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Sample records for preadolescent canadian females

  1. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  2. The Development of Physical Aggression from Toddlerhood to Pre-Adolescence: A Nation Wide Longitudinal Study of Canadian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Sylvana; Vaillancourt, Tracy; LeBlanc, John C.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to model the developmental trajectories of physical aggression (PA) from toddlerhood to pre-adolescence and to identify risk factors that distinguish typical (normative) from atypical developmental patterns. Ten cohorts of approximately 1,000 children (n = 10,658) drawn form a nationally representative (Canadian)…

  3. Single trial nicotine conditioned place preference in pre-adolescent male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alexander W; Konz, Nathan; Hirsch, Zahava; Weedon, Jeremy; Dow-Edwards, Diana L

    2014-10-01

    The mean age of first voluntary tobacco inhalation is 12.3 years (DiFranza et al., 2004). 60% of smokers start smoking before the age of 14 and 90% are dependent before reaching the age of 19. Females are typically more sensitive to nicotine than males yet few studies examine the effects of nicotine on the reward systems in pre-adolescent female subjects. This study utilized the single trial conditioned place preference (CPP) test in very young (postnatal day 25-27) rats of both sexes. Latent effects on anxiety and amphetamine response were determined 5 and 7 days following a second nicotine exposure. Results show that 0.05 mg/kg nicotine induced CPP in females following a single trial while both sexes showed CPP following the 0.5 mg/kg dose. Five days later, rats dosed with 0.05 mg/kg show increased time on the open arm of the elevated plus maze, an anxiolytic response. While baseline activity was increased in nicotine-exposed males 7 days following dosing, amphetamine response was not affected by the treatments in either sex. Therefore, our data suggest that young females are more sensitive to nicotine reward than males supporting a heightened sensitivity of the mesolimbic dopamine system in very young females. However, alterations in baseline activity were only seen in males suggesting that different components of the system are affected by nicotine in each sex. An anxiolytic response to nicotine 5 days after dosing may suggest that this very young age group is uniquely affected by this very low nicotine dose. Clearly, nicotine has substantial acute and lasting effects during pre-adolescence at doses substantially lower than seen at older ages as reported by others. These effects, which could potentially result from cigarette or e-cigarette smoking by 11-12 year old children , focus attention on the vulnerability of this age group to nicotine. PMID:25109273

  4. ''A Burden in Your Heart'': Lessons of Disclosure from Female Preadolescent and Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staller, Karen M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To enhance understanding of the sexual abuse disclosure process from the perspective of preteen and teenage survivors. To reconsider prominent models of the disclosure process in light of our findings. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from four focus groups in which 34 preadolescent and adolescent female survivors of…

  5. Pet care during preadolescence: developmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Davis, J H

    1987-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated pet care in relation to psychosocial development during preadolescence. A group of male and female preadolescents (n = 22) at appropriate grade level for age completed a dog care responsibility inventory. The results revealed that preadolescents in general do not routinely care for pets. Mothers appear to assume most pet care tasks. PMID:3664972

  6. Genetic and environmental influences on self-concept in female preadolescent twins: comparison of Minnesota and Seoul data.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2005-08-01

    It has been argued that culture significantly influences the developmental basis of self-concept. The goal of the present study is to compare the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors to explain individual differences in various dimensions of self-concept in female preadolescents of Minnesota in the United States and Seoul in South Korea. Two hundred and eighteen monozygotic (MZ) and 137 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS) and 74 MZ and 42 DZ twin pairs from the Seoul Twin Family Study (STFS) completed the 6 cluster scales of the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (P-H). The 6 cluster scales of the P-H include Popularity, Physical Appearance and Attributes, Behavior, Intellectual Competence and School Status, Anxiety, and Happiness and Satisfaction. Univariate model-fitting analyses were performed. In both samples, a model incorporating shared and nonshared environmental influences fitted the data best for Popularity, Anxiety, and Intellectual Competence and School Status, whereas a model including additive genetic and nonshared environmental factors provided the best fit for Physical Appearance and Attributes, and Behavior. The univariate model did not yield an adequate fit for Happiness and Satisfaction. For Physical Appearance and Attributes, and Intellectual Competence and School Status, estimates of additive genetic and environmental factors were significantly different between the MTFS and the STFS samples. For Popularity, Anxiety, and Behavior, however, the genetic and environmental estimates were comparable between the two samples. PMID:16176711

  7. Experienced Control in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Age Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.

    Adolescent determination of behavior can be viewed as the result of perceived locus of control. To investigate adolescent perceptions of control in terms of age, loci of control (internal or external), situations (community and home), and direction of control (from or over the environment), 909 adolescents (345 males, 564 females), aged 11-19,…

  8. At the Beginning of the STEM Pipeline: A Case Study Exploring Preadolescent Female Students' Attitudes Toward Science, Perceptions of Scientists, and Developing Career Aspirations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heacock, Lucy Vogel

    The continuous underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), referred to as the leaky pipeline, has been examined from multiple perspectives internationally, while the attitudes and perceptions of preadolescent girls regarding STEM remain largely ignored. Employing a constructivist paradigm, this qualitative case study explored the perceptions and attitudes of 40 public elementary school female students across three grade levels regarding science, scientists, and career aspirations. Mixed-methods data collections included three survey instruments combined with semi-structured interviews. Self-efficacy, stereotype threat, and career choice theory provided the framework for the overarching research question: What are the attitudes and perceptions of female preadolescent students at the third, fourth, and fifth grade levels regarding science and scientists, and how might these dispositions affect their early development of STEM career aspirations and interests? The Three-Dimensions of Student Attitude Towards Science (TDSAS) instrument informed the exploration of self-efficacy; the modified Draw-A-Scientist Test (mDAST) and Rubric informed the exploration of stereotype threat; and the STEM-Career Interest Survey (CIS) informed the exploration of career aspirations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants. Results from this study indicated that the majority of the preadolescent girls thought science was an important topic to study and displayed an attitude of self-confident ability to learn science and be successful in science class. They highly enjoyed scientific experimentation and deeply valued problem solving. While they inferred they did not experience gender bias, the girls did engage in stereotyping scientists. Over half the girls expected to use science in their future careers, while a minority had already determined they wanted to be scientists when they grow up. The study concludes with

  9. The Effectiveness of a Culture- and Gender-Specific Intervention for Increasing Resiliency among African American Preadolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Chase-Vaughn, Gretchen; Gray, Famebridge; Addison, Jerveada Dixon; Cherry, Valerie R.

    2000-01-01

    Assessed the impact of a culture- and gender-specific intervention on strengthening resiliency among poor African American preadolescent girls. The intervention used a relational Afrocentric focus and activities to increase self-worth and ethnic and gender identity. Intervention girls scored significantly higher on measures of Afrocentric values,…

  10. Women of Mystery: Investigating Learning Pathways of Canadian and American Female Crime Fiction Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the learning pathways of 15 Canadian and American female crime fiction authors. Using a critical feminist perspective, it argues that despite the neoliberal rhetoric of individual choice, as in most careers, there are social-structural factors that create opportunities and barriers for women mystery writers. The article…

  11. Male and Female Graduates in the Canadian Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.

    1992-01-01

    Explores differences in labor market experiences between male and female journalism graduates (from 1976, 1982, and 1986) in Canada. Investigates occupations entered after graduation, income, time spent in various labor market activities, and job and salary satisfaction. Finds minimal gender-based differences. (SR)

  12. Differences in abuse reported by female and male Canadian medical students.

    PubMed Central

    Moscarello, R; Margittai, K J; Rossi, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess differences between male and female medical students concerning their experiences of abuse during training in a large Canadian medical school. DESIGN: Voluntary, anonymous cross-sectional survey of first- and fourth-year medical students during February 1991. SETTING: University of Toronto School of Medicine. PARTICIPANTS: Of 396 first- and fourth-year students surveyed after one of their regular classes, 347 (117 women, 230 men) completed the questionnaire. INTERVENTION: A 165-item, multiple-choice questionnaire concerning experiences of verbal or emotional abuse, sexual harassment and physical abuse, completed within 30 minutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between male and female respondents in abuse experiences before and during medical training, the relation between abuse before and during training, and the psychologic and behavioural effects of abuse during training. RESULTS: The experiences of the male and female respondents differed mainly in regard to sexual harassment: 42% (49/117) of the women and 11% (25/230) of the men reported sexual harassment before entering medical school (p < 0.0001); 46% (54/117) and 19% (43/230) respectively reported sexual harassment during medical training (p < 0.0001); and women who reported sexual harassment were the only respondents for whom a significant relation was found between abuse before and during training (p < 0.043). The women were more distressed than the men by all forms of abuse. A significant relation was shown between male students who reported experiencing abuse during medical training and mistreating patients (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Female students' experiences of sexual harassment differed from those of their male counterparts. As well, the female students' reactions to and ways of coping with all types of abuse differed from those of the male students. PMID:7832819

  13. The Parent-Child Relationship as Predictor of Eating Pathology and Weight Gain in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Van Durme, Kim; Decaluwe, Veerle; Bosmans, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of attachment toward mother and father as a predictor of eating pathology and weight gain among preadolescent boys and girls. Self-report questionnaires and adjusted body mass index (BMI) were administered from a community sample of 601 preadolescents (8-11 years; 48% female) at baseline and once again 1 year…

  14. Preadolescent Violence among Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    This research study explored preadolescent girl-to-girl violence based on the perceptions of the victim at 14 years of age and those of her family. Using a heuristic research design (Moustakas, 1990), this constant comparative analysis of multiple data sources found (a) a clearly delineated progression of girl-to-girl violence, (b) blindness…

  15. Coping strategies in female survivors of childhood sexual abuse from two Canadian and two New Zealand cultural groups.

    PubMed

    Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Read, John; Cowie, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Individuals from some minority cultures are at greater risk of experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and are also at heightened risk of negative outcomes from abuse. Coping strategies, which may mediate the relationship between CSA and outcomes, are also impacted by culture. This study examined the use of coping strategies in female survivors of CSA across 4 cultural groupings from 2 countries-86 European Canadians, 40 Native Canadians, 129 European New Zealanders, and 35 Māori New Zealanders-who all completed the Coping Responses Inventory. The 4 groups differed significantly on 7 of the 8 Coping Responses Inventory scales (Logical Analysis, Positive Reappraisal, Problem Solving, Cognitive Avoidance, Acceptance or Resignation, Seeking Alternative Rewards, Emotional Discharge). Whereas New Zealanders differed significantly from Canadians (p<.001), Europeans did not differ significantly from indigenous cultural groups, nor did nationality and culture grouping interact (p>.05). The profile of coping in New Zealand Europeans was relatively flat, with average scores across coping types close to the mean of the t-score distribution. Māori New Zealanders produced a similar profile, with only slight increases on 2 scales of avoidant coping. The findings raise questions about the extent to which generalizations can be made about there being either a "Western/European" culture or a particular "indigenous" culture. This in turn also raises the issue of whether cross-validation and replication of findings are needed if the findings are to be applied outside of the country in which the data were gathered. PMID:22651678

  16. Social Discomfort in Preadolescence: Predictors of Discrepancies between Preadolescents and Their Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether salient preadolescent behaviors and experiences predicted parents' and teachers' underestimation of preadolescents' shyness. Participants included a community sample of 129 fifth and sixth graders, along with one parent and teacher per preadolescent. Preadolescents, parents, and teachers provided reports…

  17. Nest defense and survival of offspring in highly aggressive wild Canadian female house mice.

    PubMed

    Vom Saal, F S; Franks, P; Boechler, M; Palanza, P; Parmigiani, S

    1995-10-01

    Nest defense behavior was examined in wild female house mice (Mus domesticus) that were derived from a stock initially trapped in Alberta, Canada. The first objective was to determine whether behavior toward pups prior to mating was related to the intensity of postpartum aggression in a variety of social situations. Therefore, prior to the experiments we screened virgin females for their behavior toward a newborn pup [60% of the females exhibited infanticide and 40% were noninfanticidal: 7% were parental (retrieved and hovered over the pup) and 33% ignored the pup]. Infanticidal and noninfanticidal females were then mated with males and used in four experiments. In Experiment 1 the females were housed individually prior to deliver, while in Experiment 2 the females were allowed to remain with their mates; in both situations all females successfully reared litters of similar sizes. Male and female intruders (that had all exhibited infanticide when previously tested with a pup) were placed separately into a test cage containing a lactating female during the first four days after delivery. Regardless of the presence of the stud male, previously infanticidal females were more aggressive (exhibited more attacks per min) toward both male and female intruders than were previously noninfanticidal females; infanticidal females also exhibited more of both forms of attack (offensive and defensive) and also attacked with greater intensity than did noninfanticidal females. The number of attacks toward intruders of both sexes increased for both infanticidal and noninfanticidal females between Day 1-4 postpartum, but very high rates of attack were observed on all days by the lactating females, including the day of delivery. In Experiments 3 and 4 only the most aggressive (previously infanticidal) females were tested. In Experiment 3, two unrelated, unfamiliar females were mated separately and then were housed together just prior to delivery, which was planned to occur 3-4 days

  18. Sexual harassment of female chiropractors by their patients: a pilot survey of faculty at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College

    PubMed Central

    Gleberzon, Brian; Statz, Rachel; Pym, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to survey a group of female chiropractors and inquire as to whether or not they had been sexually harassed by their patients. Methods: An online questionnaire was emailed via Survey Monkey to 47 female faculty members at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC). Respondents were asked if they had been sexual harassed and, if so, the characteristics of the incident(s), their response to it, how serious they perceived the problem to be and whether or not they felt prepared to deal with it. Results: Nineteen of 47 questionnaires were completed and returned. Of these 19, eight respondents reported being sexually harassed by a patient (all male), most commonly within the first 5 years of practice and most commonly involving a ‘new’ patient. It was rarely anticipated. The nature of the harassment varied and respondents often ignored the incident. Most respondents perceive this to be a problem facing female chiropractors. Discussion: Although this is the first survey of its kind, this is a significant problem facing other healthcare professionals. Conclusions: Among this group of respondents, sexual harassment by patients was a common occurrence. More training on how to handle it, during either a student’s chiropractic education or offered as a continuing education program, may be warranted. PMID:26136603

  19. Variations in male-female infant ratios among births to Canadian- and Indian-born mothers, 1990-2011: a population-based register study

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.; Ray, Joel G.; Wanigaratne, Susitha; Moineddin, Rahim; O'Campo, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We assessed variations in the male-female infant ratios among births to Canadian-born and Indian-born mothers according to year of birth, province and country of birth of each parent. Methods: In this population-based register study, we analyzed birth certificates of 5 853 970 singleton live births to Canadian-born and 177 990 singleton live births to Indian-born mothers giving birth in Canada from 1990 to 2011. Male-female ratios were stratified by live birth order and plotted by year of birth. Logistic regression was used to assess whether ratios varied between Canadian provinces and according to the birthplace of each parent. The deficit in the number of girls was estimated using bootstrap methods. Results: Among Canadian-born mothers, male-female ratios were about 1.05, with negligible fluctuations by birth order, year and province. Among Indian-born mothers, the overall male-female ratio at the third birth was 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-1.41) and was 1.66 (95% CI 1.56-1.76) at the fourth or higher-order births. There was little variability in the ratios between provinces. Couples involving at least 1 Indian-born parent had higher than expected male-female ratios at the second and higher-order births, particularly when the father was Indian-born. The deficit in the expected number of girls among Indian immigrants to Canada in the study period was estimated to be 4472 (95% CI 3211-5921). Interpretation: Fewer than expected girls at the third and higher-order births have been born to Indian immigrants across Canada since 1990. This trend was also seen among couples of mixed nativity, including those involving a Canadian-born mother and an Indian-born father. Fathers should be considered when investigating sex ratios at birth. PMID:27398354

  20. School bus travel is associated with bullying victimization among Canadian male, but not female, middle and high school students.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A; Larouche, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has found a link between active school transportation and bullying victimization among school-aged children. However, the link with other school travel modes (such as car, school bus, and public transportation) and bullying victimization is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between school travel mode and report of bullying victimization among Canadian middle and high school students. The sample consisted of 5065 students aged 11-20 years (mean age: 15.2±1.9 years; 56% females) who participated in the 2013 Ontario Students Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). Overall, 24.7% of students reported school bullying victimization in the past year. Females (27.2%) were more likely than males (22.3%) to be victims of school bullying (p<0.01). After adjustment for age, ethnicity, subjective socioeconomic status and parental education, multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that, compared to active school transportation, school bus travel to (adjusted odd ratio (OR)=1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.25-2.68) and from (OR=1.79; 95% CI=1.70-2.67) school was associated with greater odds of bullying victimization among males, but not females. However, the use of public transportation to get to school was associated with lower odds of bullying victimization compared to active transportation among females only (OR=0.59; 95% CI=0.36-0.97). These findings suggest that school travel mode should be considered when considering risks for bullying victimization. Bullying prevention efforts should target school buses to make children's commute a safe and enjoyable experience. PMID:27376652

  1. Bibliotherapy with Preadolescents Experiencing Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth; Allen, Virginia B.; Folger, Wendy A.; McMillen, Paula S.; Lowe, Imelda

    2007-01-01

    Preadolescence is a challenging developmental stage, but when complicated or threatened by the effects of family dissolution or divorce, the challenges can be overwhelming. Such youngsters often need and can benefit from counseling intervention. One particularly appropriate intervention is bibliotherapy. Reasons for using bibliotherapy for such…

  2. The Psycho-Social Dimensions of Preadolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan de Brun, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Differentiates between several terms used to refer to the five-year period between ages 9 through 13 (for example, "youth,""pubescence,""puberty," and "preadolescence"). Theories related to preadolescence, including the developmental theories of Piaget, Kohlberg, and Erikson, are briefly discussed, and social, emotional, sexual, and physiological…

  3. Suicide among Preadolescents: A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westefeld, John S.; Bell, Allison; Bermingham, Charles; Button, Christopher; Shaw, Kari; Skow, Christine; Stinson, Rebecca D.; Woods, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Suicide among preadolescents is a relatively rare phenomenon. Due to the infrequency of suicide among this population, this area of study has received limited investigation relative to suicide in other age groups and populations. This article reviews research related to suicide among preadolescents, defined as children under the age of 13. The…

  4. Relationships among Shyness, Social Competence, Peer Relations, and Theory of Mind among Pre-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kakarani, Styliani; Kolovou, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between shyness, a number of personal and interpersonal variables (i.e. social skills, self-esteem, attachment style, advanced Theory of Mind skills and peer relations) in a sample of 243 Greek pre-adolescents. Participants completed self-reports of the variables. Results indicated that females scored…

  5. The effect of differing intensities of acute cycling on preadolescent academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael; Johnson, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of differing intensity levels of acute exercise on preadolescent academic ability. In a repeated measures design, 18 preadolescent participants (mean age±S.D.= 9.8±1.4 years: 9 male and 9 female) completed the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 4) following 20 minutes of rest, 20-minutes on a cycling ergometer at 50% maximal heart rate reserve (HRR), and 20-minutes on a cycling ergometer at 75% HRR on separate days. Exercise was found to improve spelling irrespective of intensity level. Moderate levels of exercise improved reading although the effect of high levels of intensity is less clear. Both intensity levels impaired arithmetic, whilst sentence comprehension was unaffected. These findings further support the past research that indicates acute bouts of exercise can selectively improve cognition in preadolescent children. However, the present study finds no support for the notion that increasing the intensity of exercise accentuates benefits. PMID:23724796

  6. Sex-Dependent Changes in Striatal Dopamine Transport in Preadolescent Rats Exposed Prenatally and/or Postnatally to Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Sirova, Jana; Kristofikova, Zdenka; Vrajova, Monika; Fujakova-Lipski, Michaela; Ripova, Daniela; Klaschka, Jan; Slamberova, Romana

    2016-08-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is the most commonly used psychostimulant drug, the chronic abuse of which leads to neurodegenerative changes in the brain. The global use of MA is increasing, including in pregnant women. Since MA can cross both placental and haematoencephalic barriers and is also present in maternal milk, children of chronically abused mothers are exposed prenatally as well as postnatally. Women seem to be more vulnerable to some aspects of MA abuse than men. MA is thought to exert its effects among others via direct interactions with dopamine transporters (DATs) in the brain tissue. Sexual dimorphism of the DAT system could be a base of sex-dependent actions of MA observed in behavioural and neurochemical studies. Possible sex differences in the DATs of preadolescent offspring exposed to MA prenatally and/or postnatally have not yet been evaluated. We examined the striatal synaptosomal DATs (the activity and density of surface expressed DATs and total DAT expression) in preadolescent male and female Wistar rats (31-35-day old animals) exposed prenatally and/or postnatally to MA (daily 5 mg/kg, s.c. to mothers during pregnancy and lactation). To distinguish between specific and nonspecific effects of MA on DATs, we also evaluated the in vitro effects of lipophilic MA on the fluidity of striatal membranes isolated from preadolescent and young adult rats of both sexes. We observed similar changes in the DATs of preadolescent rats exposed prenatally or postnatally (MA-mediated drop in the reserve pool but no alterations in surface-expressed DATs). However, prenatal exposure evoked significant changes in males and postnatal exposure in females. A significant decrease in the activity of surface-expressed DATs was found only in postnatally exposed females sensitized to MA via prenatal exposure. MA applied in vitro increased the fluidity of striatal membranes of preadolescent female but not male rats. In summary, DATs of preadolescent males are more sensitive to

  7. Dopamine D3 Receptor Mediates Preadolescent Stress-Induced Adult Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Joon H.; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that repeated stressful experiences during childhood increases the likelihood of developing depression- and anxiety-related disorders in adulthood; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We subjected drd3-EGFP and drd3-null mice to daily, two hour restraint stress episodes over a five day period during preadolescence (postnatal day 35 to 39), followed by social isolation. When these mice reached adulthood (post-natal day > 90), we assessed locomotor behavior in a novel environment, and assessed depression-related behavior in the Porsolt Forced Swim test. We also measured the expression and function of dopamine D3 receptor in limbic brain areas such as hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and amygdala in control and stressed drd3-EGFP mice in adulthood. Adult male mice subjected to restraint stress during preadolescence exhibited both anxiety- and depression-related behaviors; however, adult female mice subjected to preadolescent restraint stress exhibited only depression-related behaviors. The development of preadolescent stress-derived psychiatric disorders was blocked by D3 receptor selective antagonist, SB 277011-A, and absent in D3 receptor null mice. Adult male mice that experienced stress during preadolescence exhibited a loss of D3 receptor expression and function in the amygdala but not in hippocampus or nucleus accumbens. In contrast, adult female mice that experienced preadolescent stress exhibited increased D3 receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens but not in amygdala or hippocampus. Our results suggest that the dopamine D3 receptor is centrally involved in the etiology of adult anxiety- and depression-related behaviors that arise from repeated stressful experiences during childhood. PMID:26619275

  8. Empowering Preadolescent and Adolescent Leukemia Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kathy

    1988-01-01

    Describes effects of leukemia diagnosis and treatment for preadolescents and adolescents. Discusses strategies for social workers to assist these cancer patients in participating actively in the day-to-day management of their own care. (ABL)

  9. The Persistent Gap: Understanding Male-Female Salary Differentials amongst Canadian Academic Staff. CAUT Equity Review. Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2011

    2011-01-01

    There has been a long-standing concern amongst policymakers, economists, and trade unions over the persistent earnings gap between men and women in the Canadian labour market. Although this gap has narrowed over time, women's average hourly wages still remain about 16% lower than that earned by men. The reasons for this inequality in male and…

  10. The Role of Religiosity in African American Preadolescent Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of parent and preadolescent religiosity in aggression among African American preadolescents with moderate to high aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine (a) which aspects of parent and preadolescent religiosity (i.e., church attendance, private religious activities, and intrinsic…

  11. Aerobic Fitness and Response Variability in Preadolescent Children Performing a Cognitive Control Task

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chien-Ting; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Chaddock, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and cognitive variability in preadolescent children. METHOD Forty-eight preadolescent children (25 males, 23 females, mean age = 10.1 years) were grouped into higher- and lower-fit groups according to their performance on a test of aerobic capacity (VO2max). Cognitive function was measured via behavioral responses to a modified flanker task. The distribution in reaction time was calculated within each participant to assess intra-individual variability of performance. Specifically, the standard deviation and coefficient variation of reaction time were used to represent cognitive variability. RESULTS Preadolescent children, regardless of fitness, exhibited longer reaction time, increased response variability, and decreased response accuracy to incongruent compared to congruent trials. Further, higher-fit children were less variable in their response time and more accurate in their responses across conditions of the flanker task, while no group differences were observed for response speed. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that fitness is associated with better cognitive performance during a task that varies cognitive control demands, and extends this area of research to suggest that intra-individual variability may be a useful measure to examine the relationship between fitness and cognition during preadolescence. PMID:21443340

  12. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  13. Friendship Preferences among German and Turkish Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugert, Philipp; Noack, Peter; Rutland, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes in and predictors of preference for same-ethnic friendships among German (N = 106) and Turkish (N = 45) preadolescents (M age = 10.4 years) during their 1st year in an ethnically heterogeneous school. Drawing on the contact hypothesis, it examined the relation between children's attitudes and their preference for…

  14. Effect of Group Sandtray Therapy with Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flahive, Mon-hsin Wang; Ray, Dee

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of group sandtray therapy, a model of play therapy, was evaluated using a pretest-posttest control group design with 56 preadolescents exhibiting behavioral difficulties. The experimental group (n = 28) received sandtray therapy in small groups for 10 weeks while the wait-list control group (n = 28) received no treatment. Results…

  15. Preadolescent male perceptions of action figure physiques.

    PubMed

    Baghurst, Timothy; Carlston, David; Wood, Julie; Wyatt, Frank B

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the preference and reasoning of 176 preadolescent and adolescent males when presented with original and current action figures that had statistically different physiques. Current action figures were perceived as significantly more muscular and healthier. Participants also preferred to resemble current action figures citing muscularity and size for their preference. PMID:18023792

  16. Encouraging Preadolescent Emotional Intelligence through Leadership Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, John Henry

    2010-01-01

    The study sought to determine effects of leadership activity on emotional intelligence in preadolescents. Ninety-two Central California Valley sixth grade students in two schools and four classes were assessed on emotional intelligence. Treatment and comparison groups were identified. A Two-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA examined change over time…

  17. Sleep problems in healthy preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Kahn, A; Van de Merckt, C; Rebuffat, E; Mozin, M J; Sottiaux, M; Blum, D; Hennart, P

    1989-09-01

    Few data currently exist concerning the sleep problems of preadolescents. A parent report questionnaire concerning sleep habits and problems was developed. The questionnaires were completed by the parents of 1000 unscreened elementary school children attending the third, fourth, and fifth grades. The schools were randomly selected from an urban area. Of the 1000 questionnaires, 972 were completed and could be used for statistical analysis. Among the parents, 24% reported sleeping poorly and 12% regularly relied on sedatives to induce sleep. Sleep difficulties lasting more than 6 months were present in 43% of the children. In 14% (132 of 972), sleep latency was longer than 30 minutes, and more than one complete arousal occurred during the night at least two nights per week. The following variables were seen among the poor sleepers: lower parental educational and professional status, parents who were more likely to be divorced or separated, and more noise or light in the rooms were they slept. They also presented a higher incidence of somnambulism, somniloquia, and night fears (nightmares and night terrors) than the children who slept well. Boys who slept poorly were significantly more likely to have insomniac fathers (P less than .010). Regular use of sedatives was described in 4% (5 of 132) of the children who slept poorly. Among the "poor sleepers," 21% (33 of 132) had failed 1 or more years at school. School achievement difficulties were encountered significantly more often among the poor sleepers than among the children without sleep problems (P = .001). Of the families with children suffering from sleep problems, 28% expressed a desire for counseling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2788868

  18. Mentalizing Abilities in Preadolescents' and Their Mothers' Autobiographical Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scopesi, Alda M.; Rosso, Anna Maria; Viterbori, Paola; Panchieri, Erika

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the association between the mental state talk of mothers and their preadolescent children, with the hypothesis that an intergenerational transmission of mentalizing abilities may extend beyond early childhood. The participants were 41 mother-preadolescent child nonclinical dyads. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI)…

  19. Brief Report: How Anxiously Withdrawn Preadolescents Think about Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Campbell, Kelly; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Burgess, Kim B.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that anxiously withdrawn preadolescents demonstrate success in forming friendships, yet these friendships tend to be of lesser quality. Drawing on Selman's (1980) theory of interpersonal understanding, we compared levels of friendship understanding between anxiously withdrawn preadolescents and a sample of non-withdrawn…

  20. Suicidal Behavior in Preadolescent Children: A Growing Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; Lehman, Cynthia J.

    1987-01-01

    Preadolescent suicide appears to be increasing, although less than 1% of the attempts are successful. Several high risk factors of preadolescent suicide including depression, family pathology, and a child's cognitive concept of death have been identified. Educators should refer children who threaten or attempt suicide to mental health services.…

  1. Spatial and Temporal Lingual Coarticulation and Motor Control in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zharkova, Natalia; Hewlett, Nigel; Hardcastle, William J.; Lickley, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared coarticulation and lingual kinematics in preadolescents and adults in order to establish whether preadolescents had a greater degree of random variability in tongue posture and whether their patterns of lingual coarticulation differed from those of adults. Method: High-speed ultrasound tongue contour…

  2. The high prevalence of fragile X premutation carrier females: Is this frequency unique to the French Canadian population?

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, S.L.

    1995-11-01

    {open_quotes}The fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation and, after Down syndrome, the most common identified form of mental retardation.{close_quotes} Although statements similar to this are found in almost every introduction to the fragile X syndrome, little is actually known about the true prevalence of fragile X syndrome or about the frequency of clinically unaffected carriers. To date, almost all estimates of the prevalence of the syndrome are based on cytogenetic surveys of overtly retarded populations. The cytogenetic test to detect the fragile X site expression is labor intensive, and its sensitivity and specificity are considerably less than 100%. Thus, once the gene for the fragile X syndrome was isolated, population surveys of the mutation were anticipated, as the DNA diagnostic test is accurate, relatively simple, and inexpensive compared with the cytogenetic test. However, population surveys have been slow to come, in part, because of the technical difficulties related to the type of sample tested (e.g., blood spot) and to ethical and logistical problems related to identification of a target population. Dr. Rousseau and his colleagues have overcome these difficulties and present in this issue of the journal the first large study of the frequency of clinically unaffected female carriers of the fragile X mutation. 21 refs.

  3. A Cross-National Study of Preadolescent Substance Use: Exploring Differences Between Youth in Spain and Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Luengo, Maria Angeles; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Romero, Estrella; GóMez-Fraguela, JosÉ Antonio; Villar, Paula; Nieri, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to comparatively examine drug use in Arizona and Spain, in order to know if similarities and differences in drug use patterns justify the administration in Spain of U.S. prevention intervention programs. Data were obtained from independent samples of seventh-grade students recruited from urban public schools and surveyed in 1998: 4,035 ethnically diverse Arizona students (Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites), and 2,243 Spanish-White students. Comparisons using Odds ratios and Chi-square tests allowed assessment of differences in drug use rates between preadolescents in Arizona and Spain taking into account gender. Furthermore, ethnicity differences in preadolescent drug use and in psychosocial risk factors were explored using multivariate analysis (ANOVA and logistic regression). Our results showed similar trends in drug use between Arizona and Spain students, with gateway drugs already in use by early adolescents, and with higher rates of drug use among males than among females. However, cross-national differences in marijuana/cannabis use were noteworthy: Arizona preadolescents were over 25 times more likely to report marijuana/cannabis use than preadolescents from Spain. Moreover, when ethnic differences were considered, Latinos in Arizona reported higher marijuana/cannabis use compared with non-Latino students. Drug use patterns among Latino preadolescents, as well as the relevance of some risk factors among the diverse groups, were strongly influenced by their level of acculturation. Study limitations and the implications of our findings for early drug use prevention and future research are discussed. PMID:18752161

  4. Women in the Canadian Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Sylvia; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains activities on the economic status and roles of Canadian women. The first of 4 sections presents a profile of male and female occupations. Section 2 contains statistics on females in the Canadian labor force. Section 3,…

  5. Sexual development and behavior in black preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Westney, O E; Jenkins, R R; Butts, J D; Williams, I

    1984-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study of the sociosexual development of black preadolescents, sexual maturation and sociosexual behaviors were assessed and the relationships between these variables determined in a sample of 101 nine- to eleven-year-old middle- and low-income boys and girls. Sexual maturation was measured by Tanner's staging criteria of specific secondary sex characteristics. Involvement in heterosexual behaviors was elicited via self reports and was classified on a five-point heterosexual physical activity scale (HPA). The data corroborate other studies in demonstrating that girls were more advanced than boys in the process of sexual maturation. Considerable variation in stages of maturation for chronological age existed in both boys and girls, but was more pronounced for girls. In girls, there was no significant association between HPA and degree of biologic maturation. However, genital development in boys was significantly related to their sexual behavior. Income level was not significantly associated with the HPA score. A baseline from which to chart the progress of sociosexual behaviors in these developing preadolescents was established. PMID:6507146

  6. Developmental Changes in Sources of Consensual Validation in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, E. Paul

    1971-01-01

    Four studies focus upon possible changes in the extent to which children consult adults and peers at the preadol escent (fourth grade) stage. A sharp change at the preadolescent stage to consult peers was confirmed. (CD)

  7. Short-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy with obsessive preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Ierodiakonou, C S; Ierodiakonou-Benou, I

    1997-01-01

    The phenomenological and psychodynamic differences between obsessive preadolescents and obsessive adults are pointed out. Case material shows how an effective therapeutic alliance on psychoanalytic lines can be established quite early with preadolescents. The therapy can be shortened mainly by opening up sexual subjects connected with the onset of puberty, and by working through the guilt engendered by the ambivalent relations this age group has with its parents. PMID:9470962

  8. Subthreshold Symptoms of Depression in Preadolescent Girls Are Stable and Predictive of Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.

  9. Socially anxious and peer-victimized preadolescents: "doubly primed" for distress?

    PubMed

    Erath, Stephen A; Tu, Kelly M; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-07-01

    We examined independent and interactive associations linking preadolescents' socially anxious feelings and peer victimization experiences with their social behaviors (rated by parents and teachers) and psychophysiological arousal during lab simulations of salient peer stress situations in preadolescence (peer evaluation and peer rebuff). Sixty-three preadolescents and one parent per preadolescent participated. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), skin conductance level (SCL), and heart rate (HR) were assessed during peer stress situations. Preadolescents provided reports of social anxiety; preadolescents and parents reported on peer victimization; and parents and teachers rated prosocial and aggressive behaviors. Peer victimization moderated associations between social anxiety and both physiological arousal and social-behavior problems. As hypothesized, social anxiety was more strongly associated with lower RSA, higher HR, and higher aggressive behavior among preadolescents who experienced higher levels of peer victimization, compared to preadolescents who experienced lower levels of peer victimization. PMID:22139401

  10. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: Associations with Preadolescent Physical Abuse and Selected Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether preadolescent physical abuse raises the risk of adolescent suicidal behavior, to examine potential mediators and moderators of the relationship between preadolescent abuse and adolescent suicidality, and to examine whether distal (preadolescent) risk factors add to proximal (adolescent) factors in predicting…

  11. Do Private Religious Practices Moderate the Relation between Family Conflict and Preadolescents' Depression and Anxiety Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly A.; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    We extended past research that focused on the relation between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 160 11- to 12-year-olds, we examined whether private religious practices moderated the relations between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although preadolescents'…

  12. The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Hillman, C H; Pontifex, M B; Raine, L B; Castelli, D M; Hall, E E; Kramer, A F

    2009-03-31

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indexes of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included 20 preadolescent participants (age=9.5+/-0.5 years; eight female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 min of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e. walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further support the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688

  13. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE TREADMILL WALKING ON COGNITIVE CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 minutes of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e., walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further supports the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688

  14. Technology Use and Sleep Quality in Preadolescence and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Oliviero; Sette, Stefania; Fontanesi, Lilybeth; Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baumgartner, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze differences between preadolescents and adolescents on the use of technology and to test the contribution of using Internet and mobile phone, and circadian preference on sleep quality. Methods: We recruited a sample of 850 (364 males) preadolescents and adolescents. Self-report questionnaires about sleep schedule, sleep wake behavior problems, circadian preferences, and the use of technology (e.g., Internet and mobile phone) were administered. Students were asked to fill out the School Sleep Habits Survey, a self-report questionnaire on the use of technology, the Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ), and the Shorter Promis Questionnaire (SPQ). Results: Adolescents reported more sleep problems, a tendency toward eveningness, and an increase of Internet and phone activities, as well as social network activities, while preadolescents were more involved in gaming console and television viewing. The regression analysis performed separately in the two age groups showed that sleep quality was affected by the circadian preference (eveningness) in both groups. Adolescents' bad sleep quality was consistently associated with the mobile phone use and number of devices in the bedroom, while in preadolescents, with Internet use and turning-off time. Conclusions: The evening circadian preference, mobile phone and Internet use, numbers of other activities after 21:00, late turning off time, and number of devices in the bedroom have different negative influence on sleep quality in preadolescents and adolescents. Citation: Bruni O, Sette S, Fontanesi L, Baiocco R, Laghi F, Baumgartner E. Technology use and sleep quality in preadolescence and adolescence. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1433–1441. PMID:26235161

  15. Proverb Comprehension as a Function of Reading Proficiency in Preadolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Allen, Melissa M.; Kirsch, Dixon I.

    2001-01-01

    Proverb comprehension through reading was examined in 42 preadolescent students, 24 of whom were identified as "proficient readers," and 18 as "less proficient readers." Comprehension on both unfamiliar concrete and abstract proverbs was associated with reading proficiency, word knowledge, and analogical reasoning. (Contains references.)…

  16. Are There Stable Factors in Preadolescent Girls' Externalizing Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.; Hipwell, Alison; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Keenan, Kate; Sembower, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the factor structure of disruptive behavior among preadolescent girls. The present study reports on exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of disruptive girl behavior over four successive data waves as rated by parents and teachers in a large, representative community sample of girls (N = 2,451). Five factors…

  17. Treatment of Voice Hyperfunction in the Pre-adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaze, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    Preadolescents with hyperfunctional voice disorders may respond readily to behavioral voice therapy based on education, voice conservation strategies, direct vocal function exercises, family and peer support, and relaxation. Treatment should focus on integration of health respiration, phonation, and vocal tract resonance to achieve improved…

  18. Preadolescents' Understanding and Reasoning about Asylum Seeker Peers and Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Steenhuis, Aafke

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined ethnically Dutch preadolescents' understanding and reasoning about asylum seeker peers and friendships. The description of an asylum seeker was compared with that of a Moroccan and a Dutch peer. The findings suggest that asylum seekers were described more negatively than peers from the other two groups. Additionally, we…

  19. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  20. Emotion Regulation Profiles, Temperament, and Adjustment Problems in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point…

  1. SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL TEAR OF THE KNEE EXTENSOR MECHANISM IN A PRE-ADOLESCENT: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; Giordano, Vincenzo; Albuquerque, Maria Isabel Pires; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro; Barretto, João Maurício

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral tearing of a patellar tendon and a contralateral sleeve fracture in a pre-adolescent are rare lesions. We report a case in which a pre-adolescent sustained a fall while jumping during a soccer match. No predisposing risk factors were identified. The injuries were treated with surgical repairs and transosseous suturing. The aim of this study was to present a case of spontaneous concurrent tearing of the extensor mechanism of the knee in a pre-adolescent. PMID:27047882

  2. Preadolescents - What Makes Them Tick? A Childhood Education Special (First in a Series): Classic Statements from the Educator's Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redl, Fritz

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the individual and group psychology of preadolescence and offers suggestions for improving adult-child relationships. (Excerpt from "Preadolescents - What Makes Them Tick? by Dr. Fritz Redl, published in Child Study in 1943.) (DR)

  3. Children's Gender Orientation and Perceptions of Female, Male, and Gender-Ambiguous Animal Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniol, Rachel; Reichman, Shiri; Fund, Liat

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effects of preadolescents' gender orientation on social perception of animal characters whose gender was clearly female, male, or gender-ambiguous. Children's gender orientation did not influence perceptions of the gender of characters that were clearly female and male, but did influence perceptions of ambiguous characters. Children's…

  4. Maternal abuse history and self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Delker, Brianna C; Noll, Laura K; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2014-12-01

    Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent's own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother's history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child's first 24-36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N=488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children's birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child's birth through 36 months, and at age 9-11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child's early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation. PMID:25459984

  5. Ready, Set, Go: African American Preadolescents' Sexual Thoughts, Intentions, and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim S.; Fasula, Amy M.; Lin, Carol Y.; Levin, Martin L.; Wyckoff, Sarah C.; Forehand, Rex

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of preadolescent sexuality is limited. To help fill this gap, we calculated frequencies, percentages, and confidence intervals for 1,096 preadolescents' reports of sexual thoughts, intentions, and sexual behavior. Cochran-Armitage trend tests accounted for age effects. Findings show that 9-year-olds are readying for sexual activity,…

  6. Psychosocial Correlates of Shape and Weight Concerns in Overweight Pre-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7-12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based…

  7. Socially Anxious and Peer-Victimized Preadolescents: "Doubly Primed" for Distress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Tu, Kelly M.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-01-01

    We examined independent and interactive associations linking preadolescents' socially anxious feelings and peer victimization experiences with their social behaviors (rated by parents and teachers) and psychophysiological arousal during lab simulations of salient peer stress situations in preadolescence (peer evaluation and peer rebuff).…

  8. Maternal Employment and Selected Behaviors and Attitudes of Preadolescents and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellas, Marie; And Others

    Investigation of the relationship between maternal employment and behaviors and attitudes (emcompassing parental relationships; personal problems, educational/career aspirations; future life; sex role ideology) of preadolescents and adolescents indicated significant differences only for preadolescents regarding sex role ideology. Working mother…

  9. The Impact of Family Functioning and School Connectedness on Preadolescent Sense of Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Emma L.; McKenzie, Vicki L.

    2016-01-01

    Families and schools are important environments that contribute to the resilience and positive development of preadolescent children. Sense of mastery, including its two central factors of optimism and self-efficacy, forms an important component of resilience during preadolescence (Prince-Embury, 2007). This study examined the interrelationships…

  10. A Comparison of the Response Styles Theory and the Hopelessness Theory of Depression in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Kirsty F.; Jose, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares predictions from the Hopelessness Theory of depression (Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989) with the Response Styles Theory of depression (RST; Nolen-Hoeksema, 1987) with data obtained from a preadolescent sample (ages 9 to 13 years). Three hundred ten preadolescents completed self-report measures of stress, sense of control,…

  11. Sexual Characteristics of Preadolescent Children's Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Suzanne; Weinberg, Bernd

    This paper reports an investigation of gender-indicating acoustic properties of the vocalizations of 73 six- and seven-year-old speakers. Tape recorded samples of these children's isolated vowel and sentence productions were presented in four listening sessions. One hundred and sixteen young adult (age 17-24) female listeners made gender judgments…

  12. Eyewitness Testimony for a Simulated Juvenile Crime by Male and Female Criminals with Consistent or Inconsistent Gender-Role Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Lauren R.

    2009-01-01

    Eyewitness recall by 60 adolescents and 60 young adults in Experiment 1 and by 64 children and 63 preadolescents in Experiment 2 for a simulated theft in which gender-role characteristics and sex of criminal were manipulated (i.e., masculine male, feminine male, feminine female, masculine female) was investigated. Gender-role flexibility impacted…

  13. Daily Violent Video Game Playing and Depression in Preadolescent Youth

    PubMed Central

    Peskin, Melissa F.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan L.; Lewis, Terri H.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Most studies on the impact of playing violent video games on mental health have focused on aggression. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between playing violent video games and depression, especially among preadolescent youth. In this study, we investigated whether daily violent video game playing over the past year is associated with a greater number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth, after controlling for several well-known correlates of depression among youth. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 5,147 fifth-grade students and their primary caregivers who participated in Wave I (2004–2006) of Healthy Passages, a community-based longitudinal study conducted in three U.S. cities. Linear regression was conducted to determine the association between violent video game exposure and number of depressive symptoms, while controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, peer victimization, witnessing violence, being threatened with violence, aggression, family structure, and household income level. We found that students who reported playing high-violence video games for ≥2 hours per day had significantly more depressive symptoms than those who reported playing low-violence video games for <2 hours per day (p<0.001). The magnitude of this association was small (Cohen's d=0.16), but this association was consistent across all racial/ethnic subgroups and among boys (Cohen's d values ranged from 0.12 to 0.25). Our findings indicate that there is an association between daily exposure to violent video games and number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth. More research is needed to examine this association and, if confirmed, to investigate its causality, persistence over time, underlying mechanisms, and clinical implications. PMID:25007237

  14. Daily violent video game playing and depression in preadolescent youth.

    PubMed

    Tortolero, Susan R; Peskin, Melissa F; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Cuccaro, Paula M; Elliott, Marc N; Davies, Susan L; Lewis, Terri H; Banspach, Stephen W; Kanouse, David E; Schuster, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Most studies on the impact of playing violent video games on mental health have focused on aggression. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between playing violent video games and depression, especially among preadolescent youth. In this study, we investigated whether daily violent video game playing over the past year is associated with a greater number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth, after controlling for several well-known correlates of depression among youth. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 5,147 fifth-grade students and their primary caregivers who participated in Wave I (2004-2006) of Healthy Passages, a community-based longitudinal study conducted in three U.S. cities. Linear regression was conducted to determine the association between violent video game exposure and number of depressive symptoms, while controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, peer victimization, witnessing violence, being threatened with violence, aggression, family structure, and household income level. We found that students who reported playing high-violence video games for ≥2 hours per day had significantly more depressive symptoms than those who reported playing low-violence video games for <2 hours per day (p<0.001). The magnitude of this association was small (Cohen's d=0.16), but this association was consistent across all racial/ethnic subgroups and among boys (Cohen's d values ranged from 0.12 to 0.25). Our findings indicate that there is an association between daily exposure to violent video games and number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth. More research is needed to examine this association and, if confirmed, to investigate its causality, persistence over time, underlying mechanisms, and clinical implications. PMID:25007237

  15. Maternal abuse history and self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Brianna C.; Noll, Laura K.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent’s own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother’s history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring’s self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child’s first 24–36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N = 488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children’s birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child’s birth through 36 months, and at age 9–11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children’s self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child’s early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation. PMID:25459984

  16. Assessing physical activity preferences in Latino and white preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Olvera, Norma; McCarley, Kendall E; Leung, Patrick; McLeod, Jessica; Rodriguez, Augusto X

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity preferences (PAP) in preadolescent children. 191 Latino and White children (M = 11.9, SD = +/- 0.7) participated. Demographic, anthropometric, and PAP measures were employed. Both Latino and White children reported water play, basketball, and bicycling as their most preferred activities while indoor chores were least preferred. Compared with Latino, White children reported a higher preference for baseball/softball. Exploratory factor analysis of PAP measure indicated a three-factor solution: free play, sports, and exercise. Multiple linear regression models revealed that PAP varied as a function of ethnicity, gender, age, and body mass index. PMID:20128360

  17. No Evidence for Cardiomyocyte Number Expansion in Preadolescent Mice.

    PubMed

    Alkass, Kanar; Panula, Joni; Westman, Mattias; Wu, Ting-Di; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Bergmann, Olaf

    2015-11-01

    The magnitude of cardiomyocyte generation in the adult heart has been heavily debated. A recent report suggests that during mouse preadolescence, cardiomyocyte proliferation leads to a 40% increase in the number of cardiomyocytes. Such an expansion would change our understanding of heart growth and have far-reaching implications for cardiac regeneration. Here, using design-based stereology, we found that cardiomyocyte proliferation accounted for 30% of postnatal DNA synthesis; however, we were unable to detect any changes in cardiomyocyte number after postnatal day 11. (15)N-thymidine and BrdU analyses provided no evidence for a proliferative peak in preadolescent mice. By contrast, cardiomyocyte multinucleation comprises 57% of postnatal DNA synthesis, followed by cardiomyocyte nuclear polyploidisation, contributing with 13% to DNA synthesis within the second and third postnatal weeks. We conclude that the majority of cardiomyocytes is set within the first postnatal week and that this event is followed by two waves of non-replicative DNA synthesis. This Matters Arising paper is in response to Naqvi et al. (2014), published in Cell. See also the associated Correspondence by Soonpaa et al. (2015), and the response by Naqvi et al. (2015), published in this issue. PMID:26544945

  18. Canadian beef quality audit.

    PubMed Central

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) was observed on 34% of the cattle. Bruises were found on 78% of the carcasses, 81% of which were minor in severity. Fifteen percent of the bruises were located on the round, 29% on the loin, 40% on the rib, 16% on the chuck, and 0.02% on the brisket. Grubs were observed in 0.02% of the steers, and injection sites were observed in 1.3% of whole hanging carcasses. Seventy percent of the livers were passed for human food and 14% for pet food; 16% were condemned. Approximately 71% of the liver condemnations were due to liver abscesses. Four percent of the heads, 6% of the tongues, and 0.2% of whole carcasses were condemned. The pregnancy rate in female cattle was approximately 6.7%. The average hot carcass weight was 357 kg (s = 40) in steers, 325 kg (s = 41) in heifers, 305 kg (s = 53) in cows, 388 kg (s = 62) in virgin bulls and 340 kg (s = 39) in mature bulls. The average ribeye area in all cattle was 84 cm2 (s = 12); range 29 cm2 to 128 cm2. Grade fat was highly variable and averaged 9 mm (s = 4) for steers and heifers, 6 mm (s = 6) for cows, 5 mm (s = 1) for virgin bulls, and 4 mm (s = 0.5) for mature bulls. The average lean meat yield was 59.7% in cattle (s = 3.4); range 39% to 67%. One percent of the carcasses were devoid of marbling, 1% were dark cutters, and 0.05% of the steer carcasses were staggy. Six percent of the carcasses had poor conformation, 3.7% were underfinished, and 0.7% were overfinished. Yellow fat was observed in 4% of the carcasses; 10% of carcasses were

  19. Freedom between the Lines: Clothing Behavior and Identity Work among Young Female Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendley, Alexandra; Bielby, Denise D.

    2012-01-01

    Our research examines the relationship among identity, age, gender and athleticism through a study of the association between sports clothing and the identity work of pre-adolescent female soccer players. Based on participant-observation and interviews conducted at three co-ed youth soccer camps, we find that age is an important element of…

  20. Preadolescent Temperament and Risky Behavior: Bicycling Across Traffic-Filled Intersections in a Virtual Environment

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Erin; Plumert, Jodie M.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This investigation used a bicycling simulator to examine how preadolescent temperament is related to risky behavior. Methods Children aged 10 and 12 years (N = 109) rode a bicycle through a virtual environment where they crossed intersections with continuous cross traffic. Mothers filled out the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised. Results Older children and male participants timed their entry into the intersection more precisely than did younger children and female participants, as did 10-year-old children higher in inhibitory control and 10-year-old boys higher in aggression. However, only 10-year-old children higher in inhibitory control had more time to spare when they cleared the intersection. For 10-year-old boys higher in aggression, cutting in more closely behind the lead vehicle was accompanied by less stopping at intersections, less waiting before crossing, and choosing smaller gaps to cross. Conclusions The Discussion section focuses on inhibitory control as a protective factor and aggression as a risk factor for car–bicycle collisions. PMID:23161125

  1. Menarche? A Case of Abdominal Pain and Vaginal Bleeding in a Preadolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Riney, Lauren C; Reed, Jennifer L; Kruger, Laura L; Brody, Alan J; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints in the pediatric ED. Because of the broad range of potential diagnoses, it can pose challenges in diagnosis and therapy in the preadolescent girl. An 11-year-old previously healthy girl presented to our pediatric ED with fever, decreased appetite, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Initial evaluation yielded elevated creatinine levels, leukocytosis with bandemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and urine concerning for a urinary tract infection. She began receiving antibiotics for presumed pyelonephritis and was admitted to the hospital. After worsening respiratory status and continued abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan was obtained and a pelvic foreign body and abscess were identified. Adolescent gynecology was consulted for examination under anesthesia for abscess drainage and foreign body removal. A foreign body in the vagina or uterus can present as vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, dysuria, or hematuria. Because symptoms can be diverse, an intravaginal or uterine foreign body should be considered in the preteen female patient presenting to the ED with abdominal pain. PMID:26169928

  2. Emotion regulation profiles, temperament, and adjustment problems in preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Wilson, Anna C; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N=196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point occurring 1 year apart. LPA identified 5 frustration and 4 anxiety regulation profiles based on children's physiological, behavioral, and self-reported reactions to emotion-eliciting tasks. The relation of effortful control to conduct problems was mediated by frustration regulation profiles, as was the relation of effortful control to depression. Anxiety regulation profiles did not mediate relations between temperament and adjustment. PMID:21413935

  3. Effects of footwear on treadmill running biomechanics in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Karsten; Riebe, Dieko; Campe, Sebastian; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Zech, Astrid

    2014-07-01

    While recent research debates the topic of natural running in adolescents and adults, little is known about the influence of footwear on running patterns in children. The purpose of this study was to compare shod and barefoot running gait biomechanics in preadolescent children. Kinematic and ground reaction force data of 36 normally developed children aged 6-9 years were collected during running on an instrumented treadmill. Running conditions were randomized for each child in order to compare barefoot running with two different shod conditions: a cushioned and a minimalistic running shoe. Primary outcome was the ankle angle at foot strike. Secondary outcomes were knee angle, maximum and impact ground reaction forces, presence of rear-foot strike, step width, step length and cadence. Ankle angle at foot strike differed with statistical significance (p < 0.001) between conditions. Running barefoot reduced the ankle angle at foot strike by 5.97° [95% CI, 4.19; 7.75] for 8 kmh(-1) and 6.18° [95% CI, 4.38; 7.97] for 10 kmh(-1) compared to the cushioned shoe condition. Compared to the minimalistic shoe condition, running barefoot reduced the angle by 1.94° [95% CI, 0.19°; 3.69°] for 8 kmh(-1) and 1.38° [95% CI, -3.14°; 0.39°] for 10 kmh(-1). Additionally, using footwear significantly increased maximum and impact ground reaction forces, step length, step width and rate of rear-foot strike. In conclusion, preadolescent running biomechanics are influenced by footwear, especially by cushioned running shoes. Health professionals and parents should keep this in mind when considering footwear for children. PMID:24890307

  4. Determinants of Parental Monitoring and Preadolescent Sexual Risk Situations among African American Families Living in Urban Public Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, Donna R.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Miller, Scott R.; Mcbride, Cami K.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated determinants of parental monitoring and the association between parental monitoring and preadolescent sexual risk situations among low-income, African American families living in urban public housing. Preadolescents and their parents or caregivers who participated in a longitudinal study of familial and contextual influences on…

  5. A Prospective Study of Individual Factors in the Development of Weight and Muscle Concerns among Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saling, Marissa; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, parent and peer relations, negative affect, and perfectionism, as predictors of dieting, food preoccupation, and muscle preoccupation, in 326 preadolescent children (150 girls and 176 boys) aged between 8 and 10 years. Preadolescents were tested twice over a 10-month…

  6. Relations of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity to Preadolescent Peer Functioning: The Mediating Roles of Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Banny, Adrienne M.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the structural relations of preadolescents' inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, aggressive and prosocial behaviors, and peer functioning. There were 739 fourth (n = 239) and fifth (n = 500) graders (52.23% boys) in Taiwan who participated in this study. Preadolescents' inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were…

  7. Notable Canadian Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Irene E.

    This annotated bibliography dealing with Canadian children's books aims to show the historical development of the literature. Included within the bibliography are: (1) notable Canadian books from the eighteenth century to the modern period, (2) lists of books which were awarded a bronze medal for the years 1947-1975, and (3) a list of fiction for…

  8. Canadian Science Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.

    1988-01-01

    Only 45 percent of Canadian research is funded and executed by the private sector. Influenced by success stories such as the U.S. Stanford Research Park, Canadians have looked at science parks as a means to diversify their economy and to increase cooperation among government, industry, and universities. (Author/MLW)

  9. Canadian Books for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Irma, Ed.

    The children's books listed and annotated in this book were selected by Canadian children's librarians; they represent the most informative and relevant books in print for children, providing knowledge and understanding of the Canadian environment and cultural milieu. Each entry indicates bibliographic information and availability.…

  10. Psychosocial correlates of shape and weight concerns in overweight pre-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sinton, Meghan M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R; Stein, Richard I; Saelens, Brian E; Epstein, Leonard H; Wilfley, Denise E

    2012-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7-12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based weight control treatment. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the influence of pre-adolescents' individual characteristics and social experiences, and their parents' psychological symptoms, on shape and weight concerns as assessed by the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Findings revealed that higher levels of dietary restraint, greater feelings of loneliness, elevated experiences with weight-related teasing, and higher levels of parents' eating disorder symptoms predicted higher shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents. Interventions addressing overweight pre-adolescents' disordered eating behaviors and social functioning, as well as their parents' disordered eating behaviors and attitudes, may be indicated for those endorsing shape and weight concerns. PMID:21695562

  11. Cardiac Autonomic Adjustments During Baroreflex Test in Obese and Non-Obese Preadolescents

    PubMed Central

    Paschoal, Mário Augusto; Brunelli, Aline Carnio; Tamaki, Gabriela Midori; Magela, Sofia Serafim

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown changes in cardiac autonomic control of obese preadolescents. Objective To assess the heart rate responses and cardiac autonomic modulation of obese preadolescents during constant expiratory effort. Methods This study assessed 10 obese and 10 non-obese preadolescents aged 9 to 12 years. The body mass index of the obese group was between the 95th and 97th percentiles of the CDC National Center for Health Statistics growth charts, while that of the non-obese group, between the 5th and 85th percentiles. Initially, they underwent anthropometric and clinical assessment, and their maximum expiratory pressures were obtained. Then, the preadolescents underwent a constant expiratory effort of 70% of their maximum expiratory pressure for 20 seconds, with heart rate measurement 5 minutes before, during and 5 minutes after it. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate values were analyzed by use of a software. Results The HRV did not differ when compared before and after the constant expiratory effort intra- and intergroup. The heart rate values differed (p < 0.05) during the effort, being the total variation in non-obese preadolescents of 18.5 ± 1.5 bpm, and in obese, of 12.2 ± 1.3 bpm. Conclusion The cardiac autonomic modulation did not differ between the groups when comparing before and after the constant expiratory effort. However, the obese group showed lower cardiovascular response to baroreceptor stimuli during the effort, suggesting lower autonomic baroreflex sensitivity. PMID:27007224

  12. Suicidality Among Preadolescent Maltreated Children in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Taussig, Heather N.; Harpin, Scott B.; Maguire, Sabine A.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among 515 preadolescent (aged 9–11 years) maltreated children who entered foster care within the prior year. Over a quarter (26.4%) of the children had a history of suicidality according to their own and/or their caregiver’s report, 4.1% of whom were imminently suicidal. In bivariate analyses, children at higher risk of suicidality tended to be younger, non-Hispanic, abused, and to have experienced multiple types of maltreatment, more referrals to child welfare, more household transitions, and a longer length of time in foster care. There were no gender differences. Multiple regression analyses found physical abuse and chronicity of maltreatment to be the most robust predictors of suicidality. It is critically important that these high-risk children are screened for suicidality before adolescence and that caregivers and professionals are informed of their risk status so that they may implement mental health treatment, monitoring, and harm reduction measures. PMID:24567247

  13. Preadolescents' Self-Concept and Popular Magazine Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra; Elliott, Anne; Bajovic, Mira; Akseer, Spogmai

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a larger study of Canadian children's sense of self and media habits, 223 children in all (112 boys, 111 girls; 10- to 13-year-olds; M = 11.17y). Participants completed a questionnaire on their self-descriptions and reading habits over a 3-year period. Content analysis of the responses showed great diversity in…

  14. Are Canadians Cultural Cuckoos?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickleburgh, Brita

    1977-01-01

    The author believes that teachers have been remiss in transmitting Canadian culture to their students. They have also neglected the development of self-realization and identity in the majority of students. (Author)

  15. Family-Based Interpersonal Psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for Depressed Preadolescents: Examining Efficacy and Potential Treatment Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Laura J.; Weinberg, Rebecca J.; Brent, David A.; Mufson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for treating depression in preadolescents (ages 7–12) as compared to child-centered therapy (CCT), a supportive and nondirective treatment that closely approximates the standard of care for pediatric depression in community mental health. Method Preadolescents with depression (N=42) were randomly assigned FB-IPT or CCT. Pre- and posttreatment assessments included clinician-administered measures of depression, parent- and child-reported depression and anxiety symptoms, and parent-child conflict and interpersonal impairment with peers. Results Preadolescents receiving FB-IPT had higher rates of remission (66.0% vs. 31%), a greater decrease in depressive symptoms from pre- to posttreatment, and lower depressive symptoms at posttreatment (R2=0.35, Δ R2 = 0.22; B= -8.15, SE= 2.61, t(37)= -3.13, p=0.002, F2=0.28) than did preadolescents with depression receiving CCT. Furthermore, preadolescents in the FB-IPT condition reported significant reductions in anxiety and interpersonal impairment than did preadolescents in the CCT condition. Changes in social and peer impairment from pre- to posttreatment were associated with preadolescents’ posttreatment depressive symptoms. There was a significant indirect effect for decreased social impairment accounting for the association between the FB-IPT and preadolescents’ posttreatment depressive symptoms. Conclusion Findings indicate FB-IPT is an effective treatment for preadolescent depression and support further investigation of interpersonal mechanisms by which FB-IPT may reduce preadolescent depression. Clinical trial registration information Phase II Study of Family Based Interpersonal Psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for Depressed Preadolescents; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02054312; NCT02054312. PMID:25721184

  16. The Influence of Mathematical Ability and Morning Nutrition on Mental Arithmetic in Preadolescents: An ERP study.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of eating or skipping breakfast on ERP correlates of mental arithmetic were studied in preadolescents differing in experience (age) and mathematical skills. Participants, randomly assigned to treatment [eat (B) or skip (SB) breakfast (each, n = 41)], were sub-grouped by age [8.8 yrs (B: ...

  17. Whittle's "Channel One": Effects on Impulsive Preadolescents' Desire for Advertised Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozzo-Lyles, Teresa A.; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    A field experiment tested effects of "Channel One" commercials on impulsive preadolescent students' purchasing preferences, such as product liking and likelihood of buying regularly advertised products. A total of 67 sixth-grade middle school students participated in the field experiment. Students who viewed "Channel One' daily were in eight…

  18. Expressions of Ethnic Identity in Pre-Adolescent Latino Students: Implications for Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinauer, Erika; Cutri, Ramona Maile

    2012-01-01

    This study describes how 72 fifth-grade Latina/Latino students express their sense of belonging to their ethnic group. The purpose of this study is to help teachers gain specific understanding of the ways that pre-adolescent Latina/Latino students express belonging to their ethnic group, in order to become more effective at implementing culturally…

  19. Deconstructing Barbie: Using Creative Drama as a Tool for Image Making in Pre-Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Elizabeth; Lanoux, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma of self-concept in pre-adolescent girls, as they revise their self-images based on information that the culture dictates as the norm. Argues that drama education can offer creative activities to help girls find their voice and bring them into their power. Includes two group drama activities and a short annotated bibliography…

  20. Patterns of Aberrant Eating among Pre-Adolescent Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarren-Sweeney, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports epidemiological and phenomenological investigations of aberrant eating among 347 pre-adolescent children in court-ordered foster and kinship care, in New South Wales, Australia. A quarter of children displayed clinically significant aberrant eating problems, with no evidence of gender or age effects. Two distinct patterns were…

  1. Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Relation to Autonomic Function: A Population-Based Study in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Andrea; Riese, Harriette; Sondeijker, Frouke E. P. L.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; van Roon, Arie M.; Ormel, Johan; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether externalizing and internalizing problems are related to lower and higher heart rate (HR), respectively, and to explore the relationship of these problems with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Moreover, to study whether problems present at both preschool and preadolescent age…

  2. The Effects of a Cognitive-Based Intervention on Drug Awareness in Private School Preadolescent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Phyllis M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of a Cognitive-Based Intervention on Drug Awareness in Private School Preadolescent Students. Parsons, Phyllis M., 2005: Applied Dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Fischler School of Education and Human Services. Adolescents/Substance Abuse/Prevention/Family Influence/Drug Education. This applied dissertation was designed to…

  3. Individual and Sociocultural Influences on Pre-Adolescent Girls' Appearance Schemas and Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Appearance schemas, a suggested cognitive component of body image, have been associated with body dissatisfaction in adolescent and adult samples. This study examined girls' weight status (BMI), depression, and parent, sibling, peer, and media influences as predictors of appearance schemas in 173 pre-adolescent girls. Hierarchical regression…

  4. Patterns of Sexuality Communication between Preadolescents and Their Mothers and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyckoff, Sarah C.; Miller, Kim S.; Forehand, Rex; Bau, J. J.; Fasula, Amy; Long, Nicholas; Armistead, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine communication about sexual topics between preadolescents and their mothers and fathers. Participants were 135 African-American mothers, fathers, and their 9- to 12-year-old offspring. Each member of the triad completed a 10-item measure of communication about risk factors for sexual activity, sexual…

  5. The Significance of Gender Boundaries in Preadolescence: Contemporary Correlates and Antecedents of Boundary Violation and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Rated gender boundary violation and maintenance of 47 preadolescents participating in a summer day camp. Found that children who violated gender boundaries tended to be unpopular with peers; and children who maintained boundaries were judged by camp counselors to be more competent socially than children who violated boundaries. (MDM)

  6. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Development of Weight and Muscle Concerns among Preadolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.; Lillis, Jessica; Thomas, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the impact of body mass index (BMI), negative affect, self-esteem, and sociocultural influences in the development of weight and muscle concerns among preadolescent boys. Body dissatisfaction, importance placed on weight and muscles, weight loss strategies, and strategies to increase muscles were evaluated. Participants were 237…

  7. The Influence of Parental Socialization Factors on Family Farming Plans of Preadolescent Children: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Angela R.; Bogg, Timothy; Ringo Ho, Moon-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Previous scholarship on farm families emphasizes the importance of socializing children to become farmers. This study is the first to focus on the parental socialization factors that are associated with preadolescent children's attachment to, and plans to take over, the family farm. Forty-seven 7- to 12-year-old children and their farming parents…

  8. Argumentative Writing in Pre-Adolescents: The Role of Verbal Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Ward-Lonergan, Jeannene M.

    2010-01-01

    Argumentative writing is a challenging communication task that calls upon sophisticated cognitive and linguistic abilities. Pre-adolescents (n = 80; mean age = 11;10; range = 10;6-13:5) were asked to write an argumentative essay on the controversial topic of training animals to perform in circuses. Additionally, they were asked to solve a set of…

  9. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  10. Preadolescents' and Parents' Dietary Coping Efficacy during Behavioral Family-Based Weight Control Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theim, Kelly R.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Thekkedam, Sucheta C.; Welch, R. Robinson; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally relevant high-risk dietary situations (e.g., parties where tempting foods are available) may influence overweight youth's weight control, as they increase risk for overeating. Better self-efficacy for coping with these situations--which preadolescents may learn from their parents--could foster successful weight control. Overweight…

  11. The Effects of an Afterschool Physical Activity Program on Working Memory in Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamijo, Keita; Pontifex, Matthew B.; O'Leary, Kevin C.; Scudder, Mark R.; Wu, Chien-Ting; Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of a 9-month randomized control physical activity intervention aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness on changes in working memory performance in preadolescent children relative to a waitlist control group. Participants performed a modified Sternberg task, which manipulated working memory demands based…

  12. Reading, Readin', and Skimming: Preadolescent Girls Navigate the Sociocultural Landscapes of Books and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    This article shares the voices of preadolescent girls as they participated in an eight-month book selection study which enabled them to be active agents in their book and reading experiences. The girls, school-identified as struggling readers and self-identified as resistant readers, complicate current notions of reading, as influenced by…

  13. The value of fame: preadolescent perceptions of popular media and their relationship to future aspirations.

    PubMed

    Uhls, Yalda T; Greenfield, Patricia M

    2012-03-01

    In line with Greenfield's (2009) theory of social change and human development, current popular preadolescent TV shows suggest that fame, an individualistic goal, is an important and achievable aspiration (Uhls & Greenfield, 2011). Such messages may be particularly salient for preadolescents, ages 10-12. This study used focus groups and mixed analytic methods (qualitative and quantitative) to examine how popular media, passive and interactive, are interpreted by preadolescents and how their interpretations relate to their media practices and future goals. Quantitative analysis revealed that fame was the number one value, selected as the most important value for participants' future goals significantly more frequently than expected by chance. Qualitative analysis of focus group discourse suggested that (a) youth absorb messages in their media environment regarding fame as a future goal and (b) their interpretations of these messages highlight the importance and value of public recognition. Enacting the value of fame, the majority of preadolescent participants use online video sharing sites (e.g., YouTube) to seek an audience beyond their immediate community. PMID:22182297

  14. Associations of Coping and Appraisal Styles with Emotion Regulation during Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the associations of appraisal and coping styles with emotion regulation in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 9-12 years of age), with appraisal, coping styles, and emotion regulation measured at a single time point. In a previous study, we identified five frustration and four anxiety emotion regulation profiles based…

  15. Tobacco Use Experimentation, Physical Activity, and Risk of Depression among Multiethnic Urban Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Cassandra A.; Highland, Krista B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2016-01-01

    Children with low socioeconomic status and ethnic minorities experience disproportionate risk of elevated depressive symptoms. This study examines the effects of risk/protective factors for depressive symptoms among multiethnic urban preadolescents. Eighth graders (N = 463; 34% African American, 29% Hispanic, 17% White, and 20% Other/Mixed; 23%…

  16. The Effects of Audiobooks on the Psychosocial Adjustment of Pre-Adolescents and Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milani, Anna; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Molteni, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present research study was to understand what benefits the use of audiobooks (both school-books and books of various genres, recorded on digital media) could bring to preadolescents and adolescents with developmental dyslexia. Two groups, each consisting of 20 adolescents, were compared. The experimental group used the…

  17. Preventing Smoking among Hispanic Preadolescents: Program Orientation, Participant Individualism-Collectivism, and Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Stella G.; Garza, Raymond T.; Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of individualism-collectivism (IC) and acculturation in smoking prevention programs for Hispanic preadolescents. The sixth graders received a collectivist or individualist curriculum. Both programs contained knowledge-based facts about smoking. The collectivist condition included an interdependent…

  18. Coping with Bullying and Victimisation among Preadolescents: The Moderating Effects of Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Tsolakidou, Ioanna; Tzeliou, Evdoxia

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and victimisation may result from ineffective coping with interpersonal stressors. However, little is known about the preadolescents who are most susceptible to dysfunctional coping styles. Self-efficacy beliefs may be one source of individual differences in coping among those involved in bullying and victimisation. The purpose of the…

  19. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Education on Knowledge and Attitudes of At-Risk Preadolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…

  20. Empowering Pre-Adolescent Girls: Girls on the Run Experiential Learning Program Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeotti, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the extent of long-term participation in Girls on the Run (GOTR), an experiential learning program for pre-adolescent girls, and its effect on healthy living and self-esteem. To explore these relationships, an exploratory, mixed-methods study was conducted, which involved open- and closed-ended surveys and interviews.…

  1. Temperament, Parenting, and Depressive Symptoms in a Population Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Veenstra, Rene; Ormel, Johan; De Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Depressive symptoms can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals' processing of these experiences. This study focuses on the interaction between temperament, perceived parenting, and gender in relation to depressive problems in a Dutch population sample of preadolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 2230…

  2. Temperament, Environment, and Antisocial Behavior in a Population Sample of Preadolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; De Winter, Andrea F.; Ormel, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Antisocial behavior can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals' processing of these experiences. This study focuses on risk-buffering interactions between temperament, perceived parenting, socio-economic status (SES), and sex in relation to antisocial behavior in a Dutch population sample of preadolescents (N = 2230).…

  3. Effectiveness of a Parent Training Program in (Pre)Adolescence: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leijten, Patty; Overbeek, Geertjan; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of the parent training program Parents and Children Talking Together (PCTT) for parents with children in the preadolescent period who experience parenting difficulties. The program is focused on reducing child problem behavior by improving parents' communication and problem solving…

  4. Cultural Practices in Italian Family Conversations: Verbal Conflict between Parents and Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcidiacono, Francesco; Pontecorvo, Clotilde

    2009-01-01

    This work studies verbal conflict between parents and preadolescents through analysis of family dinnertime conversations. We move from the assumption that verbal conflict is an educational instrument of interaction and a tool of socialization. The aim of the research is to analyze the participants' strategies in situations of conflict and to…

  5. Developmental and Gender Differences in Preadolescents' Judgments of the Veracity of Gossip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuttler, Ami Flam; Parker, Jeffrey G.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2002-01-01

    Used hypothetical vignettes to examine 384 preadolescents' understanding of gossip in varying circumstances. Found that children correctly labeled talk about nonpresent others as gossip and considered it inappropriate. Skepticism was higher for gossip than for firsthand information and was greatest with cues suggesting that speakers were…

  6. Association between Maternal Sensitivity and Externalizing Behavior from Preschool to Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feihong; Christ, Sharon L.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Cox, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1364), this study examined the association between mothers' sensitivity and children's externalizing behavior from preschool to preadolescence. Externalizing behavior declined on average across this period with a slowing of this decline around middle…

  7. Stability and Change in Educational and Occupational Aspirations: Longitudinal Analyses from Preadolescence to Young Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frank M.; Frese, Wolfgang

    Using two panel studies which collectively covered the preadolescent-to-young adulthood period in the life cycle, the study focused on the issues of level of aspiration formation, stability, and race-sex subgroup invariance. The panel studies collected data from youths from (1) rural areas with towns of 2,500 or less and urban areas with cities of…

  8. Longitudinal Study of Preadolescent Sport Self-Concept and Performance: Reciprocal Effects and Causal Ordering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Gerlach, Erin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Brettschneider, Wolf-Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    Do preadolescent sport self-concepts influence subsequent sport performance? Longitudinal data (Grades 3, 4, and 6) for young boys and girls (N = 1,135; mean age = 9.67) were used to test reciprocal effects model (REM) predictions that sport self-concept is both a cause and a consequence of sport accomplishments. Controlling prior sport…

  9. Executive Cognitive Functions and Impulsivity as Correlates of Risk Taking and Problem Behavior in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura; Giannetta, Joan M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Farah, Martha; Hurt, Hallam

    2009-01-01

    Initiation of drug use and other risky behavior in preadolescence is associated with poor developmental outcomes. In this research, we examine models that ascribe the trajectory to (a) weak executive cognitive function (ECF), (b) early manifestation of externalizing problems, or (c) heightened levels of trait impulsivity. We test the explanatory…

  10. Factors Related to Aggressive and Violent Behavior among Preadolescent African-American Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Nancy; Pierce, Lois

    Drawing on theoretical and empirical studies, this paper hypothesized that attitudes towards the use of violence and the use of aggressive and violent behavior among preadolescent African American males would be affected by verbal aggression in the home, violence observed in the community, family environment, and peer models. Data on aggressive…

  11. Film Selection in a Cinematherapy Intervention with Preadolescents Experiencing Parental Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsick, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Film selection and children's reactions to films are discussed in this article based on a qualitative multiple-case study with three preadolescent-aged children experiencing parental divorce. Six films were selected based on recommended films in cinematherapy. Although many films have been recommended for cinematherapy, multiple participants'…

  12. The Social World of Preadolescents with Mental Retardation: Social Support, Family Environment and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Siperstein, Gary N.

    1996-01-01

    Social networks, social supports, family environment, and adjustment among 36 preadolescent students with and without mild mental retardation (MMR) were examined. Students with MMR were more likely to turn to family and adults for companionship, while those without MMR generally turned to peers. Those who received greater support experienced fewer…

  13. Exploring Ethnic Variation in Preadolescent Aggressive Girls' Social, Psychological, and Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Lease, A. Michele; Turner, Terez L.; Outley, Corliss

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether the adjustment patterns of socially and overtly aggressive preadolescent girls, ages 9 to 11 years, from rural communities differed by ethnicity. Students were administered a series of questionnaires to assess the degree to which girls engaged in various forms of aggression and to assess aggressive girls' social,…

  14. Sex Differences in the Play Configurations of Pre-Adolescents: A Replication and Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Allison Hadley

    Erikson found sex differences in the play configurations of pre-adolescents who were given a variety of toys and blocks. Wamback, Cramer and Hogan's replications of Erikson's work revealed that sex differences of this type lack sensitivity to inter-school variation among subjects, time or locality. Two possible alternatives to Erikson's hypothesis…

  15. ERP correlates of mental arithmetic in preadolescents: influence of ability and effects of morning nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of morning nutritional status on ERP correlates of mental arithmetic were studied in preadolescents differing in experience (age) and mathematical skills. Children [right-handed; IQ > 80), randomly assigned to treatment [eat (B) or skip (SB) breakfast (each, n = 41)], were sub-grouped by...

  16. Integration of Structured Expressive Activities within a Humanistic Group Play Therapy Format for Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratton, Sue C.; Ceballos, Peggy L.; Ferebee, Kelly Webb

    2009-01-01

    The integration of expressive activities in play groups with preadolescents encourages them to reach more deeply into their own resources, enabling them to handle future challenges more effectively. Developmental and therapeutic rationale, along with research support, is given for the integration of creative activities into a humanistic play group…

  17. Peer-Social Attributions and Self-Efficacy of Peer-Rejected Preadolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mark A.; Munro, Don

    1996-01-01

    Examined whether peer-rejected preadolescents differ from nonrejected groups (average, popular, neglected) in their explanations for peer-social events and their perceived control of outcomes. Found that rejected children were inclined to forego credit for acceptance, to ascribe rejection to persistent factors, and to perceive lower control of…

  18. Aerobic Fitness and Intra-Individual Variability of Neurocognition in Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert Davis; Wu, Chien-Ting; Pontifex, Matthew B.; O'Leary, Kevin C.; Scudder, Mark R.; Raine, Lauren B.; Johnson, Christopher R.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavioral and neuroelectric intra-individual variability (IIV) in preadolescent children during a task requiring variable amounts of cognitive control. The current study further examined whether IIV was moderated by aerobic fitness level. Participants performed a modified flanker task, comprised of congruent and incongruent…

  19. A Sexuality Education Program for Preadolescent Boys: Are Sperm Different Colors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfleet, Sherry Coleman

    This document describes a sexuality education program for preadolescent boys. It recommends that the teacher begin by finding out if the audience is captive or merely encouraged to attend. It is further suggested that groups be limited to 10 to 12 boys in the age range of 8 to 13. Advertising the classes, using food enticements for those…

  20. Canadian University, Inc., and the Role of Canadian Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milz, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author seeks to address the present function of Canadian criticism by undertaking a meditation on the contemporary Canadian university and stating his own position as a critic of Canadian literature in this institutional framework. The author asks: What are the connections between neoliberalism and cultural nationalism in…

  1. Canadian Seismic Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lapointe, S.P.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Adams, J.; Cajka, M.G.; McNeil, W.; Drysdale, J.A. )

    1992-05-01

    This is a progress report of work carried out under the terms of a research agreement entitled the Canadian Seismic Agreement'' between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the Canadian Commercial Corporation and the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1989 to June 30, 1990. The Canadian Seismic Agreement'' supports generally the operation of various seismograph stations in eastern Canada and the collection and analysis of earthquake data for the purpose of mitigating seismic hazards in eastern Canada and the northeastern US. The specific activities carried out in this one-year period are summarized below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong-motion network developments and earthquake activity. During this period the first surface fault unequivocably determined to have accompanied a historic earthquake in eastern North America, occurred in northern Quebec.

  2. Canadian global village reality

    PubMed Central

    He, Meizi; Li, E.T.S.; Harris, Stewart; Huff, Murray W.; Yau, Chun Y.; Anderson, G. Harvey

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To test the appropriateness of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) cutoff points derived in largely white populations (ie, those of European descent) for detecting obesity-related metabolic abnormalities among East Asian and South Asian Canadians. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING Primary care and community settings in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Canadians of East Asian (n = 130), South Asian (n = 113), and European (n = 111) descent. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Variables for metabolic syndromes, including BMI, WC, body fat percentage, blood pressure, lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, were measured. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to generate BMI and WC cutoff points based on various criteria for metabolic syndromes. RESULTS Adjusting for sex and age, East Asian Canadians had a significantly lower mean BMI (23.2 kg/m2) and mean WC (79.6 cm) than did those of South Asian (26.1 kg/m2 and 90.3 cm) and European (26.5 kg/m2 and 89.3 cm) descent (P < .05). The BMI cutoffs for an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities ranged from 23.1 to 24.4 kg/m2 in East Asian Canadians; 26.6 to 26.8 kg/m2 in South Asian Canadians; and 26.3 to 28.2 kg/m2 in European Canadians. Waist circumference cutoffs for increased risk of metabolic abnormalities were relatively low in East Asian men (83.3 to 85.2 cm) and women (74.1 to 76.7 cm), compared with South Asian men (98.8 cm) and women (90.1 to 93.5 cm), as well as European men (91.6 to 95.2 cm) and women (82.8 to 88.3 cm). CONCLUSION The BMI and WC cutoffs used for defining risk of metabolic abnormalities should be lowered for East Asian Canadians but not for South Asian Canadians. The World Health Organization ethnic-specific BMI and WC cutoffs should be used with caution, particularly with Asian migrants who have resided in Canada for a long period of time. PMID:20463258

  3. The Benefits of Mentoring for Female Lawyers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Jean E.

    2001-01-01

    A study of 512 Canadian lawyers included 231 women (66% had mentors). Mentors influenced women's success in terms of earnings, promotions, procedural justice, social integration, and career satisfaction. Females with male mentors earned significantly more; females with male mentors had more satisfaction, less work-nonwork conflict, and more…

  4. The Relationship Between Physical Fitness, Preadolescent Obesity, and Academic Achievement in Seventh Grade Students in South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Phillip Stephen

    Abstract It was not known if, or to what degree, a relationship existed among academic achievement in science, physical fitness, and preadolescent obesity. This quantitative, correlational study explored the relationship between physical fitness, preadolescent obesity, and academic achievement in 136 seventh grade students at an urban middle school in South Carolina who received 50 minutes of physical education daily for one semester. The researcher hypothesized that the level of physical fitness influences preadolescent obesity and academic performance. The hypotheses stated that there would be a positive correlation between physical fitness and achievement in science, a negative correlation between preadolescent obesity and achievement in science, and a negative correlation between fitness and preadolescent obesity. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to test the hypotheses. Physical fitness was measured using the FitnessGram. Academic performance was measured using the science benchmark assessment. The results revealed that physical fitness was positively correlated with academic achievement (r = .32, p = .001), obesity was negatively related to academic achievement (r = -.27, p = .001), and students' BMI was negatively related to physical fitness (r = -.71, p < .001). The findings of this research have significant implications for school policy and public health in terms of the possibilities for physical activity interventions. Keywords: FitnessGram, physical fitness, preadolescent obesity, body mass index.

  5. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices.

    PubMed

    Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child's perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents' controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explore if perceptions of parental feeding practices moderated the relationship between preadolescents' eating behaviours longitudinally. Two hundred and twenty nine preadolescents (mean age at recruitment 8.73 years) completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours and their perceptions of parental feeding practices at two time points, 12 months apart (T1 and T2). Preadolescents' perceptions of their parental feeding practices remained stable. Perceptions of restriction and pressure to eat were continuous. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction significantly moderated the relationships between eating behaviours at T1 and T2. The findings from this study suggest that in a preadolescent population, perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction of food may exacerbate the development of problematic eating behaviours. PMID:27104552

  6. Early Blood Lead Levels and Sleep Disturbance in Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Liu, Xianchen; Pak, Victoria; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Chonghuai; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Dinges, David

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Little is known about the effect of lead exposure on children's sleep. This study examined the association between blood lead levels (BLL) and sleep problems in a longitudinal study of children. Setting: Four community-based elementary schools in Jintan City, China. Participants: 1,419 Chinese children. Measurement and Results: BLL were measured when children were aged 3–5 y, and sleep was assessed at ages 9–13 y. Sleep was assessed by both parents' report, using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and children's report, using an adolescent sleep questionnaire. A total of 665 children with complete data on BLL and sleep at both ages were included in the current study. Mean age of the sample at BLL assessment was 4.74 y (standard deviation [SD] = 0.89) and at sleep assessment was 11.05 y (SD = 0.88). Mean BLL was 6.26 μg/dL (SD = 2.54). There were significant positive correlations between BLL and 3 CSHQ subscales: Sleep onset delay (r = 0.113, P < 0.01), sleep duration (r = 0.139, P < 0.001), and night waking (r = 0.089, P < 0.05). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (26.1% versus 9.0%, P < 0.001) and use of sleeping pills (6.5% versus 1.8%, P = 0.03) were more prevalent in children BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL than in those children BLL < 10.0 μg/dL. After adjusting for demographics, BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL was significantly associated with increased risk for insomnia symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–3.95) and EDS (OR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.27–6.61). Conclusion: The findings indicate that elevated blood lead levels in early childhood are associated with increased risk for sleep problems and excessive daytime sleepiness in later childhood. Citation: Liu J, Liu X, Pak V, Wang Y, Yan C, Pinto-Martin J, Dinges D. Early blood lead levels and sleep disturbance in preadolescence. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1869–1874. PMID:26194570

  7. Magsat investigation. [Canadian shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A computer program was prepared for modeling segments of the Earth's crust allowing for heterogeneity in magnetization in calculating the Earth's field at Magsat heights. This permits investigation of a large number of possible models in assessing the magnetic signatures of subprovinces of the Canadian shield. The fit between the model field and observed fields is optimized in a semi-automatic procedure.

  8. Canadian Space Station program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doetsch, K. H.

    1991-01-01

    Information on the Canadian Space Station Program is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include the Mobile Servicing Center (MSC), Space Station Freedom assembly milestones, the MB-3 launch configuration, a new workstation configuration, strategic technology development, the User Development Program, the Space Station Program budget, and Canada's future space activities.

  9. Canadian Experience with MARC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, Sharon E.

    Canadian libraries have used Machine-readable Cataloging (MARC) since its beginnings in 1966, mainly for speeding up the cataloging of American imprints. The lack of bilingualism in Library of Congress MARC records was a major deficiency in Canada where bilingual access points are provided for all publications in the national bibliography,…

  10. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional materials,…

  11. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  12. Canadian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  13. Reform in Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 67 Canadian university vice presidents and 66 deans concerning reform in recent years found that the many changes reported were modest and reactive rather than bold and proactive. Most common changes involved strategic planning, retrenchment, curriculum expansion, response to enrollment changes, administrative restructuring, and more…

  14. Participation in Canadian Universities: The Gender Imbalance (1977-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christofides, Louis N.; Hoy, Michael; Yang, Ling

    2010-01-01

    Females are more likely to attend Canadian universities and their participation rate has been increasing faster than that of males, generating a 15 percentage point gap by 2005. We investigate the determinants of attending university and explore the reasons for the increasing gender gap. As in the US literature, we find that conventional…

  15. Nuclear worries of Canadian youth: Replication and extension

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.; Goldberg, S.; Parker, K.R. )

    1989-10-01

    A national survey of Canadian adolescents assessed concern, anxiety, and sources of information about the threat of nuclear war. Results indicated few geographical or gender differences in overall levels of concern, although females were more likely to admit fear and anxiety, and students with activist parents showed more concern. Family ranked below all media as a source of information.

  16. Sexual Assault and Stranger Aggression on a Canadian University Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKeseredy, Walter S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Studies sexual assault and stranger aggression experienced by 259 Canadian female undergraduates at an Ontario university. Results indicate that the rate of sexual assault is at least as high as in the United States and that stranger aggression has been experienced by the overwhelming majority (84.1%). (SLD)

  17. Attitudes toward Homosexuals among Students at a Canadian University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Hirt, Jessie; Sears, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward homosexuals among 199 male and female students at a Canadian university. Attitudes toward gay men were more negative than attitudes toward lesbians. For male students, attitudes toward gay men improved with time spent at college, suggesting the influence of college in reducing antihomosexual prejudice. (SLD)

  18. Concept of Family in Three Generations of Chinese-Canadians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Dominica; Hodkin, Barbara

    Subjects from three generations of Chinese-Canadian families completed questionnaires to assess their concept of family. A total of 12 males and 12 females from the three age groups participated. Age groups were composed of 9- through 13-year-olds, 30- through 50-year-olds, and 65-year-olds and older. Tasks included listing family members, drawing…

  19. Feedback Dependence Among Low Confidence Preadolescent Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Michael J.; Corbin, Charles B.

    1988-01-01

    Investigation of differences between male and female students' reactions to receiving or not receiving performance feedback indicated that both sexes showed lower self-confidence when they did not receive feedback and that lack of self-confidence impaired the performance of males more than females. Participants were 111 fifth- and sixth-grade…

  20. Parenting and social competence in school: The role of preadolescents' personality traits.

    PubMed

    Lianos, Panayiotis G

    2015-06-01

    In a study of 230 preadolescent students (mean age 11.3 years) from the wider area of Athens, Greece, the role of Big Five personality traits (i.e. Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Extraversion) in the relation between parenting dimensions (overprotection, emotional warmth, rejection, anxious rearing) and social competence in school was examined. Multiple sets of regression analyses were performed. Main effects of Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience were identified. Limited evidence for moderation and some support of gender-specific parenting was found. Agreeableness and Extraversion interacted with paternal overprotection, whereas Neuroticism interacted with maternal and paternal rejection in predicting social competence. Mean differences in gender and educational grade were reported. The relationship between environmental effects (such as parenting during early adolescence) and social adjustment in school is discussed in terms of the plasticity and malleability of the preadolescents' personality characteristics. PMID:25840002

  1. Association between Maternal sensitivity and Externalizing Behavior from Preschool to Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feihong; Christ, Sharon L.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Cox, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N=1364), this study examined the association between mothers’ sensitivity and children’s externalizing behavior from preschool to preadolescence. Externalizing behavior declined on average across this period with a slowing of this decline around middle childhood. Maternal sensitivity remained relatively stable on average, and there was significant variation across mothers. A decrease in maternal sensitivity from ages 3 to 11 was related to an increase in externalizing behavior from ages 4 to 12. A model-based test of the direction of the effect suggested that the association between changes in maternal sensitivity and externalizing behavior from ages 4 to 11 was driven by child effects on mothers and not vice-versa. Between late preschool age and preadolescence, the behavior problems of children appear to strongly influence the sensitive support of mothers. Practical implications were discussed in light of these findings. PMID:25018578

  2. Associations of coping and appraisal styles with emotion regulation during preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Wilson, Anna C; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the associations of appraisal and coping styles with emotion regulation in a community sample of preadolescents (N=196, 9-12 years of age), with appraisal, coping styles, and emotion regulation measured at a single time point. In a previous study, we identified five frustration and four anxiety emotion regulation profiles based on children's physiological, behavioral, and self-reported reactions to emotion-eliciting tasks. In this study, preadolescents' self-reported appraisal and coping styles were associated with those emotion regulation profiles. Overall, findings revealed that children who were more effective at regulating their emotions during the emotion-eliciting tasks had higher levels of positive appraisal and active coping when dealing with their own problems. Conversely, children who regulated their emotions less effectively had higher levels of threat appraisal and avoidant coping. PMID:21507423

  3. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors. FR-EXT was based on lifetime parental externalizing psychopathology and the different parenting styles (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) were based on the child's perspective. We also investigated whether different dimensions of perceived parenting styles had different effects on subdomains of externalizing behavior. We found main effects for FR-EXT (vs. no FR-EXT), emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection that were fairly consistent across rater and outcome measures. More specific, emotional warmth was the most consistent predictor of all outcome measures, and rejection was a stronger predictor of aggression and delinquency than of inattention. Interaction effects were found for FR-EXT and perceived parental rejection and overprotection; other interactions between FR-EXT and parenting styles were not significant. Correlations between FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles were absent or very low and were without clinical significance. Predominantly main effects of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles independently contribute to externalizing behaviors in preadolescents, suggesting FR-EXT and parenting styles to be two separate areas of causality. The relative lack of gene-environment interactions may be due to the epidemiological nature of the study, the preadolescent age of the subjects, the measurement level of parenting and the measurement level of FR-EXT, which might be a consequence of both genetic and

  4. Perceived Discrimination, Peer Influence and Sexual Behaviors in Mexican American Preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Both discrimination and sexual health disparities have significant negative health implications for Latina/o preadolescent youth, including negative mental health outcomes, STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, and ongoing poverty. Studying these links within this population, therefore, has significant public health relevance, both in terms of promoting sexual health in general as well as serving the specific needs of Latina/o youth. This study explored the relationship between perceived discrimination, peer influence and sexual behaviors among 438 Mexican American preadolescents in the Southwest United States (55.3 % male). Additionally, this study examined whether psychological distress, substance use, and sexual motives mediated and whether gender moderated these relations. A multiple-group path analysis of the analytical model was performed to examine the hypothesized relations between perceived discrimination, peer influence, psychological distress, substance use, sexual motives and sexual behaviors. The findings indicated that perceived discrimination was directly linked to sexual behaviors among participants and indirectly linked via substance use. The findings also indicated that peer influence was indirectly linked to sexual behaviors via substance use among participants and via sexual motives among boys. This study underscores the importance of substance use in the perceived discrimination, peer influence and sexual behavior link in Mexican American preadolescents. Additionally, it highlights the importance of sexual motives in the link between peer influence and sexual behaviors of Mexican American boys. PMID:26792264

  5. Psychosocial Correlates of Shape and Weight Concerns in Overweight Pre-Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2013-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7–12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based weight control treatment. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the influence of pre-adolescents’ individual characteristics and social experiences, and their parents’ psychological symptoms, on shape and weight concerns as assessed by the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Findings revealed that higher levels of dietary restraint, greater feelings of loneliness, elevated experiences with weight-related teasing, and higher levels of parents’ eating disorder symptoms predicted higher shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents. Interventions addressing overweight pre-adolescents’ disordered eating behaviors and social functioning, as well as their parents’ disordered eating behaviors and attitudes, may be indicated for those endorsing shape and weight concerns. PMID:21695562

  6. Longer Gestation Is Associated with More Efficient Brain Networks in Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Jin; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A.; Sporns, Olaf; O’Donnell, Brian F.; Buss, Claudia; Hetrick, William P.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental benefits of increased gestation have not been fully characterized in terms of network organization. Since brain function can be understood as an integrated network of neural information from distributed brain regions, investigation of the effects of gestational length on network properties is a critical goal of human developmental neuroscience. Using diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography, we investigated the effects of gestational length on the small-world attributes and rich club organization of 147 preadolescent children, whose gestational length ranged from 29 to 42 weeks. Higher network efficiency was positively associated with longer gestation. The longer gestation was correlated with increased local efficiency in the posterior medial cortex, including the precuneus, cuneus, and superior parietal regions. Rich club organization was also observed indicating the existence of highly interconnected structural hubs formed in preadolescent children. Connectivity among rich club members and from rich club regions was positively associated with the length of gestation, indicating the higher level of topological benefits of structural connectivity from longer gestation in the predominant regions of brain networks. The findings provide evidence that longer gestation is associated with improved topological organization of the preadolescent brain, characterized by the increased communication capacity of the brain network and enhanced directional strength of brain connectivity with central hub regions. PMID:24983711

  7. Canadian seismic agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C., Anglin, F.M.; Plouffe, M.; Lapointe, S.P.; Adams, J.; Drysdale, J.A. . Geophysics Div.)

    1990-04-01

    This is the twenty-first progress report under the agreement entitled Canadian Seismic Agreement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Canadian Commercial Corporation. Activities undertaken by the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1988 to June 30, 1989 and supported in part by the NRC agreement are described below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong motion network developments and earthquake activity. In this time period eastern Canada experienced its largest earthquake in over 50 years. This earthquake, which has been christened the Saguenay earthquake, has provided a wealth of new data pertinent to earthquake engineering studies in eastern North America and is the subject of many continuing studies, which are presently being carried out at GD and elsewhere. 41 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Nanomaterials - a Canadian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, Peter

    2004-03-01

    I will review nanomaterials research in Canada with a particular emphasis on coordinated initiatives and some experimental highlights, starting with a summary of Canadian initiatives. These range from the National Science and Engineering Research Council's Nano Innovation Platform (www.physics.mcgill.ca/NSERCnanoIP/), provincial initiatives like NanoQuebec (www.NanoQuebec.ca), organizations such as the Canadian Institute of Advanced Research (www.ciar.ca) or the National Institute of Nanotechnology (www.nint.ca) - a joint initiatives between the University of Alberta, the National Research Council (NRC) and the Province of Alberta. University based materials centers such as the Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research in Hamilton, the Institute for Research in Materials in Halifax, the Pacific Center for Advanced Materials and Microstructures in Vancouver or the Strategic Regroupment of University Centers in Advanced Materials in Montreal have strong nano components as has the NRC at various institutes. The 2nd half of the talk will highlight some Canadian research strengths in nano materials, from photonics, energy storage, bio-med to molecular self assembly and paper coatings.

  9. Supporting Reading Comprehension of At-Risk Pre-Adolescent Readers through the Use of Text-to-Speech Technology Paired with Strategic Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    This research highlighted the use of text-to-speech technology and current shifts in strategy-based reading instruction in order to address the comprehension needs of struggling pre-adolescent readers. The following questions were posed: (a) Does reading comprehension of preadolescent struggling readers improve as the direct result of using…

  10. Despite mandatory fortification of staple foods, vitamin D intakes of Canadian children and adults are inadequate.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Calvo, Mona S; Green, Timothy J; Whiting, Susan J

    2010-07-01

    Vitamin D is largely obtained through sun-induced skin synthesis and less from dietary sources, but during Canadian winters, skin synthesis is non-existent. The objective of this study was to estimate vitamin D intakes in Canadians from food sources. Data used in this study included food intakes of Canadians reported in the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (CCHS 2.2), a nationally representative sample of 34,789 persons over the age of 1 year. The mean+/-SD dietary intake of vitamin D from food of Canadians was 5.8+/-0.1 microg/day, with males 9-18 years having the highest mean intakes (7.5+/-0.2 microg/day) and females 51-70 years having the lowest intakes (5.2+/-0.3 microg/day). Males in all age groups had higher intakes than females and White Canadians had higher vitamin D intakes than Non-Whites in most age sex groups. Milk products contributed 49% of dietary vitamin D followed by meat and meat-alternatives (31.1%). The majority of Canadians consume less than current recommended intake of vitamin D from food. Consideration should be given to strategies to improve vitamin D intake of Canadians by increasing both the amount of vitamin D added to foods and range of foods eligible for fortification. PMID:20399268

  11. Enhancing Contextualized Curriculum: Integrated Identity in Young Shi'i Muslim Arabic-Canadian Students' Social Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Fartousi, May

    2016-01-01

    This research explored 10 young female Shi'i Muslim Arabic-Canadian students' experiences associated with wearing the Hijab (headscarf) within their home, community, and predominantly White Canadian public elementary school environments. The in-depth case study sought to address the dearth of information about Shi'is' experiences in schools…

  12. A Longitudinal Examination of Risky Sexual Behaviors among Canadian and Italian Adolescents: Considering Individual, Parental, and Friend Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boislard P., Marie-Aude; Poulin, Francois; Kiesner, Jeff; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two longitudinal models of early adolescent risky sexual behaviors (RSB) were compared using a pooled sample of 267 Canadian and Italian adolescents (55% females; 53% Canadians) assessed yearly from grade 8 to 10. We focused on parenting practices (monitoring, control, limit setting), adolescent problem behaviors (antisocial…

  13. Canadian space robotic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  14. Continuing Education in Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, R. L.

    Different aspects of the development of continuing education in Canadian universities and institutions were studied by the British author through visits to Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal, Winnipeg, Saskatoon, Calgary, and Banff. Short visits were also made to Massachusetts, Washington, Oregon, and California. Comparisons between Canadian and British…

  15. Canadian Drug Products Containing ASA

    PubMed Central

    Parker, William A.; Shearer, Cameron A.; Kirkpatrick, Susan L.

    1977-01-01

    A list of nearly 200 Canadian ASA-containing drug products is presented. Information was supplied by the major pharmaceutical companies and data were also obtained from various Canadian reference sources. This information should aid the physician and other health-related personnel in identifying ASA-containing products and counselling the salicylate-endangered patient. PMID:21304856

  16. Canadian Evacuation and Nisei Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makabe, Tomoko

    1980-01-01

    Japanese Canadians were interviewed to determine the effect of World War II evacuation on their ethnic identity. Older respondents deemphasized issues related to evacuation when discussing their ethnic identity. Younger Japanese Canadians are aware of this "cloud" as part of their ethnic heritage but are unaware of its exact origin. (MK)

  17. The Americanization of Canadian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Maude; Robertson, Heather-jane

    1997-01-01

    Describes the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on Canadian education. As Canada is merging more and more into a new borderless North American economy, Canada is adopting American-style individualism, entrepreneurialism, and undergoing corporate interest in its schools. Negative implications for Canadian education include…

  18. Emotional problems in preadolescents in Norway: the role of gender, ethnic minority status, and home- and school-related hassles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background "The gender gap" refers to a lifelong higher rate of emotional problems in girls, as compared to boys, that appears during adolescence. The gender gap is a well-replicated finding among older adolescents and is assumed to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. However, these cross-cultural studies have not investigated the gender gap in ethnic minorities but sampled ethnic majority adolescents in different countries. Some studies that investigated the gender gap across ethnic groups indirectly (by presenting emotional problem scores stratified by gender and ethnic group) indicate that the gender gap is less prominent or even absent among minorities. The aims of this study were to assess whether the gender gap is found in both majority and minority preadolescents, and to investigate whether a possible (gender and ethnic) group difference can be accounted for by differences in home or school hassles. Methods Participants were 902 preadolescent students (aged 10 to 12) from two cities in Norway. We collected self-report measures of emotional problems and home and school hassles. Using mediated moderation analysis we tested whether the interaction effect between gender and ethnic minority background on emotional problems was mediated by home or school hassles. Results The gender gap in emotional problems was restricted to ethnic majority preadolescents. School hassles but not home hassles accounted in part for this effect. Conclusions The absence of the gender gap among minority as opposed to majority preadolescents may indicate that social circumstances may postpone or hamper the emergence and magnitude of the gender gap in ethnic minority preadolescents. In this study, school hassles partly accounted for the combined gender and ethnic group differences on emotional problems. This indicates that school hassles may play a role in the higher levels of emotional problems in preadolescent minority boys and consequently the absence of a gender gap found in our minority

  19. Grade 3 Students Explore the Question, "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2000-01-01

    Explores third graders' responses to the question "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?" Describes 6 picture books and summarizes students' responses to each. Finds students mentioned geographical aspects as characteristic of Canadian literature, and they felt Canadian children's literature should reflect Canadian "experiences."…

  20. The effects of audiobooks on the psychosocial adjustment of pre-adolescents and adolescents with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Milani, Anna; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Molteni, Massimo

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the present research study was to understand what benefits the use of audiobooks (both school-books and books of various genres, recorded on digital media) could bring to preadolescents and adolescents with developmental dyslexia. Two groups, each consisting of 20 adolescents, were compared. The experimental group used the audiobooks, while the control group continued to use normal books. After 5 months of experimental training, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in reading accuracy, with reduced unease and emotional-behavioural disorders, as well as an improvement in school performance and a greater motivation and involvement in school activities. PMID:19725019

  1. Assessing community readiness for overweight and obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health concern. For girls in particular, being overweight or obese during pre-adolescence (aged 7–11 years) has intergenerational implications for both the mother and her future offspring. In the United Kingdom (UK) there is increasing interest in community targeted interventions but less is known about how to tailor these approaches to the needs of the community. This study applied the Community Readiness Model (CRM), for the first time in the UK, to demonstrate its applicability in designing tailored interventions. Methods Community readiness assessment was conducted using semi-structured key informant interviews. The community’s key informants were identified through focus groups with pre-adolescent girls. The interviews addressed the community’s efforts; community knowledge of the efforts; leadership; community climate; community knowledge of the issue and resources available to support the issue. Interviews were conducted until the point of theoretical saturation and questions were asked separately regarding physical activity (PA) and healthy eating and drinking (HED) behaviours. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were firstly analysed thematically and then scored using the assessment guidelines produced by the CRM authors. Results Readiness in this community was higher for PA than for HED behaviours. The lowest scores related to the community’s ’resources’ and the ’community knowledge of the issue’; affirming these two issues as the most appropriate initial targets for intervention. In terms of resources, there is also a need for resources to support the development of HED efforts beyond the school. Investment in greater physical education training for primary school teachers was also identified as an intervention priority. To address the community’s knowledge of the issue, raising the awareness of the prevalence of pre-adolescent girls’ health behaviours is a

  2. [Canadian Literature. "Featuring: CanLit."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Ken, Ed.; Haycock, Carol-Ann, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The feature articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of Canadian literature. The articles include: (1) a discussion of who's who and what's what in Canadian literature; (2) reviews of worthwhile but overlooked Canadian children's literature; (3) a list of resource guides to Canadian literature and a short quiz over famous first…

  3. Intimate Relationships of Female International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee E.

    2008-01-01

    Five female international students studying at a western Canadian university were interviewed about their experiences of being in a difficult intimate heterosexual relationship. An in-depth interpretive analysis revealed that, according to the participants, these relational struggles influenced their adjustment to the host culture. Implications…

  4. The Use of Murals in Preadolescent Inpatient Groups: An Art Therapy Approach to Cumulative Trauma. Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Nicole; McCarthy, James B.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a small group of preadolescent, psychiatric inpatients and their collaborative painting of a memorial mural about the September 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center in New York City. Through an immersion in the group experience, the group members became increasingly introspective about their feelings of loss and their…

  5. Ethnic Identity and Substance Use among Mexican-Heritage Preadolescents: Moderator Effects of Gender and Time in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulis, Stephen S.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kopak, Albert M.; Olmsted, Maureen E.; Crossman, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined interactive relationships among ethnic identity, gender, time in the US, and changes in substance use outcomes among a school-based sample of 1,731 Mexican-heritage preadolescents (ages 9-13). Residual change multilevel models adjusting for school clustering and using multiply imputed data assessed changes from beginning to end…

  6. Therapeutic Assessment for Preadolescent Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder: A Replicated Single-Case Time-Series Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin D.; Handler, Leonard; Nash, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The Therapeutic Assessment (TA) model is a relatively new treatment approach that fuses assessment and psychotherapy. The study examines the efficacy of this model with preadolescent boys with oppositional defiant disorder and their families. A replicated single-case time-series design with daily measures is used to assess the effects of TA and to…

  7. A Study of the Experiences of Parents with Home-Schooled Pre-Adolescent Children with Severe Multiple Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the difficulties encountered by parents caring for pre-adolescent children who have severe multiple health problems. Working within the frameworks of narrative psychotherapy (Spence, 1982; Viederman & Perry, 1980; Vitz, 1992; Benjamin, 1998), the researcher examined parents' discourses and identified the strategies they…

  8. The Influence of Linguistic Acculturation and Gender on the Initiation of Substance Use among Mexican Heritage Preadolescents in the Borderlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Kulis, Stephen; Nieri, Tanya; Parsai, Monica; Becerra, David

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the impact of linguistic acculturation and gender on the substance use initiation of a sample of 1,473 Mexican heritage preadolescents attending 30 public schools in Phoenix, Arizona. It was hypothesized that linguistic acculturation operates differently as a risk or protective factor for young children than for older youth.…

  9. Preadolescent Anxiety: An Epidemiological Study Concerning an Italian Sample of 3,479 Nine-Year-Old Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nacinovich, Renata; Gadda, Stefania; Maserati, Elisa; Bomba, Monica; Neri, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of anxiety traits was examined in a large sample of Italian preadolescent children, and 3,479 Italian nine-year-old subjects were enrolled. Anxious traits were observed in 10.5% of children. No significant gender differences were found, but children of separated couples presented a relative risk for anxious traits that was 50%…

  10. EVENT-RELATED VARIATIONS IN ALPHA BAND ACTIVITY DURING AN ATTENTIONAL TASK IN PREADOLESCENTS: EFFECTS OF MORNING NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. Event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) methodology was used to study interactions between nutrition, brain function, cognition and behavior in children who ate or skipped breakfast after overnight fasting. Methods. Healthy preadolescents performed a cued visual Go/...

  11. School-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Programs for Pre-Adolescents and Adolescents: A Review of Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Erica S.

    This paper presents a review of 25 sources on school-based eating disorder prevention programs for pre-adolescents and adolescents. The sources used to collect the information include Search ERIC database, PsycINFO, InterScience, and Expanded Academic. A review of the literature concluded that the most effective method of implementing a…

  12. Naked Bodies and Nasty Pictures: Decoding Sex Scripts in Preadolescence, Re-Examining Normative Nudity through Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bey, Sharif

    2011-01-01

    Through an analysis of his lived narratives, the author discusses the formative experiences some preadolescent boys have with nudity/nakedness as well as the initial experiences young male art students and teachers have with the nude in academia. This article examines how heteronormative ideas about sex--gender and professionalism--limit the…

  13. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices

    PubMed Central

    Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child’s perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents’ controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explore if perceptions of parental feeding practices moderated the relationship between preadolescents’ eating behaviours longitudinally. Two hundred and twenty nine preadolescents (mean age at recruitment 8.73 years) completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours and their perceptions of parental feeding practices at two time points, 12 months apart (T1 and T2). Preadolescents’ perceptions of their parental feeding practices remained stable. Perceptions of restriction and pressure to eat were continuous. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction significantly moderated the relationships between eating behaviours at T1 and T2. The findings from this study suggest that in a preadolescent population, perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction of food may exacerbate the development of problematic eating behaviours. PMID:27104552

  14. The Impact of Acculturative Stress and Daily Hassles on Pre-Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: Examining Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Lopez, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Acculturative stress in relation to anxiety symptoms has not been examined empirically in young Hispanic populations. The present study, conducted with 138 pre-adolescent Hispanic youngsters, investigated this relationship. The findings suggested that acculturative stress was related to physiological, concentration, and worrisome symptoms of…

  15. Media Exposure, Current and Future Body Ideals, and Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Girls: A Longitudinal Panel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Kristen; Hefner, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    Internalization of the thin body ideal is considered by many to account for the relationship between media exposure and disordered eating among girls and young women, but almost all supporting research has employed adolescent and adult samples. Using longitudinal panel survey data collected from 257 preadolescent girls at 2 points in time 1 year…

  16. Age Differences in Emergency Department Visits and Inpatient Hospitalizations in Preadolescent and Adolescent Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenz, Alyssa M.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Bradley, Catherine; Charles, Jane; Boan, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluated age differences in emergency department care and inpatient hospitalizations in 252 preadolescent and adolescent youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; ages 9-18). Records from youth with ASDs were linked to acute care utilization records and were compared to a demographically similar comparison group of youth without ASDs…

  17. Gender Differences in Peer and Parental Influences: Body Image Disturbance, Self-Worth, and Psychological Functioning in Preadolescent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Vicky; Steinberg, Ari R.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The connections between body image disturbance and psychological functioning have been well established in samples of older adolescent girls and young women. Little is known, however, about body image in younger children. In particular, little is known about possible gender differences in preadolescent children. The current study explored…

  18. Ethnic Identity in African American and European American Preadolescents: Relation to Self-Worth, Social Goals, and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study tested models to determine the extent to which self-worth and social goals mediate the influence of ethnic identity on aggression among aggressive European and African American preadolescents. Ethnic identity emerged as important for both groups, but in different ways. Different patterns of influence of ethnic identity and of…

  19. I like Me if You like Me: On the Interpersonal Modulation and Regulation of Preadolescents' State Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaes, Sander; Reijntjes, Albert; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Bushman, Brad J.; Poorthuis, Astrid; Telch, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This experiment tested whether peer approval and disapproval experiences can cause immediate change in children's state self-esteem. Children's narcissistic traits and evaluator perceived popularity were examined as potential moderators. A total of 333 preadolescents (M = 10.8 years) completed personal profiles on the Internet that were ostensibly…

  20. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  1. Representacion E Identidad: Content Analysis of Latina Biographies for Primary and Preadolescent Children Published 1955-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses the results of a content analysis of 75 Latina biographies for primary and pre-adolescent students that were published over a 16-year period, spanning from 1995 to 2010. Significant to this study was how Latinas were represented in the biographies and what changes can be seen over time. Using a rubric based on research by…

  2. Does Subtype Matter? Assessing the Effects of Maltreatment on Functioning in Preadolescent Youth in Out-of-Home Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrenko, Christie L. M.; Friend, Angela; Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Attempts to understand the effects of maltreatment subtypes on childhood functioning are complicated by the fact that children often experience multiple subtypes. This study assessed the effects of maltreatment subtypes on the cognitive, academic, and mental health functioning of preadolescent youth in out-of-home care using both…

  3. Making Dutch Pupils Media Conscious: Preadolescents' Self-Assessment of Possible Media Risks and the Need for Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuter-Luks, Theresa; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Despite clear European and Dutch policies about media education, there is currently no media education curriculum in Dutch schools. A survey among preadolescents (n = 257) in six primary schools in the Netherlands included questions regarding media access, fears, risks, parental mediation of television and the internet, and the need for media…

  4. The Impact of Self-Components on Attitudes toward Sex among African American Preadolescent Girls: The Moderating Role of Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Tiffany G.

    2002-01-01

    Identified factors that helped prevent attitudes tolerant of risky sexual behavior among inner-city, African American, preadolescent girls age 10-13 years. Survey data indicated that feminine gender role orientation, self-concept, and ethnic identity related to attitudes less tolerant of risky sexual behaviors. Masculine gender role orientation…

  5. Effectiveness of Group Activity Play Therapy on Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems of Preadolescent Orphans in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojiambo, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of group activity play therapy (GAPT) on displaced orphans aged 10 to 12 years living in a large children's village in Uganda. Teachers and housemothers identified 60 preadolescents exhibiting clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. The participants' ethnicity was…

  6. The Effects of Language of Testing on Bilingual Pre-Adolescents' Attitudes towards Welsh and Varieties of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Susan; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study using matched-guise technique designed to (1) determine how West Welsh preadolescents would react to Welsh speakers reading a passage of prose in one of three language varieties (Received Pronunciation English, Welsh-Accented English, Welsh) and (2) to examine what effect language of testing might have on children's social…

  7. Canadian Contemporary Issues on Tape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapter, Jean

    1974-01-01

    Four tapes with interviews with experts in the designated fields comprise the series: a) Canada's Foreign Relations, 1867-1919; b) Canada's Foreign Relations, 1919-1945; c) Canada and China, and d) Canadian Diplomacy and Foreign Policy. (JA)

  8. Gender differences in online and offline self-disclosure in pre-adolescence and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Sumter, Sindy R; Peter, Jochen

    2011-06-01

    Although there is developmental research on the prevalence of offline self-disclosure in pre-adolescence and adolescence, it is still unknown (a) how boys' and girls'online self-disclosure develops in this period and (b) how online and offline self-disclosure interact with each other. We formulated three hypotheses to explain the possible interaction between online and offline self-disclosure: the displacement, the rich-get-richer, and the rehearsal hypothesis. We surveyed 690 pre-adolescents and adolescents (10-17 years) at three time points with half-year intervals in between. We found significant gender differences in the developmental trajectories of self-disclosure. For girls, both online and offline self-disclosure increased sharply during pre- (10-11 years) and early adolescence (12-13 years), and then stabilized in middle and late adolescence. For boys, the same trajectory was found although the increase in self-disclosure started 2 years later. We found most support for the rehearsal hypothesis: Both boys and girls seemed to use online self-disclosure to rehearse offline self-disclosure skills. This particularly held for boys in early adolescence who typically have difficulty disclosing themselves offline. PMID:21199497

  9. Are maternal reflective functioning and attachment security associated with preadolescent mentalization?

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Anna Maria; Viterbori, Paola; Scopesi, Alda M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of maternal reflective functioning (RF) and attachment security on children’s mentalization. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered to mothers in a sample of 41 mother–preadolescent dyads. AAI transcripts were rated in terms of the Berkeley AAI System (Main and Goldwyn, 1998) and the Reflective Functioning Scale (RFS; Fonagy et al., 1998). Preadolescent mentalization was assessed using a semi-structured interview adapted from O’Connor and Hirsch (1999) and also by analyzing mental-state talk produced during an autobiographical interview. Relationships between maternal RF and children’s mentalization were analyzed, with consideration given to the different RFS markers and references to positive, negative, and mixed-ambivalent mental states. Children’s mentalization was positively correlated with the mother’s RF, particularly the mother’s ability to mentalize negative or mixed-ambivalent mental states. No significant differences in mentalization were observed between children of secure and insecure mothers. PMID:26300824

  10. Mild eczema affects self-perceived health among pre-adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Ballardini, Natalia; Östblom, Eva; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Kull, Inger

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to assess the impact of eczema on health-related quality of life in the population-based birth cohort BAMSE with 2,756 pre-adolescent children. All answered the following questions on self-perceived health; "How are you feeling?", "How healthy do you consider yourself to be?" and "How happy are you with your life right now?". Children with ongoing eczema answered the "Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI)" questionnaire. In total, 350 (12.7%) of the children had eczema. Girls with eczema reported impaired self-perceived health as evaluated in the 3 questions; adjusted OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.16-2.55), 1.89 (95% CI 1.29-2.76) and 1.69 (95% CI 1.18-2.42). Eczema among boys was not associated with impairment of self-perceived health. The mean CDLQI score was 3.98 (95% CI 3.37-4.58). Since eczema affects up to 20% of pre-adolescent girls, the findings have implications both for health care providers and for society as a whole. PMID:24158408

  11. Preadolescents' recognition of faces of unfamiliar peers: the effect of attractiveness of faces.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Pascal; Lallemand, Noëlle

    2003-12-01

    The authors examined preadolescents' ability to recognize faces of unfamiliar peers according to their attractiveness. They hypothesized that highly attractive faces would be less accurately recognized than moderately attractive faces because the former are more typical. In Experiment 1, 106 participants (M age = 10 years) were asked to recognize faces of unknown peers who varied in gender and attractiveness (high- vs. medium-attractiveness). Results showed that attractiveness enhanced the accuracy of recognition for boys' faces and impaired recognition of girls' faces. The same interaction was found in Experiment 2, in which 92 participants (M age = 12 years) were tested for their recognition of another set of faces of unfamiliar peers. The authors conducted Experiment 3 to examine whether the reason for that interaction is that high- and medium-attractive girls' faces differ more in typicality than do boys' faces. The effect size of attractiveness on typicality was similar for boys' and girls' faces. The overall results are discussed with reference to the development of face encoding and biological gender differences with respect to the typicality of faces during preadolescence. PMID:14719778

  12. Divorce Counseling Guidelines for the Late Divorced Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langelier, Regis; Deckert, Pamela

    1980-01-01

    Offers divorce counseling guidelines for the female who divorces after 20 years or more of marriage, based on a 1977 study of late divorced female Canadians. Research emphasizes six major life adjustment areas: emotions; divorce grounds; finances and budgeting; children; life-style change; and independence. (Author)

  13. Gender differences in masturbation and the relation of masturbation experience in preadolescence and/or early adolescence to sexual behavior and sexual adjustment in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Leitenberg, H; Detzer, M J; Srebnik, D

    1993-04-01

    A comparison of male and female masturbation practices was undertaken in a sample of university students to determine if the long-standing finding that young adult men in this country masturbate more than young adult women was still evident in the 1980s. Despite the efforts in the past quarter century to encourage women in our society to take greater responsibility for their own bodies and their own sexuality and to engage in more sexual self-exploration and self-stimulation, results show that women continue to masturbate much less than men. Twice as many men as women had ever masturbated and the men who masturbated did so three times more frequently during early adolescence and young adulthood than the women who masturbated during these same age periods. A second purpose of this study was to determine whether having masturbation experience during preadolescence and/or early adolescence was related to intercourse experience, sexual satisfaction, sexual arousal, or sexual difficulties in relationships during young adulthood. No such linkage was observed, suggesting that early masturbation experience is neither beneficial nor harmful to sexual adjustment in young adulthood. PMID:8476336

  14. Adolescent and pre-adolescent suicide in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, D; St John, K

    1991-08-01

    This study investigated suicides by people aged ten to 19 in Newfoundland and Labrador from 1977 to 1988. It is the first study of suicide in the province to use the records of death from all eight hospital pathology departments in the province and from the office of the Chief Forensic Pathologist. Cases were selected for the study using standardized criteria, independent of the manner of death recorded on the death certificate. A suicide rate of 4.37 per 100,000 was found. This rate and the age- and sex-specific suicide rates are lower than the official figures for Canada but higher than those reported in earlier Newfoundland studies. The rate for males was nearly five times the female rate, and the rate for people aged 15 to 19 was nearly six times that of people aged ten to 14. Suicide rates for Labrador were higher than for the island portion of the province for both Native and for non Native adolescents. Extremely high rates of suicide were found only among the Native population living in Northern Labrador, while none were recorded for Native people elsewhere. Firearms accounted for 54% and hanging for 33% of all suicides. Thirty percent of suicides occurred on a Saturday. Only 36 of the 63 deaths included in this study were designated as suicide on death certificates. The higher rate of under-reporting of suicide than in other jurisdictions suggests that official rates may not be useful for comparisons. The reasons for the high rate of under-reporting are discussed. PMID:1933747

  15. Canadian physical activity guidelines for adults: are Canadians aware?

    PubMed

    Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; LeBlanc, Allana G; Orr, Krystn; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Tremblay, Mark S; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated awareness of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology's 2011 Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults and assessed correlates. Reported awareness of the physical activity (PA) guidelines was 12.9% (204/1586) of the total sample surveyed. More than half (55%) self-reported meeting PA guidelines of ≥ 150 min of moderate to vigorous PA per week. Awareness of PA guidelines was significantly related to participants' level of PA (χ(2) (1) = 30.63, p < 0.001, φ = -0.14), but not to any demographic variables. PMID:27560541

  16. Female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue. PMID:11369952

  17. Genetic and environmental influences on the junior temperament and character inventory in a preadolescent twin sample.

    PubMed

    Isen, Joshua D; Baker, Laura A; Raine, Adrian; Bezdjian, Serena

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the genetic and environmental structure of personality variables from the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), in 605 pairs of 9- and 10-year old twins. There is a paucity of information on the biometric structure of temperament and character traits in preadolescent children. Latent factor models were fit to the subscales/items of each trait as a method of estimating genetic and environmental effects on true score variance, especially since internal consistency and reliability were moderate or low for some scales (particularly Reward Dependence and Persistence). Shared environmental influences on Cooperativeness were substantial. Significant heritability estimates were obtained for Self-directedness and Harm Avoidance, but not Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence or Persistence. With the exception of Harm Avoidance, each of the scales failed to show measurement invariance with respect to sex, suggesting these scales may differ in meaning for boys and girls at this age. PMID:19043782

  18. Authoritative parenting, parenting stress, and self-care in pre-adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R; Streisand, Randi

    2012-09-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning. PMID:22350495

  19. The STARS program: social empowerment training for preadolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Frame, Kathleen

    2004-10-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), there has been a dramatic increase in the number of children being diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the last several years. School nursing interventions need to be developed, implemented, and evaluated to address complexities experienced by this population. The STARS curriculum (Social Empowerment Training and Responsibilities for Students with ADHD) is a nursing intervention designed to improve perceptions of scholastic competence, social acceptance, and behavioral conduct in preadolescents diagnosed with ADHD. It consists of eight sessions with the theme of social empowerment training woven throughout the curriculum. The support group concept, with children helping children, initiated dynamic conversation as the participants creatively problem-solved and developed solutions to their difficulties. PMID:15469375

  20. Abstract Reasoning and Friendship in High Functioning Preadolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Buaminger, Nirit; Rogers, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between cognitive and social functioning, 20 Israeli individuals with HFASD aged 8–12 and 22 age, maternal education, and receptive vocabulary–matched preadolescents with typical development (TYP) came to the lab with a close friend. Measures of abstract reasoning, friendship quality, and dyadic interaction during a play session were obtained. As hypothesized, individuals with HFASD were significantly impaired in abstract reasoning, and there were significant group differences in friend and observer reports of friendship quality. There also was consistency in reports between friends. Two factors—“relationship appearance” and “relationship quality” described positive aspects of the relationships. Disability status and age related to relationship appearance. Proband abstract reasoning was related to relationship quality. PMID:20467797

  1. Authoritative Parenting, Parenting Stress, and Self-Care in Pre-Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B.; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning. PMID:22350495

  2. Gaming magazines and the drive for muscularity in preadolescent boys: a longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Kristen; Bond, Bradley J

    2007-09-01

    The development of a drive for muscularity among boys has been linked to various cultural influences, one of which is exposure to mass media depicting the muscular male body ideal. We sought to determine whether self-reported exposure to four ideal-body magazine genres (health/fitness, fashion, sports, and gaming) predicted an increased drive for muscularity 1 year later. A sample of 104 Black and 77 White preadolescent boys (mean age 8.77) participated in a 2-wave longitudinal panel study. Controlling Wave 1 grade, perceived thinness/adiposity, and drive for muscularity, exposure to video gaming magazines predicted a significant increase in Wave 2 drive for muscularity, but only for White boys. Discussion calls for the inclusion of video gaming magazine exposure measures in future research on print media and male body ideals, along with empirical exploration of racial themes in gaming magazines. PMID:18089273

  3. A qualitative study of preadolescent boys' and girls' body image: gendered ideals and sociocultural influences.

    PubMed

    Tatangelo, Gemma L; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2013-09-01

    This qualitative study examined preadolescent boys' and girls' body ideals, and peer and media factors that shape these ideals. Sixty-eight children aged 8-10 participated in semi-structured interviews: 19 boys and 17 girls in individual interviews and 16 boys and 16 girls in eight group interviews. Techniques from grounded theory were used to analyze the data. Findings demonstrated that fitness was an important element of boys' and girls' body ideals. For boys the emphasis was on sport, and this was promoted by their peer interactions and the sportsmen they admired. For girls the focus was on looking good, and this was reinforced by their peer conversations, and the actresses and singers they admired. Focus groups further highlighted how peers both reinforced media messages, yet also helped children critique media messages. Implications are discussed for prevention programs that need to be specifically tailored for boys and girls. PMID:24018337

  4. Canadian guidelines for chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) that includes recommendations relevant for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of CRS is based on type and duration of symptoms and an objective finding of inflammation of the nasal mucosa or paranasal sinuses. Chronic rhinosinusitis is categorized based on presence or absence of nasal polyps, and this distinction leads to differences in treatment. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is treated with intranasal corticosteroids. Antibiotics are recommended when symptoms indicate infection (pain or purulence). For CRS without nasal polyps, intranasal corticosteroids and second-line antibiotics (ie, amoxicillin– clavulanic acid combinations or fluoroquinolones with enhanced Gram-positive activity) are recommended. Saline irrigation, oral steroids, and allergy testing might be appropriate. Failure of response should prompt consideration of alternative diagnoses and referral to an otolaryngologist. Patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery require postoperative treatment and follow-up. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide diagnosis and treatment approaches based on the current understanding of the disease and available evidence. Additionally, the guidelines provide the expert opinion of a diverse group of practice and academic experts to help guide clinicians

  5. Pre-Adolescent Cardio-Metabolic Associations and Correlates: PACMAC methodology and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Nicholas; Faulkner, James; Skidmore, Paula; Williams, Michelle; Lambrick, Danielle M; Signal, Leigh; Thunders, Michelle; Muller, Diane; Lark, Sally; Hamlin, Mike; Lane, Andrew M; Kingi, Te Kani; Stoner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although cardiovascular disease is typically associated with middle or old age, the atherosclerotic process often initiates early in childhood. The process of atherosclerosis appears to be occurring at an increasing rate, even in pre-adolescents, and has been linked to the childhood obesity epidemic. This study will investigate the relationships between obesity, lifestyle behaviours and cardiometabolic health in pre-pubescent children aged 8–10 years, and investigates whether there are differences in the correlates of cardiometabolic health between Māori and Caucasian children. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion/exclusion criteria, assessments, statistical analyses, dissemination of findings and anticipated impact are described. Methods and analysis Phase 1: a cross-sectional study design will be used to investigate relationships between obesity, lifestyle behaviours (nutrition, physical activity/fitness, sleep behaviour, psychosocial influences) and cardiometabolic health in a sample of 400 pre-pubescent (8–10 years old) children. Phase 2: in a subgroup (50 Caucasian, 50 Māori children), additional measurements of cardiometabolic health and lifestyle behaviours will be obtained to provide objective and detailed data. General linear models and logistic regression will be used to investigate the strongest correlate of (1) fatness; (2) physical activity; (3) nutritional behaviours and (4) cardiometabolic health. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval will be obtained from the New Zealand Health and Disabilities Ethics Committee. The findings from this study will elucidate targets for decreasing obesity and improving cardiometabolic health among preadolescent children in New Zealand. The aim is to ensure an immediate impact by disseminating these findings in an applicable manner via popular media and traditional academic forums. Most importantly, results from the study will be disseminated to participating schools

  6. Appraisal and coping styles account for the effects of temperament on preadolescent adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Stephanie F.; Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.

    2014-01-01

    Temperament, appraisal, and coping are known to underlie emotion regulation, yet less is known about how these processes relate to each other across time. We examined temperamental fear, frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity, positive and threat appraisals, and active and avoidant coping as processes underpinning the emotion regulation of pre-adolescent children managing stressful events. Appraisal and coping styles were tested as mediators of the longitudinal effects of temperamental emotionality and self-regulation on adjustment using a community sample (N=316) of preadolescent children (8–12 years at T1) studied across one year. High threat appraisals were concurrently related to high fear and impulsivity, whereas effortful control predicted relative decreases in threat appraisal. High fear was concurrently related to high positive appraisal, and impulsivity predicted increases in positive appraisal. Fear was concurrently related to greater avoidant coping, and impulsivity predicted increases in avoidance. Frustration predicted decreases in active coping. These findings suggest temperament, or dispositional aspects of reactivity and regulation, relates to concurrent appraisal and coping processes and additionally predicts change in these processes. Significant indirect effects indicated that appraisal and coping mediated the effects of temperament on adjustment. Threat appraisal mediated the effects of fear and effortful control on internalizing and externalizing problems, and avoidant coping mediated the effect of impulsivity on internalizing problems. These mediated effects suggest that one pathway through which temperament influences adjustment is pre-adolescents’ appraisal and coping. Findings highlight temperament, appraisal and coping as emotion regulation processes relevant to children’s adjustment in response to stress. PMID:25821237

  7. Early Retirement: The Cost to Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    A study examined effects of early retirement plans (ERP) at Canadian Universities. In response to current conditions within Canadian universities and a Canadian Supreme Court decision upholding mandatory retirement requirements, many universities have sought to encourage faculty retirement through ERPs. In order to study the cost of such programs,…

  8. Discourse Types in Canadian Basal Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon

    This study examined the authorship and discourse types of Canadian basal anthologies to determine whether the lingering centrality of the basal anthology in Canadian programs controls students and teachers by controlling language and reading. Each selection within five Canadian basal series (Gage Expressways II, Ginn Journeys, Holt Impressions,…

  9. 'Mum's the word': Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ng, Johan Yau Yin; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Vlachopoulos, Symeon; Katartzi, Ermioni S; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2016-03-01

    Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls are well known, but few models have incorporated concerns reported directly by mothers as a predictor, and both eating and exercise outcomes. Using questionnaires, a comprehensive model of 232 pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls' weight concerns, eating restraint, and exercise behavior was tested. Structural equation modeling showed that daughters' weight concerns were predicted primarily by their perceptions of their mothers' concerns about the daughters' weight, as well as by daughters' BMI, appearance conversations with friends, and perceived media pressure. Mothers' concerns with their daughters' weight were indirectly associated with daughters' own concerns, via the daughters' perceptions of their mothers' concerns. Daughters' concerns with their weight were a strong predictor of eating restraint, but not exercise behavior. PMID:26803392

  10. Preadolescence Female Development through Sport and Physical Activity: A Case Study of an Urban After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Jennifer E.; Dover, Kydani M.; Clark, Brianna S.

    2009-01-01

    Youth development research has found that children become more engaged and benefit more from being incorporated as decision makers. Thus participation helps promote development and encourages engagement. Based in theories of engagement and free-choice learning, the current research focused on a program combining sport/physical activity, life…

  11. Canadian Families: A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Benjamin; Schlesinger, Rachel Aber

    Resources on the Canadian family have been increasing over the past 20 years. This guide contains an annotated bibliography of 399 of those resources, all written in English and published in Canada and the United States. The entries are divided into 52 topics and categories, a few of which are: (1) abortion; (2) the aged; (3) child care; (4)…

  12. International Students: The Canadian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madgett, Paul J.; Belanger, Charles

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the results of a voluntary on-line survey administered to international students attending Canadian universities. The participants include students attending a full programme of study as well as English as a second language (ESL) and exchange students. This study examines the role of the university with reference to…

  13. The 1998 Canadian Contraception Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, William A.; Boroditsky, Richard; Bridges, Martha L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study, a mailed survey which asked women about contraceptive practices past, present, and future (including use of oral contraceptives, condoms, and sterilization); familiarity with and opinion about different contraception methods; and general sexual and reproductive health. The paper also examines…

  14. Issues in Canadian Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Thomas; Powell, Mava Jo

    Examining the challenges and responsibilities facing Canadian provincial and local boards of education, this paper focuses on economic, demographic, ideological, jurisdictional, and administrative problems. Both provincial and local school boards currently face increasing financial pressure as inflation soars and taxpayers demand fiscal restraint.…

  15. Canadian Postcolonialism: Recovering British Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    The field of Postcolonial Studies is one of the academic fashions that has arisen in an attempt to amend or replace radical theories of social power since the alleged discrediting of Marxism. The Canadian case is more ambiguous. Postcolonialism, already an essentially contested concept, is especially conflicted where Canada is concerned. Canada…

  16. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  17. An Overview of Canadian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayfer, Margaret

    The structure and support of Canadian elementary and secondary education is presented with concise descriptions of its organizational structure, administration, curriculum, and special programs. This general overview is appended with organizational charts; directories of provincial, territorial, and federal departments of education; and national…

  18. Postponed Parenthood: A Canadian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Benjamin; Schlesinger, Rachel Aber

    This paper reviews the results of a study of 46 Canadian couples who had delayed childbearing and experienced their first parenthood when the wife was 30 years or older. Both husbands and wives were interviewed using a questionnaire containing closed and open-ended questions. Summaries of the parents' observations are discussed in the following…

  19. Canadian Immigrant Women in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittebrood, Gerda; Robertson, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Examines the experiences of Canadian immigrant women as they move from one culture to another. Explores the barriers they encounter adapting to their new homeland and the coping strategies they use to deal with these barriers. Also examines the usefulness of different forms of support systems and the role of the counselor as part of the adaptation…

  20. Children's Superstitions: British and Canadian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeish, John

    1984-01-01

    A 100-item test covering nine areas of superstitious belief administered with 10 control items to 1,749 Canadian and British children showed younger children and girls were more superstitious than older children and boys. Academically inclined children were less superstitious. Science-based education had little effect. Implications for Canadian…

  1. Canadian ERTS program progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morley, L. W.; Mcquillan, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    Progress of the Canadian ERTS program is provided along with statistics on the production and role of ERTS images both from the CCRS in Ottawa and from the Prince Albert Saskatchewan satellite station. The types of products, difficulties of production and some of the main applications in Canada are discussed.

  2. "Patriotism, Eh?" The Canadian Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sharon Anne

    2006-01-01

    How does patriotism look north of the 49th parallel? In this article, the author explores the answers to this question and examines the "quiet nationalism" that characterizes Canadians' views of themselves and their nation. One of Canada's best-known philosophers, John Ralston Saul, argues that Canada's contribution to the world has been to build…

  3. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  4. Cost Determinants in Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Vaughan

    1994-01-01

    A study investigated the relationship between costs per student (overall, instruction, library, computing, administration, physical plant) and enrollment in 61 Canadian universities. Also examined was the influence on cost of student mix, faculty-student ratio, faculty wages, program and discipline enrollment rates, and research intensity. (MSE)

  5. The effect of persistent posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms on executive functions in preadolescent children witnessing a single incident of death.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Choi, Nam-Hee; Ryu, Jeong; McDermott, Brett; Cobham, Vanessa; Song, Sook-Hyung; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2014-05-01

    We compared executive functions (EFs) of traumatized preadolescent children with and without marked posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms to the performance of a nontraumatized control group, and examined the relationships between EF deficits and functional status in traumatized preadolescent children. Fifty-one preadolescent children who had witnessed a death at school 30 months prior (26 with marked PTSD symptoms and 25 without) and 30 healthy controls who had not been traumatized participated. EFs were examined using the Comprehensive Attention Test (CAT). The functional state of traumatized children was measured by the Parent Report Form-Children's Health and Illness Profile-Children's Edition (PRF-CHIP-CE). The traumatized children, regardless of status of PTSD symptomatology, showed poorer working memory performance than nontraumatized healthy controls. The traumatized children with marked PTSD symptoms performed more poorly on measures of interference control compared to those children without marked PTSD symptoms. Lower levels of EFs were associated with lower risk avoidance and diminished academic achievement in traumatized children. These results indicate that an inhibitory control deficit is specifically associated with the current PTSD symptoms but not with trauma exposure per se. PMID:24188279

  6. Canadian asthma consensus report, 1999

    PubMed Central

    Boulet, L P; Becker, A; Bérubé, D; Beveridge, R; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide physicians with current guidelines for the diagnosis and optimal management of asthma in children and adults, including pregnant women and the elderly, in office, emergency department, hospital and clinic settings. OPTIONS: The consensus group considered the roles of education, avoidance of provocative environmental and other factors, diverse pharmacotherapies, delivery devices and emergency and in-hospital management of asthma. OUTCOMES: Provision of the best control of asthma by confirmation of the diagnosis using objective measures, rapid achievement and maintenance of control and regular follow-up. EVIDENCE: The key diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations are based on the 1995 Canadian guidelines and a critical review of the literature by small groups before a full meeting of the consensus group. Recommendations are graded according to 5 levels of evidence. Differences of opinion were resolved by consensus following discussion. VALUES: Respirologists, immunoallergists, pediatricians and emergency and family physicians gave prime consideration to the achievement and maintenance of optimal control of asthma through avoidance of environmental inciters, education of patients and the lowest effective regime of pharmacotherapy to reduce morbidity and mortality. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Adherence to the guidelines should be accompanied by significant reduction in patients' symptoms, reduced morbidity and mortality, fewer emergency and hospital admissions, fewer adverse side-effects from medications, better quality of life for patients and reduced costs. RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations are included in each section of the report. In summary, after a diagnosis of asthma is made based on clinical evaluation, including demonstration of variable airflow obstruction, and contributing factors are identified, a treatment plan is established to obtain and maintain optimal asthma control. The main components of treatment are patient education

  7. Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin

    2007-01-01

    This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

  8. Canadian Early-Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Children's Gendered Shy, Aggressive, and Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Heather; Bosacki, Sandra; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood educators' (ECE) perceptions of gender roles may contribute to the development of children's own gender-role identities. This qualitative study examined 40 Canadian female ECEs' perceptions of gender and children's shy, aggressive, and prosocial behaviors. Content analysis of extensive interviews revealed three themes: (1) shyness…

  9. Retirement in the Post-Revocation Context at One Canadian University: Experiences of Phasing and Delaying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Mia Quint; Finlay, Sara-Jane; Hillan, Edith

    2015-01-01

    This research study is a phenomenological exploration of academics from one Canadian university who either are participating in a phased retirement program or have delayed their retirement beyond the normal retirement age of 65. It is based on face-to-face interviews with 24 professors, male and female, between the ages of 55 and 69, from an array…

  10. Are Canadian Adolescents Happy? A Gender-Based Analysis of a Nationally Representative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Robert D.; Habibov, Nazim N.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors analyzed data from a nationally representative survey of youth to study happiness amongst Canadian adolescents aged 12-17. Testing for differences in the level of happiness between female and male adolescents was conducted. Following this, multivariate analysis was employed to determine which factors were associated with…