3 LPG for both Profender and Panacur, demonstrating similar efficacy of 99.38% for Profender and 99.29% for the control product. No treated animals showed adverse events. This trial demonstrated that both Profender spot-on formulation and oral paste Panacur are safe and effective in the treatment of aelurotrongylosis in cats. Future practical perspectives in feline medicine and the major advantages of the spot-on product compared to the oral paste are discussed. PMID:19575229

Traversa, Donato; Milillo, Piermarino; Di Cesare, Angela; Lohr, Beate; Iorio, Raffaella; Pampurini, Fabrizio; Schaper, Roland; Bartolini, Roberto; Heine, Josef



Urine heme dipsticks are useful in monitoring the impact of Praziquantel treatment on Schistosoma haematobium in sentinel communities of Delta State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Nigeria is highly endemic for infection with Schistosoma haematobium, which most commonly manifests itself with blood in urine. To monitor the impact of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel for S. haematobium in Delta State, Nigeria, cross-sectional hematuria surveys of school children were conducted in 8 sentinel villages (SVs) at baseline (n=240) and after two annual doses (n=402). We assessed the comparability of three assessments of hematuria (child’s reported history, nurse visual diagnosis (NVD) and dipstick) to determine the need for mass treatment. Dipstick was considered to be the gold standard. Prior to treatment, history and NVD each identified only the 3 most highly prevalent SVs, and overall this represented just 37.5% of the 8 SVs in need of treatment. Following treatment, after dipstick prevalence decreased by 88.5% (p<0.001), and history and NVD identified only one of two villages still needing treatment. The study suggests that dipsticks should be the recommended method for launching and monitoring mass treatment for S. haematobium.

Emukah, Emmanuel; Gutman, Julie; Eguagie, John; Miri, Emmanuel S; Yinkore, Paul; Okocha, Ndudi; Jibunor, Victoria; Obiageli, Nebe; Ikenna, Nwoye Augustine; Richards, Frank O.



[Long-term impact of a mass treatment by praziquantel on morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium in two hyperendemic villages of Niger].  


Although it is established that the treatment by praziquantel reduces the urinary lesions due to Schistosoma haematobium, the frequency of mass treatment necessary to maintain a low morbidity level remains poorly known. The objective of this work was to study the impact over three years of a single praziquantel mass treatment on schistosomiasis morbidity in two different systems of disease transmission in Niger. The study was performed in 2 villages hyperendemic for schistosomiasis in the South-West of Niger presenting respectively 2 different systems of schistosomiasis transmission: Koutoukalé-Zéno (K Zéno), located close to an irrigated area of the Niger River Valley where the transmission is permanent, and Téguey located along a temporary pond where the transmission is seasonal. After the initial evaluation (1994), we carried out a survey 3 years later (1997) except in K. Zéno where an intermediate evaluation was performed 10 months after the initial survey (1995). Approximately 300 randomised people have been examined as follows: macroscopic examination of urine and reagent sticks for macro- and micro-haematuria, filtration and microscopic examination of urine for Schistosoma eggs, and ultrasound scan of the urinary tract for morbidity. The therapeutic coverage has reached 69.9% in K. Zéno and 78.2% in Téguey. The prevalence of infestation decreased from 74.1% to 56.4 % in K. Zéno (p < 0.001) and from 65.3% to 30.4% in Téguey (p < 0.001) at the end of the 3 years. The prevalence of heavy infestation (eggs > or = 50) went in the same time from 9.9% to 12.8% (p = 0.3) in K. Zéno and from 9.1% to 3.3% in Téguey (p = 0.01). Using ultrasound scan, the prevalence of the bladder lesions reached its previous level in both villages. However the prevalence of hydronephrosis decreased from 21.1% to 3.9% in K. éno (p < 0.001) and from 12.6% to 4.2% in Téguey (p < 0.001). Three years after the single mass treatment, the morbidity did not reach the initial level. The effectiveness of the treatment is better in the pond system where the transmission is seasonal. The lesions of the upper tract decreased more slowly than the bladder lesions, but a long time after the treatment. The re-infestation induced the re-appearance of the bladder lesions sooner than the lesions of the upper tract. The periodicity of the treatment should be variable according to the transmission system. It should occur every 2 years in irrigated areas and could be delayed (3 years) in temporary ponds. The control was beneficial in the pond system and induced a significant reduction of the severe lesions. PMID:15104149

Garba, A; Campagne, G; Tassie, J M; Barkire, A; Vera, C; Sellin, B; Chippaux, J P



A Latent Markov Modelling Approach to the Evaluation of Circulating Cathodic Antigen Strips for Schistosomiasis Diagnosis Pre- and Post-Praziquantel Treatment in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Regular treatment with praziquantel (PZQ) is the strategy for human schistosomiasis control aiming to prevent morbidity in later life. With the recent resolution on schistosomiasis elimination by the 65th World Health Assembly, appropriate diagnostic tools to inform interventions are keys to their success. We present a discrete Markov chains modelling framework that deals with the longitudinal study design and the measurement error in the diagnostic methods under study. A longitudinal detailed dataset from Uganda, in which one or two doses of PZQ treatment were provided, was analyzed through Latent Markov Models (LMMs). The aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA) and of double Kato-Katz (KK) faecal slides over three consecutive days for Schistosoma mansoni infection simultaneously by age group at baseline and at two follow-up times post treatment. Diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities and the true underlying infection prevalence over time as well as the probabilities of transitions between infected and uninfected states are provided. The estimated transition probability matrices provide parsimonious yet important insights into the re-infection and cure rates in the two age groups. We show that the CCA diagnostic performance remained constant after PZQ treatment and that this test was overall more sensitive but less specific than single-day double KK for the diagnosis of S. mansoni infection. The probability of clearing infection from baseline to 9 weeks was higher among those who received two PZQ doses compared to one PZQ dose for both age groups, with much higher re-infection rates among children compared to adolescents and adults. We recommend LMMs as a useful methodology for monitoring and evaluation and treatment decision research as well as CCA for mapping surveys of S. mansoni infection, although additional diagnostic tools should be incorporated in schistosomiasis elimination programs.

Koukounari, Artemis; Donnelly, Christl A.; Moustaki, Irini; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Wilson, Shona; Webster, Joanne P.; Deelder, Andre M.; Vennervald, Birgitte J.; van Dam, Govert J.



A programme to reduce the risk of infection by Echinococcus multilocularis: the use of praziquantel to control the cestode in a village in the hyperendemic region of Alaska.  


This paper reports the results of a 10-year field trial designed to reduce the risk of infection by Echinococcus multilocularis to residents of a village in a hyperendemic area (Savoonga, St. Lawrence Island). The objective was to prevent dispersal of infective eggs of the cestode within the village by means of monthly treatments of dogs with praziquantel. Northern voles, Microtus oeconomus, present in the village as commensals, served as an index of risk, as the incidence of infection in the voles provides information about the availability of eggs within the confines of the inhabited area. Voles were examined annually during early June before the population of overwintering voles was diluted by the first annual litters. The pretreatment infection-rate within the village was 29% (range 22-35%), and in control areas at some distance from the village for the entire study period it averaged 53% (284 infected voles from a sample of 533). Some fluctuation in incidence of infection in village voles occurred, apparently depending on the extent to which the residents kept their dogs chained and thus available for treatment. The success of the programme was demonstrated by the reduction in prevalence of infection to about 1% of voles in 1985, and an average infection rate during the last five years of the study of 5% (29 infected voles in a sample of 582). This 83% average reduction in the prevalence of the larval cestode within the village reflects a corresponding reduction in the risk of acquiring by the residents of the village. The method would be applicable for the control of E. multilocularis in most hyperendemic regions. Success depends, however, on elimination of unrestrained dogs and a precise schedule of treatment. PMID:2222026

Rausch, R L; Wilson, J F; Schantz, P M



The impact of single versus mixed schistosome species infections on liver, spleen and bladder morbidity within Malian children pre- and post-praziquantel treatment  

PubMed Central

Background In the developing world co-infections and polyparasitism within humans appear to be the rule rather than the exception, be it any combination of inter-specific and/or inter- and intra-Genera mixed infections. Mixed infections might generate synergistic or antagonistic interactions and thereby clinically affect individuals and/or impact parasite epidemiology. Methods The current study uniquely assesses both Schistosoma mansoni- and Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity of the liver and the bladder as assessed by ultrasound as well as spleen and liver morbidity through clinical exams. The impact of praziquantel (PZQ) treatment on such potential inter-specific schistosome interactions and resulting morbidity using uniquely detailed longitudinal data (pre- and one year post-PZQ treatment) arising from the National Schistosomiasis Control Program in three areas of Mali: Ségou, Koulikoro and Bamako, is also evaluated. At baseline, data were collected from up to 2196 children (aged 7-14 years), 844 of which were infected with S. haematobium only, 124 with S. mansoni only and 477 with both. Follow-up data were collected from up to 1265 children. Results Results suggested lower liver morbidity in mixed compared to single S. mansoni infections and higher bladder morbidity in mixed compared to single S. haematobium infections. Single S. haematobium or S. mansoni infections were also associated with liver and spleen morbidity whilst only single S. haematobium infections were associated with bladder morbidity in these children (light S. haematobium infection OR: 4.3, p < 0.001 and heavy S. haematobium infection OR: 19, p < 0.001). PZQ treatment contributed to the regression of some of the forms of such morbidities. Conclusions Whilst the precise biological mechanisms for these observations remain to be ascertained, the results illustrate the importance of considering mixed species infections in any analyses of parasite-induced morbidity, including that for the proposed Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) revised estimates of schistosomiasis morbidity.



Lipid peroxidation and etheno DNA adducts in white blood cells of liver fluke-infected patients: protection by plasma alpha-tocopherol and praziquantel.  


Chronic infection by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a strong risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma. To clarify the involvement of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation-derived DNA damage, etheno (epsilon)-DNA adducts (epsilondA, epsilondC) in WBC and plasma alpha-tocopherol were measured in samples collected from O. viverrini-infected Thai patients (n = 50) and healthy noninfected volunteers (n = 20). epsilondA and epsilondC levels were three to five times higher (P < 0.001) in infected patients than in controls; O. viverrini infection also increased two to three times in the plasma inflammatory indicators, 8-isoprostane, malondialdehyde, and nitrate/nitrite. Mean plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were two times lower in patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.001). Two months after a single dose to infected patients of the antiparasitic drug praziquantel, epsilondA and epsilondC levels in WBC were decreased to control level (P < 0.03); plasma 8-isoprostane, malondialdehyde, nitrate/nitrite, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were concomitantly lowered. epsilondA and epsilondC levels in WBC were positively correlated with plasma 8-isoprostane, malondialdehyde, and nitrate/nitrite levels and ALP activity, whereas plasma alpha-tocopherol levels showed inverse correlations. We conclude that chronic O.viverrini infection induces an accumulation of lipid peroxidation-derived DNA damage through oxidative/nitrative stress, which is lowered by the plasma alpha-tocopherol and by antiparasitic drug therapy. Etheno adducts in WBC and urine should be explored as a risk marker for opisthorchiasis-related cholangiocarcinoma, and to assess the efficacy of preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:20056652

Dechakhamphu, Somkid; Pinlaor, Somchai; Sitthithaworn, Paiboon; Nair, Jagadeesan; Bartsch, Helmut; Yongvanit, Puangrat



Response of Schistosoma mansoni isolates having different drug sensitivity to praziquantel over several life cycle passages with and without therapeutic pressure.  


The stability of praziquantel (PZQ)-insusceptible S. mansoni isolates and the possible selection of PZQ-insusceptible parasites upon applying therapeutic pressure were examined over several life cycle passages (snails to mice). To test isolate stability, 3 PZQ-susceptible and 7 PZQ-insusceptible isolates were used to establish infection in mice, and they were passaged each for 2-5 life cycles. After each passage, 6 groups of mice were used to assess the PZQ dose at which the worm burden was decreased by 50% (ED50). Five of them were treated with doses of PZQ (12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg for 5 days) 7 wk after infection; the last group represented infected, but untreated, controls. Possible selection of PZQ-insusceptible parasites under therapeutic pressure was examined by subjecting 1 PZQ-susceptible and 1 PZQ-insusceptible S. mansoni isolate to therapeutic pressure by PZQ for 8 passages. After the final passage, PZQ ED50 was estimated. All PZQ-susceptible S. mansoni isolates showed stable susceptibility to PZQ (mean PZQ ED50 = 85 mg/kg) over all passages. Two of the 7 PZQ-insusceptible S. mansoni isolates (847 and ER5) showed normal sensitivity to PZQ in 1-2 passages (although not the last passage, and without a declining ED50 profile), whereas the remaining passages kept a sustained insusceptibility to the drug (mean PZQ ED50 = 217 mg/kg). Worm maturity and sex were irrelevant to variability in drug ED50 within an individual isolate over different passages, revealing the heterogeneous nature of the parasite. Therapeutic pressure for limited life cycle passages did not result in a significant increase in drug ED50. The fact that reversion of some of the PZQ-insusceptible S. mansoni isolates to normal drug-sensitive state is not long lasting and that the therapeutic pressure by PZQ in the field is not comparable with that in the laboratory (unlimited), make monitoring the response of patients to the drug in the field an integral part of schistosomiasis control measures. PMID:18564758

Sabra, Abdel Nasser A; Botros, Sanaa S



Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of eprinomectin in cats when administered in a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel.  


Four studies were conducted to determine the pharmacokinetic characteristics and in vitro metabolism of eprinomectin, a semi-synthetic avermectin, in cats. Pharmacokinetic parameters including bioavailability of eprinomectin were determined in a parallel study design comprised of one group of eight cats which were treated once topically at 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight with BROADLINE(®), a novel combination product (fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v) and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v)), delivering a dose of 0.5mg eprinomectin per kg body weight, and a group of six cats which received 0.4% (w/v) eprinomectin at 0.4 mg/kg bodyweight once by intravenous injection. For cats treated by topical application, the average eprinomectin (B1a component) maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 20 ng/mL. The maximum concentrations were reached 24h after dosing in the majority of the animals (six of eight cats). The average terminal half-life was 114 h due to slow absorption ('flip-flop' kinetics). Following intravenous administration the average Cmax was 503 ng/mL at 5 min post-dose, and the mean elimination half-life was 23 h. Eprinomectin was widely distributed with a mean volume of distribution of 2,390 mL/kg, and the clearance rate was 81 mL/h/kg. Mean areas under the plasma concentration versus time curves extrapolated to infinity were 2,100 ngh/mL and 5,160 ngh/mL for the topical and intravenous doses, respectively. Topical eprinomectin was absorbed with an average absolute bioavailability of 31%. In a second parallel design study, the dose proportionality of eprinomectin after single topical administration of BROADLINE(®) was studied. Four groups of eight cats each were treated once topically with 0.5, 1, 2 or 5 times the minimum recommended dose of the combination, 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight. Based on comparison of areas under the plasma concentration versus time curves from the time of dosing to the last time point at which eprinomectin B1a was quantified, and Cmax, dose proportionality was established. In addition, the metabolic pathway of eprinomectin using cat liver microsomes, and plasma protein binding using cat, rat, and dog plasma were studied in vitro. Results of the analyses of eprinomectin B1a described here showed that it is metabolically stable and highly protein bound (>99%), and thus likely to be, as with other species, excreted mainly as unchanged parent drug in the feces of cats. PMID:24703069

Kvaternick, Valerie; Kellermann, Michael; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen; Rosentel, Joseph



Cytokine Responses to the Anti-schistosome Vaccine Candidate Antigen Glutathione-S-transferase Vary with Host Age and Are Boosted by Praziquantel Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Improved helminth control is required to alleviate the global burden of schistosomiasis and schistosome-associated pathologies. Current control efforts rely on the anti-helminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ), which enhances immune responses to crude schistosome antigens but does not prevent re-infection. An anti-schistosome vaccine based on Schistosoma haematobium glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is currently in Phase III clinical trials, but little is known about the immune responses directed against this antigen in humans naturally exposed to schistosomes or how these responses change following PZQ treatment. Methodology Blood samples from inhabitants of a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area were incubated for 48 hours with or without GST before (n?=?195) and six weeks after PZQ treatment (n?=?107). Concentrations of cytokines associated with innate inflammatory (TNF?, IL-6, IL-8), type 1 (Th1; IFN?, IL-2, IL-12p70), type 2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), type 17 (IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23p19) and regulatory (IL-10) responses were quantified in culture supernatants via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to analyse multiple cytokines simultaneously. Principal Findings A combination of GST-specific type 2 (IL-5 and IL-13) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines was significantly lower in 10–12 year olds, the age group at which S. haematobium infection intensity and prevalence peak, than in 4–9 or 13+ year olds. Following PZQ treatment there was an increase in the number of participants producing detectable levels of GST-specific cytokines (TNF?, IL-6, IL-8, IFN?, IL-12p70, IL-13 and IL-23p19) and also a shift in the GST-specific cytokine response towards a more pro-inflammatory phenotype than that observed before treatment. Participant age and pre-treatment infection status significantly influenced post-treatment cytokine profiles. Conclusions/Significance In areas where schistosomiasis is endemic host age, schistosome infection status and PZQ treatment affect the cellular cytokine response to GST. Thus the efficacy of a GST-based vaccine may also be shaped by the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of targeted populations.

Bourke, Claire D.; Nausch, Norman; Rujeni, Nadine; Appleby, Laura J.; Trottein, Francois; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mutapi, Francisca



Anti-inflammatory/anti-fibrotic effects of the hepatoprotective silymarin and the schistosomicide praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background Praziquantel (PZQ) is an isoquinoline derivative (2-cyclohexylcarbonyl-1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 11b-hexahydro-4H-pyrazino{2,1-a}-isoquinoline-4-one), and is currently the drug of choice for all forms of schistosomiasis. Silymarin, a standardized milk thistle extract, of which silibinin is the main component, is known for its hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities, and hepatocyte regeneration. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory/anti-fibrotic effects of silymarin and/or PZQ on schistosomal hepatic fibrosis. Methods Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice were divided into two large groups (I & II), each with four subgroups and were run in parallel. (i) Infected untreated; (ii) treated with silymarin, starting from the 4th (3 weeks before PZQ therapy) or 12th (5 weeks after PZQ therapy) weeks post infection (PI); (iii) treated with PZQ in the 7th week PI; and (iv) treated with silymarin, as group (ii) plus PZQ as group (iii). Comparable groups of uninfected mice run in parallel with the infected groups. Mice of groups I and II were killed 10 and 18 weeks PI, respectively. Hepatic content of hydroxyproline (HYP), serum levels and tissue expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and number of mast cells were determined. In addition, parasitological, biochemical and histological parameters that reflect disease severity and morbidity were examined. Results Silymarin caused a partial decrease in worm burden; hepatic tissue egg load, with an increase in percentage of dead eggs; modulation of granuloma size, with significant reduction of hepatic HYP content; tissue expression of MMP-2, TGF-?1; number of mast cells, with conservation of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH). PZQ produced complete eradication of worms, eggs and alleviated liver inflammation and fibrosis. The best results were obtained, in most parameters studied, in groups of mice treated with silymarin in addition to PZQ. Conclusions Our results point to silymarin as a promising anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic agent; it could be introduced as a therapeutic tool with PZQ in the treatment of schistosomal liver fibrosis, but further studies on mechanisms of silymarin and PZQ in chronic liver diseases may shed light on developing therapeutic methods in clinical practice.



Praziquantel and liposomized glucan-treatment modulated liver fibrogenesis and mastocytosis in mice infected with Mesocestoides vogae (M. corti, Cestoda) tetrathyridia.  


Beta-glucans are immunomodulators able to activate innate immunity and to potentiate acquired immune reactions. We investigated the impact of co-administration of liposomized beta-glucan on the larvicidal effect of the anthelmintic praziquantel (PZQ) in the livers and peritoneal cavities in mice infected with Mesocestoides vogae (M. corti). Also, within 2 weeks following therapy (up to day 29 p.i.) we examined collagen synthesis in the livers of mice by means of biochemical determination of hydroxyproline concentration, total mast cell counts and cell proliferative capacity using immunohistochemical and radiometrical methods. After co-administration of liposomized glucan (LG) and PZQ efficacy (%) was significantly higher than after treatment with either compound alone, particularly in the peritoneal cavity compared to the liver. In comparison with the control, more intense collagenesis was found in the B-liver parts (high intensity of infection) and lowering of collagen content in the A-parts (very weak infection). This effect was strongest after LG treatment and co-administration of PZQ abolished the pro-fibrotic effect of LG. In all groups, mast cell counts were higher in the B-liver parts than in the A-parts and the dynamics of mastocytosis was profoundly modulated following therapy. Whereas the effect of PZQ was only moderate, early and very strong onset was seen after LG treatment. Administration of PZQ suppressed LG induced-elevation of mast cells counts in both liver parts. Using DNA S-phase markers (BrdU and 3H-thymidine) the proliferative capacity was shown to be associated with several kinds of liver cells. Therapy significantly stimulated [3H]-thymidine incorporation (cell proliferation) only in the A-parts over that in control, the most after LG administration. In summary (i) the anthelmintic effect of PZQ could be enhanced after simultaneous administration of the immunomodulator beta-glucan entrapped in a liposomal carrier, (ii) intense mastocytosis seen after treatment with LG seems to have a direct role in the glucan's pro-fibrotic activity and can be abolished after co-administration of PZQ in a time-dependent manner, (iii) the pattern of cell proliferation indicates that in the case of PZQ treatment, the reparative processes of liver parenchyma are enhanced in an inverse correlation with the intensity of infection. PMID:16556345

Hrckova, G; Velebný, S; Daxnerová, Z; Solár, P



The mysterious SU UMa stars  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the characteristics and the source of energy of the explosive stars called cataclysmic variables (CVs), with special attention given to the SU UMa stars, which represent CVs which have disks. In SU UMa binaries, a gas stream from a cool reddish star hits an accretion disk spiraling around a white dwarf. The impact of the stream produces a bright 'hot spot' on the edge of the disk, seen only when the system is quiescent and the disk is relatively dim (during outbursts, the hot spot is swamped by the light of the disk itself). The principal source of energy and light of most CVs is the gravitational potential energy released by matter falling from the dim reddish companion onto the white dwarf. The mechanism involved in the overflow of the reddish star is believed to be magnetic braking. Simulations are presented that explain the SU UMa phenomena and which may be applicable to other high-mass-ratio interacting binaries.

Charles, P.A. (Royal Greenwich Observatory, La Palma (Spain))



A Multicentre Randomized Controlled Trial of the Efficacy and Safety of Single-Dose Praziquantel at 40 mg/kg vs. 60 mg/kg for Treating Intestinal Schistosomiasis in the Philippines, Mauritania, Tanzania and Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose is the WHO recommended treatment for all forms of schistosomiasis, but 60 mg/kg is also deployed nationally. Methodology/Principal Findings Four trial sites in the Philippines, Mauritania, Tanzania and Brazil enrolled 856 patients using a common protocol, who were randomised to receive praziquantel 40 mg/kg (n?=?428) or 60 mg/kg (n?=?428). While the sites differed for transmission and infection intensities (highest in Tanzania and lowest in Mauritania), no bias or heterogeneity across sites was detected for the main efficacy outcomes. The primary efficacy analysis was the comparison of cure rates on Day 21 in the intent-to-treat population for the pooled data using a logistic model to calculate Odd Ratios allowing for baseline characteristics and study site. Both doses were highly effective: the Day 21 cure rates were 91.7% (86.6%–98% at individual sites) with 40 mg/kg and 92.8% (88%–97%) with 60 mg/kg. Secondary parameters were eggs reduction rates (ERR), change in intensity of infection and reinfection rates at 6 and 12 months. On Day 21 the pooled estimate of the ERR was 91% in both arms. The Hazard Ratio for reinfections was only significant in Brazil, and in favour of 60 mg/kg on the pooled estimate (40 mg/kg: 34.3%, 60 mg/kg: 23.9%, HR?=?0.78, 95%CI?=?[0.63;0.96]). Analysis of safety could not distinguish between disease- and drug-related events. 666 patients (78%) reported 1327 adverse events (AE) 4 h post-dosing. The risk of having at least one AE was higher in the 60 than in the 40 mg/kg group (83% vs. 73%, p<0.001). At 24 h post-dosing, 456 patients (54%) had 918 AEs with no difference between arms. The most frequent AE was abdominal pain at both 4 h and 24 h (40% and 24%). Conclusion A higher dose of 60 mg/kg of praziquantel offers no significant efficacy advantage over standard 40 mg/kg for treating intestinal schistosomiasis caused by either S. mansoni or S. japonicum. The results of this study support WHO recommendation and should be used to inform policy decisions in the countries. Trial Registration ISRCTN29273316 NCT00403611

Olliaro, Piero L.; Vaillant, Michel T.; Belizario, Vincente J.; Ouldabdallahi, Mohamed; Pieri, Otavio S.; Amarillo, Maria L.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Diaw, Mamadou; Domingues, AnaLucia C.; Favre, Tereza C.; Lapujade, Olivier; Alves, Fabiana; Chitsulo, Lester



Efficacy against nematode and cestode infections and safety of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination product in domestic cats under field conditions in Europe.  


A novel topical combination product (BROADLINE(®), Merial) composed of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was evaluated for safety and efficacy against nematode and cestode infections in domestic cats. The study comprised a multi-centre, positive control, blinded, field study, using a randomized block design based on order of presentation for allocation. In total 196 client-owned cats, confirmed as positive for naturally acquired infections of nematodes and/or cestodes by pre-treatment faecal examination, were studied in seven countries in Europe. Pre-treatment faecal examination revealed the presence of Toxocara, hookworm, Capillaria and/or spirurid nematode infections in 129, 73, 33 or 1 cat(s), respectively; infections with taeniid and Dipylidium cestodes were demonstrated in 39 and 17 cats, respectively. Cats were allocated randomly to one of two treatments in a ratio of 2, topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial; 130 cats); and 1, topical PROFENDER(®) Spot-On (Bayer; 66 cats) and treated once on Day 0. For evaluation of efficacy, two faecal samples were collected, one prior to treatment (Day -4 ± 4 days) and one at the end of the study (Day 14 ± 5 days). These were examined for fecal forms of nematode and cestode parasites. For evaluation of safety, cats were examined by a veterinarian before treatment and at the end of the study, and cat owners recorded the health status of their cats daily until the end of the study. For cats treated with Broadline(®), the efficacy was >99.9%, 100%, and 99.6% for Toxocara, hookworms, and Capillaria, respectively; and the efficacy was >99.9%, >99.9%, and 98.5%, respectively, for the cats treated with Profender(®) (p<0.001 for all nematodes and both treatments). Efficacy was 100% for both cestodes for both treatments (p<0.001). No treatment related adverse experiences were observed throughout the study. For both treatments, every cat that completed the study was given a safety score of 'excellent' for both local and systemic evaluations. The topical combination product of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was shown to have an excellent safety profile and demonstrated high levels of efficacy when administered once as topical solution to cats infected with nematodes and cestodes under field conditions. PMID:24703070

Rehbein, Steffen; Capári, Balazs; Duscher, Georg; Keidane, Dace; Kirkova, Zvezdelina; Petkevi?ius, Saulius; Rapti, Dhimiter; Wagner, Annegret; Wagner, Thomas; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Tielemans, Eric; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Kley, Katrin; Knaus, Martin



Ultraviolet variations of epsilon UMa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OAO-2 spectrometer observations of the Ap variable epsilon UMa indicate that the photometric variations are due to variable ultraviolet absorption from apparently overabundant metals. These data also point out the presence of a secondary maximum of the Fe-group elements, notably Cr, that has not been reported.

Molnar, M. R.




Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introdução Este estudo tem por objetivo fazer uma reflexão, sob a luz da análise do discurso da linha francesa, acerca do humor na literatura, mais precisamente, da linguagem transgressiva que se instaura no discurso literário-teatral em decorrência de fenômenos como ironia e paródia. Esse enfoque será norteado a partir da peça Calabar - o elogio da traição (1973), de

Manuella Felicíssimo


Evolução química em galáxias compactas azuis (BCGs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho, a formação estelar e evolução quí mica em galáxias Compactas Azuis (Blue Compact Galaxies - BCGs) foram estudadas através da comparação de previsões de modelos de evolução quí mica a várias razões de abundância quí mica observadas nestas galáxias. Modelos detalhados com recentes dados de nucleossí ntese e que levam em consideração o papel desempenahdo por supernovas de ambos os tipos (II e Ia) na evolução galáctica foram desenvolvidos para as BCGs permitindo seguir a evolução de vários elementos quí micos (H, D, He, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Ca, e Fe). O modelo é caracterizado pelas prescrições adotadas para a formação estelar, a qual ocorre em vários surtos de atividade separados por longos perí odos quiescentes. Após ajustar os melhores modelos aos dados observacionais, as previsões destes modelos foram comparadas também a razões de abundância observadas em sistemas Damped Lyman alpha (DLAs) e a origem do N (primária ou secundária) foi discutida. Alguns dos resultados obtidos são: i) as razões de abundância observadas nas BCGs são reproduzidas por modelos com 2 a 7 surtos de formação estelar com eficiência entre n = 0.2-0.9 Gano-1; ii) os baixos valores de N/O observados nestas galáxias são um resultado natural de uma formação estelar em surtos; iii) os modelos para BCGs podem reproduzir os dados dos DLAs, iv) uma quantidade "baixa" de N primário produzido em estrelas de alta massa pode ser uma explicação para os baixos valores de [N/a] observados em DLAs.

Lanfranchi, G. A.; Matteucci, F.



Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.



Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.



DK UMa: A Star on the Ascent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DK UMa (= 24 UMa = HD 82210) is a G4 IV-III star. According to its M(sub v) and B - V color, it is located at the base of the red giant branch, having recently exited from the Hertzsprung Gap. Now poised to start its first ascent along the giant branch, D...

T. Simon



Áreas de Risco em Manaus: Inventário preliminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho pautou-se em mapear as ocorrências registradas pela Defesa Civil Municipal (SEMDEC), nos anos de 2005 a 2008, com a finalidade de identificar as áreas mais afetadas por eventos adversos (alagação e deslizamento). Para tanto, foram utilizadas a base cartográfica Google Earth e QGIS. Uma das principais dificuldades foi a localização precisa dos eventos, pois as bases cartográficas

Denise Rodrigues Cruz; Karla R. Mendes Cassiano; Reinaldo Corrêa Costa



Detecção da fase impulsiva de uma explosão solar gigante até 405 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A explosão ocorrida no dia 25/08/2001 foi uma das mais intensas do presente ciclo solar em ondas de rádio de altas frequências. Foram medidas em ondas milimétricas e submilimétricas, aproximadamente, 105 e vários milhares de unidades de fluxo solar, respectivamente. Apresentamos um estudo deste evento em múltiplas frequências, desde microondas (1GHz), até ondas submilimétricas (405 GHz) detectadas pelo Telescópio Solar para ondas Submilimétricas (SST). Esta base de dados foi complementada utilizando-se o experimento Yohkoh, incluindo a emissão em raios-X duros e raios-g (até 100 MeV), e imagens em raios-X moles da região ativa envolvida. Enfocamos e discutimos principalmente os seguintes aspectos da fase impulsiva do evento: (i) as implicações deduzidas do espectro eletromagnético, obtido pela primeira vez até 405 GHz; (ii) a dinâmica da região ativa. Os resultados mostram que para explicar o espectro rádio observado, são necessários entre 3.5×1037 e 1.5×1039 elétrons acelerados acima de 20 keV em uma região de campo magnético entre 300 e 800 Gauss. A estimativa do fluxo de fótons que seria produzido por estes elétrons, mostra que grande parte deles não precipitou na baixa atmosfera. A evolução temporal da emissão em raios-X moles revela que a configuração magnética da região ativa foi muito dinâmica durante a fase impulsiva da explosão. Em particular, mostramos que a produção dos elétrons altamente energéticos foi iniciada junto com a aparição, na baixa coroa solar, de um novo sistema compacto de estruturas magnéticas. Este fato sugere que os locais de aceleração estão localizados na baixa atmosfera do Sol, como resultado da interação entre o novo sistema compacto e o campo magnético ambiente da região ativa.

Raulin, J.-P.; Makhmutov, V.; Kaufmann, P.; Pacini, A. A.; Luethi, T.; Hudson, H. S.; Gary, D. E.; Yoshimori, M.



Ambiente e formação estelar em galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estudamos o ambiente de galáxias com formação estelar inicialmente a partir de uma amostra limitada em volume proveniente do 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. Discriminamos as galáxias com formação estelar com base em distintas classes espectrais, utilizando para esta classificação as larguras equivalentes das linhas [OII]l3727 e Hd. O ambiente é caracterizado pela densidade espacial local de galáxias. Mostramos que a fração de galáxias com formação estelar é bastante reduzida em ambientes densos, enquanto a de galáxias passivas aumenta nestas regiões. Por outro lado, quando analisamos a fração de galáxias que apresentam um surto recente de formação estelar, notamos que ela independe do ambiente, sendo que em regiões mais densas alguns destes objetos apresentam distorções em sua morfologia. Estes resultados são confrontados com a análise da dependência ambiental da taxa de formação estelar, estimada pela emissão em Ha, de uma amostra extraída do Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Um declínio gradual da formação estelar também é observado nesta análise, sugerindo que as interações por efeitos de maré sejam responsáveis pela redução da formação estelar em ambientes densos através da remoção do reservatório de gás das galáxias. No entanto, estas interações também podem induzir surtos de formação estelar nas galáxias, além de peculiaridades morfológicas observadas nos objetos que habitam regiões mais densas.

Mateus, A., Jr.; Sodré, L., Jr.



Influência da Proximidade Geográfica na Dinâmica Inovativa de Firmas Localizadas em Sistemas Locais de Inovação  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propõe-se uma discussão a respeito da compreensão da dinâmica inovativa de firmas pertencentes a Sistemas Locais de Produção (SLPs). O objetivo é compreender a dinâmica inovativa de firmas localizadas em SLPs por meio das características dos fluxos de informação e conhecimento estabelecidos pelas firmas. Para tanto, foi realizada uma investigação de campo comparativa entre dois aglomerados do segmento produtor de

Janaína Ruffoni; Wilson Suzigan



Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre ou tras coi sas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no Ensino Médio não tem contribuído de forma significativa para uma maior compreensão dos fenòmenos e conceitos.

de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.



Diagnostic Performance of Schistosoma Real-Time PCR in Urine Samples from Kenyan Children Infected with Schistosoma haematobium: Day-to-day Variation and Follow-up after Praziquantel Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background In an effort to enhance accuracy of diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium, this study explores day-to-day variability and diagnostic performance of real-time PCR for detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA compared to other diagnostic tools in an endemic area before and after treatment. Methodology Previously collected urine samples (N?=?390) from 114 preselected proven parasitological and/or clinical S. haematobium positive Kenyan schoolchildren were analyzed by a Schistosoma internal transcribed spacer-based real-time PCR after 14 years of storage. Pre-treatment day-to-day fluctuations of PCR and microscopy over three consecutive days were measured for 24 children using intra-class correlation coefficient. A combined ‘gold standard’ (PCR and/or microscopy positive) was used to measure sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of several diagnostic tools at baseline, two and 18 months post-treatment with praziquantel. Principal Findings All 24 repeatedly tested children were PCR-positive over three days with little daily variation in median Ct-values, while 83.3% were found to be egg-positive for S. haematobium at day 1 and 75.0% at day 2 and 3 pre-treatment, signifying daily fluctuations in microscopy diagnosis. Of all 114 preselected schoolchildren, repeated microscopic measurements were required to detect 96.5% versus 100% of positive pre-treatment cases by single PCR. At two months post-treatment, microscopy and PCR detected 22.8% versus 69.3% positive children, respectively. Based on the ‘gold standard’, PCR showed high sensitivity (>92%) as compared to >31% sensitivity for microscopy, both pre- and post-treatment. Conclusions/Significance Detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA in urine by real-time PCR was shown to be a powerful and specific diagnostic tool for detection of S. haematobium infections, with less day-to-day variation and higher sensitivity compared to microscopy. The superior performance of PCR before, and two and 18 months post-treatment provides a compelling argument for PCR as an accurate and reproducible tool for monitoring treatment efficacy.

Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V. S.; van Dam, Govert J.; Shaproski, David; Kahama, Anthony I.; Brienen, Eric A. T.; Vennervald, Birgitte J.; van Lieshout, Lisette



Thermal Image of Halema'uma'u  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image was collected from a thermal camera at the Halema`uma`u Overlook, and shows the current activity at the summit. The active lava pond, about 40 m across, is situated deep within the vent cavity, at a depth of about 200 m. The lava surface consists of slowly migrating crustal plates...



DK UMa: A Star on the Ascent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DK UMa (= 24 UMa = HD 82210) is a G4 IV-III star. According to its M(sub v) and B - V color, it is located at the base of the red giant branch, having recently exited from the Hertzsprung Gap. Now poised to start its first ascent along the giant branch, DK UMa is at a significant juncture in its post-main-sequence evolution, offering an important evolutionary comparison for magnetic activity with stars like 31 Comae, which is just entering the Hertzsprung Gap, and older stars like the Hyades giants or P Ceti, which have passed the tip of the giant branch and lie in the so-called 'clump'. As part of a major survey of the ultraviolet and X ray properties of a well-defined sample of evolved giant stars, DK UMa was observed with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) spacecraft in March 1997, for a total exposure time of 230 kiloseconds. A plot of the extracted short-wavelength (SW) spectrum of this star is shown, where it is compared with similar EUVE exposures for other yellow and red giant stars in the activity survey. In terms of the spectral lines of different ionization stages present in these spectra, the transition region and coronal temperature of DK UMa appears to be intermediate between those of 31 Com and P Ceti. Combining the relative strengths of the EUVE lines with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data at near UV wavelengths and with ROSAT X-ray fluxes, the differential emission measure (DEM) distributions of these stars form a sequence in coronal temperature, which peaks at 10(exp 7.2) K for 31 Com, at 10(exp 6.8) K for B Ceti, and at intermediate temperatures for DK UMa - consistent with the evolutionary stages represented by the three stars. The integrated fluxes of the strongest emission lines found in the EUVE spectrum of DK UMa are listed, again compared with similar measurements for other giant stars that were observed in the course of other EUVE Guest Observer programs.

Simon, Theodore



A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase evolutiva S.

de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.



Programa em Educação a Distância para a Melhoria das Condições de Aprendizagem da Matemática  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - A fim de fundamentar uma ação pedagógica diferenciada, frente ao elevado número de reprovações e desistências que ocorrem em disciplinas iniciais de Matemática na Universidade de Caxias do Sul, apresentamos um programa através do qual investigamos as reais possibilidades de constituir nova opção para alunos reprovados em Cálculo Diferencial e Integral I. Num ambiente virtual de aprendizagem os

Isolda G. De Lima; Laurete Z. Sauer



Microsoft Academic Search

Quando há o entendimento de que crescimento e desenvolvimento são sinônimos, tende-se a prezar uma dimensão do desenvolvimento em detrimento das outras, o que acaba por prejudicar a população por meio de carências nas condições de vida e destruição do meio ambiente principalmente. O ideal do desenvolvimento sustentável surge na tentativa de harmonizar crescimento econômico, igualdade social e preservação ambiental.

Luciana Dal Gianluppi; Paulo Dabdab Waquil



Efeitos da Exploração Madeireira de Baixo Impacto sobre uma Comunidade de Aves de Sub-bosque na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, Pará, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Este estudo compara a resposta de uma comunidade aves à exploração madeireira de baixo impacto através da distribuição das espécies em floresta controle e manejada ao longo de cinco anos com amostragem pré e pós-exploração. O procedimento de ordenação mostrou que a similaridade da comunidade de aves após a exploração madeireira foi menor que a similaridade entre as amostras

Luiza Magalli; Pinto HENRIQUES; Joseph M. WUNdERLE; C. OREN; Michael R. WILLIG



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Este artigo propõe uma análise da imagem da mulher que se esboça em alguns artigos do Código Penal Brasileiro. Para isso, vale mo-nos de algumas orientações teóricas da Análise do Discurso, no que diz respeito a Formaçõe s Discursivas, Ação e Racionalidade e Intencionalidade. Através desse aparato teórico, o trabalho levanta algumas questões de ordem lingüístico-discursivas, fundadoras de um

Carla Roselma; Athayde GUIMARAES; Gustavo Miranda SILVA; Priscilla Chantal; Duarte MARCHESANI


Structure and evolution of W UMa-type systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize and discuss our recent works on the structure and evolution of low-mass W UMa-type contact binary stars. Three conclusions are given as followings: (1) The energy transfer is taken place in the radiative region of common envelope of W UMa systems; (2) The magnetic activity level of W UMa systems is weaker than that of non-contact binaries or rapid-rotating single stars; (3) The evolutionary outcome of W UMa systems might be the rapid-rotating single stars, and an average lifetime is derived to be about 7 Gyr for W UMa systems.

Li, Lifang; Zhang, Fenghui; Han, Zhanwen; Jiang, Dengkai; Jiang, Tianyu



[Praziquantel in the treatment of human echinococcosis].  


In the period from 1989 to 1993, 73 patients with Echinococcus granulosus cysts were treated by prazyquantel. To differentiate cysts tests of indirect immunofluoroscence and hemagglutination were used. The tests were performed during and after the completed treatment. During the treatment three patients were excluded so that 70 patients completed the treatment. Fifty five (78.9%) patients were treated only with drug with a success of 67% (37 patients). The preventive treatment, due to cyst perforation, was performed in 3 (4.3%) patients. Dissemination of illness occurred in no patients. Twelve (16.8%) patients were treated surgically. The parasite was not alive in 7 (58.5%) patients. The vitality of the parasite was controlled by microscopic examination of protoscolex and by their inoculation into rats of AO strain. The total success of treatment was 67.4% (47) of patients. In two patients the treatment was discontinued due to allergic manifestations. In our opinion, the drug treatment was the therapy of choice in patients with Echinococcus granulosus. It should be given prophylactically, preoperatively, to sterilize the cyst and also as a curative treatment. PMID:7571529

Redzi?, B; Radulovi?, S; Stankovi?, N; Redzi?-Rosko, Z



21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. (2) Cats â(i) Amount. For cats under 5 pounds, 0.2 milliliter (11.4 milligrams); 5 to 10 pounds, 0.4 milliliter (22.7...



21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. (2) Cats â(i) Indications for use. For removal of feline cestodes...Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis. (ii) Dosage . Cats 4 pounds and under, 11.5 mg; 5 to 11 pounds, 23 mg;...



Treatment of Bilharzial Colonic Polyposis with Praziquantel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previously published data indicate the effective use of niridazole(AMBILLAR) in the treatment of patients with schistosomal colonic polyposis. However, severe side effects, which included neuromuscular and psychoti c reactions, were noted in >90% of the p...

B. Trabolsi M. Stek N. A. El-Masry S. Bassily Z. Farid



Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.



High speed photometry of AN UMa  

SciTech Connect

As a class, the AM Her objects exhibit temporal variability on time scales ranging from seconds to years. Most of the variations can be adequately described by ''shot noise'' models (Cordova and Mason 1982). Exceptions to this are the strictly periodic features modulated on the orbital periods of the systems (typically several hours) and the one to two second features which show up as ''excesses'' of power in the time averaged power spectra of AN UMa (Middleditch 1982) and E1405-451 (Mason et al. 1983; Larsson 1985). It has been suggested that the short time scale features are due to an oscillatory ''instability'' of radiative accretion shocks discovered by Langer, Chanmugam, and Shaviv (1981, 1982). This is an interesting suggestion because, if true, it would allow the masses of the accreting white dwarfs to be inferred and would provide other significant constraints on the physics of the accretion flows (see Langer et al. 1981, 1982; Chevalier and Imamura 1982; Imamura, Wolff, and Durisen 1984; Imamura 1985). Unfortunately, a direct physical relationship between the one to two second optical variations and shock oscillations has not yet been demonstrated. Because of the potential importance of such a result further study of these systems is clearly warranted. In this work, we examine the short time scale behavior of AN UMa in more detail and improve on the work of Middleditch (1982) by resolving the feature in time.

Imamura, J.N.; Steiman-Cameron, T.Y.; Durisen, R.H.



Uma Visão do Universo Segundo um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A astronomia, embora seja uma ciência popular, com inúmeras descobertas de interesse público, ainda é apresentada desconsiderando-se os aspectos históricos e científicos relacionados ao seu desenvolvimento, sendo geralmente veiculada nos meios de comunicação de maneira pouco esclarecedora e não raro com imprecisões. Neste trabalho analisou-se a concepção de um grupo de estudantes de Ensino Médio sobre conceitos de astronomia, visando identificar sua visão de mundo a respeito do Universo, envolvendo idéias sobre espaço e tempo. Para issso, foi aplicado um questionário em três escolas da grande São Paulo em um espaço amostral de 270 alunos. Constatou-se que, embora o ensino de astronomia esteja previsto nos PCNEM, os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que há grande deficiência no conhecimento dos temas investigados. Nesse sentido, verificou-se que apenas 20% dos alunos eram capazes de relacionar a sucessão das semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra. Por outro lado, somente 23% dos alunos tinham noções das distâncias entre os objetos celestes próximos da Terra e 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo. Finalmente, constatou-se que 37% reconheciam o ano-luz como uma unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como sendo uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem que a escola é a principal fonte para aquisição dos conhecimentos de astronomia, conclui-se que seus conceitos nessa área ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de ampliação e aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos nos ambientes escolares.

Elias, D. S.; Araújo, M.; Amaral, L. H.; Voelzke, M. R.; Araújo, M.



Evolução temporal de discos circunstelares em estrelas Be  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pesquisa do mecanismo que leva uma estrela do tipo Be a perder massa e formar um envelope circunstelar, nomeado como fenômeno Be, é uma questão em aberto, intrigante, e que adquire contornos interessantes em face às informações espectroscópicas de alta resolução. Nesta última década, consolida-se a idéia de que a forma destes envelopes é de tipo discóide, obedecendo a uma lei Kepleriana de velocidades, e mais ainda, recentemente há evidências de que a distribuição de matéria nestes discos pode assumir um caráter de anel. Medidas de algumas dimensões de discos circunstelares puderam ser obtidas pela análise de espectros de alta resolução e alta relação sinal-ruído para as estrelas Be: alpha Eri (HD 10144, B3Vpe), omicron And (HD 217675, B6IIIpe), e eta Cen (HD el972, B1.5Vne), no período dos anos de 1991 a 2001. Alguns modelos clássicos de envelope predizem uma distribuição de massa que decresce suavemente a partir da superfície estelar. Entretanto, considerando que a separação de picos de emissão em perfis de linhas do HeI e H-alpha, alargados por efeitos cinemáticos, é função do raio estelar e da velocidade rotacional projetada (vsini); nossos resultados sugerem a presença de um anel de matéria circunstelar, que aparece logo após a ejeção do material fotosférico, imediatamente acima da superfície estelar, e que se expande para raios maiores ao longo do tempo, eventualmente desconectando-se da superfície por uma região de densidade de matéria mínima. Tais interpretações revivem a idéia de que anéis de matéria circunstelar podem ser os responsáveis por algumas variabilidades em perfis de linhas de emissão, como as variações V/R.

Fernandes, M. V. M.; Leister, N. V.; Levenhagen, R. S.



Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do público em questão.

Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.



Avaliação das áreas verdes em espaços públicos no município de Guarapuava\\/PR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apresenta-se neste artigo uma proposta metodológica para se avaliar o desempenho das áreas verdes públicas do Município de Guarapuava\\/PR, mais especificamente sua arborização de acompanhamento viário de sua área central. Guarapuava é uma cidade que conta com aproximadamente 160 mil habitantes, situada na região centro-sul do Estado. A proposta metodológica que ora se apresenta, aplicada em parcela do município, foi

Carlos Roberto Loboda; Bruno Luiz Domingos de Angelis; Generoso de Angelis Neto; Eraldo Schunk da Silva



Evolução da morfologia de fases de blendas PA6\\/AES em extrusora de dupla rosca e moldagem por injeção  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: A evolução da morfologia de fases em blendas não reativas e reativas de poliamida-6 com copolímero de acrilonitrila\\/EPDM\\/estireno (AES) em uma extrusora de rosca dupla co-rotacional foi investigada. A evolução da morfologia de fases ao longo da extrusora de rosca dupla foi monitorada através da coleta de pequenas amostras em válvulas no barril da extrusora e caracterização por microscopia

Adriane Bassani; Elias Hage Jr; Luiz A. Pessan; Ana V. Machado; José A. Covas



UMA Media base - Metadata Management using Oracle Database System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the media base in a Universal Multimedia Access (UMA) test bed for handling multimedia presentations in an MPEG-21 environment. The media base introduces an effective way of storing, query organiz- ing, exchanging important metadata and key Digital Items on the server side of a UMA enabled system. The func- tionality of the media base is demonstrated through

R. J. Solberg; P. Drege; A. Perkis; J. Zhang


A clínica pulsional de Wilhelm Reich: uma tentativa de atualização  

Microsoft Academic Search

Busca-se propor uma fundamentação da psicoterapia corporal de inspiração reichiana dentro do quadro de referência da pri meira teoria freudiana das pulsões. Tenta-se explicar os elementos próprios da abordagem reichiana a partir da idéia de uma dinâmica psíquica baseada no conflito entre pulsão e defesa. Também são discutidas, brevemente, algumas possibilidades de ampliação desse modelo a partir de propostas oriundas

Ricardo Amaral Rego



Abordagem do tema hipertensão arterial e suas relações com o tabagismo e a obesidade como forma de avaliação da aquisição e socialização de conhecimentos em Feiras de Ciências  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho apresenta a experiência vivenciada por um professor do Ensino Fundamental de Escola Pública do Paraná, na orientação de uma equipe de alunos de 8ª série, em 2008, visando o desenvolvimento de trabalhos em Feiras de Ciências. A temática da equipe enfoca a hipertensão arterial e seus fatores de risco, tabagismo e obesidade, no município de Floresta. Escolheu-se

Eduardo de Almeida Grenier; Celso Ivam Conegero



Ensino de gravitação clássica no nível médio: uma proposta de abordagem e resultados preliminares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O ensino de gravitação clássica é comumente realizado de maneira formal e descontextualizado da experiência com a força-peso e da história do tema. Fustigados por anos de experiência de ensino no assunto, nem sempre com bons resultados, propomos uma abordagem ancorada nos eixos: a) contextualização histórica; e b) reconhecimento do peso como a força de atração gravitacional. O primeiro eixo integra o tema no desenvolvimento cultural do ser humano, praticando a interdisciplinaridade. O segundo eixo embasa construtivamente a abordagem, levando o aluno a realizar experiências e a vivenciar o reconhecimento de uma força universal. A abordagem foi construída através das etapas: 1) análise crítica do tema em livros didáticos; 2) elaboração de um curso para professores das várias disciplinas do ensino médio, identificando conexões para a prática da interdisciplinaridade; 3) elaboração de material didático; e 4) avaliação da eficácia da abordagem. No trabalho discutimos em detalhe as quatro etapas. Como resultados, adiantamos que: tabulamos a abordagem de gravitação nos livros didáticos, ainda muito tradicional e carecedora de atividades criativas que poderiam melhor explorar esse assunto; mapeamos, junto aos professores, padrões de conceitos espontâneos e erros associados ao tema; e, no curso, adaptamos e testamos a eficiência de materiais instrucionais existentes e criamos outros novos (e.g., para trabalhar excentricidades das órbitas planetárias), além disto elaboramos roteiros e figuras para tratamentos qualitativo e quantitativo da lei da gravitação universal. As avaliações feitas pelos professores foram muito animadoras. O espaço da presente reunião será aproveitado para socializar a proposta e os resultados obtidos e para submeter o projeto à análise crítica. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

Medeiros, G. C. M.; Jafelice, L. C.



Impacto das malformações congênitas na mortalidade perinatal e neonatal em uma maternidade-escola do Recife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: to determine the incidence of conge- nital malformations in newborns in a university maternity hospital in Recife and assess the impact of malformation in perinatal and neonatal mortality. Methods: a longitudinal study was performed from September 2004 to May 2005 with all deliveries at the Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira, IMIP analyzed. The type and incidence of congenital

Melania Maria; Ramos de Amorim; Paulo Carvalho Vilela; Regina Viana; Dutra Santos; Luiza Medeiros; Vasconcelos Lima; Eduardo França; Pessoa de Melo; Paulo Fernando; Bezerra de Menezes


MOR: Uma Ferramenta para o Mapeamento Objeto-Relacional em Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a n approach to map J ava objects into relational databases. This approach is transparent because does not require any extra code. It uses the reflection mechanism to know what information exists inside the objects and the Java Database Connection (JDBC) to connect with the different databases. 1 Introdução Na última década as ling uagens de prog

Leonardo Gresta; Paulino Murta; Gustavo Olanda; Veronese Cláudia; Maria Lima Werner


Drogas e saúde na imprensa brasileira: uma análise de artigos publicados em jornais e revistas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes information recently published by the Brazilian press on the use of psychoactive drugs and its implications on health. A sample of 502 newspaper and magazine articles published in 1998 was researched using content analysis. The drugs most frequently fea- tured in the headlines were tobacco (18.1%), coca-derived drugs (9.2%), marijuana (9.2%), alco- holic beverages (8.6%), and anabolic

Ana Regina Noto; Murilo C. Baptista; Silene T. Faria; Solange A. Nappo; José Carlos F. Galduróz; Elisaldo A. Carlini



O itinerário rumo às medicinas alternativas: uma análise em representações sociais de profissionais da saúde  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on social representations of alternative medicines by a group of professors from the School of Medicine and health professionals from the public health system in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, basically physicians and nurses. The article also emphasizes personal trajectories by which these health professionals opted for a dissident theoretical and practical perspective vis-à-vis the hegemonic

Marcos S. Queiroz




Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aimed at the analysis of the influences of the sucession in board of directors in the continuity of the strategies of an agricultural cooperative. It is a quantitative research work, particularly, a study case in which the data were collected and analyzed on a documents and personal interview basis. The results showed that in the political articulations

Luiz Marcelo Antonialli; Adalberto Americo Fischmann




Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aimed at the analysis of the influences of the sucession in board of directors in the continuity of the strategies of an agricultural cooperative. It is a quantitative research work, particularly, a study case in which the data were collected and analyzed on a documents and personal interview basis. The results showed that in the political articulations

Luiz Marcelo Antonialli; Adalberto Americo Fischmann



Violência urbana: uma análise comparativa da vitimização em São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Recife e Vitória  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present article we reinterpret the routine activities model trying to incorporate some elements of rational choice model. The empirical analysis estimates the probability of victimization. The data base is a victimization survey conducted by FIA\\/USP and ILLANUD, in 2002. The survey was carried in Recife, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Vitória. We consider five categories of victimization:

Betânia Totino Peixoto; Mônica Viegas Andrade; Sueli Moro



Identificação dos vegetais destinados a ornamentação de praças, parques e creches em Campina Grande, PB  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O Horto Florestal Lauro Pires Xavier, situado às margens do açude de Bodocongó, em Campina Grande-PB é uma importante unidade mantida pela prefeitura no sentido de preservação e conservação de espécies. Através do viveiro, o município tem condição de aumentar as áreas verdes, proporcionando lazer e bem estar à população. Esse trabalho tem como tema à identificação dos vegetais

Mário Luiz Farias Cavalcanti; Ivan Coelho Dantas; Giselle Medeiros da Costa Silva; Luciana de Luna Costa; Maria José Benício Barros; Ronny Soffiantini Lira


Solução Paralela em Agregado de PCs de um Código de Elementos Finitos Aplicado à Elasticidade Linear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados comparativos de desempenho de códigos paralelos, baseados no método dos elementos finitos aplicado à elasticidade linear para problemas estruturais, que utilizam o método dos gradientes conjugados para solução do sistema de equações. Os programas foram executados em um agregado de PCs, por ser uma opção economicamente viável, já que utiliza tecnologia depurada de alta

Flávia R. Villa Verde; Roberta R. Ferreira; Gerson H. Pfitscher


EMS System Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system plan for an eight-county, primarily rural district of south central Oklahoma is presented. Demographic and area characteristics of the district are described. The existing EMS resources such as: manpower (physicia...

G. L. Dahl R. Eidson



EMS Student Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

Ogle, Patrick


EM International. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

Not Available



Análise da medição do raio solar em ultravioleta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A medição acurada do raio solar em qualquer banda do espectro eletromagnético é de relevância na formulação e calibração de modelos da estrutura e atmosfera solar. Esses modelos atribuem emissão do contínuo do Sol calmo em microondas à mesma região da linha Ha do Hell. Apresentamos a medição do raio solar em UV com imagens do EIT (Extreme Ultraviolet Image Telescope) entre 1996 e 2002, no comprimento de onda 30,9 nm (Ha do Hell), que se forma na região de transição/cromosfera solar. A técnica utilizada para o cálculo do raio UV foi baseada na transformada Wavelet B3spline. Fizemos um banco de dados com 1 imagem por dia durante o período citado. Obtivemos como resultado o raio médio da ordem de 975.61" e uma diminuição do mesmo para o período citado variando em média -0,45" /ano. Comparamos estes dados com os valores obtidos pelo ROI (Radio Observatório de Itapetinga) em 22/48 GHz e Nobeyama Radio Heliograph em 17 GHz mostrando que os raios médios são muito próximos o que indica que a região de formação nessas freqüências é a mesma conforme os modelos. Comparamos os resultados também com outros índices de atividade solar.

Saraiva, A. C. V.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Costa, J. E. R.; Selhorst, C. L.; Simões, P. J. A.



Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao final, temos uma lista de linhas atômicas com mais de 24.000 linhas e uma lista molecular com as moléculas CN, CH, OH, NH, MgH, C2, TiO Gama, CO, FeH, adequadas ao estudo de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas.

Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.



BZ UMa and Var Her 04: Orphan TOADS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both BZ UMa and Var Her 04 are cataclysmic variable stars without a home. Neither fit easily into current classification systems so may extend the population distribution of two unique CV types: UGWZ dwarf novae and intermediate polars. New outburst photometry and archival X-Ray data shed some new light on BZ UMa's high energy state and new spectral and IR observations from Spitzer of dust around the newly discovered cataclysmic variable Var Her 04 may help find it a home as well.

Price, A.; Howell, S.



Inexistência de Diferenças de Sexo no Fator g (Inteligência Geral) e nas Habilidades Específicas em Crianças de Duas Capitais Brasileiras There are no Sex Differences on g Factor and Specific Abilities in Children from Two Brazilian Capitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O presente trabalho pretendeu examinar diferenças relacionadas ao sexo no fator g (inteligência geral) e em habilidades específicas em crianças de duas cidades brasileiras: Belo Horizonte e Porto Alegre. No caso da amostra mineira (n=1,316), a idade compreendeu entre 5 e 11 anos de idade examinada através de uma bateria de testes a qual incluiu instrumentos de inteligência (Raven,

Carmen E. Flores-Mendoza; Marcela Mansur-Alves; Álvaro José Lelé; Denise Ruschel Bandeira



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O experimento foi conduzido no Setor de Olericultura do Departamento de Agricultura da Univer- sidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), durante os meses de abril a junho de 1998, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação de cloreto de potássio via fertirrigação em alface-americana (Lactuca sativa L) do grupo repolhuda crespa, cultivar Lorca. Utilizou-se uma estufa de




Microsoft Academic Search

valiou-se a ocorrência de picos de radiação luminosa e a resposta fotossintética de espécies arbóreas em um fragmento de floresta secundária semidecidual, no domínio da Floresta Atlântica. Os três locais estudados apresentavam exposições das encostas e índice de área foliar diferentes. Os resultados mostraram que existe uma marcante variabilidade na intensidade de radiação luminosa no interior do fragmento devido à

José Eduardo; Macedo Pezzopane; Geraldo Gonçalves; Maria das Graças; Ferreira Reis; Sílvio Nolasco de Oliveira Neto; Pedro Higuchi



Relações solo-geoambiente em áreas de ocorrências de Ipucas na planície do Médio Araguaia - Estado de Tocantins  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Dentre as paisagens do médio rio Araguaia, destacam-se as extensas planícies e depressões sazonalmente alagadas. Nelas se inserem formações florestais higrófilas denominadas Ipucas, como enclaves peculiares pela sua fitossociologia e ambiente pedogeomorfológico. Esses fragmentos florestais naturais ocorrem na planície fluvial, em região de ecótono entre o Cerrado e a Floresta Amazônica. Neste estudo, foi selecionada uma área de

Alan Kardec Elias Martins; Carlos Ernesto G. R. Schaefer; Elias Silva; Vicente Paulo Soares; Guilherme Resende Corrêa; Bruno Araújo Furtado de Mendonça




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Desde o advento da transnacionalização dos mercados de insumos, produção, capitais, finanças e consumo - que em pouco mais de uma década, transformou radicalmente as estruturas de dominação política e de apropriação de recursos, subverteu as noções de tempo e espaço, derrubou barreiras geográficas, reduziu as fronteiras burocráticas e jurídicas entre nações, revolucionou os sistemas de produção, modificou estruturalmente

Deilton Ribeiro Brasil


EM and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic theme of the EM algorithm, to repeatedly use complete-data methods to solve incomplete data problems, is also a theme of several more recent statistical techniques. These techniques—multiple imputation, data augmentation, stochastic relaxation, and sampling importance resampling—combine simulation techniques with complete-data methods to attack problems that are difficult or impossible for EM.

Donald B. Rubin



Exosat and IUE observations of SW UMa during superoutburst  

SciTech Connect

IUE and Exosat observations obtained during the March 1986 superoutburst of the SU UMa type dwarf nova SW UMa are presented. The observations show the presence of a hot, extensive, optically thick disk. The UV fluxes show an increase of 1000 over the quiescent values, implying a large increase in mass accretion rate. The Exosat obserations show an increase in the soft X-ray count rate by a factor of 44 over quiescence, while the medium-energy flux remains undetected. The most surprising result is that the softness ratio in superoutburst is similar to the quiescent value of 0.3. No variation at the orbital or spin periods or at the superhump period are evident in the superoutburst X-ray data. A transient variation is observed at 5.1 minutes similar to that observed in the optical a few days after the X-ray observations. 35 references.

Szkody, P.; Osborne, J.; Hassall, B.J.M.



Exosat and IUE observations of SW UMa during superoutburst  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IUE and Exosat observations obtained during the March 1986 superoutburst of the SU UMa type dwarf nova SW UMa are presented. The observations show the presence of a hot, extensive, optically thick disk. The UV fluxes show an increase of 1000 over the quiescent values, implying a large increase in mass accretion rate. The Exosat obserations show an increase in the soft X-ray count rate by a factor of 44 over quiescence, while the medium-energy flux remains undetected. The most surprising result is that the softness ratio in superoutburst is similar to the quiescent value of 0.3. No variation at the orbital or spin periods or at the superhump period are evident in the superoutburst X-ray data. A transient variation is observed at 5.1 minutes similar to that observed in the optical a few days after the X-ray observations.

Szkody, Paula; Osborne, Julian; Hassall, B. J. M.



SW UMa and V426 Oph: EXOSAT surprises  

SciTech Connect

EXOSAT results on the dwarf nova SW UMa and the nova-like V426 Oph earmark these objects as unusual cataclysmic variables (CV). SW UMa is a strong soft (0.07 to 0.21 keV) source for its faint optical magnitude (V = 16.5), but shows no evidence for a harder (greater than 10 keV) component. The soft component is modulated at the orbital period (82 min) with the peak emission at phase 0.3, coincident with optical and spectroscopic modulations. V426 Oph is a strong medium energy source (30 keV) and shows a modulation at a one hour timescale during its 6 hour orbit, implying a possible DQ Her type system.

Szkody, P.



IX Draconis, ER UMa-type dwarf nova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of our world-wide observing campaign which was dedicated to one of the most active dwarf novae, IX Draconis. We investigated photometric behaviour of the system to derive its basic parameters. This study is important in the context of our understanding of the accretion process of IX Draconis, as well as other active cataclysmic variables, especially those from the still poorly studied type of ER UMa stars.

Otulakowska-Hypka, M.; Olech, A.; de Miguel, E.; Rutkowski, A.; Koff, R.; Bakowska, K.




Microsoft Academic Search

A mediação social é um tema que nos últimos anos vem ganhando espaço nas discussões sobre o desenvolvimento rural, mais especificamente, nas questões referentes à intervenção para o desenvolvimento. Este processo compreende uma relação que se apresenta como uma “via de mão dupla”, ou seja, a via representa a relação, uma das mãos é os mediadores, e a outra é

Cidonea Machado Deponti; Jalcione Almeida



Deterministic annealing EM algorithm.  


This paper presents a deterministic annealing EM (DAEM) algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation problems to overcome a local maxima problem associated with the conventional EM algorithm. In our approach, a new posterior parameterized by `temperature' is derived by using the principle of maximum entropy and is used for controlling the annealing process. In the DAEM algorithm, the EM process is reformulated as the problem of minimizing the thermodynamic free energy by using a statistical mechanics analogy. Since this minimization is deterministically performed at each temperature, the total search is executed far more efficiently than in the simulated annealing. Moreover, the derived DAEM algorithm, unlike the conventional EM algorithm, can obtain better estimates free of the initial parameter values. We also apply the DAEM algorithm to the training of probabilistic neural networks using mixture models to estimate the probability density and demonstrate the performance of the DAEM algorithm. PMID:12662837

Ueda, N; Nakano, R



BR LUPI - A new SU UMa-star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following an alert in April 1986 that an outburst of BR Lupi was in progress, high-speed photometry of this star was obtained. The outburst light curve revealed the presence of 'superhumps', indicating that BR Lup is a member of the SU UMa subclass of cataclysmic variables. Using a standard Fourier analysis, the period of the superhump was found to be 0.082 + or - 0.0002 d. The tight correlation between superhump period and orbital period found by Stolz and Schoembs (1981) made it possible to estimate the orbital period of BR Lup. It was found to be equal to 0.079 d.

O'Donoghue, D.



Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

de Souza, R. S.



Planetary Obliquity Evolution in the 47 Uma Habitable Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In two studies by Laskar and Robuterl (1993) and Laskar et al. (1993) the obliquity evolution of the major planets of the Solar System was investigated. It was found that the terrestrial planets have a high probability of encountering chaotic regimes and thereby initiating large variations in their obliquities. Such variations are expected to have had profound implications for the long-term atmosphere and surface conditions of the planets. The recent discovery of an extra solar planetary system (47 Uma), with a habitable zone that could potentially harbor small terrestrial planets (e.g. Jones and Sleep, 2002 and Thébault et al. 2002), have raised questions about the conditions for habitability in such a system (e.g. Franck et al. 2001 and Cuntz et al. 2003). In that context the effects of the obliquity evolution might be of importance and has been numerically simulated for hypothetical planets located in the habitable zone of 47 Uma. The results found will be presented and discussed in detail. Cuntz et al. 2003. Icarus in press. - Franck et al. 2001. Naturwissenschaften 88, 416. - Jones and Sleep 2002. A&A 393, 1015. - Laskar and Robuterl 1993. Nature 361, 608. - Laskar et al. 1993. Nature 361, 615. - Thébault et al. 2002. A&A 384, 594.

Erikson, A.; Skoglöv, E.



Stellar Coronal Abundances at Intermediate-Activity Levels: ? UMa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) spectra of the corona of the critical intermediate-activity, quadruple stellar system ? UMa. Using the maximum A/B subsystem separation in 2001, we attempted to resolve for the first time in X-rays the two components using the HETG Medium Energy Grating (MEG). We found the Aa component of the system to be at least 2 orders of magnitude fainter than the Bb component. We used the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to reconstruct differential emission measures (DEMs) and abundances and discuss first ionization potential (FIP) issues. The reconstructed DEMs showed two pronounced peaks at logT~6.5 and logT~7.0 K, respectively, similar to brighter solar active regions. A plot of coronal abundances, with respect to stellar photospheric, versus FIP reveals that the FIP behavior of ? UMa is intermediate between less and more active stars, commensurate with its X-ray luminosity. The abundances of Mg, Fe, and Si are just subsolar, with Fe having the lowest abundance of these. The low-FIP elements Na and Al have similar abundances, and they are both higher than the Mg, Fe, and Si group. The abundances show a minimum at S, rising gradually to Ne, which is higher than photospheric, as has been seen by other authors on similar stars. Some of the FIP behavior seen here is predicted by the new ponderomotive force model of Laming.

Ball, B.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Lin, L.; Kashyap, V.; Laming, J. M.; García-Alvarez, D.



Comportamento da dose glandular versus contraste do objeto em mamografia: determinação de formalismo semi-empírico para diferentes combinações alvo-filtro  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da mudança no contraste do objeto, tempo de exposição e dose de radiação quando diferentes espessuras de filtração de molibdênio (Mo) e ródio (Rh) são empregadas em mamógrafos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se medidas da exposição na entrada da pele com uma câmara de ionização para diferentes espessuras para os filtros de Mo e Rh. Para determinar

Gabriela Hoff; Carlos Eduardo de Almeida; Gary T. Barnes



Avaliação da evolução dos valores pagos pelo SIH em Minas Gerais frente à inflação setorial da saúde no período de fevereiro de 1996 a maio de 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Uma questão atual nas políticas públicas de saúde no Brasil é o financiamento dos prestadores de serviços médico-hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS. Um dos meios de financiamento é o pagamento de procedimentos informados ao Sistema de Informações Hospitalares - SIH, em que o valor pago deriva do número de procedimentos efetuados conforme o valor de cada

Helen Cristiny; Teodoro Couto; Juliana Ferreira Castro; Bruno Pérez Ferreira



Microsoft Academic Search

Face à importância da informação para o atual contexto social, em especial para a gestão empresarial, analisa-se a informação como um ativo a ser gerenciado, uma vez que é infinitamente reutilizável, não deteriorável e nem tampouco depreciável. A gestão da informação transforma valores e cultura organizacionais. Sua efetivação contribui para o alcance dos atuais desafios das empresas: qualidade, produtividade e

Andreina Alves de Sousa


EM Radiation Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EM Radiation program displays the electric field vectors (in the x-y plane) and magnetic field contours (for the field in the z direction) calculated from the Lienard-Wiechert potentials for a charged particle. The default scenario shows the resulting radiation from a charged particle in simple harmonic motion. Additional particle trajectories can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. EM Radiation is an Open Source Physics program written for the teaching of electromagnetism. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the em_radiation.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other electromagnetism programs are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or electromagnetism.

Christian, Wolfgang



21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G . nasalis (3rd instars); and tapeworms: Anoplocephala perfoliata (adults). One dose also suppresses...



21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (c) Conditions of use â(1) Amount â(i) Dogs and cats (over 6 months of age): 10 milligrams of febantel and...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis ). (ii) Cats and kittens: For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma...



21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...500.25 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of use â(1) Cats â(i) Dosage . Administer a minimum dose of 2.27...tubaeforme ), and large roundworms (Toxocara cati ) in cats and kittens. (iii) Limitations . Not for use in...



Unsuccessful Use of Praziquantel to Treat Acute Facioliasis in Children,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parziquantel is effective against several trematode and cestode infectious. We have successfully used it to treat schistosomiasis (1, 2) and hymenolepiasis (3). Other investigators have reported good results in treating clonorchiasis (4), paragonimiasis (...

Z. Farid B. Trabolsi F. Boctor A. Hafez



Comprehensive photometric study of the eclipsing binary AW UMa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its extreme mass ratio, the system AW UMa is considered as one of the most interesting contact binaries. In the present paper, a total of 1289 observations in VRI band were carried out from on 2006 March 7, 8, and 9 at Piszkesteto, Mountain Station of the Konkoly observatory (Hungary). VRI light curves were constructed and a photometric solution of these light curves was obtained by means of Willson-Devinney code. The results show that the primary component is more massive and hotter than the primary component by ˜140 K. A secular period decrease with a rate dP/dE=2.436×10-10 day/cycle was detected. Based on the physical parameters of the system, we investigate the evolutionary state of the components. The primary component is above the zero age main sequence (ZAMS) track, while the secondary component has a larger radius and luminosity than expected from its ZAMS mass.

Elkhateeb, M. M.; Nouh, M. I.



A soft X-ray halo around SU UMa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dwarf nova SU UMa was observed with the imaging proportional counter (IPC) detector on the Einstein X-ray Observatory on 4 October 1979 at 4 h UT for about 3,000 s. An X-ray source was detected at the position of the star. It had a flux of 1.3 x 10 to -11th erg/sq cm s (0.6 counts per s) in the 0.1-4.5 keV energy range of the IPC, assuming a spectral temperature of about 10 keV. In addition, several areas of weaker emission were observed which form a ring that is symmetrically disposed about the position of the dwarf nova. This latter emission is detected only at energies below 0.7 keV; the possibility that it arises in material that has been ejected from the star in a nova-like event is discussed.

Cordova, F. A.; Mason, K. O.



On supercycle lengths of active SU UMa stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a detailed analysis of extensive photometric observations of a sample of the most active dwarf novae, that is, SU UMa stars which are characterized by supercycle lengths shorter than 120 d. We found observational evidence that supercycle lengths for these objects have been constantly increasing over the past decades, which indicates that their mean mass-transfer rates have been decreasing during that time. This seems to be a common feature for this type of stars. We present numerical results in each case and estimate time-scales of future development of these systems. This study is important in the context of evolution of dwarf novae stars and perhaps other cataclysmic variables.

Otulakowska-Hypka, M.; Olech, A.



First photometric study of W UMa binary star LU Lac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LU Lac is a neglected W UMa binary star in photometric investigations. In this paper, we present BVRI CCD photometric light curves obtained on one night in 2012. The first photometric solutions of this system are computed by using the Wilson-Devinney code. It is shown that LU Lac is a marginal contact W-type system with a degree of contact factor of f=8.9%, a mass ratio of q=2.085 and a high inclination of i=82°.20. From the first analyses of orbital period changes, we found the period variation of the system includes an oscillation (A3=0.0125 days and T3=51.92 years). The cyclic change may be attributed to the light-travel time effect through the presence of a third body.

Liao, W.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhao, E.-G.; Jiang, L.-Q.



emGain: Determination of EM gain of CCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the EM gain of the CCD is best done by fitting the histogram of many low-light frames. Typically, the dark+CIC noise of a 30ms frame itself is a sufficient amount of signal to determine accurately the EM gain with about 200 512x512 frames. The IDL code emGain takes as an input a cube of frames and fit the histogram of all the pixels with the EM stage output probability function. The function returns the EM gain of the frames as well as the read-out noise and the mean signal level of the frames.

Daigle, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien



On ambiente de binárias de pequena massa em formação: o caso do glóbulo cometário CG30 e IRAS08076-3556  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho, combinamos observações de polarização linear no óptico (banda R), dados no infravermelho distante (IRAS) e observações de transições moleculares em radiofreqüências (CO e espécies isotópicas, HCN e HCO+) para analisar o glóbulo cometário (GC) CG30 (na região da IRAS Vela Shell), que apresenta objetos Herbig-Haro e ejeções de matéria, além de uma fonte pontual IRAS em seu interior. Os objetivos deste estudo são: determinar a eficiência de formação estelar nos glóbulos cometários, através da relação entre a massa total do GC e da massa das estrelas em formação; determinar como o campo magnético influencia na formação de estrelas no interior destes objetos; e analisar as modificações que ejeções de matéria de estrelas em formação causam no gás e no campo magnético dos GCs. Combinando nossos dados com trabalhos já publicados, mostramos que CG30 tem uma eficiência de formação estelar em torno de 3%; que o campo magnético é importante na manutenção da estrutura global do GC e demonstra sinais de torção e compressão; e que a ejeção bipolar de matéria das estrelas do par formam uma ejeção quadripolar, a qual influencia na densidade e temperatura do gás e no grau de polarização dos grãos de poeira associados ao gás do GC.

Hickel, G. R.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.



Calculation of Electron Trajectories in a Microwave Cavity Calculo DA Trajetoria de Eletrons Em Uma Cavidade de Microondas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relativistic equation describing the motion of electrons of a beam with annular cross section in the electromagnetic field of a cylindrical guide operating at TE sub 021 mode is solved numerically. Calculating the electrons energy along the cavity, th...

J. J. B. Decastro A. Montesfilho



Ensino de Sistemas de Informac ¸ ˜ ao para Cursos de Graduac ¸ ˜ ao em Computac ¸ ˜ ao: Uma Experiencia Integrada e Inovadora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching Information Systems in Computer graduation course s uses techniques already being applyed in market for some years, b ut when the aim is to integrate new technologies to systems practice at real or ganization environ- ments, new integrated and inovative approaches need to be us ed. This article presents a teaching proposal for Information Systems based on an inovative

Ghedini Ralha; Jorge Henrique Cabral Fernandes


Tabaco, álcool e outras drogas entre adolescentes em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: uma perspectiva de gênero  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the relationship between gender and use of psychoactive substances (al- cohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs) by teenagers. In 2002, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Multi-stage sampling was used to obtain a sam- ple of adolescents, 15 to 18 years of age. Subjects were interviewed using a self-applied confiden-

Rogério Lessa Horta; Bernardo Lessa Horta; Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro; Blanca Morales; Marlene Neves Strey




Microsoft Academic Search

In this article studies of several types of sceneries are presented. Firstly, we will consider the used variables and the methodology maid in this analysis. The simulation is one o f t he generalizations of the Operational R esearch (P.O), that comes growing with the current modernization. The analysis of sceneries through simulation allows a verification of the data and

Mauro Froes Meyer


Avaliação de uma metodologia para implantação de sistemas de gestão da qualidade em empresas de projetos para a construção civil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although quality system certification of construction companies in Brazil started in 1997, only in 1999 the first design organisations started to implement quality management systems. Nowadays, there is an increasing number of design companies that see the implementation of quality management systems as an opportunity for improving their products and services. This article describes a methodology for implementation of quality

Michele Fossati; Humberto Ramos Roman


Metáforas de Lula e Alckmin nos debates de 2006 em uma perspectiva da Lingüística de Corpus1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho é contrastar o uso de metáforas pelos dois candidatos no segundo turno das eleições presidenciais de 2006, Luís Inácio Lula da Silva e Geraldo Alckmin, para saber até que ponto Lula, que foi vitorioso nas urnas, usou metáforas de modo mais eficaz do que o outro candidato durante os debates televisados. Foi colhido um corpus

Tony Berber Sardinha


IX Draconis - a curious ER UMa-type dwarf nova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results of an extensive worldwide observing campaign devoted to a very active dwarf nova star - IX Draconis. We investigated photometric behaviour of the system to derive its basic outburst properties and understand peculiarities of IX Draconis as well as other active cataclysmic variables, in particular dwarf novae of the ER UMa type. In order to measure fundamental parameters of the system, we carried out analyses of the light curve, O - C diagram, and power spectra. During over two months of observations, we detected two superoutbursts and several normal outbursts. The V magnitude of the star varied in the range 14.6-18.2 mag. Superoutbursts occur regularly with the supercycle length (Psc) of 58.5 ± 0.5 d. When analysing data over the past 20 years, we found that Psc is increasing at a rate of dot{P} = 1.8 × 10^{-3}. Normal outbursts appear to be irregular, with typical occurrence times in the range 3.1-4.1 d. We detected a double-peaked structure of superhumps during superoutburst, with the secondary maximum becoming dominant near the end of the superoutburst. The mean superhump period observed during superoutbursts is Psh = 0.066982(36) d (96.45 ± 0.05 min), which is constant over the last two decades of observations. Based on the power spectrum analysis, the evaluation of the orbital period was problematic. We found two possible values: the first one, 0.066 41(3) d (95.63 ± 0.04 min), which is in agreement with previous studies and our O - C analysis [0.06646(2) d, 95.70 ± 0.03 min], and the second one, 0.06482(3) d (93.34 ± 0.04 min), which is less likely. The evolutionary status of the object depends dramatically on the choice between these two values. A spectroscopic determination of the orbital period is needed. We updated available information on ER UMa-type stars and present a new set of their basic statistics. Thereby, we provide evidence that this class of stars is not uniform.

Otulakowska-Hypka, M.; Olech, A.; de Miguel, E.; Rutkowski, A.; Koff, R.; B?kowska, K.



The EM Earthquake Precursor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two directional techniques were employed, resulting in three mapped, potential epicenters. The remaining, weaker signals presented similar directionality results to more epicentral locations. In addition, the directional results of the Timpson field tests lead to the design and construction of a third prototype antenna. In a laboratory setting, experiments were created to fail igneous rock types within a custom-designed Faraday Cage. An antenna emplaced within the cage detected EM emissions, which were both reproducible and distinct, and the laboratory results paralleled field results. With a viable system and continuous monitoring, a fracture cycle could be established and observed in real-time. Sequentially, field data would be reviewed quickly for assessment; thus, leading to a much improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursor determined by this method may surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.



Fundamental Data for Contact Binaries: Rz Comae, Rz Tauri, and Aw Uma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Differential corrections analyses of three W UMa type binaries show that RZ Tau and AW UMa have common envelopes and the relatively small gravity darkening predicted by Lucy, while RZ Comae seems to have a larger gravity effect and is only marginally in c...

R. E. Wilson E. J. Devinney



Learner Responses to the Use of Television in UMA Courses. Working Paper No. 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss learner responses to the television component of the various courses developed or offered by the University of Mid-America (UMA). Implications for courseware development are outlined, and research questions to be addressed are suggested. Four courses were offered by UMA: (1) Accounting I, (2)…

Brown, Laurence A.


APASS colors for 112 short-period W UMa binary candidates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey are presented for 112 objects in a recent list of 143 short-period W UMa eclipsing binary candidates discovered in the SuperWASP data archive. Color information is used to assess the likelihood that these objects are W UMa binaries.

Terrell, Dirk



Correlação de longo alcance em sistemas binários de raios-x usando remoção de flutuações  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho é proposta uma metodologia de analise de series temporais de fontes astrofísicas, baseada no método proposto por Peng et al. (1994) e Liu et al. (1999), o qual consiste na idéia de que uma série temporal correlacionada pode ser mapeada por um processo de busca de auto-similaridades em diversas escalas de tempo n. Removendo as eventuais tendências e integrando o sinal observado, é obtida uma medida do desvio médio quadrático das flutuações do sinal integrado F(n)~na, onde a representa o fator de escala associado com a auto-similaridade da correlação de longo alcance do sinal. Baseado nos valores obtidos de a, é possível distinguir entre os casos de sinais não-correlacionados, tipo ruído branco (a = 0,5), sinal anti-persistentes (a < 0,5) e sinal persistente (a > 0,5). Usando esta metodologia, foram analisadas 129 curvas de luz de sistemas binários de raios-X, provenientes do banco de dados públicos de observações feitas pelo instrumento All Sky Monitor, a bordo do satélite Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (ASM-RXTE). Foram identificadas a presença de a'0,5 em mais de 90% dos sistemas estudados, implicando em dizer que as flutuações de intensidade observadas apresentam correlação de auto-similaridade, sem entretanto, indícios de apresentarem uma escala de tempo característica das flutuações de intensidade. Sistemas onde são observadas erupções (flares), apresentam sistematicamente a > 0,5, característica esta, possivelmente associada com persistência das flutuações de densidade de disco ou taxa de acréscimo de massa. Os sistemas com curvas de luz onde nao são observadas as erupções apresentam uma distribuição normal centrada em a~0,62+/-0,10. Referências ¾ Peng, C.-K., Buldyrev, S.V., Havlin, S., Simons, M., Stanley, H.E., e Goldberg, A.L., Phys. Rev. E, (49), 1685 (1994). ¾ Liu, Y., Gopikrishnan, P., Cizeau, P., Meyer, M., Peng,C.-K., e Stanley, H.E., Phys. Rev. E, (60), 1390 (1999).

Pereira, M. G.; Moret, M. A.; Zebende, G. F.; Nogueira, E., Jr.



Área temática: Globalização e internacionalização de empresas Participação em Feiras: Uma Pesquisa Exploratória sobre Expositores Brasileiros e Estrangeiros em Eventos Internacionais  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international activity most associated with the increase of the company's competitiveness is the participation in international trade shows. This article identifies the main facts which encourage the participation of Brazilian and foreign exhibitors in international fairs. The data were collected live during the International Food Fair (Sial) that took place in Paris in 2006 and via email. To form



Spectroscopic Metallicity Determinations for W UMa-type Binary Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is the first attempt to determine the metallicities of W UMa-type binary stars using spectroscopy. We analyzed about 4500 spectra collected at the David Dunlap Observatory. To circumvent problems caused by the extreme spectral line broadening and blending and by the relatively low quality of the data, all spectra were subject to the same broadening function (BF) processing to determine the combined line strength in the spectral window centered on the Mg I triplet between 5080 Å and 5285 Å. All individual integrated BFs were subsequently orbital-phase averaged to derive a single line-strength indicator for each star. The star sample was limited to 90 W UMa-type (EW) binaries with the strict phase-constancy of colors and without spectral contamination by spectroscopic companions. The best defined results were obtained for an F-type sub-sample (0.32 < (B - V)0 < 0.62) of 52 binaries for which integrated BF strengths could be interpolated in the model atmosphere predictions. The logarithmic relative metallicities, [M/H], for the F-type sub-sample indicate metal abundances roughly similar to the solar metallicity, but with a large scatter which is partly due to combined random and systematic errors. Because of the occurrence of a systematic color trend resulting from inherent limitations in our approach, we were forced to set the absolute scale of metallicities to correspond to that derived from the m 1 index of the Strömgren uvby photometry for 24 binaries of the F-type sub-sample. The trend-adjusted metallicities [M/H]1 are distributed within -0.65 < [M/H]1 < +0.50, with the spread reflecting genuine metallicity differences between stars. One half of the F-sub-sample binaries have [M/H]1 within -0.37 < [M/H]1 < +0.10, a median of -0.04 and a mean of -0.10, with a tail toward low metallicities, and a possible bias against very high metallicities. A parallel study of kinematic data, utilizing the most reliable and recently obtained proper motion and radial velocity data for 78 binaries of the full sample, shows that the F-type sub-sample binaries (44 stars with both velocities and metallicity determinations) have similar kinematic properties to solar-neighborhood, thin-disk dwarfs with space velocity component dispersions: ?U = 33 km s-1, ?V = 23 km s-1 and ?W = 14 km s-1. FU Dra with a large spatial velocity, V tot = 197 km s-1 and [M/H]1 = -0.6 ± 0.2, appears to be the only thick-disk object in the F-type sub-sample. The kinematic data indicate that the F-type EW binaries are typical, thin-disk population stars with ages about 3-5.5 Gyr. The F-type binaries that appear to be older than the rest tend to have systematically smaller mass ratios than most of the EW binaries of the same period. Based on observations obtained at the David Dunlap Observatory, University of Toronto.

Rucinski, Slavek M.; Pribulla, Theodor; Budaj, Ján




SciTech Connect

This study is the first attempt to determine the metallicities of W UMa-type binary stars using spectroscopy. We analyzed about 4500 spectra collected at the David Dunlap Observatory. To circumvent problems caused by the extreme spectral line broadening and blending and by the relatively low quality of the data, all spectra were subject to the same broadening function (BF) processing to determine the combined line strength in the spectral window centered on the Mg I triplet between 5080 A and 5285 A. All individual integrated BFs were subsequently orbital-phase averaged to derive a single line-strength indicator for each star. The star sample was limited to 90 W UMa-type (EW) binaries with the strict phase-constancy of colors and without spectral contamination by spectroscopic companions. The best defined results were obtained for an F-type sub-sample (0.32 < (B - V){sub 0} < 0.62) of 52 binaries for which integrated BF strengths could be interpolated in the model atmosphere predictions. The logarithmic relative metallicities, [M/H], for the F-type sub-sample indicate metal abundances roughly similar to the solar metallicity, but with a large scatter which is partly due to combined random and systematic errors. Because of the occurrence of a systematic color trend resulting from inherent limitations in our approach, we were forced to set the absolute scale of metallicities to correspond to that derived from the m{sub 1} index of the Stroemgren uvby photometry for 24 binaries of the F-type sub-sample. The trend-adjusted metallicities [M/H]{sub 1} are distributed within -0.65 < [M/H]{sub 1} < +0.50, with the spread reflecting genuine metallicity differences between stars. One half of the F-sub-sample binaries have [M/H]{sub 1} within -0.37 < [M/H]{sub 1} < +0.10, a median of -0.04 and a mean of -0.10, with a tail toward low metallicities, and a possible bias against very high metallicities. A parallel study of kinematic data, utilizing the most reliable and recently obtained proper motion and radial velocity data for 78 binaries of the full sample, shows that the F-type sub-sample binaries (44 stars with both velocities and metallicity determinations) have similar kinematic properties to solar-neighborhood, thin-disk dwarfs with space velocity component dispersions: {sigma}U = 33 km s{sup -1}, {sigma}V = 23 km s{sup -1} and {sigma}W = 14 km s{sup -1}. FU Dra with a large spatial velocity, V{sub tot} = 197 km s{sup -1} and [M/H]{sub 1} = -0.6 {+-} 0.2, appears to be the only thick-disk object in the F-type sub-sample. The kinematic data indicate that the F-type EW binaries are typical, thin-disk population stars with ages about 3-5.5 Gyr. The F-type binaries that appear to be older than the rest tend to have systematically smaller mass ratios than most of the EW binaries of the same period.

Rucinski, Slavek M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Pribulla, Theodor; Budaj, Jan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 059 60 Tatranska Lomnica (Slovakia)



A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.



Fundamental data for contact binaries: RZ Comae, RZ Tauri, and AW UMa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential corrections analyses of three W UMa type binaries show that RZ Tau and AW UMa have common envelopes and the relatively small gravity darkening predicted by Lucy, while RZ Comae seems to have a larger gravity effect and is only marginally in contact. Some details of the method for computing contact binary light curves are given. It is suggested that W UMa binaries which have occultation primary eclipses may, in general, have large amplitudes for gravity darkening or a photometric surface brightness effect which simulates large gravity darkening.

Wilson, R. E.; Devinney, E. J.



EMS Course Coordinator's Implementation Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is intended to clarify the responsibilities of an instructor-coordinator responsible for coordinating an emergency medical services (EMS) training program and to describe many of the materials now available for use in coordinating EMS training. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the nature and scope of the…

Cockrum, Jim


Identified EM Earthquake Precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. At the Southern California field sites, one loop antenna was positioned for omni-directional reception and also detected a strong First Schumann Resonance; however, additional Schumann Resonances were absent. At the Timpson, TX field sites, loop antennae were positioned for directional reception, due to earthquake-induced, hydraulic fracturing activity currently conducted by the oil and gas industry. Two strong signals, one moderately strong signal, and approximately 6-8 weaker signals were detected in the immediate vicinity. The three stronger signals were mapped by a biangulation technique, followed by a triangulation technique for confirmation. This was the first antenna mapping technique ever performed for determining possible earthquake epicenters. Six and a half months later, Timpson experienced two M4 (M4.1 and M4.3) earthquakes on September 2, 2013 followed by a M2.4 earthquake three days later, all occurring at a depth of five kilometers. The Timpson earthquake activity now has a cyclical rate and a forecast was given to the proper authorities. As a result, the Southern California and Timpson, TX field results led to an improved design and construction of a third prototype antenna. With a loop antenna array, a viable communication system, and continuous monitoring, a full fracture cycle can be established and observed in real-time. In addition, field data could be reviewed quickly for assessment and lead to a much more improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursors determined by this method appear to surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick



Electrographic and Behavioral Correlates of Sleep in the Fringe-Toed Lizard, 'Uma notata'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Behavioral and electrographic aspects of sleep in Uma notata were investigated. These burrowing lizards slept during the presence and absence of sand, under conditions of constant light and temperature (37 + or - 1 C). When sand was present, most of their...

S. W. Stropes D. Hunsaker L. C. Johnson



Photometric study of W UMa type binaries in the old open cluster Berkeley 39  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of W UMa binary systems gives a wealth of information about their nature as well as their parent bodies (if any), like clusters. In this paper, we present the I passband photometric solutions of four W UMa binaries in the open cluster Berkeley 39 using the latest version of the W-D program. The result shows that two binary systems are W-subtype W UMa binary systems and the other two systems are H-subtype W UMa binary systems. No third body has been found in any of the four systems. We found a correlation between the period and mass-ratio as well as temperature and mass-ratio for the respective variables, which is similar to the relationship between mass ratio and total mass of the contact binaries as shown by van't Veer and Li et al.

Sriram, Kandulapati; Kiron, Yellapragada Ravi; Vivekananda Rao, Pasagada



Estudo espectral em raios-X duros de fontes do tipo Z com o HEXTE/RXTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apresentam-se os resultados de um estudo espectral em raios-X de fontes do tipo Z. As fontes do tipo Z são binárias de raios-X de baixa massa (BXBM) com campo magnético intermediário (B~109G). Esta classe de fontes é composta por apenas 6 fontes Galácticas (a saber: ScoX-1, 9, 7, CygX-2, 5 e 0). A nossa análise se concentra na faixa de raios-X duros (E ~ 20keV), até cerca de 200keV, faixa ótima de operação do telescópio "High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment" (HEXTE), um dos três telescópios de raios-X à bordo do Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Nossa motivação para tal estudo, uma busca de caudas em raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z, foi o pouco conhecimento sobre a emissão nesta faixa de energia das referidas fontes quando comparadas, por exemplo, as fontes do tipo atoll (também BXBM). Apresentam-se a análise/redução de dados e explicita-se a maneira como o HEXTE mede o ru1do de fundo. Especial atenção é direcionada a este item devido a localização das fontes do tipo Z e também ao problema de contaminação por fontes próximas. Com exceção de ScoX-1, nenhuma cauda em raios-X duros foi encontrada para as outras fontes, a despeito de resultados de detecção dessas caudas em algumas fontes pelo satélite BeppoSAX. As interpretações deste resultado serão apresentadas. Do ponto de vista deste estudo, nós deduzimos que a produção de caudas de raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z é um processo disparado quando, pelo menos, uma condição é satisfeita: o brilho da componente térmica do espectro precisa estar acima de um certo valor limiar de ~4´1036ergs-1.

D'Amico, F.; Heindl, W. A.; Rothschild, R. E.




EPA Science Inventory

This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...


X-ray-selected candidates for the RS CVn and W UMa classes of binary stars  

SciTech Connect

X-ray luminosity, spectral type, radial-velocity variation, rotationally broadened line profile, and Ca II H and K line emission data are used to identify 12 new candidates for the RS CVn class and seven new candidates for the W UMa class from spectroscopic binaries which are contained in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. Under the assumption that the candidates are genuine members of each class, local space density estimates of 4.47 + or - 1.19 x 10 to the -4th/cu pc for RS CVn binaries and 8.47 + or - 3.00 x 10 to the -5th/cu pc for W UMa binaries are found. Although the density estimate for the W UMa binaries is shown to be consistent with previous estimates obtained from optically selected samples, the estimate for the RS CVn binaries is more than an order of magnitude greater than previously determined space densities. 40 refs.

Fleming, T.A.; Gioia, I.M.; Maccacaro, T. (Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO (USA); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany, F.R.); Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA))



SU Ursae Majoris - The perfect prototype of SU UMa subclass of dwarf novae  

SciTech Connect

Photometric observations of the April 1989 superoutburst of SU UMa are presented. The periodic light variation, the superhumps, were discovered, proving that SU UMa is indeed a typical star of the SU UMa-type of dwarf novae and a good prototype of the class. The superhump period is equal to 113.4 min and is about 3 percernt longer than the orbit alone. It decreases during the superoutburst with the rate dP/P about 0.00006. Photometry obtained during the late stages of the superoutburst suggests the presence of so-called late superhumps. The superhump profile has an evident, two-component structure which can be explained in the simplest way by the mass-transfer model. 27 refs.

Udalski, A. (York Univ., Toronto (Canada))



X-ray-selected candidates for the RS CVn and W UMa classes of binary stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray luminosity, spectral type, radial-velocity variation, rotationally broadened line profile, and Ca II H and K line emission data are used to identify 12 new candidates for the RS CVn class and seven new candidates for the W UMa class from spectroscopic binaries which are contained in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. Under the assumption that the candidates are genuine members of each class, local space density estimates of 4.47 + or - 1.19 x 10 to the -4th/cu pc for RS CVn binaries and 8.47 + or - 3.00 x 10 to the -5th/cu pc for W UMa binaries are found. Although the density estimate for the W UMa binaries is shown to be consistent with previous estimates obtained from optically selected samples, the estimate for the RS CVn binaries is more than an order of magnitude greater than previously determined space densities.

Fleming, Thomas A.; Gioia, Isabella M.; Maccacaro, Tommaso



A normal and superoutburst study of the eclipsing SU UMa star: DV Ursae Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on time-resolved photometry carried out during the 1995 short outburst and the 1997 long outburst in the eclipsing dwarf nova DV UMa. The revised orbital period is 0.0858526172 (67)d. We detected gigantic superhumps with an amplitude of ~0.6mag in the mid-phase of the 1997 outburst, revealing the SU UMa nature of DV UMa. The superhump period is 0.0887 (4)d. The superhumps became less clear during the late phase of the superoutburst, and we found two possible periods of 0.0885 (15) and 0.0764 (15). During both outbursts, the eclipse was wide and shallow near the maximum, and then became narrower and deeper, which is qualitatively well explained by the current disc instability theory.

Nogami, Daisaku; Kato, Taichi; Baba, Hajime; Novák, Rudolf; Lockley, J. J.; Somers, M.



FUSE Observations of the Bright, Eclipsing Nova-like Cataclysmic Variable, UX UMa (FUSE 2000)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This was a project to study the disk and wind of the eclipsing nova-like variable UX UMa, in order to better define the wind geometry of the system, including the nature of the transition region between the disk photosphere and the supersonic wind. We proposed to use phase resolved spectroscopy of the system, taking advantage of the fact that UX UMa is an eclipsing system, to isolate different regions of the wind and to use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simulate the spectra through the eclipse.

Long, Knox; Froning, Cynthia



Projeto educação em ciências com observatórios virtuais: a participação da Escola Moppe no período 2000-2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O projeto Educação em Ciências com Observatórios Virtuais foi concebido pelo Instituto Astronômico e Geofísico da USP, agregando diversas instituições de ensino e pesquisa no país para desenvolver competências diversas na educação fundamental, média e superior utilizando a astronomia como ferramenta multidisciplinar. Este trabalho descreve a participação da MOPPE, escola-piloto do INPE no projeto, no período de 2000-2003. Serão apresentadas 1) a criação de um clube de ciências (1999 a 2001) cujo tema foi a colonização de Marte e 2) a ementa de astronomia trabalhada com as 7a. e 8a. séries do ensino fundamental. A proposta do projeto Colonizando Marte foi estudar diversos aspectos de uma missão interplanetária e construir experiementos que permitissem quantificar esses aspectos. Os resultados obtidos incluiram apresentações nas SBPC Jovem em 2000 e 2001. Discutiremos também as ementas de astronomia trabalhadas desde 2001 e o envolvimento dos alunos com atividades ligadas a astronomia, fora da aula de ciências. A inclusão de astronomia no currículo das últimas séries motivou a participação de mais alunos culminando com a conquista de duas medalhas para alunos da 7a. série na Olimpiada Brasileira de Astronomia em 2002. Houve também um aumento no número de participantes na OBA 2003 e nos projetos de astronomia mais elaborados nas Feira de Ciências de 2001 e 2002. Destacamos em 2003 a inclusão da MOPPE no projeto TIE - Telescopes in Education - da NASA, que utiliza o telescópio do Observatório de Mount Wilson (EUA) para observações remotas em projetos pedagógicos para o ensino de astronomia.

Wuensche, C. A.; Gavioli, E.; Oliveira, A. L. P. R. S.; da Silva, C.; Cardoso, H. P.; Estácio, S.




Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabalho é resultado de uma investigação sobre a ação dos órgãos oficiais de Assistência Técnica e Extensão rural (ATER) no nordeste brasileiro, com o objetivo avaliar as ações dos mesmos visando a implementação da nova Política Nacional de ATER (PNATER), na região como referência para o país. Ela contemplou os Estados de Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte,

José Ribamar; Furtado de Souza


Mapping of Surface Activity on the W UMA-Type System VW Cephei,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After multifilter photometry of the W UMa-type contact binary VW Cep (P = 6.67 hr; G5V + K0V) in 1986/87 revealed large asymmetries in the light curves believed to be caused by large, cool starspot regions on the surface of the larger stars, in Apr. 1987 ...

D. H. Bradstreet E. F. Guinan



A relação entre escolaridade e ocupação dos jovens no Distrito Federal: Uma análise socioespacial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ocupação territorial no Distrito Federal (DF) é marcada pela segregação socioespacial. Por conta da segregação, a dinâmica interna de ocupação originou uma organização espacial diferenciada das demais cidades do país, na qual a restrição à população é visível aos olhos, embora não se deixe desvelar totalmente. A concentração dos postos de trabalho no Plano Piloto e a exigência cada

Sílvia Silva; Cavalcante Leite; Karla Christina; Batista de França


Spatial EM jamming: A countermeasure against EM Analysis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electro-Magnetic Analysis has been identified as an efficient technique to retrieve the secret key of cryptographic algorithms. Although similar mathematically speaking, Power or Electro-Magnetic Analysis have different advantages in practice. Among the advantages of EM Analysis, the feasibility of attacking limited and bounded area of integrated systems is the key one. Within this context, the contribution of this paper is

Francois Poucheret; Lyonel Barthe; Pascal Benoit; Lionel Torres; Philippe Maurine; Michel Robert



Alveolar Echinococcosis: Characterization of Diagnostic Antigen Em18 and Serological Evaluation of Recombinant Em18  

PubMed Central

The Echinococcus multilocularis protein Em18 is one of the most promising antigens for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in human patients. Here we identify an antigenic relationship between Em18 and a 65-kDa immunodominant E. multilocularis surface protein previously identified as either EM10 or EmII/3. The NH2-terminal sequence of native Em18 was determined, revealing it to be a fragment of EM10. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of proteinase inhibitors on the degradation of EM10 in crude extracts of E. multilocularis protoscoleces. Em18 was found to be the product of degradation of EM10 by cysteine proteinase. A recombinant Em18 (RecEm18, derived from 349K to 508K of EM10) was successfully expressed by using Escherichia coli expression system and then evaluated for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. RecEm18 was recognized by 27 (87.1%) and 28 (90.3%) of 31 serum samples from clinically and/or pathologically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, respectively. Of 33 serum samples from cystic echinococcosis patients, 1 was recorded as having a weak positive reaction to RecEm18; however, none of the serum samples which were tested from neurocysticercosis patients (n = 10) or healthy people (n = 15) showed positive reactions. RecEm18 has the potential for use in the differential serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis.

Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Gottstein, Bruno; Lightowers, Marshall W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Ito, Akira



Žem?s dangos skaitmenini? vaizd? identifikavimo analiz?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Straipsnyje nagrin?jamas žem?s dangos skaitmenini? vaizd? identifikavimas taikant kovariacini? funkcij? ir Wavelet (bang?) teorij?. Dviej? skaitmenini? vaizd? arba pavieni? vaizd? autokovariacini? funkcij? ?ver?iai skai?iuojami pagal atsitiktines funkcijas, sudarytas iš skaitmenini? vaizd? pikseli? vektori? pavidalu. Pikseli? vektori? ?ver?iai gaunami skleidžiant skaitmenini? vaizd? pikseli? masyvus viena eilute. Tyrimams panaudoti HJ-DEM Ikonos palydoviniai vaizdai, kai kartografin? projekcija n?ra ortografin?, ir skaitmeninio vaizdo ta\\vsk? masteliai skirtingi. Kei?iant skaitmeninio vaizdo mastel? pavieni? pikseli? spalv? bang? dažniai lieka nekintantys, t. y. const, ir kovariacini? funkcij? skai?iavimo proced?rose mastelio kaitos ?taka nepasirei\\vskia. Vaizdams identifikuoti taikytas RGB formato spalv? spektras. Analizuota RGB spektro dedam?j? bei spalv? tenzoriaus ?taka skaitmenini? vaizd? kovariacini? funkcij? ?ver?iams. Skaitmenini? vaizd? tapatumas ?vertinamas pagal koreliacijos koeficient? reikšmi? kait? atitinkam? reikšmi? diapazone, taikant sudaryt? kompiuterin? program?.

Skeivalas, Jonas; Aleknien?, Edita; Ge?yt?, Silvija



Observação do abrilhantamento de limbo solar e de estruturas filamentares em 48 ghz utilizando a técnica de regularização adaptativa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O radiotelescópio do Itapetinga tem sido utilizado em campanhas de observações de explosões solares gerando um grande número de mapas diários em 48 GHz como sub-produto destas observações. A resolução espacial do telescópio de 14m do Itapetinga nesta freqüência é de aproximadamente dois minutos de arco. Estruturas de interesse para análise da atmosfera solar quiescente tais como os filamentos e o anel de abrilhantamento do limbo são de dimensão angular moderada da ordem ou ligeiramente menores que a resolução do telescópio. É conhecido que a convolução da função de espalhamento do telescópio, PSF (padrão de ganho do feixe) borra as estruturas de dimensão angular abaixo do HPBW (largura a meia potência do feixe) e portanto é comum a busca por técnicas de restauração que eliminem pelo menos em parte este borramento. Estudamos a restauração destas radioimagens usando a técnica de regularização adaptativa e os resultados ressaltam estas estruturas espaciais de pequeno contraste. O algoritmo da regularização adaptativa faz uso de k imagens, chamadas protótipos, obtidas através da variação de parâmetros de um filtro de regularização. Para controle da qualidade da restauração utilizamos uma imagem de alta resolução espacial obtida na linha H-a e a PSF do Itapetinga para borrá-la. Pequenos desvios, entre a PSF utilizada para o borramento e a PSF utilizada na restauração, produziram alguns desvios notáveis na imagem restaurada porém a adição de ruído nas simulações de restauração foram mais influentes no cálculo da rugosidade da imagem e portanto mais limitante para a restauração. Apresentamos como nosso primeiro resultado uma imagem em 48 GHz com a presença clara do abrilhantamento de limbo que não estava evidente na imagem original e traços de estruturas filamentares, porém ainda sem grande evidência.

Machado, W. R. S.; Mascarenhas, N.; Costa, J. E. R.; Silva, A. V. R.



Recurrent Population II x-ray transients - similarities to SU UMa cataclysmic variables  

SciTech Connect

Quasi-periodic outburst activity is not uncommon among Population II x-ray binaries. This paper reports observations of such activity in several sources, made by the Vela 5B x-ray monitor. Typical periods are 1/2 to 2 years with an rms scatter in interval time of approx.10%. This activity is reminiscent of the superoutburst cycles of SU UMa CV's with respect to mean recurrence times, the variation of the recurrence times about their mean, and the total mass transferred during outburst. However, the outbursts in the x-ray sources have substantially longer duration, 50 to 100 days instead of approx.10 days. The author suggests that SU UMa and x-ray transient outbursts may be caused by similar mass-transfer instabilities. 19 refs., 7 figs.

Priedhorsky, W.



Coordinated optical and ultraviolet observations of short period RS CVn and W UMa type stars  

SciTech Connect

Data from the Fiber Optic Echelle Charge Coupled Device (CCD) Spectrograph at KPNO as well as IUE data were analyzed in this study of short period RS CVn and W UMa type binaries. Optical data were analyzed using a spectral subtraction technique to find excess emission (or absorption) in the component spectra. Analysis of data for the W UMa type contact binary VW Cep strongly suggests the existence of extended material near the contact region but clearly outside the Roche lobes. This material is presumably confined in magnetic loops bridging the two components. Making simple assumptions, the density can be estimated at 4 to 5 times 10 {sup 12} cm (sup {minus}3). A possible prominence was also detected on the secondary component of the detached short period RS CVn system DH Leo.

Newmark, J.S.



X-ray and optical measurements of the cataclysmic variable CH UMa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to identify optical counterparts of X-ray sources discovered with the Einstein Observatory has resulted in an independent identification of CH UMa as a cataclysmic variable. Spectrophotometric observations made with the Intensified Image Dissector Scanner on the 2.1-m telescope at KPNO revealed an emission line spectrum from an approximately 15 mag object similar to the spectra of cataclysmic variables. A subsequent search of the Harvard photographic plate collection revealed outbursts of 4 mag in amplitude.

Becker, R. H.; Chanan, G. A.; Wilson, A. S.; Pravdo, S. H.



GSC 4181-0713 - a new W UMa type eclipsing binary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GSC 4181-0713 is identifed as an eclipsing binary for the first time. Ten times of primary and secondary minima were obtained. The shape and amplitude of the light curve and the period P=0.258742d implies that GSC 4181-0713 is a short-period W UMa type eclipsing binary. The system shows clearly an O'Connell effect delta m<0 in its light curve.

Monninger, Gerold



Deterministini? ir geostatistini? interpoliavimo metod? taikymas Žem?s paviršiui modeliuoti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analizuojamas Žem?s paviršiaus trimatis modeliavimas pagal geodezinius ir fotogrametrinius matavimo duomenis, taikant tiesin?, svorin? ir Kriging interpoliavimo metodus. Interpoliavimo algoritmai pertvarkyti ir pritaikyti MATLAB paketo vykdomajam kodui. Sudarytoji programa Geo3D skirta erdviniams duomenims vaizduoti pagal geodezinius ir fotogrametrinius duomenis. Geo3D programa sudaryti trima?iai Žem?s paviršiaus modeliai ?vertinti bei palyginti su modeliais, sukurtais reljefo vaizdavimo programa WinSurf.

Nareiko, Viktor; Ruzgien?, Birut?; ?selis, Adomas



Three-wave mixing of volume EM, surface EM and surface acoustic waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have investigated the diffraction of volume EM waves into surface EM waves (or vice versa) by surface acoustic (SA) waves, i.e. the three-wave mixing of volume EM, surface EM and SA waves, using a Kretschmann (prism\\/Ag film\\/air) configuration with the SA waves propagating in the Ag film. The diffraction intensity was measured as a function of the angle

H. Talaat; W. P. Chen; E. Burstein



Plume chemistry and potential impacts of the plume from the recent activity at Halema'uma'u, Kilauea, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 19 March 2008 explosion within Halema`uma`u that formed the new vent at Kilauea's summit, degassing rates have been greatly elevated above the levels typical of previous years. The location and subsequent dispersion of this new degassing presents its own specific problems compared to that in the east rift zone. For example, throughout 2008 the Halema'uma'u plume was generally

T. A. Mather; M. L. Witt; R. Martin; A. Aiuppa; E. Bagnato; A. J. Sutton



The habitable zone of Earth-mass planets around 47 UMa: results for land and water worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper, we showed that Earth-type habitable planets around 47 UMa are in principle possible if a distinct set of conditions is warranted. These conditions include that the Earth-type planets have successfully formed and are orbitally stable and, in addition, that the 47 UMa star-planet system is relatively young ([less, similar]6 Gyr). We now extend this study by

S. Franck; M. Cuntz; W. von Bloh; C. Bounama



Teoria das Ondas de Elliott- Uma aplicação ao mercado de ações aa Bm&Fbovespa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Os preços dos ativos negociados em bolsas de valores, assim como qualquer outro tipo de commodity do mercado financeiro, oscilam naturalmente com a procura por esses produtos. Essas oscilações, juntamente com a assimetria das informações acerca dos preços desses produtos geram processos de volatilidade. Charles Dow, no início do século XX criou índices setoriais, nos quais reunia papéis da mesma

Daniele Ferreira de Sousa


DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM fissionable material operations. In addition, the report includes projections of future EM needs and associted recommendations.

Westfall, Robert Michael [ORNL; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell [ORNL



Thorough analysis and deep insight into the low amplitude W UMa type system FI Boo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of the modeling of new multicolor light curves of the low amplitude W UMa type binary system FI Boo obtained at the University of Patras Observatory "Mythodea", in spring 2012, in view of the presence of a detected third body that may play an important role in the formation and evolution. The absolute properties of the components have been derived from spectroscopic data with the PHOBE software and are tested extensively by heuristic scanning and parameter kicking in order to check the solution uniqueness. The classification as A or W subtype, the formation and the evolutionary status of the binary are also investigated in detail.

Papageorgiou, A.



School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

Education Resource Strategies, 2012



Risco no mercado de arroz em casca  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho avaliou as características das séries de retornos, normalmente encontradas em séries financeiras, para dados do mercado de arroz em casca ao produtor do Rio Grande do Sul. Um modelo da classe GARCH (1,1) tipo VaR foi utilizado para obter previsões da variância condicional e verificar o risco incorrido pelas posições comprada e vendida no mercado de arroz

Andreia Cristina de Oliveira Adami; Geraldo SantAna de Camargo Barros



The study of minimal residual disease in breast cancer patients: a review O estudo da doença residual mínima em câncer de mama: uma revisão  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term minimal residual disease or micrometastasis refers to the presence of some tumor cells in normal tissues that cannot be detected by conventional methods, such as clinical examination, imaging methods, or routine laboratory analyses. Investigation of minimal residual disease in patients with breast cancer is currently done by assessment of the bone marrow or peripheral blood of these patients

Patricia Weinschenker Bollmann; Ana Rita; Burgos de Araújo; Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca; Roberta Sitnik; Rubia Ferraz Santana



Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: nowadays HIV infection control have been realized in every life status, that's to promotion for this patients the better quality of life. Objective: to present an up-to-date focus in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to report several aspects of oral clini- cal manifestations. Methods: Was reviewed bibliographic material from scientific periodics, technical books, publications of international and

Dennis C Ferreira; Ana PV Dias; Philippe Godefroy; Daniela D Gardioli; Paula BM Mello; Rosiangela S Knupp


Estudo de uma metodologia dosimetrica para plutonio por meio de analise radiotoxicologica em urina. (Study of a dosimetric methodology for plutonium by means of radiotoxicological analysis in urine).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present study is mainly concerned with an internal individual monitoring program for workers dealing with (sup 239)Pu, by measuring the (sup 239)Pu content in their urine. General aspects related with the plutonium radiotoxicity and its chemical, phys...

S. A. Bellintani



ARTIGO ARTICLE Bases para uma política nacional de ciência, tecnologia e inovação em saúde The basis for a Brazilian national policy in science, technology, and innovation in health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the basis for a Brazilian National Policy in Science, Technology, and Innovation in Health (PNCTI\\/S) as the structural element for a Brazilian health research effort. At least since the National Research Coun- cil (CNPq) was founded in 1951, this huge effort, including a set of nearly 18,000 researchers in 4,900 research groups, has not been backed by

Reinaldo Guimarães




Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of the rural accounting in cost verification for agribusiness activities is highlighted in this study of which general aim is to identify and measure the production costs of ovine, by means of the absorption costing and variable costing methods, aiming to demonstrate the values of the stocks and the economic results of a farm in Itapiranga (SC). Besides

Marino Luiz Eyerkaufer; Adilson Costa; Ana Cristina de Faria



Cuidados pré e pós-operatórios em cirurgia cardiotorácica: uma abordagem fisioterapêutica Pre-and postoperative care in cardiothoracic surgery: a physiotherapeutic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that anesthesia and certain surgeries predispose patients to changes in respiratory function, pulmonary volumes, and gas exchange. Cardiac surgery, which is considered a major surgery, may trigger respiratory complications in the postoperative period. These complications have various causes, such as heart and lung functions in the pre-operative, the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and the level

Lívia ARCÊNCIO; Marilize Diniz de SOUZA; Bárbara Schiavon BORTOLIN; Adriana Cristina; Martinez FERNANDES; Alfredo José RODRIGUES; Paulo Roberto; Barbosa EVORA


Produção de frutos e distribuição espacial de angiospermas com frutos zoocóricos em uma Floresta Ombrófila Mista no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit production and spatial distribution of animal-dispersed angiosperms in a Mixed Ombrophilous Forest in State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). We investigated, during 14 months, patterns of fruit production of animal dispersed angiosperms in a patch of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest (MOF) in the National Park of Aparados da Serra, State of Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil. For a

Gabriela Paise; Emerson M. Vieira




SciTech Connect

We present multicolor light curves for the W UMa-type eclipsing binary TU Boo for two epochs separated by 22 years. An analysis of the O - C diagram indicates the earlier observations took place right in the middle of a major period change, thus allowing for a unique study on mass transfer and period changes in this W UMa-type system. We compute model fits to our light curves, along with the only other published set, using the Wilson-Devinney program, and find temporally correlated changes in the size of the secondary component with anomalies in the O - C diagram. We investigate the cause of these changes and find support for the existence of rapid, large-scale mass transfer between the components. We postulate that this interaction allows them to maintain nearly equal surface temperatures despite having achieved only marginal contact. We also find support for the evolutionary scenario in which TU Boo has undergone a mass ratio reversal in the past, due to large-scale mass transfer so that what is presently the secondary component of TU Boo is in an advanced evolutionary state, oversized due to a helium-enriched core, with a total system age of {>=}10 Gyr.

Coughlin, Jeffrey L. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Dale, Horace A. III; Williamon, Richard M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)



The Spectroscopic and Photometric Analysis of the Eclipsing Binary System DN UMa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eclipsing binary system DN UMa (HD 103483) is a likely triple system with a possible pulsating component that has been studied extensively. The period of 1.7-d has been determined by Gimenez and Queseda (1982). Wilson (1953) reported a systemic radial velocity of -8 km/s, based on a limited data-set. To investigate this interesting object further, we initiated a photometric campaign in April 2009 on the Automatic Photoelectric Telescope in Patagonia, AZ. In January 2010 we followed up DN UMa spectroscopically at the 2.1 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The high-resolution echelle spectra have been processed in IRAF. The exposures have been cleaned of cosmic rays, and the extracted spectra have been wavelength-calibrated and flux-normalized. In conjunction with photometry, the spectroscopic data were used to determine fundamental parameters (radii, masses, and temperatures) of the binary star components. We present the results of the modeling based on archival and newly acquired data.

Robertson, Jordan; Prsa, A.; Kirk, B.; Engle, S.




Microsoft Academic Search

Na primeira parte deste trabalho foi desenvolvida a formulação lagrangeana que conduziu às equações algébrico-diferenciais do movimento para sistemas de multicorpos rígidos bidimensionais, sujeitos a restrições cinemáticas. Nesta segunda parte discutem-se os procedimentos de resolução numérica das equações do movimento. Empregando um mecanismo biela-cursor-manivela como exemplo, são desenvolvidas detalhadamente as equações do movimento e as equações de restrição. Em seguida,

Cleves Mesquita Vaz; Domingos Alves Rade; Elson Lima de Albuquerque


EM International, July 1994, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

Not Available



Project X RFQ EM Design  

SciTech Connect

Project X is a proposed multi-MW proton facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The Project X front-end would consist of an H- ion source, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT), a CW 162.5 MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and FNAL collaboration is currently developing the designs for various components in the Project X front end. This paper reports the detailed EM design of the CW 162.5 MHz RFQ that provides bunching of the 1-10 mA H- beam with acceleration from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV.

Romanov, Gennady; /Fermilab; Hoff, Matthew; Li, Derun; Staples, John; Virostek, Steve; /LBNL



Manufacturing Methods of Multi-ingredient Compost with EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is performed for increasing the integrated effect of EM by reasonable mixing of EM solution and multi-ingredient compost in agriculture. This compost has been manufactured by treating organic materials with EM and culturing other beneficial bacteria with high density, and by adding some minerals. The organic substrates were fermented by EM. There was a definite difference between organic

H. G. Ryang; M. S. Rim; Y. H. Rim; C. U. Chang; C. G. Kang; D. C. Yang


Qualidade e Marketing: Uma Análise da Imagem do Barreado na Sustentabilidade do Destino Turístico de Morretes - PR 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O presente artigo busca discutir aspectos sobre a alimentação tradicional e a atividade turística enfocando aspectos de qualidade em produtos, serviços e a sustentabilidade do local A discussão baseia-se em estudo exploratório e reflexão sobre o prato típico do Estado do Paraná, o Barreado, analisando as características como se apresenta ao consumidor, as responsabilidades de empresas e envolvidos no

Simone Eloísa


Mapping of surface activity on the W UMa-type system VW Cephei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After multifilter photometry of the W UMa-type contact binary VW Cep (P = 6.67 hr; G5V + K0V) in 1986/87 revealed large asymmetries in the light curves believed to be caused by large, cool starspot regions on the surface of the larger stars, in Apr. 1987 it was observed with IUE to study the chromospheres and transition regions of the components. During one complete orbital cycle, three SWP and four LWP low dispersion spectra were obtained, including and then excluding the suspected active region. Phase dependent TR line emission strengths were found, most notably C IV, which is 50 percent stronger when the spot region is most visible. The results could be important because VW Cep represents an extreme case for studying stellar dynamo theory and observations can play a crucial role in the unterstanding of magnetic fields and activity cycles in rapidly rotating solar-like stars.

Bradstreet, David H.; Guinan, Edward F.



Light Curve Analysis for W UMa-Type Eclipsing Binary Star Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results from summer 2006 in an ongoing study of eclipsing binary stars. Our investigations have focused on the measurement and interpretation of light curves for W UMa-type systems 44i Boötis and VW Cephei. These contact binaries have component stars of spectral type G, and revolve with periods of 6.43 and 6.67 hours. Dome automation and scripting capabilities introduced this summer have significantly reduced experimental uncertainties in our data. In support of previous findings we continue to observe an increase in the orbital period of 44i Boo at a rate of 10.4 µs/epoch or 14.2 ms/yr. Residuals computed after incorporating the increasing period suggest an underlying sinusoidal oscillation with a 61.5 year period and amplitude of 648 seconds. AAPT Member Thomas Olsen is sponsoring the lead presenter, SPS Member Scott Henderson, and the co-presenter, SPS Member Nick Peach.

Henderson, Scott; Peach, N.; Olsen, T.



CSS090530:144011+494734: a new SU UMa-type dwarf nova in Boötes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report photometry and analysis of a previously unknown SU UMa-type dwarf nova in Boötes detected in outburst by the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey on 2009 May 30, with the discovery identifier CSS090530:144011+494734. This apparently stellar object had previously been catalogued by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as SDSS J144011.01+494733.4. We measured its mean superhump period over the first 3 days following detection as 0.06500(4)d, at which point this changed to 0.06438(3)d. We detected a possible orbital period of 0.06322(8)d implying a mean superhump period excess of 0.020(2). After detection, the dwarf nova maintained steady brightness for 5 days before starting to fade. The outburst amplitude was 5.5 magnitudes above its quiescent level.

Boyd, D.; Dunckel, N.; Foote, J.; Miller, I.



Buckets of Ash Track Tephra Flux From Halema`uma`u Crater, Hawai`i  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008-2009 eruption at K?lauea Volcano's summit made news because of its eight small discrete explosive eruptions and noxious volcanic smog (vog) created from outgassing sulfur dioxide. Less appreciated is the ongoing, weak, but continuous output of tephra, primarily ash, from the new open vent in Halema`uma`u Crater. This tephra holds clues to processes causing the eruption and forming the new crater-in-a-crater, and its flux is important to hazard evaluations. The setting of the vent—easily accessible from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)—is unusually favorable for near-daily tracking of tephra mass flux during this small prolonged basaltic eruption. Recognizing this, scientists from HVO are collecting ash and documenting how ejection masses, components, and chemical compositions vary through time.

Swanson, Don; Wooten, Kelly; Orr, Tim



Starspot distributions on XY UMa during 1997-2000 from eclipse mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present narrow-band red light curves and surface maps of the short-period RS CVn binary system XY UMa, obtained between 1997 January and 2000 March. The light-curve morphology of this system is known to vary on time-scales of a few days. We have used eclipse-mapping techniques to map the distribution of cool starspots on the surface of the primary star. The resulting maps show the continued evolution of spot features on time-scales of a few days to a week. By comparison with the images of Collier Cameron & Hilditch, we also find evidence for longer term trends, including a decline to an activity minimum during 1997 and a rise in activity during 1998-2000. We also find marginal evidence from the O-C ephemeris curves for a periodicity and a peak corresponding to the time of activity minimum.

Lister, T. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hilditch, R. W.



Consumo e Fermentação Ruminal de Proteínas em Função de Suplementação Alimentar Energética e Protéica em Novilhos1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Objetivou-se analisar o efeito de suplementação energética sobre o consumo e a fermentação ruminal de proteínas em dois níveis de proteína dietética (6 e 20%). Quatro novilhos mestiços fistulados no rúmen foram utilizados em um quadrado latino e os tratamentos arranjados em um fatorial 2 × 2, em que as dietas testadas constituíram-se de: A. só feno; B.

Natália Guarino; Souza Barbosa; Rogério de Paula Lana; Gulab Newandram Jham; Arnaldo Chaer Borges; Antônio Bento Mâncio; José Carlos Pereira; Juliana Silva Oliveira


Fontes de metionina em rações formuladas com base em aminoácidos totais ou digestíveis para frangas de reposição leves e semipesadas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização de duas fontes de metionina (em pó ou líquida) em rações formuladas com base em aminoácidos digestíveis ou totais para frangas de reposição leves e semipesadas, nas fases inicial (de 1 a 6 semanas de idade) e de crescimento (de 11 a 16 semanas de idade). Em

Luiz Gustavo Rombola; Douglas Emygdio de Faria; Bruno José Deponti; Flávio Henrique Araujo Silva; Daniel Emygdio de Faria Filho; Otto Mack Junqueira



Antibody responses against Em18 and Em16 serodiagnostic markers in alveolar and cystic echinococcosis patients from northwest China.  


Western blot analysis was carried out in order to evaluate new serodiagnostic markers, Em18 and Em16, for differentiation of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) from cystic echinococcosis (CE) using 36 serum samples from hydatid patients from Xinjiang, China, where AE and CE are both endemic and one double infection case has been reported. All AE cases except one (5/6) who exhibited a calcified lesion and a single case of double infection showed antibody responses against Em18 and Em16. Some of CE patient sera (6/22) showed antibody response against Em16 except one who showed that against Em18. Analyses of IgG subclass responses against Em18 and Em16 were carried out using all serum samples showing antibody responses against Em18 and/or Em16 (seven CE, five AE, and one AE + CE) and additional samples of three CE and 22 AE from Sichuan, China. IgG4 was the most predominant antibody subclass. Em18 and Em16 were recognized by both IgG4 and IgG1 (in most cases) or by either IgG4 or IgG1 (in minor cases) or by IgG3 (in very rare cases). Neither Em18 nor Em16 was recognized by IgG2 antibodies. The usefulness of Em18 and Em16 as potential new markers for serological differentiation of human AE and CE, respectively, is discussed. PMID:9354966

Ito, A; Wen, H; Craig, P S; Ma, L; Nakao, M; Horii, T; Pang, X L; Okamoto, M; Itoh, M; Osawa, Y; Wang, X G; Liu, Y H



Revisão sistemática sobre obesidade em adolescentes brasileiros  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - O propósito deste estudo foi revisar, de forma sistemática, a literatura nacional sobre a prevalência e fatores associados à obesidade em adolescentes. A busca foi realizada nas bases de dados Pubmed e Bireme, através dos descritores: \\

Rafael Miranda Tassitano; Maria Cecília Marinho Tenório; Pedro C Hallal


Naval Electromagnetic (EM) Gun Technology Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Research Advisory Committee was asked in May 2003 to conduct an assessment of the current maturity of electromagnetic (EM) gun technology for the Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development & Acquisition). Specifically, the Committee ...

J. Bachkosky D. Katz R. Rumpf W. Weldon



Naval Electromagnetic (EM) Gun Technology Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Research Advisory Committee was asked in May 2003 to conduct an assessment of the current maturity of electromagnetic (EM) gun technology for the Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development & Acquisition). Specifically, the Commit...

J. Bachkosky D. Katz R. Rumpf W. Weldon



GELENEKSEL VE UMA (UNIQUE MOLECULAR ARCHITECTURE) TEKNOLOJ?S? POL?MERLERÎN FLOKÜLASYON PERFORMANSLARI ÜZER?NE B?R ARA?TIRMA A Study on the Flocculation Performance of Conventional and UMA (Unique Molecular Architecture)Technology Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, flocculation performance of a new generation UMA (Unique Molecular Architecture) flocculant and a conventional flocculant has been investigated in dewatering of coal preparation plant tailings. Settling rate and turbidity values have been considered as the performance criterions. The highest settling rate and the lowest turbidity values for both Hydrofloc 7170 and Magnafloc 4240 were obtained at natural



Effect of Blowsand Reduction on the Abundance of the Fringe-Toed Lizard (Uma inornata) in the Coachella Valley, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Densities of Uma inornata in ten 2.5-ha plots in the Coachella Valley were estimated by capture-recapture analysis during the spring and summer of 1980. Six of the ten plots were arranged in pairs, with one member of the pair in apparently undisturbed hab...

F. B. Turner D. C. Weaver J. C. Rorabaugh



Preliminary Cost-Effectiveness Considerations for UMA/SUN. Working Paper No. 4 [and] Executive Summary No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this working paper and executive summary, focus is on procedures to be used in cost-effectiveness studies of the University of Mid-America/State University of Nebraska (UMA/SUN) delivery system of open learning. Two major questions are addressed: Should cost-effectiveness studies be undertaken, and if so, what kind of studies? The planning…

Sell, G. Roger


Evaluation of Em18-, Em16-, Antigen B-Western blots, Em2 plus-ELISA and four other tests for differential serodiagnosis of alveolar and cystic echinococcosis patients in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and 20 cystic echinococcosis (CE) cases in humans, confirmed clinically or pathologically, were analyzed serologically by Em18-, Em16-, Antigen B subunit (8 kDa)-Western blots (Em18-, Em16-, AgB-WBs) and five other serological tests including commercially available Em2plus-ELISA and IHA. Some serologically doubtful AE cases were rechecked parasitologically or histopathologically. In Em18-WB and Em2plus-ELISA, five and four of

Akira Ito; Liang Ma; Malgorzata Paul; Jerzy Stefaniak; Zbigniew S. Pawlowski



Survey of Period Variations of Superhumps in SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae. II The Second Year (2009-2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continued from Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected the times of superhump maxima for 68 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, mainly observed during the 2009-2010 season. The newly obtained data confirmed the basic findings reported in Kato et al. (ibid.): the presence of stages A-C and the predominance of positive period derivatives during stage B in systems with superhump periods shorter than 0.07 d. There was a systematic difference in the period derivatives for the systems with superhump periods longer than 0.075 d between this study and Kato et al. (ibid.). We suggest that this difference was possibly caused by a relative lack of frequently outbursting SU UMa-type dwarf novae in this period regime in the present study. We recorded a strong beat phenomenon during the 2009 superoutburst of IY UMa. A close correlation between the beat period and the superhump period suggests that the changing angular velocity of the apsidal motion of the elliptical disk is responsible for the variation of the superhump periods. We also described three new WZ Sge-type objects with established early superhumps and one with likely early superhumps. We suggest that two systems, VX For and EL UMa, are WZ Sge-type dwarf novae with multiple rebrightenings. The O - C variation in OT J213806.6+261957 suggests that the frequent absence of rebrightenings in very short-Porb objects can be the result of a sustained superoutburst plateau at the epoch when usual SU UMa-type dwarf novae return to quiescence, preceding a rebrightening. We also present a formulation for a variety of Bayesian extensions to traditional period analyses.

Kato, Taichi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Makoto; Henden, Arne; Miguel, Enrique De; Miller, Ian; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Tanabe, Kenji; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Kunitomi, Nanae; Takagi, Ryosuke; Nose, Mikiha; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Masi, Gianluca; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Iino, Eriko; Noguchi, Ryo; Matsumoto, Katsura; Fujii, Daichi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ogura, Kazuyuki; Ohtomo, Sachi; Yamashita, Kousei; Yanagisawa, Hirofumi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Bolt, Greg; Monard, Berto; Ohshima, Tomohito; Shears, Jeremy; Ruiz, Javier; Imada, Akira; Oksanen, Arto; Nelson, Peter; Gomez, Tomas L.; Staels, Bart; Boyd, David; Voloshina, Irina B.; Krajci, Thomas; Crawford, Tim; Stockdale, Chris; Richmond, Michael; Morelle, Etienne; Novák, Rudolf; Nogami, Daisaku; Ishioka, Ryoko; Brady, Steve; Simonsen, Mike; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Ringwald, Frederick A.; Kuramoto, Tetsuya; Miyashita, Atsushi; Pickard, Roger D.; Hynek, Tomáš; Dvorak, Shawn; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy



Optimization of ultrasonic\\/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus and evaluation of its anti-tumor activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the use of ultrasonic and microwave has attracted considerable interest as an alternative approach to the traditional extraction methods. In this paper, in order to maximize the yield and purity of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the ultrasonic\\/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) conditions. The results indicated that the optimal conditions for UMAE were

Yiyong Chen; Xiaohong Gu; Sheng-quan Huang; Jinwei Li; Xin Wang; Jian Tang



EMS adaptation for climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.



77 FR 4225 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Milbemycin Oxime, Lufenuron, and Praziquantel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR part 520 is amended by adding new Sec. 520.1447 to reflect the approval. A summary of safety and...Authority: 21 U.S.C. 360b. 0 2. Add Sec. 520.1447 to read as follows: Sec. 520.1447 Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and...



Praziquantel and albendazole damaging action on in vitro developing Mesocestoides corti (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic flatworms present several steps of body architecture rearrangement during their fast transition from one developmental stage to another, which are, at least in part, responsible for their evasion from host immune response. Besides, different developmental stages present different degrees of susceptibility to drug action, and the identification of more susceptible stages is of importance for the definition of therapeutical

Melissa M. Markoski; Edvaldo S. Trindade; Gonzalo Cabrera; Alice Laschuk; Norbel Galanti; Arnaldo Zaha; Helena B. Nader; Henrique B. Ferreira



77 FR 47511 - New Animal Drugs; Cephalexin; Fentanyl; Milbemycin Oxime and Praziquantel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 the CVM FOIA Electronic Reading Room: http...Dogs. superficial bacterial pyoderma in dogs caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus...secondary superficial bacterial pyoderma in dogs caused by susceptible strains of...



Collection of Clonorchis sinensis adult worms from infected humans after praziquantel treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cohort was established for evaluation of cancer risk factors in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. As one of the cohort studies, stools of 947 residents (403 males and 544 females, age range: 29-86 years) were screened for Clonorchis sinensis eggs using both Kato-Katz method and formalin-ether sedimentation tech- nique. The overall egg positive rate of C. sinensis was 37.7% and individual

Chenghua Shen; Jae-hwan Kim; Jeong-Keun Lee; Young Mee Bae; Min-Ho Choi; Jin-Kyoung Oh; Min Kyung Lim; Hai-Rim Shin; Sung-Tae Hong



75 FR 54018 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Praziquantel and Pyrantel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Bayer HealthCare LLC. The supplement provides for two new sizes SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Bayer HealthCare LLC, Animal Health Division, P.O. Box...



The Multi-color Light Curves of the W UMa type Contact Binary EP Andromedae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New multi-color CCD photometric light curves of the eclipsing binary EP And were obtained over six nights in 2006, 2011, and 2012. Using the Wilson-Devinney code, we computed the photometric elements of this system. It was discovered that EP And is a W-type W UMa contact binary system with a mass ratio of q = 2.685 and a degree of contact factor f = 24.9%, rather than an A-type system. Combining 28 newly determined times of minimum light derived from 1999 to 2012 with others collected from the literature, a long-term increase (dP/dt = +5.22 × 10-8 days yr-1) with a sinusoidal variation (A = 0.0109 days T = 40.89 yr) in the orbital period was found. The orbital period secular increases may be interpreted as conservative mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one, and cyclic variations of the orbital period may be caused by the light-travel time effect through the presence of a third body. The evolutionary status and the age of the system are also discussed.

Liao, W.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, K.; He, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G.; Zhou, X.




SciTech Connect

New multi-color CCD photometric light curves of the eclipsing binary EP And were obtained over six nights in 2006, 2011, and 2012. Using the Wilson-Devinney code, we computed the photometric elements of this system. It was discovered that EP And is a W-type W UMa contact binary system with a mass ratio of q = 2.685 and a degree of contact factor f = 24.9%, rather than an A-type system. Combining 28 newly determined times of minimum light derived from 1999 to 2012 with others collected from the literature, a long-term increase (dP/dt = +5.22 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} days yr{sup -1}) with a sinusoidal variation (A = 0.0109 days; T = 40.89 yr) in the orbital period was found. The orbital period secular increases may be interpreted as conservative mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one, and cyclic variations of the orbital period may be caused by the light-travel time effect through the presence of a third body. The evolutionary status and the age of the system are also discussed.

Liao, W.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, K.; He, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G.; Zhou, X., E-mail: [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China)



JH and K-band spectra of three SU UMa-type Dwarf Novae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of JH and K-band spectroscopy on three SU UMa-type dwarf novae with orbital periods of 1.33 ~1.37 hr. We performed the SED fitting for the obtained spectra by assuming a power law distribution for the accretion disk and using template spectra of late-type dwarfs for secondary star. ASAS 002511+1217.2 and EQ J183926+260409 are WZ Sge-type or WX Cet-type dwarf novae. We found strong water absorption features in their spectra, which are characteristic in late M- or L-type dwarfs. The SED fitting suggests that their secondary contributions to the overall SED are less than one third. We identified the secondary stars as M9 and L1 type dwarfs, which are rather less massive but still normal stars. The spectrum of SDSS J013701-091235 is dominated by the secondary component. Spectral features of this object are similar to those of an early M-type dwarf in spite of its short orbital period. The spectrum of SDSS0137 strongly suggests that the evolutionary path of this object is different from that of ordinary CVs, and this object is a candidate of EI Psc-like systems.

Ishioka, R.; Sekiguchi, K.; Maehara, H.



Possible solution to the problem of the extreme mass ratio W UMa-type binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the total angular momentum of a binary system is at a critical (minimum) value, a tidal instability occurs (Darwin's instability), eventually forcing the stars to merge into a single, rapidly rotating object. The instability sets in at some critical separation which in the case of contact binaries corresponds to a minimum mass ratio depending on dimensionless gyration radius k1. If one considers n = 3 polytrope (fully radiative primary with ?1 = 4/3), k21 = 0.075 and qmin ~ 0.085-0.095. There appears to be, however, some W UMa-type binaries with q values very close, if not below these theoretical limits, implying that primary in these systems is probably more centrally condensed. We try to solve the discrepancy between theory and observations by considering rotating polytropes. We show by deriving and solving a modified Lane-Emden equation for n = 3 polytrope that including the effects of rotation does increase the central concentration and could reduce qmin to as low as 0.070-0.074, more consistent with the observed population.

Arbutina, B.



Complex Period Variations of the Neglected W UMa-type Binary System NY Lyrae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbital-period variations of the neglected W UMa-type binary star, NY Lyr, were analyzed based on two newly determined eclipse times together with the others compiled from the literature. A cyclic oscillation with a period of 82.1 yr and an amplitude of 0.0247 d was discovered to be superimposed on a continuous period increase (dP/dt = +1.33 × 10-7 d yr-1). After the long-term period increase and the large-amplitude cyclic oscillation were removed from the O-C diagram, the residuals suggest that there is another small-amplitude period oscillation (A4 = 0.0053 d, P4 = 19.4 years) in the orbital period changes. As in the cases of AH Cnc and AD Cnc, both the continuous period increase and the two cyclic period oscillations make NY Lyr an interesting system to study in the future. In order to understand the evolutionary state of the binary system, new photometric and spectroscopic observations and a careful investigation on those data are needed.

Qian, S.-B.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.



An Orbital Period Study of the W UMa-Type Binary RZ Comae Berenicis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New photoelectric and CCD photometry observations of a short-period W UMa-type binary system, RZ Com, are presented. The light curves of Broglia (1960, Contr. Milano-Merate, 165) were symmetric in V band, while the present light curve shows a typical O'Connell effect, with Maximum I brighter than Maximum II by 0.015mag. It is found that the light curve of the binary star has changed from W-subtype to A-subtype according to Binnendijk's classification. This variation may be caused by the activity of dark spot on the primary component. Combining four newly determined times of the light minimum with others published in the literature, the orbital period change of the system was investigated. A small-amplitude oscillation (A = 0.0058 d), with a period of 44.8yr has been discovered to be superimposed on a long-term period increase with a rate of dP/dt = +4.12 × 10-8 d yr-1. The period oscillation can be explained either by the light-time effect via the presence of an unseen third body or by magnetic-activity cycles of the components. The mass ratio of RZ Com is q = 0.43. The secular period variation is in agreement with the conclusions of Qian (2001, MNRAS, 328, 914; 2003, MNRAS, 342, 1260). This indicates that it is on the TRO-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian.

Qian, Sheng-Bang; He, Jia-Jia



Orbital Period Variation and Morphological Light Curve Studies for the W UMa Binary BB Pegasi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photometric light curves of the W-type W UMa eclipsing contact binary system BB Pegasi have been found to be extremely asymmetric over all the observed 63 years in all wavelengths UBVR. The light curves have been characterized by occultation primary minima. So, the morphology of these light curves has been studied in view of these different asymmetric degrees. The system shows a distinct O'Connell effect as well as depth variation. A 22.96 years cycle, of dark spots group, has been determined for the system combined with about the same cycling for the depth variations (22.78 yr). Also, an analysis of the measurements of mid-eclipse times of BB Peg has been presented. The analysis indicates a period decrease of 5.62× 10-8 d/yr, which can be interpreted in terms of mass transfer of rate -4.38 × 10-8 M_?/yr, from the more to the less massive component. The O-C diagram shows a damping sine wave covering two different cycles of 17.0 yr and 12.87 yr with amplitudes equal to 0.0071 and 0.0013 day, respectively. These unequal durations show a non periodicity which may be explained as a result of magnetic activity cycling variations due to star spots. The obtained characteristics are consistent when applying Applegate's (1992) mechanism.

Hanna, Magdy A.; Awadalla, Nabil S.



New observations, photometric study and preliminary elements of the W UMa system DF CVn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CCD (V) light curve of the EW-type eclipsing variable DF CVn was obtained during seven nights in April-May, 2004. With our data we were able to determine 4 new times of minimum light. The light curve appears to exhibit a typical O'Connell effect, with Maximum I brighter than Maximum II by 0.013 mag. in V. Two Wilson-Devinney (WD) code working sessions, using the V light curve, were done with and without spots. The analysis of the results shows that the best fit was obtained with the spotted solution and indicates contact geometry. The photometric mass ratio of the system is found to be q = 0.347 and its inclination i = 72°, the primary minimum shows a transit. The star may be classified as an A-type W UMa system. Assuming a reasonable value for the mass of the primary component an estimate of the absolute elements of DF CVn has been made, with the assumption that the primary has a mass corresponding to its spectral type according to Straizys and Kuriliene (1981).

Acerbi, F.; Barani, C.; Martignoni, M.



de energia elétrica em equipamentos de energia elétrica em equipamentos de energia elétrica em equipamentos de energia elétrica em equipamentos de energia elétrica em equipamentos utilizados em galpão de frangos de corte utilizados em galpão de frangos de corte utilizados em galpão de frangos de corte utilizados em galpão de frangos de corte utilizados em galpão de frangos de corte  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 FCAV\\/UNESP. Fone: (16) 3209-2637 3 FCAV\\/UNESP. Fone: (16) 3209-2654 Resumo: Resumo: Resumo: Resumo: Resumo: Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar o consumo e o custo da energia elétrica em um galpão comercial de frangos de corte, durante dois ciclos de criação, inverno e verão. Foram realizadas medidas de consumo dos ventiladores, nebulizadores, lâmpadas e comedouros durante o manejo de

José E. P. Turco; Luiz F. S. A. Ferreira; Renato L. Furlan


Tour of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (EMS) Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These videos introduce middle- and high school-age learners to the electromagnetic spectrum. The product consists of 8 animations including an introduction to electromagnetic waves and one animation for each wavelength of the EM spectrum (Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X-Rays and Gamma Rays). Each wavelength of the EM spectrum offers a construct to illustrate and teach about NASA sensors, missions, and science. Emphasis is placed on relevant science, such as lunar exploration, and hot science topics, such as climate change. The examples and narrative for each wavelength animation build on the learnersâ prior knowledge then introduces examples from NASA missions. These examples explore the use of spectral analysis and visualizations that help scientists make discoveries about the world around us using EM waves.

Benesch, Troy



Risk Communication Within the EM Program  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication at RFETS is lively and involves important issues, but often does not inform participants about true ''risk reduction.''

Edelson, M.



Synthesis, characterization and adsorption capacities of microporous titanosilicate EMS3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A titanosilicate, named EMS-3, has been synthesized using the organic base TMAOH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) and Na ion, as structure directing agents, under hydrothermal conditions. The XRD pattern of EMS-3 contains sharp and broad reflections typical of a partially disordered structure. EMS-3 has low thermal stability, indeed XRD pattern shows a decreased resolution after thermal treatment at 300°C. An amorphous phase

C. Rizzo; A. Carati; R. Millini; G. Bellussi; W. O. Parker Jr.; S. Zanardi



EM21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge

Andrew P. Fellinger; Michael W. Rinker; Eric J. Berglin; Richard L. Minichan; Micheal R. Poirier; Phillip A. Gauglitz; Bruce A. Martin; Brian K. Hatchell; Eloy Saldivar; O Dennis Mullen; Noel F. Chapman; Beric E. Wells; Peter W. Gibbons



The first five years of K?lauea’s summit eruption in Halema‘uma‘u Crater, 2008–2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The eruption in Halema‘uma‘u Crater that began in March 2008 is the longest summit eruption of K?lauea Volcano, on the Island of Hawai‘i, since 1924. From the time the eruption began, the new "Overlook crater" inside Halema‘uma‘u has exhibited fluctuating lava lake activity, occasional small explosive events, and a persistent gas plume. The beautiful nighttime glow impresses and thrills visitors in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, but the continuous emission of sulfur dioxide gas produces "vog" (volcanic smog) that can severely affect communities and local agriculture downwind. U.S. Geological Survey scientists continue to closely monitor the eruption and assess ongoing hazards.

Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim; Sutton, Andrew J.; Elias, Tamar; Swanson, Don



First Photometric Investigation of the Newly Discovered W UMa-type Binary Star MR Com  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By analyzing multi-color light curves of the newly discovered W UMa-type binary, MR Com, we discovered that it is a shallow-contact binary with a degree of contact factor of f = 10.0% ± 2.1%. Photometric solutions reveal that MR Com is a W-type system with a mass ratio of q = 3.9 where the less massive component is about 90 K hotter than the more massive one. By investigating all of the available times of minimum light, we found that the general trend of the Observed-Calculated (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation while it undergoes a cyclic variation with a small amplitude of 0.0031 days and a period of 10.1 yr. The downward parabolic change corresponds to a long-term decrease in the orbital period at a rate of \\dot{P}=-5.3\\times {10^{-7}} days yr-1 that may be caused by a combination of a mass transfer and an angular momentum loss (AML) via magnetic braking. Among the 16 shallow-contact systems with a decreasing orbital period, MR Com has the lowest mass ratio (e.g., 1/q = 0.26). The shallow-contact configuration, the low-mass ratio, and the long-term period decrease all suggest that systems similar to MR Com are on the AML-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. They will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and evolve into a deep contact with a higher mass ratio. The small-amplitude cyclic change in the O - C curve was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

Qian, S.-B.; Liu, N.-P.; Liao, W.-P.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G.



KIC 7524178 - an SU UMa-Type Dwarf Nova Predominantly Showing Negative Superhumps throughout Supercycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed Kepler long-cadence data of KIC 7524178 (= KIS J192254.92+430905.4), and found that it is an SU UMa-type dwarf nova with frequent normal outbursts. The signal of the negative superhump has always been the dominant one, even during the superoutburst, in contrast to our common knowledge about superhumps in dwarf novae. The signal of the positive superhump was only transiently seen during the superoutburst, and it quickly decayed afterward. The frequency variation of the negative superhump was similar to the two previously studied dwarf novae in the Kepler field, V1504 Cyg and V344 Lyr. This is the first object in which the negative superhumps dominate throughout the supercycle. Nevertheless, the superoutburst was faithfully accompanied by the positive superhump, indicating that the tidal eccentric instability is essential for triggering a superoutburst. All the pieces of evidence strengthen the thermal-tidal instability as being the origin of the superoutburst and supercycle, which makes this object the third example in the Kepler field. This object had an unusually small (˜1.0 mag) outburst amplitude, and we considered that this object has a high mass-transfer rate close to the thermal-stability limit of the accretion disk. The average periods of the negative and positive superhumps, and the candidate period of the orbital motion were 0.07288 d (variable in the range 0.0723-0.0731 d), 0.0785 d (variable in the range 0.0772-0.0788 d), and 0.074606(1) d, respectively.

Kato, Taichi; Osaki, Yoji



V344 Lyrae: A Touchtone SU UMa Cataclysmic Variable in the Kepler Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the analysis of the Kepler short-cadence (SC) light curve of V344 Lyr obtained during 2009 June 20 through 2010 Mar 19 (Q2-Q4). The system is an SU UMa star showing dwarf nova outbursts and superoutbursts, and promises to be a touchstone for CV studies for the foreseeable future. The system displays both positive and negative super humps with periods of 2.20 and 2.06-hr, respectively, and we identify an orbital period of 2.11-hr. The positive super humps have a maximum amplitude of approximately 0.025-mag, the negative super humps a maximum amplitude of approximately 0.8 mag, and the orbital period at quiescence has an amplitude of approximately 0.025 mag. The quality of the Kepler data is such that we can test vigorously the models for accretion disk dynamics that have been emerging in the past several years. The SC data for V344 Lyr are consistent with the model that two physical sources yield positive superhumps: early in the superoutburst. the superhump signal is generated by viscous dissipation within the periodically flexing disk. but late in the superoutburst, the signal is generated as the accretion stream bright spot sweeps around the rim of the non-axisymmetric disk. The disk super humps are roughly anti-phased with the stream/late superhumps. The V344 Lyr data also reveal negative super humps arising from accretion onto a tilted disk precessing in the retrograde direction, and suggest that negative superhumps may appear during the decline of DN outbursts. The period of negative superhumps has a positive P(raised dot) in between outbursts.

Smale, Alan P.; Wood, Matt A.; Still, Martin D.; Howell, Steve B.; Cannizzo, John K.




SciTech Connect

By analyzing multi-color light curves of the newly discovered W UMa-type binary, MR Com, we discovered that it is a shallow-contact binary with a degree of contact factor of f = 10.0% {+-} 2.1%. Photometric solutions reveal that MR Com is a W-type system with a mass ratio of q = 3.9 where the less massive component is about 90 K hotter than the more massive one. By investigating all of the available times of minimum light, we found that the general trend of the Observed-Calculated (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation while it undergoes a cyclic variation with a small amplitude of 0.0031 days and a period of 10.1 yr. The downward parabolic change corresponds to a long-term decrease in the orbital period at a rate of P-dot = -5.3 x 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1} that may be caused by a combination of a mass transfer and an angular momentum loss (AML) via magnetic braking. Among the 16 shallow-contact systems with a decreasing orbital period, MR Com has the lowest mass ratio (e.g., 1/q = 0.26). The shallow-contact configuration, the low-mass ratio, and the long-term period decrease all suggest that systems similar to MR Com are on the AML-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. They will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and evolve into a deep contact with a higher mass ratio. The small-amplitude cyclic change in the O - C curve was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

Qian, S.-B.; Liu, N.-P.; Liao, W.-P.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G., E-mail: [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China)



Photometric Analysis of the Recently Discovered W UMa Star NR Camelopardalis: Period Change and Spot Migration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NR Cam is a short period (P=0.26 days) eclipsing binary of the W UMa type that was relatively recently discovered in the ROTSE1 data of the Northern Sky Variability Survey (NSVS) and was originally listed in the New Catalog of Suspected Variable Stars (NSV) with the identifier NSV 3754. Here we present the first known detailed study of NR Cam, which includes multi-band light curves, color curves, and a photometric orbital solution. NR Cam exhibits a strong O'Connell effect that can be attributed to magnetically induced spot activity on one of the components. Absolute photometry was performed in B and V at the Kutztown University Observatory in 2013 October and November and complementary high precision differential light curves were obtained in BVRI at the same time, as part of the KELT follow-up network, at Brigham Young University's West Mountain Observatory, Swarthmore College's Peter Van de Kamp Observatory, and the University of Louisville's Moore Observatory. After the B-V color curves were used to approximate the stellar surface temperatures and spot locations, the Wilson-Devinney code was employed with a differential corrections routine to determine the most likely stellar properties and orbital parameters. Our solution indicates that the two stars are in contact, sharing a common envelope, and their surface temperatures are approximately 4500 K and 4200 K. The inclination of the orbit was determined to be 68.0 (±0.6) degrees. When compared with the NSVS data, we find that the orbital period of NR Cam has changed over the past decade and that the strength of the O'Connell effect, and the associated spot activity, has also varied significantly.

Shoup, Jenae; Reed, Phillip A.; Joner, Michael D.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Collins, Karen A; Pepper, Joshua



A New Photometric Investigation of the W UMa-Type Binary BI CVn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New photometric observations and their investigation of the W UMa-type binary, BI CVn, are presented. The variations of the orbital period were analyzed based on 12 new determined times of light minimum together with the others compiled from the literature. It is discovered that the period of BI CVn shows a long-term period decrease at a rate of \\dot{P}=-1.51(± 0.12)× {10^{-7}} days year-1 while it undergoes a cyclic variation with a period of 27.0 years and an amplitude of 0fd0151. Photometric solutions determined with the Wilson-Devinney method suggest that BI CVn is a contact binary with a degree of contact of 18.0(±1.7)%. The asymmetry of the light curves was interpreted by the presence of dark spots on both components, and absolute parameters were determined by combining the photometric elements with the spectroscopic solutions given by Lu. The observed period decrease can be plausibly explained by a combination of the mass transfer from the primary to the secondary and angular momentum loss via magnetic braking. The cyclic period oscillation suggests that BI CVn is a triple system containing a tertiary component with a mass no less than 0.58 M sun in a 27.0 year orbit. As in the cases of the other contact binaries (e.g., AH Cnc, AP Leo, AD Cnc, and UX Eri), it is possible that this tertiary companion played an important role for the formation and evolution of the contact system by removing angular momentum from the central system via Kozai oscillation or a combination of Kozai cycle and tidal friction, which causes the eclipsing pair to have a short initial orbital period (e.g., P < 5d). In that case, can the initially detached system evolve into the present contact configuration via a combination of magnetic torques from stellar winds and a case A mass transfer?

Qian, S.-B.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Liao, W. P.



Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. V. The fifth year (2012-2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuing the project described in Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for SU UMa-type dwarf novae mainly observed during the 2012-2013 season. We found three objects (V444 Peg, CSS J203937, and MASTER J212624) having strongly positive period derivatives despite the long orbital period (Porb). By using the period of growing stage (stage A) superhumps, we obtained mass ratios for six objects. We characterized nine new WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. We made a pilot survey of the decline rate in the slowly fading parts of SU UMa-type and WZ Sge-type outbursts. The decline time scale was found to generally follow an expected P_orb^{1/4} dependence, and WZ Sge-type outbursts also generally follow this trend. There are some objects which show slower decline rates, and we consider these objects good candidates for period bouncers. We also studied unusual behavior in some objects, including BK Lyn which made a transition from an ER UMa-type state to a novalike (standstill) state in 2013, and unusually frequent occurrences of superoutbursts in NY Ser and CR Boo. We applied the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) power spectral analysis, which has been proven to be very effective in analyzing the Kepler data, to the ground-based photometry of BK Lyn, and detected a dramatic disappearance of the signal of negative superhumps in 2013. We suggested that the mass-transfer rates did not strongly vary between the ER UMa-type state and novalike state in BK Lyn, and this transition was less likely caused by a systematic variation of the mass-transfer rate.

Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Masi, Gianluca; Nocentini, Francesca; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Ogi, Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Krajci, Thomas; Miller, Ian; de Miguel, Enrique; Henden, Arne; Noguchi, Ryo; Ishibashi, Takehiro; Ono, Rikako; Kawabata, Miho; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Nishino, Hirochika; Furukawa, Hisami; Masumoto, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Katsura; Littlefield, Colin; Ohshima, Tomohito; Nakata, Chikako; Honda, Satoshi; Kinugasa, Kenzo; Hashimoto, Osamu; Stein, William; Pickard, Roger D.; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Antonyuk, Kirill; Samsonov, Denis; Pit, Nikolaj; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Oksanen, Arto; Harlingten, Caisey; Tyyskä, Jenni; Monard, Berto; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Yutaka; Hirosawa, Kenji; Itoh, Hiroshi; Sabo, Richard; Ulowetz, Joseph; Morelle, Etienne; Michel, Raúl; Suárez, Genaro; James, Nick; Dvorak, Shawn; Voloshina, Irina B.; Richmond, Michael; Staels, Bart; Boyd, David; Andreev, Maksim V.; Parakhin, Nikolai; Katysheva, Natalia; Miyashita, Atsushi; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Bolt, Greg; Padovan, Stefano; Nelson, Peter; Starkey, Donn R.; Buczynski, Denis; Starr, Peter; Goff, William N.; Denisenko, Denis; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Prieto, José L.; Itagaki, Koh-ichi; Kaneko, Shizuo; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy; Shears, Jeremy; Schmeer, Patrick; Poyner, Gary; Rodríguez-Marco, Miguel



EMS response to an airliner crash.  


This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained. PMID:22853919

Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor




Microsoft Academic Search

Historicamente, atividades didáticas e de pesquisa utilizando animais são realizadas desde a Antigüidade. Inicialmente, muitas destas práticas eram executadas por pessoas interessadas em aprofundar o seu conhecimento sobre um determinado assunto, porém, sem a exigência da aplicação de um método sistematizado de investigação. Com o passar do tempo esta sistematização incorporou-se às práticas didático-científicas, sendo realizadas por pessoas capacitadas para

Marcia Mocellin Raymundo; José Roberto Goldim



Microsoft Academic Search

1 ABSTRACT:- FREITAS, F.L. DA C.; ALMEIDA, K. DE S.; ZANETTI, A.S.; NASCIMENTO, A.A. DO; MACHADO, C. R.; MACHADO, R.Z. (Species of the genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity). Espécies do gênero Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) em Tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) em cativeiro. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, v. 15, n. 1, p.



Modelling and design for PM/EM magnetic bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model of a permanent magnet/electromagnet (PM/EM) radially active bearing is presented. The bearing is represented by both a reluctance model and a stiffness model. The reluctance model analyzes the magnetic circuit of the PM/EM bearings. By combining the two models, the performance of the bearing can be predicted given geometric dimensions, permanent magnet strength, and the parameters of the EM coils. The overall bearing design including the PM and EM design is subject to the performance requirement and physical constraints. A study of these requirements and constraints is discussed. The PM design is based on the required magnetic flux for proper geometric dimensions and magnet strength. The EM design is based on the stability and force slew rate consideration, and dictates the number of turns for the EM coils and the voltage and current of the power amplifier. An overall PM/EM bearing design methodology is proposed and a case study is also demonstrated.

Pang, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Anand, D. K.; Johnson, R. G.; Zmood, R. B.



Analysis of Three SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae in the Kepler Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied Kepler light curves of three SU UMa-type dwarf novae: a background dwarf nova of KIC 4378554, V585 Lyr, and V516 Lyr. Both the background dwarf nova and V516 Lyr showed a combination of a precursor and a main superoutburst, during which superhumps always developed in the fading branch of the precursor. This finding supports that the thermal-tidal instability theory explains the origin of superoutburst. A superoutburst of V585 Lyr recorded by Kepler did not show a precursor outburst, and the superhumps developed only after the maximum light: namely, the first-ever example in the Kepler data. Such a superoutburst is understood based on the thermal-tidal instability model to be a ``case B'' superoutburst, discussed by Osaki and Meyer (2003, A&A, 401, 325). From the observation of V585 Lyr, Kepler first clearly revealed the positive period derivative commonly seen in the ``stage B'' superhumps of dwarf novae with a short orbital period. In all three objects, there was no strong signature of a transition to the dominating stream impact-type component of superhumps. This finding suggests that there is no strong indication of an enhanced mass-transfer following the superoutburst. In V585 Lyr, there were ``mini-rebrightenings'' with an amplitude of 0.2-0.4 mag and its period of 0.4-0.6 d during the period between the superoutburst and the rebrightening. We have determined that the orbital period of V516 Lyr is 0.083999(8) d. In V516 Lyr, some of outbursts were double outbursts with varying degrees. The preceding outburst in the double was of the inside-out nature, while the following one was of the outside-in nature. One of the superoutbursts in V516 Lyr was preceded by a double precursor. The preceding precursor failed to trigger a superoutburst, and the following precursor triggered a superoutburst by developing positive superhumps. We have also developed new methods of reconstructing the light curve of superhumps, and of measuring the times of maxima from poorly sampled Kepler LC data.

Kato, Taichi; Osaki, Yoji



The association between EMS workplace safety culture and safety outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective Prior studies have highlighted wide variation in EMS workplace safety culture across agencies. We sought to determine the association between EMS workplace safety culture scores and patient or provider safety outcomes. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to EMS workers affiliated with a convenience sample of agencies. We recruited these agencies from a national EMS management organization. We used the EMS Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (EMS-SAQ) to measure workplace safety culture and the EMS Safety Inventory (EMS-SI), a tool developed to capture self-reported safety outcomes from EMS workers. The EMS-SAQ provides reliable and valid measures of six domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, perceptions of working conditions, stress recognition, and job satisfaction. A panel of medical directors, paramedics, and occupational epidemiologists developed the EMS-SI to measure self-reported injury, medical errors and adverse events, and safety-compromising behaviors. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the association between EMS-SAQ scores and EMS-SI safety outcome measures. Results Sixteen percent of all respondents reported experiencing an injury in the past 3 months, four of every 10 respondents reported an error or adverse event (AE), and 90% reported safety-compromising behaviors. Respondents reporting injury scored lower on 5 of the 6 domains of safety culture. Respondents reporting an error or AE scored lower for 4 of the 6 domains, while respondents reporting safety-compromising behavior had lower safety culture scores for 5 of 6 domains. Conclusions Individual EMS worker perceptions of workplace safety culture are associated with composite measures of patient and provider safety outcomes. This study is preliminary evidence of the association between safety culture and patient or provider safety outcomes.

Weaver, Matthew D.; Wang, Henry E.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Patterson, Daniel



Desenvolvimento de aplicações educativas em Geologia - Um exemplo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - Face à quase total inexistência de microscópios petrográficos nas escolas portuguesas dos ensinos básico e secundário, os alunos destes graus de ensino vêm-se privados do contacto com uma das técnicas básicas de observação e caracterização dos materiais geológicos. Para obviar esta lacuna iniciou-se a produção de uma aplicação multimédia, a ser disponibilizada on-line e off-line, com recurso a

J. B. R. Brilha; R. Henriques


Crosshole EM in steel-cased boreholes  

SciTech Connect

The application of crosshole EM methods through steel well-casing was investigated in theoretical, laboratory and field studies. A numerical code was developed that calculates the attenuation and phase delay of an EM dipole signal propagated through a steel well casing lodged in a homogeneous medium. The code was validated with a scale model and used for sensitivity studies of casing and formation properties. Finally, field measurements were made in an oil field undergoing waterflooding. Our most important findings are that (1) crosshole surveys are feasible using a well pair with one metallic and one non-metallic casing. (2) The casing effect seems be localized within the pipe section that includes the sensor. (3) The effects of the casing can be corrected using simple means and (4) crosshole field data that are sensitive to both formation and casing were acquired in a working environment.

Wilt, M.; Lee, K.H.; Becker, A.; Spies, B.; Wang, B.



Simplex EMS users knock company's service support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simplex Tape Recorder Co. is not responding fast enough to please some of its energy management system (EMS) users who need service or new parts. The users complain that Simplex load-shedding, time-of-day control, and duty-cycling functions do not compare with the quality of its security and fire functions. Company spokesmen claim that service and parts are available on a 24-hour




TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015–2025 Call, and accepted for further\\u000a studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds\\u000a tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini–Huygens\\u000a mission. These

A. Coustenis; S. K. Atreya; T. Balint; R. H. Brown; M. K. Dougherty; F. Ferri; M. Fulchignoni; D. Gautier; R. A. Gowen; C. A. Griffith; L. I. Gurvits; R. Jaumann; Y. Langevin; M. R. Leese; J. I. Lunine; C. P. McKay; X. Moussas; I. Müller-Wodarg; F. Neubauer; T. C. Owen; F. Raulin; E. C. Sittler; F. Sohl; C. Sotin; G. Tobie; T. Tokano; E. P. Turtle; J.-E. Wahlund; J. H. Waite; K. H. Baines; J. Blamont; A. J. Coates; I. Dandouras; T. Krimigis; E. Lellouch; R. D. Lorenz; A. Morse; C. C. Porco; M. Hirtzig; J. Saur; T. Spilker; J. C. Zarnecki; E. Choi; N. Achilleos; R. Amils; P. Annan; D. H. Atkinson; Y. Bénilan; C. Bertucci; B. Bézard; G. L. Bjoraker; M. Blanc; L. Boireau; J. Bouman; M. T. Capria; E. Chassefière; P. Coll; M. Combes; J. F. Cooper; A. Coradini; F. Crary; T. Cravens; I. A. Daglis; E. de Angelis; C. de Bergh; I. de Pater; C. Dunford; G. Durry; O. Dutuit; D. Fairbrother; F. M. Flasar; A. D. Fortes; R. Frampton; M. Fujimoto; M. Galand; O. Grasset; M. Grott; T. Haltigin; A. Herique; F. Hersant; H. Hussmann; W. Ip; R. Johnson; E. Kallio; S. Kempf; M. Knapmeyer; W. Kofman; R. Koop; T. Kostiuk; N. Krupp; M. Küppers; H. Lammer; L.-M. Lara; P. Lavvas; S. Le Mouélic; S. Lebonnois; S. Ledvina; J. Li; T. A. Livengood; R. M. Lopes; J.-J. Lopez-Moreno; D. Luz; P. R. Mahaffy; U. Mall; J. Martinez-Frias; B. Marty; T. McCord; C. Menor Salvan; A. Milillo; D. G. Mitchell; R. Modolo; O. Mousis; M. Nakamura; C. D. Neish; C. A. Nixon; D. Nna Mvondo; G. Orton; M. Paetzold; J. Pitman; S. Pogrebenko; W. Pollard; O. Prieto-Ballesteros; P. Rannou; K. Reh; L. Richter; F. T. Robb; R. Rodrigo; S. Rodriguez; P. Romani; M. Ruiz Bermejo; E. T. Sarris; P. Schenk; B. Schmitt; N. Schmitz; D. Schulze-Makuch; K. Schwingenschuh; A. Selig; B. Sicardy; L. Soderblom; L. J. Spilker; D. Stam; A. Steele; K. Stephan; D. F. Strobel; K. Szego; C. Szopa; R. Thissen; M. G. Tomasko; D. Toublanc; H. Vali; I. Vardavas; V. Vuitton; R. A. West; R. Yelle; E. F. Young



TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission  

USGS Publications Warehouse

TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S. K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R. H.; Dougherty, M. K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R. A.; Griffith, C. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M. R.; Lunine, J. I.; McKay, C. P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T. C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E. C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E. P.; Wahlund, J. -E.; Waite, J. H.; Baines, K. H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A. J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R. D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C. C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J. C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D. H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M. T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J. F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I. A.; de Angelis, E.; de Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F. M.; Fortes, A. D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L. -M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic, S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Lopes, R. M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C. M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C. D.; Nixon, C. A.; Mvondo, D. N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F. T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M. R.; Sarris, E. T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L. J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D. F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,



Em18 and Em16, new serologic marker epitopes for alveolar echinococcosis in western blot analysis, are the only two epitopes recognized by commercially available weak positive (cut off) sera for Em2plus-ELISA.  


The assay system for antibody responses against Em2, the most specific antigen for serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), has been established by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) but not by Western blot assay, since Em2 antigen is not protein but carbohydrate in nature. Recently we reported that previously undescribed protein epitopes, designated Em18 and Em16 due to their molecular weights, were good serologic markers for AE by Western blot analysis. It has been shown that Em18 and Em16 are the only two epitopes recognized by commercially available weak positive (cut off) sera for the Em2plus-ELISA. PMID:8583132

Ito, A; Osawa, Y; Nakao, M; Horii, T; Okamoto, M; Itoh, M; Yamashita, T



Modelling of patient EMS exposure: translating pharmacokinetics of EMS in vitro and in animals into patients.  


In order to support the toxicological risk assessment for the ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) exposure of patients ingesting contaminated Viracept tablets (Müller and Singer, 2009), there was a need to correlate the effects observed in in vivo genotoxicity studies with mice to EMS exposure and to estimate human exposure to EMS at the level of contamination of Viracept tablets. The species differences in volume of distribution of EMS, a key factor for determination of its C(max), were small in the species investigated (mouse, rat, monkey), the species differences in clearance, the key factor involved in AUC assessment, were large (Lavé et al., 2009). Because of this uncertainty in extrapolation of clearance across species we used a conservative approach for human exposure predictions in terms of AUC where clearance was assumed to solely reflect the chemical stability of EMS neglecting additional clearance pathways such as metabolism and exhalation. This approach was compared to the estimates obtained from allometric scaling based on rat clearance, the species leading to the lowest clearance predicted in man. We found that both approaches led to nearly identical predictions of the human AUC. Thus, we predict a human AUC of 13 microM h for patients ingesting the most contaminated Viracept tablets, corresponding to a maximal daily intake of 0.055 mg/kg of EMS. The C(max) of EMS in these patients is predicted to be 0.85 microM. In order to provide a basis for toxicological risk assessment, these maximal human AUC and C(max) values are to be compared to the AUC and C(max) values in mice at the EMS dose of 25mg/kg which was found to be the threshold dose for induction of mutagenic effects, i.e. the dose at which no mutagenic effects were observed (Gocke et al., 2009-a). We calculate AUC and C(max) in mice at the threshold dose to be 350 microM h and 315 microM, respectively. Thus we conclude that a large safety factor can be deduced, whatever the basis of comparison, as is discussed in detail by Müller et al. (2009). PMID:19695316

Lavé, Thierry; Paehler, Axel; Grimm, Hans Peter; Gocke, Elmar; Müller, Lutz



Blind subspace-based channel estimation using the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an application of the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm to the problem of blind estimation of single-input multiple-output (SIMO), finite-impulse-response (FIR) channels. We first assume Gaussian input to formulate an EM-based estimation of the signal subspace of the output covariance matrix. This Gaussian assumption allows us to utilize knowledge from EM-based probabilistic principle component analysis (P-PCA). Next, we show that

Koji Harada; Hideaki Sakai



A New Semi-Supervised EM Algorithm for Image Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main tasks in content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is to reduce the gap between low-level visual features and high-level human concepts. This paper presents a new semi-supervised EM algorithm (NSS-EM), where the image distribution in feature space is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian densities. Due to the statistical mechanism of accumulating and process-ing meta knowledge, the NSS-EM

Anlei Dong; Bir Bhanu



Comparison of Observations and Analyses of 2009 and 2012 Light Curves for the Precontact W UMa Binary, V1001 Cassiopeia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2012 follow up to the analysis of 2009 observations is presented for the very short period 0.43d) precontact WUMa Binary, V1001 Cassiopeia. Its short period, similar to the majority of W UMa’s, has a distinct EA light curve make it a very rare and interesting system for continuing photometric investigation. Previous photometric VRI standard magnitudes give a K4 spectral type (Samec 2012). Our solutions of light curves separated by some 3 years give approximately the same physical parameters. However the spots have radically changed, both temperature, area and position wise. Whereas only one dark spot was used to model the first curves, two hot spots are now needed. This affects the overall shape of the light curve, especially in the secondary eclipses in B and V. Additional eclipse timings show the orbital period is changing. We conclude that spots are very active on this solar type dwarf and that it may mimic its larger cousins, the RS CVn binaries.

Hill, Robert L.; Koenke, Samuel; Samec, Ronald G.; Faulkner, Danny R; Van Hamme, Walter V.



Immunoblot evaluation of the species-specificity of Em18 and Em16 antigens for serodiagnosis of human alveolar echinococcosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunoblot study to confirm the species-specificity of the diagnostic antigens Em18 and Em16 of Echinococcus multilocularis protoscolex extract showed that both antigens cross-reacted with sera from cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients. The 18 kDa component was detectable by 75% of the sera from active alveolar echinococcosis (AE) patients, while only 31% detected Em16. Western blot analysis also showed that AE

Niroshini Nirmalan; Philip S. Craig



Best Practices for Protecting EMS Responders during Treatment and Transport of Victims of Hazardous Substance Releases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

OSHA has developed a guide for emergency medical service (EMS) responders who provide medical assistance release. This guide is intended for employers of EMS responders and discusses the measures these employers need to take to protect their EMS responder...



Doenças cerebrovasculares em pacientes entre 15 e 40 anos: achados neuropatológicos em 47 casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - As doenças cerebrovasculares em pacientes entre 15 e 40 anos são pouco estudadas na literatura latino americana, principalmente no que tange aos achados neuropatológicos. Analisamos 47 encéfalos provenientes de necrópsias completas realizadas no período de 1987 a 1997 selecionados com base na faixa etária e alteração neuropatológica básica envolvendo fenômenos vasculares. Destes 47 casos analisados, 26 eram (55,3%)

Everton M. Maggio; Mário R. Montemór-Netto; Emerson L. Gasparetto; Jorge S. Reis-Filho; Fábio A. Tironi; Luiz F. Bleggi Torres



Via de parto em gestações sucessivas em adolescentes: estudo de 714 casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivo: analisar a associação da via de partos consecutivos de 714 gestantes adolescentes, que pariram na Maternidade do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2001. Pacientes e Métodos: em estudo prospectivo, analítico, transversal, tipo incidência, foi analisada a sucessão das vias de parto da primeira até a quarta gestação de 714

Vamberto Oliveira de Azevedo Maia; Alessandra Costa de Azevedo Maia; Fábio Lima Queiroga; Vamberto Oliveira de Azevedo Maia Filho; Aline Brandão de Araújo; Luís André Marinho Lippo; Rivaldo Mendes de Albuquerque



Mercado de Trabalho Assalariado na Cana-de-Açúcar: uma Análise das Regiões Tradicionais no Período 1992-2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

O estudo analisou a evolução de alguns indicadores da qualidade do emprego agrícola direto na cultura da cana-de-açúcar no período 1992-2006, com foco nas áreas tradicionais de produção, ou seja, região Nordeste e Estado de São Paulo. Para a análise foi construído um Índice de Qualidade do Emprego (IQE), elaborado a partir de um conjunto de 14 indicadores, agregados em

Otavio Valentim Balsadi; Eliane Goncalves Gomes



Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS activities through VPP geographic units. In summary, the ISMS and VPP process at the INEEL provided the basic framework of management support and worker involvement to implement our EMS. A cross-functional communication team was established to facilitate the implementation with great success. Communication has been an effective tool for implementing an ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL.

Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman



EM threat analysis for wireless systems.  

SciTech Connect

Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)



10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved  

10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false [Reserved] E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...



Stochastic EM-based TFBS motif discovery with MITSU  

PubMed Central

Motivation: The Expectation–Maximization (EM) algorithm has been successfully applied to the problem of transcription factor binding site (TFBS) motif discovery and underlies the most widely used motif discovery algorithms. In the wider field of probabilistic modelling, the stochastic EM (sEM) algorithm has been used to overcome some of the limitations of the EM algorithm; however, the application of sEM to motif discovery has not been fully explored. Results: We present MITSU (Motif discovery by ITerative Sampling and Updating), a novel algorithm for motif discovery, which combines sEM with an improved approximation to the likelihood function, which is unconstrained with regard to the distribution of motif occurrences within the input dataset. The algorithm is evaluated quantitatively on realistic synthetic data and several collections of characterized prokaryotic TFBS motifs and shown to outperform EM and an alternative sEM-based algorithm, particularly in terms of site-level positive predictive value. Availability and implementation: Java executable available for download at, supported on Linux/OS X. Contact:

Kilpatrick, Alastair M.; Ward, Bruce; Aitken, Stuart



Tactical EMS: An emerging opportunity in graduate medical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Modification of traditional emergency medical services (EMS) principles and procedures for use in the tactical law enforcement setting is emerging as a subspecialty of emergency medicine. Few opportunities exist to train physicians in the principles of tactical medicine, and no studies demonstrate the effectiveness of physician-level training in tactical EMS. Methods: A standardized eight-hour CONTOMS (Counter Terrorism Operations Medical

William P. Bozeman; Edward R. Eastman



Convergence Properties of the EM Algorithm for Gaussian Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Expectation-Maximization(EM) algorithm and gradient-based approaches for maximum likelihood learning of finite Gaussian mixtures. We show that the EM step in parameter space is obtained from the gradient via a projection matrix $P$, and we provide an expl...

M. Jordan L. Xu



Quality Improvement in EMS: A Unique and Challenging Necessity.  


Quality Improvement (QI) is required in all aspects of the healthcare field. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) poses unique QI challenges. This article explores some of these challenges and provides some points to consider when performing QI in EMS services. [Full text available at, free with no login]. PMID:25083952

Tsai, Devin; Choi, Bryan; Sullivan, Francis; Williams, Kenneth A




Microsoft Academic Search

Recent year's electromagnetic (EM) devices are used more frequently in a network by military as well as civilian applications for communications, navigation, sensing and data storage. This trend leads to an increasing use of EM devices which may result in a complex operation in the future. It creates electronic warfare and disturbances. This process can be prevented by imposing a

Himanshu Shekhar; J. Sam; Jeba Kumar; Joselin Retna Kumar




Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is in an era of shrinking budgets and increasing scrutiny of the budget that is provided. This is occurring at a time when EM has established a new, aggressive approach to environmental restoration and disposition of legacy waste inventory. This approach, as outlined in the guidance for the Accelerating Cleanup:

J. Walker USDOE


As implicações do trabalho em cooperativas de trabalhadores rurais  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooperativa de trabalho é um meio pelo qual os trabalhadores rurais se organizam e gerenciam suas forças com maior poder de barganha no mercado, para alcançar melhores condições de trabalho, particularmente em situações em que se encontram desprovidos total ou parcialmente de direitos trabalhistas. Enquanto trabalhadores autônomos, por meio da assistência social da cooperativa, os associados podem melhor adequar

Geraldo Magela Braga; Leonardo Pinheiro Deboçã; José Mauro Ferraz Andrade; Rosiane Maria Lima Gonçalves



Antibioticoterapia em Crianças com Pneumonia Antibioticoterapia em Crianças com Pneumonia Antibioticoterapia em Crianças com Pneumonia Antibioticoterapia em Crianças com Pneumonia Antibioticoterapia em Crianças com Pneumonia Therapy with Antibiotics in Childhood Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pneumonia é responsável por elevadas taxas de hospitalização e óbito na faixa etária pediátrica, especialmente em crianças menores de cinco anos. Um grande número de microorganismos pode causar pneumonia na infância; no entanto, há nítido predomínio dos agentes bacterianos, principalmente do Streptococcus pneumoniae, entre os casos fatais. A terapia antimicrobiana é, portanto, um importante meio de controle da mortalidade por

Adriana O. Rocha; Delano S. Valois; Jovita S. Araújo; Lívia M. B. Mendes; Lucas C. S. Oliveira; N. Alcântara



Peculiarities of the SU UMa-Type Dwarf Nova V1504 Cyg Behavior in 1994 - 2012 Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the SU UMa-type dwarf nova V1504 Cyg on the data base of the CrAO (1998 - 2009), space telescope "Kepler" (2009 - 2011), AAVSO and VSNET (1994 - 2012) we found as follows: 1) the supercycle length varying in average from 100 to 140 d; 2) the normal outbursts show a bimodal cycles lengths distributions with centers 8 - 9 days and 11 days within the range of 5 - 22 days; 3) for the quiescent data JD 2451737-2451745 we have detected the 0.0677-d periodicity that probably connected to the negative superhumps, and for the JD 245497 - 2454974 - these consisting either with simultaneous existing of positive and negative superhumps or with one of these periods.

Antonyuk, O. I.; Pavlenko, E. P.



The 2006/2007 photometric activity of three chromospherically active stars: V2075 Cyg, FG UMa and BM CVn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new multiband CCD photometric observations of three chromospherically active stars with long periods (V2075 Cyg, FG UMa and BM CVn). The observations were made at the Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Observatory in 2006 and 2007. We analyzed BVRI (Bessell) CCD observations of these three RS CVn-type SB1 binaries with the following three steps: (i) Photometric rotation periods were obtained by analyzing their light variations with a differential corrections method and a Fourier transform technique. (ii) Light variations, observed over three or more consecutive orbital cycles, were investigated by using dark (cool) spot models with the program SPOT. (iii) Surface differential rotation coefficients for the primary components of these binaries were derived using our own photometric periods together with orbital periods taken from the literature.

Erdem, A.; Budding, E.; Soydugan, E.; Bak??, H.; Do?ru, D.; Do?ru, S. S.; Tüysüz, M.; Kaçar, Y.; Dönmez, A.; Soydugan, F.



The Cause of the Superoutburst in SU UMa Stars is Finally Revealed by Kepler Light Curve of V1504 Cygni  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the short-cadence Kepler light curve of an SU UMa star, V1504 Cyg, which covers a period of ˜630 d. All superoutbursts in V1504 Cyg have turned out to be of precursor-main types, and the superhump first appears near the maximum of the precursor. The superhumps grow smoothly from the precursor to the main superoutburst, showing that the superoutburst was initiated by a tidal instability (as evidenced by the growing superhump) as envisioned in the thermal-tidal instability (TTI) model proposed by Osaki (1989, PASJ, 41, 1005). We performed a power spectral analysis of the light curve of V1504 Cyg. One of the outstanding features is the appearance of a negative superhump extending over around 300 d, well over a supercycle. We found that the appearance of the negative superhump tends to decrease the frequency of occurrence of normal outbursts. Two types of supercycles are recognized in V1504 Cyg, which are similar to those of the Type L and Type S supercycles in the light curve of VW Hyi, a prototype SU UMa star, introduced by Smak (1985, Acta Astron., 35, 357). It is found that the Type L supercycle is the one accompanied by the negative superhump, and Type S is that without the negative superhump. If we adopt a tilted disk as an origin of the negative superhump, two types of the supercycles are understood to be due to a difference in the outburst interval, which is in turn caused by a difference in mass supply from the secondary to different parts of the disk. The frequency of the negative superhump varies systematically during a supercycle in V1504 Cyg. This variation can be used as an indicator of the disk-radius variation, and we have found that the observed disk-radius variation in V1504 Cyg fits very well with a prediction of the TTI model.

Osaki, Yoji; Kato, Taichi



BVRcIc Light Curve Analysis of the Shallow Contact Extreme Mass Ratio W UMa Binary, HR Boo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HR Boo [? (2000) = 14h 48m 33.015s, ? (2000) = +21° 44 ?01.09"] is an NSVS variable first observed in 1999 and listed in the 79th name list (Kazarovets, 2008). It was identified as a W UMa variable and first characterized by the period 0.27289 d. This was later corrected to 0.31587 d. Various observers have reported ~20 timings of minimum light over the past ~4000 orbital epochs. Our 2012 curve is of high precision, with probable errors averaging 5 mmag. The curves have shallow amplitudes, averaging 0.4 magnitudes, yet apparently exhibit total eclipses. J-K observations yield a G6V type for the system. A linear period determination of 0.31596785(7) d was computed with the available timings of minimum light. When the NSVS light curve is considered in the period study, it indicates that the period has been clearly decreasing over the past 15,000 orbits. The quadratic term from this period study is statistically significant at 5 ?. This indicates that the binary is evidently undergoing magnetic breaking due to enhanced magnetic solar activity.The light curve solution reveals that HR Boo is a shallow contact system with a Roche-lobe fill-out of ~4% and a mass ratio of q= 0.25. This is exceedingly rare, since extreme mass ratio binaries usually have high fill-outs. In addition, an unusually dark 13 degree radius cool spot with a T-factor of ~50% was computed near the L1 Point of the primary component. A 32 minute duration of constant light is seen in the secondary eclipse indicating the occurrence of a total eclipse. This was confirmed in the light curve solution. Although the secondary component has a slightly higher temperature than the primary component, some 30 K, the light curves have the appearance of an A-type W UMa system. The system may have come into contact recently.

Faulkner, Danny R.; Samec, Ronald G.; Shebs, Travis; Benkendorf, Barry



Sixty-six Year Orbital Period Study and UBV Light Curve Modeling of the W UMa Binary, TY Ursae Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TY UMa [SVS 366, RA(2000) = 12h 9m 2.656s, DEC(2000) = 56deg 01' 53.54"] is a W UMa binary which has been modeled in both near and shallow contact configurations (Broglia and Conconi 1983). Our recent light curves show similar attributes. However, the orbital period reveals a major and continuous change which may point to an accelerating period change over the past 36 years and possibly 66 years. Alternately, there may be a third body producing a light time amplitude of 0.124(5) days and an orbital period of 103(4) years. The present UBV observations were taken with the Lowell 0.79m reflecting telescope on April 9-11 1999. Four mean epochs of minimum light were determined from the observations made during two primary and two secondary eclipses by MLS using the bisection of chords technique. These are 2451278.8626 (2), 2451279.74951 (4), 2451279.9267 (1), 2451280.8124 (7). Recent timings yield,tangent to the curve, the following linear ephemeris: J.D. Hel Min I = 2450193.5726(46) d + 0. 35454228 (22) X E. Simultaneous, Wilson Code UBV light curve synthesis models are presented. MLS performed much of the analysis in her undergraduate research project. RGS and DRF were visiting Astronomers at Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona This research was partially supported by a grant from NASA administered by the American Astronomical Society. References: Broglia, P., Conconi, P. 1981, A&AP 51, 97b

Samec, R. G.; Stoddard, M. L.; Faulkner, D. R.



The first photometric analyses and classification of the W-UMa eclipsing binary systems GSC 1283-53 and GSC 702-1892  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New CCD observations of the W UMa type binary systems GSC 1283-53 and GSC 702-1892 have been analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney Code to determine their photometric and geometric elements. The results show that the system GSC 1283-53 may be classified as A-subtype W UMa eclipsing binary with a photometric mass ratio q = 0.277, and the degree of over contact f = 83.5%. While the system GSC 702-1892 is found to be a detached eclipsing binary with the photometric mass ratio q = 0.49.

Essam, A.; Nakhlawy, A.; Rassem, M. A.



The Post-LBV Supernova 2001em  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supernova (SN) 2001em in UGC 11794 was classified early as Type Ib/c, i.e., as one arising from a hydrogen-stripped star. As part of a radio survey with the Very Large Array of SNe Ib/c at late times (Stockdale et al. 2003, BAAS, 35, 1346), SN 2001em was detected as a highly luminous radio source ˜2 years after explosion. The SN was also subsequently discovered with Chandra to be a very luminous X-ray source. The properties of both the radio and X-ray emission are more characteristic of the Type II-narrow (IIn) SNe, where the SN shock is interacting with dense, massive circumstellar matter, resulting in bright radio synchrotron emission and thermal bremsstrahlung from the interaction region. In fact, SN 2001em has shown to have spectroscopically transformed to a SN IIn. The premise that this might indicate an off-axis gamma-ray burst has been presented (Granot & Ramirez-Ruiz 2004, ApJ, 609, L9) and later, rather convincingly, refuted (e.g., Schinzel et al. 2009, ApJ, 691, 1380). Chugai & Chevalier (2006, ApJ, 641, 1051) have interpreted the spectral transformation and radio/X-ray emission as the SN shock overtaking the detached hydrogen envelope of the progenitor star, which was shed in a superwind episode many years prior to explosion. Chevalier (2007, RMxAC, 30, 41) has further pointed to the required mass-loss rate in the event being equivalent to what would occur in the eruption of a luminous blue variable (LBV). The optical (ground-based and HST) and radio/X-ray data, together with mid-infrared Spitzer observations, tend to support this scenario of a very massive star that experienced a powerful LBV outburst prior to explosion. Such an event may not be unique, with possible parallels in the cases of SNe 2005bf and 2006jc, and may provide valuable new information about massive stellar evolution.

Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Chornock, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Li, W.; Panagia, N.; Pooley, D.; Stockdale, C. J.; Weiler, K. W.



Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems  

SciTech Connect

In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.

Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A. [Univ. of Padova (Italy). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Padova (Italy). Dept. of Electrical Engineering



DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)



Evaluation of Fracture Azimuth by EM Wave and Elastic Wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fracture system plays an important role in the development of underground energy, for example enhanced geothermal system (EGS), oil shale and shale gas, etc. Therefore, it becomes more and more important to detect and evaluate the fracture system. Geophysical prospecting is an useful method to evaluate the characteristics of the subsurface fractures. Currently, micro-seismology, multi-wave seismic exploration, and electromagnetic (EM) survey are reported to be used for the purpose. We are studying a method using both elastic wave and EM wave to detect and evaluate the fracture azimuth in laboratory. First, we build a 3D horizontal transverse isotropy (HTI) model, shown in the figure 1, by dry parallel fractures system, which was constructed by plexiglass plates and papers. Then, we used the ultrasonic system to obtain reflected S-wave data. Depending on the shear wave splitting, we evaluated the fracture azimuth by the algorithm of Pearson correlation coefficient. In addition, we used the full Polarimetric ultra wide band electromagnetic (FP-UWB-EM) wave System, shown in the figure 2, to obtain full polarimetric reflected EM-wave data. Depending on the rotation of the EM wave polarimetry, we evaluated the fracture azimuth by the the ration between maximum amplitude of co-polarimetric EM wave and maximum amplitude of cross-polarimetric EM wave. Finally, we used both EM-wave data and S-wave data to evaluate the fracture azimuth by the method of cross plot and statistical mathematics. To sum up, we found that FP-UWB-EM wave can be used to evaluated the fracture azimuth and is more accurate than ultrasound wave. Also joint evaluation using both data could improve the precision.

Feng, X.; Wang, Q.; Liu, C.; Lu, Q.; Zeng, Z.; Liang, W.; Yu, Y.; Ren, Q.



LAN based data communication in modern energy management systems (EMS)  

SciTech Connect

The use of energy management systems (EMS) demands high reliability, real-time behavior and more and more economical systems. The last demand requires use of inexpensive standard components, whenever possible. The following article discusses realization of EMS, especially system communication, with respect to these constraints. Problems due to conventional use of standardized communication protocols in distributed supervisory systems in general and highly-reliable systems in particular are shown. Multicast communication concepts are presented as solutions, using standardized protocols in a problem specific way. The presented concepts fulfill the necessity of using standard components as well as the specific demands towards EMS.

Dieterle, W.; Kochs, H.D. [Univ. of Duisburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science] [Univ. of Duisburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science; Dittmar, E. [ABB Netzleittechnik Gmbh, Ladenburg (Germany)] [ABB Netzleittechnik Gmbh, Ladenburg (Germany)



Application of the Chameleon Model to EM Field Momentum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chameleon scalar field model proposed by Khoury and Weltman presents an alternative mechanism for circumventing the constraints from local tests of gravity by mediating a fifth force for cosmological expansion, which could result in experimental signatures detectable through modest improvements of current laboratory set-ups in the vicinity of oscillating matter. In this paper, the oscillation of a dielectric by a crossed EM field is investigated in light of the Chameleon model. An EM excited Chameleon field-force equation is developed and compared to several EM experiments using the Barium Titanate based dielectric material.

Robertson, Glen A.



EMS control chosen instead of refrigeration, HVAC upgrade  

SciTech Connect

A Wisconsin supermarket decided on the basis of costs to install an energy management system (EMS) to improve the store's energy efficiency rather than invest in new refrigerating equipment at this time. When the next remodeling occurs in two years, the store will purchase new equipment using energy savings from the EMS to help defray the costs. The store selected an EMS with distributed processing that can expand to control new equipment. It expects a 22% drop in energy bills and a two-year payback of the $50,000 investment. Details of the system's functions describe some of the 53 control points.

Watson, F.



Optimization of ultrasonic/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus and evaluation of its anti-tumor activities.  


Recently, the use of ultrasonic and microwave has attracted considerable interest as an alternative approach to the traditional extraction methods. In this paper, in order to maximize the yield and purity of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the ultrasonic/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) conditions. The results indicated that the optimal conditions for UMAE were 90W microwave power, 50W ultrasonic power together with 40kHz ultrasonic frequency, solid/water ratio was 1:20 (W/V) and the extracting time was 19min, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the yield and purity of polysaccharides were 3.25% and 73.16%, respectively, which are above that of traditional hot water extraction and close to the predicted value (3.07% and 72.54%, respectively). These results confirmed that ultrasonic/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) of polysaccharides had great potential and efficiency compared with traditional hot water extraction. At the same time, the anti-tumor activities of the polysaccharides from I. obliquus with UMAE were evaluated. The results suggested that polysaccharides from I. obliquus exhibited obvious anti-tumor activities. PMID:20149817

Chen, Yiyong; Gu, Xiaohong; Huang, Sheng-quan; Li, Jinwei; Wang, Xin; Tang, Jian



Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Síndrome Metabólica caracteriza-se pela associação de fatores de risco cardiovascular, como obesidade, resistência à insulina, dislipidemia e hipertensão arterial. Sua prevalência geral em crianças e adolescentes norte-americanos é de 3-4%, mas atinge 28,7% naqueles com Índice de Massa Corpórea (IMC) = percentil 95. Observa-se que os fatores predisponentes à síndrome se manifestam desde a vida intra-uterina. Apesar de bem

Cristhine L. Chagas; Diego G. Figuerôa; Ênio H. Rios; Gérson Carvalho; Gustavo Mascarenhas; Ives D. Barbosa; João M. Braghiroli; João N. Tupiná; Mariana F. Miranda; Naiara A. Fraga; Luis F. Adan



E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA  

SciTech Connect

A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH



Truncated and constrained helical analogs of antimicrobial esculentin-2EM.  


Esculentin-2EM is a 37-residue, cationic, amphipathic, ?-helical antimicrobial peptide isolated from a Korean frog, Glandirama emeljanovi. Many studies revealed that truncation of this peptide results in substantial decreases in its antimicrobial activity. Lee and his colleagues have recently reported that a 23-residue esculentin-2EM analog containing a tryptophanyl substitution at position 16 showed a significant recovery of the antimicrobial activity of the parent peptide. Here we report a new series of 15-residue esculentin-2EM analogs which are constrained into an ?-helical conformation via an oct-4-enyl cross-link. The resulting 'stapled' derivatives displayed remarkable increases not only in antimicrobial activity but also in helical content and protease resistance compared to Lee's original 23-residue esculentin-2EM analog. The preliminary data obtained in this work strongly supports the potential of our strategy for the development of a new class of peptide antibiotics. PMID:24211019

Pham, Thanh Kim; Kim, Do-Hee; Lee, Bong-Jin; Kim, Young-Woo



Structure of Matter, Forces, EM Waves, Spectroscopy, Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These supplemental class notes cover the basic properties of matter, the nature of forces, the electromagnetic spectrum, and how astronomers exploit the properties of the EM spectrum to deduce the physical nature of distant objects.

O'Connell, Robert



Digital C4I Interoperability: The EM Protection Issue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, a unified protection methodology is applied to a digital mobile C4I platform subjected to several human-generated and nature- generated EM environments and effects. The unclassified values for self-induced electromagnetic interference (EMI)...

R. Pfeffer



Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) System for Grumman Maglev Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low ve...

S. S. Kalsi



E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with Fluka.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

G. Battistoni A. Fasso A. Ferrari J. Ranfit A. Rubbia P. R. Sala



NASA EM Followup of LIGO-Virgo Candidate Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a strategy for a follow-up of LIGO-Virgo candidate events using offline survey data from several NASA high-energy photon instruments aboard RXTE, Swift, and Fermi. Time and sky-location information provided by the GW trigger allows for a targeted search for prompt and afterglow EM signals. In doing so, we expect to be sensitive to signals which are too weak to be publicly reported as astrophysical EM events.

Blackburn, Lindy L.



EM clustering analysis of diabetes patients basic diagnosis index.  


Cluster analysis can group similar instances into same group and different instances into different groups. It assigns classes to samples without known the classes in advance. EM clustering algorithm can find number of distributions of generating data and build "mixture models". It identifies groups that are either overlapping or varying sizes and shapes. In this project, by using EM in Weka system, diabetes patient basic diagnosis index data have been analyzed for clustering. PMID:16779444

Wu, Cai; Steinbauer, Jeffrey R; Kuo, Grace M



Preliminary Experiment of EM Technology on Waste Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of EM4 on improving the quality of waste water. The experiment was conducted in two locations of candy factory, viz Nestle and Trebor Companies in Jakarta. The EM4 was treated in laboratory condition to the effluent of waste water of non adjusted pH (pH 4.0) and adjusted pH (pH 7.44)

Gede Ngurah Wididana


An LTCC design technique based on FDTD EM simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper described the Low Technology Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) design methodology at TMRND based on FDTD EM simulations that are required when designing the RF\\/microwave circuit. In this paper, 3D EM analysis and optimization with Finite Different Time Domain (FDTD) software Empire XcCeltrade from IMST was applied to achieve accurate modeling of the RF\\/microwave circuit using LTCC technology. A multilayer

Zulkifli Ambak; Rosidah Alias; Azmi Ibrahim; Sabrina Mohd Shapee; Samsiah Ahmad; Mohamed Razman Yahya; A. Mat



Elevated ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in nelfinavir mesylate (Viracept®, Roche): overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roche's protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate (Viracept®) produced between March 2007-June 2007 was found to contain elevated levels of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), a known mutagen (alkylator) – leading to a global recall of the drug. EMS levels in a daily dose (2,500 mg Viracept\\/day) were predicted not to exceed a dose of ~2.75 mg\\/day (~0.055 mg\\/kg\\/day based on 50 kg patient).

Anton Pozniak; Lutz Müller; Miklos Salgo; Judith K Jones; Peter Larson; David Tweats



Eclipses in Cataclysmic Variables with Stationary Accretion Disks. VI. Is Accretion in UX UMa and RW Tri Really Stationary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disk eclipse light curves of UXUMa and RWTri are reanalyzed in order to determine two parameters: d log dot{M}/d log R, which is a measure of systematic deviations from stationary accretion, and Delta log Tedge, which is a correction to the temperature of the disk's edge. For both systems the resulting values of d log dot{M}/d log R are slightly negative, most likely due to irradiation of the innermost parts of the disk by the boundary layer. Taking this into account we conclude that accretion in UX UMa and RW Tri is indeed stationary. For both systems there is no evidence for Delta log Tedge being significantly different from zero. Our results contradict those obtained earlier with the MEM technique by Horne and Stiening (1985) and Rutten et al. (1992), which showed the accretion rate to be a strongly increasing function of the radial distance. This means that even at moderate inclinations (i=73.0 and 70.5 degrees) the MEM technique produces spurious results.

Smak, J.



Photometric investigation of a very short period W UMa-type binary - Does CE Leonis have a large superluminous area?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complete photometric analysis of BVRI Johnson-Cousins photometry of the high northern latitude galactic variable, CE Leo is presented. These observations were taken at Kitt Peak National Observatory on May 31, 1989-June 7, 1989. Three new precise epochs of minimum light were determined and a linear and a quadratic ephemeris were computed from these and previous data covering 28 years of observation. The light curves reveal that the system undergoes a brief 20 min totality in the primary eclipse, indicating that CE Leo is a W UMa W-type binary. A systemic velocity of about -40 km/s was determined. Standard magnitudes were found and a simultaneous solution of the B, V, R, I light curves was computed using the new Wilson-Devinney synthetic light curve code which has the capability of automatically adjusting star spots. The solution indicates that the system consists of two early K-type dwarfs in marginal contact with a fill-out factor less than 3 percent. Evidence for the presence of a large (45 deg radius) superluminous area on the cooler component is given.

Samec, Ronald G.; Su, Wen; Terrell, Dirk; Hube, Douglas P.



A Multi-year Multi-passband CCD Photometric Study of the W UMa Binary EQ Tauri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A revised ephemeris and updated orbital period for EQ Tau have been determined from newly acquired (2007-2009) CCD-derived photometric data. A Roche-type model based on the Wilson-Devinney code produced simultaneous theoretical fits of light curve data in three passbands by invoking cold spots on the primary component. These new model fits, along with similar light curve data for EQ Tau collected during the previous six seasons (2000-2006), provided a rare opportunity to follow the seasonal appearance of star spots on a W UMa binary system over nine consecutive years. Fixed values for q, ?1,2, T1, T2, and i based upon the mean of eleven separately determined model fits produced for this system are hereafter proposed for future light curve modeling of EQ Tau. With the exception of the 2001 season all other light curves produced since then required a spotted solution to address the flux asymmetry exhibited by this binary system at Max I and Max II. At least one cold spot on the primary appears in seven out of twelve light curves for EQ Tau produced over the last nine years, whereas in six instances two cold spots on the primary star were invoked to improve the model fit. Solutions using a hot spot were less common and involved positioning a single spot on the primary constituent during the 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2005-2006 seasons.

Alton, K. B.



Indirect evidence for short period magnetic cycles in W UMa stars. Period analysis of five overcontact systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex period variations of five W UMa type binaries (AB And, OO Aql, DK Cyg, V566 Oph, U Peg) were investigated by analyzing their O-C diagrams, and several common features were found. Four of the five systems show secular period variations at a constant rate on the order of |dot{P}sec/P|˜10-7 yr-1. In the case of AB And, OO Aql, and U Peg a high-amplitude, nearly one-century long quasi-sinusoidal pattern was also found. It might be explained as light-time effect, or by some magnetic phenomena, although the mathematical, and consequently the physical, parameters of these fits are very problematic, as the obtained periods are very close to the length of the total data range. The most interesting feature of the studied O-C diagrams is a low amplitude ( 2-4×10-3 d) modulation with a period around 18-20 yr in four of the five cases. This phenomenon might be indirect evidence of some magnetic cycle in late-type overcontact binaries as an analog to the observed activity cycles in RS CVn systems.

Borkovits, T.; Elkhateeb, M. M.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Nuspl, J.; Bíró, I. B.; Hegedüs, T.; Csorvási, R.



Electromagnetic divergence correction for 3D anisotropic EM modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now, the application of divergence correction has been focusing on the electromagnetic (EM) isotropic modeling. However, in regions where the earth demonstrates strong electrical anisotropy due to lamina or faults saturated with water, the traditional divergence corrections may not be working for EM modeling. In this paper, based on the divergence-free property of the current density, we propose a divergence correction technique to speed up the EM modeling process for a 3D arbitrarily anisotropic earth. The volume current density weighting method is adopted for the discretization of divergence correction, so it can be applied to non-uniform grid model. By enforcing the constraints associated with the divergence-free property, the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) iterations and the total computational time for the EM modeling are largely reduced. Furthermore, we discuss how to divide the QMR process into sections and the influence of the number of iterations and the normalized residual on the solution process. We take a helicopter-borne EM system over a 3D earth with arbitrarily electrical anisotropy as an example to examine the effectiveness of our anisotropic divergence correction technique on the EM modelings.

Liu, Yun-He; Yin, Chang-Chun



Evaluation of Use of Recombinant Em18 and Affinity-Purified Em18 for Serological Differentiation of Alveolar Echinococcosis from Cystic Echinococcosis and Other Parasitic Infections  

PubMed Central

To further evaluate recombinant Em18 antigen (rEm18) for immunodiagnosis of human alveolar echinococcosis, 208 serum samples were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To comparatively assess the results of rEm18-ELISA, ELISA and immunoblot analysis with two affinity-purified native antigens were also performed with 45 selected serum samples. The results indicate that rEm18 is highly useful for serodiagnosis.

Xiao, Ning; Mamuti, Wulamu; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Gottstein, Bruno; Schantz, Peter M.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Craig, Philip S.; Ito, Akira



Evaluation of Use of Recombinant Em18 and Affinity-Purified Em18 for Serological Differentiation of Alveolar Echinococcosis from Cystic Echinococcosis and Other Parasitic Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

To further evaluate recombinant Em18 antigen (rEm18) for immunodiagnosis of human alveolar echino- coccosis, 208 serum samples were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To compara- tively assess the results of rEm18-ELISA, ELISA and immunoblot analysis with two affinity-purified native antigens were also performed with 45 selected serum samples. The results indicate that rEm18 is highly useful for serodiagnosis.

Ning Xiao; Wulamu Mamuti; Hiroshi Yamasaki; Yasuhito Sako; Minoru Nakao; Kazuhiro Nakaya; Bruno Gottstein; Peter M. Schantz; Marshall W. Lightowlers; Philip S. Craig; Akira Ito



Immunoblot evaluation of the species-specificity of Em18 and Em16 antigens for serodiagnosis of human alveolar echinococcosis.  


An immunoblot study to confirm the species-specificity of the diagnostic antigens Em18 and Em16 of Echinococcus multilocularis protoscolex extract showed that both antigens cross-reacted with sera from cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients. The 18 kDa component was detectable by 75% of the sera from active alveolar echinococcosis (AE) patients, while only 31% detected Em16. Western blot analysis also showed that AE sera recognized a band in the 18 kDa region of E. granulosus protoscolex extract, which was different from the 16/17 kDa subunit of antigen B. The results suggested that Em18 antigen is present in E. granulosus as well as E. multilocularis, and that some CE patients may have serum antibody against this antigen. PMID:9373662

Nirmalan, N; Craig, P S



A History and Informal Assessment of the <em>Slacker Astronomyem> Podcast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slacker Astronomyem> is a weekly podcast that covers a recent astronomical news event or discovery. The show has a unique style consisting of irreverent, over-the-top humor combined with a healthy dose of hard science. According to our demographic analysis, the combination of this style and the unique podcasting distribution mechanism allows the show to reach audiences younger and busier than those reached via traditional channels. We report on the successes and challenges of the first year of the show, and provide an informal assessment of its role as a source for astronomical news and concepts for its approximately 15,500 weekly listeners.

Price, Aaron; Gay, Pamela; Searle, Travis; Brissenden, Gina


EM Task 9 - Centrifugal Membrane Filtration  

SciTech Connect

This project is designed to establish the utility of a novel centrifugal membrane filtration technology for the remediation of liquid mixed waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in support of the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has teamed with SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., a small business and owner of the novel centrifugal membrane filtration technology, to establish the applicability of the technology to DOE site remediation and the commercial viability of the technology for liquid mixed waste stream remediation. The technology is a uniquely configured process that makes use of ultrafiltration and centrifugal force to separate suspended and dissolved solids from liquid waste streams, producing a filtered water stream and a low-volume contaminated concentrate stream. This technology has the potential for effective and efficient waste volume minimization, the treatment of liquid tank wastes, the remediation of contaminated groundwater plumes, and the treatment of secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, as well as the liquid waste stream generated during decontamination and decommissioning activities.

Stevens, B.G.; Stepan, D.J.; Hetland, M.D.



DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.



Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

Shively, R. Jay



Degradation of Benzodiazepines after 120 Days of EMS Deployment.  


Abstract Introduction. EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. Objective. To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Methods. Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May-August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). Results. 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7-98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7-100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6-99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7-92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1-36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Conclusions. Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure. PMID:24548058

McMullan, Jason T; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert



Criação de um curso de 'Design da Mobilidade' na FAAP: uma abordagem transdisciplinar em design e engenharia The creation of a course on 'Mobility Design' at FAAP: a transdisciplinar approach for design and engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a strategic area for the development, transportation represents the focus for new courses and activities: Brazilian projects in this area are appointed as successful 'cases'. Conscious of that reality, FAAP created a course on Mobility Design, with transdisciplinar emphasis and the partnership of enterprises and other technological institutions. This paper describes the methodological structure, relief and predicable consequences for

Ari Antonio; Carlos Armando


Atividade física sistematizada e desempenho cognitivo em idosos com demência de Alzheimer: uma revisão sistemática Systematized physical activity and cognitive performance in elderly with Alzheimer's dementia: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Despite the growing evidence of the benefits of physical exercise for cognition, there is a controversy about the systematic practice of physical activity in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the objective of this study was to procedure a systematic review of studies that analyzed the effect of systematized physical activity on cognitive performance in elderly individuals with Alzheimer's disease.

Flávia Gomes; Ruth Ferreira Santos-Galduroz; Sebastião Gobbi; Florindo Stella


MÉTODOS DE CUSTEIO POR ABSORÇÃO E VARIÁVEL NA OVINOCULTURA DE CORTE: ESTUDO DE CASO EM UMA CABANHA Methods of absorption costing and variable costing in ovine: case study in a farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of the rural accounting in cost verification for agribusiness activities is highlighted in this study of which general aim is to identify and measure the production costs of ovine, by means of the absorption costing and variable costing methods, aiming to demonstrate the values of the stocks and the economic results of a farm in Itapiranga (SC). Besides

Marino Luiz Eyerkaufer; Adilson Costa; Ana Cristina de Faria



Modelagem e simulacao do fenomeno de transferencia de energia em uma mistura continua solido-fluido. (Modelling and simulation of an energy transport phenomenon in a solid-fluid mixture).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the present work a model for a local description of the energy transfer phenomenon in a binary (solid-fluid) saturated mixture is proposed. The heat transfer in a saturated flow (through a porous medium) between two parallel plates is simulated by usin...

M. L. M. Costa R. Sampaio R. M. S. Gama



Sintetizacao de Filmes de Diamante Assistido Por JATO de Plasma Gerado Por Uma Descarga Eletrica Tipo Arco Em Baixa Pressao, Parte 2 (Synthesis of Diamond Film Assisted by an Arcjet Plasma Source, Part 2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the initial characterization of a plasma jet projected for diamond thin film deposition. The temperature and density profiles were measured with a double electrostatic probe. A conceptual project involving the design of...

P. R. P. Barreto E. Delbosco



Perfil sociodemográfico, epidemiológico e comportamental de mulheres infectadas pelo HTLV1 em Salvador-Bahia, uma área endêmica para o HTLV Sociodemographic, epidemiological and behavioral profile of women infected with HTLV1 in Salvador, Bahia, an endemic area for HTLV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to describe the sociodemographic, epidemiological and behavioral characteristics of women infected with HTLV-1 (64) and uninfected women (66) in Salvador, Bahia. The serological diagnosis was obtained via ELISA, Western Blot and Immunofluorescence. Epidemiological and sociodemographic data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. The chi-squared or Fisher test was used for categorical data and ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis (3

Ivanoska Moxoto; Ney Boa-Sorte; Ceuci Nunes; Augusto Mota; Alexandre Dumas; Inês Dourado; Bernardo Galvão-Castro