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Sample records for preadolescent canadian females

  1. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  2. The Development of Physical Aggression from Toddlerhood to Pre-Adolescence: A Nation Wide Longitudinal Study of Canadian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Sylvana; Vaillancourt, Tracy; LeBlanc, John C.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to model the developmental trajectories of physical aggression (PA) from toddlerhood to pre-adolescence and to identify risk factors that distinguish typical (normative) from atypical developmental patterns. Ten cohorts of approximately 1,000 children (n = 10,658) drawn form a nationally representative (Canadian)…

  3. Single trial nicotine conditioned place preference in pre-adolescent male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alexander W; Konz, Nathan; Hirsch, Zahava; Weedon, Jeremy; Dow-Edwards, Diana L

    2014-10-01

    The mean age of first voluntary tobacco inhalation is 12.3 years (DiFranza et al., 2004). 60% of smokers start smoking before the age of 14 and 90% are dependent before reaching the age of 19. Females are typically more sensitive to nicotine than males yet few studies examine the effects of nicotine on the reward systems in pre-adolescent female subjects. This study utilized the single trial conditioned place preference (CPP) test in very young (postnatal day 25-27) rats of both sexes. Latent effects on anxiety and amphetamine response were determined 5 and 7 days following a second nicotine exposure. Results show that 0.05 mg/kg nicotine induced CPP in females following a single trial while both sexes showed CPP following the 0.5 mg/kg dose. Five days later, rats dosed with 0.05 mg/kg show increased time on the open arm of the elevated plus maze, an anxiolytic response. While baseline activity was increased in nicotine-exposed males 7 days following dosing, amphetamine response was not affected by the treatments in either sex. Therefore, our data suggest that young females are more sensitive to nicotine reward than males supporting a heightened sensitivity of the mesolimbic dopamine system in very young females. However, alterations in baseline activity were only seen in males suggesting that different components of the system are affected by nicotine in each sex. An anxiolytic response to nicotine 5 days after dosing may suggest that this very young age group is uniquely affected by this very low nicotine dose. Clearly, nicotine has substantial acute and lasting effects during pre-adolescence at doses substantially lower than seen at older ages as reported by others. These effects, which could potentially result from cigarette or e-cigarette smoking by 11-12 year old children , focus attention on the vulnerability of this age group to nicotine. PMID:25109273

  4. ''A Burden in Your Heart'': Lessons of Disclosure from Female Preadolescent and Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staller, Karen M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To enhance understanding of the sexual abuse disclosure process from the perspective of preteen and teenage survivors. To reconsider prominent models of the disclosure process in light of our findings. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from four focus groups in which 34 preadolescent and adolescent female survivors of…

  5. Pet care during preadolescence: developmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Davis, J H

    1987-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated pet care in relation to psychosocial development during preadolescence. A group of male and female preadolescents (n = 22) at appropriate grade level for age completed a dog care responsibility inventory. The results revealed that preadolescents in general do not routinely care for pets. Mothers appear to assume most pet care tasks. PMID:3664972

  6. Genetic and environmental influences on self-concept in female preadolescent twins: comparison of Minnesota and Seoul data.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2005-08-01

    It has been argued that culture significantly influences the developmental basis of self-concept. The goal of the present study is to compare the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors to explain individual differences in various dimensions of self-concept in female preadolescents of Minnesota in the United States and Seoul in South Korea. Two hundred and eighteen monozygotic (MZ) and 137 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS) and 74 MZ and 42 DZ twin pairs from the Seoul Twin Family Study (STFS) completed the 6 cluster scales of the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (P-H). The 6 cluster scales of the P-H include Popularity, Physical Appearance and Attributes, Behavior, Intellectual Competence and School Status, Anxiety, and Happiness and Satisfaction. Univariate model-fitting analyses were performed. In both samples, a model incorporating shared and nonshared environmental influences fitted the data best for Popularity, Anxiety, and Intellectual Competence and School Status, whereas a model including additive genetic and nonshared environmental factors provided the best fit for Physical Appearance and Attributes, and Behavior. The univariate model did not yield an adequate fit for Happiness and Satisfaction. For Physical Appearance and Attributes, and Intellectual Competence and School Status, estimates of additive genetic and environmental factors were significantly different between the MTFS and the STFS samples. For Popularity, Anxiety, and Behavior, however, the genetic and environmental estimates were comparable between the two samples. PMID:16176711

  7. Experienced Control in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Age Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.

    Adolescent determination of behavior can be viewed as the result of perceived locus of control. To investigate adolescent perceptions of control in terms of age, loci of control (internal or external), situations (community and home), and direction of control (from or over the environment), 909 adolescents (345 males, 564 females), aged 11-19,…

  8. At the Beginning of the STEM Pipeline: A Case Study Exploring Preadolescent Female Students' Attitudes Toward Science, Perceptions of Scientists, and Developing Career Aspirations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heacock, Lucy Vogel

    The continuous underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), referred to as the leaky pipeline, has been examined from multiple perspectives internationally, while the attitudes and perceptions of preadolescent girls regarding STEM remain largely ignored. Employing a constructivist paradigm, this qualitative case study explored the perceptions and attitudes of 40 public elementary school female students across three grade levels regarding science, scientists, and career aspirations. Mixed-methods data collections included three survey instruments combined with semi-structured interviews. Self-efficacy, stereotype threat, and career choice theory provided the framework for the overarching research question: What are the attitudes and perceptions of female preadolescent students at the third, fourth, and fifth grade levels regarding science and scientists, and how might these dispositions affect their early development of STEM career aspirations and interests? The Three-Dimensions of Student Attitude Towards Science (TDSAS) instrument informed the exploration of self-efficacy; the modified Draw-A-Scientist Test (mDAST) and Rubric informed the exploration of stereotype threat; and the STEM-Career Interest Survey (CIS) informed the exploration of career aspirations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants. Results from this study indicated that the majority of the preadolescent girls thought science was an important topic to study and displayed an attitude of self-confident ability to learn science and be successful in science class. They highly enjoyed scientific experimentation and deeply valued problem solving. While they inferred they did not experience gender bias, the girls did engage in stereotyping scientists. Over half the girls expected to use science in their future careers, while a minority had already determined they wanted to be scientists when they grow up. The study concludes with

  9. The Effectiveness of a Culture- and Gender-Specific Intervention for Increasing Resiliency among African American Preadolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Chase-Vaughn, Gretchen; Gray, Famebridge; Addison, Jerveada Dixon; Cherry, Valerie R.

    2000-01-01

    Assessed the impact of a culture- and gender-specific intervention on strengthening resiliency among poor African American preadolescent girls. The intervention used a relational Afrocentric focus and activities to increase self-worth and ethnic and gender identity. Intervention girls scored significantly higher on measures of Afrocentric values,…

  10. Women of Mystery: Investigating Learning Pathways of Canadian and American Female Crime Fiction Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the learning pathways of 15 Canadian and American female crime fiction authors. Using a critical feminist perspective, it argues that despite the neoliberal rhetoric of individual choice, as in most careers, there are social-structural factors that create opportunities and barriers for women mystery writers. The article…

  11. Male and Female Graduates in the Canadian Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.

    1992-01-01

    Explores differences in labor market experiences between male and female journalism graduates (from 1976, 1982, and 1986) in Canada. Investigates occupations entered after graduation, income, time spent in various labor market activities, and job and salary satisfaction. Finds minimal gender-based differences. (SR)

  12. Differences in abuse reported by female and male Canadian medical students.

    PubMed Central

    Moscarello, R; Margittai, K J; Rossi, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess differences between male and female medical students concerning their experiences of abuse during training in a large Canadian medical school. DESIGN: Voluntary, anonymous cross-sectional survey of first- and fourth-year medical students during February 1991. SETTING: University of Toronto School of Medicine. PARTICIPANTS: Of 396 first- and fourth-year students surveyed after one of their regular classes, 347 (117 women, 230 men) completed the questionnaire. INTERVENTION: A 165-item, multiple-choice questionnaire concerning experiences of verbal or emotional abuse, sexual harassment and physical abuse, completed within 30 minutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between male and female respondents in abuse experiences before and during medical training, the relation between abuse before and during training, and the psychologic and behavioural effects of abuse during training. RESULTS: The experiences of the male and female respondents differed mainly in regard to sexual harassment: 42% (49/117) of the women and 11% (25/230) of the men reported sexual harassment before entering medical school (p < 0.0001); 46% (54/117) and 19% (43/230) respectively reported sexual harassment during medical training (p < 0.0001); and women who reported sexual harassment were the only respondents for whom a significant relation was found between abuse before and during training (p < 0.043). The women were more distressed than the men by all forms of abuse. A significant relation was shown between male students who reported experiencing abuse during medical training and mistreating patients (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Female students' experiences of sexual harassment differed from those of their male counterparts. As well, the female students' reactions to and ways of coping with all types of abuse differed from those of the male students. PMID:7832819

  13. The Parent-Child Relationship as Predictor of Eating Pathology and Weight Gain in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Van Durme, Kim; Decaluwe, Veerle; Bosmans, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of attachment toward mother and father as a predictor of eating pathology and weight gain among preadolescent boys and girls. Self-report questionnaires and adjusted body mass index (BMI) were administered from a community sample of 601 preadolescents (8-11 years; 48% female) at baseline and once again 1 year…

  14. Preadolescent Violence among Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    This research study explored preadolescent girl-to-girl violence based on the perceptions of the victim at 14 years of age and those of her family. Using a heuristic research design (Moustakas, 1990), this constant comparative analysis of multiple data sources found (a) a clearly delineated progression of girl-to-girl violence, (b) blindness…

  15. Coping strategies in female survivors of childhood sexual abuse from two Canadian and two New Zealand cultural groups.

    PubMed

    Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Read, John; Cowie, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Individuals from some minority cultures are at greater risk of experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and are also at heightened risk of negative outcomes from abuse. Coping strategies, which may mediate the relationship between CSA and outcomes, are also impacted by culture. This study examined the use of coping strategies in female survivors of CSA across 4 cultural groupings from 2 countries-86 European Canadians, 40 Native Canadians, 129 European New Zealanders, and 35 Māori New Zealanders-who all completed the Coping Responses Inventory. The 4 groups differed significantly on 7 of the 8 Coping Responses Inventory scales (Logical Analysis, Positive Reappraisal, Problem Solving, Cognitive Avoidance, Acceptance or Resignation, Seeking Alternative Rewards, Emotional Discharge). Whereas New Zealanders differed significantly from Canadians (p<.001), Europeans did not differ significantly from indigenous cultural groups, nor did nationality and culture grouping interact (p>.05). The profile of coping in New Zealand Europeans was relatively flat, with average scores across coping types close to the mean of the t-score distribution. Māori New Zealanders produced a similar profile, with only slight increases on 2 scales of avoidant coping. The findings raise questions about the extent to which generalizations can be made about there being either a "Western/European" culture or a particular "indigenous" culture. This in turn also raises the issue of whether cross-validation and replication of findings are needed if the findings are to be applied outside of the country in which the data were gathered. PMID:22651678

  16. Social Discomfort in Preadolescence: Predictors of Discrepancies between Preadolescents and Their Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether salient preadolescent behaviors and experiences predicted parents' and teachers' underestimation of preadolescents' shyness. Participants included a community sample of 129 fifth and sixth graders, along with one parent and teacher per preadolescent. Preadolescents, parents, and teachers provided reports…

  17. Nest defense and survival of offspring in highly aggressive wild Canadian female house mice.

    PubMed

    Vom Saal, F S; Franks, P; Boechler, M; Palanza, P; Parmigiani, S

    1995-10-01

    Nest defense behavior was examined in wild female house mice (Mus domesticus) that were derived from a stock initially trapped in Alberta, Canada. The first objective was to determine whether behavior toward pups prior to mating was related to the intensity of postpartum aggression in a variety of social situations. Therefore, prior to the experiments we screened virgin females for their behavior toward a newborn pup [60% of the females exhibited infanticide and 40% were noninfanticidal: 7% were parental (retrieved and hovered over the pup) and 33% ignored the pup]. Infanticidal and noninfanticidal females were then mated with males and used in four experiments. In Experiment 1 the females were housed individually prior to deliver, while in Experiment 2 the females were allowed to remain with their mates; in both situations all females successfully reared litters of similar sizes. Male and female intruders (that had all exhibited infanticide when previously tested with a pup) were placed separately into a test cage containing a lactating female during the first four days after delivery. Regardless of the presence of the stud male, previously infanticidal females were more aggressive (exhibited more attacks per min) toward both male and female intruders than were previously noninfanticidal females; infanticidal females also exhibited more of both forms of attack (offensive and defensive) and also attacked with greater intensity than did noninfanticidal females. The number of attacks toward intruders of both sexes increased for both infanticidal and noninfanticidal females between Day 1-4 postpartum, but very high rates of attack were observed on all days by the lactating females, including the day of delivery. In Experiments 3 and 4 only the most aggressive (previously infanticidal) females were tested. In Experiment 3, two unrelated, unfamiliar females were mated separately and then were housed together just prior to delivery, which was planned to occur 3-4 days

  18. Sexual harassment of female chiropractors by their patients: a pilot survey of faculty at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College

    PubMed Central

    Gleberzon, Brian; Statz, Rachel; Pym, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to survey a group of female chiropractors and inquire as to whether or not they had been sexually harassed by their patients. Methods: An online questionnaire was emailed via Survey Monkey to 47 female faculty members at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC). Respondents were asked if they had been sexual harassed and, if so, the characteristics of the incident(s), their response to it, how serious they perceived the problem to be and whether or not they felt prepared to deal with it. Results: Nineteen of 47 questionnaires were completed and returned. Of these 19, eight respondents reported being sexually harassed by a patient (all male), most commonly within the first 5 years of practice and most commonly involving a ‘new’ patient. It was rarely anticipated. The nature of the harassment varied and respondents often ignored the incident. Most respondents perceive this to be a problem facing female chiropractors. Discussion: Although this is the first survey of its kind, this is a significant problem facing other healthcare professionals. Conclusions: Among this group of respondents, sexual harassment by patients was a common occurrence. More training on how to handle it, during either a student’s chiropractic education or offered as a continuing education program, may be warranted. PMID:26136603

  19. Variations in male-female infant ratios among births to Canadian- and Indian-born mothers, 1990-2011: a population-based register study

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.; Ray, Joel G.; Wanigaratne, Susitha; Moineddin, Rahim; O'Campo, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We assessed variations in the male-female infant ratios among births to Canadian-born and Indian-born mothers according to year of birth, province and country of birth of each parent. Methods: In this population-based register study, we analyzed birth certificates of 5 853 970 singleton live births to Canadian-born and 177 990 singleton live births to Indian-born mothers giving birth in Canada from 1990 to 2011. Male-female ratios were stratified by live birth order and plotted by year of birth. Logistic regression was used to assess whether ratios varied between Canadian provinces and according to the birthplace of each parent. The deficit in the number of girls was estimated using bootstrap methods. Results: Among Canadian-born mothers, male-female ratios were about 1.05, with negligible fluctuations by birth order, year and province. Among Indian-born mothers, the overall male-female ratio at the third birth was 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-1.41) and was 1.66 (95% CI 1.56-1.76) at the fourth or higher-order births. There was little variability in the ratios between provinces. Couples involving at least 1 Indian-born parent had higher than expected male-female ratios at the second and higher-order births, particularly when the father was Indian-born. The deficit in the expected number of girls among Indian immigrants to Canada in the study period was estimated to be 4472 (95% CI 3211-5921). Interpretation: Fewer than expected girls at the third and higher-order births have been born to Indian immigrants across Canada since 1990. This trend was also seen among couples of mixed nativity, including those involving a Canadian-born mother and an Indian-born father. Fathers should be considered when investigating sex ratios at birth. PMID:27398354

  20. School bus travel is associated with bullying victimization among Canadian male, but not female, middle and high school students.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A; Larouche, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has found a link between active school transportation and bullying victimization among school-aged children. However, the link with other school travel modes (such as car, school bus, and public transportation) and bullying victimization is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between school travel mode and report of bullying victimization among Canadian middle and high school students. The sample consisted of 5065 students aged 11-20 years (mean age: 15.2±1.9 years; 56% females) who participated in the 2013 Ontario Students Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). Overall, 24.7% of students reported school bullying victimization in the past year. Females (27.2%) were more likely than males (22.3%) to be victims of school bullying (p<0.01). After adjustment for age, ethnicity, subjective socioeconomic status and parental education, multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that, compared to active school transportation, school bus travel to (adjusted odd ratio (OR)=1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.25-2.68) and from (OR=1.79; 95% CI=1.70-2.67) school was associated with greater odds of bullying victimization among males, but not females. However, the use of public transportation to get to school was associated with lower odds of bullying victimization compared to active transportation among females only (OR=0.59; 95% CI=0.36-0.97). These findings suggest that school travel mode should be considered when considering risks for bullying victimization. Bullying prevention efforts should target school buses to make children's commute a safe and enjoyable experience. PMID:27376652

  1. Bibliotherapy with Preadolescents Experiencing Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth; Allen, Virginia B.; Folger, Wendy A.; McMillen, Paula S.; Lowe, Imelda

    2007-01-01

    Preadolescence is a challenging developmental stage, but when complicated or threatened by the effects of family dissolution or divorce, the challenges can be overwhelming. Such youngsters often need and can benefit from counseling intervention. One particularly appropriate intervention is bibliotherapy. Reasons for using bibliotherapy for such…

  2. The Psycho-Social Dimensions of Preadolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan de Brun, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Differentiates between several terms used to refer to the five-year period between ages 9 through 13 (for example, "youth,""pubescence,""puberty," and "preadolescence"). Theories related to preadolescence, including the developmental theories of Piaget, Kohlberg, and Erikson, are briefly discussed, and social, emotional, sexual, and physiological…

  3. Suicide among Preadolescents: A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westefeld, John S.; Bell, Allison; Bermingham, Charles; Button, Christopher; Shaw, Kari; Skow, Christine; Stinson, Rebecca D.; Woods, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Suicide among preadolescents is a relatively rare phenomenon. Due to the infrequency of suicide among this population, this area of study has received limited investigation relative to suicide in other age groups and populations. This article reviews research related to suicide among preadolescents, defined as children under the age of 13. The…

  4. Relationships among Shyness, Social Competence, Peer Relations, and Theory of Mind among Pre-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kakarani, Styliani; Kolovou, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between shyness, a number of personal and interpersonal variables (i.e. social skills, self-esteem, attachment style, advanced Theory of Mind skills and peer relations) in a sample of 243 Greek pre-adolescents. Participants completed self-reports of the variables. Results indicated that females scored…

  5. The effect of differing intensities of acute cycling on preadolescent academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael; Johnson, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of differing intensity levels of acute exercise on preadolescent academic ability. In a repeated measures design, 18 preadolescent participants (mean age±S.D.= 9.8±1.4 years: 9 male and 9 female) completed the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 4) following 20 minutes of rest, 20-minutes on a cycling ergometer at 50% maximal heart rate reserve (HRR), and 20-minutes on a cycling ergometer at 75% HRR on separate days. Exercise was found to improve spelling irrespective of intensity level. Moderate levels of exercise improved reading although the effect of high levels of intensity is less clear. Both intensity levels impaired arithmetic, whilst sentence comprehension was unaffected. These findings further support the past research that indicates acute bouts of exercise can selectively improve cognition in preadolescent children. However, the present study finds no support for the notion that increasing the intensity of exercise accentuates benefits. PMID:23724796

  6. Sex-Dependent Changes in Striatal Dopamine Transport in Preadolescent Rats Exposed Prenatally and/or Postnatally to Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Sirova, Jana; Kristofikova, Zdenka; Vrajova, Monika; Fujakova-Lipski, Michaela; Ripova, Daniela; Klaschka, Jan; Slamberova, Romana

    2016-08-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is the most commonly used psychostimulant drug, the chronic abuse of which leads to neurodegenerative changes in the brain. The global use of MA is increasing, including in pregnant women. Since MA can cross both placental and haematoencephalic barriers and is also present in maternal milk, children of chronically abused mothers are exposed prenatally as well as postnatally. Women seem to be more vulnerable to some aspects of MA abuse than men. MA is thought to exert its effects among others via direct interactions with dopamine transporters (DATs) in the brain tissue. Sexual dimorphism of the DAT system could be a base of sex-dependent actions of MA observed in behavioural and neurochemical studies. Possible sex differences in the DATs of preadolescent offspring exposed to MA prenatally and/or postnatally have not yet been evaluated. We examined the striatal synaptosomal DATs (the activity and density of surface expressed DATs and total DAT expression) in preadolescent male and female Wistar rats (31-35-day old animals) exposed prenatally and/or postnatally to MA (daily 5 mg/kg, s.c. to mothers during pregnancy and lactation). To distinguish between specific and nonspecific effects of MA on DATs, we also evaluated the in vitro effects of lipophilic MA on the fluidity of striatal membranes isolated from preadolescent and young adult rats of both sexes. We observed similar changes in the DATs of preadolescent rats exposed prenatally or postnatally (MA-mediated drop in the reserve pool but no alterations in surface-expressed DATs). However, prenatal exposure evoked significant changes in males and postnatal exposure in females. A significant decrease in the activity of surface-expressed DATs was found only in postnatally exposed females sensitized to MA via prenatal exposure. MA applied in vitro increased the fluidity of striatal membranes of preadolescent female but not male rats. In summary, DATs of preadolescent males are more sensitive to

  7. Dopamine D3 Receptor Mediates Preadolescent Stress-Induced Adult Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Joon H.; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that repeated stressful experiences during childhood increases the likelihood of developing depression- and anxiety-related disorders in adulthood; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We subjected drd3-EGFP and drd3-null mice to daily, two hour restraint stress episodes over a five day period during preadolescence (postnatal day 35 to 39), followed by social isolation. When these mice reached adulthood (post-natal day > 90), we assessed locomotor behavior in a novel environment, and assessed depression-related behavior in the Porsolt Forced Swim test. We also measured the expression and function of dopamine D3 receptor in limbic brain areas such as hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and amygdala in control and stressed drd3-EGFP mice in adulthood. Adult male mice subjected to restraint stress during preadolescence exhibited both anxiety- and depression-related behaviors; however, adult female mice subjected to preadolescent restraint stress exhibited only depression-related behaviors. The development of preadolescent stress-derived psychiatric disorders was blocked by D3 receptor selective antagonist, SB 277011-A, and absent in D3 receptor null mice. Adult male mice that experienced stress during preadolescence exhibited a loss of D3 receptor expression and function in the amygdala but not in hippocampus or nucleus accumbens. In contrast, adult female mice that experienced preadolescent stress exhibited increased D3 receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens but not in amygdala or hippocampus. Our results suggest that the dopamine D3 receptor is centrally involved in the etiology of adult anxiety- and depression-related behaviors that arise from repeated stressful experiences during childhood. PMID:26619275

  8. Empowering Preadolescent and Adolescent Leukemia Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kathy

    1988-01-01

    Describes effects of leukemia diagnosis and treatment for preadolescents and adolescents. Discusses strategies for social workers to assist these cancer patients in participating actively in the day-to-day management of their own care. (ABL)

  9. The Persistent Gap: Understanding Male-Female Salary Differentials amongst Canadian Academic Staff. CAUT Equity Review. Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2011

    2011-01-01

    There has been a long-standing concern amongst policymakers, economists, and trade unions over the persistent earnings gap between men and women in the Canadian labour market. Although this gap has narrowed over time, women's average hourly wages still remain about 16% lower than that earned by men. The reasons for this inequality in male and…

  10. The Role of Religiosity in African American Preadolescent Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of parent and preadolescent religiosity in aggression among African American preadolescents with moderate to high aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine (a) which aspects of parent and preadolescent religiosity (i.e., church attendance, private religious activities, and intrinsic…

  11. Aerobic Fitness and Response Variability in Preadolescent Children Performing a Cognitive Control Task

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chien-Ting; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Chaddock, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and cognitive variability in preadolescent children. METHOD Forty-eight preadolescent children (25 males, 23 females, mean age = 10.1 years) were grouped into higher- and lower-fit groups according to their performance on a test of aerobic capacity (VO2max). Cognitive function was measured via behavioral responses to a modified flanker task. The distribution in reaction time was calculated within each participant to assess intra-individual variability of performance. Specifically, the standard deviation and coefficient variation of reaction time were used to represent cognitive variability. RESULTS Preadolescent children, regardless of fitness, exhibited longer reaction time, increased response variability, and decreased response accuracy to incongruent compared to congruent trials. Further, higher-fit children were less variable in their response time and more accurate in their responses across conditions of the flanker task, while no group differences were observed for response speed. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that fitness is associated with better cognitive performance during a task that varies cognitive control demands, and extends this area of research to suggest that intra-individual variability may be a useful measure to examine the relationship between fitness and cognition during preadolescence. PMID:21443340

  12. Friendship Preferences among German and Turkish Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugert, Philipp; Noack, Peter; Rutland, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes in and predictors of preference for same-ethnic friendships among German (N = 106) and Turkish (N = 45) preadolescents (M age = 10.4 years) during their 1st year in an ethnically heterogeneous school. Drawing on the contact hypothesis, it examined the relation between children's attitudes and their preference for…

  13. Effect of Group Sandtray Therapy with Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flahive, Mon-hsin Wang; Ray, Dee

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of group sandtray therapy, a model of play therapy, was evaluated using a pretest-posttest control group design with 56 preadolescents exhibiting behavioral difficulties. The experimental group (n = 28) received sandtray therapy in small groups for 10 weeks while the wait-list control group (n = 28) received no treatment. Results…

  14. Encouraging Preadolescent Emotional Intelligence through Leadership Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, John Henry

    2010-01-01

    The study sought to determine effects of leadership activity on emotional intelligence in preadolescents. Ninety-two Central California Valley sixth grade students in two schools and four classes were assessed on emotional intelligence. Treatment and comparison groups were identified. A Two-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA examined change over time…

  15. Preadolescent male perceptions of action figure physiques.

    PubMed

    Baghurst, Timothy; Carlston, David; Wood, Julie; Wyatt, Frank B

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the preference and reasoning of 176 preadolescent and adolescent males when presented with original and current action figures that had statistically different physiques. Current action figures were perceived as significantly more muscular and healthier. Participants also preferred to resemble current action figures citing muscularity and size for their preference. PMID:18023792

  16. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  17. Sleep problems in healthy preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Kahn, A; Van de Merckt, C; Rebuffat, E; Mozin, M J; Sottiaux, M; Blum, D; Hennart, P

    1989-09-01

    Few data currently exist concerning the sleep problems of preadolescents. A parent report questionnaire concerning sleep habits and problems was developed. The questionnaires were completed by the parents of 1000 unscreened elementary school children attending the third, fourth, and fifth grades. The schools were randomly selected from an urban area. Of the 1000 questionnaires, 972 were completed and could be used for statistical analysis. Among the parents, 24% reported sleeping poorly and 12% regularly relied on sedatives to induce sleep. Sleep difficulties lasting more than 6 months were present in 43% of the children. In 14% (132 of 972), sleep latency was longer than 30 minutes, and more than one complete arousal occurred during the night at least two nights per week. The following variables were seen among the poor sleepers: lower parental educational and professional status, parents who were more likely to be divorced or separated, and more noise or light in the rooms were they slept. They also presented a higher incidence of somnambulism, somniloquia, and night fears (nightmares and night terrors) than the children who slept well. Boys who slept poorly were significantly more likely to have insomniac fathers (P less than .010). Regular use of sedatives was described in 4% (5 of 132) of the children who slept poorly. Among the "poor sleepers," 21% (33 of 132) had failed 1 or more years at school. School achievement difficulties were encountered significantly more often among the poor sleepers than among the children without sleep problems (P = .001). Of the families with children suffering from sleep problems, 28% expressed a desire for counseling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2788868

  18. Brief Report: How Anxiously Withdrawn Preadolescents Think about Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Campbell, Kelly; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Burgess, Kim B.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that anxiously withdrawn preadolescents demonstrate success in forming friendships, yet these friendships tend to be of lesser quality. Drawing on Selman's (1980) theory of interpersonal understanding, we compared levels of friendship understanding between anxiously withdrawn preadolescents and a sample of non-withdrawn…

  19. Spatial and Temporal Lingual Coarticulation and Motor Control in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zharkova, Natalia; Hewlett, Nigel; Hardcastle, William J.; Lickley, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared coarticulation and lingual kinematics in preadolescents and adults in order to establish whether preadolescents had a greater degree of random variability in tongue posture and whether their patterns of lingual coarticulation differed from those of adults. Method: High-speed ultrasound tongue contour…

  20. Mentalizing Abilities in Preadolescents' and Their Mothers' Autobiographical Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scopesi, Alda M.; Rosso, Anna Maria; Viterbori, Paola; Panchieri, Erika

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the association between the mental state talk of mothers and their preadolescent children, with the hypothesis that an intergenerational transmission of mentalizing abilities may extend beyond early childhood. The participants were 41 mother-preadolescent child nonclinical dyads. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI)…

  1. Suicidal Behavior in Preadolescent Children: A Growing Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; Lehman, Cynthia J.

    1987-01-01

    Preadolescent suicide appears to be increasing, although less than 1% of the attempts are successful. Several high risk factors of preadolescent suicide including depression, family pathology, and a child's cognitive concept of death have been identified. Educators should refer children who threaten or attempt suicide to mental health services.…

  2. The high prevalence of fragile X premutation carrier females: Is this frequency unique to the French Canadian population?

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, S.L.

    1995-11-01

    {open_quotes}The fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation and, after Down syndrome, the most common identified form of mental retardation.{close_quotes} Although statements similar to this are found in almost every introduction to the fragile X syndrome, little is actually known about the true prevalence of fragile X syndrome or about the frequency of clinically unaffected carriers. To date, almost all estimates of the prevalence of the syndrome are based on cytogenetic surveys of overtly retarded populations. The cytogenetic test to detect the fragile X site expression is labor intensive, and its sensitivity and specificity are considerably less than 100%. Thus, once the gene for the fragile X syndrome was isolated, population surveys of the mutation were anticipated, as the DNA diagnostic test is accurate, relatively simple, and inexpensive compared with the cytogenetic test. However, population surveys have been slow to come, in part, because of the technical difficulties related to the type of sample tested (e.g., blood spot) and to ethical and logistical problems related to identification of a target population. Dr. Rousseau and his colleagues have overcome these difficulties and present in this issue of the journal the first large study of the frequency of clinically unaffected female carriers of the fragile X mutation. 21 refs.

  3. A Cross-National Study of Preadolescent Substance Use: Exploring Differences Between Youth in Spain and Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Luengo, Maria Angeles; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Romero, Estrella; GóMez-Fraguela, JosÉ Antonio; Villar, Paula; Nieri, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to comparatively examine drug use in Arizona and Spain, in order to know if similarities and differences in drug use patterns justify the administration in Spain of U.S. prevention intervention programs. Data were obtained from independent samples of seventh-grade students recruited from urban public schools and surveyed in 1998: 4,035 ethnically diverse Arizona students (Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites), and 2,243 Spanish-White students. Comparisons using Odds ratios and Chi-square tests allowed assessment of differences in drug use rates between preadolescents in Arizona and Spain taking into account gender. Furthermore, ethnicity differences in preadolescent drug use and in psychosocial risk factors were explored using multivariate analysis (ANOVA and logistic regression). Our results showed similar trends in drug use between Arizona and Spain students, with gateway drugs already in use by early adolescents, and with higher rates of drug use among males than among females. However, cross-national differences in marijuana/cannabis use were noteworthy: Arizona preadolescents were over 25 times more likely to report marijuana/cannabis use than preadolescents from Spain. Moreover, when ethnic differences were considered, Latinos in Arizona reported higher marijuana/cannabis use compared with non-Latino students. Drug use patterns among Latino preadolescents, as well as the relevance of some risk factors among the diverse groups, were strongly influenced by their level of acculturation. Study limitations and the implications of our findings for early drug use prevention and future research are discussed. PMID:18752161

  4. Women in the Canadian Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Sylvia; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains activities on the economic status and roles of Canadian women. The first of 4 sections presents a profile of male and female occupations. Section 2 contains statistics on females in the Canadian labor force. Section 3,…

  5. Sexual development and behavior in black preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Westney, O E; Jenkins, R R; Butts, J D; Williams, I

    1984-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study of the sociosexual development of black preadolescents, sexual maturation and sociosexual behaviors were assessed and the relationships between these variables determined in a sample of 101 nine- to eleven-year-old middle- and low-income boys and girls. Sexual maturation was measured by Tanner's staging criteria of specific secondary sex characteristics. Involvement in heterosexual behaviors was elicited via self reports and was classified on a five-point heterosexual physical activity scale (HPA). The data corroborate other studies in demonstrating that girls were more advanced than boys in the process of sexual maturation. Considerable variation in stages of maturation for chronological age existed in both boys and girls, but was more pronounced for girls. In girls, there was no significant association between HPA and degree of biologic maturation. However, genital development in boys was significantly related to their sexual behavior. Income level was not significantly associated with the HPA score. A baseline from which to chart the progress of sociosexual behaviors in these developing preadolescents was established. PMID:6507146

  6. Developmental Changes in Sources of Consensual Validation in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, E. Paul

    1971-01-01

    Four studies focus upon possible changes in the extent to which children consult adults and peers at the preadol escent (fourth grade) stage. A sharp change at the preadolescent stage to consult peers was confirmed. (CD)

  7. Short-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy with obsessive preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Ierodiakonou, C S; Ierodiakonou-Benou, I

    1997-01-01

    The phenomenological and psychodynamic differences between obsessive preadolescents and obsessive adults are pointed out. Case material shows how an effective therapeutic alliance on psychoanalytic lines can be established quite early with preadolescents. The therapy can be shortened mainly by opening up sexual subjects connected with the onset of puberty, and by working through the guilt engendered by the ambivalent relations this age group has with its parents. PMID:9470962

  8. Socially anxious and peer-victimized preadolescents: "doubly primed" for distress?

    PubMed

    Erath, Stephen A; Tu, Kelly M; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-07-01

    We examined independent and interactive associations linking preadolescents' socially anxious feelings and peer victimization experiences with their social behaviors (rated by parents and teachers) and psychophysiological arousal during lab simulations of salient peer stress situations in preadolescence (peer evaluation and peer rebuff). Sixty-three preadolescents and one parent per preadolescent participated. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), skin conductance level (SCL), and heart rate (HR) were assessed during peer stress situations. Preadolescents provided reports of social anxiety; preadolescents and parents reported on peer victimization; and parents and teachers rated prosocial and aggressive behaviors. Peer victimization moderated associations between social anxiety and both physiological arousal and social-behavior problems. As hypothesized, social anxiety was more strongly associated with lower RSA, higher HR, and higher aggressive behavior among preadolescents who experienced higher levels of peer victimization, compared to preadolescents who experienced lower levels of peer victimization. PMID:22139401

  9. Subthreshold Symptoms of Depression in Preadolescent Girls Are Stable and Predictive of Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.

  10. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: Associations with Preadolescent Physical Abuse and Selected Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether preadolescent physical abuse raises the risk of adolescent suicidal behavior, to examine potential mediators and moderators of the relationship between preadolescent abuse and adolescent suicidality, and to examine whether distal (preadolescent) risk factors add to proximal (adolescent) factors in predicting…

  11. Do Private Religious Practices Moderate the Relation between Family Conflict and Preadolescents' Depression and Anxiety Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly A.; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    We extended past research that focused on the relation between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 160 11- to 12-year-olds, we examined whether private religious practices moderated the relations between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although preadolescents'…

  12. The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Hillman, C H; Pontifex, M B; Raine, L B; Castelli, D M; Hall, E E; Kramer, A F

    2009-03-31

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indexes of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included 20 preadolescent participants (age=9.5+/-0.5 years; eight female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 min of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e. walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further support the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688

  13. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE TREADMILL WALKING ON COGNITIVE CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 minutes of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e., walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further supports the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688

  14. Technology Use and Sleep Quality in Preadolescence and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Oliviero; Sette, Stefania; Fontanesi, Lilybeth; Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baumgartner, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze differences between preadolescents and adolescents on the use of technology and to test the contribution of using Internet and mobile phone, and circadian preference on sleep quality. Methods: We recruited a sample of 850 (364 males) preadolescents and adolescents. Self-report questionnaires about sleep schedule, sleep wake behavior problems, circadian preferences, and the use of technology (e.g., Internet and mobile phone) were administered. Students were asked to fill out the School Sleep Habits Survey, a self-report questionnaire on the use of technology, the Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ), and the Shorter Promis Questionnaire (SPQ). Results: Adolescents reported more sleep problems, a tendency toward eveningness, and an increase of Internet and phone activities, as well as social network activities, while preadolescents were more involved in gaming console and television viewing. The regression analysis performed separately in the two age groups showed that sleep quality was affected by the circadian preference (eveningness) in both groups. Adolescents' bad sleep quality was consistently associated with the mobile phone use and number of devices in the bedroom, while in preadolescents, with Internet use and turning-off time. Conclusions: The evening circadian preference, mobile phone and Internet use, numbers of other activities after 21:00, late turning off time, and number of devices in the bedroom have different negative influence on sleep quality in preadolescents and adolescents. Citation: Bruni O, Sette S, Fontanesi L, Baiocco R, Laghi F, Baumgartner E. Technology use and sleep quality in preadolescence and adolescence. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1433–1441. PMID:26235161

  15. Preadolescents' Understanding and Reasoning about Asylum Seeker Peers and Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Steenhuis, Aafke

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined ethnically Dutch preadolescents' understanding and reasoning about asylum seeker peers and friendships. The description of an asylum seeker was compared with that of a Moroccan and a Dutch peer. The findings suggest that asylum seekers were described more negatively than peers from the other two groups. Additionally, we…

  16. Proverb Comprehension as a Function of Reading Proficiency in Preadolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Allen, Melissa M.; Kirsch, Dixon I.

    2001-01-01

    Proverb comprehension through reading was examined in 42 preadolescent students, 24 of whom were identified as "proficient readers," and 18 as "less proficient readers." Comprehension on both unfamiliar concrete and abstract proverbs was associated with reading proficiency, word knowledge, and analogical reasoning. (Contains references.)…

  17. Are There Stable Factors in Preadolescent Girls' Externalizing Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.; Hipwell, Alison; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Keenan, Kate; Sembower, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the factor structure of disruptive behavior among preadolescent girls. The present study reports on exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of disruptive girl behavior over four successive data waves as rated by parents and teachers in a large, representative community sample of girls (N = 2,451). Five factors…

  18. Treatment of Voice Hyperfunction in the Pre-adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaze, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    Preadolescents with hyperfunctional voice disorders may respond readily to behavioral voice therapy based on education, voice conservation strategies, direct vocal function exercises, family and peer support, and relaxation. Treatment should focus on integration of health respiration, phonation, and vocal tract resonance to achieve improved…

  19. Emotion Regulation Profiles, Temperament, and Adjustment Problems in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point…

  20. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  1. SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL TEAR OF THE KNEE EXTENSOR MECHANISM IN A PRE-ADOLESCENT: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; Giordano, Vincenzo; Albuquerque, Maria Isabel Pires; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro; Barretto, João Maurício

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral tearing of a patellar tendon and a contralateral sleeve fracture in a pre-adolescent are rare lesions. We report a case in which a pre-adolescent sustained a fall while jumping during a soccer match. No predisposing risk factors were identified. The injuries were treated with surgical repairs and transosseous suturing. The aim of this study was to present a case of spontaneous concurrent tearing of the extensor mechanism of the knee in a pre-adolescent. PMID:27047882

  2. Preadolescents - What Makes Them Tick? A Childhood Education Special (First in a Series): Classic Statements from the Educator's Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redl, Fritz

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the individual and group psychology of preadolescence and offers suggestions for improving adult-child relationships. (Excerpt from "Preadolescents - What Makes Them Tick? by Dr. Fritz Redl, published in Child Study in 1943.) (DR)

  3. Children's Gender Orientation and Perceptions of Female, Male, and Gender-Ambiguous Animal Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniol, Rachel; Reichman, Shiri; Fund, Liat

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effects of preadolescents' gender orientation on social perception of animal characters whose gender was clearly female, male, or gender-ambiguous. Children's gender orientation did not influence perceptions of the gender of characters that were clearly female and male, but did influence perceptions of ambiguous characters. Children's…

  4. Maternal abuse history and self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Delker, Brianna C; Noll, Laura K; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2014-12-01

    Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent's own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother's history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child's first 24-36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N=488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children's birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child's birth through 36 months, and at age 9-11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child's early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation. PMID:25459984

  5. Socially Anxious and Peer-Victimized Preadolescents: "Doubly Primed" for Distress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Tu, Kelly M.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-01-01

    We examined independent and interactive associations linking preadolescents' socially anxious feelings and peer victimization experiences with their social behaviors (rated by parents and teachers) and psychophysiological arousal during lab simulations of salient peer stress situations in preadolescence (peer evaluation and peer rebuff).…

  6. Maternal Employment and Selected Behaviors and Attitudes of Preadolescents and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellas, Marie; And Others

    Investigation of the relationship between maternal employment and behaviors and attitudes (emcompassing parental relationships; personal problems, educational/career aspirations; future life; sex role ideology) of preadolescents and adolescents indicated significant differences only for preadolescents regarding sex role ideology. Working mother…

  7. Ready, Set, Go: African American Preadolescents' Sexual Thoughts, Intentions, and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim S.; Fasula, Amy M.; Lin, Carol Y.; Levin, Martin L.; Wyckoff, Sarah C.; Forehand, Rex

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of preadolescent sexuality is limited. To help fill this gap, we calculated frequencies, percentages, and confidence intervals for 1,096 preadolescents' reports of sexual thoughts, intentions, and sexual behavior. Cochran-Armitage trend tests accounted for age effects. Findings show that 9-year-olds are readying for sexual activity,…

  8. Psychosocial Correlates of Shape and Weight Concerns in Overweight Pre-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7-12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based…

  9. A Comparison of the Response Styles Theory and the Hopelessness Theory of Depression in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Kirsty F.; Jose, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares predictions from the Hopelessness Theory of depression (Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989) with the Response Styles Theory of depression (RST; Nolen-Hoeksema, 1987) with data obtained from a preadolescent sample (ages 9 to 13 years). Three hundred ten preadolescents completed self-report measures of stress, sense of control,…

  10. The Impact of Family Functioning and School Connectedness on Preadolescent Sense of Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Emma L.; McKenzie, Vicki L.

    2016-01-01

    Families and schools are important environments that contribute to the resilience and positive development of preadolescent children. Sense of mastery, including its two central factors of optimism and self-efficacy, forms an important component of resilience during preadolescence (Prince-Embury, 2007). This study examined the interrelationships…

  11. Sexual Characteristics of Preadolescent Children's Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Suzanne; Weinberg, Bernd

    This paper reports an investigation of gender-indicating acoustic properties of the vocalizations of 73 six- and seven-year-old speakers. Tape recorded samples of these children's isolated vowel and sentence productions were presented in four listening sessions. One hundred and sixteen young adult (age 17-24) female listeners made gender judgments…

  12. Eyewitness Testimony for a Simulated Juvenile Crime by Male and Female Criminals with Consistent or Inconsistent Gender-Role Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Lauren R.

    2009-01-01

    Eyewitness recall by 60 adolescents and 60 young adults in Experiment 1 and by 64 children and 63 preadolescents in Experiment 2 for a simulated theft in which gender-role characteristics and sex of criminal were manipulated (i.e., masculine male, feminine male, feminine female, masculine female) was investigated. Gender-role flexibility impacted…

  13. Daily violent video game playing and depression in preadolescent youth.

    PubMed

    Tortolero, Susan R; Peskin, Melissa F; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Cuccaro, Paula M; Elliott, Marc N; Davies, Susan L; Lewis, Terri H; Banspach, Stephen W; Kanouse, David E; Schuster, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Most studies on the impact of playing violent video games on mental health have focused on aggression. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between playing violent video games and depression, especially among preadolescent youth. In this study, we investigated whether daily violent video game playing over the past year is associated with a greater number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth, after controlling for several well-known correlates of depression among youth. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 5,147 fifth-grade students and their primary caregivers who participated in Wave I (2004-2006) of Healthy Passages, a community-based longitudinal study conducted in three U.S. cities. Linear regression was conducted to determine the association between violent video game exposure and number of depressive symptoms, while controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, peer victimization, witnessing violence, being threatened with violence, aggression, family structure, and household income level. We found that students who reported playing high-violence video games for ≥2 hours per day had significantly more depressive symptoms than those who reported playing low-violence video games for <2 hours per day (p<0.001). The magnitude of this association was small (Cohen's d=0.16), but this association was consistent across all racial/ethnic subgroups and among boys (Cohen's d values ranged from 0.12 to 0.25). Our findings indicate that there is an association between daily exposure to violent video games and number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth. More research is needed to examine this association and, if confirmed, to investigate its causality, persistence over time, underlying mechanisms, and clinical implications. PMID:25007237

  14. Daily Violent Video Game Playing and Depression in Preadolescent Youth

    PubMed Central

    Peskin, Melissa F.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan L.; Lewis, Terri H.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Most studies on the impact of playing violent video games on mental health have focused on aggression. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between playing violent video games and depression, especially among preadolescent youth. In this study, we investigated whether daily violent video game playing over the past year is associated with a greater number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth, after controlling for several well-known correlates of depression among youth. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 5,147 fifth-grade students and their primary caregivers who participated in Wave I (2004–2006) of Healthy Passages, a community-based longitudinal study conducted in three U.S. cities. Linear regression was conducted to determine the association between violent video game exposure and number of depressive symptoms, while controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, peer victimization, witnessing violence, being threatened with violence, aggression, family structure, and household income level. We found that students who reported playing high-violence video games for ≥2 hours per day had significantly more depressive symptoms than those who reported playing low-violence video games for <2 hours per day (p<0.001). The magnitude of this association was small (Cohen's d=0.16), but this association was consistent across all racial/ethnic subgroups and among boys (Cohen's d values ranged from 0.12 to 0.25). Our findings indicate that there is an association between daily exposure to violent video games and number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth. More research is needed to examine this association and, if confirmed, to investigate its causality, persistence over time, underlying mechanisms, and clinical implications. PMID:25007237

  15. Maternal abuse history and self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Brianna C.; Noll, Laura K.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent’s own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother’s history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring’s self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child’s first 24–36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N = 488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children’s birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child’s birth through 36 months, and at age 9–11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children’s self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child’s early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation. PMID:25459984

  16. Assessing physical activity preferences in Latino and white preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Olvera, Norma; McCarley, Kendall E; Leung, Patrick; McLeod, Jessica; Rodriguez, Augusto X

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity preferences (PAP) in preadolescent children. 191 Latino and White children (M = 11.9, SD = +/- 0.7) participated. Demographic, anthropometric, and PAP measures were employed. Both Latino and White children reported water play, basketball, and bicycling as their most preferred activities while indoor chores were least preferred. Compared with Latino, White children reported a higher preference for baseball/softball. Exploratory factor analysis of PAP measure indicated a three-factor solution: free play, sports, and exercise. Multiple linear regression models revealed that PAP varied as a function of ethnicity, gender, age, and body mass index. PMID:20128360

  17. No Evidence for Cardiomyocyte Number Expansion in Preadolescent Mice.

    PubMed

    Alkass, Kanar; Panula, Joni; Westman, Mattias; Wu, Ting-Di; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Bergmann, Olaf

    2015-11-01

    The magnitude of cardiomyocyte generation in the adult heart has been heavily debated. A recent report suggests that during mouse preadolescence, cardiomyocyte proliferation leads to a 40% increase in the number of cardiomyocytes. Such an expansion would change our understanding of heart growth and have far-reaching implications for cardiac regeneration. Here, using design-based stereology, we found that cardiomyocyte proliferation accounted for 30% of postnatal DNA synthesis; however, we were unable to detect any changes in cardiomyocyte number after postnatal day 11. (15)N-thymidine and BrdU analyses provided no evidence for a proliferative peak in preadolescent mice. By contrast, cardiomyocyte multinucleation comprises 57% of postnatal DNA synthesis, followed by cardiomyocyte nuclear polyploidisation, contributing with 13% to DNA synthesis within the second and third postnatal weeks. We conclude that the majority of cardiomyocytes is set within the first postnatal week and that this event is followed by two waves of non-replicative DNA synthesis. This Matters Arising paper is in response to Naqvi et al. (2014), published in Cell. See also the associated Correspondence by Soonpaa et al. (2015), and the response by Naqvi et al. (2015), published in this issue. PMID:26544945

  18. Canadian beef quality audit.

    PubMed Central

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) was observed on 34% of the cattle. Bruises were found on 78% of the carcasses, 81% of which were minor in severity. Fifteen percent of the bruises were located on the round, 29% on the loin, 40% on the rib, 16% on the chuck, and 0.02% on the brisket. Grubs were observed in 0.02% of the steers, and injection sites were observed in 1.3% of whole hanging carcasses. Seventy percent of the livers were passed for human food and 14% for pet food; 16% were condemned. Approximately 71% of the liver condemnations were due to liver abscesses. Four percent of the heads, 6% of the tongues, and 0.2% of whole carcasses were condemned. The pregnancy rate in female cattle was approximately 6.7%. The average hot carcass weight was 357 kg (s = 40) in steers, 325 kg (s = 41) in heifers, 305 kg (s = 53) in cows, 388 kg (s = 62) in virgin bulls and 340 kg (s = 39) in mature bulls. The average ribeye area in all cattle was 84 cm2 (s = 12); range 29 cm2 to 128 cm2. Grade fat was highly variable and averaged 9 mm (s = 4) for steers and heifers, 6 mm (s = 6) for cows, 5 mm (s = 1) for virgin bulls, and 4 mm (s = 0.5) for mature bulls. The average lean meat yield was 59.7% in cattle (s = 3.4); range 39% to 67%. One percent of the carcasses were devoid of marbling, 1% were dark cutters, and 0.05% of the steer carcasses were staggy. Six percent of the carcasses had poor conformation, 3.7% were underfinished, and 0.7% were overfinished. Yellow fat was observed in 4% of the carcasses; 10% of carcasses were

  19. Freedom between the Lines: Clothing Behavior and Identity Work among Young Female Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendley, Alexandra; Bielby, Denise D.

    2012-01-01

    Our research examines the relationship among identity, age, gender and athleticism through a study of the association between sports clothing and the identity work of pre-adolescent female soccer players. Based on participant-observation and interviews conducted at three co-ed youth soccer camps, we find that age is an important element of…

  20. Preadolescent Temperament and Risky Behavior: Bicycling Across Traffic-Filled Intersections in a Virtual Environment

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Erin; Plumert, Jodie M.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This investigation used a bicycling simulator to examine how preadolescent temperament is related to risky behavior. Methods Children aged 10 and 12 years (N = 109) rode a bicycle through a virtual environment where they crossed intersections with continuous cross traffic. Mothers filled out the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised. Results Older children and male participants timed their entry into the intersection more precisely than did younger children and female participants, as did 10-year-old children higher in inhibitory control and 10-year-old boys higher in aggression. However, only 10-year-old children higher in inhibitory control had more time to spare when they cleared the intersection. For 10-year-old boys higher in aggression, cutting in more closely behind the lead vehicle was accompanied by less stopping at intersections, less waiting before crossing, and choosing smaller gaps to cross. Conclusions The Discussion section focuses on inhibitory control as a protective factor and aggression as a risk factor for car–bicycle collisions. PMID:23161125

  1. Menarche? A Case of Abdominal Pain and Vaginal Bleeding in a Preadolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Riney, Lauren C; Reed, Jennifer L; Kruger, Laura L; Brody, Alan J; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints in the pediatric ED. Because of the broad range of potential diagnoses, it can pose challenges in diagnosis and therapy in the preadolescent girl. An 11-year-old previously healthy girl presented to our pediatric ED with fever, decreased appetite, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Initial evaluation yielded elevated creatinine levels, leukocytosis with bandemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and urine concerning for a urinary tract infection. She began receiving antibiotics for presumed pyelonephritis and was admitted to the hospital. After worsening respiratory status and continued abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan was obtained and a pelvic foreign body and abscess were identified. Adolescent gynecology was consulted for examination under anesthesia for abscess drainage and foreign body removal. A foreign body in the vagina or uterus can present as vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, dysuria, or hematuria. Because symptoms can be diverse, an intravaginal or uterine foreign body should be considered in the preteen female patient presenting to the ED with abdominal pain. PMID:26169928

  2. Emotion regulation profiles, temperament, and adjustment problems in preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Wilson, Anna C; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N=196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point occurring 1 year apart. LPA identified 5 frustration and 4 anxiety regulation profiles based on children's physiological, behavioral, and self-reported reactions to emotion-eliciting tasks. The relation of effortful control to conduct problems was mediated by frustration regulation profiles, as was the relation of effortful control to depression. Anxiety regulation profiles did not mediate relations between temperament and adjustment. PMID:21413935

  3. Effects of footwear on treadmill running biomechanics in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Karsten; Riebe, Dieko; Campe, Sebastian; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Zech, Astrid

    2014-07-01

    While recent research debates the topic of natural running in adolescents and adults, little is known about the influence of footwear on running patterns in children. The purpose of this study was to compare shod and barefoot running gait biomechanics in preadolescent children. Kinematic and ground reaction force data of 36 normally developed children aged 6-9 years were collected during running on an instrumented treadmill. Running conditions were randomized for each child in order to compare barefoot running with two different shod conditions: a cushioned and a minimalistic running shoe. Primary outcome was the ankle angle at foot strike. Secondary outcomes were knee angle, maximum and impact ground reaction forces, presence of rear-foot strike, step width, step length and cadence. Ankle angle at foot strike differed with statistical significance (p < 0.001) between conditions. Running barefoot reduced the ankle angle at foot strike by 5.97° [95% CI, 4.19; 7.75] for 8 kmh(-1) and 6.18° [95% CI, 4.38; 7.97] for 10 kmh(-1) compared to the cushioned shoe condition. Compared to the minimalistic shoe condition, running barefoot reduced the angle by 1.94° [95% CI, 0.19°; 3.69°] for 8 kmh(-1) and 1.38° [95% CI, -3.14°; 0.39°] for 10 kmh(-1). Additionally, using footwear significantly increased maximum and impact ground reaction forces, step length, step width and rate of rear-foot strike. In conclusion, preadolescent running biomechanics are influenced by footwear, especially by cushioned running shoes. Health professionals and parents should keep this in mind when considering footwear for children. PMID:24890307

  4. Relations of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity to Preadolescent Peer Functioning: The Mediating Roles of Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Banny, Adrienne M.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the structural relations of preadolescents' inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, aggressive and prosocial behaviors, and peer functioning. There were 739 fourth (n = 239) and fifth (n = 500) graders (52.23% boys) in Taiwan who participated in this study. Preadolescents' inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were…

  5. A Prospective Study of Individual Factors in the Development of Weight and Muscle Concerns among Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saling, Marissa; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, parent and peer relations, negative affect, and perfectionism, as predictors of dieting, food preoccupation, and muscle preoccupation, in 326 preadolescent children (150 girls and 176 boys) aged between 8 and 10 years. Preadolescents were tested twice over a 10-month…

  6. Determinants of Parental Monitoring and Preadolescent Sexual Risk Situations among African American Families Living in Urban Public Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, Donna R.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Miller, Scott R.; Mcbride, Cami K.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated determinants of parental monitoring and the association between parental monitoring and preadolescent sexual risk situations among low-income, African American families living in urban public housing. Preadolescents and their parents or caregivers who participated in a longitudinal study of familial and contextual influences on…

  7. Notable Canadian Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Irene E.

    This annotated bibliography dealing with Canadian children's books aims to show the historical development of the literature. Included within the bibliography are: (1) notable Canadian books from the eighteenth century to the modern period, (2) lists of books which were awarded a bronze medal for the years 1947-1975, and (3) a list of fiction for…

  8. Canadian Science Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.

    1988-01-01

    Only 45 percent of Canadian research is funded and executed by the private sector. Influenced by success stories such as the U.S. Stanford Research Park, Canadians have looked at science parks as a means to diversify their economy and to increase cooperation among government, industry, and universities. (Author/MLW)

  9. Canadian Books for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Irma, Ed.

    The children's books listed and annotated in this book were selected by Canadian children's librarians; they represent the most informative and relevant books in print for children, providing knowledge and understanding of the Canadian environment and cultural milieu. Each entry indicates bibliographic information and availability.…

  10. Psychosocial correlates of shape and weight concerns in overweight pre-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sinton, Meghan M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R; Stein, Richard I; Saelens, Brian E; Epstein, Leonard H; Wilfley, Denise E

    2012-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7-12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based weight control treatment. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the influence of pre-adolescents' individual characteristics and social experiences, and their parents' psychological symptoms, on shape and weight concerns as assessed by the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Findings revealed that higher levels of dietary restraint, greater feelings of loneliness, elevated experiences with weight-related teasing, and higher levels of parents' eating disorder symptoms predicted higher shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents. Interventions addressing overweight pre-adolescents' disordered eating behaviors and social functioning, as well as their parents' disordered eating behaviors and attitudes, may be indicated for those endorsing shape and weight concerns. PMID:21695562

  11. Cardiac Autonomic Adjustments During Baroreflex Test in Obese and Non-Obese Preadolescents

    PubMed Central

    Paschoal, Mário Augusto; Brunelli, Aline Carnio; Tamaki, Gabriela Midori; Magela, Sofia Serafim

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown changes in cardiac autonomic control of obese preadolescents. Objective To assess the heart rate responses and cardiac autonomic modulation of obese preadolescents during constant expiratory effort. Methods This study assessed 10 obese and 10 non-obese preadolescents aged 9 to 12 years. The body mass index of the obese group was between the 95th and 97th percentiles of the CDC National Center for Health Statistics growth charts, while that of the non-obese group, between the 5th and 85th percentiles. Initially, they underwent anthropometric and clinical assessment, and their maximum expiratory pressures were obtained. Then, the preadolescents underwent a constant expiratory effort of 70% of their maximum expiratory pressure for 20 seconds, with heart rate measurement 5 minutes before, during and 5 minutes after it. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate values were analyzed by use of a software. Results The HRV did not differ when compared before and after the constant expiratory effort intra- and intergroup. The heart rate values differed (p < 0.05) during the effort, being the total variation in non-obese preadolescents of 18.5 ± 1.5 bpm, and in obese, of 12.2 ± 1.3 bpm. Conclusion The cardiac autonomic modulation did not differ between the groups when comparing before and after the constant expiratory effort. However, the obese group showed lower cardiovascular response to baroreceptor stimuli during the effort, suggesting lower autonomic baroreflex sensitivity. PMID:27007224

  12. Suicidality Among Preadolescent Maltreated Children in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Taussig, Heather N.; Harpin, Scott B.; Maguire, Sabine A.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among 515 preadolescent (aged 9–11 years) maltreated children who entered foster care within the prior year. Over a quarter (26.4%) of the children had a history of suicidality according to their own and/or their caregiver’s report, 4.1% of whom were imminently suicidal. In bivariate analyses, children at higher risk of suicidality tended to be younger, non-Hispanic, abused, and to have experienced multiple types of maltreatment, more referrals to child welfare, more household transitions, and a longer length of time in foster care. There were no gender differences. Multiple regression analyses found physical abuse and chronicity of maltreatment to be the most robust predictors of suicidality. It is critically important that these high-risk children are screened for suicidality before adolescence and that caregivers and professionals are informed of their risk status so that they may implement mental health treatment, monitoring, and harm reduction measures. PMID:24567247

  13. Preadolescents' Self-Concept and Popular Magazine Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra; Elliott, Anne; Bajovic, Mira; Akseer, Spogmai

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a larger study of Canadian children's sense of self and media habits, 223 children in all (112 boys, 111 girls; 10- to 13-year-olds; M = 11.17y). Participants completed a questionnaire on their self-descriptions and reading habits over a 3-year period. Content analysis of the responses showed great diversity in…

  14. Are Canadians Cultural Cuckoos?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickleburgh, Brita

    1977-01-01

    The author believes that teachers have been remiss in transmitting Canadian culture to their students. They have also neglected the development of self-realization and identity in the majority of students. (Author)

  15. Family-Based Interpersonal Psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for Depressed Preadolescents: Examining Efficacy and Potential Treatment Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Laura J.; Weinberg, Rebecca J.; Brent, David A.; Mufson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for treating depression in preadolescents (ages 7–12) as compared to child-centered therapy (CCT), a supportive and nondirective treatment that closely approximates the standard of care for pediatric depression in community mental health. Method Preadolescents with depression (N=42) were randomly assigned FB-IPT or CCT. Pre- and posttreatment assessments included clinician-administered measures of depression, parent- and child-reported depression and anxiety symptoms, and parent-child conflict and interpersonal impairment with peers. Results Preadolescents receiving FB-IPT had higher rates of remission (66.0% vs. 31%), a greater decrease in depressive symptoms from pre- to posttreatment, and lower depressive symptoms at posttreatment (R2=0.35, Δ R2 = 0.22; B= -8.15, SE= 2.61, t(37)= -3.13, p=0.002, F2=0.28) than did preadolescents with depression receiving CCT. Furthermore, preadolescents in the FB-IPT condition reported significant reductions in anxiety and interpersonal impairment than did preadolescents in the CCT condition. Changes in social and peer impairment from pre- to posttreatment were associated with preadolescents’ posttreatment depressive symptoms. There was a significant indirect effect for decreased social impairment accounting for the association between the FB-IPT and preadolescents’ posttreatment depressive symptoms. Conclusion Findings indicate FB-IPT is an effective treatment for preadolescent depression and support further investigation of interpersonal mechanisms by which FB-IPT may reduce preadolescent depression. Clinical trial registration information Phase II Study of Family Based Interpersonal Psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for Depressed Preadolescents; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02054312; NCT02054312. PMID:25721184

  16. Argumentative Writing in Pre-Adolescents: The Role of Verbal Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Ward-Lonergan, Jeannene M.

    2010-01-01

    Argumentative writing is a challenging communication task that calls upon sophisticated cognitive and linguistic abilities. Pre-adolescents (n = 80; mean age = 11;10; range = 10;6-13:5) were asked to write an argumentative essay on the controversial topic of training animals to perform in circuses. Additionally, they were asked to solve a set of…

  17. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  18. Preadolescents' and Parents' Dietary Coping Efficacy during Behavioral Family-Based Weight Control Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theim, Kelly R.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Thekkedam, Sucheta C.; Welch, R. Robinson; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally relevant high-risk dietary situations (e.g., parties where tempting foods are available) may influence overweight youth's weight control, as they increase risk for overeating. Better self-efficacy for coping with these situations--which preadolescents may learn from their parents--could foster successful weight control. Overweight…

  19. The Effects of an Afterschool Physical Activity Program on Working Memory in Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamijo, Keita; Pontifex, Matthew B.; O'Leary, Kevin C.; Scudder, Mark R.; Wu, Chien-Ting; Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of a 9-month randomized control physical activity intervention aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness on changes in working memory performance in preadolescent children relative to a waitlist control group. Participants performed a modified Sternberg task, which manipulated working memory demands based…

  20. Reading, Readin', and Skimming: Preadolescent Girls Navigate the Sociocultural Landscapes of Books and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    This article shares the voices of preadolescent girls as they participated in an eight-month book selection study which enabled them to be active agents in their book and reading experiences. The girls, school-identified as struggling readers and self-identified as resistant readers, complicate current notions of reading, as influenced by…

  1. The value of fame: preadolescent perceptions of popular media and their relationship to future aspirations.

    PubMed

    Uhls, Yalda T; Greenfield, Patricia M

    2012-03-01

    In line with Greenfield's (2009) theory of social change and human development, current popular preadolescent TV shows suggest that fame, an individualistic goal, is an important and achievable aspiration (Uhls & Greenfield, 2011). Such messages may be particularly salient for preadolescents, ages 10-12. This study used focus groups and mixed analytic methods (qualitative and quantitative) to examine how popular media, passive and interactive, are interpreted by preadolescents and how their interpretations relate to their media practices and future goals. Quantitative analysis revealed that fame was the number one value, selected as the most important value for participants' future goals significantly more frequently than expected by chance. Qualitative analysis of focus group discourse suggested that (a) youth absorb messages in their media environment regarding fame as a future goal and (b) their interpretations of these messages highlight the importance and value of public recognition. Enacting the value of fame, the majority of preadolescent participants use online video sharing sites (e.g., YouTube) to seek an audience beyond their immediate community. PMID:22182297

  2. Associations of Coping and Appraisal Styles with Emotion Regulation during Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the associations of appraisal and coping styles with emotion regulation in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 9-12 years of age), with appraisal, coping styles, and emotion regulation measured at a single time point. In a previous study, we identified five frustration and four anxiety emotion regulation profiles based…

  3. Tobacco Use Experimentation, Physical Activity, and Risk of Depression among Multiethnic Urban Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Cassandra A.; Highland, Krista B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2016-01-01

    Children with low socioeconomic status and ethnic minorities experience disproportionate risk of elevated depressive symptoms. This study examines the effects of risk/protective factors for depressive symptoms among multiethnic urban preadolescents. Eighth graders (N = 463; 34% African American, 29% Hispanic, 17% White, and 20% Other/Mixed; 23%…

  4. The Effects of Audiobooks on the Psychosocial Adjustment of Pre-Adolescents and Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milani, Anna; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Molteni, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present research study was to understand what benefits the use of audiobooks (both school-books and books of various genres, recorded on digital media) could bring to preadolescents and adolescents with developmental dyslexia. Two groups, each consisting of 20 adolescents, were compared. The experimental group used the…

  5. Preventing Smoking among Hispanic Preadolescents: Program Orientation, Participant Individualism-Collectivism, and Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Stella G.; Garza, Raymond T.; Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of individualism-collectivism (IC) and acculturation in smoking prevention programs for Hispanic preadolescents. The sixth graders received a collectivist or individualist curriculum. Both programs contained knowledge-based facts about smoking. The collectivist condition included an interdependent…

  6. Coping with Bullying and Victimisation among Preadolescents: The Moderating Effects of Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Tsolakidou, Ioanna; Tzeliou, Evdoxia

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and victimisation may result from ineffective coping with interpersonal stressors. However, little is known about the preadolescents who are most susceptible to dysfunctional coping styles. Self-efficacy beliefs may be one source of individual differences in coping among those involved in bullying and victimisation. The purpose of the…

  7. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Education on Knowledge and Attitudes of At-Risk Preadolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…

  8. Expressions of Ethnic Identity in Pre-Adolescent Latino Students: Implications for Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinauer, Erika; Cutri, Ramona Maile

    2012-01-01

    This study describes how 72 fifth-grade Latina/Latino students express their sense of belonging to their ethnic group. The purpose of this study is to help teachers gain specific understanding of the ways that pre-adolescent Latina/Latino students express belonging to their ethnic group, in order to become more effective at implementing culturally…

  9. Deconstructing Barbie: Using Creative Drama as a Tool for Image Making in Pre-Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Elizabeth; Lanoux, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma of self-concept in pre-adolescent girls, as they revise their self-images based on information that the culture dictates as the norm. Argues that drama education can offer creative activities to help girls find their voice and bring them into their power. Includes two group drama activities and a short annotated bibliography…

  10. Patterns of Aberrant Eating among Pre-Adolescent Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarren-Sweeney, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports epidemiological and phenomenological investigations of aberrant eating among 347 pre-adolescent children in court-ordered foster and kinship care, in New South Wales, Australia. A quarter of children displayed clinically significant aberrant eating problems, with no evidence of gender or age effects. Two distinct patterns were…

  11. Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Relation to Autonomic Function: A Population-Based Study in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Andrea; Riese, Harriette; Sondeijker, Frouke E. P. L.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; van Roon, Arie M.; Ormel, Johan; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether externalizing and internalizing problems are related to lower and higher heart rate (HR), respectively, and to explore the relationship of these problems with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Moreover, to study whether problems present at both preschool and preadolescent age…

  12. The Effects of a Cognitive-Based Intervention on Drug Awareness in Private School Preadolescent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Phyllis M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of a Cognitive-Based Intervention on Drug Awareness in Private School Preadolescent Students. Parsons, Phyllis M., 2005: Applied Dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Fischler School of Education and Human Services. Adolescents/Substance Abuse/Prevention/Family Influence/Drug Education. This applied dissertation was designed to…

  13. Individual and Sociocultural Influences on Pre-Adolescent Girls' Appearance Schemas and Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Appearance schemas, a suggested cognitive component of body image, have been associated with body dissatisfaction in adolescent and adult samples. This study examined girls' weight status (BMI), depression, and parent, sibling, peer, and media influences as predictors of appearance schemas in 173 pre-adolescent girls. Hierarchical regression…

  14. Patterns of Sexuality Communication between Preadolescents and Their Mothers and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyckoff, Sarah C.; Miller, Kim S.; Forehand, Rex; Bau, J. J.; Fasula, Amy; Long, Nicholas; Armistead, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine communication about sexual topics between preadolescents and their mothers and fathers. Participants were 135 African-American mothers, fathers, and their 9- to 12-year-old offspring. Each member of the triad completed a 10-item measure of communication about risk factors for sexual activity, sexual…

  15. The Significance of Gender Boundaries in Preadolescence: Contemporary Correlates and Antecedents of Boundary Violation and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Rated gender boundary violation and maintenance of 47 preadolescents participating in a summer day camp. Found that children who violated gender boundaries tended to be unpopular with peers; and children who maintained boundaries were judged by camp counselors to be more competent socially than children who violated boundaries. (MDM)

  16. Peer-Social Attributions and Self-Efficacy of Peer-Rejected Preadolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mark A.; Munro, Don

    1996-01-01

    Examined whether peer-rejected preadolescents differ from nonrejected groups (average, popular, neglected) in their explanations for peer-social events and their perceived control of outcomes. Found that rejected children were inclined to forego credit for acceptance, to ascribe rejection to persistent factors, and to perceive lower control of…

  17. Exploring Ethnic Variation in Preadolescent Aggressive Girls' Social, Psychological, and Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Lease, A. Michele; Turner, Terez L.; Outley, Corliss

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether the adjustment patterns of socially and overtly aggressive preadolescent girls, ages 9 to 11 years, from rural communities differed by ethnicity. Students were administered a series of questionnaires to assess the degree to which girls engaged in various forms of aggression and to assess aggressive girls' social,…

  18. Sex Differences in the Play Configurations of Pre-Adolescents: A Replication and Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Allison Hadley

    Erikson found sex differences in the play configurations of pre-adolescents who were given a variety of toys and blocks. Wamback, Cramer and Hogan's replications of Erikson's work revealed that sex differences of this type lack sensitivity to inter-school variation among subjects, time or locality. Two possible alternatives to Erikson's hypothesis…

  19. Aerobic Fitness and Intra-Individual Variability of Neurocognition in Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert Davis; Wu, Chien-Ting; Pontifex, Matthew B.; O'Leary, Kevin C.; Scudder, Mark R.; Raine, Lauren B.; Johnson, Christopher R.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavioral and neuroelectric intra-individual variability (IIV) in preadolescent children during a task requiring variable amounts of cognitive control. The current study further examined whether IIV was moderated by aerobic fitness level. Participants performed a modified flanker task, comprised of congruent and incongruent…

  20. ERP correlates of mental arithmetic in preadolescents: influence of ability and effects of morning nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of morning nutritional status on ERP correlates of mental arithmetic were studied in preadolescents differing in experience (age) and mathematical skills. Children [right-handed; IQ > 80), randomly assigned to treatment [eat (B) or skip (SB) breakfast (each, n = 41)], were sub-grouped by...

  1. Integration of Structured Expressive Activities within a Humanistic Group Play Therapy Format for Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratton, Sue C.; Ceballos, Peggy L.; Ferebee, Kelly Webb

    2009-01-01

    The integration of expressive activities in play groups with preadolescents encourages them to reach more deeply into their own resources, enabling them to handle future challenges more effectively. Developmental and therapeutic rationale, along with research support, is given for the integration of creative activities into a humanistic play group…

  2. Developmental and Gender Differences in Preadolescents' Judgments of the Veracity of Gossip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuttler, Ami Flam; Parker, Jeffrey G.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2002-01-01

    Used hypothetical vignettes to examine 384 preadolescents' understanding of gossip in varying circumstances. Found that children correctly labeled talk about nonpresent others as gossip and considered it inappropriate. Skepticism was higher for gossip than for firsthand information and was greatest with cues suggesting that speakers were…

  3. Association between Maternal Sensitivity and Externalizing Behavior from Preschool to Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feihong; Christ, Sharon L.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Cox, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1364), this study examined the association between mothers' sensitivity and children's externalizing behavior from preschool to preadolescence. Externalizing behavior declined on average across this period with a slowing of this decline around middle…

  4. Stability and Change in Educational and Occupational Aspirations: Longitudinal Analyses from Preadolescence to Young Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frank M.; Frese, Wolfgang

    Using two panel studies which collectively covered the preadolescent-to-young adulthood period in the life cycle, the study focused on the issues of level of aspiration formation, stability, and race-sex subgroup invariance. The panel studies collected data from youths from (1) rural areas with towns of 2,500 or less and urban areas with cities of…

  5. Film Selection in a Cinematherapy Intervention with Preadolescents Experiencing Parental Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsick, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Film selection and children's reactions to films are discussed in this article based on a qualitative multiple-case study with three preadolescent-aged children experiencing parental divorce. Six films were selected based on recommended films in cinematherapy. Although many films have been recommended for cinematherapy, multiple participants'…

  6. The Influence of Mathematical Ability and Morning Nutrition on Mental Arithmetic in Preadolescents: An ERP study.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of eating or skipping breakfast on ERP correlates of mental arithmetic were studied in preadolescents differing in experience (age) and mathematical skills. Participants, randomly assigned to treatment [eat (B) or skip (SB) breakfast (each, n = 41)], were sub-grouped by age [8.8 yrs (B: ...

  7. Empowering Pre-Adolescent Girls: Girls on the Run Experiential Learning Program Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeotti, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the extent of long-term participation in Girls on the Run (GOTR), an experiential learning program for pre-adolescent girls, and its effect on healthy living and self-esteem. To explore these relationships, an exploratory, mixed-methods study was conducted, which involved open- and closed-ended surveys and interviews.…

  8. Temperament, Parenting, and Depressive Symptoms in a Population Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Veenstra, Rene; Ormel, Johan; De Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Depressive symptoms can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals' processing of these experiences. This study focuses on the interaction between temperament, perceived parenting, and gender in relation to depressive problems in a Dutch population sample of preadolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 2230…

  9. Temperament, Environment, and Antisocial Behavior in a Population Sample of Preadolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; De Winter, Andrea F.; Ormel, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Antisocial behavior can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals' processing of these experiences. This study focuses on risk-buffering interactions between temperament, perceived parenting, socio-economic status (SES), and sex in relation to antisocial behavior in a Dutch population sample of preadolescents (N = 2230).…

  10. Effectiveness of a Parent Training Program in (Pre)Adolescence: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leijten, Patty; Overbeek, Geertjan; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of the parent training program Parents and Children Talking Together (PCTT) for parents with children in the preadolescent period who experience parenting difficulties. The program is focused on reducing child problem behavior by improving parents' communication and problem solving…

  11. Cultural Practices in Italian Family Conversations: Verbal Conflict between Parents and Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcidiacono, Francesco; Pontecorvo, Clotilde

    2009-01-01

    This work studies verbal conflict between parents and preadolescents through analysis of family dinnertime conversations. We move from the assumption that verbal conflict is an educational instrument of interaction and a tool of socialization. The aim of the research is to analyze the participants' strategies in situations of conflict and to…

  12. Whittle's "Channel One": Effects on Impulsive Preadolescents' Desire for Advertised Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozzo-Lyles, Teresa A.; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    A field experiment tested effects of "Channel One" commercials on impulsive preadolescent students' purchasing preferences, such as product liking and likelihood of buying regularly advertised products. A total of 67 sixth-grade middle school students participated in the field experiment. Students who viewed "Channel One' daily were in eight…

  13. Longitudinal Study of Preadolescent Sport Self-Concept and Performance: Reciprocal Effects and Causal Ordering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Gerlach, Erin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Brettschneider, Wolf-Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    Do preadolescent sport self-concepts influence subsequent sport performance? Longitudinal data (Grades 3, 4, and 6) for young boys and girls (N = 1,135; mean age = 9.67) were used to test reciprocal effects model (REM) predictions that sport self-concept is both a cause and a consequence of sport accomplishments. Controlling prior sport…

  14. Executive Cognitive Functions and Impulsivity as Correlates of Risk Taking and Problem Behavior in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura; Giannetta, Joan M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Farah, Martha; Hurt, Hallam

    2009-01-01

    Initiation of drug use and other risky behavior in preadolescence is associated with poor developmental outcomes. In this research, we examine models that ascribe the trajectory to (a) weak executive cognitive function (ECF), (b) early manifestation of externalizing problems, or (c) heightened levels of trait impulsivity. We test the explanatory…

  15. Factors Related to Aggressive and Violent Behavior among Preadolescent African-American Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Nancy; Pierce, Lois

    Drawing on theoretical and empirical studies, this paper hypothesized that attitudes towards the use of violence and the use of aggressive and violent behavior among preadolescent African American males would be affected by verbal aggression in the home, violence observed in the community, family environment, and peer models. Data on aggressive…

  16. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Development of Weight and Muscle Concerns among Preadolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.; Lillis, Jessica; Thomas, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the impact of body mass index (BMI), negative affect, self-esteem, and sociocultural influences in the development of weight and muscle concerns among preadolescent boys. Body dissatisfaction, importance placed on weight and muscles, weight loss strategies, and strategies to increase muscles were evaluated. Participants were 237…

  17. The Influence of Parental Socialization Factors on Family Farming Plans of Preadolescent Children: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Angela R.; Bogg, Timothy; Ringo Ho, Moon-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Previous scholarship on farm families emphasizes the importance of socializing children to become farmers. This study is the first to focus on the parental socialization factors that are associated with preadolescent children's attachment to, and plans to take over, the family farm. Forty-seven 7- to 12-year-old children and their farming parents…

  18. The Social World of Preadolescents with Mental Retardation: Social Support, Family Environment and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Siperstein, Gary N.

    1996-01-01

    Social networks, social supports, family environment, and adjustment among 36 preadolescent students with and without mild mental retardation (MMR) were examined. Students with MMR were more likely to turn to family and adults for companionship, while those without MMR generally turned to peers. Those who received greater support experienced fewer…

  19. A Sexuality Education Program for Preadolescent Boys: Are Sperm Different Colors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfleet, Sherry Coleman

    This document describes a sexuality education program for preadolescent boys. It recommends that the teacher begin by finding out if the audience is captive or merely encouraged to attend. It is further suggested that groups be limited to 10 to 12 boys in the age range of 8 to 13. Advertising the classes, using food enticements for those…

  20. Canadian University, Inc., and the Role of Canadian Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milz, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author seeks to address the present function of Canadian criticism by undertaking a meditation on the contemporary Canadian university and stating his own position as a critic of Canadian literature in this institutional framework. The author asks: What are the connections between neoliberalism and cultural nationalism in…

  1. Canadian Seismic Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lapointe, S.P.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Adams, J.; Cajka, M.G.; McNeil, W.; Drysdale, J.A. )

    1992-05-01

    This is a progress report of work carried out under the terms of a research agreement entitled the Canadian Seismic Agreement'' between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the Canadian Commercial Corporation and the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1989 to June 30, 1990. The Canadian Seismic Agreement'' supports generally the operation of various seismograph stations in eastern Canada and the collection and analysis of earthquake data for the purpose of mitigating seismic hazards in eastern Canada and the northeastern US. The specific activities carried out in this one-year period are summarized below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong-motion network developments and earthquake activity. During this period the first surface fault unequivocably determined to have accompanied a historic earthquake in eastern North America, occurred in northern Quebec.

  2. Canadian global village reality

    PubMed Central

    He, Meizi; Li, E.T.S.; Harris, Stewart; Huff, Murray W.; Yau, Chun Y.; Anderson, G. Harvey

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To test the appropriateness of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) cutoff points derived in largely white populations (ie, those of European descent) for detecting obesity-related metabolic abnormalities among East Asian and South Asian Canadians. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING Primary care and community settings in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Canadians of East Asian (n = 130), South Asian (n = 113), and European (n = 111) descent. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Variables for metabolic syndromes, including BMI, WC, body fat percentage, blood pressure, lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, were measured. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to generate BMI and WC cutoff points based on various criteria for metabolic syndromes. RESULTS Adjusting for sex and age, East Asian Canadians had a significantly lower mean BMI (23.2 kg/m2) and mean WC (79.6 cm) than did those of South Asian (26.1 kg/m2 and 90.3 cm) and European (26.5 kg/m2 and 89.3 cm) descent (P < .05). The BMI cutoffs for an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities ranged from 23.1 to 24.4 kg/m2 in East Asian Canadians; 26.6 to 26.8 kg/m2 in South Asian Canadians; and 26.3 to 28.2 kg/m2 in European Canadians. Waist circumference cutoffs for increased risk of metabolic abnormalities were relatively low in East Asian men (83.3 to 85.2 cm) and women (74.1 to 76.7 cm), compared with South Asian men (98.8 cm) and women (90.1 to 93.5 cm), as well as European men (91.6 to 95.2 cm) and women (82.8 to 88.3 cm). CONCLUSION The BMI and WC cutoffs used for defining risk of metabolic abnormalities should be lowered for East Asian Canadians but not for South Asian Canadians. The World Health Organization ethnic-specific BMI and WC cutoffs should be used with caution, particularly with Asian migrants who have resided in Canada for a long period of time. PMID:20463258

  3. The Benefits of Mentoring for Female Lawyers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Jean E.

    2001-01-01

    A study of 512 Canadian lawyers included 231 women (66% had mentors). Mentors influenced women's success in terms of earnings, promotions, procedural justice, social integration, and career satisfaction. Females with male mentors earned significantly more; females with male mentors had more satisfaction, less work-nonwork conflict, and more…

  4. The Relationship Between Physical Fitness, Preadolescent Obesity, and Academic Achievement in Seventh Grade Students in South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Phillip Stephen

    Abstract It was not known if, or to what degree, a relationship existed among academic achievement in science, physical fitness, and preadolescent obesity. This quantitative, correlational study explored the relationship between physical fitness, preadolescent obesity, and academic achievement in 136 seventh grade students at an urban middle school in South Carolina who received 50 minutes of physical education daily for one semester. The researcher hypothesized that the level of physical fitness influences preadolescent obesity and academic performance. The hypotheses stated that there would be a positive correlation between physical fitness and achievement in science, a negative correlation between preadolescent obesity and achievement in science, and a negative correlation between fitness and preadolescent obesity. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to test the hypotheses. Physical fitness was measured using the FitnessGram. Academic performance was measured using the science benchmark assessment. The results revealed that physical fitness was positively correlated with academic achievement (r = .32, p = .001), obesity was negatively related to academic achievement (r = -.27, p = .001), and students' BMI was negatively related to physical fitness (r = -.71, p < .001). The findings of this research have significant implications for school policy and public health in terms of the possibilities for physical activity interventions. Keywords: FitnessGram, physical fitness, preadolescent obesity, body mass index.

  5. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices.

    PubMed

    Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child's perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents' controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explore if perceptions of parental feeding practices moderated the relationship between preadolescents' eating behaviours longitudinally. Two hundred and twenty nine preadolescents (mean age at recruitment 8.73 years) completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours and their perceptions of parental feeding practices at two time points, 12 months apart (T1 and T2). Preadolescents' perceptions of their parental feeding practices remained stable. Perceptions of restriction and pressure to eat were continuous. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction significantly moderated the relationships between eating behaviours at T1 and T2. The findings from this study suggest that in a preadolescent population, perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction of food may exacerbate the development of problematic eating behaviours. PMID:27104552

  6. Early Blood Lead Levels and Sleep Disturbance in Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Liu, Xianchen; Pak, Victoria; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Chonghuai; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Dinges, David

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Little is known about the effect of lead exposure on children's sleep. This study examined the association between blood lead levels (BLL) and sleep problems in a longitudinal study of children. Setting: Four community-based elementary schools in Jintan City, China. Participants: 1,419 Chinese children. Measurement and Results: BLL were measured when children were aged 3–5 y, and sleep was assessed at ages 9–13 y. Sleep was assessed by both parents' report, using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and children's report, using an adolescent sleep questionnaire. A total of 665 children with complete data on BLL and sleep at both ages were included in the current study. Mean age of the sample at BLL assessment was 4.74 y (standard deviation [SD] = 0.89) and at sleep assessment was 11.05 y (SD = 0.88). Mean BLL was 6.26 μg/dL (SD = 2.54). There were significant positive correlations between BLL and 3 CSHQ subscales: Sleep onset delay (r = 0.113, P < 0.01), sleep duration (r = 0.139, P < 0.001), and night waking (r = 0.089, P < 0.05). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (26.1% versus 9.0%, P < 0.001) and use of sleeping pills (6.5% versus 1.8%, P = 0.03) were more prevalent in children BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL than in those children BLL < 10.0 μg/dL. After adjusting for demographics, BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL was significantly associated with increased risk for insomnia symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–3.95) and EDS (OR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.27–6.61). Conclusion: The findings indicate that elevated blood lead levels in early childhood are associated with increased risk for sleep problems and excessive daytime sleepiness in later childhood. Citation: Liu J, Liu X, Pak V, Wang Y, Yan C, Pinto-Martin J, Dinges D. Early blood lead levels and sleep disturbance in preadolescence. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1869–1874. PMID:26194570

  7. Magsat investigation. [Canadian shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A computer program was prepared for modeling segments of the Earth's crust allowing for heterogeneity in magnetization in calculating the Earth's field at Magsat heights. This permits investigation of a large number of possible models in assessing the magnetic signatures of subprovinces of the Canadian shield. The fit between the model field and observed fields is optimized in a semi-automatic procedure.

  8. Canadian Space Station program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doetsch, K. H.

    1991-01-01

    Information on the Canadian Space Station Program is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include the Mobile Servicing Center (MSC), Space Station Freedom assembly milestones, the MB-3 launch configuration, a new workstation configuration, strategic technology development, the User Development Program, the Space Station Program budget, and Canada's future space activities.

  9. Canadian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  10. Reform in Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 67 Canadian university vice presidents and 66 deans concerning reform in recent years found that the many changes reported were modest and reactive rather than bold and proactive. Most common changes involved strategic planning, retrenchment, curriculum expansion, response to enrollment changes, administrative restructuring, and more…

  11. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional materials,…

  12. Canadian Experience with MARC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, Sharon E.

    Canadian libraries have used Machine-readable Cataloging (MARC) since its beginnings in 1966, mainly for speeding up the cataloging of American imprints. The lack of bilingualism in Library of Congress MARC records was a major deficiency in Canada where bilingual access points are provided for all publications in the national bibliography,…

  13. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  14. Feedback Dependence Among Low Confidence Preadolescent Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Michael J.; Corbin, Charles B.

    1988-01-01

    Investigation of differences between male and female students' reactions to receiving or not receiving performance feedback indicated that both sexes showed lower self-confidence when they did not receive feedback and that lack of self-confidence impaired the performance of males more than females. Participants were 111 fifth- and sixth-grade…

  15. Sexual Assault and Stranger Aggression on a Canadian University Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKeseredy, Walter S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Studies sexual assault and stranger aggression experienced by 259 Canadian female undergraduates at an Ontario university. Results indicate that the rate of sexual assault is at least as high as in the United States and that stranger aggression has been experienced by the overwhelming majority (84.1%). (SLD)

  16. Participation in Canadian Universities: The Gender Imbalance (1977-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christofides, Louis N.; Hoy, Michael; Yang, Ling

    2010-01-01

    Females are more likely to attend Canadian universities and their participation rate has been increasing faster than that of males, generating a 15 percentage point gap by 2005. We investigate the determinants of attending university and explore the reasons for the increasing gender gap. As in the US literature, we find that conventional…

  17. Nuclear worries of Canadian youth: Replication and extension

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.; Goldberg, S.; Parker, K.R. )

    1989-10-01

    A national survey of Canadian adolescents assessed concern, anxiety, and sources of information about the threat of nuclear war. Results indicated few geographical or gender differences in overall levels of concern, although females were more likely to admit fear and anxiety, and students with activist parents showed more concern. Family ranked below all media as a source of information.

  18. Concept of Family in Three Generations of Chinese-Canadians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Dominica; Hodkin, Barbara

    Subjects from three generations of Chinese-Canadian families completed questionnaires to assess their concept of family. A total of 12 males and 12 females from the three age groups participated. Age groups were composed of 9- through 13-year-olds, 30- through 50-year-olds, and 65-year-olds and older. Tasks included listing family members, drawing…

  19. Attitudes toward Homosexuals among Students at a Canadian University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Hirt, Jessie; Sears, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward homosexuals among 199 male and female students at a Canadian university. Attitudes toward gay men were more negative than attitudes toward lesbians. For male students, attitudes toward gay men improved with time spent at college, suggesting the influence of college in reducing antihomosexual prejudice. (SLD)

  20. Parenting and social competence in school: The role of preadolescents' personality traits.

    PubMed

    Lianos, Panayiotis G

    2015-06-01

    In a study of 230 preadolescent students (mean age 11.3 years) from the wider area of Athens, Greece, the role of Big Five personality traits (i.e. Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Extraversion) in the relation between parenting dimensions (overprotection, emotional warmth, rejection, anxious rearing) and social competence in school was examined. Multiple sets of regression analyses were performed. Main effects of Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience were identified. Limited evidence for moderation and some support of gender-specific parenting was found. Agreeableness and Extraversion interacted with paternal overprotection, whereas Neuroticism interacted with maternal and paternal rejection in predicting social competence. Mean differences in gender and educational grade were reported. The relationship between environmental effects (such as parenting during early adolescence) and social adjustment in school is discussed in terms of the plasticity and malleability of the preadolescents' personality characteristics. PMID:25840002

  1. Association between Maternal sensitivity and Externalizing Behavior from Preschool to Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feihong; Christ, Sharon L.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Cox, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N=1364), this study examined the association between mothers’ sensitivity and children’s externalizing behavior from preschool to preadolescence. Externalizing behavior declined on average across this period with a slowing of this decline around middle childhood. Maternal sensitivity remained relatively stable on average, and there was significant variation across mothers. A decrease in maternal sensitivity from ages 3 to 11 was related to an increase in externalizing behavior from ages 4 to 12. A model-based test of the direction of the effect suggested that the association between changes in maternal sensitivity and externalizing behavior from ages 4 to 11 was driven by child effects on mothers and not vice-versa. Between late preschool age and preadolescence, the behavior problems of children appear to strongly influence the sensitive support of mothers. Practical implications were discussed in light of these findings. PMID:25018578

  2. Associations of coping and appraisal styles with emotion regulation during preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Wilson, Anna C; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the associations of appraisal and coping styles with emotion regulation in a community sample of preadolescents (N=196, 9-12 years of age), with appraisal, coping styles, and emotion regulation measured at a single time point. In a previous study, we identified five frustration and four anxiety emotion regulation profiles based on children's physiological, behavioral, and self-reported reactions to emotion-eliciting tasks. In this study, preadolescents' self-reported appraisal and coping styles were associated with those emotion regulation profiles. Overall, findings revealed that children who were more effective at regulating their emotions during the emotion-eliciting tasks had higher levels of positive appraisal and active coping when dealing with their own problems. Conversely, children who regulated their emotions less effectively had higher levels of threat appraisal and avoidant coping. PMID:21507423

  3. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors. FR-EXT was based on lifetime parental externalizing psychopathology and the different parenting styles (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) were based on the child's perspective. We also investigated whether different dimensions of perceived parenting styles had different effects on subdomains of externalizing behavior. We found main effects for FR-EXT (vs. no FR-EXT), emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection that were fairly consistent across rater and outcome measures. More specific, emotional warmth was the most consistent predictor of all outcome measures, and rejection was a stronger predictor of aggression and delinquency than of inattention. Interaction effects were found for FR-EXT and perceived parental rejection and overprotection; other interactions between FR-EXT and parenting styles were not significant. Correlations between FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles were absent or very low and were without clinical significance. Predominantly main effects of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles independently contribute to externalizing behaviors in preadolescents, suggesting FR-EXT and parenting styles to be two separate areas of causality. The relative lack of gene-environment interactions may be due to the epidemiological nature of the study, the preadolescent age of the subjects, the measurement level of parenting and the measurement level of FR-EXT, which might be a consequence of both genetic and

  4. Perceived Discrimination, Peer Influence and Sexual Behaviors in Mexican American Preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Both discrimination and sexual health disparities have significant negative health implications for Latina/o preadolescent youth, including negative mental health outcomes, STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, and ongoing poverty. Studying these links within this population, therefore, has significant public health relevance, both in terms of promoting sexual health in general as well as serving the specific needs of Latina/o youth. This study explored the relationship between perceived discrimination, peer influence and sexual behaviors among 438 Mexican American preadolescents in the Southwest United States (55.3 % male). Additionally, this study examined whether psychological distress, substance use, and sexual motives mediated and whether gender moderated these relations. A multiple-group path analysis of the analytical model was performed to examine the hypothesized relations between perceived discrimination, peer influence, psychological distress, substance use, sexual motives and sexual behaviors. The findings indicated that perceived discrimination was directly linked to sexual behaviors among participants and indirectly linked via substance use. The findings also indicated that peer influence was indirectly linked to sexual behaviors via substance use among participants and via sexual motives among boys. This study underscores the importance of substance use in the perceived discrimination, peer influence and sexual behavior link in Mexican American preadolescents. Additionally, it highlights the importance of sexual motives in the link between peer influence and sexual behaviors of Mexican American boys. PMID:26792264

  5. Longer Gestation Is Associated with More Efficient Brain Networks in Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Jin; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A.; Sporns, Olaf; O’Donnell, Brian F.; Buss, Claudia; Hetrick, William P.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental benefits of increased gestation have not been fully characterized in terms of network organization. Since brain function can be understood as an integrated network of neural information from distributed brain regions, investigation of the effects of gestational length on network properties is a critical goal of human developmental neuroscience. Using diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography, we investigated the effects of gestational length on the small-world attributes and rich club organization of 147 preadolescent children, whose gestational length ranged from 29 to 42 weeks. Higher network efficiency was positively associated with longer gestation. The longer gestation was correlated with increased local efficiency in the posterior medial cortex, including the precuneus, cuneus, and superior parietal regions. Rich club organization was also observed indicating the existence of highly interconnected structural hubs formed in preadolescent children. Connectivity among rich club members and from rich club regions was positively associated with the length of gestation, indicating the higher level of topological benefits of structural connectivity from longer gestation in the predominant regions of brain networks. The findings provide evidence that longer gestation is associated with improved topological organization of the preadolescent brain, characterized by the increased communication capacity of the brain network and enhanced directional strength of brain connectivity with central hub regions. PMID:24983711

  6. Psychosocial Correlates of Shape and Weight Concerns in Overweight Pre-Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2013-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7–12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based weight control treatment. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the influence of pre-adolescents’ individual characteristics and social experiences, and their parents’ psychological symptoms, on shape and weight concerns as assessed by the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Findings revealed that higher levels of dietary restraint, greater feelings of loneliness, elevated experiences with weight-related teasing, and higher levels of parents’ eating disorder symptoms predicted higher shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents. Interventions addressing overweight pre-adolescents’ disordered eating behaviors and social functioning, as well as their parents’ disordered eating behaviors and attitudes, may be indicated for those endorsing shape and weight concerns. PMID:21695562

  7. Canadian seismic agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C., Anglin, F.M.; Plouffe, M.; Lapointe, S.P.; Adams, J.; Drysdale, J.A. . Geophysics Div.)

    1990-04-01

    This is the twenty-first progress report under the agreement entitled Canadian Seismic Agreement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Canadian Commercial Corporation. Activities undertaken by the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1988 to June 30, 1989 and supported in part by the NRC agreement are described below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong motion network developments and earthquake activity. In this time period eastern Canada experienced its largest earthquake in over 50 years. This earthquake, which has been christened the Saguenay earthquake, has provided a wealth of new data pertinent to earthquake engineering studies in eastern North America and is the subject of many continuing studies, which are presently being carried out at GD and elsewhere. 41 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Nanomaterials - a Canadian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, Peter

    2004-03-01

    I will review nanomaterials research in Canada with a particular emphasis on coordinated initiatives and some experimental highlights, starting with a summary of Canadian initiatives. These range from the National Science and Engineering Research Council's Nano Innovation Platform (www.physics.mcgill.ca/NSERCnanoIP/), provincial initiatives like NanoQuebec (www.NanoQuebec.ca), organizations such as the Canadian Institute of Advanced Research (www.ciar.ca) or the National Institute of Nanotechnology (www.nint.ca) - a joint initiatives between the University of Alberta, the National Research Council (NRC) and the Province of Alberta. University based materials centers such as the Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research in Hamilton, the Institute for Research in Materials in Halifax, the Pacific Center for Advanced Materials and Microstructures in Vancouver or the Strategic Regroupment of University Centers in Advanced Materials in Montreal have strong nano components as has the NRC at various institutes. The 2nd half of the talk will highlight some Canadian research strengths in nano materials, from photonics, energy storage, bio-med to molecular self assembly and paper coatings.

  9. Supporting Reading Comprehension of At-Risk Pre-Adolescent Readers through the Use of Text-to-Speech Technology Paired with Strategic Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    This research highlighted the use of text-to-speech technology and current shifts in strategy-based reading instruction in order to address the comprehension needs of struggling pre-adolescent readers. The following questions were posed: (a) Does reading comprehension of preadolescent struggling readers improve as the direct result of using…

  10. Despite mandatory fortification of staple foods, vitamin D intakes of Canadian children and adults are inadequate.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Calvo, Mona S; Green, Timothy J; Whiting, Susan J

    2010-07-01

    Vitamin D is largely obtained through sun-induced skin synthesis and less from dietary sources, but during Canadian winters, skin synthesis is non-existent. The objective of this study was to estimate vitamin D intakes in Canadians from food sources. Data used in this study included food intakes of Canadians reported in the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (CCHS 2.2), a nationally representative sample of 34,789 persons over the age of 1 year. The mean+/-SD dietary intake of vitamin D from food of Canadians was 5.8+/-0.1 microg/day, with males 9-18 years having the highest mean intakes (7.5+/-0.2 microg/day) and females 51-70 years having the lowest intakes (5.2+/-0.3 microg/day). Males in all age groups had higher intakes than females and White Canadians had higher vitamin D intakes than Non-Whites in most age sex groups. Milk products contributed 49% of dietary vitamin D followed by meat and meat-alternatives (31.1%). The majority of Canadians consume less than current recommended intake of vitamin D from food. Consideration should be given to strategies to improve vitamin D intake of Canadians by increasing both the amount of vitamin D added to foods and range of foods eligible for fortification. PMID:20399268

  11. Enhancing Contextualized Curriculum: Integrated Identity in Young Shi'i Muslim Arabic-Canadian Students' Social Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Fartousi, May

    2016-01-01

    This research explored 10 young female Shi'i Muslim Arabic-Canadian students' experiences associated with wearing the Hijab (headscarf) within their home, community, and predominantly White Canadian public elementary school environments. The in-depth case study sought to address the dearth of information about Shi'is' experiences in schools…

  12. A Longitudinal Examination of Risky Sexual Behaviors among Canadian and Italian Adolescents: Considering Individual, Parental, and Friend Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boislard P., Marie-Aude; Poulin, Francois; Kiesner, Jeff; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two longitudinal models of early adolescent risky sexual behaviors (RSB) were compared using a pooled sample of 267 Canadian and Italian adolescents (55% females; 53% Canadians) assessed yearly from grade 8 to 10. We focused on parenting practices (monitoring, control, limit setting), adolescent problem behaviors (antisocial…

  13. Canadian space robotic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  14. Canadian Drug Products Containing ASA

    PubMed Central

    Parker, William A.; Shearer, Cameron A.; Kirkpatrick, Susan L.

    1977-01-01

    A list of nearly 200 Canadian ASA-containing drug products is presented. Information was supplied by the major pharmaceutical companies and data were also obtained from various Canadian reference sources. This information should aid the physician and other health-related personnel in identifying ASA-containing products and counselling the salicylate-endangered patient. PMID:21304856

  15. Continuing Education in Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, R. L.

    Different aspects of the development of continuing education in Canadian universities and institutions were studied by the British author through visits to Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal, Winnipeg, Saskatoon, Calgary, and Banff. Short visits were also made to Massachusetts, Washington, Oregon, and California. Comparisons between Canadian and British…

  16. Canadian Evacuation and Nisei Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makabe, Tomoko

    1980-01-01

    Japanese Canadians were interviewed to determine the effect of World War II evacuation on their ethnic identity. Older respondents deemphasized issues related to evacuation when discussing their ethnic identity. Younger Japanese Canadians are aware of this "cloud" as part of their ethnic heritage but are unaware of its exact origin. (MK)

  17. The Americanization of Canadian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Maude; Robertson, Heather-jane

    1997-01-01

    Describes the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on Canadian education. As Canada is merging more and more into a new borderless North American economy, Canada is adopting American-style individualism, entrepreneurialism, and undergoing corporate interest in its schools. Negative implications for Canadian education include…

  18. Emotional problems in preadolescents in Norway: the role of gender, ethnic minority status, and home- and school-related hassles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background "The gender gap" refers to a lifelong higher rate of emotional problems in girls, as compared to boys, that appears during adolescence. The gender gap is a well-replicated finding among older adolescents and is assumed to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. However, these cross-cultural studies have not investigated the gender gap in ethnic minorities but sampled ethnic majority adolescents in different countries. Some studies that investigated the gender gap across ethnic groups indirectly (by presenting emotional problem scores stratified by gender and ethnic group) indicate that the gender gap is less prominent or even absent among minorities. The aims of this study were to assess whether the gender gap is found in both majority and minority preadolescents, and to investigate whether a possible (gender and ethnic) group difference can be accounted for by differences in home or school hassles. Methods Participants were 902 preadolescent students (aged 10 to 12) from two cities in Norway. We collected self-report measures of emotional problems and home and school hassles. Using mediated moderation analysis we tested whether the interaction effect between gender and ethnic minority background on emotional problems was mediated by home or school hassles. Results The gender gap in emotional problems was restricted to ethnic majority preadolescents. School hassles but not home hassles accounted in part for this effect. Conclusions The absence of the gender gap among minority as opposed to majority preadolescents may indicate that social circumstances may postpone or hamper the emergence and magnitude of the gender gap in ethnic minority preadolescents. In this study, school hassles partly accounted for the combined gender and ethnic group differences on emotional problems. This indicates that school hassles may play a role in the higher levels of emotional problems in preadolescent minority boys and consequently the absence of a gender gap found in our minority

  19. Grade 3 Students Explore the Question, "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2000-01-01

    Explores third graders' responses to the question "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?" Describes 6 picture books and summarizes students' responses to each. Finds students mentioned geographical aspects as characteristic of Canadian literature, and they felt Canadian children's literature should reflect Canadian "experiences."…

  20. The effects of audiobooks on the psychosocial adjustment of pre-adolescents and adolescents with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Milani, Anna; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Molteni, Massimo

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the present research study was to understand what benefits the use of audiobooks (both school-books and books of various genres, recorded on digital media) could bring to preadolescents and adolescents with developmental dyslexia. Two groups, each consisting of 20 adolescents, were compared. The experimental group used the audiobooks, while the control group continued to use normal books. After 5 months of experimental training, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in reading accuracy, with reduced unease and emotional-behavioural disorders, as well as an improvement in school performance and a greater motivation and involvement in school activities. PMID:19725019

  1. Assessing community readiness for overweight and obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health concern. For girls in particular, being overweight or obese during pre-adolescence (aged 7–11 years) has intergenerational implications for both the mother and her future offspring. In the United Kingdom (UK) there is increasing interest in community targeted interventions but less is known about how to tailor these approaches to the needs of the community. This study applied the Community Readiness Model (CRM), for the first time in the UK, to demonstrate its applicability in designing tailored interventions. Methods Community readiness assessment was conducted using semi-structured key informant interviews. The community’s key informants were identified through focus groups with pre-adolescent girls. The interviews addressed the community’s efforts; community knowledge of the efforts; leadership; community climate; community knowledge of the issue and resources available to support the issue. Interviews were conducted until the point of theoretical saturation and questions were asked separately regarding physical activity (PA) and healthy eating and drinking (HED) behaviours. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were firstly analysed thematically and then scored using the assessment guidelines produced by the CRM authors. Results Readiness in this community was higher for PA than for HED behaviours. The lowest scores related to the community’s ’resources’ and the ’community knowledge of the issue’; affirming these two issues as the most appropriate initial targets for intervention. In terms of resources, there is also a need for resources to support the development of HED efforts beyond the school. Investment in greater physical education training for primary school teachers was also identified as an intervention priority. To address the community’s knowledge of the issue, raising the awareness of the prevalence of pre-adolescent girls’ health behaviours is a

  2. [Canadian Literature. "Featuring: CanLit."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Ken, Ed.; Haycock, Carol-Ann, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The feature articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of Canadian literature. The articles include: (1) a discussion of who's who and what's what in Canadian literature; (2) reviews of worthwhile but overlooked Canadian children's literature; (3) a list of resource guides to Canadian literature and a short quiz over famous first…

  3. Intimate Relationships of Female International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee E.

    2008-01-01

    Five female international students studying at a western Canadian university were interviewed about their experiences of being in a difficult intimate heterosexual relationship. An in-depth interpretive analysis revealed that, according to the participants, these relational struggles influenced their adjustment to the host culture. Implications…

  4. EVENT-RELATED VARIATIONS IN ALPHA BAND ACTIVITY DURING AN ATTENTIONAL TASK IN PREADOLESCENTS: EFFECTS OF MORNING NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. Event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) methodology was used to study interactions between nutrition, brain function, cognition and behavior in children who ate or skipped breakfast after overnight fasting. Methods. Healthy preadolescents performed a cued visual Go/...

  5. School-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Programs for Pre-Adolescents and Adolescents: A Review of Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Erica S.

    This paper presents a review of 25 sources on school-based eating disorder prevention programs for pre-adolescents and adolescents. The sources used to collect the information include Search ERIC database, PsycINFO, InterScience, and Expanded Academic. A review of the literature concluded that the most effective method of implementing a…

  6. Naked Bodies and Nasty Pictures: Decoding Sex Scripts in Preadolescence, Re-Examining Normative Nudity through Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bey, Sharif

    2011-01-01

    Through an analysis of his lived narratives, the author discusses the formative experiences some preadolescent boys have with nudity/nakedness as well as the initial experiences young male art students and teachers have with the nude in academia. This article examines how heteronormative ideas about sex--gender and professionalism--limit the…

  7. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices

    PubMed Central

    Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child’s perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents’ controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explore if perceptions of parental feeding practices moderated the relationship between preadolescents’ eating behaviours longitudinally. Two hundred and twenty nine preadolescents (mean age at recruitment 8.73 years) completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours and their perceptions of parental feeding practices at two time points, 12 months apart (T1 and T2). Preadolescents’ perceptions of their parental feeding practices remained stable. Perceptions of restriction and pressure to eat were continuous. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction significantly moderated the relationships between eating behaviours at T1 and T2. The findings from this study suggest that in a preadolescent population, perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction of food may exacerbate the development of problematic eating behaviours. PMID:27104552

  8. The Impact of Acculturative Stress and Daily Hassles on Pre-Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: Examining Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Lopez, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Acculturative stress in relation to anxiety symptoms has not been examined empirically in young Hispanic populations. The present study, conducted with 138 pre-adolescent Hispanic youngsters, investigated this relationship. The findings suggested that acculturative stress was related to physiological, concentration, and worrisome symptoms of…

  9. Media Exposure, Current and Future Body Ideals, and Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Girls: A Longitudinal Panel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Kristen; Hefner, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    Internalization of the thin body ideal is considered by many to account for the relationship between media exposure and disordered eating among girls and young women, but almost all supporting research has employed adolescent and adult samples. Using longitudinal panel survey data collected from 257 preadolescent girls at 2 points in time 1 year…

  10. Age Differences in Emergency Department Visits and Inpatient Hospitalizations in Preadolescent and Adolescent Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenz, Alyssa M.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Bradley, Catherine; Charles, Jane; Boan, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluated age differences in emergency department care and inpatient hospitalizations in 252 preadolescent and adolescent youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; ages 9-18). Records from youth with ASDs were linked to acute care utilization records and were compared to a demographically similar comparison group of youth without ASDs…

  11. Gender Differences in Peer and Parental Influences: Body Image Disturbance, Self-Worth, and Psychological Functioning in Preadolescent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Vicky; Steinberg, Ari R.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The connections between body image disturbance and psychological functioning have been well established in samples of older adolescent girls and young women. Little is known, however, about body image in younger children. In particular, little is known about possible gender differences in preadolescent children. The current study explored…

  12. Ethnic Identity and Substance Use among Mexican-Heritage Preadolescents: Moderator Effects of Gender and Time in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulis, Stephen S.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kopak, Albert M.; Olmsted, Maureen E.; Crossman, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined interactive relationships among ethnic identity, gender, time in the US, and changes in substance use outcomes among a school-based sample of 1,731 Mexican-heritage preadolescents (ages 9-13). Residual change multilevel models adjusting for school clustering and using multiply imputed data assessed changes from beginning to end…

  13. Therapeutic Assessment for Preadolescent Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder: A Replicated Single-Case Time-Series Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin D.; Handler, Leonard; Nash, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The Therapeutic Assessment (TA) model is a relatively new treatment approach that fuses assessment and psychotherapy. The study examines the efficacy of this model with preadolescent boys with oppositional defiant disorder and their families. A replicated single-case time-series design with daily measures is used to assess the effects of TA and to…

  14. A Study of the Experiences of Parents with Home-Schooled Pre-Adolescent Children with Severe Multiple Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the difficulties encountered by parents caring for pre-adolescent children who have severe multiple health problems. Working within the frameworks of narrative psychotherapy (Spence, 1982; Viederman & Perry, 1980; Vitz, 1992; Benjamin, 1998), the researcher examined parents' discourses and identified the strategies they…

  15. The Influence of Linguistic Acculturation and Gender on the Initiation of Substance Use among Mexican Heritage Preadolescents in the Borderlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Kulis, Stephen; Nieri, Tanya; Parsai, Monica; Becerra, David

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the impact of linguistic acculturation and gender on the substance use initiation of a sample of 1,473 Mexican heritage preadolescents attending 30 public schools in Phoenix, Arizona. It was hypothesized that linguistic acculturation operates differently as a risk or protective factor for young children than for older youth.…

  16. Preadolescent Anxiety: An Epidemiological Study Concerning an Italian Sample of 3,479 Nine-Year-Old Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nacinovich, Renata; Gadda, Stefania; Maserati, Elisa; Bomba, Monica; Neri, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of anxiety traits was examined in a large sample of Italian preadolescent children, and 3,479 Italian nine-year-old subjects were enrolled. Anxious traits were observed in 10.5% of children. No significant gender differences were found, but children of separated couples presented a relative risk for anxious traits that was 50%…

  17. The Impact of Self-Components on Attitudes toward Sex among African American Preadolescent Girls: The Moderating Role of Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Tiffany G.

    2002-01-01

    Identified factors that helped prevent attitudes tolerant of risky sexual behavior among inner-city, African American, preadolescent girls age 10-13 years. Survey data indicated that feminine gender role orientation, self-concept, and ethnic identity related to attitudes less tolerant of risky sexual behaviors. Masculine gender role orientation…

  18. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  19. Effectiveness of Group Activity Play Therapy on Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems of Preadolescent Orphans in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojiambo, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of group activity play therapy (GAPT) on displaced orphans aged 10 to 12 years living in a large children's village in Uganda. Teachers and housemothers identified 60 preadolescents exhibiting clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. The participants' ethnicity was…

  20. The Effects of Language of Testing on Bilingual Pre-Adolescents' Attitudes towards Welsh and Varieties of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Susan; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study using matched-guise technique designed to (1) determine how West Welsh preadolescents would react to Welsh speakers reading a passage of prose in one of three language varieties (Received Pronunciation English, Welsh-Accented English, Welsh) and (2) to examine what effect language of testing might have on children's social…

  1. Representacion E Identidad: Content Analysis of Latina Biographies for Primary and Preadolescent Children Published 1955-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses the results of a content analysis of 75 Latina biographies for primary and pre-adolescent students that were published over a 16-year period, spanning from 1995 to 2010. Significant to this study was how Latinas were represented in the biographies and what changes can be seen over time. Using a rubric based on research by…

  2. Ethnic Identity in African American and European American Preadolescents: Relation to Self-Worth, Social Goals, and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study tested models to determine the extent to which self-worth and social goals mediate the influence of ethnic identity on aggression among aggressive European and African American preadolescents. Ethnic identity emerged as important for both groups, but in different ways. Different patterns of influence of ethnic identity and of…

  3. I like Me if You like Me: On the Interpersonal Modulation and Regulation of Preadolescents' State Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaes, Sander; Reijntjes, Albert; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Bushman, Brad J.; Poorthuis, Astrid; Telch, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This experiment tested whether peer approval and disapproval experiences can cause immediate change in children's state self-esteem. Children's narcissistic traits and evaluator perceived popularity were examined as potential moderators. A total of 333 preadolescents (M = 10.8 years) completed personal profiles on the Internet that were ostensibly…

  4. The Use of Murals in Preadolescent Inpatient Groups: An Art Therapy Approach to Cumulative Trauma. Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Nicole; McCarthy, James B.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a small group of preadolescent, psychiatric inpatients and their collaborative painting of a memorial mural about the September 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center in New York City. Through an immersion in the group experience, the group members became increasingly introspective about their feelings of loss and their…

  5. Does Subtype Matter? Assessing the Effects of Maltreatment on Functioning in Preadolescent Youth in Out-of-Home Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrenko, Christie L. M.; Friend, Angela; Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Attempts to understand the effects of maltreatment subtypes on childhood functioning are complicated by the fact that children often experience multiple subtypes. This study assessed the effects of maltreatment subtypes on the cognitive, academic, and mental health functioning of preadolescent youth in out-of-home care using both…

  6. Making Dutch Pupils Media Conscious: Preadolescents' Self-Assessment of Possible Media Risks and the Need for Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuter-Luks, Theresa; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Despite clear European and Dutch policies about media education, there is currently no media education curriculum in Dutch schools. A survey among preadolescents (n = 257) in six primary schools in the Netherlands included questions regarding media access, fears, risks, parental mediation of television and the internet, and the need for media…

  7. Canadian Contemporary Issues on Tape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapter, Jean

    1974-01-01

    Four tapes with interviews with experts in the designated fields comprise the series: a) Canada's Foreign Relations, 1867-1919; b) Canada's Foreign Relations, 1919-1945; c) Canada and China, and d) Canadian Diplomacy and Foreign Policy. (JA)

  8. Are maternal reflective functioning and attachment security associated with preadolescent mentalization?

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Anna Maria; Viterbori, Paola; Scopesi, Alda M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of maternal reflective functioning (RF) and attachment security on children’s mentalization. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered to mothers in a sample of 41 mother–preadolescent dyads. AAI transcripts were rated in terms of the Berkeley AAI System (Main and Goldwyn, 1998) and the Reflective Functioning Scale (RFS; Fonagy et al., 1998). Preadolescent mentalization was assessed using a semi-structured interview adapted from O’Connor and Hirsch (1999) and also by analyzing mental-state talk produced during an autobiographical interview. Relationships between maternal RF and children’s mentalization were analyzed, with consideration given to the different RFS markers and references to positive, negative, and mixed-ambivalent mental states. Children’s mentalization was positively correlated with the mother’s RF, particularly the mother’s ability to mentalize negative or mixed-ambivalent mental states. No significant differences in mentalization were observed between children of secure and insecure mothers. PMID:26300824

  9. Mild eczema affects self-perceived health among pre-adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Ballardini, Natalia; Östblom, Eva; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Kull, Inger

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to assess the impact of eczema on health-related quality of life in the population-based birth cohort BAMSE with 2,756 pre-adolescent children. All answered the following questions on self-perceived health; "How are you feeling?", "How healthy do you consider yourself to be?" and "How happy are you with your life right now?". Children with ongoing eczema answered the "Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI)" questionnaire. In total, 350 (12.7%) of the children had eczema. Girls with eczema reported impaired self-perceived health as evaluated in the 3 questions; adjusted OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.16-2.55), 1.89 (95% CI 1.29-2.76) and 1.69 (95% CI 1.18-2.42). Eczema among boys was not associated with impairment of self-perceived health. The mean CDLQI score was 3.98 (95% CI 3.37-4.58). Since eczema affects up to 20% of pre-adolescent girls, the findings have implications both for health care providers and for society as a whole. PMID:24158408

  10. Preadolescents' recognition of faces of unfamiliar peers: the effect of attractiveness of faces.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Pascal; Lallemand, Noëlle

    2003-12-01

    The authors examined preadolescents' ability to recognize faces of unfamiliar peers according to their attractiveness. They hypothesized that highly attractive faces would be less accurately recognized than moderately attractive faces because the former are more typical. In Experiment 1, 106 participants (M age = 10 years) were asked to recognize faces of unknown peers who varied in gender and attractiveness (high- vs. medium-attractiveness). Results showed that attractiveness enhanced the accuracy of recognition for boys' faces and impaired recognition of girls' faces. The same interaction was found in Experiment 2, in which 92 participants (M age = 12 years) were tested for their recognition of another set of faces of unfamiliar peers. The authors conducted Experiment 3 to examine whether the reason for that interaction is that high- and medium-attractive girls' faces differ more in typicality than do boys' faces. The effect size of attractiveness on typicality was similar for boys' and girls' faces. The overall results are discussed with reference to the development of face encoding and biological gender differences with respect to the typicality of faces during preadolescence. PMID:14719778

  11. Gender differences in online and offline self-disclosure in pre-adolescence and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Sumter, Sindy R; Peter, Jochen

    2011-06-01

    Although there is developmental research on the prevalence of offline self-disclosure in pre-adolescence and adolescence, it is still unknown (a) how boys' and girls'online self-disclosure develops in this period and (b) how online and offline self-disclosure interact with each other. We formulated three hypotheses to explain the possible interaction between online and offline self-disclosure: the displacement, the rich-get-richer, and the rehearsal hypothesis. We surveyed 690 pre-adolescents and adolescents (10-17 years) at three time points with half-year intervals in between. We found significant gender differences in the developmental trajectories of self-disclosure. For girls, both online and offline self-disclosure increased sharply during pre- (10-11 years) and early adolescence (12-13 years), and then stabilized in middle and late adolescence. For boys, the same trajectory was found although the increase in self-disclosure started 2 years later. We found most support for the rehearsal hypothesis: Both boys and girls seemed to use online self-disclosure to rehearse offline self-disclosure skills. This particularly held for boys in early adolescence who typically have difficulty disclosing themselves offline. PMID:21199497

  12. Divorce Counseling Guidelines for the Late Divorced Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langelier, Regis; Deckert, Pamela

    1980-01-01

    Offers divorce counseling guidelines for the female who divorces after 20 years or more of marriage, based on a 1977 study of late divorced female Canadians. Research emphasizes six major life adjustment areas: emotions; divorce grounds; finances and budgeting; children; life-style change; and independence. (Author)

  13. Gender differences in masturbation and the relation of masturbation experience in preadolescence and/or early adolescence to sexual behavior and sexual adjustment in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Leitenberg, H; Detzer, M J; Srebnik, D

    1993-04-01

    A comparison of male and female masturbation practices was undertaken in a sample of university students to determine if the long-standing finding that young adult men in this country masturbate more than young adult women was still evident in the 1980s. Despite the efforts in the past quarter century to encourage women in our society to take greater responsibility for their own bodies and their own sexuality and to engage in more sexual self-exploration and self-stimulation, results show that women continue to masturbate much less than men. Twice as many men as women had ever masturbated and the men who masturbated did so three times more frequently during early adolescence and young adulthood than the women who masturbated during these same age periods. A second purpose of this study was to determine whether having masturbation experience during preadolescence and/or early adolescence was related to intercourse experience, sexual satisfaction, sexual arousal, or sexual difficulties in relationships during young adulthood. No such linkage was observed, suggesting that early masturbation experience is neither beneficial nor harmful to sexual adjustment in young adulthood. PMID:8476336

  14. Adolescent and pre-adolescent suicide in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, D; St John, K

    1991-08-01

    This study investigated suicides by people aged ten to 19 in Newfoundland and Labrador from 1977 to 1988. It is the first study of suicide in the province to use the records of death from all eight hospital pathology departments in the province and from the office of the Chief Forensic Pathologist. Cases were selected for the study using standardized criteria, independent of the manner of death recorded on the death certificate. A suicide rate of 4.37 per 100,000 was found. This rate and the age- and sex-specific suicide rates are lower than the official figures for Canada but higher than those reported in earlier Newfoundland studies. The rate for males was nearly five times the female rate, and the rate for people aged 15 to 19 was nearly six times that of people aged ten to 14. Suicide rates for Labrador were higher than for the island portion of the province for both Native and for non Native adolescents. Extremely high rates of suicide were found only among the Native population living in Northern Labrador, while none were recorded for Native people elsewhere. Firearms accounted for 54% and hanging for 33% of all suicides. Thirty percent of suicides occurred on a Saturday. Only 36 of the 63 deaths included in this study were designated as suicide on death certificates. The higher rate of under-reporting of suicide than in other jurisdictions suggests that official rates may not be useful for comparisons. The reasons for the high rate of under-reporting are discussed. PMID:1933747

  15. Canadian physical activity guidelines for adults: are Canadians aware?

    PubMed

    Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; LeBlanc, Allana G; Orr, Krystn; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Tremblay, Mark S; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated awareness of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology's 2011 Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults and assessed correlates. Reported awareness of the physical activity (PA) guidelines was 12.9% (204/1586) of the total sample surveyed. More than half (55%) self-reported meeting PA guidelines of ≥ 150 min of moderate to vigorous PA per week. Awareness of PA guidelines was significantly related to participants' level of PA (χ(2) (1) = 30.63, p < 0.001, φ = -0.14), but not to any demographic variables. PMID:27560541

  16. Female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue. PMID:11369952

  17. Authoritative Parenting, Parenting Stress, and Self-Care in Pre-Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B.; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning. PMID:22350495

  18. Gaming magazines and the drive for muscularity in preadolescent boys: a longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Kristen; Bond, Bradley J

    2007-09-01

    The development of a drive for muscularity among boys has been linked to various cultural influences, one of which is exposure to mass media depicting the muscular male body ideal. We sought to determine whether self-reported exposure to four ideal-body magazine genres (health/fitness, fashion, sports, and gaming) predicted an increased drive for muscularity 1 year later. A sample of 104 Black and 77 White preadolescent boys (mean age 8.77) participated in a 2-wave longitudinal panel study. Controlling Wave 1 grade, perceived thinness/adiposity, and drive for muscularity, exposure to video gaming magazines predicted a significant increase in Wave 2 drive for muscularity, but only for White boys. Discussion calls for the inclusion of video gaming magazine exposure measures in future research on print media and male body ideals, along with empirical exploration of racial themes in gaming magazines. PMID:18089273

  19. Genetic and environmental influences on the junior temperament and character inventory in a preadolescent twin sample.

    PubMed

    Isen, Joshua D; Baker, Laura A; Raine, Adrian; Bezdjian, Serena

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the genetic and environmental structure of personality variables from the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), in 605 pairs of 9- and 10-year old twins. There is a paucity of information on the biometric structure of temperament and character traits in preadolescent children. Latent factor models were fit to the subscales/items of each trait as a method of estimating genetic and environmental effects on true score variance, especially since internal consistency and reliability were moderate or low for some scales (particularly Reward Dependence and Persistence). Shared environmental influences on Cooperativeness were substantial. Significant heritability estimates were obtained for Self-directedness and Harm Avoidance, but not Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence or Persistence. With the exception of Harm Avoidance, each of the scales failed to show measurement invariance with respect to sex, suggesting these scales may differ in meaning for boys and girls at this age. PMID:19043782

  20. Authoritative parenting, parenting stress, and self-care in pre-adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R; Streisand, Randi

    2012-09-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning. PMID:22350495

  1. The STARS program: social empowerment training for preadolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Frame, Kathleen

    2004-10-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), there has been a dramatic increase in the number of children being diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the last several years. School nursing interventions need to be developed, implemented, and evaluated to address complexities experienced by this population. The STARS curriculum (Social Empowerment Training and Responsibilities for Students with ADHD) is a nursing intervention designed to improve perceptions of scholastic competence, social acceptance, and behavioral conduct in preadolescents diagnosed with ADHD. It consists of eight sessions with the theme of social empowerment training woven throughout the curriculum. The support group concept, with children helping children, initiated dynamic conversation as the participants creatively problem-solved and developed solutions to their difficulties. PMID:15469375

  2. Abstract Reasoning and Friendship in High Functioning Preadolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Buaminger, Nirit; Rogers, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between cognitive and social functioning, 20 Israeli individuals with HFASD aged 8–12 and 22 age, maternal education, and receptive vocabulary–matched preadolescents with typical development (TYP) came to the lab with a close friend. Measures of abstract reasoning, friendship quality, and dyadic interaction during a play session were obtained. As hypothesized, individuals with HFASD were significantly impaired in abstract reasoning, and there were significant group differences in friend and observer reports of friendship quality. There also was consistency in reports between friends. Two factors—“relationship appearance” and “relationship quality” described positive aspects of the relationships. Disability status and age related to relationship appearance. Proband abstract reasoning was related to relationship quality. PMID:20467797

  3. A qualitative study of preadolescent boys' and girls' body image: gendered ideals and sociocultural influences.

    PubMed

    Tatangelo, Gemma L; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2013-09-01

    This qualitative study examined preadolescent boys' and girls' body ideals, and peer and media factors that shape these ideals. Sixty-eight children aged 8-10 participated in semi-structured interviews: 19 boys and 17 girls in individual interviews and 16 boys and 16 girls in eight group interviews. Techniques from grounded theory were used to analyze the data. Findings demonstrated that fitness was an important element of boys' and girls' body ideals. For boys the emphasis was on sport, and this was promoted by their peer interactions and the sportsmen they admired. For girls the focus was on looking good, and this was reinforced by their peer conversations, and the actresses and singers they admired. Focus groups further highlighted how peers both reinforced media messages, yet also helped children critique media messages. Implications are discussed for prevention programs that need to be specifically tailored for boys and girls. PMID:24018337

  4. Canadian guidelines for chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) that includes recommendations relevant for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of CRS is based on type and duration of symptoms and an objective finding of inflammation of the nasal mucosa or paranasal sinuses. Chronic rhinosinusitis is categorized based on presence or absence of nasal polyps, and this distinction leads to differences in treatment. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is treated with intranasal corticosteroids. Antibiotics are recommended when symptoms indicate infection (pain or purulence). For CRS without nasal polyps, intranasal corticosteroids and second-line antibiotics (ie, amoxicillin– clavulanic acid combinations or fluoroquinolones with enhanced Gram-positive activity) are recommended. Saline irrigation, oral steroids, and allergy testing might be appropriate. Failure of response should prompt consideration of alternative diagnoses and referral to an otolaryngologist. Patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery require postoperative treatment and follow-up. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide diagnosis and treatment approaches based on the current understanding of the disease and available evidence. Additionally, the guidelines provide the expert opinion of a diverse group of practice and academic experts to help guide clinicians

  5. Pre-Adolescent Cardio-Metabolic Associations and Correlates: PACMAC methodology and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Nicholas; Faulkner, James; Skidmore, Paula; Williams, Michelle; Lambrick, Danielle M; Signal, Leigh; Thunders, Michelle; Muller, Diane; Lark, Sally; Hamlin, Mike; Lane, Andrew M; Kingi, Te Kani; Stoner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although cardiovascular disease is typically associated with middle or old age, the atherosclerotic process often initiates early in childhood. The process of atherosclerosis appears to be occurring at an increasing rate, even in pre-adolescents, and has been linked to the childhood obesity epidemic. This study will investigate the relationships between obesity, lifestyle behaviours and cardiometabolic health in pre-pubescent children aged 8–10 years, and investigates whether there are differences in the correlates of cardiometabolic health between Māori and Caucasian children. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion/exclusion criteria, assessments, statistical analyses, dissemination of findings and anticipated impact are described. Methods and analysis Phase 1: a cross-sectional study design will be used to investigate relationships between obesity, lifestyle behaviours (nutrition, physical activity/fitness, sleep behaviour, psychosocial influences) and cardiometabolic health in a sample of 400 pre-pubescent (8–10 years old) children. Phase 2: in a subgroup (50 Caucasian, 50 Māori children), additional measurements of cardiometabolic health and lifestyle behaviours will be obtained to provide objective and detailed data. General linear models and logistic regression will be used to investigate the strongest correlate of (1) fatness; (2) physical activity; (3) nutritional behaviours and (4) cardiometabolic health. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval will be obtained from the New Zealand Health and Disabilities Ethics Committee. The findings from this study will elucidate targets for decreasing obesity and improving cardiometabolic health among preadolescent children in New Zealand. The aim is to ensure an immediate impact by disseminating these findings in an applicable manner via popular media and traditional academic forums. Most importantly, results from the study will be disseminated to participating schools

  6. Appraisal and coping styles account for the effects of temperament on preadolescent adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Stephanie F.; Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.

    2014-01-01

    Temperament, appraisal, and coping are known to underlie emotion regulation, yet less is known about how these processes relate to each other across time. We examined temperamental fear, frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity, positive and threat appraisals, and active and avoidant coping as processes underpinning the emotion regulation of pre-adolescent children managing stressful events. Appraisal and coping styles were tested as mediators of the longitudinal effects of temperamental emotionality and self-regulation on adjustment using a community sample (N=316) of preadolescent children (8–12 years at T1) studied across one year. High threat appraisals were concurrently related to high fear and impulsivity, whereas effortful control predicted relative decreases in threat appraisal. High fear was concurrently related to high positive appraisal, and impulsivity predicted increases in positive appraisal. Fear was concurrently related to greater avoidant coping, and impulsivity predicted increases in avoidance. Frustration predicted decreases in active coping. These findings suggest temperament, or dispositional aspects of reactivity and regulation, relates to concurrent appraisal and coping processes and additionally predicts change in these processes. Significant indirect effects indicated that appraisal and coping mediated the effects of temperament on adjustment. Threat appraisal mediated the effects of fear and effortful control on internalizing and externalizing problems, and avoidant coping mediated the effect of impulsivity on internalizing problems. These mediated effects suggest that one pathway through which temperament influences adjustment is pre-adolescents’ appraisal and coping. Findings highlight temperament, appraisal and coping as emotion regulation processes relevant to children’s adjustment in response to stress. PMID:25821237

  7. Early Retirement: The Cost to Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    A study examined effects of early retirement plans (ERP) at Canadian Universities. In response to current conditions within Canadian universities and a Canadian Supreme Court decision upholding mandatory retirement requirements, many universities have sought to encourage faculty retirement through ERPs. In order to study the cost of such programs,…

  8. Discourse Types in Canadian Basal Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon

    This study examined the authorship and discourse types of Canadian basal anthologies to determine whether the lingering centrality of the basal anthology in Canadian programs controls students and teachers by controlling language and reading. Each selection within five Canadian basal series (Gage Expressways II, Ginn Journeys, Holt Impressions,…

  9. 'Mum's the word': Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ng, Johan Yau Yin; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Vlachopoulos, Symeon; Katartzi, Ermioni S; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2016-03-01

    Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls are well known, but few models have incorporated concerns reported directly by mothers as a predictor, and both eating and exercise outcomes. Using questionnaires, a comprehensive model of 232 pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls' weight concerns, eating restraint, and exercise behavior was tested. Structural equation modeling showed that daughters' weight concerns were predicted primarily by their perceptions of their mothers' concerns about the daughters' weight, as well as by daughters' BMI, appearance conversations with friends, and perceived media pressure. Mothers' concerns with their daughters' weight were indirectly associated with daughters' own concerns, via the daughters' perceptions of their mothers' concerns. Daughters' concerns with their weight were a strong predictor of eating restraint, but not exercise behavior. PMID:26803392

  10. Preadolescence Female Development through Sport and Physical Activity: A Case Study of an Urban After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Jennifer E.; Dover, Kydani M.; Clark, Brianna S.

    2009-01-01

    Youth development research has found that children become more engaged and benefit more from being incorporated as decision makers. Thus participation helps promote development and encourages engagement. Based in theories of engagement and free-choice learning, the current research focused on a program combining sport/physical activity, life…

  11. Canadian Immigrant Women in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittebrood, Gerda; Robertson, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Examines the experiences of Canadian immigrant women as they move from one culture to another. Explores the barriers they encounter adapting to their new homeland and the coping strategies they use to deal with these barriers. Also examines the usefulness of different forms of support systems and the role of the counselor as part of the adaptation…

  12. Children's Superstitions: British and Canadian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeish, John

    1984-01-01

    A 100-item test covering nine areas of superstitious belief administered with 10 control items to 1,749 Canadian and British children showed younger children and girls were more superstitious than older children and boys. Academically inclined children were less superstitious. Science-based education had little effect. Implications for Canadian…

  13. Canadian ERTS program progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morley, L. W.; Mcquillan, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    Progress of the Canadian ERTS program is provided along with statistics on the production and role of ERTS images both from the CCRS in Ottawa and from the Prince Albert Saskatchewan satellite station. The types of products, difficulties of production and some of the main applications in Canada are discussed.

  14. International Students: The Canadian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madgett, Paul J.; Belanger, Charles

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the results of a voluntary on-line survey administered to international students attending Canadian universities. The participants include students attending a full programme of study as well as English as a second language (ESL) and exchange students. This study examines the role of the university with reference to…

  15. The 1998 Canadian Contraception Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, William A.; Boroditsky, Richard; Bridges, Martha L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study, a mailed survey which asked women about contraceptive practices past, present, and future (including use of oral contraceptives, condoms, and sterilization); familiarity with and opinion about different contraception methods; and general sexual and reproductive health. The paper also examines…

  16. Issues in Canadian Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Thomas; Powell, Mava Jo

    Examining the challenges and responsibilities facing Canadian provincial and local boards of education, this paper focuses on economic, demographic, ideological, jurisdictional, and administrative problems. Both provincial and local school boards currently face increasing financial pressure as inflation soars and taxpayers demand fiscal restraint.…

  17. Canadian Postcolonialism: Recovering British Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    The field of Postcolonial Studies is one of the academic fashions that has arisen in an attempt to amend or replace radical theories of social power since the alleged discrediting of Marxism. The Canadian case is more ambiguous. Postcolonialism, already an essentially contested concept, is especially conflicted where Canada is concerned. Canada…

  18. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  19. An Overview of Canadian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayfer, Margaret

    The structure and support of Canadian elementary and secondary education is presented with concise descriptions of its organizational structure, administration, curriculum, and special programs. This general overview is appended with organizational charts; directories of provincial, territorial, and federal departments of education; and national…

  20. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  1. "Patriotism, Eh?" The Canadian Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sharon Anne

    2006-01-01

    How does patriotism look north of the 49th parallel? In this article, the author explores the answers to this question and examines the "quiet nationalism" that characterizes Canadians' views of themselves and their nation. One of Canada's best-known philosophers, John Ralston Saul, argues that Canada's contribution to the world has been to build…

  2. Canadian Families: A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Benjamin; Schlesinger, Rachel Aber

    Resources on the Canadian family have been increasing over the past 20 years. This guide contains an annotated bibliography of 399 of those resources, all written in English and published in Canada and the United States. The entries are divided into 52 topics and categories, a few of which are: (1) abortion; (2) the aged; (3) child care; (4)…

  3. Postponed Parenthood: A Canadian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Benjamin; Schlesinger, Rachel Aber

    This paper reviews the results of a study of 46 Canadian couples who had delayed childbearing and experienced their first parenthood when the wife was 30 years or older. Both husbands and wives were interviewed using a questionnaire containing closed and open-ended questions. Summaries of the parents' observations are discussed in the following…

  4. Cost Determinants in Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Vaughan

    1994-01-01

    A study investigated the relationship between costs per student (overall, instruction, library, computing, administration, physical plant) and enrollment in 61 Canadian universities. Also examined was the influence on cost of student mix, faculty-student ratio, faculty wages, program and discipline enrollment rates, and research intensity. (MSE)

  5. The effect of persistent posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms on executive functions in preadolescent children witnessing a single incident of death.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Choi, Nam-Hee; Ryu, Jeong; McDermott, Brett; Cobham, Vanessa; Song, Sook-Hyung; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2014-05-01

    We compared executive functions (EFs) of traumatized preadolescent children with and without marked posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms to the performance of a nontraumatized control group, and examined the relationships between EF deficits and functional status in traumatized preadolescent children. Fifty-one preadolescent children who had witnessed a death at school 30 months prior (26 with marked PTSD symptoms and 25 without) and 30 healthy controls who had not been traumatized participated. EFs were examined using the Comprehensive Attention Test (CAT). The functional state of traumatized children was measured by the Parent Report Form-Children's Health and Illness Profile-Children's Edition (PRF-CHIP-CE). The traumatized children, regardless of status of PTSD symptomatology, showed poorer working memory performance than nontraumatized healthy controls. The traumatized children with marked PTSD symptoms performed more poorly on measures of interference control compared to those children without marked PTSD symptoms. Lower levels of EFs were associated with lower risk avoidance and diminished academic achievement in traumatized children. These results indicate that an inhibitory control deficit is specifically associated with the current PTSD symptoms but not with trauma exposure per se. PMID:24188279

  6. Canadian asthma consensus report, 1999

    PubMed Central

    Boulet, L P; Becker, A; Bérubé, D; Beveridge, R; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide physicians with current guidelines for the diagnosis and optimal management of asthma in children and adults, including pregnant women and the elderly, in office, emergency department, hospital and clinic settings. OPTIONS: The consensus group considered the roles of education, avoidance of provocative environmental and other factors, diverse pharmacotherapies, delivery devices and emergency and in-hospital management of asthma. OUTCOMES: Provision of the best control of asthma by confirmation of the diagnosis using objective measures, rapid achievement and maintenance of control and regular follow-up. EVIDENCE: The key diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations are based on the 1995 Canadian guidelines and a critical review of the literature by small groups before a full meeting of the consensus group. Recommendations are graded according to 5 levels of evidence. Differences of opinion were resolved by consensus following discussion. VALUES: Respirologists, immunoallergists, pediatricians and emergency and family physicians gave prime consideration to the achievement and maintenance of optimal control of asthma through avoidance of environmental inciters, education of patients and the lowest effective regime of pharmacotherapy to reduce morbidity and mortality. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Adherence to the guidelines should be accompanied by significant reduction in patients' symptoms, reduced morbidity and mortality, fewer emergency and hospital admissions, fewer adverse side-effects from medications, better quality of life for patients and reduced costs. RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations are included in each section of the report. In summary, after a diagnosis of asthma is made based on clinical evaluation, including demonstration of variable airflow obstruction, and contributing factors are identified, a treatment plan is established to obtain and maintain optimal asthma control. The main components of treatment are patient education

  7. Retirement in the Post-Revocation Context at One Canadian University: Experiences of Phasing and Delaying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Mia Quint; Finlay, Sara-Jane; Hillan, Edith

    2015-01-01

    This research study is a phenomenological exploration of academics from one Canadian university who either are participating in a phased retirement program or have delayed their retirement beyond the normal retirement age of 65. It is based on face-to-face interviews with 24 professors, male and female, between the ages of 55 and 69, from an array…

  8. Canadian Early-Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Children's Gendered Shy, Aggressive, and Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Heather; Bosacki, Sandra; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood educators' (ECE) perceptions of gender roles may contribute to the development of children's own gender-role identities. This qualitative study examined 40 Canadian female ECEs' perceptions of gender and children's shy, aggressive, and prosocial behaviors. Content analysis of extensive interviews revealed three themes: (1) shyness…

  9. Are Canadian Adolescents Happy? A Gender-Based Analysis of a Nationally Representative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Robert D.; Habibov, Nazim N.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors analyzed data from a nationally representative survey of youth to study happiness amongst Canadian adolescents aged 12-17. Testing for differences in the level of happiness between female and male adolescents was conducted. Following this, multivariate analysis was employed to determine which factors were associated with…

  10. Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin

    2007-01-01

    This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

  11. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... female condoms at most drugstores, STI clinics, and family planning clinics. You need to plan to have a ... Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, ... Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  12. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  13. Understanding Canadian Agriculture. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyns, R. M. A.

    This document for secondary school Canadian students analyzes the role of agriculture in the national economy and in Canadian trade, describes characteristics of Canadian farms, and discusses governmental inlfuences on Canadian agriculture. The document stresses that agriculture is a large source of national wealth; about 30% of Canadian farm…

  14. Canadian prostate brachytherapy in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Mira; Crook, Juanita; Morris, W. James; Morton, Gerard; Pickles, Tom; Usmani, Nawaid; Vigneault, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Prostate brachytherapy can be used as a monotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk patients or in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as a form of dose escalation for selected intermediate- and high-risk patients. Prostate brachytherapy with either permanent implants (low dose rate [LDR]) or temporary implants (high dose rate [HDR]) is emerging as the most effective radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Several large Canadian brachytherapy programs were established in the mid- to late-1990s. Prostate brachytherapy is offered in British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. We anticipate the need for brachytherapy services in Canada will significantly increase in the near future. In this review, we summarize brachytherapy programs across Canada, contemporary eligibility criteria for the procedure, toxicity and prostate-specific antigen recurrence free survival (PRFS), as published from Canadian institutions for both LDR and HDR brachytherapy. PMID:23671495

  15. Postural Adaptations in Preadolescent Karate Athletes Due to a One Week Karate Training Camp

    PubMed Central

    Vando, Stefano; Filingeri, Davide; Maurino, Lucio; Chaabène, Helmi; Bianco, Antonino; Salernitano, Gianluca; Foti, Calogero; Padulo, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an increasing number of training hours of specific high-intensity karate training on postural sway in preadolescent karate athletes. Seventy-four karatekas were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: Karate Group (KG=37): age 10.29±1.68 yrs; or Control Group (CG= 37): age 10.06±1.77 yrs. The KG performed two sessions per day for 1 week in total, while the CG performed only 3 sessions during the same period. The center-of-pressure length (COPL) and velocity (COPV) were recorded under four different experimental conditions: open eyes (EO), closed eyes (EC), open eyes monopodalic left (EOL), open eyes monopodalic right (EOR), pre as well as post training intervention. Post-camp results indicated significant differences between the groups in the COPL p<0.001; an interaction of training type×time in the COPV (p<0.001) and an interaction of training type×time (p=0.020). The KG revealed an improvement in the COPL from pre to post-camp under conditions of EO [−37.26% (p<0.001)], EC [−31.72% (p<0.001)], EOL [−27.27% (p<0.001)], EOR [−21.44% (p<0.001)], while CG revealed small adaptations in conditions of EO (3.16%), EC (0.93%), EOL (−3.03%), EOR (−0.97%). Furthermore, in the KG an improvement in the COPV from pre to post-camp was observed in conditions of EO [−37.92% (p<0.001)], EC [−32.52% (p<0.001)], EOL [−29.11% (p<0.001)], EOR [−21.49% (p<0.001)]. In summary, one-week of high intensity karate training induced a significant improvement in static body balance in preadolescent karate athletes. Karate performance requires high-levels of both static and dynamic balance. Further research dealing with the effect of karate practice on dynamic body balance in young athletes is required. PMID:24235983

  16. Jump Rope Training: Balance and Motor Coordination in Preadolescent Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Trecroci, Athos; Cavaggioni, Luca; Caccia, Riccardo; Alberti, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    General physical practice and multidimensional exercises are essential elements that allow young athletes to enhance their coordinative traits, balance, and strength and power levels, which are linked to the learning soccer-specific skills. Jumping rope is a widely-used and non-specific practical method for the development of athletic conditioning, balance and coordination in several disciplines. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term training protocol including jumping rope (JR) exercises on motor abilities and body balance in young soccer players. Twenty-four preadolescent soccer players were recruited and placed in two different groups. In the Experimental group (EG), children performed JR training at the beginning of the training session. The control group (CG), executed soccer specific drills. Harre circuit test (HCT) and Lower Quarter Y balance test (YBT-LQ) were selected to evaluate participant’s motor ability (e.g. ability to perform rapidly a course with different physical tasks such as somersault and passages above/below obstacles ) and to assess unilateral dynamic lower limb balance after 8 weeks of training. Statistical analysis consisted of paired t-test and mixed analysis of variance scores to determine any significant interactions. Children who performed jumping rope exercises showed a significant decrease of 9% (p < 0.01, ES = 0.50-0.80) in the performance time of HCT. With regard to the CG, no differences were highlighted (p > 0.05, ES = 0.05-0.2) from pre- to post-training. A training-by-group interaction was found for the composite score in both legs (p < 0.05, Part η2 > 0.14). Our findings demonstrated that JR practice within regular soccer training enhanced general motor coordination and balance in preadolescent soccer players. Therefore, the inclusion of JR practice within regular soccer training session should encouraged to improve children’s motor skills. Key points Performing jumping rope exercises

  17. Reasons Why Canadian Seniors Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Prince, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    A study examined types of and reasons for volunteering among Canadian adults over 64 (n=1,569) and compared them with those given by adults aged 45-64 (n=5,563). Results indicate that the older group volunteers out of self-interest and are more likely to volunteer because of a feeling of obligation and social value than those aged 45-64. (JOW)

  18. A “Fille du Roy” Introduced the T14484C Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Mutation in French Canadians

    PubMed Central

    Laberge, Anne-Marie; Jomphe, Michèle; Houde, Louis; Vézina, Hélène; Tremblay, Marc; Desjardins, Bertrand; Labuda, Damian; St-Hilaire, Marc; Macmillan, Carol; Shoubridge, Eric A.; Brais, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    The predominance of the T14484C mutation in French Canadians with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy is due to a founder effect. By use of genealogical reconstructions of maternal lineages, a woman married in Quebec City in 1669 is identified as the shared female ancestor for 11 of 13 affected individuals, who were previously not known to be related. These individuals carry identical mitochondrial haplogroups. The current geographic distribution of French Canadian cases overlaps with that of the founder’s female descendants in 1800. This is the first example of genealogical reconstruction to identify the introduction of a mitochondrial mutation by a woman in a founder population. PMID:15954041

  19. Academic achievement of African American preadolescents: the influence of teacher perceptions.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, S F

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors associated with the academic success of predominantly, middle-class African American preadolescent students. This study proposed an ecological model that considered the interaction of family environment, teacher perceptions of social skills, and student characteristics. The estimated model explained 58% of the variance in grade point average. Path analysis revealed three direct effects on grade point average, (a) grade level (negative), (b) teacher perceptions of social skills, and (c) academic ability. Findings revealed that teacher perceptions of social skills was a stronger predictor of grade point average than academic ability. Two indirect effects on grade point average were found. The first indirect effect was negative: gender predicted academic ability, which predicted teacher perceptions of social skills, which predicted grade point average. The second indirect effect was positive and it was from ability to teacher perceptions to grade point average. Implications for policy and practice are made that suggest a collaborative model of school counseling designed to "promote" the social and academic competence of African American students. Interventions that enhance teacher practices are also suggested. PMID:9726114

  20. Longitudinal Associations between Emotion Regulation and Depression in Preadolescent Girls: Moderation by the Caregiving Environment

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xin; Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E.; Henneberger, Angela K.; Rischall, Michal S.; Butch, Jen; Coyne, Claire; Boeldt, Debbie; Hinze, Amanda K.; Babinski, Dara E.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying childhood precursors for depression has been challenging and yet important for understanding the rapid increase in the rate of depression among adolescent girls. This study examined the prospective relations of preadolescent girls’ emotion regulation and parenting style with depressive symptoms. Participants were 225 children and their biological mothers recruited from a larger longitudinal community study. Girls’ observed positive and negative emotion during a conflict resolution task with mothers, their ability to regulate sadness and anger, and their perception of parental acceptance and psychological control were assessed at age 9. Depressive symptoms were assessed by self-report at ages 9 and 10. The results indicated interactions between child emotion characteristics and parenting in predicting later depression. Specifically, low levels of positive emotion expression predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms in the context of moderate to high parental psychological control. Low levels of sadness regulation were predictive of high levels of depressive symptoms in the context of low to moderate parental acceptance. Findings from this study support the hypothesis that the prospective association between vulnerabilities in emotion regulation and depression are moderated by the caregiving environment. PMID:19413432

  1. Preadolescent peer status, aggression, and school adjustment as predictors of externalizing problems in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kupersmidt, J B; Coie, J D

    1990-10-01

    The comparative effectiveness of preadolescent aggressive behavior, peer rejection, and school functioning were evaluated in the prediction of adolescent delinquency and school maladjustment. Fifth-grade children (n = 112, 69% white, 53% male, M = 11 years old) were followed forward for 7 years until the end of high school. Rejected children were more likely to have a nonspecific negative outcome and more types of negative outcomes than average, popular, or neglected children, particularly among the white students. However, in regression models containing sex, race, aggression, frequent school absences, low grades, and rejection, the only significant predictor of juvenile delinquency or of a nonspecific negative outcome was aggression toward peers. Both aggression and frequent school absences were significant predictors of early school withdrawal. Analyses for the white children in the sample revealed that both rejection and aggression best predicted to the nonspecific negative outcome, whereas aggression alone best predicted to school dropout and to having one or more police contacts. Implications for future longitudinal outcome research and for risk-group identification in racially heterogeneous samples are discussed. PMID:2245729

  2. Protective factors associated with preadolescent violence: preliminary work on a cultural model.

    PubMed

    Jagers, Robert J; Sydnor, Kim; Mouttapa, Michele; Flay, Brian R

    2007-09-01

    This study explores the influences of communal values, empathy, violence avoidance self-efficacy beliefs, and classmates' fighting on violent behaviors among urban African American preadolescent boys and girls. As part of a larger intervention study, 644 low-income 5th grade students from 12 schools completed a baseline assessment that included the target constructs. Boys reported more violent behaviors, and lower levels of empathy and violence avoidance self-efficacy beliefs than girls. Path analyses revealed that, after controlling for the positive contributions of classmates' fighting, violence avoidance self-efficacy beliefs were a negative predictor of violent behavior. Communal values had a direct negative relationship with violence for boys, but not girls. Both communal values and empathy were associated with less violent behavior through positive relationships with violence avoidance self-efficacy beliefs. For girls, classmate fighting had an indirect positive association with violent behavior through its negative relationship with violence avoidance self-efficacy beliefs. Findings are discussed in terms of implications of basic and applied research on violence among African American youth. PMID:17562160

  3. Causal coherence analysis of cardiovascular variables in obese preadolescents and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Javorka, Michal; Czippelova, Barbora; Turianikova, Zuzana; Lazarova, Zuzana; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Javorka, Kamil; Baumert, Mathias

    2015-08-01

    Obesity during adulthood has been associated with cardiovascular disease, but its adverse effects during adolescence are less well established. The aim of this study was to probe cardiovascular control in obese adolescence by studying causal coherence between cardiovascular variables. Sixty minutes of resting ECG and finger blood pressure were recorded in 19 obese and 19 non-obese subjects in the supine position to measure pair-wise spectral coherence in the low frequency band between heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, total peripheral resistance and left ventricular ejection time. We observed that causal coherences in {systolic blood pressure → total peripheral resistance} and {left ventricular ejection time → systolic blood pressure} directions were significantly decreased in obese preadolescents and adolescents when compared to the healthy control group, despite the lack of difference in the magnitude of oscillations of cardiovascular variables. In conclusion, causal coherence analysis of cardiovascular variables may give new insight into cardiovascular dysregulation in young obese subjects. PMID:26736627

  4. Millon's Contributions to Preadolescent and Adolescent Personality Assessment: Searching Onward and Upward.

    PubMed

    Tringone, Robert; Bockian, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon was one of the most influential personality theorists of the 20th century. His theory was originally rooted in biosocial learning models and later reconceptualized as an evolutionary model. This foundation of Millon's work encompasses the entire life span. He had a genuine concern for humankind, especially children. His theory encompasses a comprehensive understanding of the relationship among childhood experiences, parenting styles, and recurring events throughout the life span in shaping the personality. Notable contributions to child and adolescent assessment are the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (Millon, Green, & Meagher, 1982 ), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1993 ), and the Millon Pre-Adolescent Clinical Inventory (M-PACI; Millon, Tringone, Millon, & Grossman, 2005 ). Given Millon's influence on the personality disorders section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the aforementioned instruments have personality constructs tied to familiar DSM categories, and among them, cover the age range of 9 to 18 years old. His development of the Millon Inventories revolutionized personality assessment in the United States and abroad. Millon's legacies will live on through his works and through the respect and compassion he demonstrated toward others. PMID:26226175

  5. Association of distorted eating behaviors with cardiometabolic risk indices in preadolescents. The Healthy Growth Study.

    PubMed

    Moschonis, George; Georgiou, Alexandra; Sarapi, Katerina; Manios, Yannis

    2015-08-01

    The association between distorted eating behavior (DEB) with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in children has been poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to examine the association between DEB with certain CMR indices in 9- to 13-year-old children in Greece. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted among 1803 schoolchildren from 77 primary schools in 4 counties of Greece with full data on DEBQ and ChEAT questionnaires and CMR indices. Children underwent anthropometric measurements and Tanner stage, serum lipid, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR levels assessments. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to test for the association between components of DEBQ and ChEAT with CMR indices. Several significant associations between components of DEBQ and ChEAT with CMR indices were observed when tested at univariate regression models in both boys and girls. However, after adjusting for several possible confounders, including Tanner stage, all significant associations were lost in girls while only a few remained in boys. Thus, DEB might have an unfavorable effect also in certain CMR indices, besides nourishment status. This is more pronounced in preadolescent boys for whom hormonal changes due to the transition to adolescence have not yet been established compared to girls. Still further research is needed to shed more light on these associations. PMID:25819605

  6. Hepatitis A Virus Genotype Distribution during a Decade of Universal Vaccination of Preadolescents

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrea, Lucía; Pérez-Rodríguez, Francisco J.; de Castellarnau, Montserrat; Manzanares, Sandra; Lite, Josep; Guix, Susana; Bosch, Albert; Pintó, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    A universal vaccination program among preadolescents was implemented in Catalonia, Spain, during the period of 1999–2013 and its effectiveness has been clearly demonstrated by an overall significant attack rate reduction. However, reductions were not constant over time, and increases were again observed in 2002–2009 due to the occurrence of huge outbreaks. In the following years, in the absence of large outbreaks, the attack rate decreased again to very low levels. However, an increase of symptomatic cases in the <5 age group has recently been observed. This is an unexpected observation since children younger than 6 are mostly asymptomatic. Such a long vaccination campaign offers the opportunity to analyze not only the effectiveness of vaccination, but also the influence of the circulating genotypes on the incidence of hepatitis A among the different age groups. This study has revealed the emergence of genotype IC during a foodborne outbreak, the short-lived circulation of vaccine-escape variants isolated during an outbreak among the men-having-sex-with-men group, and the association of genotype IIIA with the increase of symptomatic cases among the very young. From a public health perspective, two conclusions may be drawn: vaccination is better at an early age, and the vaccination schedule must be complete and include all recommended vaccine doses. PMID:25815599

  7. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is Associated with Regionally Thinner Cortex During the Preadolescent Period.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Frances C; Narr, Katherine L; Molteno, Christopher D; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2016-07-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) may exhibit craniofacial dysmorphology, neurobehavioral deficits, and reduced brain volume. Studies of cortical thickness in FASD have yielded contradictory findings, with 3 reporting thicker cerebral cortex in frontal and temporal brain regions and 2 showing thinner cortex across multiple regions. All 5 studies included subjects spanning a broad age range, and none have examined continuous measures of prenatal alcohol exposure. We investigated the relation of extent of in utero alcohol exposure to cortical thickness in 78 preadolescent children with FASD and controls within a narrow age range. A whole-brain analysis using FreeSurfer revealed no significant clusters where cortical thickness differed by FASD diagnostic group. However, alcohol dose/occasion during pregnancy was inversely related to cortical thickness in 3 regions-right cuneus/pericalcarine/superior parietal lobe, fusiform/lingual gyrus, and supramarginal/postcentral gyrus. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on IQ was mediated by cortical thickness in the right occipitotemporal region. It is noteworthy that a continuous measure of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy was more sensitive than FASD diagnosis and that the effect on cortical thickness was most evident in relation to a measure of maternal binge drinking. PMID:26088967

  8. Gaze behavior of pre-adolescent children afflicted with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a form of high-functioning autism characterized by qualitative impairment in social interaction. People afflicted with AS typically have abnormal nonverbal behaviors which are often manifested by avoiding eye contact. Gaze constitutes an important interactional resource, and an AS person's tendency to avoid eye contact may affect the fluidity of conversations and cause misunderstandings. For this reason, it is important to know the precise ways in which this avoidance is done, and in what ways it affects the interaction. The objective of this article is to describe the gaze behavior of preadolescent AS children in institutional multiparty conversations. Methodologically, the study is based on conversation analysis and a multimodal study of interaction. The findings show that three main patterns are used for avoiding eye contact: (1) fixing one's gaze straight ahead; (2) letting one's gaze wander around; and (3) looking at one's own hands when speaking. The informants of this study do not look at the interlocutors at all in the beginning or the middle of their turn. However, sometimes they turn to look at the interlocutors at the end of their turn. This proves that these children are able to use gaze as a source offeedback. When listening, looking at the speaker also seems to be easier for them than looking at the listeners when speaking PMID:24498701

  9. Eating behaviours in preadolescence are associated with body dissatisfaction and mental disorders - Results of the CCC2000 study.

    PubMed

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Clemmensen, Lars; Rimvall, Martin K; Jeppesen, Pia; Micali, Nadia; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-06-01

    Preadolescence is a key period in the early stages of eating disorder development. The aim of the present study was, firstly, to investigate restrained, emotional and external eating in a general population-based sample of 11-12 year olds. Secondly, we sought to explore how these eating behaviours are associated with possible predictors of eating disorders, such as body dissatisfaction, weight status and mental disorders. A subsample of 1567 children (47.7% boys; 52.3% girls) from the Copenhagen Child Cohort (CCC2000) completed web-based questionnaires on eating behaviours and body dissatisfaction using The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) and The Children's Figure Rating Scale. Mental disorders were assessed using the online version of the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) based on parental replies with final DSM-IV diagnoses determined by experienced child- and adolescent psychiatrists. Height and weight were measured at a face-to-face assessment. The results showed that restrained eating was significantly associated with overweight, body dissatisfaction and emotional disorders in both genders. Emotional eating showed similar associations with overweight and body dissatisfaction in both genders, but was only associated with mental disorders in girls. External eating was significantly associated with body dissatisfaction and neurodevelopmental disorders in both genders, but was only associated with overweight in girls. Our findings show that problematic eating behaviours can be identified in preadolescence, and co-exist with weight problems and mental disorders. Thus restrained, emotional and external eating was, in different ways, associated with overweight, body dissatisfaction and mental disorders. Our findings point to significant eating behaviours in preadolescence, which could constitute potential predictors of later eating disorder risk. PMID:26896837

  10. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Svefors, Pernilla; Rahman, Anisur; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Lindström, Emma; Persson, Lars Åke; Ekholm Selling, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years. Methods and Findings Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054) was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2) at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD) to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50%) decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001) and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm) (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06–4.20), mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.81) or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37–2.77). Conclusions Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth. PMID:26934484

  11. The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Schade, D.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) is the world's largest astronomical data center, holding over 0.5 Petabytes of information, and serving nearly 3000 astronomers worldwide. Its current data collections include BLAST, CFHT, CGPS, FUSE, Gemini, HST, JCMT, MACHO, MOST, and numerous other archives and services. It provides extensive data archiving, curation, and processing expertise, via projects such as MegaPipe, and enables substantial day-to-day collaboration between resident astronomers and computer specialists. It is a stable, powerful, persistent, and properly supported environment for the storage and processing of large volumes of data, a condition that is now absolutely vital for their science potential to be exploited by the community. Through initiatives such as the Common Archive Observation Model (CAOM), the Canadian Virtual Observatory (CVO), and the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), the CADC is at the global forefront of advancing astronomical research through improved data services. The CAOM aims to provide homogeneous data access, and hence viable interoperability between a potentially unlimited number of different data collections, at many wavelengths. It is active in the definition of numerous emerging standards within the International Virtual Observatory, and several datasets are already available. The CANFAR project is an initiative to make cloud computing for storage and data-intensive processing available to the community. It does this via a Virtual Machine environment that is equivalent to managing a local desktop. Several groups are already processing science data. CADC is also at the forefront of advanced astronomical data analysis, driven by the science requirements of astronomers both locally and further afield. The emergence of 'Astroinformatics' promises to provide not only utility items like object classifications, but to directly enable new science by accessing previously undiscovered or intractable

  12. Canadian microwaves - An interim report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachmar, Michael

    1987-02-01

    A survey is presented of various research programs being pursued by Canadian companies to develop microwave technologies for communications satellites. The discussion covers corporate resources and projects undertaken, e.g., the ANIK and Olympus microwave systems, the MSAT program, SARSAT, BRASILSAT and RADARSAT. Attention is given to intergovernmental, industry-government and fully commercial arrangements, and developmental efforts in the C and Ku bands, X-band SAR devices, and plans for a Shuttle-borne wide angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer for upper atmospheric research.

  13. Incentives and Accountability: The Canadian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Since 1997, the Canadian federal government has introduced a variety of new incentives to enhance significantly the funding of university research in this country. While these funding initiatives have been welcomed by Canadian universities, they are accompanied by a heightened emphasis on accountability which dictates new eligibility conditions…

  14. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  15. Summer Session Organizational Models at Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kops, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The issue of summer session organizational models continues to be of interest to summer session deans/directors and university administrators. The University of Victoria surveyed Canadian universities on this issue in 1994. Based on a similar survey done in 2009, this paper updates the status of Canadian university summer session organizational…

  16. Religious Education in Canadian Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Anwar N.

    1999-01-01

    Canadian public education has become secularized. Although the Charter's language on freedom of conscience and religion prohibits religious indoctrination in schools, it does not proscribe education about religion. Generally, Canadian courts have followed and accepted American developments in this regard but have avoided byzantine judgments on…

  17. 47 CFR 90.121 - Canadian registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Canadian registration. 90.121 Section 90.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.121 Canadian registration. Form 410 shall...

  18. 47 CFR 90.121 - Canadian registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian registration. 90.121 Section 90.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.121 Canadian registration. Form 410 shall...

  19. 47 CFR 90.121 - Canadian registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Canadian registration. 90.121 Section 90.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.121 Canadian registration. Form 410 shall...

  20. 47 CFR 90.121 - Canadian registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Canadian registration. 90.121 Section 90.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.121 Canadian registration. Form 410 shall...

  1. 47 CFR 90.121 - Canadian registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Canadian registration. 90.121 Section 90.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.121 Canadian registration. Form 410 shall...

  2. Fostering Physical Activity among Canadians with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    This article shares some current thoughts, actions, and plans to foster physical activity among Canadians with disabilities. Topics include mainstreaming physically disabled students, impact of the Jasper Talks Symposium, a national action plan (Blueprint for Action), and recent initiatives that reflect Canadian commitment to adapted physical…

  3. Ballast water control - The Canadian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, C.J.

    1995-06-01

    This article is a review of Canadian practices and regulations concerning the discharge of ballast water from ocean-going vessels. This has been identified as a major factor in the transfer of nuisance aquatic species from one area of the world to another. The basis for Canadian policy is reviewed and the policies are outlined. On-going and future efforts are noted.

  4. The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS).

    PubMed

    Pink, G H; Knotts, U A; Parrish, L G; Shields, C A

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS) is a computer-based management decision-making game designed specifically for Canadian hospital managers. The paper begins with an introduction on the development of business and health services industry-specific simulation games. An overview of CHESS is provided, along with a description of its development and a discussion of its educational benefits. PMID:10109530

  5. 22 CFR 126.5 - Canadian exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canadian exemptions. 126.5 Section 126.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS GENERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS § 126.5 Canadian exemptions. (a) Temporary import of defense articles. Port Director of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and postmasters...

  6. 22 CFR 126.5 - Canadian exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canadian exemptions. 126.5 Section 126.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS GENERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS § 126.5 Canadian exemptions. (a) Temporary import of defense articles. Port Director of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and postmasters...

  7. Looking Back: Tracing Trends in Canadian CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Mary-Louise; Sinyor, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    "CCALLNET" ("The Canadian Computer-Assisted Language Learning Network at the Post-Secondary Level") was a semi-annual newsletter published from 1987 to 2002 that was distributed to colleagues across Canada who taught languages to university students. Its objective was to create a network of Canadian faculty interested in CALL by informing them…

  8. Recent Books on Canadian Business History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Christopher

    1979-01-01

    Reviews Canadian business history books published since 1972 as well as reprints of useful older works. Topics dealt with are the fish, timber, and wheat industry, transportation, entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, Canadian economy during World War I, the development of natural resources, and the lives of the rich and the powerful. (KC)

  9. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  10. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  11. Gender, "Symbolic Domination", and Female Work: The Case of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillabough, Jo-Anne

    2005-01-01

    In this article I explore the part played by liberal democratic ideology in the regulation of female work, in particular, the work of women teacher educators and contract researchers in British and Canadian teacher education departments. My goal is to examine the relationship between symbolic notions of female domesticity and service as they have…

  12. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  13. A Comparison of Dorothy Heathcote's Informal Drama Methodology and a Formal Drama Approach in Influencing Self-Esteem of Preadolescents in a Christian Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Pamela Diane

    The purposes of this study were to compare the effectiveness of Dorothy Heathcote's informal drama methodology (referred to as ENCOUNTER) with a formal drama approach (PLAYS) in increasing self-esteem of preadolescents in a Christian education program, and to determine if positive correlation existed between self-esteem and intrinsic religious…

  14. The Structural Consistency of a Six-Factor Model of Academic Self-Concept among Culturally Diverse Preadolescents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.; Abercrombie, Sara

    2013-01-01

    For decades, research has indicated that preadolescents' self-concept is comprised of subject-specific academic factors, a general academic factor, and several nonacademic factors. More recently, there have been some indications that academic self-concept might further be differentiated into competence and affect factors, at least for some…

  15. Discrepancies between Parent-Child Reports of Internalizing Problems among Preadolescent Children: Relationships with Gender, Ethnic Background, and Future Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M.; Jansen, Wilma; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Donker, Marianne C. H.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    In a multiethnic community sample of 1,170 preadolescent children, it was investigated whether discrepancies in parent-child reports of internalizing problems are related with gender, ethnic background (Dutch, Surinamese/Antillean, Moroccan, Turkish, Other) and with future internalizing problems. No significant differences in discrepancy scores…

  16. Reliability and Validity of the SE-HEPA: Examining Physical Activity- and Healthy Eating-Specific Self-Efficacy among a Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Michael M.; Burns, Leonard G.; Whitaker, Brandi N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the self-efficacy for healthy eating and physical activity measure (SE-HEPA) for preadolescents. Method. The reliability of the measure was examined to determine if the internal consistency of the measure was adequate (i.e., [alpha]s greater than 0.70). Next, in an…

  17. Multidimensional Self-Concept Structure for Preadolescents with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: A Hybrid Multigroup?MIMC Approach to Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Tracey, Danielle K.; Craven, Rhonda G.

    2006-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis of responses by 211 preadolescents (M age = 10.25 years,SD = 1.48) with mild intellectual disabilities (MIDs) to the individually administered Self Description Questionnaire I-Individual Administration (SDQI-IA) counters widely cited claims that these children cannot differentiate multiple self-concept factors. Results…

  18. The Interplay between Peer Rejection and Acceptance in Preadolescence and Early Adolescence, Serotonin Transporter Gene, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelius; Veenstra, Rene´

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the…

  19. Beautiful from the Inside Out: A School-Based Programme Designed to Increase Self-Esteem and Positive Body Image among Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Sarah Jane; Murray, Marisa; Nolan, Amanda; Bowker, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to design, implement, and evaluate a school-based programme that aimed to increase self-esteem and positive body image among preadolescent boys and girls. Participants in grades five and six (N = 77; M [subscript age] = 10.86, 53.2% girls) from a public school in Eastern Ontario completed a battery of validated…

  20. Improving the Confidence of Pre-Adolescent Girls by Focusing on the Development of Positive Self-Esteem, Body Image, and Assertiveness Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combes, Alice S.

    This practicum was designed to focus on: (1) the improvement of the confidence of pre-adolescent girls; (2) the establishment of a positive body image; and (3) the strengthening of assertiveness skills. The writer worked in a group of 20 girls over a period of 8 months using exercises designed to facilitate their growth. A curriculum was developed…

  1. Shape of the basal ganglia in preadolescent children is associated with cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Sandman, Curt A; Head, Kevin; Muftuler, L Tugan; Su, Lydia; Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2014-10-01

    Current studies support the belief that high levels of performance and intellectual abilities are associated with increased brain size or volume. With few exceptions, this conclusion is restricted to studies of post-adolescent subjects and to cerebral cortex. There is evidence that "bigger is better" may not pertain to children and further, that there are areas of the brain in which larger structures are associated with cognitive deficits. In 50 preadolescent children (21 girls) a structural survey of the brain (VBM) was conducted to determine and locate areas in which gray matter volume was associated with poor cognitive performance. Only increased gray matter volume in particular areas of the basal ganglia and specifically the putamen was significantly associated with poor performance on tests of memory, response speed and a general marker and subtests of intelligence. Based on the VBM findings, volumetric analysis of basal ganglia structures was performed using FSL/FIRST. However, no significant changes in total volume of putamen or other basal ganglia structures were detected with this analysis. The disagreement between measures of localized gray matter differences and volumetric analysis suggested that there might be local regional deformity rather than widespread volumetric changes of the putamen. Surface analysis with FSL/FIRST demonstrated that bilateral outward deformation of the putamen, but especially the left, was associated with poor performance on several cognitive tests. Expansion of the globus pallidus and caudate nucleus also was associated with poor performance. Moreover a significant association was detected between a reliable test of language-free intelligence and topographically distinct outward and inward deformation of the putamen. Expansion and contraction of the putamen as a predictor of intelligence may explain why this association was not observed with measures of total volume. These results suggest that deformity is a sensitive measure

  2. Sensitive periods of amygdala development: the role of maltreatment in preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Pechtel, Pia; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H

    2014-08-15

    The amygdala is vulnerable to stress-dependent disruptions in neural development. Animal models have shown that stress increases dendritic arborization leading to larger amygdala volumes. Human studies of early stress and amygdala volume, however, remain inconclusive. This study compared amygdala volume in adults with childhood maltreatment to that in healthy controls. Eighteen participants from a longitudinal cohort and 33 cross-sectional controls (17 M/34 F, 25.5±3.1 years) completed a structural magnetic resonance imagining scan and the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure scale. Random forest regression with conditional trees was used to assess relative importance of exposure to adversity at each age on amygdala, thalamic or caudate volume. Severity of exposure to adversity across age accounted for 27% of the variance in right amygdala volume. Peak sensitivity occurred at 10-11 years of age, and importance of exposure at this time was highly significant based on permutation tests (p=0.003). The regression model showed that exposure during this sensitive period resulted in steep dose-response function with maximal response to even modest levels of exposure. Subjects in the highest exposure quartile (MACE-11, range=11-54) had a 9.1% greater right amygdala volume than subjects in the lowest exposure quartile (MACE-11, ≤3.5). No associations emerged between age of exposure and volume of the left amygdala or bilateral caudate or thalamus. Severity of adversity experienced at age 10-11 contributed to larger right but not left amygdala volume in adulthood. Results provide preliminary evidence that the amygdala may have a developmental sensitive period in preadolescence. PMID:24736182

  3. Sensitive periods of amygdala development: The role of maltreatment in preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pechtel, Pia; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Anderson, Carl M.; Teicher, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    The amygdala is vulnerable to stress-dependent disruptions in neural development. Animal models have shown that stress increases dendritic arborization leading to larger amygdala volumes. Human studies of early stress and amygdala volume, however, remain inconclusive. This study compared amygdala volume in adults with childhood maltreatment to healthy controls. Eighteen participants from a longitudinal cohort and 33 cross-sectional controls (17M/35F, 25.4 ±3.1 years) completed a structural magnetic resonance imagining scan and the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure scale. Random forest regression with conditional trees was used to assess relative importance of exposure to adversity at each age on amygdala, thalamic or caudate volume. Severity of exposure to adversity across age accounted for 27% of the variance in right amygdala volume. Peak sensitivity occurred at 10–11 years of age, and importance of exposure at this time was highly significant based on permutation tests (p=0.003). The regression model showed that exposure during this sensitive period resulted in steep dose-response function with maximal response to even modest levels of exposure. Subjects in the highest exposure quartile (MACE-11, range 11 – 54) had a 9.1% greater right amygdala volume than subjects in the lowest exposure quartile (MACE-11, < 3.5). No associations emerged between age of exposure and volume of left amygdala or bilateral caudate or thalamus. Severity of adversity experienced at age 10–11 contributed to larger right but not left amygdala volume in adulthood. Results provide preliminary evidence that the amygdala may have a developmental sensitive period in preadolescence. PMID:24736182

  4. Effects of ambient sulfur oxides and suspended particles on respiratory health of preadolescent children

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.; Dockery, D.W.; Spengler, J.D.; Stram, D.O.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-05-01

    Reported here are the results from an ongoing study of outdoor air pollution and respiratory health of children living in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States. The study enrolled 10,106 white preadolescent children between 1974 and 1977 in 3 successive annual visits to each city. Each child received a spirometric examination, and a parent completed a standard questionnaire. Of this cohort, 8,380 children were seen for a second examination 1 yr later. An air pollution monitoring program was begun in each community at about the time of the first examination. For this report, measurements of total suspended particulates (TSP), the sulfate fraction of TSP (TSO/sub 4/), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations at study-affiliated outdoor stations were combined with measurements at other public and private monitoring sites to create a record of TSP, TSO/sub 4/, and SO/sub 2/ concentrations in each of 9 air pollution regions during the 1-yr period preceding each examination and, for TSP, during each child's lifetime up to the time of testing. Across the 6 cities, frequency of cough was significantly associated with the average of 24-h mean concentrations of all 3 air pollutants during the year preceding the health examination (p less than 0.01). Rates of bronchitis and a composite measure of lower respiratory illness were significantly associated with average particulate concentrations (p less than 0.05). In analyses restricted to lifetime residents, these outcomes were significantly associated with measures of lifetime mean TSP concentration. Within the cities, however, temporal and spatial variation in air pollutant concentrations and illness and symptom rates were not positively associated.

  5. [Tobacco consumption in pre-adolescent and adolescent school children in Spain: gender differences].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Ramón; López Pérez, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of tobacco consumption among pre-adolescent and adolescent school children in Spain at the start of the 21st century. The data were collected within the framework of the "Estilos de Vida de los Adolescentes Escolarizados" (EVAE) project, a nationwide cross-sectional study on the lifestyles of adolescent school children. In this study, a random sample of 8429 students aged from 10 to 18 years old (49.9% boys and 50.1% girls) was selected. The school children filled in an anonymous questionnaire in their classrooms. Among the 12-year-old age group, there are a significantly higher number of boys than girls who have ever smoked tobacco. Figures are higher for girls in the 14-year-old or older age groups. Between the 12 and the 14-year-old age groups, there is an increase of 40 percentage points for girls who have ever smoked tobacco. The prevalence of daily smoking exceeds 10% among the 14-year-old or older age groups, with significantly higher rates for girls than for boys among the 15-year-old group and older students. Among the 17-year-old group, 25% of boys and 35% of girls report that they smoke daily. The recent experience of Spain and other countries shows that it is possible to significantly reduce the prevalence of tobacco consumption among school children within a few years. The primary prevention of tobacco consumption among adolescents can be highly effective and should constitute a priority for the health system, the education system and other sectors involved. PMID:18173098

  6. Fitness and ERP Indices of Cognitive Control Mode during Task Preparation in Preadolescent Children.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Keita; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of studies conducted over the past decade have demonstrated that greater aerobic fitness is associated with superior cognitive control in preadolescent children. Several studies have suggested that the relationship between fitness and cognitive control may be attributed to differential reliance on proactive vs. reactive cognitive control modes. However, this contention has remained speculative, and further studies are needed to better elucidate this relationship. We designed the present study to test the hypothesis that use of cognitive control modes would differ as a function of childhood fitness. We compared performance of lower-fit and higher-fit children on a modified AX-continuous performance task, commonly used to examine shifts in the use of proactive and reactive control, along with cue-P3 and contingent negative variation (CNV) of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Results indicated that higher-fit children exhibited greater response accuracy for BX (non-target cue - target probe) relative to AY (target cue - non-target probe) trials, whereas lower-fit children had comparable response accuracies for AY and BX trials. Because enhanced BX performance and impaired AY performance may be attributed to the proactive use of context information, these results suggest that greater childhood fitness is associated with more effective utilization of proactive control. Higher-fit children also exhibited larger cue-P3 amplitude and smaller CNV amplitude for BX relative to AY trials, with no such effect of trial type in lower-fit children. These ERP results suggest that greater fitness is associated with more effective utilization of cue information and response preparation more appropriate to trial type, supporting the behavioral findings. The present study provides novel insights into the relationship between fitness and cognition from the perspective of cognitive control mode during task preparation. PMID:27625604

  7. Health Anxiety in Preadolescence - Associated Health Problems, Healthcare Expenditure, and Continuity in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Munkholm, Anja; Clemmensen, Lars; Rimvall, Martin K; Ørnbøl, Eva; Jeppesen, Pia; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological data on the distribution, persistence, and clinical correlates of health anxiety (HA) in childhood are scarce. We investigated continuity of HA symptoms and associated health problems and medical costs in primary health services in a general population birth cohort. HA symptoms were assessed in 1886 Danish 11-12 year old children (48 % boys) from the Copenhagen Child Cohort using the Childhood Illness Attitude Scales (CIAS) together with information on socio-demographics and the child's somatic and mental status and healthcare expenditure. Non-parametric statistics and regression analysis were used to compare groups with low (n = 184), intermediate (n = 1539), and high (n = 161) HA symptom scores. The association between HA symptoms assessed at age 5-7 years and HA symptoms at ages 11-12 years was examined by Stuart-Maxwell test. HA symptoms were significantly associated with emotional disorders and unspecific somatic complaints, but not with chronic physical conditions. In regression analyses controlling for gender and physical comorbidity, healthcare expenditure peaked in children with the highest HA symptom score, that is these children used on average approximately 150 Euro more than children with the lowest score during the 2-year period preceding inclusion. HA symptoms at age 5-7 years were significantly associated with HA symptoms at age 11-12 years. We conclude that HA symptoms, including hypochondriacal fears and beliefs, were non-trivial in preadolescents; they showed continuity from early childhood and association with emotional disorders, unspecific somatic complaints, and increased healthcare expenditure. Further research in the clinical significance of childhood HA is required. PMID:26311618

  8. THE USE OF HARMFUL LEGAL PRODUCTS AMONG PRE-ADOLESCENT ALASKAN STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Saylor, Brian; Fair, Melodie; Deike-Sims, Shannon; Johnson, Knowlton; Ogilvie, Kristen; Collins, David

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This study examined pre-adolescent use of harmful but legally obtainable products (HLPs) “in order to get high” in 4 communities in northwest and southeast Alaska. These products include inhalants, over-the-counter medications, prescription medications taken without a doctor’s prescription and common household products. Study design Cross-sectional survey. Methods A student, survey was administered to the 447 students whose parents consented and who agreed to participate. A descriptive analysis with frequencies, percentages, bivariate associations and appropriate statistical tests produced the study results. Results The lifetime overall use of HLPs among fifth, sixth and seventh grade students in 4 Alaskan communities was 17.4%. The lifetime use of inhalants (6.8%) and prescription medications taken without a doctor’s prescription (8.0%) appear to be comparable to use rates from other studies. The use of over-the-counter medications (5.7%) appears to be slightly higher than in other U.S. surveys. The use of common household products was 6.1%. No significant, differences in the lifetime or 30-day use were found correlated to region, gender, ethnicity or student grade. There was a strong association between 30-day or lifetime use of some HLPs and the (30-day or life time) use of alcohol, cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Conclusions The use of harmful everyday legal products by fifth, sixth and seventh graders in Alaska appears to be similar to data collected in other parts of the country. The possibility that there may be a link between the use of available legal substances and alcohol, tobacco and marijuana deserves additional attention. PMID:18274208

  9. SHAPE OF THE BASAL GANGLIA IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN IS ASSOCIATED WITH COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Curt A.; Head, Kevin; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Su, Lydia; Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi.

    2014-01-01

    Current studies support the belief that high levels of performance and intellectual abilities are associated with increased brain size or volume. With few exceptions, this conclusion is restricted to studies of post-adolescent subjects and to cerebral cortex. There is evidence that “bigger is better” may not pertain to children and further, that there are areas of the brain in which larger structures are associated with cognitive deficits. In 50 preadolescent children (21 girls) a structural survey of the brain (VBM) was conducted to determine and locate areas in which gray matter volume was associated with poor cognitive performance. Only increased gray matter volume in particular areas of the basal ganglia and specifically the putamen were significantly associated with poor performance on tests of memory, response speed and a general marker and subtests of intelligence. Based on the VBM findings, volumetric analysis of basal ganglia structures were performed using FSL/FIRST. However, no significant changes in total volume of putamen or other basal ganglia structures were detected with this analysis. The disagreement between measures of localized gray matter differences and volumetric analysis suggested that there might be local regional deformity rather than widespread volumetric changes of the putamen. Surface analysis with FSL/FIRST demonstrated that bilateral outward deformation of the putamen, but especially the left, was associated with poor performance on several cognitive tests. Expansion of the globus pallidus and caudate nucleus also was associated with poor performance. Moreover a significant association was detected between a reliable test of language-free intelligence and topographically distinct outward and inward deformation of the putamen. Expansion and contraction of the putamen as a predictor of intelligence may explain why this association was not observed with measures of total volume. These results suggest that deformity is a sensitive

  10. Time-of-day effects on cognition in preadolescents: a trails study.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Althaus, Monika

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive performance fluctuates during the day due to diurnal variations in alertness level. This study examined: (1) whether cognitive performance in school-aged children is affected by time-of-day; (2) which functional domains are particularly vulnerable to time-of-day effects; and (3) whether the effects are more pronounced for cognitively more demanding tasks or task conditions. Children, aged 10-12 yrs, were randomly assigned to a test session starting either at 08:30 (n = 802), 10:00 (n = 713), or 13:00 h (n = 652). Speed and accuracy of information processing were evaluated by tasks that assess input-related cognitive processes (e.g., stimulus encoding), central cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, sustained attention), and output-related processes (e.g., response organization) using the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks program. Time-of-day effects in children were identified in specific neurocognitive domains, such as visuospatial processing and working memory, but only under cognitively more demanding task conditions. Sustained attention showed a speed-accuracy tradeoff with increased slowness and lapses in the early morning, but with better feedback responsiveness and perceptual sensitivity than in the early afternoon. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction of time-on-task with time-of-day for tempo, with the afternoon group increasing in tempo with time-on-task, and the early-morning group first showing a slowing of tempo with time-on-task, followed at the end of the task by a speed increase towards the initial levels. To conclude, the authors found time-of-day effects in preadolescents, which were confined to cognitively more demanding tasks tapping input-related and central cognitive processes. PMID:20969529

  11. Fitness and ERP Indices of Cognitive Control Mode during Task Preparation in Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Kamijo, Keita; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of studies conducted over the past decade have demonstrated that greater aerobic fitness is associated with superior cognitive control in preadolescent children. Several studies have suggested that the relationship between fitness and cognitive control may be attributed to differential reliance on proactive vs. reactive cognitive control modes. However, this contention has remained speculative, and further studies are needed to better elucidate this relationship. We designed the present study to test the hypothesis that use of cognitive control modes would differ as a function of childhood fitness. We compared performance of lower-fit and higher-fit children on a modified AX-continuous performance task, commonly used to examine shifts in the use of proactive and reactive control, along with cue-P3 and contingent negative variation (CNV) of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Results indicated that higher-fit children exhibited greater response accuracy for BX (non-target cue – target probe) relative to AY (target cue – non-target probe) trials, whereas lower-fit children had comparable response accuracies for AY and BX trials. Because enhanced BX performance and impaired AY performance may be attributed to the proactive use of context information, these results suggest that greater childhood fitness is associated with more effective utilization of proactive control. Higher-fit children also exhibited larger cue-P3 amplitude and smaller CNV amplitude for BX relative to AY trials, with no such effect of trial type in lower-fit children. These ERP results suggest that greater fitness is associated with more effective utilization of cue information and response preparation more appropriate to trial type, supporting the behavioral findings. The present study provides novel insights into the relationship between fitness and cognition from the perspective of cognitive control mode during task preparation. PMID:27625604

  12. Low Empathy in Deaf and Hard of Hearing (Pre)Adolescents Compared to Normal Hearing Controls

    PubMed Central

    Netten, Anouk P.; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy. Methods The study group (mean age 11.9 years) consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids) and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children’s level of empathy, their attendance to others’ emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior. Results Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported) language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children. Conclusions Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships. PMID:25906365

  13. Heart morphology differences induced by intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth measured on the ECG at preadolescent age.

    PubMed

    Ortigosa, Nuria; Rodriguez-Lopez, Merida; Bailón, Raquel; Sarvari, Sebastian Imre; Sitges, Marta; Gratacos, Eduard; Bijnens, Bart; Crispi, Fatima; Laguna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) and premature birth are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular diseases throughout adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of these factors in ventricular electrical remodeling in preadolescents. Electrocardiography was performed in a cohort of 33-IUGR, 32-preterm with appropriate weight and 60 controls. Depolarization and repolarization processes were studied by means of the surface ECG, including loops and angles corresponding to QRS and T-waves. The angles between the dominant vector of QRS and the frontal plane XY were different among the study groups: controls [20.03°(10.11°-28.64°)], preterm [25.48°(19.79°-33.56°)], and IUGR [27.77°(16.59°-33.23°)]. When compared to controls, IUGR subjects also presented wider angles between the difference of QRS and T-wave dominant vectors and the XY-plane [5.28°±12.15° vs 0.49°±14.15°, p<0.05] while preterm ones showed smaller frontal QRS-T angle [4.68°(2.20°-12.89°) vs 6.57°(2.72°-11.31°), p<0.05]. Thus, electrical remodeling is present in IUGR and preterm preadolescents, and might predispose them to cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Follow-up studies are warranted. PMID:27036371

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28) among Samples of French Canadian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneault, Isabelle; Dion, Jacinthe; Hebert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre; Collin-Vezina, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Explore the psychometric properties of the French Canadian version of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28, Resilience Research Center, 2009; Ungar et al., 2008) in youth samples. Method: Two investigations were conducted. Participants in Study 1 were 589 youth (60% female) in grades 10-12 from 2 urban public high schools.…

  15. Automated Retrieval of ERIC Materials: Implications for Canadian Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auster, Ethel; Lawton, Stephen B.

    The disadvantages for Canadians using the ERIC system are (1) fledgling Canadian computer information systems are deprived of their financial support; (2) Canadian research included in ERIC can not necessarily be retrieved by country of origin; (3) of the 200 journals indexed in Canadian Education Index (CEI), only 26 are to found among the 600 in…

  16. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  17. Mission statements in Canadian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bart, Christopher K; Hupfer, Maureen

    2004-01-01

    One of the most popular management tools in the world, the mission statement also is subject to widespread criticism. In order to improve our understanding of the mission statement's strategic value and to provide actionable recommendations for healthcare organizations, the paper adopted a social constructionist perspective in a mission statement study conducted among Canadian hospital executives. The paper found seven factors underlying 23 possible mission statement content items. Four of these (grand inspiration, benefactors, competitive orientation and business definition) corresponded to the dimensions of dominant managerial logic proposed by von Krogh and Grand, and were positively related to various behavioral, financial performance and mission achievement measures. The findings indicate that not all mission statement components are created equal and that the recommendations of major strategy texts may require reconsideration where this particular institutional context is concerned. PMID:15366277

  18. Rotaviruses from Canadian farm samples.

    PubMed

    Lamhoujeb, Safaa; Cook, Angela; Pollari, Frank; Bidawid, Sabah; Farber, Jeff; Mattison, Kirsten

    2010-07-01

    Animal rotavirus (RoV) strains detected in Canadian swine and dairy cattle farms were characterized by sequence analysis of viral protein 4 (VP4), VP6, VP7 and non-structural protein 4 segments from 15 RoV strains. Some porcine strains were found to contain a mixture of segments typical of human and animal viruses. One strain represented a novel VP6 genotype "I14", G2-P[27]-I14. Other strains detected in porcine samples represented multiple different segment types. These results illustrate the active evolution of animal RoV strains and underline the need for surveillance of both animal and human strains in public health-monitoring programs. PMID:20517624

  19. The Canadian Global Change Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lefrancois, C.; Maillette, L. )

    1994-06-01

    Global change affects climate and many other processes of the biosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, oceans and human societies. The Canadian Global Change Program (CGCP) is a multidisciplinary body established in 1985 by the Royal Society of Canada. The CGCP stimulates research projects, acts as national link to international programs such as the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, assists in policy formulation, maintains a database of global change activities in Canada, and promotes awareness of global change issues among researchers, policy makers, educators, and the general public. The importance of human societies as forcing functions of global change is integrated in the activities of the CGCP (e.g. long-term ecosystem monitoring, reduction of greenhouse gas emission, population growth and resource use). CGCP publications include a quarterly newsletter (DELTA), overviews of major issues, policy recommendations, proceedings of workshops and conferences, and documents destined to educators.

  20. Dental fitness classification in the Canadian forces.

    PubMed

    Groves, Richard R

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Forces Dental Services utilizes a dental classification system to identify those military members dentally fit for an overseas deployment where dental resources may be limited. Although the Canadian Forces Dental Services dental classification system is based on NATO standards, it differs slightly from the dental classification systems of other NATO country dental services. Data collected by dental teams on overseas deployments indicate a low rate of emergency dental visits by Canadian Forces members who were screened as dentally fit to deploy. PMID:18277717

  1. Environmental contaminants in Canadian shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Noble, David G

    2009-01-01

    Canadian shorebirds are exposed to environmental contaminants throughout their annual cycle. Contaminant exposure among species varies with diet, foraging behaviour and migration patterns. We sampled twelve species of shorebirds from four locations across Canada to assess their exposure to PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, as well as four trace elements (Hg, Se, Cd, As). SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT followed by SigmaCHL were most frequently found above trace level in the shorebird carcasses. In general, the plover species (American golden, semipalmated, black-bellied) appear to be the most contaminated with organochlorines, whereas Hudsonian and marbled godwits appear to be the least contaminated. Among adult birds, the greater and lesser yellowlegs had the highest hepatic Hg concentrations (2.4-2.7 microg g(-1) dw), whereas American golden plovers as well as Hudsonian and marbled godwits contained relatively low levels of Hg (<1 microg g(-1) dw). Renal Se concentrations varied from 3.2 to 16.7 microg g(-1) dw and exhibited little interspecific or seasonal variation. Renal Cd levels in adult birds were highest in Hudsonian godwits from Quill Lakes (43 microg g(-1) dw) and Cape Churchill (12 microg g(-1) dw), and lowest (0.8-1.5 microg g(-1) dw) in greater and lesser yellowlegs from Cape Churchill and Bay of Fundy. Renal As concentrations varied from 0.06 microg g(-1) dw in golden plovers from Cape Churchill to 4.6 and 5.1 microg g(-1) dw in dunlin samples from the Pacific coast. There is no evidence that contaminants were adversely affecting the shorebirds sampled from the Canadian locations in this study. PMID:18340543

  2. Air pollution and childhood respiratory health: Exposure to sulfate and ozone in 10 Canadian Rural Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, B.R.; Raizenne, M.E.; Burnett, R.T.; Jones, L.; Kearney, J.; Franklin, C.A. )

    1994-08-01

    This study was designed to examine differences in the respiratory health status of preadolescent school children, aged 7-11 years, who resided in 10 rural Canadian communities in areas of moderate and low exposure to regional sulfate and ozone pollution. Five of the communities were located in central Saskatchewan, a low-exposure region, and five were located in southwestern Ontario, an area with moderately elevated exposures resulting from long-range atmospheric transport of polluted air masses. In this cross-sectional study, the child's respiratory symptoms and illness history were evaluated using a parent-completed questionnaire, administered in September 1985. Respiratory function was assessed once for each child in the schools between October 1985 and March 1986, by the measurement of pulmonary function for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV[sub 1.0]), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), mean forced expiratory flow rate during the middle half of the FVC curve (FEF[sub 25-75]), and maximal expiratory flow at 50% of the expired vital capacity (V[sub 50]max). After controlling for the effects of age, sex, parental smoking, parental education and gas cooking, no significant regional differences were observed in rates of chronic cough or phlegm, persistent wheeze, current asthma, bronchitis in the past year, or any chest illness that kept the child at home for 3 or more consecutive days during the previous year. Children living in southwestern Ontario had statistically significant (P < 0.01) mean decrements of 1.7% in FVC and 1.3% in FEV[sub 1.0] compared with Saskatchewan children, after adjusting for age, sex, weight, standing height, parental smoking, and gas cooking. There were no statistically significant regional differences in the pulmonary flow parameters (P > 0.05). 54 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  3. Competing Discourses about Youth Sexual Exploitation in Canadian News Media

    PubMed Central

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Miller, Bonnie B.; Rivers, Robert; Matthews, Jennifer; Hilario, Carla; Hirakata, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Media holds the power to create, maintain, or break down stigmatizing attitudes, which affect policies, funding, and services. To understand how Canadian news media depicts the commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth, we examined 835 Canadian newspaper articles from 1989–2008 using a mixed methods critical discourse analysis approach, comparing representations to existing research about sexually exploited youth. Despite research evidence that equal rates of boys and girls experience exploitation, Canadian news media depicted exploited youth predominantly as heterosexual girls, and described them alternately as victims or workers in a trade, often both in the same story. News media mentioned exploiters far less often than victims, and portrayed them almost exclusively as male, most often called ‘customers’ or ‘consumers,’ and occasionally ‘predators’; in contrast, research has documented the majority of sexually exploited boys report female exploiters. Few news stories over the past two decades portrayed the diversity of victims, perpetrators, and venues of exploitation reported in research. The focus on victims but not exploiters helps perpetuate stereotypes of sexual exploitation as business or a ‘victimless crime,’ maintains the status quo, and blurs responsibility for protecting youth under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Health care providers and researchers can be advocates for accuracy in media coverage about sexual exploitation; news reporters and editors should focus on exploiters more than victims, draw on existing research evidence to avoid perpetuating stereotypes, and use accurate terms, such as commercial sexual exploitation, rather than terms related to business or trade. PMID:26793015

  4. Injuries at a Canadian National Taekwondo Championships: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Pieter, Willy

    2004-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the injury rates in male and female adult Canadian Taekwondo athletes relative to total number of injuries, type and body part injured. Methods Subjects (219 males, 99 females) participated in the 1997 Canadian National Taekwondo Championships in Toronto, Canada. Injuries were recorded on an injury form to documents any injury seen and treatment provided by the health care team. These data were later used for this study. The injury form describes the athlete and nature, site, severity and mechanism of the injury. Results The overall rate of injuries was 62.9/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E). The males (79.9/1,000 A-E) sustained significantly more injuries than the females (25.3/1,000 A-E). The lower extremities were the most commonly injured body region in the men (32.0 /1,000 A-E), followed by the head and neck (18.3/1,000 A-E). Injuries to the spine (neck, upper back, low back and coccyx) were the third most often injured body region in males (13.8/1,000 A-E). All injuries to the women were sustained to the lower extremities. The most common type of injury in women was the contusion (15.2/1,000 A-E). However, men's most common type of injury was the sprain (22.8/1,000 A-E) followed by joint dysfunction (13.7/1,000A-E). Concussions were only reported in males (6.9/1,000 A-E). Compared to international counterparts, the Canadian men and women recorded lower total injury rates. However, the males incurred more cerebral concussions than their American colleagues (4.7/1,000 A-E). Conclusions Similar to what was found in previous studies, the current investigation seems to suggest that areas of particular concern for preventive measures involve the head and neck as well as the lower extremities. This is the first paper to identify spinal joint dysfunction. PMID:15279679

  5. Canadian media representations of mad cow disease.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Amanda D; Jardine, Cynthia G; Driedger, S Michelle

    2009-01-01

    A Canadian case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease" was confirmed in May, 2003. An in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles was conducted to understand the portrayal of BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the Canadian media. Articles in the "first 10 days" following the initial discovery of a cow with BSE in Canada on May 20, 2003, were examined based on the premise that these initial stories provide the major frames that dominate news media reporting of the same issue over time and multiple occurrences. Subsequent confirmed Canadian cases were similarly analyzed to determine if coverage changed in these later media articles. The results include a prominence of economic articles, de-emphasis of health aspects, and anchoring the Canadian outbreak to that of Britain's crisis. The variation in media representations between those in Canada and those documented in Britain are explored in this study. PMID:19697246

  6. 47 CFR 22.955 - Canadian condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Department of Communications in Canada, authorizations for cellular systems within 72 kilometers... installations which are within 72 kilometers (45 miles) of the U.S.-Canadian border shall be required...

  7. 47 CFR 22.955 - Canadian condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Department of Communications in Canada, authorizations for cellular systems within 72 kilometers... installations which are within 72 kilometers (45 miles) of the U.S.-Canadian border shall be required...

  8. 47 CFR 22.955 - Canadian condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Department of Communications in Canada, authorizations for cellular systems within 72 kilometers... installations which are within 72 kilometers (45 miles) of the U.S.-Canadian border shall be required...

  9. 47 CFR 22.955 - Canadian condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Department of Communications in Canada, authorizations for cellular systems within 72 kilometers... installations which are within 72 kilometers (45 miles) of the U.S.-Canadian border shall be required...

  10. 47 CFR 22.955 - Canadian condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Department of Communications in Canada, authorizations for cellular systems within 72 kilometers... installations which are within 72 kilometers (45 miles) of the U.S.-Canadian border shall be required...

  11. The Status of Interpreters for Deaf Canadians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schein, Jerome D.; Yarwood, Sara

    1990-01-01

    A national survey of 170 interpreters for deaf Canadians examined demographic characteristics; knowledge of sign; education; experience; employment; voluntary service; clients served; settings; earnings and fees; and opinions regarding their work, compensation, working conditions, ethics, and education. (JDD)

  12. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  13. Canadian Law Schools: In Search of Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon E.

    1980-01-01

    Academically, Canadian education is at the crossroads between formalism and functionalism, with the latter prevailing in recent years. There now arises a demand for a more integrated approach, linking legal theory with legal practice. (MSE)

  14. Vegetable protein and vegetable fat intakes in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls, and risk for benign breast disease in young women.

    PubMed

    Berkey, Catherine S; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M; Rosner, Bernard; Frazier, A Lindsay; Colditz, Graham A

    2013-09-01

    Previous investigations, of adolescent diet recalled in adulthood, found lower risk for benign breast disease (BBD) with higher intakes of vegetable fat and nuts during high school. We investigate whether vegetable protein and fat, derived from diets reported during pre-adolescence and adolescence, are associated with subsequent risk for BBD in young women. The Growing Up Today Study includes 9,039 females, 9-15 years in 1996, who completed questionnaires annually through 2001, and then in 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2010. Food frequency questionnaires (1996-2001) obtained intake data on a variety of foods. Beginning in 2005, women (18-30 years) reported whether they had ever been diagnosed with BBD that was confirmed by breast biopsy (n = 112 cases). Logistic regression estimated associations between intakes of vegetable protein and fat and biopsy-confirmed BBD. Those individual foods that were the largest contributors of protein and fat in this cohort were also investigated. In analyses of intakes from 1996 through 1998, when our cohort was youngest, vegetable fat (OR = 0.72/(10 gm/day), 95 % CI 0.53-0.98; p = 0.04) was inversely associated with BBD risk. The greatest sources of vegetable fat and protein in these girls were peanut butter, peanuts, nuts, beans (beans, lentils, and soybeans), and corn. A daily serving of any one of these was associated with lower risk (OR = 0.32/(serv/day), 95 % CI 0.13-0.79; p = 0.01). Peanut butter (and nuts) at age 11 years was inversely associated with risk (p = 0.01). In analyses of intakes at age 14 years, vegetable protein was associated with lower BBD risk (OR = 0.64/(10 gm/day), 95 % CI 0.43-0.95; p = 0.03). A daily serving at 14 years of any one of the foods was associated with lower risk (OR = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.16-0.75; p = 0.01), as was peanut butter (and nuts) (p = 0.02). Girls with a family history of breast cancer had significantly lower risk if they consumed these foods or vegetable fat. In conclusion, consumption of

  15. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  16. Canadian experience with structured clinical examinations.

    PubMed Central

    Grand'Maison, P; Lescop, J; Brailovsky, C A

    1993-01-01

    The use of structured clinical examinations to improve the evaluation of medical students and graduates has become significantly more common in the past 25 years. Many Canadian medical educators have contributed to the development of this technique. The Canadian experience is reviewed from the introduction of simulated-standardized patients and objective-structured clinical examinations to more recent developments and the use of such examinations for licensure and certification. PMID:8477384

  17. Pyloric trichobezoar in a Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Jack; Munsterman, Amelia S

    2013-12-01

    An adult female Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) was presented with a 3-wk history of anorexia and lethargy. Initial examination and diagnostics did not provide a diagnosis. The lynx continued to demonstrate vague clinical signs, including anorexia and an abnormal gait. During follow-up immobilizations 2 wk later, a barium gastrointestinal study revealed a pyloric obstruction. Abdominal exploratory surgery was elected, and a gastrotomy and an enterotomy of the proximal duodenum were performed to remove the pyloric obstruction. The obstruction was determined to be a trichobezoar. Fleas, a likely cause of hair ingestion through grooming, were noted during surgical preparation. The lynx made a full recovery from surgery. Reoccurrence of the trichobezoar was prevented after surgery with the use of monthly flea control and three times a week hairball laxative. PMID:24450081

  18. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Canadian Military

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Alain; Monson, Eva; Liu, Aihua; Fikretoglu, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among a representative, active military sample, and to identify demographic and military variables that modulate rates of trauma exposure as well as PTSD rates and duration. Method: A cross-sectional weighted sample of 5155 regular members and 3957 reservists (n = 8441) of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) was face-to-face interviewed using a lay-administered structured interview that generates Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, psychiatric diagnoses. Results: Within this sample, 85.6% reported 1 or more trauma exposure, with a median number of 3 or more exposures. Compared with males, females were less likely (P < 0.05) to be exposed to warlike trauma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.40), disasters (AOR 0.43), assaultive violence (AOR 0.52), and witnessing trauma (AOR 0.75). However, they were more likely to report sexual assault (AOR 7.36). The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 6.6% and the conditional rate was 7.7%. Both lifetime and conditional PTSD rates were higher among female soldiers, but lower among the reserve forces, both male and female. Finally, the median duration of PTSD was negatively influenced by younger age of onset, but not influenced by whether the event occurred during deployment. Conclusions: Active members of the CAF report a high degree of trauma exposure but a moderate rate of lifetime PTSD. PMID:26720506

  19. Canadian Open Tennis. Puzzle Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the du Maurier Open, a women's tennis tournament. Explains that tennis becomes an elite sport at the level of the du Maurier Open. Presents a crossword puzzle that focuses on many of the female tennis stars and provides the across and down clues, a word list, and the answer key. (CMK)

  20. From Parent-Child Mutuality to Security to Socialization Outcomes: Developmental Cascade toward Positive Adaptation in Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age 8. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013). The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident. PMID:26258443

  1. Still Trapped in the U.S. Media's Closet: Representations of Gender-Variant, Pre-Adolescent Children.

    PubMed

    Kelso, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined representations of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in the U.S. media. Yet they have centered on portrayals of adults or teenagers. This investigation considered a potential LGBT population that has been neglected in media research, namely gender-variant, preadolescent children. Surveying the U.S. media at large but with an emphasis on television, the article reveals that gender-creative youth are nearly invisible. When depictions of gender-variant kids do appear, they often focus on either children who express extreme gender dysphoria or in some way signify the "tragic queer" motif (or both). The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25760853

  2. Reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Sunseri, A J; Alberti, J M; Kent, N D; Schoenberger, J A; Sunseri, J K; Amuwo, S; Vickers, P

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes. The school-home humanistic education program was implemented in a large, urban public school system. It stressed responsible decision-making, increased self-esteem and the inter-relationships among the acquisition of knowledge of the consequences of smoking, personal feelings, family relationships and behavior. The results showed that family involvement was necessary to affect smoking attitudes and behaviors. Of all the variables studied, reading had a most pervasive relationship. Peer influence and self-esteem also were related to smoking knowledge, smoking attitude, future smoking intentions and the "purchase" of cigarettes. Two of several conclusions drawn from the results are: 1. Family involvement is necessary to affect attitudes and behaviors. 2. Health education research that does not investigate the relationship between program outcomes and reading achievement may be misleading. PMID:6552341

  3. Theorizing Gender in Contemporary Canadian Citizenship: Lessons Learned from the CBC's "Greatest Canadian" Contest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubas, Kaela

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I have used the 2004 Greatest Canadian contest as an example of media's educational function. Contrary to mainstream discourse of gender-neutral citizenship, this contest reiterates a notion of Canadian citizenship as masculinized, classed, and raced. Gramsci's concepts of "hegemony," "ideology", and "common sense" and Arnot's…

  4. Canadian Attitudes toward Labour Market Issues: A Survey of Canadian Opinion. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, Human Resources and Social Development Canada commissioned Environics Research Group Limited to conduct a public opinion survey on labour market issues among 3,000 adult Canadians. The objective of the public opinion survey was to better understand the perceptions of Canadians regarding labour market challenges and opportunities in order…

  5. The Canadian mobile satellite program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, P. M.; Breithaupt, R. W.; McNally, J. L.

    The progressions and selection of design features for the Canadian segment of a mobile satellite (MSAT) communications system are traced. The feasibility study for a satellite-based public and government mobile communications service to underserved areas was carried out between 1980-82. The results covered the market demand, commercial viability, user cost-benefit, and spacecraft concepts. A subsequent 2 yr study was initiated to proceed with project definition. A market of 1.1 million users was identified in all of Canada, with MSAT replacing other systems for 50 percent of the market. Operations would be in the 806-890 MHz range. Traffic will be routed through gateway links functioning in the 8/7 GHz SHF band while the mobile units will be connected through an 821-825 MHz up link and an 866-870 MH downlink. New technologies will be needed for a central control station, the gateway stations, and the base stations for the mobile radio service, the mobile user terminals, and data collection platforms.

  6. Canadian landmine detection research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Das, Yogadhish; Faust, Anthony A.

    2003-09-01

    Defence R&D Canada (DRDC), an agency within the Department of National Defence, has been conducting research and development (R&D) on the detection of landmines for countermine operations and of unexploded ordnance (UXO) for range clearance since 1975. The Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT), located at DRDC Suffield, was formed in 1998 to carry out R&D related to humanitarian demining. The lead group responsible for formulating and executing both countermine and humanitarian R&D programs in detection is the Threat Detection Group at DRDC Suffield. This paper describes R&D for both programs under the major headings of remote minefield detection, close-in scanning detection, confirmation detection and teleoperated systems. Among DRDC's achievements in landmine and UXO detection R&D are pioneering work in electromagnetic and magnetic identification and classification; the first military-fielded multisensor, teleoperated vehicle-mounted landmine detection system; pioneering use of confirmation detectors for multisensor landmine detection systems; the first fielded thermal neutron activation landmine confirmation sensor; the first detection of landmines using a real-time hyperspectral imager; electrical impedance imaging detection of landmines and UXO and a unique neutron backscatter landmine imager.

  7. Violence on Canadian Television Networks

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. Method The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. Results The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Conclusion Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television. PMID:19030148

  8. Canadian guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help

  9. 2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Debenham, Brock; Banerjee, Robyn; Fairchild, Alysa; Dundas, George; Trotter, Theresa; Yee, Don

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

  10. VLF propagation measurements in the Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauber, Wilfred R.; Bertrand, Jean M.

    1993-05-01

    For the past three years, during a period of high sun spot numbers, propagation measurements were made on the reception of VLF signals in the Canadian Arctic. Between Aug. and Dec. 1989, the received signal strengths were measured on the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker, John A. MacDonald in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Between Jul. 1991 and Jun. 1992, the received signal strengths were measured at Nanisivik, Baffin Island. The purposes of this work were to check the accuracy and estimate variances of the Naval Ocean Systems Center's (NOSC) Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) predictions in the Canadian Arctic and to gather ionospheric storm data. In addition, the NOSC data taken at Fort Smith and our data at Nanisivik were used to test the newly developed Longwave Noise Prediction (LNP) program and the CCIR noise predictions, at 21.4 and 24.0 kHz. The results of the work presented and discussed in this paper show that in general the LWPC predicts accurate values of received signal strength in the Canadian Arctic with standard deviations of 1 to 2 dB over several months. Ionospheric storms can gauge the received signal strengths to decrease some 10 dB for a period of several hours or days. However, the effects of these storms are highly dependent on the propagation path. Finally the new LNP atmospheric noise model predicts lower values of noise in the Arctic than the CCIR model and our limited measurements tend to support these lower values.

  11. Origins of the Canadian school of surgery

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, Vivian Charles

    2007-01-01

    Background Since its inception 50 years ago, the Canadian Journal of Surgery has published articles under the banner “History of Canadian Surgery.” Because no comprehensive history of surgery in this country has yet been written, these articles may provide its basis. Method The Canadian Journal of Surgery was searched from October 1957 to August 2007 for articles on the practice of surgery in Canada before 1957. Articles regarding the development of surgery in provinces, universities, hospitals and surgical specialty societies were included, as well as biographies and obituaries of surgeons. Results Thirty-six articles dealing with the lives of 57 Canadian surgeons were located. Three periods of Canadian surgery were covered: the French regime (1535–1759), the transition period (1759–1870) and the early modern period (1870–1945). The review shows that persistent efforts were made in Canada to develop surgical education and to regulate the practice of surgery. Isolation forced a spirit of adaptability that led to innovation and progress. Conclusion The practice of surgery in Canada today can be traced back to contributions made by pioneering surgeons over the entire history of modern Canada. An archive of materials related to the history of surgery in Canada is being created at www.historyofsurgery.ca to facilitate further research. PMID:18031633

  12. Observed and perceived parental overprotection in relation to psychosocial adjustment in preadolescents with a physical disability: the mediational role of behavioral autonomy.

    PubMed

    Holmbeck, Grayson N; Johnson, Sharon Z; Wills, Karen E; McKernon, Wendy; Rose, Brigid; Erklin, Shannon; Kemper, Therese

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to tes a mediational model of associations between parental overprotectiveness (OP), behavioral autonomy. and psychosocial adjustment in 68 families with 8- and 9-year-old preadolescents with spipa bifida and a demographically matched sample of 68 families with able-bodied children. Measures included questionnaire and observational assessments of parental OP; parent and child reports of behavioral autonomy; and parent, child, and teacher reports of preadolescent adjustment. On the basis of both questionnaire and observational measures of OP, mothers and fathers of children with spina bifida were significantly more overprotective than their counterparts in the able-bodied sample, although this group difference was partially mediated by children's cognitive ability. Across samples, mothers were more likely to be overprotective than fathers. Both questionnaire and observational measures of parental OP were associated with lower levels of preadolescent decision-making autonomy as well as with parents being less willing to grant autonomy to their offspring in the future. For the questionnaire measure of OP, and only for the spina bifida sample. the mediational model was supported such that parental OP was associated with less behavioral autonomy, which was, in turn, associated with more externalizing problems. Findings are discussed in relation to the literature on parenting, autonomy development, and pediatric psychology. PMID:11860060

  13. Assessing the Effects of a Complementary Parent Intervention and Prior Exposure to a Preadolescent Program of HIV Risk Reduction for Mid-Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Rolle, Glenda; Braithwaite, Nanika; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Marshall, Sharon; Gomez, Perry

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We (1) evaluated the impact of an evidence-based HIV prevention program with and without a parent component among mid-adolescents living in the Caribbean and (2) determined the effect of prior receipt of a related intervention during preadolescence on intervention response. Methods. A randomized, controlled 4-cell trial of a 10-session, theory-based HIV prevention intervention involving 2564 Bahamian grade-10 youths (some of whom had received a comparable intervention in grade 6) was conducted (2008–2011). Randomization occurred at the level of the classroom with follow-up at 6, 12, and 18 months after intervention. The 3 experimental conditions all included the youths’ curriculum and either a youth–parent intervention emphasizing adolescent–parent communication, a parent-only goal-setting intervention, or no parent intervention. Results. An intervention delivered to mid-adolescents in combination with a parent–adolescent sexual-risk communication intervention increased HIV/AIDS knowledge, condom-use skills, and self-efficacy and had a marginal effect on consistent condom use. Regardless of prior exposure to a similar intervention as preadolescents, youths benefited from receipt of the intervention. Conclusions. Preadolescents and mid-adolescents in HIV-affected countries should receive HIV prevention interventions that include parental participation. PMID:25602877

  14. 14 CFR 294.87 - Compliance with Canadian licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of This Part § 294.87 Compliance with Canadian licenses. A registrant shall not, in the performance...

  15. 22. DETAIL OF EAST (CANADIAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF EAST (CANADIAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF MAIN SPAN, SHOWING PIER C. VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  16. Canadian Chiropractic Resources Databank (CCRD): a profile of Canadian chiropractors

    PubMed Central

    Kopansky-Giles, Deborah; Papadopoulos, Costa

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To establish a data bank which will serve as a comprehensive inventory of data and document practical information on Canada’s licensed chiropractors and to produce a summary report of this information. Design: A national census mail survey. Setting: Canada. The survey administration timeline during which information was collected was the period of August 1995 to July 1996. Participants: All chiropractors licensed to practice chiropractic in Canada, excluding chiropractors practising in the Yukon and Northwest Territories. A total of 4,246 questionnaires were mailed, of which 121 were ineligible. There were 2,905 valid responses (response rate 70.4%). Main outcome measures: Background information (demographics), professional activity, educational, training and affiliations, practice characteristics, finances and income. Results: Background information: 82.8% of all respondents were male. On January 1, 1997, the mean age of all respondents was 41.9 years. 88.6% of all respondents were born in Canada and 74.8% graduated from the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The mean number of years in practice by all respondents was 13.7 years. 17.5% of all respondents had more than one practice location. Professional activity: A total of 96.2% of the respondents were active chiropractors (a chiropractor in active practice was one whose level of activity was self-described as full-time, part-time or semi-retired and who was in practice at least 10 hours per week). 85% reported being in full-time practice, 8.7% in part-time practice and 2.5% reported being semi-retired. Full-time chiropractors reported working on average 41.3 hours per week, 49.1 weeks per year and receiving 158.6 total patient visits per week. Active chiropractors reported spending on average 75.1% of their work time on direct patient care. 39.6% of active chiropractors reported that their practice had decreased over the last three years (in terms of number of patient visits). Education

  17. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  18. Canadian Communication Theory: Extensions and Interpretations of Harold Innis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, James W.

    This document on Canadian communication theory is divided into four major sections. The first section examines the work of Harold Innis as a distinctively Canadian effort to establish a theory of communications that is true to the realities of Canadian existence and yet is applicable to the history of communication in other parts of the world. The…

  19. A Course in Canadian Film for U.S. Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutenko, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Canadian Film will be a new course in the Communications Studies department at the University of Missouri at Kansas City particularly designed for non-Canadian Midwestern US students. It will not only introduce students to the richness and significance of Canadian film as both art and entertainment (which is virtually unrecognized around here),…

  20. Transnational Education -- An Opportunity and a Canadian Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Transnational education is a huge growth industry and a potential source of considerable income for Canadian educational institutions. Canadian educational establishments seem to be missing out on this, and this seems short sighted. Canada has a very good reputation globally; this could be utilized when selling Canadian educational institutions in…

  1. Adrift in Our National Consciousness: Meditations on Canadian Ecological Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowan, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Misao Dean (2006) discusses the canoe as a celebrated icon of Canadian culture in her critique of the Centennial celebrations of 1967; as part of the Centennial, the Canadian government organized the longest canoe race ever held. This author believes that the canoe has become a universal symbol of Canada and that all Canadians have the right to…

  2. Annotated List of Periodicals for Canadian School and Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Anne M., Comp.

    This annotated list of periodicals is intended for both public libraries and school libraries in Canada. While focusing on Canadian magazines, this publication also cites some non-Canadian material suitable for Canadian school and public library collections. Most of the material is suitable for the average child or youngster, although there are…

  3. A Demographic and Career Profile of Canadian Research University Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date career and demographic profile of Canadian research university librarians by comparing newly derived data from the 8Rs Study: The "Future of Human Resources in Canadian Libraries", with corresponding information from the author's 2006 survey: "The Scholarship of Canadian Research University Librarians", and other…

  4. The Canadian Experience: Leading the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungente, John J.; Duncan, Barry; Anderse, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Media literacy educators from the United States regularly pay homage to their colleagues in Canada. Canadians have talked about, thought about, taught about, and written about media literacy for many years. Canada first hosted a World Conference in media literacy in Guelph, Ontario, in 1990, and all provinces in Canada now include media literacy…

  5. Heroes and Canadian History. Current Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Penney

    1999-01-01

    Believes that social studies teachers should encourage young people to learn about Canadian heroes but simultaneously assist them in developing skepticism as opposed to only idealizing heroes. Explains that when students understand the qualities of heroes they will be able to cope when someone they hold as a hero falters. (CMK)

  6. Remote Sensing Via Satellite: The Canadian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Hans George

    1974-01-01

    Describes the joint effort of Canada and NASA in monitoring the Canadian environment using remote-sensing techniques. The project involves the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and has been used to observe seasonal changes, extent of snow cover, crop growth, sea ice, and land use patterns. (GS)

  7. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  8. Reimagining the Urban: A Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Beverly-Jean

    2010-01-01

    This article makes the argument for a reframing and a reconceptualization of the urban-suburban divide which can inform the options and possibilities for transformative practices in urban schools. Drawing primarily from a Canadian, and more specifically a southern Ontario context, the article explores the changing realities of urban within this…

  9. Experiencing Online Pedagogy: A Canadian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Heather E.; Barnett, John

    2010-01-01

    This case study explored the educational experiences of Canadian preservice teachers in a course designed to teach about online teaching. Students gained experience in course design and delivery, and safe and ethical behavior related to technology. Findings indicated that projects in which students actively applied their knowledge were more…

  10. After Access: Canadian Education and Copyright Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Michael

    2006-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the Internet in the 1990s, the Canadian government developed a well-regarded strategy for addressing the emerging issues posed by the "information highway." The strategy featured legal reforms to address privacy and e-commerce, administrative reforms for the government online initiative, and connectivity programs such…

  11. Who Are the Players in Canadian Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Geoffrey

    1987-01-01

    Labels range of persons advocating different theoretical positions of Canadian curriculum as "players." Describes players as "managers,""predictors,""transformers,""sleuths,""analysts." Values varied viewpoints for attention to language regarding curriculum, critical review of ideas/concepts, examination of current policies, awareness of history…

  12. Changes and Challenges in Canadian Dental Faculties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D. Christopher; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 254 Canadian dental faculty investigated changing career interests, sources of satisfaction, and professional development needs. Results indicate desire to adjust time allocation among research, teaching, and administration; satisfaction with recognition for teaching; and discontent over differential status among teachers, clinicians,…

  13. Canadian Perspectives on East Indian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Josephine C.

    In this paper, various studies and surveys on the status of East Indians in Canada and attitudes towards them are summarized. The history of the East Indian immigration into Canada is sketched. A 1976 survey of attitudes of Canadians toward multiculturalism (Berry, Kalin, and Taylor, 1976) is outlined. A study of the intercultural perceptions of…

  14. Quality Assurance: A Framework for Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, William G.

    1990-01-01

    The key concepts and methodologies of quality assurance programs used in health service delivery systems are reviewed, and it is suggested they could be readily applied to Canadian universities as a powerful administrative and curricular development tool that would define and enhance the quality of students' educational experiences. (Author/MSE)

  15. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Don . E-mail: donyee@cancerboard.ab.ca; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada.

  16. Professional Staff in Canadian University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1986-01-01

    Data from three Canadian university libraries on length of service, degree of mobility, and age of professional staff suggest that the combination of middle age, long service, and immobility results in severe deficiencies of motivation, morale, and creativity. Job rotation and job enlargement are suggested as solutions. (EM)

  17. Family Business Training: A Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.; Lam, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Family firms play an important role in the working of the Canadian economy; despite their importance to the economic activities and job creation it is observed that family businesses have lower survival rates than non-family firms, some argue that this can possibly be attributed (amongst other factors) to the lack of training. Most of the training…

  18. Heat exposure in the Canadian workplace.

    PubMed

    Jay, Ollie; Kenny, Glen P

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to excessive heat is a physical hazard that threatens Canadian workers. As patterns of global climate change suggest an increased frequency of heat waves, the potential impact of these extreme climate events on the health and well-being of the Canadian workforce is a new and growing challenge. Increasingly, industries rely on available technology and information to ensure the safety of their workers. Current Canadian labor codes in all provinces employ the guidelines recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) that are Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) based upon Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). The TLVs are set so that core body temperature of the workers supposedly does not exceed 38.0 degrees C. Legislation in most Canadian provinces also requires employers to install engineering and administrative controls to reduce the heat stress risk of their working environment should it exceed the levels permissible under the WBGT system. There are however severe limitations using the WGBT system because it only directly evaluates the environmental parameters and merely incorporates personal factors such as clothing insulation and metabolic heat production through simple correction factors for broadly generalized groups. An improved awareness of the strengths and limitations of TLVs and the WGBT index can minimize preventable measurement errors and improve their utilization in workplaces. Work is on-going, particularly in the European Union to develop an improved individualized heat stress risk assessment tool. More work is required to improve the predictive capacity of these indices. PMID:20623643

  19. What Citations Tell Us about Canadian Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Presents the text of the 1993 Ian P. Sharp Lecture on Information Science which illustrated the use of citation data from the "Science Citation Index" to obtain perspectives on Canadian science. Highlights include distribution by fields of science; highest impact and most-cited authors; and mapping science by cocitation analysis. (Contains eight…

  20. Profiles of Canadian Postsecondary Education Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Frempong, George

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal data of 18-to 20-year-old youths from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS), the present analysis identified and profiled Canadian postsecondary education dropouts based on the theoretical framework of Tinto (1993). Pertaining to characteristics of pre-postsecondary education conditions, dropouts tended to be male, set low…

  1. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the…

  2. "CJSMTE" at Fifteen: A Particularly Canadian Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Dawn; Pegg, Jerine

    2015-01-01

    This review of the "Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education" ("CJSMTE") presents descriptive statistics regarding contributions to the journal between January 2001 and December 2014. Data are compared with a brief review from 2009 (Wallace, 2009). Findings suggest that there are areas for improvement…

  3. The Early Retirees of Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    Because an option for early retirement in Canadian Universities has created a need to know more about the vacancies early retirement creates and the potential to fill these vacancies, a survey of 15 representative universities was conducted. The sample included institutions of faculty numbering less than 100 to institutions of faculty numbering…

  4. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five trends that…

  5. Canadian Materials for ESL: Where Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podoliak, Esther

    1988-01-01

    Suggests the many resources available for searching for Canadian English-as-a-second-language instructional materials, including bibliographies, non-commercial sources, government sources, commercial materials, conference materials, periodicals, films, videos, photos, and sources not necessarily intended for, but useful in, instructional settings.…

  6. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this journal's Fall 2009 issue, the Forum section included an article by Gordon Selman and Mark Selman arguing that although Canadian adult education had existed as a social movement in the middle part of the 20th century, it is no longer a social movement. They also speculated about the causes of this change. In the Spring 2011 issue, Tom…

  7. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure…

  8. 300 Years of Canadian Indian Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooner, Terrence

    1978-01-01

    Accenting the education policies of the Canadian government, this article discusses the European educational policy of Christianization as a prerequisite to civilization and education. The provincial or local legislature assumed jurisdictional responsibility for Indians until the 1972 Indian Control of Indian Education Policy Statement moved…

  9. An Overview of Canadian Education. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayfer, Margaret

    An overview of Canadian education is provided in this book. Chapter 1 presents basic facts and figures on the educational system's general structure and diversity and the role of the federal government. The second chapter describes provincial/territorial structure, specifically: the role of the departments of education and school board, financing,…

  10. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM) team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM) to: (i) evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii) identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii) build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice. PMID:23256553

  11. Learning Individualized for Canadians (LINC) Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippett, Glen

    This instruction manual for the Learning Individualized for Canadians (LINC) mathematics course is designed for use in adult basic education or retraining programs focusing on individually prescribed learning. Emphasis is on developing computational and problem-solving skills and on practical applications of mathematics to everyday life skills and…

  12. Canadian Education: Demographic Change and Future Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foot, David K.

    2001-01-01

    The proportional size of the Canadian "echo generation"--baby-boomers' children born 1980-95--varies across the provinces and is largest in Ontario and the West. Effects on elementary, secondary, and postsecondary enrollments are discussed, as well as possible interprovincial agreements on provision of postsecondary education. (SV)

  13. Childhood Sibling Relationships of Eminent Canadian Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yewchuk, Carolyn R.; Schlosser, Grace A.

    1996-01-01

    This study compared differences between 72 eminent Canadian women who reported close sibling relationships and 72 similar women who reported no close sibling relationships. Those with close siblings expressed their responsibility within the relationship and rivalry within the sibship. Those not close to siblings often blamed this on age…

  14. The Canadian experience in frontier environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.H. )

    1991-03-01

    Early Canadian frontier exploration (from 1955 onshore and from 1966 for offshore drilling) caused insignificant public concern. The 1967-1968 Torrey Canyon Tanker and Santa Barbara disasters roused public opinion and governments. In Canada, 1969-1970 Arctic gas blowouts, a tanker disaster, and damage to the 'Manhattan' exacerbated concerns and resulted in new environmental regulatory constraints. From 1970, the Arctic Petroleum Operations Association learned to operate safely with environmental responsibility. It studied physical environment for design criteria, and the biological and human environment to ameliorate impact. APOA's research projects covered sea-ice, permafrost, sea-bottom, oil-spills, bird and mammal migration, fish habitat, food chains, oceanography, meteorology, hunters'/trappers' harvests, etc. In 1971 Eastcoast Petroleum Operators' Association and Alaska Oil and Gas Association followed APOA's cooperative research model. EPOA stressed icebergs and fisheries. Certain research was handled by the Canadian Offshore Oil Spill Research Association. By the mid-1980s these associations had undertaken $70,000,000 of environmental oriented research, with equivalent additional work by member companies on specific needs and similar sums by Federal agencies often working with industry on complementary research. The frontier associations then merged with the Canadian Petroleum Association, already active environmentally in western Canada. Working with government and informing environmental interest groups, the public, natives, and local groups, most Canadian frontier petroleum operations proceeded with minimal delay and environmental disturbance.

  15. Computer Language Settings and Canadian Spellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuttleworth, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The language settings used on personal computers interact with the spell-checker in Microsoft Word, which directly affects the flagging of spellings that are deemed incorrect. This study examined the language settings of personal computers owned by a group of Canadian university students. Of 21 computers examined, only eight had their Windows…

  16. Canadian Forum on Combined Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cantarovich, Marcelo; Blydt-Hansen, Tom D; Gill, John; Tinckam, Kathryn; Schiff, Jeffrey; Alwayn, Ian; Bain, Vince; Dipchand, Anne I; Isaac, Debra; Kim, S Joseph; Lien, Dale; Zaltzman, Jeffrey; Young, Kimberly; Nickerson, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The Canadian Society of Transplantation and Canadian Blood Services conducted a consensus forum on combined renal/nonrenal transplants, as they are not part of Canadian organ-specific allocation models at present. The purpose of this initiative was to make recommendations, develop eligibility criteria, and a decision-making model on listing and allocation. Forty-two participants with expertise in combined transplantation participated in the consensus forum. The United States and Canadian data were reviewed. The consensus forum made recommendations regarding the following: (1) investigation of etiology, severity, duration, and level of renal dysfunction; (2) documentation of degree of nonreversible kidney injury; (3) eligibility for combined (either simultaneous or staged) transplantation; (4) research. Key recommendations were: (1) patients with end-stage nonrenal disease with estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min per 1.73 m for longer than 1 month or on dialysis less than 3 months, who fulfill criteria for nonreversibility of renal dysfunction (by level and duration of renal dysfunction, imaging, and pathology findings), would be eligible for combined renal/nonrenal transplantation; (2) patients on dialysis longer than 3 months would be eligible for combined renal/nonrenal transplantation; (3) staged renal after nonrenal transplantation with subsequent prioritized allocation of renal transplant was endorsed in selected cases. The validation and impact of these recommendations on allocation will require further studies. PMID:26588007

  17. The Politics of Canadian Space Communication Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Indu B.; McDaniel, Drew O.

    In 1968, the Science Council of Canada recommended that Canada focus its scientific and technological effort on the creation of major programs designed to help solve some of the country's social and economic problems and, specifically, that a space program be initiated. The Canadian decision to become involved in space communication activities was…

  18. Canadian Children's Perceptions of Spirituality: Diverse Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Bosacki, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Few researchers have explored children's understandings of spirituality. Thus, Canadian children from different religious, spiritual and cultural backgrounds were asked open-ended questions concerning their spiritual thoughts, beliefs and experiences. Parents of participants completed a demographic questionnaire and reported children's religious…

  19. Canadian Journal of Native Studies: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Richard T.

    1987-01-01

    Describes and critically analyzes volume of "Canadian Journal of Native Studies" (v4 n2 1984). Sketches journal's history and critiques three articles. Article topics include history (Indian treaties and Indian policy administration); resource development impacts (reserve land flooding, native health, and fishing); and native education (case…

  20. Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2014

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkova, E.; Sud, S.; Aucoin, N.; Biagi, J.; Burkes, R.; Samson, B.; Brule, S.; Cripps, C.; Colwell, B.; Falkson, C.; Dorreen, M.; Goel, R.; Halwani, F.; Maroun, J.; Michaud, N.; Tehfe, M.; Thirlwell, M.; Vickers, M.; Asmis, T.

    2015-01-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Montreal, Quebec, 23–25 October 2014. Expert radiation, medical, and surgical oncologists and pathologists involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussions resulting in consensus statements on such hot topics as management of neuroendocrine tumours, advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:26300681

  1. The Emerging Agenda for Canadian High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ken

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the current state of Canadian high schools. Examines the goal of competitiveness as a national policy and the debate over the purposes of education. Explores (1) a greater emphasis on basic subjects; (2) the use of performance indicators; (3) the demand for accountability; and (4) dropout rates. Argues that an economic agenda for…

  2. Asian and Pacific Migration: The Canadian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, T. John

    1994-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of landed immigrants (permanent settlers) from Asia, and explores their settlement, adaptation, and integration experience in Canada. It suggests that access to Canadian land does not always translate into equal opportunity in the economy and society, but notes that Canada may be more successful at assimilating Asian…

  3. A Canadian View of Monitoring Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inhaber, Herbert

    1975-01-01

    A Canadian scientist discusses his country's environmental monitoring programs (by parameter and medium), points out their strengths and weaknesses, and indicates some possible directions for future efforts in the field of environmental monitoring at both the national and international level. (BT)

  4. In the Field: The Canadian Ecology Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Clare

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Ecology Centre (Ontario) offers year-round residential and day programs in outdoor and environmental education for secondary students, field placement and internship opportunities for college students, and ecotourism programs, while providing employment and tax revenues to the local community. Dubbed consensus environmentalism, the…

  5. The Handbook of Canadian Film. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beattie, Eleanor

    The core of this book consists of 131 short entries on individual Canadian filmmakers, arranged in alphabetical order, with filmographies and suggestions for further reading. The majority of the filmmakers who are described are directors; other members of the film community--producers, sound engineers, camera operators, and so on--are discussed in…

  6. Canadian Adoption Statistics: 1981-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Michael P.; Daly, Kerry J.

    1994-01-01

    Obtained data on Canadian adoptions (1981-90) from adoption coordinators of all 10 provinces and 2 territories. Found downward trends in use of adoption as means of family formation across decade. By 1990, most infant adoptions were facilitated by private practitioners and agencies whereas older children were primarily adopted through public…

  7. Stigma in Male Depression and Suicide: A Canadian Sex Comparison Study.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Gordon, Susan J; Creighton, Genevieve; Kelly, Mary T; Black, Nick; Mackenzie, Corey

    2016-04-01

    Stigma in men's depression and suicide can restrict help-seeking, reduce treatment compliance and deter individuals from confiding in friends and family. In this article we report sex comparison findings from a national survey of English-speaking adult Canadians about stigmatized beliefs concerning male depression and suicide. Among respondents without direct experience of depression or suicide (n = 541) more than a third endorsed the view that men with depression are unpredictable. Overall, a greater proportion of males endorsed stigmatizing views about male depression compared to female respondents. A greater proportion of female respondents endorsed items indicating that men who suicide are disconnected, lost and lonely. Male and female respondents with direct personal experience of depression or suicide (n = 360) strongly endorsed stigmatizing attitudes toward themselves and a greater proportion of male respondents indicated that they would be embarrassed about seeking help for depression. PMID:26733336

  8. Working with Transgender Children and Their Classmates in Pre-Adolescence: Just Be Supportive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecke, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    This study documents a school district's coordinated response to an elementary student's social transition from a gender variant boy to a female gender expression. Data were gathered through analysis of journal entries, lesson plans, and interviews with the child, guardian, and district personnel. Stakeholders reported a favorable outlook on the…

  9. Self-Cognitions, Risk Factors for Alcohol Problems, and Drinking in Preadolescent Urban Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corte, Colleen; Szalacha, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine relationships between self-structure and known precursors for alcohol problems in 9- to 12-year-old primarily black and Latino youths (N = 79). Parental alcohol problems and being female predicted few positive and many negative self-cognitions and a future-oriented self-cognition related to alcohol ("drinking possible…

  10. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    PubMed

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia. PMID:1713798

  11. Caller Characteristics, Call Contents, and Types of Assistance Provided by Caller Sex and Age Group in a Canadian Inuit Crisis Line in Nunavut, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Josephine C. H.; Maranzan, Kathryn Amanda; Boone, Margaret; Vander Velde, John; Levy, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of calls made to a northern Canadian Inuit crisis line in the territory of Nunavut between 1991 and 2001 revealed that the majority of users were adult females who called to discuss problems primarily related to relationships and loneliness/boredom. Younger callers tended to make prank calls. The volunteer staff used mostly empathetic…

  12. Portrayal of Youth Suicide in Canadian News

    PubMed Central

    Easson, Amanda; Agarwal, Arnav; Duda, Stephanie; Bennett, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Responsible media reporting of youth suicide may reduce the risk of contagion and increase help-seeking behaviour. Accordingly, we conducted a content analysis of Canadian youth suicide newspaper articles to assess quality and summarize content (themes, age groups, populations and use of scientific evidence). Method: The Canadian Periodical Index Quarterly (CPI.Q) was searched (2008–2012) for full-text Canadian newspaper articles using the keywords “youth” and “suicide.” The top five most relevant articles as judged by CPI.Q were selected sequentially for each year (n=25). Quality was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for responsible media reporting. Content analysis was completed in duplicate by two reviewers. Results: All articles addressed youth suicide generally rather than reporting exclusively on a specific death by suicide. Alignment of articles with individual WHO guideline items ranged from 16 to 60%. The most common content theme was prevention (80%). No article was judged to glamorize suicide. Help seeking was addressed in 52% of articles, but only 20% provided information on where to obtain help. Statistics were referenced more frequently than scientific research (76% vs. 28%). Conclusions: Our review suggests that Canadian media presents youth suicide as an issue for which hope and help exist. While the majority of reports aim to educate the public about suicide, increased use of scientific evidence about risk factors and prevention is recommended to facilitate the translation of rigorous scientific knowledge into improved mental health and reduced suicide risk among Canadian youth. PMID:25320610

  13. The Reproduction of Family Life: Perspectives of Male and Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Capitalist, patriarchal, and sexist social structures and values affect how working class adolescents plan to allocate responsibility for domestic labor. Interviews with 83 Canadian male and female high school students revealed that they anticipate choosing patterns of domestic labor which perpetuate women's subordinate roles at home and work. (AM)

  14. Exploring Taboos: Comparing Male- and Female-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female…

  15. Beverage patterns among Canadian children and relationship to overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Danyliw, Adrienne D; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Nikpartow, Nooshin; Whiting, Susan J

    2012-10-01

    Sweetened beverage intake has risen in past decades, along with a rise in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Our objective was to examine the relationship between beverage intake patterns and overweight and obesity among Canadian children. Beverage intake patterns were identified by cluster analysis of data from the cross-sectional Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Intake data were obtained from a single 24-hour recall, height and weight were measured, and sociodemographic data were obtained via interview. Data on children and adolescents aged 2-18 years who met inclusion criteria (n = 10 038) were grouped into the following categories: 2-5 years (male and female), 6-11 years (female), 6-11 years (male), 12-18 years (female), and 12-18 years (male). χ² test was used to compare rates of overweight and obesity across clusters. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between overweight and obesity and beverage intake patterns, adjusting for potential confounders. Clustering resulted in distinct groups of who drank mostly fruit drinks, soft drinks, 100% juice, milk, high-fat milk, or low-volume and varied beverages (termed "moderate"). Boys aged 6-11 years whose beverage pattern was characterized by soft drink intake (553 ± 29 g) had increased odds of overweight-obesity (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.1) compared with a "moderate" beverage pattern (23 ± 4 g soft drink). No significant relationship emerged between beverage pattern and overweight and obesity among other age-sex groups. Using national cross-sectional dietary intake data, Canadian children do not show a beverage-weight association except among young boys who drink mostly soft drinks, and thus may be at increased risk for overweight or obesity. PMID:22694268

  16. Effect of ethnicity and socioeconomic variation to the gut microbiota composition among pre-adolescent in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Chun Wie; Ahmad, Arine Fadzlun; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Ivan Kok Seng; Lee, Soo Ching; Chin, Yuee Teng; Loke, P’ng; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays an important role in mammalian host metabolism and physiological functions. The functions are particularly important in young children where rapid mental and physical developments are taking place. Nevertheless, little is known about the gut microbiome and the factors that contribute to microbial variation in the gut of South East Asian children. Here, we compared the gut bacterial richness and composition of pre-adolescence in Northern Malaysia. Our subjects covered three distinct ethnic groups with relatively narrow range of socioeconomic discrepancy. These included the Malays (n = 24), Chinese (n = 17) and the Orang Asli (indigenous) (n = 20). Our results suggested a strong ethnicity and socioeconomic-linked bacterial diversity. Highest bacterial diversity was detected from the economically deprived indigenous children while the lowest diversity was recorded from the relatively wealthy Chinese children. In addition, predicted functional metagenome profiling suggested an over-representation of pathways pertinent to bacterial colonisation and chemotaxis in the former while the latter exhibited enriched gene pathways related to sugar metabolism. PMID:26290472

  17. Effect of ethnicity and socioeconomic variation to the gut microbiota composition among pre-adolescent in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chong, Chun Wie; Ahmad, Arine Fadzlun; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Ivan Kok Seng; Lee, Soo Ching; Chin, Yuee Teng; Loke, P'ng; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays an important role in mammalian host metabolism and physiological functions. The functions are particularly important in young children where rapid mental and physical developments are taking place. Nevertheless, little is known about the gut microbiome and the factors that contribute to microbial variation in the gut of South East Asian children. Here, we compared the gut bacterial richness and composition of pre-adolescence in Northern Malaysia. Our subjects covered three distinct ethnic groups with relatively narrow range of socioeconomic discrepancy. These included the Malays (n = 24), Chinese (n = 17) and the Orang Asli (indigenous) (n = 20). Our results suggested a strong ethnicity and socioeconomic-linked bacterial diversity. Highest bacterial diversity was detected from the economically deprived indigenous children while the lowest diversity was recorded from the relatively wealthy Chinese children. In addition, predicted functional metagenome profiling suggested an over-representation of pathways pertinent to bacterial colonisation and chemotaxis in the former while the latter exhibited enriched gene pathways related to sugar metabolism. PMID:26290472

  18. Protocol for the design of an instrument to measure preadolescent children's self-report of covert aggression and bullying

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Helen Jean; Kendall, Garth Edward; Burns, Sharyn; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Covert bullying in schools is associated with a range of academic, social, emotional and physical health problems. Much research has focused on bullying, but there remains a gap in understanding about covert aggression and how to most accurately and reliably measure children's own reports of this behaviour. This paper reviews relevant literature and outlines a research project that aims to develop a self-report instrument that effectively measures covert aggression and bullying. It is anticipated that this research will result in a standardised instrument that is suitable for exploring preadolescent children's experiences of covert aggressive behaviour. The data collected by the instrument will enhance health and education professionals understanding of covert bullying behaviours and will inform the design and evaluation of interventions. Methods and analysis Relational developmental systems theory will guide the design of an online self-report instrument. The first phase of the project will include a critical review of the research literature, focus groups with children aged 8–12 years (grades 4–6) in Perth, Western Australia, and expert review. The instrument will be explored for content and face validity prior to the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Curtin University of Human Research Ethics Committee (RDHS-38-15) and by the Executive Principal of the participating school. PMID:26553834

  19. Early-Childhood Social Reticence Predicts Brain Function in Preadolescent Youths During Distinct Forms of Peer Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jarcho, Johanna M; Davis, Megan M; Shechner, Tomer; Degnan, Kathryn A; Henderson, Heather A; Stoddard, Joel; Fox, Nathan A; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S; Nelson, Eric E

    2016-06-01

    Social reticence is expressed as shy, anxiously avoidant behavior in early childhood. With development, overt signs of social reticence may diminish but could still manifest themselves in neural responses to peers. We obtained measures of social reticence across 2 to 7 years of age. At age 11, preadolescents previously characterized as high (n = 30) or low (n = 23) in social reticence completed a novel functional-MRI-based peer-interaction task that quantifies neural responses to the anticipation and receipt of distinct forms of social evaluation. High (but not low) social reticence in early childhood predicted greater activity in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and left and right insula, brain regions implicated in processing salience and distress, when participants anticipated unpredictable compared with predictable feedback. High social reticence was also associated with negative functional connectivity between insula and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region commonly implicated in affect regulation. Finally, among participants with high social reticence, negative evaluation was associated with increased amygdala activity, but only during feedback from unpredictable peers. PMID:27150109

  20. Individual differences in the development of self-regulation during pre-adolescence: Connections to context and adjustment

    PubMed Central

    King, Kevin M.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2012-01-01

    Difficulties with self-regulation are implicated in the development of emotional and behavioral problems during adolescence. Although children’s ability to regulate their behaviors continues to improve throughout childhood and adolescence, it remains unclear how contextual risk factors might influence this development during the transition to adolescence, or how variation in the development of self-regulation predicts adjustment. Using a community sample of 214 8–12 year-olds (T1 M=9.5, SD=1.01), we examined growth trajectories of effortful control and impulsivity over three years and tested predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Although predictors of initial levels of self-regulation were largely equivalent for both effortful control and impulsivity, contextual risk factors were related to variations in the development of impulsivity but not effortful control. However, increases in effortful control, but not impulsivity, were associated with level and rate of change in adjustment problems and positive adjustment, suggesting that different dimensions of self-regulation have different antecedents and outcomes in pre-adolescence and adolescence. PMID:22865096

  1. Individual differences in the development of self-regulation during pre-adolescence: connections to context and adjustment.

    PubMed

    King, Kevin M; Lengua, Liliana J; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties with self-regulation are implicated in the development of emotional and behavioral problems during adolescence. Although children's ability to regulate their behaviors continues to improve throughout childhood and adolescence, it remains unclear how contextual risk factors might influence this development during the transition to adolescence, or how variation in the development of self-regulation predicts adjustment. Using a community sample of 214 8-12 year-olds (T1 M = 9.5, SD = 1.01), we examined growth trajectories of effortful control and impulsivity over three years and tested predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Although predictors of initial levels of self-regulation were largely equivalent for both effortful control and impulsivity, contextual risk factors were related to variations in the development of impulsivity but not effortful control. However, increases in effortful control, but not impulsivity, were associated with level and rate of change in adjustment problems and positive adjustment, suggesting that different dimensions of self-regulation have different antecedents and outcomes in pre-adolescence and adolescence. PMID:22865096

  2. Leisure-time physical activity in Canadians living with Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis: population-based estimates.

    PubMed

    Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Gilmore, Jennica C; Gunnell, Katie E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide population-based estimates of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in Canadians diagnosed with Crohn disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Data were derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 3.1 (2005). Those diagnosed with CD (n = 474; 61.60% female) or UC (n = 637; 65.10% female) were compared with those not reporting CD/UC (n = 113,685; 53.60% female). The most prevalent forms of LTPA reported were walking and gardening/yard work. Individuals with CD were more likely to be classified as "inactive" (OR = 1.34; 95% CI [1.12, 1.61]) and less likely to be "active" (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.55, 0.87]) than those not reporting CD/UC. These trends were mirrored for those living with UC, although statistical significance was not attained. Despite claims advocating the benefits of LTPA for ameliorating complications associated with CD/UC, prevalence estimates from a population-based sample of Canadians living with CD/UC suggest that the majority do not meet current public health guidelines. Results offer benchmarks for prevalence of LTPA in those diagnosed with CD/UC. Findings suggest that many living with this condition will not benefit from the protective role of LTPA on complications associated with CD/UC. PMID:21814062

  3. Work and High-Risk Alcohol Consumption in the Canadian Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Alain; Parent-Lamarche, Annick; Blanc, Marie-Ève

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations between occupational groups; work-organization conditions based on task design; demands, social relations, and gratifications; and weekly high-risk alcohol consumption among Canadian workers. A secondary data analysis was performed on Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2003. The sample consisted of 76,136 employees 15 years of age and older nested in 2,451 neighbourhoods. High-risk alcohol consumption is defined in accordance with Canadian guidelines for weekly low-risk alcohol consumption. The prevalence of weekly high-risk alcohol consumption is estimated to be 8.1% among workers. The results obtained using multilevel logistic regression analysis suggest that increased work hours and job insecurity are associated with elevated odds of high-risk alcohol consumption. Gender female, older age, being in couple and living with children associated with lower odds of high-risk drinking, while increased education, smoking, physical activities, and, and economic status were associated with higher odds. High-risk drinking varied between neighbourhoods, and gender moderates the contribution of physical demands. The results suggest that work made a limited contribution and non-work factors a greater contribution to weekly high-risk alcohol consumption. Limits and implications of these results are discussed. PMID:21845153

  4. Cost attributable to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in the Canadian correctional system.

    PubMed

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is the leading identifiable cause of intellectual disability in the Western world and may result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Individuals with FASD have a higher risk of being involved in the legal system, either as offenders or as victims. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to estimate the direct cost for youths (12-17 years old) and adults (18+ years old) with FASD to the Canadian correctional system in 2011/2012. The prevalence of FASD in the Canadian correctional system, obtained from the current epidemiological literature, was applied to the average number of youths and adults in the correctional system in 2011/2012. The average daily cost for corrections was then applied to the estimated number of youths and adults with FASD in custody. The cost of corrections among youths with FASD in Canada in 2011/2012 was calculated to be approximately $17.5M Canadian dollars (CND; $13.6M CND for males and $3.8M CND for females) and among adults with FASD was estimated to be about $356.2M CND ($140M CND for provincial and territorial custody and $216.2M CND for federal custody). The study findings emphasize the need to raise awareness regarding the prevalence of FASD in the correctional system. It is crucial to incorporate FASD screening and intervention strategies as early as possible in the criminal justice process. PMID:25846557

  5. Periodic health examination, 1994 update: 1. Obesity in childhood. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update the 1979 Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination recommendation on screening for childhood obesity by reviewing any new evidence concerning health risks in childhood and adulthood, and effective preventive or therapeutic interventions. OPTIONS: Detection: routine measurement of height and weight, use of skinfold thickness measurements, calculation of body mass index (BMI). Intervention: diet, exercise, behaviour modification and comprehensive family-based weight-reduction programs. Components of these interventions could be offered routinely or reserved for children and families who perceive obesity to be a present or potential problem. OUTCOMES: The task force reviewed the probability of obese children become obese adults as a risk factor for adult heart disease and overall related illness and death in adult life as well as obesity as a risk factor for physical and psychologic illness in childhood. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search for relevant articles published between January 1981 and February 1991 was undertaken. VALUES: The task force's evidence-based rules for recommendations were used. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: If weight reduction in childhood were shown to prevent physical or psychologic illness in childhood, or illness and death in adult life, screening and treatment should be recommended. Screening for obesity may cause anxiety on the part of the child and family; malnutrition in children as a result of parents becoming overly anxious about the health risks of obesity has been reported. Most weight reduction programs have limited long-term effectiveness and can be costly. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is insufficient evidence of short-term or long-term benefits from screening for or treatment of childhood obesity to recommend such screening or recommend against it. There is fair evidence to recommend against very-low-kilojoule diets for preadolescents. There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against exercise programs or

  6. Exploring taboos: comparing male- and female-perpetrated child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Peter, Tracey

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female abusers. Results show a prevalence rate of 10.7% for female-perpetrated sexual abuse. Girls were more likely to be victimized for both male- and female-perpetrated sexual violence and females tended to abuse younger children. The majority of children came from families with lower socioeconomic status although one in five victims of female-perpetrated sexual abuse came from middle-class homes. Referrals to child welfare agencies were more likely to be made by nonprofessionals when females abused. PMID:18701747

  7. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time. PMID:24964518

  8. Seeing Oneself in a Book: The Changing Face of Canadian Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Fayjean, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Takes a look at children's literature over time, and its recent emergence as a respected body of literary work. Discusses what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Annotates six picture books. Notes that Canadian literature reflects the diversity of the Canadian population, the vast differences in the Canadian landscape, and the…

  9. Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Rosacea.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yuka; Tan, Jerry; Baibergenova, Akerke; Barankin, Benjamin; Cochrane, Chris L; Humphrey, Shannon; Lynde, Charles W; Marcoux, Danielle; Poulin, Yves; Rivers, Jason K; Sapijaszko, Mariusz; Sibbald, R Gary; Toole, John; Ulmer, Marcie; Zip, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial inflammatory dermatosis characterized by background facial erythema and flushing and may be accompanied by inflammatory papules and pustules, cutaneous fibrosis and hyperplasia known as phyma, and ocular involvement. These features can have adverse impact on quality of life, and ocular involvement can lead to visual dysfunction. The past decade has witnessed increased research into pathogenic pathways involved in rosacea and the introduction of novel treatment innovations. The objective of these guidelines is to offer evidence-based recommendations to assist Canadian health care providers in the diagnosis and management of rosacea. These guidelines were developed by an expert panel of Canadian dermatologists taking into consideration the balance of desirable and undesirable outcomes, the quality of supporting evidence, the values and preferences of patients, and the costs of treatment. The 2015 Cochrane review "Interventions in Rosacea" was used as a source of clinical trial evidence on which to base the recommendations. PMID:27207355

  10. Canadian Pharmacare: Looking Back, Looking Forward

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steven G.; Daw, Jamie R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite Canadians' pride in medicare and the values underpinning it, the system is conspicuously incomplete. Universal public health insurance in Canada ends as soon as a patient is handed a prescription to fill; yet prescription drugs are the second largest component of health system costs. We look back at key moments in Canadian healthcare history that shaped our pharmacare system – or lack thereof. We look forward to changes in demography and technology that will increase the need for pharmacare reform in the near future. We conclude that meaningful public engagement in pharmacare design may generate the clarity of goals and level of political support needed should windows of policy opportunity open again. PMID:23968600

  11. Photovoltaic systems for Canadian prairie regions

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrin, J.

    1983-10-01

    The communications industry has a need for economic low power generators for their remote sites, with minimized power consumption. Photovoltaic generators (PV) promising hardware simplicity, low cost and low maintenance have the potential to fill this need. The operational record of PV generators is rather poor in harsh environment of the Canadian prairies. The authors' analysis of long term radiation data, field and laboratory tests show that often ignored cyclic winter radiation extremes and poor selection, operation and maintenance of batteries are the most frequent causes of PV system failures. They derive a reliable PV sizing curve for Edmonton (53/sup 0/N, 114/sup 0/W) and study various PV designs. At a cost of $20,000 per 100W a hybrid PV-TEG generator is shown to promise reliable operation which is not affected by extreme weather fluctuations of the Canadian prairies.

  12. The Canadian longitudinal study on aging (CLSA).

    PubMed

    Raina, Parminder S; Wolfson, Christina; Kirkland, Susan A; Griffith, Lauren E; Oremus, Mark; Patterson, Christopher; Tuokko, Holly; Penning, Margaret; Balion, Cynthia M; Hogan, David; Wister, Andrew; Payette, Hélène; Shannon, Harry; Brazil, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTCanadians are living longer, and older persons are making up a larger share of the population (14% in 2006, projected to rise to 20% by 2021). The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is a national longitudinal study of adult development and aging that will recruit 50,000 Canadians aged 45 to 85 years of age and follow them for at least 20 years. All participants will provide a common set of information concerning many aspects of health and aging, and 30,000 will undergo an additional in-depth examination coupled with the donation of biological specimens (blood and urine). The CLSA will become a rich data source for the study of the complex interrelationship among the biological, physical, psychosocial, and societal factors that affect healthy aging. PMID:19860977

  13. Influence of the PROP Bitter Taste Phenotype and Eating Attitudes on Energy Intake and Weight Status in Pre-adolescents: A 6-year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Oftedal, Katherine Nolen; Tepper, Beverly J.

    2013-01-01

    The PROP bitter-taste phenotype is a marker for food preferences and eating behavior, and may associate with differences in body weight in children. Previous work has shown that PROP status in combination with eating attitudes are better predictors of weight status in preadolescents, than either factor alone. However, no studies have examined the role of PROP phenotypes in body weight change in children over time. The primary objective of this study was to investigate current weight status and change in weight status in children from preschool (baseline) to preadolescence as a function of eating attitudes and PROP phenotype. Other measures included self-reported food intakes and physical activity by activity monitor. Seventy-three lean (BMI %-ile = 57.7 ± 3.2%) children with mean age=10.3 ± 0.5 yrs, participated in the follow up. There were no group differences in energy intake, current BMI-percentile or change in BMI percentile from baseline by PROP phenotype in either boys or girls. However, there was a trend for non-taster girls to show a downward shift in BMI-percentile at follow up. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that baseline BMI percentile and physical activity energy expenditure were the strongest predictors of current weight (28.5% variance), followed by child restraint, the taster x gender interaction, and the maternal BMI x maternal emotional eating interaction, accounting for 7.1%, 6.0% and 4.8% of variance in the model, respectively. These findings suggest that PROP status and eating attitudes are modest predictors of weight status in preadolescent children. PMID:23680431

  14. Gas line construction in frigid Canadian winter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Construction of a 128-mile, 42-in. gas transmission line through Precambrian rock formations in the Canadian shield proved difficult for contractors on TransCanada Pipeline's expansion program. Multiple construction problems included severe cold weather (-40/sup 0/F), a right-of-way sited midway between two live natural gas lines, and a system installed in eight different loops stretching almost 500 miles from one and to the other.

  15. Science Traverses in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The presentation is divided into three parts. Part I is an overview of early expeditions to the High Arctic, and their political consequences at the time. The focus then shifts to the Geological Survey of Canada s mapping program in the North (Operation Franklin), and to the Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP), a unique organization that resides within the Government of Canada s Department of Natural Resources, and supports mapping projects and science investigations. PCSP is highlighted throughout the presentation so a description of mandate, budgets, and support infrastructure is warranted. In Part II, the presenter describes the planning required in advance of scientific deployments carried out in the Canadian High Arctic from the perspective of government and university investigators. Field operations and challenges encountered while leading arctic field teams in fly camps are also described in this part of the presentation, with particular emphasis on the 2008 field season. Part III is a summary of preliminary results obtained from a Polar Survey questionnaire sent out to members of the Arctic research community in anticipation of the workshop. The last part of the talk is an update on the analog program at the Canadian Space Agency, specifically, the Canadian Analog Research Network (CARN) and current activities related to Analog missions, 2009-2010.

  16. The Canadian elder standard - pricing the cost of basic needs for the Canadian elderly.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Bonnie-Jeanne; Andrews, Doug; Brown, Robert L

    2010-03-01

    We determined the after-tax income required to finance basic needs for Canadian elders living with different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter status, means of transportation, and health status. Using 2001 as our base year, we priced the typical expenses for food, shelter, medical, transportation, miscellaneous basic living items and home-based long-term care for elders living in five Canadian cities. This is the first Canadian study of basic living expenses tailored to elders instead of adults in general, prepared on an absolute rather than a relative basis. We also accounted for an individual's unique life circumstances and established the varying effect that they have on the cost of basic expenses, particularly for home care. We found that the maximum Guaranteed Income Supplement and Old Age Security benefit did not meet the cost of basic needs for an elder living in poor circumstances. PMID:20202264

  17. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  18. Many adult Canadians are not meeting current calcium recommendations from food and supplement intake.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Dolega-Cieszkowski, Jadwiga H; Whiting, Susan J

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine trends in calcium intake from foods of Canadian adults from 1970-1972 to 2004. We compiled the calcium intake of adults (aged >or=19 years) from foods from Nutrition Canada (1970-1972; n = 7036); 9 provincial nutrition surveys (1990-1999; n = 16 915); and the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 (n = 20 197). Where possible, we used published confidence intervals to test for significant differences in calcium intake. In 2004, the mean calcium intake of Canadians was below Dietary Reference Intake recommendations for most adults, with the greatest difference in older adults (>or=51 years), in part because the recommended calcium intake for this group is higher (1200 mg) than that for younger adults (1,000 mg). The calcium intake of males in every age category was greater than that of females. Calcium intake increased from 1970 to 2004, yet, despite the introduction of calcium-fortified beverages to the market in the late 1990s, increases in calcium intake between 1970 and 2004 were modest. Calcium intakes in provinces were mostly similar in the 1990s and in 2004, except for women in Newfoundland and Labrador, who consumed less, especially in the 1990s, and for young men in 2004 in Prince Edward Island, who consumed more. When supplemental calcium intake was added, mean intakes remained below recommended levels, except for males 19-30 years, but the prevalence of adequacy increased in all age groups, notably for women over 50 years. The calcium intake of Canadian adults remains in need of improvement, despite fortification and supplement use. PMID:19370049

  19. How Does the Canadian General Public Rate Moderate Alzheimer's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Tarride, Jean-Eric; Oremus, Mark; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Clayton, Natasha; Raina, Parminder

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to elicit health utility scores for moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) using members of the general public. Methods. Five-hundred Canadians were chosen randomly to participate in a telephone interview. The EQ-5D was administered to estimate the health utility score for respondents' current health status (i.e., no AD) and for a hypothetical moderate AD health state. Regression analyses were conducted to explain the perceived utility decrement associated with AD. Results. The mean age of the respondents was 51 years, 60% were female, and 42% knew someone with AD. Respondents' mean EQ-5D scores for their current health status and a hypothetical moderate AD were 0.873 (SD: 0.138) and 0.638 (SD: 0.194), respectively (P < 0.001). Age, gender, and education were significant factors explaining this decrement in utility. Conclusion. Members of the general public may serve as an alternative to patients and caregivers in the elicitation of health-related quality of life in AD. PMID:22229093

  20. How does the canadian general public rate moderate Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Tarride, Jean-Eric; Oremus, Mark; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Clayton, Natasha; Raina, Parminder

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to elicit health utility scores for moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) using members of the general public. Methods. Five-hundred Canadians were chosen randomly to participate in a telephone interview. The EQ-5D was administered to estimate the health utility score for respondents' current health status (i.e., no AD) and for a hypothetical moderate AD health state. Regression analyses were conducted to explain the perceived utility decrement associated with AD. Results. The mean age of the respondents was 51 years, 60% were female, and 42% knew someone with AD. Respondents' mean EQ-5D scores for their current health status and a hypothetical moderate AD were 0.873 (SD: 0.138) and 0.638 (SD: 0.194), respectively (P < 0.001). Age, gender, and education were significant factors explaining this decrement in utility. Conclusion. Members of the general public may serve as an alternative to patients and caregivers in the elicitation of health-related quality of life in AD. PMID:22229093

  1. 75 FR 65517 - Canadian Standards Association; Expansion of Recognition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ...This notice announces the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's final decision expanding the recognition of the Canadian Standards Association as a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory under 29 CFR...

  2. The Canadian fuel cell R&D program

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, N.R.; Hammerli, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of the Canadian Fuel Cell R&D Program (CFCP). The program includes both mobile and stationary applications. It is based on Canadian as well as other fuel cell technologies. The Canadian fuel cell technologies comprise the development of the Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) of Ballard Power Systems Inc., as well as the Alkaline Fuel Cell of Astris Inc. Materials development issues are an important element of the Program. An outstanding example is the creation of the new BAM3G membrane technology of Ballard Advanced Materials in support of the Canadian PEFC technology. Finally, some system successes will be highlighted.

  3. At-Home and Away-from-Home Eating Patterns Influencing Preadolescents' Intake of Calcium-Rich Food as Perceived by Asian, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluskey, Mary; Edlefsen, Miriam; Olson, Beth; Reicks, Marla; Auld, Garry; Bock, Margaret A.; Boushey, Carol J.; Bruhn, Christine; Goldberg, Dena; Misner, Scottie; Wang, Changzheng; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore at-home and away-from-home eating patterns influencing Asian, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white preadolescents' intake of calcium-rich food from a parental perspective. Design: Individual semistructured interviews. Setting: Home or community site. Participants: Convenience sample (n = 201) of self-reported Asian (n = 54),…

  4. Same-Gender and Cross-Gender Peer Acceptance and Peer Rejection and Their Relation to Bullying and Helping among Preadolescents: Comparing Predictions from Gender-Homophily and Goal-Framing Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene

    2007-01-01

    The relation between bullying and helping and same-gender and cross-gender peer acceptance and peer rejection was examined in a sample of preadolescents aged 11 and 12 years (N=1,065). The authors tested predictions from a gender-homophily approach vs. predictions from a goal-framing approach in which acceptance and rejection are seen as being…

  5. Level of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Preadolescence: Subtle Effects on Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) [71], after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  6. Association of total body and visceral fat mass with iron deficiency in preadolescents: the Healthy Growth Study.

    PubMed

    Moschonis, George; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Mougios, Vassilis; Manios, Yannis

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of obesity, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass with body Fe status in a representative sample of 1493 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years. Anthropometric, body composition, biochemical, clinical (Tanner stage, age of menarche) and dietary intake data were collected. Fe deficiency (ID) was defined as transferrin saturation (TS) < 16 %; and Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) as ID with Hb < 120 g/l. Obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat mass had significantly higher levels of serum ferritin (P ≤ 0.05) compared to their normal-weight peers and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. Similarly, obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass had significantly lower levels of TS (P ≤ 0.05) compared to normal-weight children and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. The prevalence of ID and IDA was significantly higher in boys and girls in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat than in peers in the lowest quartile. Higher quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were the main significant predictors of ID in boys, after controlling for other important confounders, with OR of 2.48 (95 % CI, 1.26, 4.88) and 2.12 (95 % CI, 1.07, 4.19), respectively. Similar significant associations were observed for girls. In conclusion, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were positively associated with ID in both sexes of preadolescents. These associations might be attributed to the chronic inflammation induced by excess adiposity. PMID:22088365

  7. Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.

    PubMed

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  8. Recent or imminent separation and intimate violence against women. A conceptual overview and some Canadian examples.

    PubMed

    Sev'er, A

    1997-12-01

    The link between recent or imminent separation and violence against female partners is discussed. Interviews were conducted among 87 divorced, separated and domestic violence survivors during 1985-88 to study violence perpetrated by men against their female intimate partners. Various bodies of literature are reviewed to establish the fact that separation heightens the risk of violence. The conceptual contributions of social learning and power and control theories are presented as they pertain to intimate violence against women. An expanded version of the power-and-control model is used to underscore the violence proneness of separations, especially when women initiate separations. To illustrate the expanded model, numerous Canadian examples are provided, drawn from interviews with divorced women, survivors of intimate violence, and news media reports. Finally, different strategies to break the cycle of violence are summarized. PMID:12295554

  9. The professional lives of women in gastroenterology: a Canadian comparison study with men.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, J; Cauch-Dudek, K; Rhyne, D

    1997-08-01

    Women are underrepresented in gastroenterology. A questionnaire examined the training and career experiences of female members of the Canadian Association for Gastroenterology (CAG) and their male counterparts. A pretested questionnaire was mailed to the 50 female CAG and 100 age-matched male members. Descriptive analyses were performed with the SAS statistical program. Questionnaires were returned by 38 of the women (76%) and 70 of the men (70%). All held full-time positions. Whereas 21.6% of the women respondents were pediatricians, all but 2.9% of the men had adult practices. The women were more likely to never marry (21.1% vs. 8.6% of men), and their personal income was significantly less than that of men. The men reported more problems juggling their work and private life, whereas problems with childcare and free time were reported more often by the women with children. The women perceived they had greater problems than men in pursuing an academic career, but grant support, academic rank, and administrative responsibilities were actually similar for both. Gender equality of opportunity was found in Canadian gastroenterology through a willingness on the part of women to compromise. Fewer women married and had families, and they earned less money than the men. PMID:9247490

  10. Observed Macro- and Micro-Level Parenting Behaviors During Preadolescent Family Interactions as Predictors of Adjustment in Emerging Adults With and Without Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Christina M.; Devine, Katie A.; Psihogios, Alexandra M.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine observed autonomy-promoting and -inhibiting parenting behaviors during preadolescence as predictors of adjustment outcomes in emerging adults with and without spina bifida (SB). Methods Demographic and videotaped interaction data were collected from families with 8/9-year-old children with SB (n = 68) and a matched group of typically developing youth (n = 68). Observed interaction data were coded with macro- and micro-coding schemes. Measures of emerging adulthood adjustment were collected 10 years later (ages 18/19 years; n = 50 and n = 60 for SB and comparison groups, respectively). Results Autonomy-promoting (behavioral control, autonomy-relatedness) and -inhibiting (psychological control) observed preadolescent parenting behaviors prospectively predicted emerging adulthood adjustment, particularly within educational, social, and emotional domains. Interestingly, high parent undermining of relatedness predicted better educational and social adjustment in the SB sample. Conclusions Parenting behaviors related to autonomy have long-term consequences for adjustment in emerging adults with and without SB. PMID:24864277

  11. An exploratory factor analysis of the Parenting strategies for Eating and physical Activity Scale (PEAS) for use in Hispanic mothers of adolescent and preadolescent daughters with overweight.

    PubMed

    Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; Posada, Alexandria; Wiesner, Margit; Olvera, Norma

    2015-12-01

    Existing measures of feeding and physical activity parenting strategies have not been validated for use among Hispanic mothers of adolescent and preadolescent daughters with overweight. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the Parenting strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) among 134 Hispanic mothers (Mage=38.81, SD±6.34) of adolescent and preadolescent daughters with overweight. Results from this exploratory study revealed that a three-factor structure (Limit Setting, Monitoring, and Discipline) and a 13-item revised PEAS measure might be better suited for use with this population. The revised Limit Setting, Monitoring, Discipline, and total subscales had good reliability (α=0.89, α=0.88, α=0.90, and α=0.87, respectively) and the subscale inter-item correlations were strong. To assess the concurrent validity, the revised PEAS subscales were correlated with both subscales of the Behavioral Strategies to Reduce Fat and Increase Fiber (Parent Report) in a subset of the sample (n=78). The Monitoring and Discipline subscales were found to be correlated with the Behavioral Strategies to Reduce Fat (r=.36 and r=.27, p<.05, respectively) and Increase Fiber (r=.40 and r=.35, p<.01, respectively) subscales. However, the revised PEAS Limit Setting subscale was not correlated with either Reduce Fat or Increase Fiber strategy. Taken together, these results indicated some degree of concurrent validity. Results from this study should be cross-validated using confirmatory factor analysis approaches. PMID:26519927

  12. The Female Gametophyte

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Gary N.; Koltunow, Anna M.G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  13. The female gametophyte.

    PubMed

    Drews, Gary N; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  14. The Place of Civic Engagement in Introductory Canadian Politics and Government Courses in Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephanie; Lewis, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally in Canada, attention to political or civic education has been at the primary- or secondary-school level. This study focuses on the place of civic engagement in introductory Canadian politics and government university courses in Canada by surveying instructors on their attitudes and approaches to civic engagement in the classroom.…

  15. Occupational Task Profiles: Canadian Literacy and Essential Skills Workforce. A Pan-Canadian Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This "Pan-Canadian Snapshot" explores the competencies needed to work with adults participating in Literacy and/or Essential Skills (L/ES) programs in Canada. The purpose of the "Snapshot" is to: (1) lay a foundation from which to explore the topic of professionalism; (2) identify the types of supports that the L/ES workforce…

  16. The Canadian Teaching Commons: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Canadian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuetherick, Brad; Yu, Stan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports on a national study exploring the current state of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) and assessing the perceptions of Canadian SoTL scholars at the micro (individual), meso (departmental), macro (institutional), and mega (disciplinary) contexts.

  17. Introduction to the Canadian Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Team's (CCORT) Canadian Cardiovascular Atlas project.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jack V; Brien, Susan E; Kennedy, Courtney C; Pilote, Louise; Ghali, William A

    2003-03-15

    The Canadian Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Team's (CCORT) Canadian Cardiovascular Atlas project was developed to provide Canadians with a national report on the state of cardiovascular health and health services in Canada. Written by a group of Canada's leading experts in cardiovascular outcomes research, the CCORT cardiac Atlas will cover a wide variety of topics ranging from cardiac risk factors and cardiac mortality rates to the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure and the outcomes of invasive cardiac procedures across Canada. Data in the Atlas will be presented at a national, provincial and health region level. The Atlas will be published as a series of 20 articles and chapters in future issues of The Canadian Journal of Cardiology and on CCORT's web site (www.ccort.ca). The journal version of the Atlas chapters will be written for a clinical audience and will include editorials written by invited experts, whereas the web-based version of each chapter will be written for a more general audience and will include additional supplemental information (for example, interactive colour maps and tables) that cannot be included in the journal version. Material from the Journal and the web will eventually be compiled into a book that will be distributed across Canada. This article serves as an introduction to the Atlas project and describes the rationale for and objectives of the CCORT national cardiac Atlas project. PMID:12677276

  18. Young Canadians in a Wired World: How Canadian Kids Are Using the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anne

    2001-01-01

    Canadian surveys of approximately 1,000 parents and 5,600 students aged 9-17 revealed student behaviors related to surfing the Web and engaging in online communication; differences in parent and student perceptions of students' Internet activities and the extent of parental supervision; and students' access to pornographic and violent Web sites.…

  19. Representativeness of patients and providers in the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Queenan, John A.; Williamson, Tyler; Khan, Shahriar; Drummond, Neil; Garies, Stephanie; Morkem, Rachael; Birtwhistle, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) has established a national repository of primary care patient health data that is used for both surveillance and research. Our main objective was to determine how representative the data for patients and primary care practitioners in the CPCSSN are when compared with the Canadian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we compared the 2013 CPCSSN patient sample with age and sex information from the 2011 census. The CPCSSN provider sample in 2013 was compared with the 2013 National Physician Survey. Results were stratified by 5 clinically relevant age categories and sex, and male-to-female ratios were calculated. Results: Patients who were 65 years of age and older represented 20.4% of the CPCSSN sample but only represented 14.8% of the Canadian population (2011 census). Among young adults (20-39 yr), 39.3% fewer men than women visited their primary care practitioner within 2 years. CPCSSN sample practitioners were more likely to be under 45 years of age, more likely to be female and more likely to be in an academic practice. Interpretation: It is important to consider adjusting for age and sex when using CPCSSN data. CPCSSN practitioners are likely not representative of family physicians; therefore, CPCSSN needs to recruit more nonacademic practices, community clinics and practices that have a larger proportion of male providers. PMID:27331051

  20. Pharmaceutical patent law: the Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Aumand, Livia; Norman, John

    2016-07-01

    This article provides an overview of the patent regime in Canada, with a focus on issues most relevant to the pharmaceutical industry. The process of applying for a patent is discussed, as well as enforcement and litigation. Recent developments in the case law dealing with patentability requirements - novelty, obviousness, utility and sufficiency - are reviewed. Finally, the impact of recently negotiated trade agreements on Canadian patent law is addressed. In this article, we aim to provide an overview of the patent regime in Canada, with a focus on issues that are particularly relevant to the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27346187

  1. Refugees and education in Canadian schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  2. Oklahoma City, Canadian River, OK, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of Oklahoma City, OK (35.5N, 97.5W) surrounded by the grasslands of the central plains, is detailed enough to use as a map of the major highways and throughfares within the city and surrounding area. Tinker Air Force Base and Will Rogers International Airport as well as Lakes Hefner, Stanley Draper and nearby recreation areas. The smaller community of Norman, on the banks of the Canadian River to the south, is home to the University of Oklahoma.

  3. The Canadian Lung Cancer Conference 2016

    PubMed Central

    Melosky, B.; Ho, C.

    2016-01-01

    Each February, the Canadian Lung Cancer Conference brings together lung cancer researchers, clinicians, and care professionals who are united in their commitment to improve the care of patients with lung cancer. This year’s meeting, held 11–12 February, featured a resident education session, a welcome dinner, networking sessions, lectures, breakout sessions, debates, and a satellite symposium. Key themes from this year’s meeting included innovations across the care spectrum and results of recent clinical trials with targeted agents, immuno-oncology agents, and novel drug combinations.

  4. Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Boys and Girls: The Relationship with Child and Maternal Variables

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Silva, Margarida; Gomes, A. Rui; Machado, Paulo P. P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: (i) To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii) to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old) and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Eating Attitude Test, the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, and the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child and maternal measures also included BMI and Collins Figure Drawings. Results: (i) No association between child and maternal BMI for either sex was found; (ii) no difference was found between boys and girls with regard to eating behavior; (iii) most children revealed a preference for an ideal body image over their actual body image; (iv) most mothers preferred thinner bodies for their children; (v) greater BMI was related to higher body dissatisfaction; and (vi) child BMI and dissatisfaction with body image predicted eating disturbances in boys, whereas self-esteem, maternal BMI, and eating behavior predicted them in girls. Discussion: Maternal eating problems and BMI were related to female eating problems only. PMID:22606370

  5. Characters with Exceptionalities Portrayed in Contemporary Canadian Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmerson, Jean; Brenna, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which exceptionality is addressed in Canadian children's literature, offering critical literacy as an avenue toward social justice. A content analysis (Berg, 2009) of 134 Canadian children's books offers a wide scope of contemporary titles to include in classrooms. We developed conceptual categories to explore…

  6. Debating Professional Designations for Evaluators: Reflections on the Canadian Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, J. Bradley; Cullen, Jim; Malik, Sumbal; Maicher, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a reflective account of a consultation process on professional designations for evaluators initiated and coordinated by the Canadian Evaluation Society (CES). Described are: (1) the forces leading CES to generate discussion and debate about professional designations for Canadian evaluators, (2) the process of developing and…

  7. How Canadian Universities Use Social Media to Brand Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Bali, Suchita; Longden, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores social media marketing strategies applied by Canadian universities as a tool for institutional branding, recruitment and engagement of home and international students. The target sample involves the total population of Canadian university-status institutions ("N" = 106). Qualitative data were collected from two major…

  8. Canadian Educational Development Centre Websites: More Ebb than Flow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines information portrayed on Canadian educational development (ED) centre websites and, in particular, whether information that corresponds to questions compiled from a literature search of ED centre practices is readily available from centre websites. This study phase is part of a larger national study of Canadian educational…

  9. Television Effects on Canadian Arctic High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldevin, Gary O.

    The purpose of this study was to contrast and compare television effects across three types of students at a high school in the Canadian Arctic--Euro-Canadian students, Inuit students resident in Frobisher Bay, and Inuit students from isolated settlements. Television had recently been introduced to the area by means of a satellite re-broadcast…

  10. Seeking Internationalization: The State of Canadian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the internationalization of Canadian universities, with a focus on the rise of foreign postsecondary students in Canada, the economic impacts, and the various benefits, challenges, and adjustments that have been influenced by the continuing demographic shifts on Canadian campuses since 2000. Rooted in recent global and…

  11. Education North of 60; The Canadian Superintendent 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsteinsson, B.; And Others

    The 1964 booklet is a report on the Canadian educational system in the Northwest Territories and northern Quebec. Prepared by the Canadian Association of School Superintendents and Inspectors of Northern Affairs and Resources, it is intended as a description rather than an analysis or philosophical treatment of education north of the 60th…

  12. European and Canadian Studies of Loneliness among Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a commentary on a set of five other articles reporting European and Canadian studies of loneliness among seniors. It places those works involving Canadian, Dutch, Finnish, and Welsh samples in the larger context of research on loneliness; offers reflections on the methods and findings reported in the articles; and addresses…

  13. Self-Help Book Prescription Practices of Canadian University Counsellors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Ronald E.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 80 Canadian university counselors to determine whether they prescribed self-help books and to compare titles of most prescribed books to those selected by Canadian psychologists. Found that 74.4 percent of 78 counselors answering question responded affirmatively to recommending books with 56 titles being prescribed. Lists 10 books most…

  14. Canadian Educators Look for Ways to Recruit More Foreign Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchard, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Canadian educators are increasingly worried about their country's position as a destination of choice for international students, according the annual conference of the Canadian Bureau for International Education. The bureau added that Canada has dropped out of the top five preferred countries as a place to study. Over all, the number of…

  15. The Half-circled "C": Canadian Copyright Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the legislative history of Canadian copyright law, especially with respect to government documents. Briefly describes the British origins of Canadian copyright, the British North America Act (1867), and the Copyright Act of 1921, all of which serve as background to the current law. (111 references) (LAE)

  16. Canadian Community College Computer Usage Survey, May 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Michael Dennis

    This survey was conducted to provide information on the level of computer usage in Canadian community colleges. A 19-question form was mailed to the deans of instruction in 175 Canadian public community colleges identified as such by Statistics Canada. Of these, 111 colleges returned their surveys (a 63% response rate), and the results were…

  17. African-Canadian Educators' Perspectives: Critical Factors for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the perspectives of African-Canadian educators on critical factors for success in their educational careers. Interviews were conducted and life histories were constructed to analyze the complex and multifaceted nature of the experiences of ten African-Canadian educators. These data indicate that family and community…

  18. Trends: The Canadian University in Profile. 1991 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report offers an overview of Canadian universities primarily by means of statistical data on enrollment, degrees, faculty, finance, and research. The report uses data from Statistics Canada and from the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. An introduction provides an analysis of the financial status of Canadian universities…

  19. 47 CFR 101.1423 - Canadian and Mexican coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1423... GHz Band § 101.1423 Canadian and Mexican coordination. Pursuant to § 2.301 of this chapter, MVDDS... sector of 200 degrees toward the border without coordination with Canada. MVDDS licensees shall...

  20. 47 CFR 101.1423 - Canadian and Mexican coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1423... GHz Band § 101.1423 Canadian and Mexican coordination. Pursuant to § 2.301 of this chapter, MVDDS... sector of 200 degrees toward the border without coordination with Canada. MVDDS licensees shall...

  1. Aspects sociolinguistiques du bilinguisme canadien (Aspects of Canadian Bilingualism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Jacques, Bernard

    The Canadian government opted for a politics of bilingualism according to the "personal solution" whereby the Canadian citizen, whether English or French, can demand the protection of his language regardless of the section of the country in which he lives. In a "territorial solution," an individual can claim official status for his language only…

  2. Early Childhood Education and Care: An Issue for All Canadians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friendly, Martha

    Arguing that quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) contributes to meeting goals that strengthen Canadians and Canadian society, this paper discusses the support found for ECEC within the nation; maintains that ECEC is a broad issue that bridges socioeconomic, ethnic, and regional divisions; and addresses the main problems and issues in…

  3. Informal Learning of Seniors in Canadian Society. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Margaret

    Informal learning by Canadian seniors was examined through semi-structured interviews with a purposefully selected group of 51 older Canadians (28 women and 23) who ranged in age from 58 to 95 years (average age, 73.7). All were retired or semi-retired, and all had engaged in several learning projects over the previous year in topics such as the…

  4. On the Autonomy and Homogeneity of Canadian English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollinger, Stefan; Clarke, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to the symposium approaches the themes of autonomy and homogeneity in Canadian English from a historical perspective. We trace the debates on these topics back to the late 19th century and relate them to changing public attitudes toward Canadian linguistic autonomy over time. We review the scholarly evidence on autonomy and…

  5. Social Capital and Disparities in Canadian Youth's Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassani, Cherylynn

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of youth's family and school contexts to understand disparities in Canadian youth's mathematics achievement. Using hierarchical linear analysis, some of the main assumptions of social capital theory are tested using the Canadian data from the 1999 Programme for International Student Assessment. Findings revealed…

  6. Professional Characteristics of Canadian Counsellors: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazzola, Nicola; Smith, J. David; Kearney, M. Kate; King-Andrews, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    With statutory regulation of mental health professions clearly at the forefront in many Canadian jurisdictions, counselling appears to be experiencing internal tensions regarding its vision and direction. The goal of this study was to collect data directly from Canadian counsellors to more clearly define the current practices of counselling in…

  7. Learning for the Workplace: Nordic and Canadian Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Gail, Ed.

    This book contains 21 papers from the Nordic-Canadian Learning for the Workplace Conference, which was held in Hanasaari, Espoo, Finland in June 1995. The following papers are included: "Introduction to the Nordic-Canadian Learning for the Workplace Conference" (Olli-Pekka Heinonen); "Conference Design and Process" (Diane Abbey-Livingston); "From…

  8. 22 CFR 123.19 - Canadian and Mexican border shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canadian and Mexican border shipments. 123.19 Section 123.19 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.19 Canadian and Mexican border shipments. A...

  9. 22 CFR 123.19 - Canadian and Mexican border shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canadian and Mexican border shipments. 123.19 Section 123.19 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.19 Canadian and Mexican border shipments. A...

  10. 22 CFR 123.19 - Canadian and Mexican border shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canadian and Mexican border shipments. 123.19 Section 123.19 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.19 Canadian and Mexican border shipments. A...

  11. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault in Canadian Sports and Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Margery; Moriarty, Richard

    Sexual harassment is deemed a violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which provides protection from discrimination based on sex. Provincial jurisdictions may offer legislation more stringent than that reflected in the Canadian code. Recourse for acts of sexual harassment through the courts is sought by alleging discrimination.…

  12. Female competition in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  13. Female competition in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Pusey, Anne E.; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission–fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  14. Eye injuries in Canadian amateur hockey.

    PubMed

    Pashby, T J

    1979-01-01

    Two studies, one retrospective (1972 to 1973) and one prospective (1974 to 1975), CONcerning eye injuries incurred by hockey players were conducted by the Canadian Ophthalmological Society with questionnaires to its members. Responses to the questionnaires were analyzed by age, type of injury, cause (i.e., hockey stick, puck, or other means), and results to visual acuity. The results were also designated by organized or unorganized participation. Almost 300 eye injuries were reported in each study. In the first study, 13.7% of the injured players became legally blind as a result of the injury; in the second study, 16% became legally blind. Organized hockey produced more injuries than unorganized hockey. The majority of the injuries were caused by the hockey stick. The injuries were both intraocular and extraocular. The group of 11- to 15-year olds received the highest number of injuries, and the older age group had the higher incidence of blindness. Studies have led to setting more rigid standards, altering rules of the game, and selecting face protectors for hockey players. Older players who care for their equipment prefer the plastic shield face protectors, and the younger players (who complain of fogging and scratching of the plastic) prefer mesh protectors through which neither the stick nor the puck can penetrate. New high sticking (above the shoulder level) rules were included in the 1976 official rule book for Canadian amateur hockey. PMID:474867

  15. Nurse Migration: A Canadian Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Little, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Objective To synthesize information about nurse migration in and out of Canada and analyze its role as a policy lever to address the Canadian nursing shortage. Principal Findings Canada is both a source and a destination country for international nurse migration with an estimated net loss of nurses. The United States is the major beneficiary of Canadian nurse emigration resulting from the reduction of full-time jobs for nurses in Canada due to health system reforms. Canada faces a significant projected shortage of nurses that is too large to be ameliorated by ethical international nurse recruitment and immigration. Conclusions The current and projected shortage of nurses in Canada is a product of health care cost containment policies that failed to take into account long-term consequences for nurse workforce adequacy. An aging nurse workforce, exacerbated by layoffs of younger nurses with less seniority, and increasing demand for nurses contribute to a projection of nurse shortage that is too great to be solved ethically through international nurse recruitment. National policies to increase domestic nurse production and retention are recommended in addition to international collaboration among developed countries to move toward greater national nurse workforce self sufficiency. PMID:17489918

  16. Ensemble Prediction at the Canadian Meteorological Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, G.; Lefaivre, L.; Houtekamer, P. L.; Mitchell, H.

    2004-05-01

    A global ensemble prediction system (EPS) is running operationally at the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) since February 1998. The number of members was increased from 8 to 16 members in august 1999 and the resolution was increased from 250km to 150km in June 2001. A multi-model approach is used to produce 10 day forecasts once a day. The Spectral Finite Element model (SEF) is used at TL149 and the Global Environment Multi-scale (GEM) model is used at the equivalent 1.2 degree resolution. The initial analyses are produced from an Optimal Interpolation (OI) technique developed at CMC in the early seventies is currently being replaced by an Ensemble Kalman Filter approach developed by Houtekamer and Mitchell. We will describe the new method to obtain the perturbed analyses using the Ensemble Kalman Filter and the verifications obtained to phase out the old OI technique. The ensemble approach is a natural tool to forecast the probability of precipitation (POP). Classes can be defined for different thresholds of 2, 5, 10 and 25 mm of precipitation of 24 hour periods. Improving the resolution of the EPS models has resulted in improvement of the POP over Canadian stations. Results of this evaluation as compared to the operational deterministic model will be shown.

  17. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  18. Medical Student Enrolment in Canadian Universities

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, J. W.

    1963-01-01

    Statistical returns from the 12 Canadian medical schools revealed in 1962, for the fourth consecutive year, a larger first-year enrolment (946, 970, 1006 and 1057). This is attributed to an increase in qualified applicants and expansion in size of the first-year class in the face of a physician shortage. The proportion of women graduates increased from 5.2% in 1958 to 10.1% in 1962 (U.S.A., 5.6%). The academic calibre of entering students showed little change over five years, 1957-61. Recent impressions indicate an upward swing. Loss from withdrawals and dismissals was chiefly in first year (9.1%, 7.6% and 9.0%: 1959-60 to 1961-62), 40% being attributed to “nonacademic” causes. Foreign students now comprise 12.6% of the medical student body. A decrease in American and an increase in Commonwealth student numbers was noted. Recommendations include attention to drop-outs before and after registration and provision for stand-by applicants; the general adoption of some objective measure of qualification, e.g. the Medical College Admission Test; an on-going registry of applicants to Canadian medical schools for later retrospective studies and re-examination of admission policies for non-residents. PMID:20327471

  19. An inventory of undiscovered Canadian mineral resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Griffiths, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Unit regional value (URV) and unit regional weight are area standardized measures of the expected value and quantity, respectively, of the mineral resources of a region. Estimation and manipulation of the URV statistic is the basis of an approach to mineral resource evaluation. Estimates of the kind and value of exploitable mineral resources yet to be discovered in the provinces of Canada are used as an illustration of the procedure. The URV statistic is set within a previously developed model wherein geology, as measured by point counting geologic maps, is related to the historical record of mineral resource production of well-developed regions of the world, such as the 50 states of the U.S.A.; these may be considered the training set. The Canadian provinces are related to this training set using geological information obtained in the same way from geologic maps of the provinces. The desired predictions of yet to be discovered mineral resources in the Canadian provinces arise as a consequence. The implicit assumption is that regions of similar geology, if equally well developed, will produce similar weights and values of mineral resources.

  20. The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, P

    1994-01-01

    In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237