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Sample records for precision-cut testicular tissue

  1. Assessment of immunotoxicity using precision-cut tissue slices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    1. When the immune system encounters incoming infectious agents, this generally leads to immunity. The evoked immune response is usually robust, but can be severely perturbed by potentially harmful environmental agents such as chemicals, pharmaceuticals and allergens. 2. Immunosuppression, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity may occur due to changed immune activity. Evaluation of the immunotoxic potency of agents as part of risk assessment is currently established in vivo with animal models and in vitro with cell lines or primary cells. 3. Although in vivo testing is usually the most relevant situation for many agents, more and more in vitro models are being developed for assessment of immunotoxicity. In this context, hypersensitivity and immunosuppression are considered to be a primary focus for developing in vitro methods. Three-dimensional organotypic tissue models are also part of current research in immunotoxicology. 4. In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in organotypic tissue models. In the context of immunotoxicity testing, precision-cut lung slices in particular have been intensively studied. Therefore, this review is very much focused on pulmonary immunotoxicology. Respiratory hypersensitivity and inflammation are further highlighted aspects of this review. Immunotoxicity assessment currently is of limited use in other tissue models, which are therefore described only briefly within this review. PMID:23199366

  2. Testicular complications in connective tissue disease

    PubMed Central

    Tangney, N J

    1981-01-01

    Acute testicular symptoms are described in 2 patients with Schönlein-Henoch syndrome and in 1 with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The literature on testicular involvement in connective tissue disease of childhood is reviewed. PMID:7271306

  3. [Cryopreservation of testicular tissue in children].

    PubMed

    Rives, Nathalie; Milazzo, Jean-Pierre; Travers, Albanne; Arkoun, Brahim; Bironneau, Amandine; Sibert, Louis; Liard-Zmuda, Agnès; Marie-Cardine, Aude; Schneider, Pascale; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Macé, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of cancer therapies can affect all organs and tissues. Some treatments damage spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), with a risk of infertility. Storage and reimplantation of frozen testicular tissue is a recent approach tofertilitypreservationfor young boys. However, thawed frozen prepubertal testicular tissue must undergo a maturation process to restore sperm production. This process, currently being studied in animal models, can be achieved by in vivo transplantation of SSCs into seminiferous tubules or by testicular grafting, possibly following in vitro maturation. PMID:25518156

  4. Cryopreserved Human Precision-Cut Lung Slices as a Bioassay for Live Tissue Banking. A Viability Study of Bronchodilation with Bitter-Taste Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Krishnamoorthy, Nandini; Patel, Kruti R; Rosas, Ivan; Sanderson, Michael J; Ai, Xingbin

    2016-05-01

    Human precision-cut lung slices (hPCLSs) provide a unique ex vivo model for translational research. However, the limited and unpredictable availability of human lung tissue greatly impedes their use. Here, we demonstrate that cryopreservation of hPCLSs facilitates banking of live human lung tissue for routine use. Our results show that cryopreservation had little effect on overall cell viability and vital functions of immune cells, including phagocytes and T lymphocytes. In addition, airway contraction and relaxation in response to specific agonists and antagonists, respectively, were unchanged after cryopreservation. At the subcellular level, cryopreserved hPCLSs maintained Ca(2+)-dependent regulatory mechanisms for the control of airway smooth muscle cell contractility. To exemplify the use of cryopreserved hPCLSs in smooth muscle research, we provide evidence that bitter-taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists relax airways by blocking Ca(2+) oscillations in airway smooth muscle cells. In conclusion, the banking of cryopreserved hPCLSs provides a robust bioassay for translational research of lung physiology and disease. PMID:26550921

  5. A simple vitrification method for cryobanking avian testicular tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a promising method of preserving male reproductive potential for avian species. This study was conducted to assess whether a vitrification method can be used to preserve avian testicular tissue, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model. A sim...

  6. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-07-27

    Devices are disclosed for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways (1) intravascularly, (2) extravascularly, (3) by vessel puncture, and (4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting. 6 figs.

  7. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways 1) intravascularly, 2) extravascularly, 3) by vessel puncture, and 4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting.

  8. Developmental Potential of Vitrified Mouse Testicular Tissue after Ectopic Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yamini, Nazila; Pourmand, Gholamreza; Amidi, Fardin; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Ataei Nejad, Nahid; Mougahi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue should be considered as an important factor for fertility preservation in young boys with cancer. The objective of this study is to investigate whether immature testicular tissue of mice can be successfully cryopreserved using a simple vitrification procedure to maintain testicular cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation capacity. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, immature mice testicular tissue fragments (0.5-1 mm²) were vitrified-warmed in order to assess the effect of vitrification on testicular tissue cell viability. Trypan blue staining was used to evaluate developmental capacity. Vitrified tissue (n=42) and fresh (control, n=42) were ectopically transplanted into the same strain of mature mice (n=14) with normal immunity. After 4 weeks, the graft recovery rate was determined. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to evaluate germ cell differentiation, immunohistochemistry staining by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibody, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick- End Labeling (TUNEL) assay for proliferation and apoptosis frequency. Results Vitrification did not affect the percentage of cell viability. Vascular anastomoses was seen at the graft site. The recovery rate of the vitrified graft did not significantly differ with the fresh graft. In the vitrified graft, germ cell differentiation developed up to the secondary spermatocyte, which was similar to fresh tissue. Proliferation and apoptosis in the vitrified tissue was comparable to the fresh graft. Conclusion Vitrification resulted in a success rates similar to fresh tissue (control) in maintaining testicular cell viability and tissue function. These data provided further evidence that vitrification could be considered an alternative for cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue. PMID:27054121

  9. A simple vitrification method for cryobanking avian testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Cheng, K M; Purdy, P H; Silversides, F G

    2012-12-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a promising method of preserving male reproductive potential for avian species. This study was conducted to assess whether a vitrification method can be used to preserve avian testicular tissue, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model. A simple vitrification method that included dimethyl sulphoxide, ethylene glycol, and sucrose as cryoprotective agents, and allowed the storage of tissue in a sealed macrotube was applied to the testicular tissue from 1-wk-old Japanese quail. The vitrified tissue was warmed at room temperature or at 40°C. After warming, tissue was implanted onto the chorioallantoic membrane of 8- to 9-d-old chicken embryos and the vascularization of the grafts was evaluated. When compared with fresh tissue, the tissue that had been warmed at 40°C showed no difference in vascularization. The tissue that had been warmed at room temperature was significantly less vascularized than the fresh tissue. Vitrification of testicular tissue and storage in macrotubes provide a promising model for preservation and recovery of male germplasm of avian species. PMID:23155032

  10. PRECISION-CUT SLICE CULTURE METHOD FOR RAT PLACENTA

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, Jeffrey; Tong, Ming; Longato, Lisa; de la Monte, Suzanne M; Gundogan, Fusun

    2011-01-01

    Primary trophoblasts, placental explants, and cell line cultures are commonly used to investigate placental development, physiology, and pathology, particularly in relation to pregnancy outcomes. Organotypic slice cultures are increasingly used in other systems because they maintain the normal three-dimensional tissue architecture and have all cell types represented. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of the precision-cut placental slice culture model for studying trophoblastic diseases. PMID:22079834

  11. Expanding access to testicular tissue cryopreservation: an analysis by analogy.

    PubMed

    Ruutiainen, Tuua; Miller, Steve; Caplan, Arthur; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2013-01-01

    Researchers are developing a fertility preservation technique--testicular tissue cryopreservation (TTCP)--for prepubescent boys who may become infertile as a result of their cancer treatment. Although this technique is still in development, some researchers are calling for its widespread use. They argue that if boys do not bank their tissue now, they will be unable to benefit from any therapies that might be developed in the future. There are, however, risks involved with increasing access to an investigational procedure. This article examines four methods of expanding access to TTCP: (1) expansion of institutional review board (IRB)-approved research trials; (2) offering TTCP as an innovative procedure in hospitals; (3) offering TTCP as a standard practice in hospitals; and (4) commercialization of TTCP. The ethical and practical implications of each are evaluated through a comparison with umbilical cord blood banking (UCBB), a technology that has achieved widespread use based on similar claims of future benefit. PMID:23428034

  12. Steroid production in testicular tissue of the European eel

    SciTech Connect

    Eckstein, B.; Cohen, S.; Hilge, V.

    1982-03-01

    Testicular tissue of normal and hCG-stimulated European eels was incubated in vitro with tritiated progesterone or androstenedione as substrates. The following compounds were isolated and identified: 5 beta-androstane-3,17-dione; 17 beta-hydroxy-5 beta-androstan-3-one; androst-4-ene-3,11,17-trione (adrenosterone); 11 beta-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione; 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone; 3 alpha,11 beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-androstan-17-one, and an additional steroid for which the oxidation product was identified as 5 beta-androstene-3,11,17-trione. Four of these steroids have not been hitherto identified in gonadal tissue of any vertebrate. The pattern of steroid production in this tissue is unique for its 5 beta-reduction, for the appearance of adrenosterone as a major metabolite, and for the lack of production of 11-ketotestosterone, which is a regular metabolite of gonadal tissue of teleosts. Thus, it appears that steroid metabolism in the eel testis deviates considerably from the known pattern of steroid production in gonads of other vertebrates.

  13. Xenografting of testicular tissue pieces: twelve years of an in vivo spermatogenesis system

    PubMed Central

    Arregui, Lucía; Dobrinski, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a dynamic and complex process that involves endocrine and testicular factors. During xenotransplantation of testicular tissue fragments into immunodecifient mice a functional communication between host brain and donor testis is established. This interaction allows for the progression of spermatogenesis and recovery of fertilization-competent spermatozoa from a broad range of mammalian species. In the last years, significant progress has been achieved in testis tissue xenografting that improves our knowledge about factors determining the success of grafting. The goal of this review is to provide up to date information about the role of factors such as donor age, donor species, testis tissue preservation or type of recipient mouse on the efficiency of this technique. Applications are described and compared with other techniques with similar purposes. Recent work demonstrates that testicular tissue xenografting is used as a model to study gonadotoxicity of drugs and to obtain sperm from valuable young males. PMID:25150043

  14. Thymoquinone ameliorates testicular tissue inflammation induced by chronic administration of oral sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Alyoussef, A; Al-Gayyar, M M H

    2016-06-01

    Although sodium nitrite has been widely used as food preservative, building bases of scientific evidence about nitrite continues to oppose the general safety in human health. Moreover, thymoquinone (TQ) has therapeutic potential as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer. Therefore, we investigated the effects of both sodium nitrite and TQ on testicular tissues of rats. Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used. They received either 80 mg kg(-1) sodium nitrite or 50 mg kg(-1) TQ daily for twelve weeks. Serum testosterone was measured. Testis were weighed and the testicular tissue homogenates were used for measurements of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL10, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. Sodium nitrite resulted in significant reduction in serum testosterone concentration and elevation in testis weight and Gonado-Somatic Index. We found significant reduction in testicular tissues levels of IL-4 and IL-10 associated with elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. In conclusion, chronic oral sodium nitrite induced changes in the weight of rat testis accompanied by elevation in the testicular tissue level of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines. TQ attenuated sodium nitrite-induced testicular tissue damage through blocking oxidative stress, restoration of normal inflammatory cytokines balance and blocking of apoptosis. PMID:26260072

  15. Production of live offspring from testicular tissue cryopreserved by vitrification procedures in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

    2013-05-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue can be used for ex situ conservation of male germplasm of avian species. The possibility of using vitrification and transplantation of testicular tissue for fertility preservation and recovery was tested in Japanese quail. Testes were removed from 1-wk-old Japanese quail; transfixed on acupuncture needles; equilibrated with dimethyl sulphoxide, ethylene glycol, and sucrose; plunged into liquid nitrogen; and stored in 2-ml straws. Cryopreserved tissue was warmed in sucrose solution at room temperature or at 40°C. Fresh and cryopreserved tissue were transplanted subcutaneously into castrated, 1-wk-old recipients. Twenty of 21 recipients survived the surgery, and 18 had viable transplants at maturity, with no difference in transplantation success between fresh and cryopreserved tissue. Fluid extrusion from 11 of the transplants was collected and inseminated surgically into the magnum of 22 quail hens, and 10 inseminations included foam from the proctodeal gland of the same recipients. Egg production in the 2 wk after insemination was reduced, and none of the hens inseminated with foam produced fertile eggs. Five hens inseminated without foam produced a total of eight live offspring; four of these hens had been inseminated with fluid extrusion from cryopreserved tissue. Histological examination showed spermatogenesis in the transplants, and the tubules, lumens, and epithelium of the seminiferous tubules were of comparable size to those of testicular tissue from intact males. These results demonstrate that testicular tissue of Japanese quail can be preserved using vitrification procedures and recovered through transplantation. PMID:23575148

  16. Optimizing cryopreservation of human spermatogonial stem cells: comparing the effectiveness of testicular tissue and single cell suspension cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Yango, Pamela; Altman, Eran; Smith, James F.; Klatsky, Peter C.; Tran, Nam D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether optimal human spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) cryopreservation is best achieved with testicular tissue or single cell suspension cryopreservation. This study compares the effectiveness between these two approaches by using testicular SSEA-4+ cells, a known population containing SSCs. Design In vitro human testicular tissues. Setting Academic research unit. Patients Adult testicular tissues (n = 4) collected from subjects with normal spermatogenesis and normal fetal testicular tissues (n = 3). Intervention(s) Testicular tissue vs. single cell suspension cryopreservation. Main Outcome Measures Cell viability, total cell recovery per milligram of tissue, as well as, viable and SSEA-4+ cell recovery. Results Single cell suspension cryopreservation yielded higher recovery of SSEA-4+ cells enriched in adult SSCs whereas fetal SSEA-4+ cell recovery was similar between testicular tissue and single cell suspension cryopreservation. Conclusions Adult and fetal human SSEA-4+ populations exhibited differential sensitivity to cryopreservation based on whether they were cryopreserved in situ as testicular tissues or as single cells. Thus, optimal preservation of human SSCs depends on the patient age, type of samples cryopreserved, and end points of therapeutic applications. PMID:25241367

  17. Experimental testicular tissue banking to generate spermatogenesis in the future: A multidisciplinary team approach.

    PubMed

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; McLean, Thomas W; Kogan, Stanley; Sirintrapun, Joseph; Crowell, Kathryn; Yousif, Mustafa Q; Hodges, Steve J; Petty, John; Pranikoff, Thomas; Sieren, Leah; Zeller, Kristen; Atala, Anthony

    2016-04-15

    Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) loss due to cancer treatment, developmental disorder or genetic abnormality may cause permanent infertility. Cryopreservation of ejaculated sperm is an effective method of fertility preservation in adult males at risk of infertility. However this is not an option in pre-pubertal boys because spermatogenesis has not yet started, and it is difficult in adolescents who are not sexually mature. Therefore testicular tissue cryopreservation to preserve SSCs for future generation of spermatogenesis, either in vivo or in vitro, could be an option for these groups of patients. Although SSC transplantation has been successful in several species including non-human primates, it is still experimental in humans. There are several remaining concerns which need to be addressed before initiating trials of human SSC autotransplantation. Establishment of a testicular tissue banking system is a fundamental step towards using SSC technology as a fertility preservation method. It is important to understand the consultation, harvesting the testicular tissue, histological evaluation, cryopreservation, and long term storage aspects. We describe here a multidisciplinary approach to establish testicular tissue banking for males at risk of infertility. PMID:26917042

  18. Effect of Phosalone on Testicular Tissue and In Vitro Fertilizing Potential

    PubMed Central

    Amniattalab, Amir; Razi, Mazdak

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of phosalone (PLN) as an organophosphate (OP) compound on testicular tissue, hormonal alterations and embryo development in rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we divided 18 mature Wistar rats into three groups-control, control-sham and test (n=6 per group). Animals in the test group received one-fourth the lethal dose (LD50) of PLN (150 mg/kg), orally, once per day for 45 days. DNA laddering and epi-fluorescent analyses were performed to evaluate testicular DNA fragmentation and RNA damage, respectively. Serum levels of testosterone and inhibin-B (IN-B) were evaluated. Testicular levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total thiol molecules (TTM) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) were analyzed. Finally, we estimated sperm parameters and effect of PLN on embryo development. Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analyses. Results There was severe DNA fragmentation and RNA damage in testicular tissue of animals that received PLN. PLN remarkably (p<0.05) decreased testicular TAC, TTM and GSH-px levels. Animals that received PLN exhibited significantly (p<0.05) decreased serum levels of testosterone and IN-B. Reduced sperm count, viability, motility, chromatin condensation and elevated sperm DNA damage were observed in the test group rats. PLN resulted in significant (p<0.05) reduction of in vitro fertilizing (IVF) potential and elevated embryonic degeneration. Conclusion PLN reduced fertilization potential and embryo development were attributed to a cascade of impacts on the testicles and sperm. PLN promoted its impact by elevating DNA and RNA damages via down-regulation of testicular endocrine activity and antioxidant status. PMID:25918597

  19. The development of cat testicular sperm cryopreservation protocols: Effects of tissue fragments or sperm cell suspension.

    PubMed

    Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Thuwanut, Paweena; Morrell, Jane M

    2016-01-15

    In endangered animals that have been found dead or sterilized for medical reasons, testis is the ultimate source of haploid DNA or sperm. Thus, preservation of testicular sperm may be performed to rescue their genetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate protocols for testicular sperm freezing: as tissue fragments or cell suspension in domestic cats as a model. A pair of testes from each cat (n = 9) were cut into eight equal pieces. Four randomly selected pieces were cryopreserved as: (1) tissue pieces using two-step freezing; (2) tissue pieces using a slow passive cooling device (CoolCell); (3) sperm suspension after single-layer centrifugation (SLC) through colloids; and (4) sperm suspension without being processed through SLC. A testicular piece from each cat served as fresh control. Testicular sperm membrane and DNA integrity were evaluated before, and after, the cryopreservation process. In addition, spermatogenic cell types (testicular sperm, spermatogonia, spermatocyte, and spermatid) present in the suspension samples were counted before and after SLC. The results found that testicular sperm membrane integrity in the suspension after SLC process was higher than that in the fragment form neither using the two-step nor CoolCell freezing, both before and after freezing (before freezing: 92.3 ± 3.4 vs. 81 ± 4.5 and 80.0 ± 7.0; after freezing: 84.5 ± 4.6 vs. 71.2 ± 12 and 76.2 ± 4.6; P ≤ 0.05). Testicular sperm DNA integrity was, however, not different among groups. Furthermore, the samples processed through the SLC had higher ration of sperm cells: other spermatogenic cells than those were not processed through the SLC (88.9 ± 3.8 vs. 30 ± 7.9; P ≤ 0.05). In summary, testicular sperm cryopreserved as a minced suspension is considered suitable in terms of preventing sperm membrane integrity, and SLC is considered a selection tool for enriching haploid sperm cells from castrated or postmortem cats. PMID:26498389

  20. Cryopreservation of cat testicular tissues: effects of storage temperature, freezing protocols and cryoprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Thuwanut, P; Chatdarong, K

    2012-10-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue has become a part of gamete preservation in wild animal post-mortem. Using domestic cats as a model for wild felids, this study aimed to (i) investigate the effect of temperature for testicular tissue storage on sperm quality; (ii) compare efficiency of freezing protocols; and (iii) evaluate properties of cryoprotective agents to protect testicular sperm quality. A pair of testes from each cat (n = 9) was cut into four pieces. Three randomly selected pieces were allocated to be (i) fresh controls; (ii) stored at 4 °C for 24 h; and (iii) stored at room temperature (28 °C) for 24 h. After storage, the testicular tissue from each group was cut into 10 small pieces. One piece was assigned to be a control while the others were assigned to three freezing protocols; -80 °C (n = 3), vitrification (n = 3) or two-step freezing (kept above liquid nitrogen vapour for 10 min and submerged in liquid nitrogen) (n = 3). Each of three pieces was frozen using dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) or DMSO combined with EG. Sperm membrane (SYBR-14/EthD-1) and DNA (acridine orange) integrity were evaluated before and after cryopreservation. The storage of testicular tissue at room temperature decreased the percentage of sperm with intact membrane in fresh tissue (59.5 ± 30.5 vs 87.9 ± 7.0%, p < 0.05). DNA integrity was decreased after 24-h storage either at 4 °C or room temperature (p < 0.05). The two-step freezing resulted in a higher percentage of sperm with intact plasma membrane than the other techniques. Dimethyl sulphoxide, EG and DMSO combined with EG provided similar protection for the sperm membrane and DNA from cryodamages. In conclusion, storage of testicular tissue at 4 °C is necessary to maintain sperm membrane integrity during transportation of tissue for cryopreservation in the freezing laboratory. The results provide information for male gamete rescue in felid particularly when they die unexpectedly in the field

  1. Capturing complex tumour biology in vitro: histological and molecular characterisation of precision cut slices

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Emma J.; Dong, Meng; Gutekunst, Matthias; Närhi, Katja; van Zoggel, Hanneke J. A. A.; Blom, Sami; Nagaraj, Ashwini; Metsalu, Tauno; Oswald, Eva; Erkens-Schulze, Sigrun; Delgado San Martin, Juan A.; Turkki, Riku; Wedge, Stephen R.; af Hällström, Taija M.; Schueler, Julia; van Weerden, Wytske M.; Verschuren, Emmy W.; Barry, Simon T.; van der Kuip, Heiko; Hickman, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Precision-cut slices of in vivo tumours permit interrogation in vitro of heterogeneous cells from solid tumours together with their native microenvironment. They offer a low throughput but high content in vitro experimental platform. Using mouse models as surrogates for three common human solid tumours, we describe a standardised workflow for systematic comparison of tumour slice cultivation methods and a tissue microarray-based method to archive them. Cultivated slices were compared to their in vivo source tissue using immunohistochemical and transcriptional biomarkers, particularly of cellular stress. Mechanical slicing induced minimal stress. Cultivation of tumour slices required organotypic support materials and atmospheric oxygen for maintenance of integrity and was associated with significant temporal and loco-regional changes in protein expression, for example HIF-1α. We recommend adherence to the robust workflow described, with recognition of temporal-spatial changes in protein expression before interrogation of tumour slices by pharmacological or other means. PMID:26647838

  2. Capturing complex tumour biology in vitro: histological and molecular characterisation of precision cut slices.

    PubMed

    Davies, Emma J; Dong, Meng; Gutekunst, Matthias; Närhi, Katja; van Zoggel, Hanneke J A A; Blom, Sami; Nagaraj, Ashwini; Metsalu, Tauno; Oswald, Eva; Erkens-Schulze, Sigrun; Delgado San Martin, Juan A; Turkki, Riku; Wedge, Stephen R; af Hällström, Taija M; Schueler, Julia; van Weerden, Wytske M; Verschuren, Emmy W; Barry, Simon T; van der Kuip, Heiko; Hickman, John A

    2015-01-01

    Precision-cut slices of in vivo tumours permit interrogation in vitro of heterogeneous cells from solid tumours together with their native microenvironment. They offer a low throughput but high content in vitro experimental platform. Using mouse models as surrogates for three common human solid tumours, we describe a standardised workflow for systematic comparison of tumour slice cultivation methods and a tissue microarray-based method to archive them. Cultivated slices were compared to their in vivo source tissue using immunohistochemical and transcriptional biomarkers, particularly of cellular stress. Mechanical slicing induced minimal stress. Cultivation of tumour slices required organotypic support materials and atmospheric oxygen for maintenance of integrity and was associated with significant temporal and loco-regional changes in protein expression, for example HIF-1α. We recommend adherence to the robust workflow described, with recognition of temporal-spatial changes in protein expression before interrogation of tumour slices by pharmacological or other means. PMID:26647838

  3. Effects of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and oxidative stress variables in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Yan-Hua; Han, Cong; Hu, Shan; Wang, Li-Qiang; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Trehalose is widely used for cryopreservation of various cells and tissues. Until now, the effect of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of varying doses of trehalose in cryomedia on cell viability and key antioxidant enzymes activities in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. Bovine calf testicular tissue samples were collected and cryopreserved in the cryomedias containing varying doses (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%; v/v) of trehalose, respectively. Cell viability, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured and analyzed. The results showed that cell viability, T-AOC activity, SOD activity, CAT activity and GSH content of frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue was decreased compared with that of fresh group (P<0.05). MDA content in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue was significantly increased compared with that of fresh group (P<0.05). The cryomedia added 15% trehalose exhibited the greatest percentage of cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and CAT) among frozen-thawed groups (P<0.05). Meanwhile, GSH content was the lowest among frozen-thawed groups (P<0.05). However, there were no significance differences in MDA content among the groups added 10, 15 and 20% trehalose (P>0.05). In conclusion, the cryomedia added 15% trehalose reduced the oxidative stress and improved the cryoprotective effect of bovine calf testicular tissue. Further studies are required to obtain more concrete results on the determination of antioxidant capacity of trehalose in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. PMID:25818604

  4. Histological and histochemical effects of Gly-phosate on testicular tissue and function

    PubMed Central

    Razi, Mazdak; Najafi, Golamreza; Feyzi, Sajad; Karimi, Ali; Shahmohamadloo, Simineh; Nejati, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to the Gly-phosate (GP) on rat’s testicular tissue and sperm parameters. Objective: Testicular tissue, morphology of sperms and testosterone level in serum of mature male rats were analyzed. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into two test and control-sham groups. The test group was subdivided into 4 groups (10, 20, 30 and 40 days GP administrated). Each test group (n=8) received the compound at dose of 125 mg/kg, once a day, orally for 40 days while control-sham group (n=16) received the corn oil (0.2 ml/day). Results: Microscopic analyses revealed increased thickness of tunica albuginea, obvious edema in sub-capsular and interstitial connective tissue, atrophied seminiferous tubules, arrested spermatogenesis, negative tubular differentiation and repopulation indexes, decreased Leydig cells/mm2 of interstitial tissue, hypertrophy and cytoplasmic granulation of Leydig cells, elevated death, immature sperm and increased immotile and abnormal sperm percentage. The carbohydrate ratio was reduced in first three layers of the germinal epithelium (GE) cytoplasm. The upper layers of the GE series were manifested with low rate of lipid accumulation in cytoplasm, while the cells which were located in first layers were revealed with higher amount of lipid foci. Hematological investigations showed significant (p<0.05) decreasing of testosterone level in serum. Conclusion: The current data provide inclusive histological feature of chronic exposure against GP with emphasizing on reproductive disorders including histological adverse effect on the testicular tissue, spermatogenesis, sperm viability and abnormality which potentially can cause infertility. PMID:25242992

  5. Toxic effect of acyclovir on testicular tissue in rats

    PubMed Central

    Movahed, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Ahmadi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acyclovir (ACV), a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, is known to be toxic to gonads. Objective: The current study evaluated cytotoxicity of ACV on histopathological changes in testis tissue and serum testosterone and lipid peroxidation concentrations of male rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into five groups. One group served as control and one group served as control sham. In the drug treated groups ACV administered for 15 days. 18 days after the last injection, animals were sacrificed. Histopathological and histomorphometrical analysis of the testis was carried out. Serum levels of testosterone and Lipid Peroxidation and potential fertility of animals was evaluated. Results: Male rats exposed to ACV had significant reduction in serum testosterone concentrations at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (p<0.01). ACV induced histopathological changes in the testis and also increase the mean number of mast cells in peritubular or interstitial tissue in the testis at at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (p<0.01). In addition ACV caused increase of serum level of Lipid Peroxidation at 48mg/kg dose-level (p<0.05). As well ACV decreased potential fertility in male rats. Conclusion: The present results highly support the idea that ACV has adverse effect on the reproductive system in male rat. PMID:24639735

  6. Transplantation of testicular tissue in alginate hydrogel loaded with VEGF nanoparticles improves spermatogonial recovery.

    PubMed

    Poels, Jonathan; Abou-Ghannam, Gaël; Decamps, Aline; Leyman, Mélanie; Rieux, Anne des; Wyns, Christine

    2016-07-28

    Transplantation of cryopreserved immature testicular tissue (ITT) is a promising strategy to restore fertility in young boys facing gonadotoxic treatments. However, up to now, limited spermatogonial recovery has been achieved in xenografting models used to evaluate the potential of cryopreserved tissue transplantation. When comparing avascular xenografts of cryopreserved and fresh human ITT into a mouse model, the number of spermatogonia was significantly reduced, regardless of the cryopreservation procedure used. To improve tissue engraftment, revascularization and hence spermatogonial survival, ITT was embedded in two types of hydrogel loaded with VEGF nanoparticles. Small pieces (±1mm(3)) of testicular tissue were grafted in NMRI mice as follows: grafted without encapsulation, grafted after encapsulation in fibrin, in alginate, in fibrin-VEGF-nanoparticle (NP) and in alginate-VEGF-NP. Non-grafted tissue served as control. After 5 and 21days of implantation, seminiferous tubule integrity, revascularization and spermatogonial recovery were evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. Seminiferous tubule integrity ranged from 13.3% to 39.6% and 42.7% to 68.7% on day 5 and day 21, respectively. Vascular density on day 5 was found to be higher in VEGF supplemented groups, regardless of the hydrogel used. Staining for phosphorylated VEGF receptor 2 and endothelial proliferation on day 5 was higher in all groups compared to non-grafted avascular controls. Spermatogonial recovery ranged between 14.8% and 27.3% on day 21 and was significantly higher in the alginate and alginate-VEGF-NP groups. The present study demonstrates the potential of alginate hydrogel loaded with nanoencapsulated growth factors to improve cryopreserved tissue engraftment. PMID:27189137

  7. Effect of different cryoprotectant agents on spermatogenesis efficiency in cryopreserved and grafted neonatal mouse testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Cengiz; Mullen, Brendan; Jarvi, Keith; McKerlie, Colin; Lo, Kirk C

    2013-08-01

    Restoration of male fertility associated with use of the cryopreserved testicular tissue would be a significant advance in human and animal assisted reproductive technology. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of four different cryoprotectant agents (CPA) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in cryopreserved and allotransplanted neonatal mouse testicular tissue. Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) with 5% fetal bovine serum including either 0.7 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 0.7 M propylene glycol (PrOH), 0.7 M ethylene glycol (EG), or glycerol was used as the cryoprotectant solution. Donor testes were collected and dissected from neonatal pups of CD-1 mice (one day old). Freezing and seeding of the testicular whole tissues was performed using an automated controlled-rate freezer. Four fresh (non-frozen) or frozen-thawed pieces of testes were subcutaneously grafted onto the hind flank of each castrated male NCr nude recipient mouse and harvested after 3 months. Fresh neonatal testes grafts recovered from transplant sites had the most advanced rate of spermatogenesis with elongated spermatid and spermatozoa in 46.6% of seminiferous tubules and had higher levels of serum testosterone compared to all other frozen-thawed-graft groups (p<0.05). Fresh grafts and frozen-thawed grafts in the DMSO group had the highest rate of tissue survival compared to PrOH, EG, and glycerol after harvesting (p>0.05). The most effective CPA for the freezing and thawing of neonatal mouse testes was DMSO in comparison with EG (p<0.05) in both pre-grafted and post-grafted tissues based on histopathological evaluation. Likewise, the highest level of serum testosterone was obtained from the DMSO CPA group compared to all other cryoprotectants evaluated (p<0.05). The typical damage observed in the frozen-thawed grafts included disruption of the interstitial stroma, intercellular connection ruptures, and detachment of spermatogonia from the basement membrane. These findings

  8. Noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus can persist in testicular tissue after vaccination of peri-pubertal bulls but prevents subsequent infection.

    PubMed

    Givens, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Walz, Paul H; Rhoades, Jim; Harland, Richard; Zhang, YiJing; Galik, Patricia K; Brodersen, Bruce W; Cochran, Anna M; Brock, Kenny V; Carson, Robert L; Stringfellow, David A

    2007-01-15

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the risk of prolonged testicular infection as a consequence of vaccination of peri-pubertal bulls with a modified-live, noncytopathic strain of BVDV and to assess vaccine efficacy in preventing prolonged testicular infections after a subsequent acute infection. Seronegative, peri-pubertal bulls were vaccinated subcutaneously with an approximate minimum immunizing dose or a 10x standard dose of modified-live, noncytopathic BVDV or were maintained as unvaccinated controls. Forty-nine days after vaccination, all bulls were intranasally inoculated with a noncytopathic field strain of BVDV. Semen and testicular biopsies collected after vaccination and challenge were assayed for BVDV using virus isolation, reverse transcription-nested PCR, or immunohistochemistry and the identity of viral strains was determined by nucleotide sequencing of PCR products. The vaccine strain of BVDV was detected in testicular tissue of vaccinated bulls as long as 134 days after immunization. Prolonged testicular infections with the challenge strain were detected only in unvaccinated bulls as long as 85 days after challenge. Whereas vaccination caused prolonged testicular infection in some bulls, it did prevent subsequent infection of testicular tissue with the challenge strain. This research demonstrates that subcutaneous vaccination of naïve, peri-pubertal bulls with a noncytopathic, modified-live strain of BVDV can result in prolonged viral replication within testicular tissue. The risk for these prolonged testicular infections to cause venereal transmission of BVDV or subfertility is likely to be low but requires further investigation. PMID:17005300

  9. The effects of long-term leptin administration on morphometrical changes of mice testicular tissue

    PubMed Central

    Esmaili-Nejad, Mohammad-Reza; Babaei, Homayoon; Kheirandish, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Leptin is a novel and interesting hormone for anyone trying to lose weight, but its effects on male gonad structure in longitudinal study is unknown. The present study was designed to explore morphometrical changes of mouse testicular tissue after long-term administration of leptin. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy mature male mice were randomly assigned to either control (n=15) or treatment (n=15) groups. Leptin was intraperitoneally injected to the treatment group (0.1 µg/100 µl of physiological saline) once a day for 30 consecutive days, and control animals received normal saline with the same volume and route. Five mice from each experimental group were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 days after the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed, weighted and then fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosine for morphometrical assays. Results: Except for sertoli cell nucleus diameter, which was affected from 30th day, evaluation of other morphometrical parameters such as Johnsen’s score, meiotic index, spermatogenesis, epithelial height, seminiferous tubules diameter and spermatogonial nucleus diameter revealed significant decrease from 15th day after leptin administration compare to those of the control group (P<0.05). Thus, meiotic index and spermatogonial cell nucleus diameter were two parameters that were further disturbed on 30th day compare to the day 15 (3.09±0.03 vs. 3.23±0.03, P=0.006 and 5.50±0.09 vs. 6.08±0.14, P=0.007, respectively). Conclusion: Our results showed that long-term administration of leptin could disturb testicular tissue structure and delay spermatogenesis process. PMID:26877846

  10. Examining the aetiopathogenesis of varicoceles: the relationship between retroperitoneal adipose tissue and testicular venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Umul, M; Değirmenci, B; Umul, A; Uçar, M; Yılmaz, Ö; Altok, M; Güneş, M; Orhan, H; Serel, T A

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of retroperitoneal adipose tissue on testicular venous drainage and tested the nutcracker phenomenon by clinical and imaging findings. A total of 95 patients were included. The patients were evaluated with a detailed medical history and physical examination for varicocele. Their weight, height and waist circumference were also recorded. Body mass index was calculated as weight (kg)/height squared (m(2) ). Pampiniform plexus diameters were measured by scrotal colour Doppler ultrasonography, and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was evaluated by noncontrast abdominal computed tomography. We determined an almost significant correlation between BMI and varicocele presence by physical examination (P = 0.06). However, there was a significant relationship between WC and varicocele identified by physical examination (P = 0.021). There was a positive and significant relationship between BMI and pampiniform plexus diameters. Furthermore, we detected a negative correlation between retroperitoneal adipose tissue measurements and CDU findings. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between WC, pampiniform plexus diameters and CT findings. It is concluded that increasing BMI and increasing WC may play a protective role in the development of varicocele. There is a need for further studies to verify the effect of obesity on varicocele formation. PMID:26085083

  11. Freezing of testicular tissue as a minced suspension preserves sperm quality better than whole-biopsy freezing when glycerol is used as cryoprotectant.

    PubMed

    Crabbé, E; Verheyen, G; Tournaye, H; Van Steirteghem, A

    1999-02-01

    Frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa have been used successfully for ICSI, especially in cases of obstructive azoospermia with normal spermatogenesis. Fewer attempts, however, have been made to check whether these rather immature spermatozoa, in a different environment with several other cell types present, have cryobiological requirements other than those of ejaculated spermatozoa. This is the reason why the freezing protocols and cryoprotectants (glycerol) used for freezing testicular tissue are based on experience with semen freezing. This study aimed to assess whether cryosurvival and/or motility was influenced by freezing of testicular tissue either as an intact biopsy or as a shredded tissue suspension, when glycerol was used as cryoprotectant. Freezing of testicular tissue as a suspension preserved motility (type B + C) significantly better than freezing of whole biopsies (9.2% vs. 4.0%). Similar observations have been made for vitality (39.3% vs. 25.4%). Centrifugation on 50% Percoll in order to remove the cryoprotectant resulted in a huge loss of spermatozoa (or late spermatids) and should therefore be especially avoided in cases of testicular failure. On the basis of these observations, mincing of the testicular biopsies before freezing may be advocated. Testicular spermatozoa seem to be better preserved when frozen in suspension, at least when slowly permeating glycerol is used as a cryoprotectant. PMID:10068943

  12. Precision-cut human kidney slices as a model to elucidate the process of renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stribos, Elisabeth G D; Luangmonkong, Theerut; Leliveld, Anna M; de Jong, Igle J; van Son, Willem J; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Seelen, Marc A; van Goor, Harry; Olinga, Peter; Mutsaers, Henricus A M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major health concern, and experimental models bridging the gap between animal studies and clinical research are currently lacking. Here, we evaluated precision-cut kidney slices (PCKSs) as a potential model for renal disease. PCKSs were prepared from human cortical tissue obtained from tumor nephrectomies and cultured up to 96 hours. Morphology, cell viability, and metabolic functionality (ie, uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase and transporter activity) were determined to assess the integrity of PCKSs. Furthermore, inflammatory and fibrosis-related gene expressions were characterized. Finally, to validate the model, renal fibrogenesis was induced using transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Preparation of PCKSs induced an inflammatory tissue response, whereas long-term incubation (96 hours) induced fibrogenesis as shown by an increased expression of collagen type 1A1 (COL1A1) and fibronectin 1 (FN1). Importantly, PCKSs remained functional for more than 48 hours as evidenced by active glucuronidation and phenolsulfonphthalein uptake. In addition, cellular diversity appeared to be maintained, yet we observed a clear loss of nephrin messenger RNA levels suggesting that our model might not be suitable to study the role of podocytes in renal pathology. Moreover, TGF-β1 exposure augmented fibrosis, as illustrated by an increased expression of multiple fibrosis markers including COL1A1, FN1, and α-smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, PCKSs maintain their renal phenotype during culture and appear to be a promising model to investigate renal diseases, for example, renal fibrosis. Moreover, the human origin of PCKSs makes this model very suitable for translational research. PMID:26687735

  13. Thymoquinone ameliorated elevated inflammatory cytokines in testicular tissue and sex hormones imbalance induced by oral chronic toxicity with sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Alyoussef, Abdullah; Al-Gayyar, Mohammed M H

    2016-07-01

    Scientific evidence illustrated the health hazards of exposure to nitrites for prolonged time. Nitrites affected several body organs due to oxidative, inflammatory and apoptosis properties. Furthermore, thymoquinone (TQ) had curative effects against many diseases. We tried to discover the impact of both sodium nitrite and TQ on inflammatory cytokines contents in testicular tissues and hormonal balance both in vivo and in vitro. Fifty adult male SD rats received 80mg/kg sodium nitrite and treated with either 25 or 50mg/kg TQ daily by oral-gavage for twelve weeks. Testis were removed for sperms' count. Testicular tissue homogenates were used for assessment of protein and gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, Nrf2 and caspase-3. Serum samples were used for measurement of testosterone, LH, FSH and prolactin. Moreover, all the parameters were measured in human normal testis cell-lines, CRL-7002. Sodium nitrite produced significant decrease in serum testosterone associated with raised FSH, LH and prolactin. Moreover, sodium nitrite significantly elevated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, caspase-3 and reduced Nrf2. TQ significantly reversed all these effects both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, TQ ameliorated testicular tissue inflammation and restored the normal balance of sex hormones induced by sodium nitrite both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27038016

  14. Testicular tissue cryopreservation and spermatogonial stem cell transplantation to restore fertility: from bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Male infertility management has made significant progress during the past three decades, especially after the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in 1992. However, many boys and men still suffer from primary testicular failure due to acquired or genetic causes. New and novel treatments are needed to address these issues. Spermatogenesis originates from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that reside in the testis. Many of these men lack SSCs or have lost SSCs over time as a result of specific medical conditions or toxic exposures. Loss of SSCs is critical in prepubertal boys who suffer from cancer and are going through gonadotoxic cancer treatments, as there is no option of sperm cryopresrvation due to sexual immaturity. The development of SSC transplantation in a mouse model to repopulate spermatozoa in depleted testes has opened new avenues of research in other animal models, including non-human primates. Recent advances in cryopreservation and in vitro propagation of human SSCs offer promise for human SSC autotransplantation in the near future. Ongoing research is focusing on safety and technical issues of human SSC autotransplantation. This is the time to counsel parents and boys at risk of infertility on the possibility of cryopreserving and banking a small amount of testis tissue for potential future use in SSC transplantation. PMID:25157677

  15. Antioxidant Attenuation of Atrazine Induced Histopathological Changes in Testicular Tissue of Goat In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, R. K.; Fulia, Anju; Chauhan, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    During the present investigation the effect of α-tocopherol (100 μmolL-1) in prevention of testicular toxicity induced by atrazine in goat Capra hircus have been analyzed. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) at dose level 100 μmolL-1 provides attenuation over the histopathological changes generated by pesticide atrazine (100 nmolml-1). Small pieces (approximately 1mm3) of testicular tissue were divided into three groups (one control group + two experimental groups). Experimental group (A) was supplemented with 100 nmolml-1 concentration of atrazine and experimental group (B) was supplemented with 100 nmolml-1 atrazine and 100 μmolL-1 concentrations of vitamin E (α-Tocopherol) and harvesting was carried out after 1, 4 and 8 hrs of exposure. Control was run along with all the experimental groups. In the experimental group (A) treated with atrazine at dose level 100 nmolml-1, revealed histomorphological alterations in the seminiferous tubule. After one hour of exposure duration small vacuoles in cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were observed. Chromolysis at pycnosis were also noticed in the spermatogonia and spermatids. In the experimental group (B) exposed with atrazine and simultaneously supplemented with Vitamin E also showed degeneration but it was milder as compared with experimental group treated with atrazine without antioxidant. Atrazine exposure induced a decline in diameter of spermatocytes from 10.51 ± 0.2052 μm in control to 7.915 ± 0.2972, 7.5 ± 0.211 and 7.14 ± 0.225 μm after exposure of 1, 4 and 8 hrs respectively but in case of atrazine supplemented with vitamin E [experimental group (B)], there was less decline in cell diameter that was 8.5 ± 0.1865, 8.1 ± 0.1201 and 7.8 ± 0.2066μm after exposure of 1, 4 and 8 hrs respectively. The result demonstrated that vitamin E delays the degenerative changes induced by atrazine. PMID:23293464

  16. Natural innate cytokine response to immunomodulators and adjuvants in human precision-cut lung slices

    SciTech Connect

    Switalla, S.; Lauenstein, L.; Prenzler, F.; Knothe, S.; Foerster, C.; Fieguth, H.-G.; Pfennig, O.; Schaumann, F.; Martin, C.; Guzman, C.A.; Ebensen, T.; Mueller, M.; Hohlfeld, J.M.; Krug, N.; Braun, A.; Sewald, K.

    2010-08-01

    Prediction of lung innate immune responses is critical for developing new drugs. Well-established immune modulators like lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can elicit a wide range of immunological effects. They are involved in acute lung diseases such as infections or chronic airway diseases such as COPD. LPS has a strong adjuvant activity, but its pyrogenicity has precluded therapeutic use. The bacterial lipopeptide MALP-2 and its synthetic derivative BPPcysMPEG are better tolerated. We have compared the effects of LPS and BPPcysMPEG on the innate immune response in human precision-cut lung slices. Cytokine responses were quantified by ELISA, Luminex, and Meso Scale Discovery technology. The initial response to LPS and BPPcysMPEG was marked by coordinated and significant release of the mediators IL-1{beta}, MIP-1{beta}, and IL-10 in viable PCLS. Stimulation of lung tissue with BPPcysMPEG, however, induced a differential response. While LPS upregulated IFN-{gamma}, BPPcysMPEG did not. This traces back to their signaling pathways via TLR4 and TLR2/6. The calculated exposure doses selected for LPS covered ranges occurring in clinical studies with human beings. Correlation of obtained data with data from human BAL fluid after segmental provocation with endotoxin showed highly comparable effects, resulting in a coefficient of correlation > 0.9. Furthermore, we were interested in modulating the response to LPS. Using dexamethasone as an immunosuppressive drug for anti-inflammatory therapy, we found a significant reduction of GM-CSF, IL-1{beta}, and IFN-{gamma}. The PCLS-model offers the unique opportunity to test the efficacy and toxicity of biological agents intended for use by inhalation in a complex setting in humans.

  17. Testicular cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - testes; Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer ... The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. Factors that may ... increases if he has: Abnormal testicle development Exposure ...

  18. Human precision-cut liver slices as an ex vivo model to study idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Mackenzie; Westra, Inge M; Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Dragovic, Sanja; Merema, Marjolijn T; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2013-05-20

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is a major problem during drug development and has caused drug withdrawal and black-box warnings. Because of the low concordance of the hepatotoxicity of drugs in animals and humans, robust screening methods using human tissue are needed to predict IDILI in humans. According to the inflammatory stress hypothesis, the effects of inflammation interact with the effects of a drug or its reactive metabolite, precipitating toxic reactions in the liver. As a follow-up to our recently published mouse precision-cut liver slices model, an ex vivo model involving human precision-cut liver slices (hPCLS), co-incubated for 24 h with IDILI-related drugs and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was developed to study IDILI mechanisms related to inflammatory stress in humans and to detect potential biomarkers. LPS exacerbated the effects of ketoconazole and clozapine toxicity but not those of their non-IDILI-related comparators, voriconazole and olanzapine. However, the IDILI-related drugs diclofenac, carbamazepine, and troglitazone did not show synergistic toxicity with LPS after incubation for 24 h. Co-incubation of ketoconazole and clozapine with LPS decreased the levels of glutathione in hPCLS, but this was not seen for the other drugs. All drugs affected LPS-induced cytokine release, but interestingly, only ketoconazole and clozapine increased the level of LPS-induced TNF release. Decreased levels of glutathione and cysteine conjugates of clozapine were detected in IDILI-responding livers following cotreatment with LPS. In conclusion, we identified ketoconazole and clozapine as drugs that exhibited synergistic toxicity with LPS, while glutathione and TNF were found to be potential biomarkers for IDILI-inducing drugs mediated by inflammatory stress. hPCLS appear to be suitable for further unraveling the mechanisms of inflammatory stress-associated IDILI. PMID:23565644

  19. Proinflammatory and cytotoxic response to nanoparticles in precision-cut lung slices

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Nadine; Loza, Kateryna; Epple, Matthias; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Rehberg, Markus; Krombach, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Summary Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) are an established ex vivo alternative to in vivo experiments in pharmacotoxicology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of PCLS as a tool in nanotoxicology studies. Silver (Ag-NPs) and zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs) nanoparticles as well as quartz particles were used because these materials have been previously shown in several in vitro and in vivo studies to induce a dose-dependent cytotoxic and inflammatory response. PCLS were exposed to three concentrations of 70 nm monodisperse polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated Ag-NPs under submerged culture conditions in vitro. ZnO-NPs (NM110) served as ‘soluble’ and quartz particles (Min-U-Sil) as ‘non-soluble’ control particles. After 4 and 24 h, the cell viability and the release of proinflammatory cytokines was measured. In addition, multiphoton microscopy was employed to assess the localization of Ag-NPs in PCLS after 24 h of incubation. Exposure of PCLS to ZnO-NPs for 4 and 24 h resulted in a strong decrease in cell viability, while quartz particles had no cytotoxic effect. Moreover, only a slight cytotoxic response was detected by LDH release after incubation of PCLS with 20 or 30 µg/mL of Ag-NPs. Interestingly, none of the particles tested induced a proinflammatory response in PCLS. Finally, multiphoton microscopy revealed that the Ag-NP were predominantly localized at the cut surface and only to a much lower extent in the deeper layers of the PCLS. In summary, only ‘soluble’ ZnO-NPs elicited a strong cytotoxic response. Therefore, we suggest that the cytotoxic response in PCLS was caused by released Zn2+ ions rather than by the ZnO-NPs themselves. Moreover, Ag-NPs were predominantly localized at the cut surface of PCLS but not in deeper regions, indicating that the majority of the particles did not have the chance to interact with all cells present in the tissue slice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that PCLS may have some limitations when used for

  20. Detection of secreted and temporarily inducible heat shock responsive proteins in mouse testicular tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, L.; Heinlein, U.A.O. )

    1991-01-01

    Temperature-induced effects on the synthesis of murine testicular proteins were investigated by one- and two-dimensional SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Newly synthesized proteins were monitored by incorporation of {sup 35}S-methionine and autoradiography. Three heat shock responsive proteins, which are differently affected by elevated temperatures, are described. These proteins represent special examples for how testicular cells respond to environmental stress. One of these proteins, HS136, is synthesized and secreted at 38{degree}C, whereas at lower, scrotal temperatures it is not detectable. HSID74 protein is synthesized at elevated temperatures, but only in prepuberal testis, not in adult. Synthesis of the third example, HSR28, is decreased within the seminiferous tubules, but only in those regions which bear cell associations of the elongation stage. These results indicate that the use of DNA probes of the heat shock-gene family might not be sufficient to describe the molecular reasons for impaired spermatogenesis following hyperthermia.

  1. Protective effect of beta-carotene against titanium dioxide nanoparticles induced apoptosis in mouse testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Orazizadeh, M; Daneshi, E; Hashemitmar, M; Absalan, F; Khorsandi, L

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the effects of beta-carotene (BC) on testicular germ cell apoptosis arising from titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NTiO2 ) have been evaluated. In NTiO2 -treated mice, expression of apoptotic related genes including Bid, FasL, caspase-3 and p38MAPK was significantly increased. Measurement apoptosis using TUNEL method showed significant increase in apoptotic index of germ cells in NTiO2 -treated mice (P < 0.05). TUNEL assessments showed that the increase of apoptotic index of testicular germ cells in NTiO2 -treated mice was reversed by BC. Beta-carotene pre-treatment could also effectively attenuate the expression of apoptotic related genes. The application of BC may serve as a beneficial medication to protect germ cells against apoptosis induced by nanoparticles and be helpful for male fertility. PMID:25278478

  2. Applicability of rat precision-cut lung slices in evaluating nanomaterial cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, Ursula G.; Vogel, Sandra; Aumann, Alexandra; Hess, Annemarie; Kolle, Susanne N.; Ma-Hock, Lan; Wohlleben, Wendel; Dammann, Martina; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; Ravenzwaay, Bennard van; Landsiedel, Robert

    2014-04-01

    The applicability of rat precision-cut lung slices (PCLuS) in detecting nanomaterial (NM) toxicity to the respiratory tract was investigated evaluating sixteen OECD reference NMs (TiO{sub 2}, ZnO, CeO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, Ag, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)). Upon 24-hour test substance exposure, the PCLuS system was able to detect early events of NM toxicity: total protein, reduction in mitochondrial activity, caspase-3/-7 activation, glutathione depletion/increase, cytokine induction, and histopathological evaluation. Ion shedding NMS (ZnO and Ag) induced severe tissue destruction detected by the loss of total protein. Two anatase TiO{sub 2} NMs, CeO{sub 2} NMs, and two MWCNT caused significant (determined by trend analysis) cytotoxicity in the WST-1 assay. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, different TiO{sub 2} NMs and one MWCNT increased GSH levels, presumably a defense response to reactive oxygen species, and these substances further induced a variety of cytokines. One of the SiO{sub 2} NMs increased caspase-3/-7 activities at non-cytotoxic levels, and one rutile TiO{sub 2} only induced cytokines. Investigating these effects is, however, not sufficient to predict apical effects found in vivo. Reproducibility of test substance measurements was not fully satisfactory, especially in the GSH and cytokine assays. Effects were frequently observed in negative controls pointing to tissue slice vulnerability even though prepared and handled with utmost care. Comparisons of the effects observed in the PCLuS to in vivo effects reveal some concordances for the metal oxide NMs, but less so for the MWCNT. The highest effective dosages, however, exceeded those reported for rat short-term inhalation studies. To become applicable for NM testing, the PCLuS system requires test protocol optimization. - Highlights: • 16 OECD reference nanomaterials were tested in rat precision-cut lung slices. • Nanomaterial cytotoxicity, apoptose, oxidative stress, and inflammation were

  3. Persistent DNA Damage in Spermatogonial Stem Cells After Fractionated Low-Dose Irradiation of Testicular Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Grewenig, Angelika; Schuler, Nadine; Rübe, Claudia E.

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Testicular spermatogenesis is extremely sensitive to radiation-induced damage, and even low scattered doses to testis from radiation therapy may pose reproductive risks with potential treatment-related infertility. Radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent the greatest threat to the genomic integrity of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which are essential to maintain spermatogenesis and prevent reproduction failure. Methods and Materials: During daily low-dose radiation with 100 mGy or 10 mGy, radiation-induced DSBs were monitored in mouse testis by quantifying 53 binding protein 1 (53BP-1) foci in SSCs within their stem cell niche. The accumulation of DSBs was correlated with proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of testicular germ cell populations. Results: Even very low doses of ionizing radiation arrested spermatogenesis, primarily by inducing apoptosis in spermatogonia. Eventual recovery of spermatogenesis depended on the survival of SSCs and their functional ability to proliferate and differentiate to provide adequate numbers of differentiating spermatogonia. Importantly, apoptosis-resistant SSCs resulted in increased 53BP-1 foci levels during, and even several months after, fractionated low-dose radiation, suggesting that surviving SSCs have accumulated an increased load of DNA damage. Conclusions: SSCs revealed elevated levels of DSBs for weeks after radiation, and if these DSBs persist through differentiation to spermatozoa, this may have severe consequences for the genomic integrity of the fertilizing sperm.

  4. Precision-Cut Kidney Slices as a Tool to Understand the Dynamics of Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Genovese, Federica; Kàrpàti, Zsolt S.; Nielsen, Signe H.; Karsdal, Morten A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to set up an ex vivo model for renal interstitial fibrosis in order to investigate the extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover profile in the fibrotic kidney. We induced kidney fibrosis in fourteen 12-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery of the right ureter. The left kidney (contralateral) was used as internal control. Six rats were sham operated and used as the control group. Rats were terminated two weeks after the surgery; the kidneys were excised and precision-cut kidney slices (PCKSs) were cultured for five days in serum-free medium. Markers of collagen type I formation (P1NP), collagen type I and III degradation (C1M and C3M), and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) were measured in the PCKS supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. P1NP, C1M, C3M, and α-SMA were increased up to 2- to 13-fold in supernatants of tissue slices from the UUO-ligated kidneys compared with the contralateral kidneys (P < 0.001) and with the kidneys of sham-operated animals (P < 0.0001). The markers could also reflect the level of fibrosis in different animals. The UUO PCKS ex vivo model provides a valuable translational tool for investigating the extracellular matrix remodeling associated with renal interstitial fibrosis. PMID:27257368

  5. Precision-Cut Kidney Slices as a Tool to Understand the Dynamics of Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Renal Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Federica; Kàrpàti, Zsolt S; Nielsen, Signe H; Karsdal, Morten A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to set up an ex vivo model for renal interstitial fibrosis in order to investigate the extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover profile in the fibrotic kidney. We induced kidney fibrosis in fourteen 12-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery of the right ureter. The left kidney (contralateral) was used as internal control. Six rats were sham operated and used as the control group. Rats were terminated two weeks after the surgery; the kidneys were excised and precision-cut kidney slices (PCKSs) were cultured for five days in serum-free medium. Markers of collagen type I formation (P1NP), collagen type I and III degradation (C1M and C3M), and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) were measured in the PCKS supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. P1NP, C1M, C3M, and α-SMA were increased up to 2- to 13-fold in supernatants of tissue slices from the UUO-ligated kidneys compared with the contralateral kidneys (P < 0.001) and with the kidneys of sham-operated animals (P < 0.0001). The markers could also reflect the level of fibrosis in different animals. The UUO PCKS ex vivo model provides a valuable translational tool for investigating the extracellular matrix remodeling associated with renal interstitial fibrosis. PMID:27257368

  6. Feline spermatozoa from fresh and cryopreserved testicular tissues have comparable ability to fertilize matured oocytes and sustain the embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Buarpung, S; Tharasanit, T; Comizzoli, P; Techakumphu, M

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue associated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a critical tool that still needs to be explored for preserving the fertility of endangered species. Using the domestic cat as a model for wild felids, the study aimed at determining the effect of different cryoprotectants and freezing techniques (two-step freezing vs. controlled slow freezing) on the sperm quality (membrane and DNA integrity). Then, spermatozoa were extracted from frozen-thawed testicular tissues and used for ICSI to assess early gamete activation or developmental competence in vitro. The percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane was not different (P > 0.05) among nonfrozen control, glycerol-, and ethylene glycol-frozen tissues (63.2 ± 2%, 58.2 ± 2.6%, 53.3 ± 2.3%, respectively). However, these percentages were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in groups of dimethyl sulfoxide (46.3 ± 3.3%) and 1,2 propanediol (44.3 ± 2.9%) when compared with control. Conventional freezing combined with 5% (vol/vol) glycerol best preserved sperm membrane integrity (55.0 ± 2.7%) when compared with other freezing techniques. The incidence of DNA fragmentation was found to be low (0.2%-1.1%) in all freezing protocols. After ICSI with frozen testicular spermatozoa, male and female gametes were asynchronously activated and the percentages of normal fertilization at 6, 12, and 18 hours were 11.2%, 20.6%, and 22.1%, respectively. Metaphase II-arrested oocytes containing or not a decondensed sperm head were predominantly found after ICSI with frozen testicular spermatozoa. Although two-pronucleus formation could be observed as soon as 6 hours post ICSI (10%), the rate increased dramatically after 12 and 18 hours post ICSI (17.2% and 19.5%, respectively). ICSI using frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa yielded cleavage (32.7%), morula (6.5%), and blastocyst (4.4%) percentages similar to nonfrozen control (P > 0.05). It is concluded that conventional freezing

  7. Autometallographic detection of mercury in testicular tissue of an infertile man exposed to mercury vapor.

    PubMed

    Keck, C; Bergmann, M; Ernst, E; Müller, C; Kliesch, S; Nieschlag, E

    1993-01-01

    A 25-year-old male patient presented with unexplained infertility. Semen analysis showed azoospermia or severe oligoasthenoteratospermia with elevated serum FSH. The history revealed that he had been employed in a chemical factory for 5 years working with chloralkali-electrophoresis. Mercury concentrations in hair, blood, and urine samples were considerably above levels of unexposed controls. Bilateral testicular biopsies revealed marked interstitial lymphatic infiltration. About 33% of the tubules analyzed showed a Sertoli-cell-only (SCO) syndrome and tubular atrophy. Fewer than 4% of tubules showed qualitatively intact spermatogenesis. Autometallographic (AMG) analysis of the biopsy material yielded silver-enhanced mercury grains, primarily in the interstitial Leydig cells. Sections from a control patient not exposed to mercury were devoid of mercury grains. PMID:8274823

  8. Contrast-enhanced, real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging of tissue perfusion: preliminary results in a rabbit model of testicular torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltiel, H. J.; Padua, H. M.; Gargollo, P. C.; Cannon, G. M., Jr.; Alomari, A. I.; Yu, R.; Clement, G. T.

    2011-04-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) imaging is potentially applicable to the clinical investigation of a wide variety of perfusion disorders. Quantitative analysis of perfusion is not widely performed, and is limited by the fact that data are acquired from a single tissue plane, a situation that is unlikely to accurately reflect global perfusion. Real-time perfusion information from a tissue volume in an experimental rabbit model of testicular torsion was obtained with a two-dimensional matrix phased array US transducer. Contrast-enhanced imaging was performed in 20 rabbits during intravenous infusion of the microbubble contrast agent Definity® before and after unilateral testicular torsion and contralateral orchiopexy. The degree of torsion was 0° in 4 (sham surgery), 180° in 4, 360° in 4, 540° in 4, and 720° in 4. An automated technique was developed to analyze the time history of US image intensity in experimental and control testes. Comparison of mean US intensity rate of change and of ratios between mean US intensity rate of change in experimental and control testes demonstrated good correlation with testicular perfusion and mean perfusion ratios obtained with radiolabeled microspheres, an accepted 'gold standard'. This method is of potential utility in the clinical evaluation of testicular and other organ perfusion.

  9. Absolute near-infrared oximetry for urology: a quantitative study of the tissue hemoglobin saturation before and after testicular torsion in a rabbit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-02-01

    We present an experimental study on four rabbits to demonstrate the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy in the noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion. We used a multi-distance frequency-domain method, based on a fixed detector position and a 9-mm linear scan of the illumination optical fibers, to measure absolute values of pre- and post-operative testicular oxygen saturation. Unilateral testicular torsions (by 0°, 540° or 720°) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgeries (no torsion) on control testes were performed and studied. Our results showed (a) a consistent baseline absolute tissue oxygen saturation value of 78% +/- 5%; (b) a comparable absolute saturation of 77% +/- 6% on the control side (testes after sham surgery); and (c) a significantly lower tissue oxygen saturation of 36% +/- 2% on the experimental side (testes after 540° or 720° torsion surgery). These results demonstrate the capability of frequency domain nearinfrared spectroscopy in the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, and show promise as a potential method to serve as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  10. Applicability of rat precision-cut lung slices in evaluating nanomaterial cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Vogel, Sandra; Aumann, Alexandra; Hess, Annemarie; Kolle, Susanne N; Ma-Hock, Lan; Wohlleben, Wendel; Dammann, Martina; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2014-04-01

    The applicability of rat precision-cut lung slices (PCLuS) in detecting nanomaterial (NM) toxicity to the respiratory tract was investigated evaluating sixteen OECD reference NMs (TiO₂, ZnO, CeO₂, SiO₂, Ag, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)). Upon 24-hour test substance exposure, the PCLuS system was able to detect early events of NM toxicity: total protein, reduction in mitochondrial activity, caspase-3/-7 activation, glutathione depletion/increase, cytokine induction, and histopathological evaluation. Ion shedding NMS (ZnO and Ag) induced severe tissue destruction detected by the loss of total protein. Two anatase TiO₂ NMs, CeO₂ NMs, and two MWCNT caused significant (determined by trend analysis) cytotoxicity in the WST-1 assay. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, different TiO₂ NMs and one MWCNT increased GSH levels, presumably a defense response to reactive oxygen species, and these substances further induced a variety of cytokines. One of the SiO₂ NMs increased caspase-3/-7 activities at non-cytotoxic levels, and one rutile TiO₂ only induced cytokines. Investigating these effects is, however, not sufficient to predict apical effects found in vivo. Reproducibility of test substance measurements was not fully satisfactory, especially in the GSH and cytokine assays. Effects were frequently observed in negative controls pointing to tissue slice vulnerability even though prepared and handled with utmost care. Comparisons of the effects observed in the PCLuS to in vivo effects reveal some concordances for the metal oxide NMs, but less so for the MWCNT. The highest effective dosages, however, exceeded those reported for rat short-term inhalation studies. To become applicable for NM testing, the PCLuS system requires test protocol optimization. PMID:24382512

  11. Videomicroscopy of methacholine-induced contraction of individual airways in precision-cut lung slices.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Uhlig, S; Ullrich, V

    1996-12-01

    Contraction of airways of different size can be studied in viable lung slices by videomicroscopy. However, at present, application of this technique is limited by the heterogeneous responses obtained. We investigated the use of precision-cut lung slices to examine contraction of individual airways. Lung slices of 250 +/- 20 microns were prepared from Wistar rats and cultured in a roller incubator in serum-free minimum essential medium (MEM). Under these conditions, the slices were viable for at least 70 h, as indicated by leakage of lactate dehydrogenase into the supernatant, thymidine incorporation and ciliary beating. The slices were placed in a newly developed incubation chamber and mounted by a nylon thread that was fixed to a platinum wire. The whole chamber was positioned on a microscope stage, and contraction of single airways was followed under a microscope that was coupled to a CCD-camera. Reduction in airway area was taken as an index of bronchoconstriction and was determined by a computer program. Addition of methacholine resulted in a concentration-dependent (concentration producing half the maximal effect (EC50) = 0.64 +/- 0.08 (mean +/- SD) microM; n = 64) contraction of single airways. In the presence of hydrocortisone, the EC50 was about six times greater, i.e. 3.7 +/- 0.9 microM (n = 7), and the effect of the steroid was largely abolished by propanolol (EC50 = 1.1 +/- 0.1 microM; n = 7). Airways with an area smaller than 35,000 microns2 were nearly nine times more sensitive to methacholine (EC50 = 0.1 +/- 0.03 microM; n = 20) than larger ones (EC50 = 87 +/- 0.27 microM; n = 22). We conclude that cultured precision-cut lung slices are a useful model for routine study of contraction of individual airways of various sizes. The measurements were precise and reproducible and showed that smaller airways are more sensitive to methacholine than larger ones. PMID:8980957

  12. Human precision-cut liver slices as a model to test antifibrotic drugs in the early onset of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Westra, Inge M; Mutsaers, Henricus A M; Luangmonkong, Theerut; Hadi, Mackenzie; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; de Jong, Koert P; Groothuis, Geny M M; Olinga, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Liver fibrosis is the progressive accumulation of connective tissue ultimately resulting in loss of organ function. Currently, no effective antifibrotics are available due to a lack of reliable human models. Here we investigated the fibrotic process in human precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) and studied the efficacy of multiple putative antifibrotic compounds. Our results demonstrated that human PCLS remained viable for 48h and the early onset of fibrosis was observed during culture, as demonstrated by an increased gene expression of Heat Shock Protein 47 (HSP47) and Pro-Collagen 1A1 (PCOL1A1) as well as increased collagen 1 protein levels. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) showed a marked decrease in HSP47 and PCOL1A1 gene expression, whereas specific inhibitors of Smad 3 and Rac-1 showed no or only minor effects. Regarding the studied antifibrotics, gene levels of HSP47 and PCOL1A1 could be down-regulated with sunitinib and valproic acid, while PCOL1A1 expression was reduced following treatment with rosmarinic acid, tetrandrine and pirfenidone. These results are in contrast with prior data obtained in rat PCLS, indicating that antifibrotic drug efficacy is clearly species-specific. Thus, human PCLS is a promising model for liver fibrosis. Moreover, MAPK signaling plays an important role in the onset of fibrosis in this model and transforming growth factor beta pathway inhibitors appear to be more effective than platelet-derived growth factor pathway inhibitors in halting fibrogenesis in PCLS. PMID:27235791

  13. The effects of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy on testicular function in men undergoing treatment for soft tissue sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shamberger, R.C.; Sherins, R.J.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1981-05-15

    Testicular function was studied in 26 men with sarcoma who received adjuvant treatment with doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high-dose methotrexate (with or without radiotherapy). Testicular size, sperm output, and serum FSH, LH and testosterone levels were assessed after treatment. Five of 17 men who received chemotherapy or chemotherapy with radiotherapy to the neck, arm, chest, or leg, had normal testicular function. Eight of the remaining 12 men who provided ejaculates were oligospermic or azoospermic and serum FSH was increased threefold and LH twofold; testosterone levels were normal. In the five men with normal testicular function, FSH was increased fourfold during therapy but returned to normal six to 21 months after treatment. In men less than 40 years old, the mean FSH was less than that of men over 40 years of age (P . to 0.05), suggesting that recovery from the injury was age-related. By contrast, all nine men who received chemotherapy plus radiotherapy to the abdomen or thigh had decreased testicular size, azoospermia, fourfold increase in FSH, and twofold increase in LH levels; but testosterone concentration was normal. These data increase in FSH, and reversible testicular injury occurs after treatment with doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high-dose methotrexate; recovery is age-related. However, these agents in combination with use of adjuvant radiotherapy to the thigh or abdomen may produce permanent testicular injury even in young patients.

  14. Airway and Parenchymal Strains during Bronchoconstriction in the Precision Cut Lung Slice

    PubMed Central

    Hiorns, Jonathan E.; Bidan, Cécile M.; Jensen, Oliver E.; Gosens, Reinoud; Kistemaker, Loes E. M.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Butler, Jim P.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Brook, Bindi S.

    2016-01-01

    The precision-cut lung slice (PCLS) is a powerful tool for studying airway reactivity, but biomechanical measurements to date have largely focused on changes in airway caliber. Here we describe an image processing tool that reveals the associated spatio-temporal changes in airway and parenchymal strains. Displacements of sub-regions within the PCLS are tracked in phase-contrast movies acquired after addition of contractile and relaxing drugs. From displacement maps, strains are determined across the entire PCLS or along user-specified directions. In a representative mouse PCLS challenged with 10−4M methacholine, as lumen area decreased, compressive circumferential strains were highest in the 50 μm closest to the airway lumen while expansive radial strains were highest in the region 50–100 μm from the lumen. However, at any given distance from the airway the strain distribution varied substantially in the vicinity of neighboring small airways and blood vessels. Upon challenge with the relaxant agonist chloroquine, although most strains disappeared, residual positive strains remained a long time after addition of chloroquine, predominantly in the radial direction. Taken together, these findings establish strain mapping as a new tool to elucidate local dynamic mechanical events within the constricting airway and its supporting parenchyma. PMID:27559314

  15. Airway and Parenchymal Strains during Bronchoconstriction in the Precision Cut Lung Slice.

    PubMed

    Hiorns, Jonathan E; Bidan, Cécile M; Jensen, Oliver E; Gosens, Reinoud; Kistemaker, Loes E M; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Butler, Jim P; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Brook, Bindi S

    2016-01-01

    The precision-cut lung slice (PCLS) is a powerful tool for studying airway reactivity, but biomechanical measurements to date have largely focused on changes in airway caliber. Here we describe an image processing tool that reveals the associated spatio-temporal changes in airway and parenchymal strains. Displacements of sub-regions within the PCLS are tracked in phase-contrast movies acquired after addition of contractile and relaxing drugs. From displacement maps, strains are determined across the entire PCLS or along user-specified directions. In a representative mouse PCLS challenged with 10(-4)M methacholine, as lumen area decreased, compressive circumferential strains were highest in the 50 μm closest to the airway lumen while expansive radial strains were highest in the region 50-100 μm from the lumen. However, at any given distance from the airway the strain distribution varied substantially in the vicinity of neighboring small airways and blood vessels. Upon challenge with the relaxant agonist chloroquine, although most strains disappeared, residual positive strains remained a long time after addition of chloroquine, predominantly in the radial direction. Taken together, these findings establish strain mapping as a new tool to elucidate local dynamic mechanical events within the constricting airway and its supporting parenchyma. PMID:27559314

  16. Ring beam shaping optics fabricated with ultra-precision cutting for YAG laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwano, Ryoichi; Koga, Toshihiko; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Wakayama, Toshitaka; Otani, Yukitoshi; Fujii, Nobuyuki

    2012-03-01

    In this study, a method for generating ring intensity distribution at a refraction-type lens with an aspheric element was proposed, and the beam shaping optical element was finished using only ultra-precision cutting. The shape of the optical element and its irradiance pattern were determined from numerical calculation based on its geometrical and physical optics. An ultra-precision lathe was employed to fabricate beam shaping optical elements, and acrylic resin was used as the material. The transmittance of an optical element (a rotationally symmetrical body) with an aspheric surface fabricated using a single-crystal diamond tool was over 98%, and its surface roughness was 9.6 nm Ra. The method enabled the formation of a circular melting zone on a piece of stainless steel with a thickness of 300 μm through pulse YAG laser ( λ 1:06 μm) processing such that the average radius was 610 μm and the width was 100-200 μm. Circular processing using a ring beam shaping optical element can be realized by single-pulse beam irradiation without beam scanning.

  17. Protective effects of aged garlic extract against bromobenzene toxicity to precision cut rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Wang, B H; Zuzel, K A; Rahman, K; Billington, D

    1998-04-01

    Precision-cut liver slices from phenobarbital-treated rats were incubated for up to 8 h with the industrial solvent and hepatotoxin bromobenzene at a final concentration of 1 mM. Phenobarbital pretreatment potentiates bromobenzene hepatotoxicity by inducing those P450 isoforms responsible for the formation of the active hepatotoxin, namely bromobenzene-3,4-oxide. A reduction in cell viability was indicated by a decrease in the K+, ATP and glutathione content of the slices and the increased release of the intracellular enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase, into the medium. Furthermore, levels of lipid peroxidation as judged by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, were increased approximately 5-fold. Aged garlic extract (AGE) at concentrations of 1-5% (v/v) reduced the toxicity of bromobenzene in a concentration-dependent manner as judged by all of the parameters of viability studied, with the exception of lipid peroxidation which was reduced to control levels even at the lowest concentration of garlic extract used. AGE was found to cause partial inhibition of cytochrome P450 when assayed as both 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase and 7-pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase activities, but even the highest concentration used inhibited both activities by less than 50%. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects of AGE are due primarily to the reduced glutathione-sparing properties of its constituents, most probably its organosulphur compounds. PMID:9674969

  18. Protective Effect of Melatonin against Inequality-Induced Da mages on Testicular Tissue and Sper m Para meters

    PubMed Central

    Nasiraei-Moghadam, Shiva Nasiraei-Moghadam; Parivar, Kazem; Ahmadiani, Abolhasan; Movahhedin, Mansoureh; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The goals of the study are evaluation the effects of food deprivation and isolation situation as a social stress on fertility; and in the following, investigation of the improving effect of melatonin as an antioxidant component. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, We investigated histopathological and serological effects of melatonin and social stress (food deprivation and isolation) on different features of sperm and testicular tissue among 42 male rats in 7 groups including control, sham, melatonin received (M), food deprivation (FD), Food deprivation and melatonin treatment (FDM), Food deprivation and isolation situation (FDi), and Food deprivation and melatonin treatment and isolation situation (FDMi) groups. Epididymal sperms of all rats were also counted. Histopathological evaluation of the testes was done under a light microscopy to determine the number of spermiogenic cells. Serological evaluation of testosterone, corticosterone, and melatonin was performed, as well. For statistical analysis, oneway ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test were used, and the value of p≤0.05 was considered statistically significance. Results: The result showed that food deprivation increased the number of abnormal, immotile, and dead sperms, while decreased the number of normal sperms (p<0.05). Isolation could improve sperm motility and viability, while enhanced the number of sper- matogenic cells. Melatonin had a protective effect on sperm count, motility, and viability, while reduced sperm abnormality. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that melatonin treatment and isolation situation improve the parameters related to epididymal sperms and spermatogenic cells after food deprivation. PMID:24520501

  19. Effects of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy on testicular function in men undergoing treatment for soft tissue sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shamberger, R.C.; Sherins, R.J.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1981-05-15

    Testicular function was studied in 26 men with sarcoma who received adjuvant treatment with doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high-dose methotrexate (with or without radiotherapy). Testicular size, sperm output, and serum FSH, LH and testosterone levels were assessed after treatment. Five of 17 men who received chemotherapy or chemotherapy with radiotherapy to the neck, arm, chest or leg, had normal testicular function. Eight of the remaining 12 men who provided ejaculates were oligospermic or azoospermic and serum FSH was increased threefold and LH twofold; testosterone levels were normal. In men less than 40 years old, the mean FSH level was less than that of men over 40 years of age (P = 0.05), suggesting that recovery from the injury was age-related. By contrast, all nine men who received chemotherapy plus radiotherapy to the abdomen or thigh had decreased testicular size, azoospermia, fourfold increase in FSH, and twofold increase in LH levels; but testosterone concentration was normal. These data indicate that reversible testicular injury occurs after treatment with doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high-dose methotrexate; recovery is age-related. However, these agents in combination with use of adjuvant radiotherapy to the thigh or abdomen may produce permanent testicular injury even in young patients.

  20. Interindividual variation in response to xenobiotic exposure established in precision-cut human liver slices.

    PubMed

    Jetten, Marlon J A; Claessen, Sandra M; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Lahoz, Agustin; Castell, José V; van Delft, Joost H M; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2014-09-01

    Large differences in toxicity responses occur within the human population. In this study we evaluate whether interindividual variation in baseline enzyme activity (EA)/gene expression (GE) levels in liver predispose for the variation in toxicity responses by assessing dose-response relationships for several prototypical hepatotoxicants. Baseline levels of cytochrome-P450 (CYP) GE/EA were measured in precision-cut human liver slices. Slices (n=4-5/compound) were exposed to a dose-range of acetaminophen, aflatoxin B1, benzo(α) pyrene or 2-nitrofluorene. Interindividual variation in induced genotoxicity (COMET-assay and CDKN1A/p21 GE) and cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase-leakage), combined with NQO1- and GSTM1-induced GE-responses for oxidative stress and GE-responses of several CYPs was evaluated. The benchmark dose-approach was applied as a tool to model exposure responses on an individual level. Variation in baseline CYP levels, both GE and EA, can explain variation in compound exposure-responses on an individual level. Network analyses enable the definition of key parameters influencing interindividual variation after compound exposure. For 2-nitrofluorene, this analysis suggests involvement of CYP1B1 in the metabolism of this compound, which represents a novel finding. In this study, GSTM1 which is known to be highly polymorphic within the human population, but so far could not be linked to toxicity in acetaminophen-poisoned patients, is suggested to cause interindividual variability in acetaminophen-metabolism, dependent on the individual's gene expression-responses of CYP-enzymes. This study demonstrates that using interindividual variation within network modelling provides a source for the definition of essential and even new parameters involved in compound-related metabolism. This information might enable ways to make more quantitative estimates of human risks. PMID:24949552

  1. Ex vivo testing of immune responses in precision-cut lung slices

    SciTech Connect

    Henjakovic, M.; Sewald, K.; Switalla, S.; Kaiser, D.; Mueller, M.; Veres, T.Z.; Martin, C.; Uhlig, S.; Krug, N.; Braun, A.

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this study was the establishment of precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) as a suitable ex vivo alternative approach to animal experiments for investigation of immunomodulatory effects. For this purpose we characterized the changes of cytokine production and the expression of cell surface markers after incubation of PCLS with immunoactive substances lipopolysaccharide (LPS), macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2), interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}), and dexamethasone. Viability of PCLS from wild-type and CD11c-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (CD11-EYFP)-transgenic mice was controlled by measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity and live/dead fluorescence staining using confocal microscopy. Cytokines and chemokines were detected with Luminex technology and ELISA. Antigen presenting cell (APC) markers were investigated in living mouse PCLS in situ using confocal microscopy. LPS triggered profound pro-inflammatory effects in PCLS. Dexamethasone prevented LPS-induced production of cytokines/chemokines such as interleukin (IL)-5, IL-1{alpha}, TNF{alpha}, IL-12(p40), and RANTES in PCLS. Surface expression of MHC class II, CD40, and CD11c, but not CD86 was present in APCs of naive PCLS. Incubation with LPS enhanced specifically the expression of MHC class II on diverse cells. MALP-2 only failed to alter cytokine or chemokine levels, but was highly effective in combination with IFN{gamma} resulting in increased levels of TNF{alpha}, IL-12(p40), RANTES, and IL-1{alpha}. PCLS showed characteristic responses to typical pro-inflammatory stimuli and may thus provide a suitable ex vivo technique to predict the immunomodulatory potency of inhaled substances.

  2. The effect of antifibrotic drugs in rat precision-cut fibrotic liver slices.

    PubMed

    Westra, Inge M; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Groothuis, Geny M M; Olinga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Two important signaling pathways in liver fibrosis are the PDGF- and TGFβ pathway and compounds inhibiting these pathways are currently developed as antifibrotic drugs. Testing antifibrotic drugs requires large numbers of animal experiments with high discomfort. Therefore, a method to study these drugs ex vivo was developed using precision-cut liver slices from fibrotic rat livers (fPCLS), representing an ex vivo model with a multicellular fibrotic environment. We characterized the fibrotic process in fPCLS from rat livers after 3 weeks of bile duct ligation (BDL) during incubation and tested compounds predominantly inhibiting the TGFβ pathway (perindopril, valproic acid, rosmarinic acid, tetrandrine and pirfenidone) and PDGF pathway (imatinib, sorafenib and sunitinib). Gene expression of heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47), α smooth muscle actin (αSma) and pro-collagen 1A1 (Pcol1A1) and protein expression of collagens were determined. During 48 hours of incubation, the fibrosis process continued in control fPCLS as judged by the increased gene expression of the three fibrosis markers, and the protein expression of collagen 1, mature fibrillar collagen and total collagen. Most PDGF-inhibitors and TGFβ-inhibitors significantly inhibited the increase in gene expression of Hsp47, αSma and Pcol1A1. Protein expression of collagen 1 was significantly reduced by all PDGF-inhibitors and TGFβ-inhibitors, while total collagen was decreased by rosmarinic acid and tetrandrine only. However, fibrillar collagen expression was not changed by any of the drugs. In conclusion, rat fPCLS can be used as a functional ex vivo model of established liver fibrosis to test antifibrotic compounds inhibiting the PDGF- and TGFβ signalling pathway. PMID:24755660

  3. Testicular self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Screening - testicular cancer - self-exam; Testicular cancer - screening - self-exam ... A testicular self-exam is done to check for testicular cancer . Testicles have blood vessels and other structures that can make the exam ...

  4. Testicular failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood tests may show a low level of testosterone and high levels of prolactin, FSH , and LH . ... testes will be ordered. Testicular failure and low testosterone level may be hard to diagnose in older ...

  5. Long-Term Effect of Ciprofloxacin on Testicular Tissue: Evidence for Biochemical and Histochemical Changes

    PubMed Central

    Zobeiri, Fatemeh; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Salami, Siamak; Mardani, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Background: This research studied the effect of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) on spermatogenesis. We aimed to estimate the effect of CPFX on serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 24 mice were assigned to controlsham and test groups. We subdivided the test group into low (206 mg/kg) and high (412 mg/kg) dose CPFX groups. Control-sham animals received carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). All animals were treated orally for 45 days. Cytoplasmic carbohydrate, lipid accumulation, cytoplasmic lipase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ratios were examined. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH ) and testosterone were measured in the control and test groups Results: The spermatogenesis cell series exhibited low numbers of cells with periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-positive cytoplasm and higher numbers of cells with lipid-positive foci. The tissue to ALP ratio and germinal epithelium (GE) lipase synthesis increased in CPFX-treated animals. In contrast to the CPFX groups, control animals showed normal cytoplasmic carbohydrate, lipid, lipase and ALP ratios in all cellular layers. In the CPFX-treated groups there was a significantly lower serum testosterone level compared with the control group. The serum levels of FSH and LH in high dosetreated animals decreased. Conclusion: Our results suggest that following long time CPFX administration major alterations occur in GE intracytoplasmic biochemistry, which may lead to loss of physiological function and ultimately result in fertility problems. CPFX is able to imbalance serum levels of gonadotropins and testosterone levels by affecting Leydig cells. PMID:24520454

  6. Recovery of testicular blood flow following ligation of testicular vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Pascual, J.A.; Villanueva-Meyer, J.; Salido, E.; Ehrlich, R.M.; Mena, I.; Rajfer, J.

    1989-08-01

    To determine whether initial ligation of the testicular vessels of the high undescended testis followed by a delayed secondary orchiopexy is a viable alternative to the classical Fowler-Stephens procedure, a series of preliminary experiments were conducted in the rat in which testicular blood flow was measured by the 133-xenon washout technique before, and 1 hour and 30 days after ligation of the vessels. In addition, testicular histology, and testis and sex-accessory tissue weights were measured in 6 control, 6 sham operated and 6 testicular vessel ligated rats 54 days after vessel ligation. The data demonstrate that ligation and division of the testicular blood vessels produce an 80 per cent decrease in testicular blood flow 1 hour after ligation of the vessels. However, 30 days later testis blood flow returns to the control and pre-treatment value. There were no significant changes in testis or sex-accessory tissue weights 54 days after vessel ligation. Histologically, 4 of the surgically operated testes demonstrated necrosis of less than 25 per cent of the seminiferous tubules while 1 testis demonstrated more than 75 per cent necrosis. The rest of the tubules in all 6 testes demonstrated normal spermatogenesis. From this study we conclude that initial testicular vessel ligation produces an immediate decrease in testicular blood flow but with time the collateral vessels are able to compensate and return the testis blood flow to its normal pre-treatment value. These preliminary observations lend support for the concept that initial ligation of the testicular vessels followed by a delayed secondary orchiopexy in patients with a high undescended testis may be a possible alternative to the classical Fowler-Stephens approach.

  7. In vivo studies of cadmium-induced apoptosis in testicular tissue of the rat and its modulation by a chelating agent.

    PubMed

    Xu, C; Johnson, J E; Singh, P K; Jones, M M; Yan, H; Carter, C E

    1996-01-22

    In vivo CdCl2-induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation in the testes of the male Wistar rat has been demonstrated on agarose gel. Characteristic DNA migration patterns (laddering) provide evidence of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in testicular tissue of rats administered CdCl2 at a level of 0.03 mmol/kg 48 h previously. Evidence that administration of an appropriate cadmium chelating agent within the first 24 h can suppress some or all of the apoptotic changes in testicular DNA has also been obtained for the first time. A greater reduction in apoptosis is observed as the interval between the administration of the cadmium and that of the chelating agent is shortened. Administration of monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate (Mi-ADMS) to male Wistar rats given CdCl2 is effective in the modulation of the typically apoptotic DNA fragmentation and associated histopathologic injury when the antagonist is given within approximately 1 h after the CdCl2 exposure. When the antagonist is given at later times there is a progressively more pronounced degradation of the DNA into oligonucleotides as seen in the typical electrophoretic DNA ladder pattern found with apoptosis. There is also a progressive increase in histopathological tissue changes as the antagonist is administered at progressively greater intervals after the cadmium. PMID:8597027

  8. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. PMID:26688578

  9. An unusual case of testicular pain.

    PubMed

    MacIver, Helen; Hordon, Lesley

    2009-03-01

    We present the first case of lupus presenting with testicular pain in an Asian man. This gentleman presented with clear features of lupus with fever, joint pain, rash, diarrhoea and vomiting. He had typical serology consistent with active lupus. He also developed testicular pain and all his symptoms improved with oral steroids and azathioprine. It is therefore important to consider connective tissue disease in patients presenting with testicular pain that are systematically unwell. PMID:19067102

  10. Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  11. Simultaneous Administration of Dexamethasone and Vitamin E Reversed Experimental Varicocele-induced Impact in testicular tissue in Rats; Correlation with Hsp70-2 Chaperone Expression

    PubMed Central

    Khosravanian, Hajar; Razi, Mazdak; Farokhi, Farah; Khosravanian, Narges

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of isolated and co-administration of vitamin E (VitE) and dexamethasone (DEX) on varicocele (VCL)-induced damages in testicular tissue. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=6), including; control-sham, non-treated VCL-induced, VitE-treated VCL-induced (VitE, 150 mg/kg, orally), DEX-administrated VCL-induced (DEX, 0.125 mg/kg, i.p.), VitE+DEX-received VCL-induced animals. The antioxidant status analyses, histopathological examinations, hormonal assay and tissue levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were analyzed. The germinal epithelium RNA damage and Leydig cells steroidogenesis were analyzed. Moreover, the Hsp70-2 protein expression was examined based on immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. The sperm parameters, DNA integrity and chromatin condensation were investigated. Results: VitE and DEX in simultaneous form of administration significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated the tissue ALP level and attenuated the VCL-decreased GSH-px, SOD and TAC levels and remarkably (P<0.05) down-regulated the testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents. The VCL-induced histopathological alterations significantly (P<0.05) improved in VitE and DEX-administrated animals. The VitE and DEX co-administration reduced the VCL-increased RNA damage and elevated the Leydig cells steroidogenic activity. The Hsp70-2 protein level completely (P<0.05) increased in VitE and DEX alone–and-simultaneous-administrated animals. Finally, the VitE and DEX could significantly (P<0.05) improve the VCL-decreased semen quality and improved the sperm DNA integrity and chromatin condensation. Conclusion: Our data suggest that Vit E by up-regulating the antioxidant status and DEX by reducing inflammation-dependent oxidative and nitrosative stresses could improve the VCL-reduced Hsp70-2 chaperone expression and ultimately protected the testicular endocrine activities and promoted

  12. Cytotoxic effect of nanosilver particles on testicular tissue: Evidence for biochemical stress and Hsp70-2 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh-Reyhani, Zari; Razi, Mazdak; Malekinejad, Hassan; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali

    2015-09-01

    Lastly, there are growing evidences that nanosilver (NS) particles highly induce cytotoxic impacts in vitro and in vivo. Here, we analyzed the dose dependent effect of NS on histological changes, biochemical alterations and endocrine statuses, sperm parameters as well as chaperone Hsp70-2 expression. NS particles (50-60nm) were administrated in 3 doses of 0.5, 1 and 5mg/kg, intraperitoneally, for 35 days. The 0.3mL normal saline was administrated in control-sham group. Histological alterations, sperm parameters, serum levels of LH, FSH and testosterone were evaluated. Germinal and Leydig cells RNA damage, Leydig cells steroidogenic foci, the testicular and sperm total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels, immunohistochemical (IHC) expression and mRNA level of Hsp70-2 were analyzed. The NS, dose dependently, resulted in enhanced germinal cells degeneration, necrosis, seminiferous tubules atrophy and decreased serum levels of LH, FSH and testosterone. Elevated germinal and Leydig cells RNA damage associated with increased sperm abnormalities were observed in NS-treated groups. Expression of Hsp70-2 was up-regulated in 0.5mg/kg, while its expression was decreased in 1 and 5mg/kg NS-treated groups. Testicular and sperm TAC levels reduced. However, the MDA and NO levels significantly (P<0.05) increased in all NS-treated groups. No histological and biochemical changes were detected in control-sham group. In conclusion, the NS particles exert their pathological impact via affecting testicular antioxidant and endocrine statuses, which in turn lead to diminished expression of Hsp70-2. Ultimately, by this mechanism NS particles adversely impact the cellular RNA, DNA and protein contents. PMID:26363132

  13. Testicular self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Screening - testicular cancer - self-exam; Testicular cancer - screening - self-exam ... 2014:chap 86. National Cancer Institute: Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ). Bethesda, MD. Date last modified: July 19, ...

  14. What Is Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a microscope). Some cases are found incidentally (by accident) when a testicular biopsy is done for another ... Testicular Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Testicular Cancer Talking With ...

  15. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse. PMID:25550769

  16. Gene expression analysis of precision-cut human liver slices indicates stable expression of ADME-Tox related genes

    SciTech Connect

    Elferink, M.G.L.; Olinga, P.; van Leeuwen, E.M.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Polman, J.; Schoonen, W.G.; Heisterkamp, S.H.; Groothuis, G.M.M.

    2011-05-15

    In the process of drug development it is of high importance to test the safety of new drugs with predictive value for human toxicity. A promising approach of toxicity testing is based on shifts in gene expression profiling of the liver. Toxicity screening based on animal liver cells cannot be directly extrapolated to humans due to species differences. The aim of this study was to evaluate precision-cut human liver slices as in vitro method for the prediction of human specific toxicity by toxicogenomics. The liver slices contain all cell types of the liver in their natural architecture. This is important since drug-induced toxicity often is a multi-cellular process. Previously we showed that toxicogenomic analysis of rat liver slices is highly predictive for rat in vivo toxicity. In this study we investigated the levels of gene expression during incubation up to 24 h with Affymetrix microarray technology. The analysis was focused on a broad spectrum of genes related to stress and toxicity, and on genes encoding for phase-I, -II and -III metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Observed changes in gene expression were associated with cytoskeleton remodeling, extracellular matrix and cell adhesion, but for the ADME-Tox related genes only minor changes were observed. PCA analysis showed that changes in gene expression were not associated with age, sex or source of the human livers. Slices treated with acetaminophen showed patterns of gene expression related to its toxicity. These results indicate that precision-cut human liver slices are relatively stable during 24 h of incubation and represent a valuable model for human in vitro hepatotoxicity testing despite the human inter-individual variability.

  17. Isoform-Level Gene Expression Profiles of Human Y Chromosome Azoospermia Factor Genes and Their X Chromosome Paralogs in the Testicular Tissue of Non-Obstructive Azoospermia Patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi Rastegar, Diba; Sharifi Tabar, Mehdi; Alikhani, Mehdi; Parsamatin, Pouria; Sahraneshin Samani, Fazel; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali; Mohammad Ahadi, Ali; Mohseni Meybodi, Anahita; Piryaei, Abbas; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Gourabi, Hamid; Baharvand, Hossein; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    azoospermic men. We showed that HSFY1-1, HSFY1-3, BPY2-1, KDM5C2, RBMX2, and DAZL1 transcripts could be used as potential molecular markers to predict the presence of spermatozoa in MA patients. In this study, we have identified isoform level signature that can be used to discriminate effectively between MA, SCOS, and normal testicular tissues and suggests the possibility of diagnosing the presence of mature sperm cell in azoospermic men to prevent additional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) surgery. PMID:26162009

  18. Effect of indole-3-carbinol on ethanol-induced liver injury and acetaldehyde-stimulated hepatic stellate cells activation using precision-cut rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Zhang-Xiu; Wu, Yong; Xia, Zheng-Yuan; Wang, Hui

    2010-12-01

    1. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a major indole compound found in high levels in cruciferous vegetables, shows a broad spectrum of biological activities. However, few studies have reported the effect of I3C on alcoholic liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of I3C on acute ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and acetaldehyde-stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) activation using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS). 2. Rat PCLS were incubated with 50 mmol/L ethanol or 350 μmol/L acetaldehyde, and different concentrations (100-400 μmol/L) of I3C were added into the culture system of these two liver injury models, respectively. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring enzyme leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in tissue. Activities of alcoholic enzymes were also determined. α-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor (TGF-β(1) ) and hydroxyproline (HYP) were used as indices to evaluate the activation of HSC. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) were observed to estimate collagen degradation. 3. I3C significantly reduced the enzyme leakage in ethanol-treated slices. In I3C groups, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 activities were inhibited by 40.9-51.8%, whereas alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was enhanced 1.6-fold compared with the ethanol-treated group. I3C also showed an inhibitory effect against HSC activation and collagen production stimulated by acetaldehyde. After being incubated with I3C (400 μmol/L), the expression of MMP-1 was markedly enhanced, whereas TIMP-1 was decreased. 4. These results showed that I3C protected PCLS against alcoholic liver injury, which might be associated with the regulation of ethanol metabolic enzymes, attenuation of oxidative injury and acceleration of collagen degradation. PMID:20880187

  19. Testicular biopsy in psittacine birds (Psittaciformes): impact of endoscopy and biopsy on health, testicular morphology, and sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Hänse, Maria; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Reitemeier, Susanne; Einspanier, Almuth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Histologic examination of a testicular biopsy sample may be required to evaluate the reproductive status of male psittacine birds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability of testicular sampling from live birds by assessing the impact on the birds' health, testicular integrity, and sperm quality. Testicular biopsy samples were obtained by endoscopy 4 times during 12 months from 9 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and 7 rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri). Only 2 of 16 birds showed testicular cicatrization or divided testicular tissue after a single endoscopy. Further complications, such as damage to the air sacs or bleeding, predominantly occurred in subsequent endoscopies. In both species, endoscopy and testicular biopsy caused only minor or transient effects on sperm production and sperm quality. These results support that a single testicular biopsy is a viable method for evaluating the reproductive status of male psittacine birds. PMID:24640926

  20. Cardiopulmonary toxicity of peat wildfire particulate matter and the predictive utility of precision cut lung slices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    collected during a peat fire causes greater lung inflammation in association with endotoxin and ROS, whereas the ultrafine PM preferentially affected cardiac responses. In addition, lung tissue slices were shown to be a predictive, alternative assay to assess pro-inflammatory effects of PM of differing size and composition. Importantly, these toxicological findings were consistent with the cardiopulmonary health effects noted in epidemiologic reports from exposed populations. PMID:24934158

  1. Effect of dietary restriction on sperm characteristic and oxidative status on testicular tissue in young rats exposed to long-term heat stress.

    PubMed

    Aydilek, N; Varisli, O; Kocyigit, A; Taskin, A; Kaya, M S

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary restriction on oxidative status and sperm parameters in rats exposed to long-term heat stress. Forty healthy Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 2.5 month, were divided into four groups of 10 with respect to feeding and temperature regimen (room temperature (22 °C)-ad libitum, room temperature-dietary restriction (40%), high temperature (38 °C)-ad libitum, high temperature-dietary restriction). At the end of the 9th week, some oxidants (lipid hydroperoxide, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index) and antioxidants (total antioxidant status, sulfhydryl groups, ceruloplasmin, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities) were measured in the testis tissue. The concentration, motility, volume, abnormal sperm count, acrosome and membrane integrity of epididymal spermatozoon and intratesticular testosterone levels were evaluated. High temperature did not change oxidative and antioxidative parameters except for sulfhydryl groups and ceruloplasmin, yet it impaired all sperm values. Neither sperm values nor oxidative status apart from sulfhydryl groups, ceruloplasmin and arylesterase was affected by dietary restriction in the testis tissue. These results suggest that long-term heat stress does not have a significant effect on testicular oxidative status, while the spermatozoa are sensitive to heat stress in young rats. Dietary restriction failed to improve the sperm quality and oxidative status except some individual antioxidant parameters; conversely, it decreased intratesticular testosterone level in the young rats exposed to long-term heat stress. PMID:25418546

  2. Precision-cut liver slices as a model for the early onset of liver fibrosis to test antifibrotic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Westra, Inge M.; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Groothuis, Geny M.M.; Olinga, Peter

    2014-01-15

    Induction of fibrosis during prolonged culture of precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) was reported. In this study, the use of rat PCLS was investigated to further characterize the mechanism of early onset of fibrosis in this model and the effects of antifibrotic compounds. Rat PCLS were incubated for 48 h, viability was assessed by ATP and gene expression of PDGF-B and TGF-β1 and the fibrosis markers Hsp47, αSma and Pcol1A1 and collagen1 protein expressions were determined. The effects of the antifibrotic drugs imatinib, sorafenib and sunitinib, PDGF-pathway inhibitors, and perindopril, valproic acid, rosmarinic acid, tetrandrine and pirfenidone, TGFβ-pathway inhibitors, were determined. After 48 h of incubation, viability of the PCLS was maintained and gene expression of PDGF-B was increased while TGF-β1 was not changed. Hsp47, αSma and Pcol1A1 gene expressions were significantly elevated in PCLS after 48 h, which was further increased by PDGF-BB and TGF-β1. The increased gene expression of fibrosis markers was inhibited by all three PDGF-inhibitors, while TGFβ-inhibitors showed marginal effects. The protein expression of collagen 1 was inhibited by imatinib, perindopril, tetrandrine and pirfenidone. In conclusion, the increased gene expression of PDGF-B and the down-regulation of fibrosis markers by PDGF-pathway inhibitors, together with the absence of elevated TGF-β1 gene expression and the limited effect of the TGFβ-pathway inhibitors, indicated the predominance of the PDGF pathway in the early onset of fibrosis in PCLS. PCLS appear a useful model for research of the early onset of fibrosis and for testing of antifibrotic drugs acting on the PDGF pathway. - Highlights: • During culture, fibrosis markers increased in precision-cut liver slices (PCLS). • Gene expression of PDGF-β was increased, while TGFβ was not changed in rat PCLS. • PDGF-pathway inhibitors down-regulated this increase of fibrosis markers. • TGFβ-pathway inhibitors had only

  3. Single and mixture effects of aquatic micropollutants studied in precision-cut liver slices of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Bizarro, Cristina; Eide, Marta; Hitchcock, Daniel J; Goksøyr, Anders; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren

    2016-08-01

    The low concentrations of most contaminants in the aquatic environment individually may not affect the normal function of the organisms on their own. However, when combined, complex mixtures may provoke unexpected effects even at low amounts. Selected aquatic micropollutants such as chlorpyrifos, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were tested singly and in mixtures at nM to μM concentrations using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Fish liver is a target organ for contaminants due to its crucial role in detoxification processes. In order to understand the effects on distinct key liver metabolic pathways, transcription levels of various genes were measured, including cyp1a1 and cyp3a, involved in the metabolism of organic compounds, including toxic ones, and the catabolism of bile acids and steroid hormones; cyp7a1, fabp and hmg-CoA, involved in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis; cyp24a1, involved in vitamin D metabolism; and vtg, a key gene in xenoestrogenic response. Only EE2 had significant effects on gene expression in cod liver slices when exposed singly at the concentrations tested. However, when exposed in combinations, effects not detected in single exposure conditions arose, suggesting complex interactions between studied pollutants that could not be predicted from the results of individual exposure scenarios. Thus, the present work highlights the importance of assessing mixtures when describing the toxic effects of micropollutants to fish liver metabolism. PMID:27388235

  4. Precision cut intestinal slices are an appropriate ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A M; van der Bij, Hendrik A; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2014-10-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used therapeutic agents, however, they are associated with a high prevalence of intestinal side effects. In this investigation, rat precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS) were evaluated as an ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity. Firstly, PCIS were incubated with 0-200 μM diclofenac (DCF), one of the most intensively studied NSAIDs, to investigate whether they could correctly reflect the toxic mechanisms. DCF induced intestinal toxicity in PCIS was shown by morphological damage and ATP depletion. DCF induced endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress, mitochondrial injury and oxidative stress were reflected by up-regulated HSP-70 (heat shock protein 70) and BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein) gene expression, caspase 9 activation, GSH (glutathione) depletion and HO-1 (heme oxygenase 1) gene up-regulation respectively. Furthermore, DCF intestinal metabolites, which gave rise to protein adduct but not toxicity, were detected in PCIS. Secondly, PCIS were incubated with various concentrations of five NSAIDs. Typical NSAID-induced morphological changes were observed in PCIS. The ex vivo toxicity ranking (diflunisal> diclofenac = indomethacin > naproxen ≫ aspirin) showed good correlation with published in vitro and in vivo data, with diflunisal being the only exception. In conclusion, PCIS correctly reflect the various mechanisms of DCF-induced intestinal toxicity, and can serve as an ex vivo model for the prediction of NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity. PMID:25014874

  5. Precision-cut liver slices to investigate responsiveness of deep-sea fish to contaminants at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Stegeman, John; Mork, Jarle; Rees, Jean François

    2012-09-18

    While deep-sea fish accumulate high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the toxicity associated with this contamination remains unknown. Indeed, the recurrent collection of moribund individuals precludes experimental studies to investigate POP effects in this fauna. We show that precision-cut liver slices (PCLS), an in vitro tool commonly used in human and rodent toxicology, can overcome such limitation. This technology was applied to individuals of the deep-sea grenadier Coryphaenoides rupestris directly upon retrieval from 530-m depth in Trondheimsfjord (Norway). PCLS remained viable and functional for 15 h when maintained in an appropriate culture media at 4 °C. This allowed experimental exposure of liver slices to the model POP 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC; 25 μM) at levels of hydrostatic pressure mimicking shallow (0.1 megapascal or MPa) and deep-sea (5-15 MPa; representative of 500-1500 m depth) environments. As in shallow water fish, 3-MC induced the transcription of the detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A; a biomarker of exposure to POPs). This induction was diminished at elevated pressure, suggesting a limited responsiveness of C. rupestris toward POPs in its native environment. This very first in vitro toxicological investigation on a deep-sea fish opens the route for understanding pollutants effects in this highly exposed fauna. PMID:22900608

  6. Murine precision-cut lung slices exhibit acute responses following exposure to gasoline direct injection engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Maikawa, Caitlin L; Zimmerman, Naomi; Rais, Khaled; Shah, Mittal; Hawley, Brie; Pant, Pallavi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Volckens, John; Evans, Greg; Wallace, James S; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J

    2016-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are increasingly prevalent in the global vehicle fleet. Particulate matter emissions from GDI engines are elevated compared to conventional gasoline engines. The pulmonary effects of these higher particulate emissions are unclear. This study investigated the pulmonary responses induced by GDI engine exhaust using an ex vivo model. The physiochemical properties of GDI engine exhaust were assessed. Precision cut lung slices were prepared using Balb/c mice to evaluate the pulmonary response induced by one-hour exposure to engine-out exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to vehicle highway cruise conditions. Lung slices were exposed at an air-liquid interface using an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system. Particulate and gaseous exhaust was fractionated to contrast mRNA production related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism and oxidative stress. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust upregulated genes involved in PAH metabolism, including Cyp1a1 (2.71, SE=0.22), and Cyp1b1 (3.24, SE=0.12) compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05). GDI engine exhaust further increased Cyp1b1 expression compared to filtered GDI engine exhaust (i.e., gas fraction only), suggesting this response was associated with the particulate fraction. Exhaust particulate was dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. Hmox1, an oxidative stress marker, exhibited increased expression after exposure to GDI (1.63, SE=0.03) and filtered GDI (1.55, SE=0.04) engine exhaust compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05), likely attributable to a combination of the gas and particulate fractions. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust contributes to upregulation of genes related to the metabolism of PAHs and oxidative stress. PMID:27369091

  7. Testicular Torsion (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON THIS TOPIC Hernias Ultrasound: Scrotum Undescended Testicles Male Reproductive System PQ: I have a lump on one of ... How to Perform a Testicular Self-Examination Varicocele Male Reproductive System Testicular Torsion Contact Us Print Resources Send to ...

  8. Epidemiology of prolonged testicular infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Givens, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Walz, Paul H; Gard, Julie A; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia K; Brodersen, Bruce W; Carson, Robert L; Stringfellow, David A

    2009-10-20

    Previously, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) had been found in prolonged testicular infections following acute infection of immunocompetent bulls. The primary purpose of this research was to evaluate the production and maintenance of prolonged testicular infections after exposure to BVDV of seronegative bulls in varying circumstances. The secondary objective was to initiate assessment of the potential for transmission of BVDV via semen of bulls exhibiting a prolonged testicular infection. In total, 10 research trials were conducted. The first trial examined the duration of detectable virus in semen after intranasal inoculation of peri-pubertal bulls. The second to fifth trials examined the potential for prolonged testicular infections resulting from natural exposure of seronegative bulls to persistently infected heifers. In the last five trials, the potential for viral transmission from bulls exhibiting prolonged testicular infections to a small number of exposed animals (n=28) was evaluated. Results of this research demonstrated that prolonged testicular infections could result in detection of viral RNA in semen for 2.75 years with infectious virus grown from testicular tissue 12.5 months after viral exposure. A type 1b strain of BVDV caused prolonged testicular infection after natural exposure of seronegative bulls to a persistently infected heifer. However, transmission of BVDV to susceptible animals was not detected in the final five trials of this research. In conclusion, BVDV can persist in testicular tissue after acute infection for several years, but the potential for viral transmission from these prolonged testicular infections appears to be low. PMID:19473788

  9. Mouse precision-cut liver slices as an ex vivo model to study idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Mackenzie; Chen, Yixi; Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Merema, Marjolijn T; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2012-09-17

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) has been the top reason for withdrawing drugs from the market or for black box warnings. IDILI may arise from the interaction of a drug's reactive metabolite with a mild inflammation that renders the liver more sensitive to injury resulting in increased toxicity (inflammatory stress hypothesis). Aiming to develop a robust ex vivo screening method to study inflammatory stress-related IDILI mechanisms and to find biomarkers that can detect or predict IDILI, mouse precision-cut liver slices (mPCLS) were coincubated for 24 h with IDILI-related drugs and lipopolysaccharide. Lipopolysaccharide exacerbated ketoconazole (15 μM) and clozapine (45 μM) toxicity but not their non-IDILI-related comparators, voriconazole (1500 μM) and olanzapine (45 μM). However, the other IDILI-related drugs tested [diclofenac (200 μM), carbamazepine (400 μM), and troglitazone (30 μM)] did not cause synergistic toxicity with lipopolysaccharide after 24 h of incubation. Lipopolysaccharide further decreased the reduced glutathione levels caused by ketoconazole or clozapine in mPCLS after 24 h of incubation, which was not the case for the other drugs. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased nitric oxide (NO), cytokine, and chemokine release into the mPCLS media, while the treatment with the drugs alone did not cause any substantial change. All seven drugs drastically reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production. Interestingly, only ketoconazole and clozapine increased the lipopolysaccharide-induced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) release. Pilot experiments showed that diclofenac and troglitazone, but not carbamazepine, demonstrated synergistic toxicity with lipopolysaccharide after a longer incubation of 48 h in mPCLS. In conclusion, we have developed an ex vivo model to detect inflammatory stress-related liver toxicity and identified ketoconazole, clozapine

  10. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer This page lists cancer ... in testicular cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer Blenoxane (Bleomycin) Bleomycin Cisplatin ...

  11. Testicular Seminoma With Pseudocyst and Coagulation Necrosis Like Burned-out Tumor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hoshii, Tatsuhiko; Hasegawa, Go; Ikeda, Yohei; Nishiyama, Tsutomu

    2016-07-01

    Testicular seminoma is a relatively common testicular cancer; however, testicular seminoma with pseudocyst is an extremely rare. The 'burned-out' phenomenon in germ cell tumors refers to a germ cell tumor in extra-gonadal tissues with spontaneous regression of an intra-gonadal tumor. We present a case of the testicular seminoma with pseudocyst and coagulation necrosis like burned-out tumor without metastasis. PMID:27335779

  12. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed. PMID:26216827

  13. Testicular Niche Required for Human Spermatogonial Stem Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James F.; Yango, Pamela; Altman, Eran; Choudhry, Shweta; Poelzl, Andrea; Zamah, Alberuni M.; Rosen, Mitchell; Klatsky, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Prepubertal boys treated with high-dose chemotherapy do not have an established means of fertility preservation because no established in vitro technique exists to expand and mature purified spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) to functional sperm in humans. In this study, we define and characterize the unique testicular cellular niche required for SSC expansion using testicular tissues from men with normal spermatogenesis. Highly purified SSCs and testicular somatic cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting using SSEA-4 and THY1 as markers of SSCs and somatic cells. Cells were cultured on various established niches to assess their role in SSC expansion in a defined somatic cellular niche. Of all the niches examined, cells in the SSEA-4 population exclusively bound to adult testicular stromal cells, established colonies, and expanded. Further characterization of these testicular stromal cells revealed distinct mesenchymal markers and the ability to undergo differentiation along the mesenchymal lineage, supporting a testicular multipotent stromal cell origin. In vitro human SSC expansion requires a unique niche provided exclusively by testicular multipotent stromal cells with mesenchymal properties. These findings provide an important foundation for developing methods of inducing SSC growth and maturation in prepubertal testicular tissue, essential to enabling fertility preservation for these boys. PMID:25038247

  14. Primary Paratesticular Lymphoma with Testicular Sparing: Account of an Unusual Scrotal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Ranjini; Ray, Satadru

    2016-01-01

    Tumours of the testicular adnexa include a heterogeous group of mesothelial, mesenchymal and germ cell tumours. Adenomatoid tumour, pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations and rhabdomyosarcoma are the more frequently encountered neoplasms. Lymphoma/leukemic infiltration secondary to testicular involvement or primary tumour elsewhere is not unusual. However, Primary Para-Testicular Lymphoma (PPTL) involving spermatic cord and/or epididymis with sparing of the testicular parenchyma is extremely rare. Accurate staging and typing is crucial for effective management. We present a rare case of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the left paratesticular tissue with testicular sparing in a young immunocompetant male patient. PMID:27134882

  15. Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... testicular cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes testicular cancer? The exact cause of most testicular cancers is ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Testicular Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and ...

  16. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemo is an effective way to destroy any cancer cells that break off from the main tumor and travel to lymph nodes or distant organs. Chemo is often used to cure testicular cancer when it has spread outside the ...

  17. Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Because testicular cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in young men, it is important that they become informed about it. This paper reviews the pathology and epidemiology of testicular cancer, the technique of testicular self-examination, and some suggestions for teaching about this subject. (Authors/JMK)

  18. Testicular calculus: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Volkan; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demir, Omer; Tuna, Burcin; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Esen, Adil

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Testicular calculus is an extremely rare case with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. To our knowledge, here we report the third case of testicular calculus. A 31-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with painful solid mass in left testis. After diagnostic work-up for a possible testicular tumour, he underwent inguinal orchiectomy and histopathologic examination showed a testicular calculus. Case hypothesis: Solid testicular lesions in young adults generally correspond to testicular cancer. Differential diagnosis should be done carefully. Future implications: In young adults with painful and solid testicular mass with hyperechogenic appearance on scrotal ultrasonography, testicular calculus must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. Further reports on this topic may let us do more clear recommendations about the etiology and treatment of this rare disease. PMID:26200556

  19. Lack of effect of furfural on unscheduled DNA synthesis in the in vivo rat and mouse hepatocyte DNA repair assays and in precision-cut human liver slices.

    PubMed

    Lake, B G; Edwards, A J; Price, R J; Phillips, B J; Renwick, A B; Beamand, J A; Adams, T B

    2001-10-01

    The ability of furfural to induce unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in hepatocytes of male and female B6C3F(1) mice and male F344 rats after in vivo administration and in vitro in precision-cut human liver slices has been studied. Preliminary toxicity studies established the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of furfural to be 320 and 50 mg/kg in the mouse and rat, respectively. Furfural was dosed by gavage at levels of 0 (control), 50, 175 and 320 mg/kg to male and female mice and 0, 5, 16.7 and 50 mg/kg to male rats. Hepatocytes were isolated by liver perfusion either 2-4 h or 12-16 h after treatment, cultured in medium containing [3H]thymidine for 4 h and assessed for UDS by grain counting of autoradiographs. Furfural treatment did not produce any statistically significant increase or any dose-related effects on UDS in mouse and rat hepatocytes either 2-4 h or 12-16 h after dosing. In contrast, UDS was markedly induced in mice and rats 2-4 h after treatment with 20 mg/kg dimethylnitrosamine and 12-16 h after treatment of mice and rats with 200 mg/kg o-aminoazotoluene and 50 mg/kg 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), respectively. Precision-cut human liver slices from four donors were cultured for 24 h in medium containing [3H]thymidine and 0-10 mM furfural. Small increases in the net grain count (i.e. nuclear grain count less mean cytoplasmic grain count) observed with 2-10 mM furfural were not due to any increase in the nuclear grain count. Rather, it was the result of concentration-dependent decreases in the mean cytoplasmic grain counts and to a lesser extent in nuclear grain counts, due to furfural-induced cytotoxicity. In contrast, marked increases in UDS (both net grain and nuclear grain counts) were observed in human liver slices treated with 0.02 and 0.05 mM 2-AAF, 0.002 and 0.02 mM aflatoxin B(1) and 0.005 and 0.05 mM 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. This study demonstrates that furfural does not induce UDS in the hepatocytes of male and female B6C3F

  20. Comparison of Protamine 1 to Protamine 2 mRNA Ratio and YBX2 gene mRNA Content in Testicular Tissue of Fertile and Azoospermic Men

    PubMed Central

    Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Najafipour, Reza; Hashjin, Amir Samimi

    2015-01-01

    Background Although aberrant protamine (PRM) ratios have been observed in infertile men, the mechanisms that implicit the uncoupling of PRM1 and PRM2 expression remain unclear. To uncover these mechanisms, in this observational study we have compared the PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio and mRNA contents of two regulatory factors of these genes. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, sampling was performed by a multi-step method from 50 non-obstructive azoospermic and 12 normal men. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT- QPCR) was used to analyze the PRM1, PRM2, Y box binding protein 2 (YBX2) and JmjC-containing histone demethylase 2a (JHDM2A) genes in testicular biopsies of the studied samples. Results The PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio differed significantly among studied groups, namely 0.21 ± 0.13 in azoospermic samples and -0.8 ± 0.22 in fertile samples. The amount of PRM2 mRNA, significantly reduced in azoospermic patients. Azoospermic men exhibited significant under expression of YBX2 gene compared to controls (P<0.001). mRNA content of this gene showed a positive correlation with PRM mRNA ratio (R=0.6, P=0.007). JHDM2A gene expression ratio did not show any significant difference between the studied groups (P=0.3). We also observed no correlation between JHDM2A mRNA content and the PRM mRNA ratio (R=0.2, P=0.3). Conclusion We found significant correlation between the aberrant PRM ratio (PRM2 under expression) and lower YBX2 mRNA content in testicular biopsies of azoospermic men compared to controls, which suggested that downregulation of the YBX2 gene might be involved in PRM2 under expression. These molecules could be useful biomarkers for predicting male infertility. PMID:26644857

  1. Dynamic Virus-Bacterium Interactions in a Porcine Precision-Cut Lung Slice Coinfection Model: Swine Influenza Virus Paves the Way for Streptococcus suis Infection in a Two-Step Process

    PubMed Central

    Meng, F.; Wu, N. H.; Nerlich, A.; Herrler, G.; Seitz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens of the respiratory tract in pigs, with both being associated with pneumonia. The interactions of both pathogens and their contribution to copathogenesis are only poorly understood. In the present study, we established a porcine precision-cut lung slice (PCLS) coinfection model and analyzed the effects of a primary SIV infection on secondary infection by S. suis at different time points. We found that SIV promoted adherence, colonization, and invasion of S. suis in a two-step process. First, in the initial stages, these effects were dependent on bacterial encapsulation, as shown by selective adherence of encapsulated, but not unencapsulated, S. suis to SIV-infected cells. Second, at a later stage of infection, SIV promoted S. suis adherence and invasion of deeper tissues by damaging ciliated epithelial cells. This effect was seen with a highly virulent SIV subtype H3N2 strain but not with a low-virulence subtype H1N1 strain, and it was independent of the bacterial capsule, since an unencapsulated S. suis mutant behaved in a way similar to that of the encapsulated wild-type strain. In conclusion, the PCLS coinfection model established here revealed novel insights into the dynamic interactions between SIV and S. suis during infection of the respiratory tract. It showed that at least two different mechanisms contribute to the beneficial effects of SIV for S. suis, including capsule-mediated bacterial attachment to SIV-infected cells and capsule-independent effects involving virus-mediated damage of ciliated epithelial cells. PMID:25916988

  2. Germ cell quantitation in human testicular biopsy.

    PubMed

    Sinha Hikim, A P; Chakraborty, J; Jhunjhunwala, J S

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of human seminiferous epithelium was carried out using an improved method of glutaraldehyde and osmium fixation with plastic embedding. Part of each biopsy specimen was fixed in Bouin's fixative and embedded in paraffin for comparison. Epon embedded tissue had very little artifactual damage compared with paraffin embedded tissue sections. The germ cell to Sertoli cell ratios were determined by counting the various germ cells per "unit" tubular area. Data obtained by this method reflect a remarkable stability of Sertoli cell number and germ cell-Sertoli cell ratios both between biopsies from different individuals and between biopsies from right and left testes from the same individual. Agreement between the present results and those of earlier studies based on paraffin embedded testicular specimens supports the validity of this method of germ cell quantitation of human testicular biopsy samples. PMID:3927550

  3. Caffeine inhibits TGFβ activation in epithelial cells, interrupts fibroblast responses to TGFβ, and reduces established fibrosis in ex vivo precision-cut lung slices.

    PubMed

    Tatler, Amanda L; Barnes, Josephine; Habgood, Anthony; Goodwin, Amanda; McAnulty, Robin J; Jenkins, Gisli

    2016-06-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used food additive found naturally in many products. In addition to potently stimulating the central nervous system caffeine is able to affect various systems within the body including the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Importantly, caffeine is used clinically to treat apnoea and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies. Recently, caffeine has been shown to exhibit antifibrotic effects in the liver in part through reducing collagen expression and deposition, and reducing expression of the profibrotic cytokine TGFβ. The potential antifibrotic effects of caffeine in the lung have not previously been investigated. Using a combined in vitro and ex vivo approach we have demonstrated that caffeine can act as an antifibrotic agent in the lung by acting on two distinct cell types, namely epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Caffeine inhibited TGFβ activation by lung epithelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner but had no effect on TGFβ activation in fibroblasts. Importantly, however, caffeine abrogated profibrotic responses to TGFβ in lung fibroblasts. It inhibited basal expression of the α-smooth muscle actin gene and reduced TGFβ-induced increases in profibrotic genes. Finally, caffeine reduced established bleomycin-induced fibrosis after 5 days treatment in an ex vivo precision-cut lung slice model. Together, these findings suggest that there is merit in further investigating the potential use of caffeine, or its analogues, as antifibrotic agents in the lung. PMID:26911575

  4. Caffeine inhibits TGFβ activation in epithelial cells, interrupts fibroblast responses to TGFβ, and reduces established fibrosis in ex vivo precision-cut lung slices

    PubMed Central

    Tatler, Amanda L; Barnes, Josephine; Habgood, Anthony; Goodwin, Amanda; McAnulty, Robin J; Jenkins, Gisli

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used food additive found naturally in many products. In addition to potently stimulating the central nervous system caffeine is able to affect various systems within the body including the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Importantly, caffeine is used clinically to treat apnoea and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies. Recently, caffeine has been shown to exhibit antifibrotic effects in the liver in part through reducing collagen expression and deposition, and reducing expression of the profibrotic cytokine TGFβ. The potential antifibrotic effects of caffeine in the lung have not previously been investigated. Using a combined in vitro and ex vivo approach we have demonstrated that caffeine can act as an antifibrotic agent in the lung by acting on two distinct cell types, namely epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Caffeine inhibited TGFβ activation by lung epithelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner but had no effect on TGFβ activation in fibroblasts. Importantly, however, caffeine abrogated profibrotic responses to TGFβ in lung fibroblasts. It inhibited basal expression of the α-smooth muscle actin gene and reduced TGFβ-induced increases in profibrotic genes. Finally, caffeine reduced established bleomycin-induced fibrosis after 5 days treatment in an ex vivo precision-cut lung slice model. Together, these findings suggest that there is merit in further investigating the potential use of caffeine, or its analogues, as antifibrotic agents in the lung. PMID:26911575

  5. Testicular germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; McGlynn, Katherine A; Okamoto, Keisei; Jewett, Michael A S; Bokemeyer, Carsten

    2016-04-23

    Testicular germ cell tumours are at the crossroads of developmental and neoplastic processes. Their cause has not been fully elucidated but differences in incidences suggest that a combination of genetic and environment factors are involved, with environmental factors predominating early in life. Substantial progress has been made in understanding genetic susceptibility in the past 5 years on the basis of the results of large genome-wide association studies. Testicular germ cell tumours are highly sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and hence have among the best outcomes of all tumours. Because the tumours occur mainly in young men, preservation of reproductive function, quality of life after treatment, and late effects are crucial concerns. In this Seminar, we provide an overview of advances in the understanding of the epidemiology, genetics, and biology of testicular germ cell tumours. We also summarise the consensus on how to treat testicular germ cell tumours and focus on a few controversies and improvements in the understanding of late effects of treatment and quality of life for survivors. PMID:26651223

  6. Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... staged? Testicular cancer survival rates Previous Topic Can testicular cancer be prevented? Next Topic Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer ... 2016 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Testicular ... Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Testicular Cancer ...

  7. Methylation similarities of two CpG sites within exon 5 of human H19 between normal tissues and testicular germ cell tumours of adolescents and adults, without correlation with allelic and total level of expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, A. J.; Verkerk, A. J.; Dekker, M. C.; van Gurp, R. J.; Oosterhuis, J. W.; Looijenga, L. H.

    1997-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of adolescents and adults morphologically mimic different stages of embryogenesis. Established cell lines of these cancers are used as informative models to study early development. We found that, in contrast to normal development, TGCTs show a consistent biallelic expression of imprinted genes, including H19, irrespective of histology. Methylation of particular cytosine residues of H19 correlates with inhibition of expression, which has not been studied in TGCTs thus far. We investigated the methylation status of two CpG sites within the 3' region of H19 (exon 5: positions 3321 and 3324) both in normal tissues as well as in TGCTs. To obtain quantitative data of these specific sites, the ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction technique, instead of Southern blot analysis, was applied. The results were compared with the allelic status and the total level of expression of this gene. Additionally, the undifferentiated cells and differentiated derivatives of the TGCT-derived cell line NT2-D1 were analysed. While peripheral blood showed no H19 expression and complete methylation, a heterogeneous but consistent pattern of methylation and level of expression was found in the other normal tissues, without a correlation between the two. The separate histological entities of TGCTs resembled the pattern of their nonmalignant tissues. While the CpG sites remained completely methylated in NT2-D1, H19 expression was induced upon differentiation. These data indicate that methylation of the CpG sites within exon 5 of H19 is tissue dependent, without regulating allelic status and/or total level of expression. Of special note is the finding that, also regarding methylation of these particular sites of H19, TGCTs mimic their non-malignant counterparts, in spite of their consistent biallelic expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9310237

  8. Nursing supports neonatal porcine testicular development.

    PubMed

    Rahman, K M; Lovich, J E; Lam, C; Camp, M E; Wiley, A A; Bartol, F F; Bagnell, C A

    2014-07-01

    The lactocrine hypothesis suggests a mechanism whereby milk-borne bioactive factors delivered to nursing offspring affect development of neonatal tissues. The objective of this study was to assess whether nursing affects testicular development in neonatal boars as reflected by: (1) Sertoli cell number and proliferation measured by GATA-4 expression and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining patterns; (2) Leydig cell development and steroidogenic activity as reflected by insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), and P450 side chain cleavage (scc) enzyme expression; and (3) expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, and relaxin family peptide receptor (RXFP) 1. At birth, boars were randomly assigned (n = 6-7/group) to nurse ad libitum or to be pan fed porcine milk replacer for 48 h. Testes were collected from boars at birth, before nursing and from nursed and replacer-fed boars at 50 h on postnatal day (PND) 2. Sertoli cell proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index increased (P < 0.01) from birth to PND 2 in nursed, but not in replacer-fed boars. Sertoli cell number and testicular GATA-4 protein levels increased (P < 0.01) from PND 0 to PND 2 only in nursed boars. Neither age nor nursing affected testicular INSL3, P450scc, ESR1, or VEGFA levels. However, testicular relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) levels increased (P < 0.01) with age and were greater in replacer-fed boars on PND 2. Results suggest that nursing supports neonatal porcine testicular development and provide additional evidence for the importance of lactocrine signaling in pigs. PMID:24906933

  9. A Study of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Induced Liver Injury in Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) Using Precision-Cut Liver Slices.

    PubMed

    Du, Jin-Liang; Cao, Li-Ping; Liu, Ying-Juan; Jia, Rui; Yin, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a model for the study of liver injury induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Jian carp using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS). PCLS were treated with TCDD at concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 μg/L for 6 h, followed by collection of the culture supernatant and PCLS for analysis. Several biochemical indices were analyzed, including glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Expression of mRNA was also estimated for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), aryl hydrocarbon receptor2 (AhR2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator2 (ARNT2). Results showed that some significant effects (p < 0.05) in MDA, GSH-Px and PCLS viability were observed at a TCDD concentration as low as 0.05 µg/L, and the observed effects increased with exposure concentration. Following exposure to TCDD for 6 h at a concentration of 0.3 μg/L, significant increases (p < 0.01) in the content of GPT, GOT, MDA, and LDH were observed, while SOD activity, GSH-Px activity, and PCLS viability were decreased (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). Exposure to 0.3 μg/L TCDD also resulted in increased expression of mRNA for CYP1A, AhR2, and ARNT2. Overall, these results provide evidence of TCDD-induced liver injury and oxidative stress in Jian carp. These results also support the use of PCLS as an in vitro model for the evaluation of hepatotoxicity in Jian carp. PMID:26508429

  10. Transverse testicular ectopia.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Abdullah; Yiğiter, Murat; Oral, Akgün; Bakan, Vedat

    2014-02-01

    Described herein are six cases of transverse testicular ectopia. All patients who underwent orchidopexy at the one pediatric surgical unit between October 2001 and January 2008 were evaluated. The medical records of all patients diagnosed with transverse testicular ectopia were evaluated retrospectively. Five patients (84%) were admitted with a symptomatic right inguinal hernia and empty scrotum on the left side. Only one child (16%) had left-sided hernia and right non-palpable testis (age ranged from 1 month to 3 years). Four patients (66%) were diagnosed in the operating theatre and the last two (33%) on inguinal ultrasound preoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging was also performed in the last patient. Herniorrhaphy with fixation of the ectopic gonad to the opposite hemiscrotum through a transseptal incision was performed in all patients. Postoperative complications were not observed. PMID:24548194

  11. Testicular neoplasm diagnosed by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Senay, B A; Stein, B S

    1986-06-01

    The diagnosis of testicular cancer is usually made by the findings of a testicular mass on physical examination. In rare cases a young man will present with retroperitoneal nodes and a normal testicular examination. In such cases a testicular ultrasound may localize the testis which harbors a subclinical neoplasm. In addition serum markers of B-HCG and AFP are essential. As a screening procedure a urine pregnancy test is helpful, since it can be obtained quickly while quantitative B-HCG and APF results are delayed. PMID:3523046

  12. Data required for testicular dose calculation during radiotherapy of seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Kokona, Georgiana; Varveris, Haralambos; Damilakis, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to provide the required data for the direct calculation of testicular dose resulting from radiotherapy in patients with seminoma. Paraortic (PA) treatment fields and dog-leg (DL) portals including paraortic and ipsilateral pelvic nodes were simulated on a male anthropomorphic phantom equipped with an artificial testicle. Anterior and posterior irradiations were performed for five different PA and DL field dimensions. Dose measurements were carried out using a calibrated ionization chamber. The dependence of testicular dose upon the distance separating the testicle from the treatment volume and upon the tissue thickness at the entrance point of the beam was investigated. A clamshell lead shield was used to reduce testicular dose. The scattered dose to testicle was measured in nine patients using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Phantom and patient exposures were generated with a 6 MV x-ray beam. Linear and nonlinear regression analysis was employed to obtain formulas describing the relation between the radiation dose to an unshielded and/or shielded testicle with the field size and the distance from the inferior field edge. Correction factors showing the variation of testicular dose with the patient thickness along beam axis were found. Bland-Altman statistical analysis showed that testicular dose obtained by the proposed calculation method may differ from the measured dose value by less than 25%. The current study presents a method providing reasonable estimations of testicular dose for individual patients undergoing PA or DL radiotherapy.

  13. Testicular epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Çakıroglu, Basri; Sönmez, Nurettin Cem; Sinanoğlu, Orhun; Ateş, Lora; Aksoy, Süleyman Hilmi; Özcan, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a benign, non-teratomatous tumour. It is often possible to make the diagnosis pre-operatively, combining typical sonographic features with normal biochemical tumour markers. The accurate pre-operative diagnosis will allow for testis-sparing surgery and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy. An 11-year-old boy with testicular epidermoid cyst who presented with pain in testis was presented in this report. PMID:25659561

  14. [Stage 1 testicular seminoma].

    PubMed

    Gross, E; Champetier, C; Pointreau, Y; Zaccariotto, A; Dubergé, T; Chauvet, B

    2010-11-01

    Testicular cancer is rare, representing only 1 % of malignant tumors, but the most common cancer in young men, 15 to 35 years. Adjuvant radiotherapy after orchidectomy in testicular seminoma stage I, reduces risk of relapse. It aims to eradicate micro-metastatic disease in lymph drainage territories. In the case of adjuvant radiotherapy, the relapse-free survival of 96 % with an overall survival of 98 % at 5 years. The irradiation volume is made up of lymph nodes paraaortic which it is possible to add the ipsilateral renal hilum to the testicular lesion. The current recommended dose is 20 Gy in 10 fractions and 2 weeks, usually delivered by two antero-posterior beams. The acute toxicities, mainly represented by nausea and diarrhea are usually quickly resolved to the end of irradiation. Regarding toxicities long-term, preservation of semen should be considered after surgery because of fear of infertility post-treatment. The risk of second cancer associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, albeit small, is especially important to consider these patients to significant life expectancy. Nevertheless, developments in radiotherapy techniques and lower doses and irradiated volumes can probably reduce this risk further. PMID:21129662

  15. Effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy on testicular function

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are commonly used alone or in combination in the curative management of many malignancies in adolescent and adult males. Over the last 15-20 years, the striking success in the treatment of some common cancers in reproductive males has led to increasing concern for damage to normal tissues, such as the testes, resulting from curative cancer treatment. Indeed, a major future goal for cancer treatment will be to improve on the complication-free cure rate. Inherent in achieving this goal is to understand the pathophysiology and clinical expression of testicular injury. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy result in germ cell depletion with the development of oligo- to azoospermia and testicular atrophy. The type of drug (particularly the alkylating agents), duration of treatment, intensity of treatment, and drug combination are major variables in determining the extent and duration of testicular injury. Testicular injury with chemotherapy also appears to vary with the age of the patient at the time of treatment. Newer drug combinations are now being used which appear to have curative potential in tumors such as Hodgkin's disease and germ cell testicular cancer with less potential for testicular injury. The most accurate and complete information on radiation injury to the testes is derived from two studies of normal volunteers who received graded single doses directly to the testes. A clear dose-response relationship of clinical and histological testicular damage was found with gradual recovery occurring following doses of up to 600 cGy. While these two studies provide an important clinical data base, radiation therapy used in treating cancers involves multiple daily treatments, usually 25-35 delivered over several weeks. Additionally, direct testicular irradiation is seldom used clinically. 37 references.

  16. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Breikaa, Randa M.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Nagy, Ayman A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  17. Quantification of immunocompetent cells in testicular germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Torres, A; Casanova, J F; Nistal, M; Regadera, J

    1997-01-01

    The immunocompetent cells present in the different histological patterns of 43 testicular germ cell tumours were evaluated. CD3 + and CD45RO + (UCHL1 +) T lymphocytes, CD68 + and MAC 387 + macrophages, CD20 + (L26 +) B lymphocytes, and kappa and lambda + plasma cells were counted. The number of immunocompetent cells per mm2 of tumour tissue, excluding the necrotic areas, was evaluated. Microscopic fields were randomly selected by two observers. In order to guarantee randomization each surface was divided into parts, numbered through a lattice, and some fields were chosen via a random numbers table. This procedure yielded significantly different counts from those obtained on subjective selection. The number of T-lymphocytes and macrophages was higher in seminomas than in the non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumours (P < 0.05) Embryonal carcinomas had more T-lymphocytes than immature teratomas. No significant differences were found among testicular germ cell tumours with regards to the B-lymphocytes, with the exception of the high number of B-lymphocytes in mature teratomas. Kappa + and lambda + plasma cells were few in the testicular germ cell tumours. Randomization in the quantification of immunocompetent cells in testicular germ cell tumours is a good means for evaluation of immune response in all the tumour mass, not only in the areas with the most intense inflammatory cell infiltrate, and permits comparison of testicular germ cell tumours with other malignant tumours. Study of immunocompetent cells in every histological type of testicular germ cell tumour is useful in comparing them with other extra-testicular germ cell tumours. PMID:9023554

  18. Low temperature-induced circulating triiodothyronine accelerates seasonal testicular regression.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Atsumi, Yusuke; Yorinaga, Eriko; Ono, Hiroko; Murayama, Itaru; Nakane, Yusuke; Ota, Wataru; Arai, Natsumi; Tega, Akinori; Iigo, Masayuki; Darras, Veerle M; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Shosei; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    In temperate zones, animals restrict breeding to specific seasons to maximize the survival of their offspring. Birds have evolved highly sophisticated mechanisms of seasonal regulation, and their testicular mass can change 100-fold within a few weeks. Recent studies on Japanese quail revealed that seasonal gonadal development is regulated by central thyroid hormone activation within the hypothalamus, depending on the photoperiodic changes. By contrast, the mechanisms underlying seasonal testicular regression remain unclear. Here we show the effects of short day and low temperature on testicular regression in quail. Low temperature stimulus accelerated short day-induced testicular regression by shutting down the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and inducing meiotic arrest and germ cell apoptosis. Induction of T3 coincided with the climax of testicular regression. Temporal gene expression analysis over the course of apoptosis revealed the suppression of LH response genes and activation of T3 response genes involved in amphibian metamorphosis within the testis. Daily ip administration of T3 mimicked the effects of low temperature stimulus on germ cell apoptosis and testicular mass. Although type 2 deiodinase, a thyroid hormone-activating enzyme, in the brown adipose tissue generates circulating T3 under low-temperature conditions in mammals, there is no distinct brown adipose tissue in birds. In birds, type 2 deiodinase is induced by low temperature exclusively in the liver, which appears to be caused by increased food consumption. We conclude that birds use low temperature-induced circulating T3 not only for adaptive thermoregulation but also to trigger apoptosis to accelerate seasonal testicular regression. PMID:25406020

  19. mTOR expression in human testicular seminoma.

    PubMed

    Yaba, A; Bozkurt, E R; Demir, N

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (TOR) has been implicated in the control of different stressors, growth factors, nutrients and hormones, participating in the control of key cellular functions. Controlling this many pathways poses mTOR signalling as a potential new target in new treatment strategies for multiple cancer types. mTOR components could potentially mislocated in tumour cells, which could lead to activation of signalling pathway that should not be active. Therefore, we aimed to show localisation of mTOR signal proteins in testicular seminoma. Tumoural testicular tissues were obtained from 10 patients with unilateral classic seminoma undergoing to therapeutic orchidectomy and compared with control human testicular tissues. Upon immunohistochemical evaluation, we detected mTOR and p-mTOR (serine 2448), P70S6K, p-P70S6K, PKCalpha and p-PKCalpha, CD36 and MAPLC3 proteins in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. We also showed cytoplasmic perinuclear staining in seminoma cells. This study demonstrated the interaction of mTOR signalling pathway and testicular seminoma by showing intense cytoplasmic mTOR pathway proteins immunoreactivity in the seminoma, for the first time in humans. Therefore, we suggested that mTOR signalling components could create new clinical targets for treatment of testicular seminoma patients and male infertility in the future. PMID:26648340

  20. Primary Testicular Pre-B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Mohammad Forat; Jenabzadeh, Alireza; Hosseini, Somayeh; Massumi, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    Primary testicular lymphoblastic lymphoma is a rare entity. We report a case of a 13-year-old boy referred with unilateral testicular swelling. After preliminary work-up orchiectomy was performed Histopathology detected primary testicular lymphoblastic lymphoma. Lymphoblastic lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of testicular masses in children. PMID:27170920

  1. Primary Testicular Pre-B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Binesh, Fariba; Yazdi, Mohammad Forat; Jenabzadeh, Alireza; Hosseini, Somayeh; Massumi, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    Primary testicular lymphoblastic lymphoma is a rare entity. We report a case of a 13-year-old boy referred with unilateral testicular swelling. After preliminary work-up orchiectomy was performed Histopathology detected primary testicular lymphoblastic lymphoma. Lymphoblastic lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of testicular masses in children. PMID:27170920

  2. Testicular lipomatosis in Cowden's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Joe B; Delahunt, Brett; English, Sharon F; Fraser, Hamish H; Ferguson, Martin M

    2005-09-01

    Cowden's syndrome is either familial or sporadic and is associated with the predominantly postpubertal development of a variety of cutaneous, stromal and visceral neoplasms. The syndrome is associated with mutations of the PTEN gene and is closely related to Bannayan's syndrome in which macrocephaly and benign tumors, especially lipomas and hemangiomas are pathognomic. In PTEN knockout mice testicular tumors have been reported and for this reason we felt it prudent to examine the testes of our patients with genetically proven Cowden's syndrome. Seven of eight patients who underwent testicular ultrasound were found to have diffuse bilateral hyperechoic lesions. Four patients consented to testicular biopsy and on histological examination multiple foci of adipocytes were found within the testicular interstitium, with no evidence of dysplasia or preclinical malignancy. Immunohistochemical assessment of adipocytes suggested a stromal derivation without evidence of metaplasia from Leydig cells. In one case there was focal atrophy of seminiferous tubules, while in two others there was nodular periorchitis of the tunica albuginea. Biochemical evaluation of testicular function (luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and free androgen index), prostate-specific antigen and testicular tumor markers were normal, while seminal fluid analysis showed only minor abnormalities. The high incidence of testicular lipomatosis in our adult subjects suggests this to be an important diagnostic criterion for Cowden's syndrome. PMID:15920539

  3. Growth of subcutaneous chicken testicular transplants.

    PubMed

    Silversides, F G; Robertson, M C; Liu, J

    2013-07-01

    Avian genetic resources have declined dramatically over the past half century, partly because the poultry community has been slow to adopt cryoconservation of avian germplasm. Techniques for gonadal cryopreservation and functional recovery have recently been developed but only some have been optimized. Chicks were castrated at 2 or 6 d and testicles were autotransplanted subcutaneously in one piece after disruption of the tunica membranes to optimize transplantation procedures without the complication of tissue rejection or immunosuppression. At 22 wk of age, the roosters were euthanized and growth of the testicular tissue was evaluated. Mortality with castration at 2 d was high but was much reduced with castration at 6 d. Transplantation of whole testicles subcutaneously on the back of chicks, without complete removal of the tunica membranes, yielded good growth of tissue with transplantation at 2 or 6 d of age. These results will contribute to the use of testicular cryopreservation and transplantation as an effective conservation strategy for avian germplasm. Further definition of the age of treatment will improve the overall efficiency. PMID:23776280

  4. Effects of diallyl sulfide and zinc on testicular steroidogenesis in cadmium-treated male rats.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Nermin A H

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the environmental pollutants that affect various tissues and organs including testis. Harmful effect of cadmium on testis is known to be germ cell degeneration and impairment of testicular steroidogenesis. In the present study, the effect of diallyl sulfide (DAS), a sulfur-containing volatile compound present in garlic, and zinc (Zn) was investigated on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Male adult Wistar rats treated with cadmium (2.5 mg/kg body wt, five times a week for 4 weeks) showed decreased body weight, paired testicular weight, relative testicular weight, serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testicular total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and protein levels. Testicular steroidogenic enzymes, such as 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), and marker enzymes, such as sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), showed a significant decrease in activities whereas that of gamma-glutamyl transferase was significantly increased after cadmium exposure. The results have revealed that concurrent treatment with DAS or zinc restored key steroidogenic enzymes, SDH, LDH, and G6PD and increased testicular weight significantly. DAS restored the TAC level and increased testosterone level and relative testicular weight significantly. Zinc restored testicular protein level and body weight. It can be concluded that cadmium causes testicular toxicity and inhibits androgen production in adult male rats probably by affecting pituitary gonadotrophins and that concurrent administration of DAS or zinc provides protection against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:18972399

  5. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy for testicular cancer Radiation therapy uses a beam of high-energy rays (such as gamma rays ... machine outside the body is known as external beam radiation . The treatment is much like getting an ...

  6. Disorders of Sex Development with Testicular Differentiation in SRY-Negative 46,XX Individuals: Clinical and Genetic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Grinspon, Romina P; Rey, Rodolfo A

    2016-01-01

    Virilisation of the XX foetus is the result of androgen excess, resulting most frequently from congenital adrenal hyperplasia in individuals with typical ovarian differentiation. In rare cases, 46,XX gonads may differentiate into testes, a condition known as 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development (DSD), or give rise to the coexistence of ovarian and testicular tissue, a condition known as 46,XX ovotesticular DSD. Testicular tissue differentiation may be due to the translocation of SRY to the X chromosome or an autosome. In the absence of SRY, overexpression of other pro-testis genes, e.g. SOX family genes, or failure of pro-ovarian/anti-testis genes, such as WNT4 and RSPO1, may underlie the development of testicular tissue. Recent experimental and clinical evidence giving insight into SRY-negative 46,XX testicular or ovotesticular DSD is discussed. PMID:27055195

  7. A laboratory modification to testicular sperm preparation technique improves spermatogenic cell yield

    PubMed Central

    Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Ibis, Ebru; Kizil, Sule; Isbacar, Suheyla; Aydos, Kaan

    2014-01-01

    Testicular sperm extraction is a common procedure used to find spermatogenic cells in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. The laboratory processing of biopsied testicular tissues needs to be performed meticulously to acquire a high yield of cells. In this study, the effectiveness of mincing the tissues after testicular biopsy was assessed using histological evaluation, as was the possible adverse effect of residual tissue on the migration of spermatogenic cells during density gradient centrifugation. Our results indicate that testicular residual tissue, when laid on the density gradient medium along with the sperm wash, hinders the spermatogenic cells’ forming a pellet during centrifugation, and therefore impairs the intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Whereas the mean number of recovered cells from the sperm wash medium (SWM) with residual tissue is 39.435 ± 24.849, it was notably higher (60.189 ± 28.214 cells) in the SWM without minced tissues. The remaining tissue contained no functional seminiferous tubules or spermatogenic cells in histological sections. In conclusion, the remaining residual tissue after mincing biopsied testicular tissue does not add any functional or cellular contribution to spermatogenic cell retrieval; in fact, it may block the cellular elements in the accompanying cell suspension from migrating through the gradient layers to form a pellet during centrifugation and cause loss of spermatogenic cells. PMID:25038178

  8. A laboratory modification to testicular sperm preparation technique improves spermatogenic cell yield.

    PubMed

    Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Ibis, Ebru; Kizil, Sule; Isbacar, Suheyla; Aydos, Kaan

    2014-01-01

    Testicular sperm extraction is a common procedure used to find spermatogenic cells in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. The laboratory processing of biopsied testicular tissues needs to be performed meticulously to acquire a high yield of cells. In this study, the effectiveness of mincing the tissues after testicular biopsy was assessed using histological evaluation, as was the possible adverse effect of residual tissue on the migration of spermatogenic cells during density gradient centrifugation. Our results indicate that testicular residual tissue, when laid on the density gradient medium along with the sperm wash, hinders the spermatogenic cells' forming a pellet during centrifugation, and therefore impairs the intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Whereas the mean number of recovered cells from the sperm wash medium (SWM) with residual tissue is 39.435 ± 24.849, it was notably higher (60.189 ± 28.214 cells) in the SWM without minced tissues. The remaining tissue contained no functional seminiferous tubules or spermatogenic cells in histological sections. In conclusion, the remaining residual tissue after mincing biopsied testicular tissue does not add any functional or cellular contribution to spermatogenic cell retrieval; in fact, it may block the cellular elements in the accompanying cell suspension from migrating through the gradient layers to form a pellet during centrifugation and cause loss of spermatogenic cells. PMID:25038178

  9. Testicular obstruction: clinicopathological studies.

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, W. F.; Levison, D. A.; Parkinson, M. C.; Parslow, J. M.; Royle, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Genital tract reconstruction has been attempted in subfertile men with obstructive azoospermia (370 patients) or unilateral testicular obstruction (80 patients), and in vasectomised men undergoing reversal for the first (130 patients) or subsequent (32 patients) time. Histopathological changes in the obstructed testes and epididymes, and immunological responses to the sequestered spermatozoa have been studied to gain insight into possible causes of failure of surgical treatment. The results of surgery have been assessed by follow-up sperm counts and occurrence of pregnancies in the female partners. The best results were obtained with vasectomy reversal (patency 90%, pregnancy 45%), even after failed previous attempts (patency 87%, pregnancy 37%). Epididymovasostomy gave good results with postinfective caudal blocks (patency 52%, pregnancy 38%), while postinfective vasal blocks were better corrected by total anatomical reconstruction (patency 73%, pregnancy 27%) than by transvasovasostomy (patency 9%, no pregnancies). Poor results were obtained with capital blocks (patency 12%, pregnancy 3%), in which substantial lipid accumulation was demonstrated in the ductuli efferentes; three-quarters of these patients had sinusitis, bronchitis or bronchiectasis (Young's syndrome). There is circumstantial evidence to suggest that this syndrome may be a late complication of mercury intoxication in childhood. After successful reconstruction, fertility was relatively reduced in those men who had antibodies to spermatozoa, particularly amongst the postinfective cases. Similarly, impaired fertility was found in men with unilateral testicular obstruction and antibodies to spermatozoa. Mononuclear cell infiltration of seminiferous tubules and rete testis was noted occasionally, supporting a diagnosis of autoimmune orchitis; although rare, this was an important observation as the sperm output became normal with adjuvant prednisolone therapy. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 10

  10. Species differences in testicular necrosis and DNA damage, distribution and metabolism of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP).

    PubMed

    Låg, M; Søderlund, E J; Brunborg, G; Dahl, J E; Holme, J A; Omichinski, J G; Nelson, S D; Dybing, E

    1989-10-01

    The human testicular toxicant 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) was studied for the same end-point in 4 different species of laboratory animals. Marked necrosis and atrophy of the seminiferous epithelium were observed in rats and guinea pigs 10 days after a single i.p. administration of DBCP (170-340 mumol/kg), whereas significantly less damage was observed in hamsters and mice. The testicular concentrations of DBCP measured at various time-points after the i.p. injection of DBCP indicated that factors in addition to tissue concentration were of importance for the observed species differences in sensitivity towards DBCP-induced testicular damage. Also, there did not seem to be any direct correlation between DBCP-induced in vivo testicular toxicity and in vitro GSH-dependent dehalogenation, inasmuch as the rate of bromide release from DBCP with hamster testicular cytosol was as fast as that with rat cytosol. Testicular DNA damage, as determined by alkaline elution 60 min after in vivo administration of 170 mumol/kg DBCP, was observed only in rats and guinea pigs. Thus, induction of DNA damage correlates with the relative susceptibilities of the species towards DBCP-induced testicular necrosis. To further study species differences in testicular activation of DBCP to DNA-damaging intermediate(s), cells isolated from the testes of the 4 species were incubated with DBCP. Testicular cells from rats and guinea pigs were the only preparations developing substantial DNA damage after 60 min incubation with low concentrations of DBCP (5-50 microM). The findings indicate that rats are sensitive towards DBCP-induced testicular necrosis because rat testicular cells easily activate DBCP to a DNA-damaging intermediate(s). The relative high testicular DBCP concentration as well as the ability to activate DBCP may explain the sensitivity of guinea pigs towards DBCP-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:2799822

  11. Fetal radiation exposure induces testicular cancer in genetically susceptible mice.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Gunapala; Comish, Paul B; Weng, Connie C Y; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC) into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES), an antiandrogen (flutamide), or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1) congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5-6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis. PMID:22348147

  12. Fetal Radiation Exposure Induces Testicular Cancer in Genetically Susceptible Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Gunapala; Comish, Paul B.; Weng, Connie C. Y.; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC) into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES), an antiandrogen (flutamide), or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1) congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5–6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis. PMID:22348147

  13. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Beard, Clair J.

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  14. Autophagy-associated proteins BAG3 and p62 in testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Georg; Jennewein, Lukas; Harter, Patrick N; Antonietti, Patrick; Blaheta, Roman A; Kvasnicka, Hans-Michael; Kögel, Donat; Haferkamp, Axel; Mittelbronn, Michel; Mani, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) represent the most common malignant tumor group in the age group of 20 to 40-years old men. The potentially curable effect of cytotoxic therapy in TGCT is mediated mainly by the induction of apoptosis. Autophagy has been discussed as an alternative mechanism of cell death but also of treatment resistance in various types of tumors. However, in TGCT the expression and role of core autophagy-associated factors is hitherto unknown. We designed the study in order to evaluate the potential role of autophagy-associated factors in the development and progression of testicular cancers. Eighty-four patients were assessed for autophagy (BAG3, p62) and apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3) markers using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue micro- arrays. In addition, western blot analyses of frozen tissue of seminoma and non-seminoma were performed. Our findings show that BAG3 was significantly upregulated in seminoma as compared to non-seminoma but not to normal testicular tissue. No significant difference of p62 expression was detected between neoplastic and normal tissue or between seminoma and non-seminoma. BAG3 and p62 showed distinct loco‑regional expression patterns in normal and neoplastic human testicular tissues. In contrast to the autophagic markers, apoptosis rate was significantly higher in testicular tumors as compared to normal testicular tissue, but not between different TGCT subtypes. The present study, for the first time, examined the expression of central autophagy proteins BAG3 and p62 in testicular cancer. Our findings imply that in general apoptosis but not autophagy induction differs between normal and neoplastic testis tissue. PMID:26707573

  15. Testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2014-02-01

    Human germ cell tumors are of interest because of their epidemiology, clinical behavior and pathobiology. Histologically, they are subdivided into various elements, with similarities to embryogenesis. Recent insights resulted in a division of five types of human germ cell tumors. In the context of male germ cells, three are relevant; Type I: teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants; Type II: seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults; and Type III: spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly. Recent studies led to significant increases in understanding of the parameters involved in the earliest pathogenetic steps of human germ cells tumors, in particularly the seminomas and nonseminomas (Type II). In case of a disturbed gonadal physiology, either due to the germ cell itself, or the micro-environment, embryonic germ cells during a specific window of sensitization can be blocked in their maturation, resulting in carcinoma in situ or gonadoblastoma, the precursors of seminomas and nonseminomas. The level of testicularization of the gonad determines the histological composition of the precursor. These insights will allow better definition of individuals at risk to develop a germ cell malignancy, with putative preventive measurements, and allow better selection of scientific approaches to elucidate the pathogenesis. PMID:24683949

  16. Effects of microgravity or simulated launch on testicular function in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Deaver, D. R.; Zirkin, B. R.; Grills, G. S.; Sapp, W. J.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Clemens, J. W.; Banerjee, S. D.; Folmer, J.; Gruppi, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    Reproductive toxicology and cellular and molecular biology approaches were used to evaluate testicular function in rats from Cosmos 2044. It is found that concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced in flight rates to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed.

  17. The Roles of Testicular C-kit Positive Cells in De novo Morphogenesis of Testis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Man; Zhou, Hai; Zheng, Chunxing; Xiao, Jun; Zuo, Erwei; Liu, Wujuan; Xie, Da; Shi, Yufang; Wu, Chunlian; Wang, Hongyan; Li, Dangsheng; Li, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    C-kit positive (c-kit+) cells are usual tissue-specific stem cells. However, in postnatal testis, undifferentiated spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are c-kit negative (c-kit−) and activation of c-kit represents the start of SSC differentiation, leaving an intriguing question whether other c-kit+ cells exist and participate in the postnatal development of testis. To this end, a feasible system for testicular reconstitution, in which a specific type of cells can be manipulated, is needed. Here, we first establish de novo morphogenesis of testis by subcutaneous injection of testicular cells from neonatal testes into the backs of nude mice. We observe testicular tissue formation and spermatogenesis from all injected sites. Importantly, functional spermatids can be isolated from these testicular tissues. Using this system, we systemically analyze the roles of c-kit+ cells in testicular reconstitution and identify a small population of cells (c-kit+:CD140a+:F4/80+), which express typical markers of macrophages, are critical for de novo morphogenesis of testis. Interestingly, we demonstrate that these cells are gradually replaced by peripheral blood cells of recipient mice during the morphogenesis of testis. Thus, we develop a system, which may mimic the complete developmental process of postnatal testis, for investigating the testicular development and spermatogenesis. PMID:25088917

  18. Fenugreek seed powder mitigates cadmium-induced testicular damage and hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Manar Hamed; Mohammad, Nanies Sameeh; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini

    2014-09-01

    Cadmium is a potential environmental and industrial pollutant affecting human tissues and organs including liver and testes. The protective role of fenugreek seed powder (FSP) was investigated in male rats subjected to cadmium-induced testicular injury and hepatic dysfunction. Testicular damage and hepatotoxicity were induced by oral administration of cadmium chloride (5 mg/kg body weight, once a day) for 7 weeks. FSP was given at 5% w/w in chow diet for 8 weeks, starting 1 week before cadmium administration. FSP intake significantly increased serum testosterone level and testis weight that were reduced by cadmium. FSP also compensated deficits in hepatic and testicular antioxidant defense system, interleukin-4 and nitric oxide levels, reduced serum liver function enzyme activities and suppressed lipid peroxidation in hepatic and testicular tissues resulted from cadmium administration. Additionally, FSP attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in hepatic and testicular tumor necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-beta1 levels as well as cadmium deposition and hydroxyproline content. The protective effect afforded by FSP was mainly due its antioxidant, antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, the results of the present work indicated that FSP may represent a promising medicinal herb to protect hepatic and testicular tissues from the detrimental effects of cadmium. PMID:24813645

  19. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency

    SciTech Connect

    Prater, J.M.; Overdorf, B.S. )

    1991-09-01

    Testicular torsion is caused by twisting of the spermatic cord, which results in compromised testicular blood flow. The degree of ischemic injury is determined by the severity of arterial compression and the interval between the onset of symptoms and surgical intervention. Torsion usually occurs at puberty, and an anatomic defect known as bell-clapper deformity is usually present. Typical symptoms include acute scrotal pain with associated nausea and vomiting. Up to one-half of patients report previous similar episodes. On examination, the testis is high-riding, tender, swollen and firm. Testicular scan or Doppler ultrasound examination can be helpful in distinguishing torsion from acute epididymitis. Prompt surgical treatment is indicated to reduce the torsion, and bilateral orchiopexy is performed to prevent recurrence. Exocrine function, as determined by semen analysis, is often abnormal after unilateral torsion. 25 references.

  20. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  1. The calcium-sensing receptor participates in testicular damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei-Yuan; Tong, Li-Quan; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Cao, Yong-Gang; Wang, Gong-Chen; Zhu, Jin-Zhi; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Tie-Hui; Zhang, Lin-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility caused by testicular damage is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in testicular tissues and plays a pivotal role in calcium homeostasis by activating cellular signaling pathways, but its role in testicular damage induced by diabetes remains unclear. A diabetic model was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg kg-1 ) in Wistar rats. Animals then received GdCl 3 (an agonist of CaSR, 8.67 mg kg-1 ), NPS-2390 (an antagonist of CaSR, 0.20 g kg-1 ), or a combination of both 2 months after STZ injection. Diabetic rats had significantly lower testes weights and serum levels of testosterone compared to healthy rats, indicating testicular damage and dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Compared with healthy controls, the testicular tissues of diabetic rats overexpressed the CaSR protein and had higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and higher numbers of apoptotic germ cells. The testicular tissues from diabetic rats also expressed lower levels of Bcl-2 and higher levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in addition to higher phosphorylation rates of c-Jun NH 2 -terminal protein kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. The above parameters could be further increased or aggravated by the administration of GdCl 3 , but could be attenuated by injection of NPS-2390. In conclusion, the present results indicate that CaSR activation participates in diabetes-induced testicular damage, implying CaSR may be a potential target for protective strategies against diabetes-induced testicular damage and could help to prevent infertility in diabetic men. PMID:26387585

  2. The calcium-sensing receptor participates in testicular damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wei-Yuan; Tong, Li-Quan; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Cao, Yong-Gang; Wang, Gong-Chen; Zhu, Jin-Zhi; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Tie-Hui; Zhang, Lin-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility caused by testicular damage is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in testicular tissues and plays a pivotal role in calcium homeostasis by activating cellular signaling pathways, but its role in testicular damage induced by diabetes remains unclear. A diabetic model was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg kg−1) in Wistar rats. Animals then received GdCl3 (an agonist of CaSR, 8.67 mg kg−1), NPS-2390 (an antagonist of CaSR, 0.20 g kg−1), or a combination of both 2 months after STZ injection. Diabetic rats had significantly lower testes weights and serum levels of testosterone compared to healthy rats, indicating testicular damage and dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Compared with healthy controls, the testicular tissues of diabetic rats overexpressed the CaSR protein and had higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and higher numbers of apoptotic germ cells. The testicular tissues from diabetic rats also expressed lower levels of Bcl-2 and higher levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in addition to higher phosphorylation rates of c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. The above parameters could be further increased or aggravated by the administration of GdCl3, but could be attenuated by injection of NPS-2390. In conclusion, the present results indicate that CaSR activation participates in diabetes-induced testicular damage, implying CaSR may be a potential target for protective strategies against diabetes-induced testicular damage and could help to prevent infertility in diabetic men. PMID:26387585

  3. The effect of the melatonin on cryopreserved mouse testicular cells

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Ghasem; Mirhoseini, Mehri; Hemadi, Masoud; Khodadadi, Ali; Beygom Talebpour Amiri, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: After improvements in various cancer treatments, life expectancy has been raised, but success in treatment causes loss of fertility in many of the survived young men. Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissues or cells introduced as the only way to preserve fertility. However, freezing has some harmful effects. Melatonin, a pineal gland hormone, has receptors in reproductive systems of different species. It is assumed that melatonin has free radical scavenger properties. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin on the cryopreserved testicular cells in mouse. Materials and Methods: Cells from 7- 10 days old NMRI mice testes were isolated using two step enzymatic digestion. The testicular cells were divided into two groups randomly and cryopreserved in two different freezing media with and without the addition of 100 µm melatonin. Finally, apoptosis of the cells was assayed by flow cytometry. Also, lactate dehydrogenase activity test was performed to assess the cytotoxicity. Results: The results of lactate dehydrogenase showed the nearly cytotoxic effect of melatonin. The results of flow cytometry showed increase in apoptosis in the cryopreserved cells in the media containing melatonin compared to the control group. Conclusion: The present study shows that melatonin has an apoptotic effect on cryopreserved mouse testicular cells. PMID:27141545

  4. Optical diagnosis of testicular torsion: feasibility and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.

    2014-03-01

    Background: Torsion of the testis compromises blood flow through the spermatic cord; testicular ischemia results which if not diagnosed promptly and corrected surgically irrevocably damages the testis. Current diagnostic modalities aimed at rationalizing surgical exploration by demonstrating interruption of spermatic cord blood flow or testicular ischemia have limited applicability. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers a non-invasive optical method for detection of ischemia; continuous wave and frequency domain devices have been used experimentally; no device customized for clinical use has been designed. Methods: A miniature spatially resolved NIRS device with light emitting diode light source was applied over the right and left spermatic cord and the difference in oxygen saturation between the two sides measured. Results: In a 14-month old boy with a history of unilateral testicular pain color Doppler ultrasonography was equivocal but the NIRS-derived tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI) was significantly reduced on the left side. Confirmation of torsion of the left testicle was made surgically. Conclusions: Spatially resolved NIRS monitoring of spermatic cord oxygen saturation is feasible in children, adding to prior studies of testicular oxygen saturation in adults. Customized device design and further clinical trials would enhance the applicability of NIRS as a diagnostic entity for torsion.

  5. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys: a worthwhile minor surgical procedure?

    PubMed

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike; Thorup, Jorgen; Hutson, John; Heloury, Yves

    2016-03-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure. For example, the use of immunohistochemical markers such as OCT/3-4, TSPY, Kit ligand (SCF) and ALPP (PLAP) has considerably facilitated the detection of germ cell tumour precursors, such as carcinoma in situ and/or gonadoblastoma. These markers are very important for evaluating malignancy risk in undervirilized patients with 46,XY disorders of sexual development. Testicular histology is also of considerable value in the prediction of both fertility potential and risk of cancer in individuals with undescended testes, particularly those with intraabdominal undescended testes. New possibilities for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys is a minor procedure that can provide valuable information for predicting the risk of malignancy and fertility, and might be useful in fertility preservation in the near future. PMID:26787392

  6. Altered accumulation and subcellular disposition of testicular cadmium in inbred mice resistant to cadmium-induced testicular necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chellman, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Rodent testis is one of the most sensitive mammalian tissues to the toxic effects of acutely administered Cd. However, numerous inbred mouse strains are resistant to Cd-induced testicular damage, even at lethal Cd doses; the mechanism of this resistance has not been determined. Therefore, testes of mice susceptible (129/J) or resistant (A/J) to Cd-induced damage were examined for possible differences in the accumulation and subcellular disposition of Cd. Twenty-four hours after subcutaneous injection of mice with 30 ..mu..moles CdCl/sub 2//kg, 129/J testes showed extensive interstitial hemorrhage and seminiferous tubule necrosis, while A/J testes appeared histologically normal. Testicular Cd accumulation was 5-6 times less in A/J mice than in 129/J mice at all time points examined. Chromatography of testicular cytosol on Sephadex G-75 Superfine revealed four Cd-binding peaks. Both 15 min and 6 hr after dosing, A/J testes had 14% more of the total tissue Cd bound to the 14,500 MW protein (Cd-BP III), compared to 129/J testes, Cd-BP III behaved like metallothionein during gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Additional mice were injected i.v. with 10 (129/J) or 45 (A/J) ..mu..moles CdCl/sub 2//kg to achieve equal testicular Cd concentrations (approx. 4 nmoles Cd/g testis). Twenty-four hours later, 129/J testes were necrotic while A/J testes showed no microscopic evidence of damage. Therefore, resistance of A/J testes to Cd is not determined solely by decreased Cd accumulation, but is associated with increased binding of testicular Cd to Cd-BP III.

  7. Selenite suppression of cadmium-induced testicular apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jones, M M; Xu, C; Ladd, P A

    1997-01-15

    The characteristic apoptotic ladder-like patterns of rat testicular DNA on agarose gel electrophoresis which results from treatment with CdCl2 are suppressed by the administration of Na2SeO3. The examination of testicular tissue using an ELISA programmed cell death detection procedure confirmed this selenite suppression of cadmium-induced apoptosis. The administration of the Na2SeO3 at either 0.5, 1, 2 h prior to or 0.5, 1, 2 h after the administration of the CdCl2 appear to be almost equally effective at suppressing the apoptotic response. These results are in accord with previous studies on the Na2SeO3 suppression of cadmium induced necrotic changes in tissues and suggest that Na2SeO3 interferes with both necrosis and apoptosis. PMID:9020518

  8. Testicular necrosis and DNA damage caused by deuterated and methylated analogs of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Soderlund, E.J.; Brunborg, G.; Omichinski, J.G.; Holme, J.A.; Dahl, J.E.; Nelson, S.D.; Dybing, E.

    1988-07-01

    To study the role of metabolism in 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)-induced testicular damage in rats, selectively deuterated and methylated analogs of DBCP were given as a single ip dose of 340 mumol/kg and testicular toxicity was determined 10 days after treatment. None of the four deuterated analogs C1-D2-, C2-D1-, C3-D2-, or C1-C2-C3-D5-DBCP reduced the degree of testicular damage compared to DBCP, indicating that metabolic cleavage of a C-H bond was not rate-limiting in DBCP-induced testicular toxicity. Of the five methylated analogs, C1-methyl-, C1-dimethyl-, C2-methyl-, and C3-methyl-DBCP and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, only C3-methyl-DBCP caused testicular toxicity. DBCP treatment resulted in increased testicular DNA damage at doses of 85-170 mumol/kg as measured by alkaline elution of DNA from testicular cells isolated 3 hr after in vivo treatment. The perdeutero-DBCP analog induced testicular DNA damage that was at least as extensive as that induced by DBCP. Of the methylated analogs tested, only C3-methyl-DBCP gave a marked dose-dependent increase in testicular DNA damage between 170 and 540 mumol/kg. There were no significant differences in the testicular tissue distribution between DBCP, perdeutero-DBCP, and the methylated DBCP analogs. Furthermore, in distribution studies with DBCP, C1-methyl- and C3-methyl-DBCP, and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, the highest tissue concentrations were found in the kidneys, followed by the liver and then the testes. The fact that testicular DNA damage of DBCP and its deuterated and methylated analogs paralleled their ability to cause testicular necrosis and atrophy makes measurement of DNA damage a very useful correlate in mechanistic studies of DBCP-induced testicular cell death.

  9. Testicular necrosis and DNA damage caused by deuterated and methylated analogs of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in the rat.

    PubMed

    Søderlund, E J; Brunborg, G; Omichinski, J G; Holme, J A; Dahl, J E; Nelson, S D; Dybing, E

    1988-07-01

    To study the role of metabolism in 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)-induced testicular damage in rats, selectively deuterated and methylated analogs of DBCP were given as a single ip dose of 340 mumol/kg and testicular toxicity was determined 10 days after treatment. None of the four deuterated analogs C1-D2-, C2-D1-, C3-D2-, or C1-C2-C3-D5-DBCP reduced the degree of testicular damage compared to DBCP, indicating that metabolic cleavage of a C-H bond was not rate-limiting in DBCP-induced testicular toxicity. Of the five methylated analogs, C1-methyl-, C1-dimethyl-, C2-methyl-, and C3-methyl-DBCP and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, only C3-methyl-DBCP caused testicular toxicity. DBCP treatment resulted in increased testicular DNA damage at doses of 85-170 mumol/kg as measured by alkaline elution of DNA from testicular cells isolated 3 hr after in vivo treatment. The perdeutero-DBCP analog induced testicular DNA damage that was at least as extensive as that induced by DBCP. Of the methylated analogs tested, only C3-methyl-DBCP gave a marked dose-dependent increase in testicular DNA damage between 170 and 540 mumol/kg. There were no significant differences in the testicular tissue distribution between DBCP, perdeutero-DBCP, and the methylated DBCP analogs. Furthermore, in distribution studies with DBCP, C1-methyl- and C3-methyl-DBCP, and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, the highest tissue concentrations were found in the kidneys, followed by the liver and then the testes. The fact that testicular DNA damage of DBCP and its deuterated and methylated analogs paralleled their ability to cause testicular necrosis and atrophy makes measurement of DNA damage a very useful correlate in mechanistic studies of DBCP-induced testicular cell death. PMID:3400095

  10. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Insulin-like factor 3: a novel circulating hormone of testicular origin in humans.

    PubMed

    Ferlin, Alberto; Foresta, Carlo

    2005-05-01

    Insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) affects testicular descent. Mutations in the INSL3 gene or its receptor, LGR8/GREAT, can cause cryptorchidism. Expression of LGR8/GREAT in different tissues and production of INSL3 by adult-type Leydig cells suggest additional roles for this hormonal system in adults. We used a novel radioimmunoassay kit to measure INSL3 concentrations in the serum of normal men and those with different testicular pathologies. We demonstrate that INSL3 circulates in adult men and is almost exclusively of testicular origin. Subjects with severe testicular damage (infertility) produce small amounts of INSL3, and concentrations of this hormone seem to reflect the functional status of the Leydig cells. Analysis of men treated with different combinations of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis suggests that the production of INSL3 is related to the luteinizing hormone. PMID:15956751

  13. Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Silván, Unai; Díez-Torre, Alejandro; Bonilla, Zuriñe; Moreno, Pablo; Díaz-Núñez, María; Aréchaga, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) comprise the vast majority of all testicular malignancies and are the most common type of cancer among young male adults. The nonseminomatous variant of TGCTs is characterized by the presence of embryonic and extraembryonic tissues together with a population of pluripotent cancer stem cells, the so-called embryonal carcinoma. One of the main causes of the resistance of these tumors to therapy is their ability to invade adjacent tissues and metastasize into distant sites of the body. Both of these tumor processes are highly favored by the neovascularization of the malignant tissue. New vessels can be generated by means of angiogenesis or vasculogenesis, and both have been observed to occur during tumor vascularization. Nevertheless, the precise contribution of each process to the neoplastic vascular bed of TGCTs remains unknown. In addition, another process known as tumor-derived vasculogenesis, in which malignant cells give rise to endothelial cells, has also been reported to occur in a number of tumor types, including experimental TGCTs. The participation and cross talk of these 3 processes in tumor vascularization is of particular interest, given the embryonic origin of teratocarcinomas. Thus, in the present review, we discuss the importance of all 3 vascularization processes in the growth, invasion, and metastasis of testicular teratocarcinomas and summarize the current state of knowledge of the TGCT microenvironment and its relationship with vascularization. Finally, we discuss the importance of vascularization as a therapeutic target for this type of malignancy. PMID:25772688

  14. Cystic rete testis with testicular dysplasia in a rabbit.

    PubMed

    Chambers, James K; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Murata, Yousuke; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Ise, Kenichiro; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    An 8-year-old intact rabbit was presented to a veterinary hospital with a complaint of enlarged left scrotum. Histological examination revealed a single large cyst adjacent to an efferent ductule-like tissue. The cyst wall was composed of monolayer cuboidal cells surrounded by dysplastic testicular tissue, and the seminiferous tubules were not developed at all. The epithelial cells of the cyst possessed the same properties as the epithelial cells of the rete testis that were positive for CD 10 and cytokeratin 18, negative for p63 and lacked desmin-positive muscular layer. The dysplastic testicular tissue was composed of two types of cells: small pleomorphic cells with a condensed nucleus (sex cord-like cells) and large round cells with cytoplasmic lipid droplets (Leydig cells). Both of these cells were positive for vimentin and melan A that are consistent with the staining pattern of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. This is the first report to demonstrate cystic rete testis with testicular dysplasia in animals. PMID:24430659

  15. Influence of Vitamin C and Vitamin E on testicular zinc content and testicular toxicity in lead exposed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a public health problem as lead alters physiological processes by inducing oxidative stress and mimicking divalent cations. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Vitamin C (VC) and Vitamin E (VE) on the reproductive function of lead exposed male rats. Experimental animals were exposed to oral doses of lead, VC and VE at 60 mg/kg body weight, 40 mg/kg body weight, and 150 mg/kg body weight respectively, while control animals received 0.9% saline solution. Oral administration spanned for six weeks after which changes in testicular redox status, lead deposition, testicular zinc content, serum androgen content, semen quality and testis histology were examined. Results There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in oxidative stress indices and testicular lead content. A significant (p < 0.05) depletion of zinc in the testis of lead exposed animals was also observed. Fluctuations were observed in androgen levels of lead treated animals with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (TT) content, while there was no significant change in luteinizing hormone (LH) content. Testicular tissue showed an alteration in its normal histology with degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium accompanied by a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of luminal spermatozoa. A downgrade in the semen appearance and semen quality –sperm motility, morphology, and count was also observed after lead exposure. VC and VE treatment showed a significant (p < 0.05) reversal of the physiological alteration induced by lead. Conclusions Lead exposure resulted in a decline in the reproductive function of male rats by inducing oxidative stress, inhibiting enzymes and depleting testicular zinc contents. However, results clearly showed that VC and VE attenuated the deleterious impact of lead on the reproductive system. PMID:23241495

  16. What Are the Key Statistics about Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... factors for testicular cancer? What are the key statistics about testicular cancer? The American Cancer Society’s estimates ... you would like to know more about survival statistics, see Testicular cancer survival rates . Visit the American ...

  17. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for testicular cancer What’s new in testicular cancer research and treatment? Important research ... findings may help individualize treatment and help find new drugs to treat testicular cancer that can target ...

  18. Testicular and testicular adnexa tumors in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Gigantino, Vincenzo; La Mantia, Elvira; Franco, Renato; Cecere, Sabrina; Rossetti, Sabrina; Di Napoli, Marilena; Pisano, Carmela; Berretta, Massimiliano; Galzerano, Antonio; Botti, Gerardo; Pignata, Sandro; Facchini, Gaetano

    2013-03-01

    Neoplasms in the testis and in the testicular adnexa of elderly patients are completely different from those observed in younger patients. Indeed, although conventional seminomas and nonseminomas are mainly observed in the age range of 20-45 years, spermatocytic seminoma, malignant Leydig tumors, and lymphomas in the testis and sarcomas in the paratesticular region are encountered in individuals older than 60 years of age. Here, we discuss the testis and paratesticular region neoplasm more commonly diagnosed in elderly men. PMID:23059385

  19. Testicular Pain Associated With Minocycline Use

    PubMed Central

    Kucherov, Victor; Hulbert, William; Wu, Guan

    2015-01-01

    Two males ages 16 and 23 years presented with new testicular pain while taking minocycline. Both patients experienced resolution of their symptoms only after minocycline discontinuation. Testicular pain with minocycline use has been previously described, however only in the setting of systemic autoimmune reactions (which were absent here). These cases represent probable rare adverse reactions to minocycline. For patients taking minocycline who experience otherwise unexplained testicular pain, a trial discontinuation of this medication should be considered. PMID:26793506

  20. Testicular torsion in the older patient

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, S.; Hoopingarner, D.; Askins, D.

    1983-05-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with severe right-sided scrotal pain and was proven to have a 720-degree right testicular torsion. Fewer than 50 documented cases of testicular torsion have been reported in men over the age of thirty. The anatomical predisposition for torsion generally selects these individuals early in life. Rapid diagnosis allowed for surgical correction and testicular salvage. We outline an expedient diagnostic approach for these difficult cases with use of the Doppler ultrasound and the technetium (99mTc) testicular scan.

  1. Testicular and Related Size Evaluations in Nigerian Sahel Goats with Optimal Cauda Epididymal Sperm Reserve.

    PubMed

    Abba, Y; Igbokwe, I O

    2015-01-01

    Testicular sizes of animals are important for identification of those with adequate sperm production. The aim of this study was to define the testicular and related size estimates that would be associated with optimal cauda epididymal sperm counts (ESC) in Sahel goats based on postmortem evaluations. A stratified quota sample population of 125 male goats inclusive of all testicular sizes was taken at a slaughterhouse in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The bucks were aged 18-30 months and weighed 17.04 ± 2.99 (12-25) kg. Body, testicular, and epididymal weights of each goat with other related size measurements were estimated. ESC was determined from homogenized tissue using a manual cytometer. At the cut-off ESC of >1.1 × 10(9) sperm heads, 66 (52.80%) of the goats had optimal ESC which was associated with testicular weight of 59.90 ± 16.10 (31.40-86.20) g, gonadosomatic index of 3.51 ± 0.69 (2.00-4.50) g/kg, and scrotal circumference of 19.07 ± 1.29 (17.00-21.80) cm. The size variables of the scrotum and testis correlated with one another and with the ESC. These findings provide data that may be used to anticipate adequate antemortem sperm reserve based on testicular size during preliminary selection of sires for breeding from a sexually mature Sahel buck population. PMID:26779362

  2. Testicular and Related Size Evaluations in Nigerian Sahel Goats with Optimal Cauda Epididymal Sperm Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Y.; Igbokwe, I. O.

    2015-01-01

    Testicular sizes of animals are important for identification of those with adequate sperm production. The aim of this study was to define the testicular and related size estimates that would be associated with optimal cauda epididymal sperm counts (ESC) in Sahel goats based on postmortem evaluations. A stratified quota sample population of 125 male goats inclusive of all testicular sizes was taken at a slaughterhouse in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The bucks were aged 18–30 months and weighed 17.04 ± 2.99 (12–25) kg. Body, testicular, and epididymal weights of each goat with other related size measurements were estimated. ESC was determined from homogenized tissue using a manual cytometer. At the cut-off ESC of >1.1 × 109 sperm heads, 66 (52.80%) of the goats had optimal ESC which was associated with testicular weight of 59.90 ± 16.10 (31.40–86.20) g, gonadosomatic index of 3.51 ± 0.69 (2.00–4.50) g/kg, and scrotal circumference of 19.07 ± 1.29 (17.00–21.80) cm. The size variables of the scrotum and testis correlated with one another and with the ESC. These findings provide data that may be used to anticipate adequate antemortem sperm reserve based on testicular size during preliminary selection of sires for breeding from a sexually mature Sahel buck population. PMID:26779362

  3. [Novel methods for studies of testicular development and spermatogenesis: From 2D to 3D culture].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-dong; Li, He-cheng; Zhang, Tong-dian; Wang, Zi-ming

    2016-03-01

    The two-dimensional model of cell culture is an important method in the study of testicular development and spermatogenesis but can not effectively mimic and regulate the testicular microenvironment and the whole process of spermatogenesis due to the lack of relevant cell factors and the disruption of a three-dimensional spatial structure. In the past 20 years, the development and optimization of the in vitro model such as testis organotypic culture and in vivo model such as testis transplantation achieved a transformation from two- to three-dimension. The maintenance and optimization of the testicular niche structure could mimic the testicular microenvironment and cell types including Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells, which showed similar biological behaviors to those in vivo. Besides, the cell suspension or tissue fragment floats in the gas-liquid interface so that the development of somatic and germ cells is well maintained in vitro whilst the feedback linkage between grafted testis tissue and hypothalamus-pituitary of the host rebuilt in the in vitro model provides an endocrinological basis for spermatogenesis, which serves as an effective methodology to better understand the organogenesis and development of the testis as well as testicular function regulation, advancing the concept of treatment of male infertility. Al- though each of the methods may have its limitations, the progress in the processing, freezing, thawing, and transplantation of cells and tissues will surely promote their clinical application and present their value in translational medicine. PMID:27172668

  4. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    PubMed

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats. PMID:27008095

  5. Rediscovering hermaphroditism in Grammatidae with the description of the testicular gland in Brazilian Basslet Gramma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Leite, J R; Freitas, M O; Sanches, E G; Gomes, M L M; Hostim-Silva, M; Cole, K S

    2016-04-19

    Many aspects of sex change in reef fishes have been studied, including behavior and social organization. However, gonad histology remains the most robust way to identify sexual patterns in fishes. Some uncommon tissues remain poorly described, such as the accessory gonadal structures found in species from the Gobiidae family, which are rare in other bony fishes. This is the first report of the testicular gland in Gramma brasiliensis and for the Grammatidae family. Between April 2011 and February 2012 eighty specimens were collected during four dive campaigns on the Taipus de Fora reef (13°56'20"S 38°55'32"W), Bahia, Northeast Brazil, and their sex was determined. Thirteen per cent of the active-females and 90% of the active-males had testicular gland tissue in their ovotestis. This discovery led to additional research into the characteristics of the gland tissue and its relationship with gonadal maturation. Three patterns of testicular gland development were found in Brazilian basslet ovotestis. Both ova and sperm-producing gonad contained testicular gland tissue, and the appearance of this tissue seems to be the first modification of ovotestis tissue marking the beginning of the protogynous sex-change process in G. brasiliensis. PMID:27097082

  6. Testicular shielding in penile brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bindal, Arpita; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M.; Ghadi, Yogesh; Murthy, Vedang; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Penile cancer, although rare, is one of the common genitourinary cancers in India affecting mostly aged uncircumcised males. For patients presenting with small superficial lesions < 3 cm restricted to glans, surgery, radical external radiation or brachytherapy may be offered, the latter being preferred as it allows organ and function preservation. In patients receiving brachytherapy, testicular morbidity is not commonly addressed. With an aim to minimize and document the doses to testis after adequate shielding during radical interstitial brachytherapy for penile cancers, we undertook this study in 2 patients undergoing brachytherapy and forms the basis of this report. Material and methods Two patients with early stage penile cancer limited to the glans were treated with radical high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy using interstitial implant. A total of 7-8 tubes were implanted in two planes, parallel to the penile shaft. A total dose of 44-48 Gy (55-60 Gy EQD2 doses with α/β = 10) was delivered in 11-12 fractions of 4 Gy each delivered twice daily. Lead sheets adding to 11 mm (4-5 half value layer) were interposed between the penile shaft and scrotum. The testicular dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. For each patient, dosimetry was done for 3 fractions and mean calculated. Results The cumulative testicular dose to left and right testis was 31.68 cGy and 42.79 cGy for patient A, and 21.96 cGy and 23.28 cGy for patient B. For the same patients, the mean cumulative dose measured at the posterior aspect of penile shaft was 722.15 cGy and 807.72 cGy, amounting to 16.4% and 16.8% of the prescribed dose. Hence, the application of lead shield 11 mm thick reduced testicular dose from 722-808 cGy to 21.96-42.57 cGy, an “absolute reduction” of 95.99 ± 1.5%. Conclusions With the use of a simple lead shield as described, we were able to effectively reduce testicular dose from “spermicidal” range to “oligospermic” range with possible

  7. Testicular Cancer Education in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Royal E.

    1998-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) education is not widespread, though TC is the most common cancer in men ages 15-34 years. Teachers can positively influence young men by providing TC and testicular self-examination (TSE) education in school. The paper describes TC and TSE, discussing strategies for and barriers to implementation of TC/TSE instruction in the…

  8. Testicular toxicity of para-phenylenediamine after subchronic topical application in rat.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Manuj Kr; Dutta, Karabi

    2012-01-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a most widely used chemical in almost all hair dye formulations. The present experiment was conducted in order to assess the reproductive toxicity of PPD in male rats. After sub-chronic topical application of different doses (0, 1, 2 and 3 mg/kg/day) of PPD, the male albino rats exhibited significant decrease in the total sperm count (p<0.05, 0.01) with consistent decrease in the testicular weight (p<0.05), increase in the germ cell apoptosis indicated by cellular morphology as well as loss of germinal layer, sloughing of testicular cellular layers. Elevation of lipid peroxidation product in the testicular tissue indicated the potential oxidative stress that may be crucial in the induction of the apoptosis and further tissue injury in the PPD-treated rats. The study was designed to examine the testicular effect of 1% to 3% PPD which mimic the actual dosage available in most of the hair dying formulation. The possibilities of impaired testicular function after sub-chronic topical exposure to PPD on male rats have demonstrated. PMID:22149045

  9. The Role of Thyroid Hormone in Testicular Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Márcia Santos; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of growth, development and metabolism in virtually all tissues, and altered thyroid status affects many organs and systems. Although for many years testis has been regarded as a thyroid hormone unresponsive organ, it is now evident that thyroid hormone plays an important role in testicular development and function. A considerable amount of data shows that thyroid hormone influences steroidogenesis as well as spermatogenesis. The involvement of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli cell proliferation and functional maturation is widely accepted, as well as its role in postnatal Leydig cell differentiation and steroidogenesis. The presence of thyroid hormone receptors in testicular cells throughout development and in adulthood implies that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects. Several recent studies have employed different methodologies and techniques in an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying thyroid hormone effects on testicular cells. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of the recent advances made regarding the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:18728126

  10. SERUM AND TESTICULAR TESTOSTERONE AND ANDROGEN BINDING PROTEIN PROFILES FOLLWOING SUBCHRONIC TREATMENT WITH CARBENDAZIM (MBC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    While the general toxicity of the benzimidazole pesticides for mammals is low, one of these compounds, Carbendazim causes degeneration of testicular tissue and decreases spermatogenic activity at doses well below the LD50 value (Barnes et al., 1983). A study conducted by Carter e...

  11. Identification of various testicular cell populations in pubertal and adult cockerels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precise identification of the male germinal stem cell population is important for their practical use in programs dedicated to the integration of exogenous genetic material in testicular tissues. In the present study, our aim was to identify germinal cell populations in the testes of pubertal and ad...

  12. [Fertility in testicular cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Miyata, Akane; Arai, Gaku; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Testicular cancer(TC)is the most common and curable cancer affecting men of reproductive age. Successful treatment approaches have resulted in longer life expectancy in TC survivors. The most frequently used treatment for TC is a combination of inguinal orchiectomy, and either radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In many TC patients, sperm quality is already abnormal and there may even be a lack of viable spermatozoa at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, the effect of cancer treatment on fertility is a potentially significant issue. Fertility preservation in these men has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. The only currently established fertility preservation method is the cryopreservation of sperm before therapy. For most patients seeking cryopreservation, the semen sample is collected via masturbation. If the patient is unable to ejaculate for any reason, other techniques such as vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation can be performed. In azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic patients, testicular sperm extraction at the time of the inguinal orchiectomy is a useful technique for obtaining spermatozoa before cytotoxic therapy. We herein present an overview of the current topics on fertility in TC patients, including the effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. We also describe the strategy for fertility preservation in these patients. PMID:25812494

  13. [Verification of testicular cancer guidelines].

    PubMed

    Nonomura, Norio; Azuma, Haruhito

    2012-12-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease that affects 1-2 in 100,000 people in Japan ; however, it is a very significant disease in that it has a high prevalence amongst young adults aged in their 20s and 30s and it brings about metastasis from a relatively early stage. The 2009 edition of the Testicular Cancer Clinical Practice Guidelines sets out a detailed summary of 32 clinical questions (CQ) considered necessary in routine clinical practice across the fields of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, etc, in the form of recommendations and commentary. These CQs are considered extremely important in understanding the foundation of future testicular cancer treatment guidelines. In this symposium, five doctors gave lectures consisting of the following contents in which they validated the guidelines and gave concrete clinical practice examples through cases they had experienced themselves with regards to the treatment strategies for (1) stage I patients, (2) patients with advanced cancer and (3) patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors. (1) Stage I patients : In seminoma cases, the doctors focused on the relapse prevention effect provided by single-agent carboplatin adjuvant chemotherapy. In non-seminoma cases, treatment options were considered according to risk based on the presence or absence of vascular invasion, a prognostic factor. (2) Patients with advanced cancer : 30% of testicular cancers are metastatic and progress to advanced cancer. In refractory cases resistant to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin therapy, etoposide ifosfamide, and cisplatin therapy and vinblastine, ifosfamide and cisplatin therapy have been used, but without satisfactory results and the development of new salvage chemotherapy is an important issue. The therapeutic strategies against advanced testicular cancer were narrowed down to (2) -1) therapeutic effects from ultra-high-dose chemotherapy, (2) -2) salvage chemotherapy in cases where residual tumors are observed in induction

  14. Protective Effects of the Nuclear Factor Kappa B Inhibitor Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate on Experimental Testicular Torsion and Detorsion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ozden, Hilmi; Guven, Gul; Burukoglu, Dilek; Ustuner, Mehmet Cengiz; Topal, Fatma; Gunes, Hasan Veysi; Ustuner, Derya; Ozbayer, Cansu

    2014-01-01

    Testicular torsion results with the damage of the testis and it is a surgical emergency. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a low-molecular-weight antioxidant and potent inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PDTC to testicular torsion-detorsion (T/D) injury. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups. A sham operation was performed in group I. In group II, torsion is performed 2 hours by 720 degree extravaginally testis. In group III, 4 h reperfusion of the testis was performed after 2 h of testicular torsion. In group IV, after performing the same surgical procedures as in group III, PDTC (100 mg/kg, intravenous's) was administered before 30 min of detorsion. The testes tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) level was evaluated. Histological evaluations were performed after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Testicular tissue MDA levels were the highest in the T/D groups compared with treatment group. Administration of PDTC prevented a further increase in MDA levels. Significant decrease occurred in CAT and SOD levels in treatment group compared with the control group. The rats in the treatment group had normal testicular architecture. The results suggest that PDTC can be a potential protective agent for preventing the biochemical and histological changes related to oxidative stress in testicular injury caused by testis torsion. PMID:25177164

  15. Lead induced testicular hypersensitivity in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, D K; Lal, B; Srivastava, R S; Chandra, S V

    1990-01-01

    Rats were immobilized for 2 h and treated i.p. with lead Pb2+ (8 mg/kg/day) for 45 d to investigate the testicular effects of lead on rats kept under immobilization stress. Marked alteration in SDH. G6PDH activity, cholesterol and ascorbic acid contents and reduced sperm counts associated with marked pathological changes in the testis of rats were observed after combined treatment with lead and immobilization stress in comparison to either alone. An increase in the disturbances of testicular androgen synthesis seems to be responsible for enhanced testicular injury in lead induced stressed rats. PMID:2401350

  16. Testicular structure and germ cells morphology in salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Mejía-Roa, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Testes of salamanders or urodeles are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. The testes are composed of one or several lobes. Each lobe is morphologically and functionally a similar testicular unit. The lobes of the testis are joined by cords covered by a single peritoneal epithelium and subjacent connective tissue. The cords contain spermatogonia. Spermatogonia associate with Sertoli cells to form spermatocysts or cysts. The spermatogenic cells in a cyst undergo their development through spermatogenesis synchronously. The distribution of cysts displays the cephalo-caudal gradient in respect to the stage of spermatogenesis. The formation of cysts at cephalic end of the testis causes their migration along the lobules to the caudal end. Consequently, the disposition in cephalo-caudal regions of spermatogenesis can be observed in longitudinal sections of the testis. The germ cells are spermatogonia, diploid cells with mitotic activity; primary and second spermatocytes characterized by meiotic divisions that develop haploid spermatids; during spermiogenesis the spermatids differentiate to spermatozoa. During spermiation the cysts open and spermatozoa leave the testicular lobules. After spermiation occurs the development of Leydig cells into glandular tissue. This glandular tissue regressed at the end of the reproductive cycle. PMID:26413406

  17. Lack of testicular seipin causes teratozoospermia syndrome in men

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Gao, Mingming; Wu, Chaoming; He, Hui; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Zuomin; Yang, Hongyuan; Xiao, Xinhua; Liu, George; Sha, Jiahao

    2014-01-01

    Obesity impairs male fertility, providing evidence for a link between adipose tissue and reproductive function; however, potential consequences of adipose tissue paucity on fertility remain unknown. Lack of s.c. fat is a hallmark of Berardinelli–Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2), which is caused by mutations in BSCL2-encoding seipin. Mice with a targeted deletion of murine seipin model BSCL2 with severe lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, and fatty liver but also exhibit male sterility. Here, we report teratozoospermia syndrome in a lipodystrophic patient with compound BSCL2 mutations, with sperm defects resembling the defects of infertile seipin null mutant mice. Analysis of conditional mouse mutants revealed that adipocyte-specific loss of seipin causes progressive lipodystrophy without affecting fertility, whereas loss of seipin in germ cells results in complete male infertility and teratozoospermia. Spermatids of the human patient and mice devoid of seipin in germ cells are morphologically abnormal with large ectopic lipid droplets and aggregate in dysfunctional clusters. Elevated levels of phosphatidic acid accompanied with an altered ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids in mutant mouse testes indicate impaired phospholipid homeostasis during spermiogenesis. We conclude that testicular but not adipose tissue-derived seipin is essential for male fertility by modulating testicular phospholipid homeostasis. PMID:24778225

  18. Factors Influencing Rate of Testicular Salvage in Acute Testicular Torsion at a Tertiary Pediatric Center

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandra, Puneeta; Palazzi, Kerrin L.; Holmes, Nicholas M.; Marietti, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies have demonstrated that variables other than duration of symptoms can affect outcomes in children with acute testicular torsion. We examined demographic and logistical factors, including inter-hospital transfer, which may affect outcomes at a tertiary pediatric referral center. Methods We reviewed charts of all pediatric patients with acute testicular torsion during a five-year period. Data were collected regarding age, insurance type, socioeconomic status, duration of symptoms prior to presentation, transfer status, time of day, time to surgical exploration, and testicular salvage. Results Our study included 114 patients. Testicular salvage was possible in 55.3% of patients. Thirty-one percent of patients included in the study were transferred from another facility. Inter-hospital transfer did not affect testicular salvage rate. Time to surgery and duration of pain were higher among patients who underwent orchiectomy versus orchidopexy. Patients older than eight years of age were more likely to undergo orchidopexy than those younger than eight (61.5% vs. 30.4%, p=0.01). Ethnicity, insurance type, or time of day did not affect the testicular salvage rates. On multivariate analysis, only duration of symptoms less than six hours predicted testicular salvage (OR 22.5, p<0.001). Conclusion Even though inter-hospital transfer delays definitive surgical management, it may not affect testicular salvage rates. Time to presentation is the most important factor in predicting outcomes in children with acute testicular torsion. PMID:25671040

  19. [Radiotherapy after testicular-sparing surgery for bilateral or monorchide testicular tumours: an innovative approach].

    PubMed

    Sargos, P; Ferretti, L; Henriques de Figueiredo, B; Cornelis, F; Belhomme, S; Dallaudière, B; Richaud, P

    2013-01-01

    Testicular-sparing surgery may avoid definitive testosterone supplementation and preserve fertility in selected cases of men presenting with bilateral testicular tumours or in case of monorchidia. Testicular-sparing surgery may enable the conservation of both endocrine function and spermatogenesis in selected young men in order to preserve natural fatherhood, avoid definitive androgen replacement therapy and probably improve quality of life by reducing psychosexual consequences of anorchia. The tumorectomy must be followed by an external irradiation of the remaining testicle to eradicate testicular intratubular neoplasia revealed in 82% of cases after per-surgery biopsy. This approach concerns some rare indications. Dose level and technical consideration are still debated. PMID:23810303

  20. Educating young men about testicular cancer: support for a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign.

    PubMed

    Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Foster, S Catherine; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of testicular cancer among men 15-39 years of age, little has been done to increase awareness of this disease or educate males about its prevention. To fill this gap, the Standard Model of Health Communication was incorporated to design and implement a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign among male college students. To test the effectiveness of these messages, college students (N = 220) completed measures before and after the campaign. In addition, the authors obtained a control group of male college students (N = 52) who were not exposed to the messages. Survey items assessed awareness of testicular cancer and behaviors related to testicular cancer. Participants' knowledge of testicular cancer and likelihood of conducting a testicular self-exam increased significantly after being exposed to the campaign information. Men who were exposed to testicular cancer messages were more knowledgeable about testicular cancer and were more likely to conduct testicular self-examinations than were men in the control group. PMID:24117344

  1. Hesperetin, a citrus flavonone, protects potentially cadmium induced oxidative testicular dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Shagirtha, Kalist; Pari, Leelavinothan

    2011-10-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of hesperetin (Hp) on cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative testicular toxicity in rats. Subcutaneous administration of Cd (3mg/kg body weight) for 21 days significantly elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers, Cd concentration in testis and lowered the levels of enzymatic, non-enzymatic antioxidants and membrane bound enzymes in the testicular tissue. Hp administrated orally along with Cd injection for 21 days, significantly revert back the status of oxidative stress markers, Cd concentration in testis, improved status of antioxidant markers and membrane bound enzymes in the testis to near normal level. The histopathological studies in the testis of rats also supported that Hp (40 mg/kg) markedly reduced the toxicity of Cd and preserved the normal histoarchitecture pattern of the testis. Thus, the results suggest that Hp acts as a potent antioxidative agent against Cd induced testicular toxicity in rats. PMID:21719105

  2. Identification of a Heritable Model of Testicular Germ Cell Tumor in the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Joanie C.; Dovey, Jennifer Shepard; Chandler, Garvin L.; Carbajal, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Germ cell tumors (GCTs) affect infants, children, and adults and are the most common cancer type in young men. Progress in understanding the molecular basis of GCTs has been hampered by a lack of suitable animal models. Here we report the identification of a zebrafish model of highly penetrant, heritable testicular GCT isolated as part of a forward genetic screen for cancer susceptibility genes. The mutant line develops spontaneous testicular tumors at a median age of 7 months, and pedigree analysis indicates dominant inheritance of the GCT susceptibility trait. The zebrafish model exhibits disruption of testicular tissue architecture and the accumulation of primitive, spermatogonial-like cells with loss of spermatocytic differentiation. Radiation treatment leads to apoptosis of the tumor cells and tumor regression. The GCT-susceptible line can serve as a model for understanding the mechanisms regulating germ cells in normal development and disease and as a platform investigating new therapeutic approaches for GCTs. PMID:20047465

  3. Comparison of intravascular (nondiffusible) and diffusible radiotracers in diagnosis of testicular-scrotal disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Skarzynski, J.J.; Rosenberg, R.J.; Sziklas, J.J.; Walzak, M.P.; Karimeddini, M.K.; Spencer, R.P.

    1985-05-01

    The radionuclide approach to testicular-scrotal lesions has been described in the literature in terms of dynamic and static images. However, there has been little consideration of which radiopharmaceutical to utilize. In essence, the desired procedure is to estimate relative blood flow to each testicular-scrotal area. An intravascular (nondiffusible) radiolabel may therefore be advantageous. We reviewed 18 consecutive radionuclide studies that were performed for suspected testicular-scrotal pathology. Three radiopharmaceuticals were utilized; 7 with Tc-99m-RBC or HSA, 7 with Tc-99m-pertechnetate, and 4 with Tc-99m-DTPA. Studies were read ''blind'' as to the agent employed and rated on a scale of 1+ (least satisfactory) to 4+. Criteria included ability to delineate the testes-scrotum, background activity, and clarity of the dynamic phase. Studies with the intravascular labels (6 with tagged RBC and 1 with labeled HSA) had a mean rating of 3.6 out of 4. Pertechnetate studies had a rating of 3.0. Those performed with DTPA received a rating of 2.0. The major problems with DTPA studies were rapid entry into soft tissue (likely extracellular fluid), which created a high background; in addition, bladder counts detracted from imaging the testicular-scrotal region. Intravascular labels appear to be a distinct improvement over Tc-99m-pertechnetate for testicular-scrotal imaging.

  4. Laboratory processing and intracytoplasmic sperm injection using epididymal and testicular spermatozoa: what can be done to improve outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Popal, Wana; Nagy, Zsolt P

    2013-01-01

    There are two main reasons why sperm may be absent from semen. Obstructive azoospermia is the result of a blockage in the male reproductive tract; in this case, sperm are produced in the testicle but are trapped in the epididymis. Non-obstructive azoospermia is the result of severely impaired or non-existent sperm production. There are three different sperm-harvesting procedures that obstructive azoospermic males can undergo, namely MESA (microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration), PESA (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration), and TESA (testicular sperm aspiration). These three procedures are performed by fine-gauge needle aspiration of epididymal fluid that is examined by an embryologist. Additionally, one technique, called TESE (testicular sperm extraction), is offered for males with non-obstructive azoospermia. In this procedure, a urologist extracts a piece of tissue from the testis. Then, an embryologist minces the tissue and uses a microscope to locate sperm. Finding sperm in the testicular tissue can be a laborious 2- to 3-hour process depending on the degree of sperm production and the etiology of testicular failure. Sperm are freed from within the seminiferous tubules and then dissected from the surrounding testicular tissue. It is specifically these situations that require advanced reproductive techniques, such as ICSI, to establish a pregnancy. This review describes eight different lab processing techniques that an embryologist can use to harvest sperm. Additionally, sperm cryopreservation, which allows patients to undergo multiple ICSI cycles without the need for additional surgeries, will also be discussed. PMID:23503962

  5. Captopril and telmisartan treatments attenuate cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Jresat, Iyad

    2013-04-01

    The possible protective effect of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, vs. telmisartan, an angiotensin II-receptor antagonist, was investigated in rats with testicular injury induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2 mg/kg). Captopril (60 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) were given for five consecutive days, starting 3 days before cadmium administration. Both agents significantly increased serum testosterone level, which was reduced by cadmium, suppressed lipid peroxidation, restored the depleted reduced glutathione, decreased the elevations of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cadmium ion levels, and attenuated the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that both captopril and telmisartan significantly reduced the cadmium-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand, and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. The differences between the results obtained with captopril and telmisartan were insignificant, suggesting that both drugs equally protected the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium. PMID:21819444

  6. How to Do a Testicular Self Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... testicular cancer to keep in mind are: Any enlargement of a testicle A significant loss of size ... discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts I hesitate to ...

  7. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled silicone rubber prosthesis that is implanted surgically to resemble a testicle. (b) Classification. Class...

  8. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled silicone rubber prosthesis that is implanted surgically to resemble a testicle. (b) Classification. Class...

  9. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled silicone rubber prosthesis that is implanted surgically to resemble a testicle. (b) Classification. Class...

  10. The regulation of testicular function.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Y; Robertson, D M; de Kretser, D M

    1983-01-01

    From this review it is evident that our understanding of the control of testicular function has advanced greatly over the past decade. Many of the advances have depended on techniques to isolate and study the function of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. Although this knowledge has been essential, it is important to proceed cautiously in the extrapolation of this information to the in vivo situation. The likely interdependence of the two compartments of the testis in normal function highlights the need to consider the testis as a whole, and future studies must give cognizance to this concept. Furthermore, the importance of blood and lymphatic flow and the evidence of hormonal influences on the vasculature of the testis add yet another dimension to the in vivo function of this organ. PMID:6303977

  11. Cadmium-induced testicular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn{sup 2+} and/or Ca{sup 2+} mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.

  12. Cadmium-induced testicular injury.

    PubMed

    Siu, Erica R; Mruk, Dolores D; Porto, Catarina S; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn(2+) and/or Ca(2+) mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men. PMID:19236889

  13. Cadmium-induced Testicular Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, and the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor, oxidative stress inducer and how it may disrupt the Zn+2 and/or Ca+2 mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity is emerged, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men. PMID:19236889

  14. Lifestyle and testicular dysfunction: a brief update.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Desai, Nisarg R; Ruffoli, Riccardo; Carpi, Angelo

    2008-10-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and defective spermatogenesis is increasing probably due to environmental and lifestyle-related factors. The aim of this review is to briefly describe and comment on the principal lifestyle factors. The recent findings that the electromagnetic waves following the use of the cell phone and the prolonged exposure to the noise stress cause relevant testicular dysfunction in man or animals reinforce the hypothesis of the importance of lifestyle-related factors. PMID:18771892

  15. Epidemiology of Prostate and Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Filippou, Pauline; Ferguson, James E; Nielsen, Matthew E

    2016-09-01

    Prostate and testicular cancers account for a large percentage of cancer morbidity in men in the United States and worldwide due to high prevalence rates that continue to grow. Patterns of incidence and mortality vary greatly in both cancers among men of different age groups, ethnicities, and geographic locations. This article summarizes the incidence, prognosis, and risk factors of both prostate and testicular cancers, globally and in the United States. PMID:27582605

  16. Cetuximab intensifies cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mattan; Popovtzer, Aron; Tzabari, Moran; Mizrachi, Aviram; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2016-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has proliferative properties in the testis. Cetuximab, an anti-EGFR, is administered together with chemotherapy to patients with various types of cancer. This studies aim was to investigate the effect of cetuximab on testicular function. Adult male mice were injected with cetuximab (10 mg/kg), cisplatin (8 mg/kg) or a combination of both, and killed one week or one month later. The doses were chosen by human equivalent dose calculation. Testicular function was evaluated by epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count and sperm motility, weights of testes and epididymides, and the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the serum. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine germ cell proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (Terminal transferase-mediated deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick-end labelling), reserve (DAZL-Deleted in azoospermia-like, Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc-finger), blood vessels (CD34) and Sertoli cells (GATA-4). Administration of cetuximab alone increased testicular apoptosis and decreased epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count over time. When added to cisplatin, cetuximab exacerbated most of the recorded testicular parameters, compared with the effect of cisplatin alone, including testis and epididymis weights, epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count, AMH concentration, meiosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, cetuximab has only a mild effect on testicular reserve, but when added to cisplatin, it exacerbates cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:27184186

  17. Dexrazoxane exacerbates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mattan; Tzabari, Moran; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Infertility induced by anti-cancer treatments pose a major concern for cancer survivors. Doxorubicin (DXR) has been previously shown to exert toxic effects on the testicular germinal epithelium. Based upon the cardioprotective traits of dexrazoxane (DEX), we studied its potential effect in reducing DXR-induced testicular toxicity. Male mice were injected with 5  mg/kg DXR, 100  mg/kg DEX, combination of both or saline (control) and sacrificed either 1, 3 or 6 months later. Testes were excised and further processed. Glutathione and apoptosis assays were performed to determine oxidative stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to study the effects of the drugs on testicular histology and on spermatogonial reserve. DXR and the combined treatment induced a striking decline in testicular weight. DEX prevented DXR-induced oxidative stress, but enhanced DXR-induced apoptosis within the testes. Furthermore, the combined treatment depleted the spermatogonial reserve after 1 month, with impaired recovery at 3 and 6 months post-treatment. This resulted in compromised sperm parameters, testicular and epididymal weights as well as significantly reduced sperm motility, all of which were more severe than those observed in DXR-treated mice. The activity of DEX in the testis may differ from its activity in cardiomyocytes. Adding DEX to DXR exacerbates DXR-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:26329125

  18. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment. PMID:27137819

  19. Stereology as a valuable tool in the toolbox of testicular research.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The morphology of the testis may be altered in various developmental, physiological and pathological conditions and these changes are reflected by the alterations in the reproductive capacity. Studying testicular morphology under these conditions or following therapeutic interventions relies on quantitative data. Design-based stereology provides quantitative morphological data on the most important characteristics of the testis. The total volume of the testis, seminiferous tubules, interstitial tissues and germinal epithelium, length, diameter and cross sectional area of the tubules as well as the number of Sertoli, Leydig, myoid cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids can be estimated. The present paper explains and demonstrates accurate and efficient stereological methods of sampling and analysis of testicular specimens according to the basics made by the pioneer stereologists. Second-order stereology can provide additional information on the spatial arrangement of the content of the tissues, cells or organelles in testis. These methods are valuable enough to be included in the toolbox of testicular research and are essential whenever quantitative data on morphological characteristics of the testis are required including testicular biopsy of human or in experimental studies. PMID:23069191

  20. Oncogenes in human testicular cancer: DNA and RNA studies.

    PubMed Central

    Peltomäki, P.; Alfthan, O.; de la Chapelle, A.

    1991-01-01

    Oncogene dosage and expression were studied in 16 testicular neoplasms, 14 of germ cell and two of non-germ cell origin. In comparison with normal DNA, tumour DNA of a total of eight patients (seven with germ cell neoplasm and one with testicular lymphoma) showed increased dosages of KRAS2, PDGFA, EGFR, MET and PDGFB. The most frequent (occurring in six tumours) and prominent (up to 3-4-fold) increases were detected in the dosages of KRAS2 (on chromosome 12p) and PDGFA (chromosome 7p), relative to a reference locus from chromosome 2. Importantly, there was a similar increase in 12p dosage in general in these tumours, suggesting the presence of the characteristic isochromosome 12p marker. On the contrary, possible 7p polysomy (assessed by molecular methods) did not explain the PDGFA (or EGFR) changes in all cases. NRAS, MYCN, CSFIR, MYB, MYC, ABL, HRASI, TP53, and ERBB2 did not reveal any consistent alterations in tumour DNA. In RNA dot blot assays the expression of KRAS2, PDGFA, EGFR, or MYC was generally not increased in the tumour samples when compared to that in normal testicular tissue of the same patients although there was interindividual variation in mRNA levels. It thus appears that while oncogene dosage changes occur in a proportion of testis cancers, they are often part of changes in large chromosomal regions or whole arms and are seldom accompanied by altered expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1829952

  1. Genetics Home Reference: 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sex development 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Close All Description 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development is a condition in which individuals with ...

  2. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-09-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune privilege have been investigated for a long time. Increasing evidence shows that both a local immunosuppressive milieu and systemic immune tolerance are involved in maintaining testicular immune privilege status. The mechanisms underlying testicular innate immunity are emerging based on the investigation of the pattern recognition receptor-mediated innate immune response in testicular cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of testicular defense mechanisms and identifies topics that merit further investigation. PMID:24954222

  3. Testicular cancer in US Navy personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, F.C.; Gorham, E.D.; Garland, C.F.; Ducatman, A.M.

    1986-09-01

    The risk of the development of testicular cancer is greatest in white men aged 20-29 years. The United States Navy is one of the largest populations of men in this high-incidence age group to receive health care with a centralized, computer-based medical records system. There were 2,275.829 person-years at risk in white male enlisted personnel involved in approximately 100 occupations in the US Navy during 1974-1979. Incident cases of testicular cancer (n = 143) were identified in this population using computerized hospitalization data maintained at the Naval Health Research Center, San Diego. Cases were verified through review of original medical records and Naval Medical Board findings. Age-adjusted incidence rates of testicular cancer in US Navy personnel did not differ significantly from those of the United States population (3.7 vs 3.9 per 100,000, respectively), and there were no significant differences in age-specific rates. US Navy age adjusted incidence rates of testicular cancer did not increase with length of service. However, two naval occupations appeared to have significantly increased risk: aviation support equipment technicians (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 6.2, p = 0.001) and enginemen (SIR = 2.6, p = 0.01). Job-related exposures common to these two occupations include exposure to gasoline and diesel fuel, and their exhaust products; the authors believe these exposures may be associated with increased risk of testicular cancer.

  4. Testicular self-examination amongst genitourinary medicine clinic attendees.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Alexandra; Shaw, Jonathan W; Woolley, Paul D

    2014-10-01

    Advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer now give a five-year survival rate of 97.2%. Delayed presentation remains the primary cause of poor outcome and recommendations have stressed that men, particularly those with risk factors, should undertake regular testicular self-examination. This study aimed to determine testicular self-examination knowledge and practices amongst 740 unselected men attending a genitourinary medicine clinic via questionnaire survey. Of respondents, 75.8% of men had heard of testicular cancer, and 79.9% had heard of testicular self-examination. Of these, 41% of men had been taught testicular self-examination; 73.9% of them by a doctor or nurse. Importantly, 79.2% had previously performed testicular self-examination. The most common reason for not performing testicular self-examination was 'Don't really know what to look for' (59.5%). Men previously taught testicular self-examination were 11.5 times more likely to perform the practice than those untaught. Of respondents, 74.1% wanted more information regarding testicular self-examination whilst attending the clinic. This study shows an increased level of testicular self-examination amongst genitourinary medicine attendees than has been previously demonstrated in other patient groups. There remains room for improvement via further health promotion and research on the effectiveness of testicular self-examination. PMID:24516080

  5. Testicular volume and fertility potential in men operated due to varicocele and testicular hypotrophy in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kaletka, Zbigniew; Huk, Jacek; Fryczkowski, Mieczysław; Prokopowicz, Grzegorz; Życzkowski, Marcin; Muskała, Bartosz; Taborowski, Piotr; Paradysz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Failure to perform surgical repair of varicocele before puberty is among the common causes of male infertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the testicular volume and fertility potential in men after laparoscopic varicocelectomy conducted in adolescence due to varicocele and concomitant testicular hypotrophy. Material and methods From 1996 through 2011, eighty–two adolescents were operated on for unilateral primary varicocele with testicular hypotrophy. Sixty–eight patients were subject to the current analysis. The age of the patients was 13 to 17 years (mean 15.3 years). Clinical diagnosis was established on the basis of andrologic examination and ultrasonography with an assessment of testicular size and varicocele severity. Laparoscopic surgical repair was performed by a transperitoneal approach with division of testicular vein only. Results An increase in left testicular volume when compared with the contralateral testis was found in 25 (78.1%) young men with clinical grade 2 varicocele (p = 0.02) and in 32 (88.8%) subjects with grade 3 abnormality (p = 0.04). An increase in left testicular volume was found in 46 (85.1%) of 54 patients with unilateral varicocele and in 12 (85.7%) of 14 subjects operated on for bilateral disease. A left testicular volume increase was comparable independent of the use of uni– or bilateral repair. Fifty–eight (85.2%) of our 68 patients had normozoospermia. Conclusions Laparoscopic varicocele repair resulted in a significant increase of hypotrophic testicular volume in 83.8% of our subjects. PMID:24578992

  6. Segmental testicular infarction in a young man simulating a testicular tumor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Goske, Marilyn J; Bove, Kevin E; Minovich, Eugene

    2009-04-01

    A 19-year-old boy presented with a 48-hour history of acute onset severe right scrotal pain with minimal scrotal swelling. High-frequency US including color Doppler demonstrated a wedge-shaped, heterogeneous, avascular testicular mass diagnosed preoperatively as a segmental testicular infarction (STI). This was proved at surgery and subsequent histology. The preoperative diagnosis of STI was suggested based on the young man's presentation of severe pain and the sonographic appearance of the mass. Entertaining the preoperative diagnosis of STI from a testicular tumor is important for testis-sparing surgery even though STI in the pediatric age group is extremely rare. PMID:19214495

  7. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Acrylamide Induced Testicular Damage

    PubMed Central

    Lebda, Mohamed; Gad, Shereen; Gaafar, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acrylamide is very toxic to various organs and associated with significant increase of oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants. Alpha-lipoic acid enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. Aim of the study: This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of alpha-lipoic acid on the oxidative damage induced by acrylamide in testicular and epididymal tissues. Material and methods: Forty adult male rats were divided into four groups (10 rats each). Control group; acrylamide treated group administered acrylamide 0.05% (w/v) in drinking water for 21 days; alpha-lipoic acid group received basal diet supplemented with 1% alpha-lipoic acid and forth group was exposed to acrylamide and treated with alpha-lipoic acid at the same doses and treatment regimen mentioned before. Results: The administration of acrylamide resulted in significant elevation in testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level (MDA) and significant reduction in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, acrylamide significantly reduced serum total testosterone and progesterone but increased estradiol (E2) levels. Treatment with alpha-lipoic acid prior to acrylamide induced protective effects and attenuated these biochemical changes. Conclusion: Alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to possess antioxidant properties offering promising efficacy against oxidative stress induced by acrylamide administration. PMID:25126019

  8. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function.

    PubMed

    Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Wagner, Márcia Santos; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-11-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:20126850

  9. Organochlorine compounds and testicular dysgenesis syndrome: human data

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael B.; Trabert, Britton; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Cryptorchidism, hypospadias, subfertility, and testicular germ-cell tumor have been suggested to comprise a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) based on the premise that each may derive from perturbations of embryonal programming and gonadal development during fetal life. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to be associated with these disorders given the importance of sex steroid hormones in urogenital development and homeostasis. Organochlorines are one such set of compounds which are defined as containing between one and ten covalently bonded chlorine atoms. These compounds are persistent pollutants with long half-lives, accumulate in adipose tissue when ingested, bioaccumulate and biomagnify, and have complex and variable toxicological profiles. Examples of organochlorines include dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlordane. In this comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies which have tested for associations between organochlorines and facets of TDS, we find evidence for associations between the exposures p,p′-DDE, cis-nonachlor, and trans-nonachlor with TGCT. The sum of the evidence from human epidemiologic studies does not indicate any association between specific organochlorines studied and cryptorchidism, hypospadias, or fertility. Many other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including additional organochlorines, have yet to be assessed in relation to disorders associated with TDS, yet study of such chemicals has strong scientific merit given the relevance of such hypotheses to urogenital development. PMID:21668838

  10. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  11. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  12. Global incidence and outcome of testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugalingam, Thurkaa; Soultati, Aspasia; Chowdhury, Simon; Rudman, Sarah; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer is a rare tumor type accounting for 1% of malignancies in men. It is, however, the most common cancer in young men in Western populations. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing globally, although a decline in mortality rates has been reported in Western countries. It is important to identify whether the variations in trends observed between populations are linked to genetic or environmental factors. Methods Age-standardized incidence rates and age-standardized mortality rates for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in ten countries from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) and World Health Organization (WHO) mortality databases. The annual percent change was calculated using Joinpoint regression to assess temporal changes between geographical regions. Results Testicular cancer age-standardized incidence rates are highest in New Zealand (7.8), UK (6.3), Australia (6.1), Sweden (5.6), USA (5.2), Poland (4.9), and Spain (3.8) per 100,000 men. India, China, and Colombia had the lowest incidence (0.5, 1.3, and 2.2, respectively) per 100,000 men. The annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer incidence significantly increased in the European countries Sweden 2.4%, (2.2; 2.6); UK 2.9%, (2.2; 3.6); and Spain 5.0%, (1.7; 8.4), Australia 3.0%, (2.2; 3.7), and China 3.5%, (1.9; 5.1). India had the lowest overall testicular cancer incidence −1.7%, (−2.5; −0.8). Annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer mortality rates were decreasing in all study populations, with the greatest decline observed in Sweden −4.2%, (−4.8; −3.6) and China −4.9%, (−6.5; −3.3). Conclusion Testicular cancer is increasing in incidence in many countries; however, mortality rates remain low and most men are cured. An understanding of the risks and long-term side effects of treatment are important in managing men with this disease. PMID:24204171

  13. Antidepressants and testicular cancer: cause versus association.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-03-01

    A data mining study that examined associations between 105 drugs and 55 cancer sites found significant associations between 2 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine and paroxetine) and testicular cancer. The study suggested several reasons why these associations merited further investigation. A later study tested specific relationships between 12 antidepressant drugs and testicular cancer and subtypes thereof; whereas significant relationships were again found, these disappeared after adjusting for confounding variables. These 2 studies are educative because they illustrate how false-positive results can easily arise in exploratory research and how confounding may be responsible for statistically significant relationships in study designs that are not randomized controlled trials. PMID:24717391

  14. Grayscale and color Doppler features of testicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bertolotto, Michele; Derchi, Lorenzo E; Secil, Mustafa; Dogra, Vikram; Sidhu, Paul S; Clements, Richard; Freeman, Simon; Grenier, Nicolas; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ramchandani, Parvati; Cicero, Calogero; Abete, Luca; Bussani, Rossana; Rocher, Laurence; Spencer, John; Tsili, Athina; Valentino, Massimo; Pavlica, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Pooled data from 16 radiology centers were retrospectively analyzed to seek patients with pathologically proven testicular lymphoma and grayscale and color Doppler images available for review. Forty-three cases were found: 36 (84%) primary and 7 (16%) secondary testicular lymphoma. With unilateral primary lymphoma, involvement was unifocal (n = 10), multifocal (n = 11), or diffuse (n = 11). Synchronous bilateral involvement occurred in 6 patients. Color Doppler sonography showed normal testicular vessels within the tumor in 31 of 43 lymphomas (72%). Testicular lymphoma infiltrates through the tubules, preserving the normal vascular architecture of the testis. Depiction of normal testicular vessels crossing the lesion is a useful adjunctive diagnostic criterion. PMID:26014335

  15. Grayscale and Color Doppler Features of Testicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bertolotto, Michele; Derchi, Lorenzo E.; Secil, Mustafa; Dogra, Vikram; Sidhu, Paul S.; Clements, Richard; Freeman, Simon; Grenier, Nicolas; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ramchandani, Parvati; Cicero, Calogero; Abete, Luca; Bussani, Rossana; Rocher, Laurence; Spencer, John; Tsili, Athina; Valentino, Massimo; Pavlica, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Pooled data from 16 radiology centers were retrospectively analyzed to seek patients with pathologically proven testicular lymphoma and grayscale and color Doppler images available for review. Forty-three cases were found: 36 (84%) primary and 7 (16%) secondary testicular lymphoma. With unilateral primary lymphoma, involvement was unifocal (n = 10), multifocal (n = 11), or diffuse (n = 11). Synchronous bilateral involvement occurred in 6 patients. Color Doppler sonography showed normal testicular vessels within the tumor in 31 of 43 lymphomas (72%). Testicular lymphoma infiltrates through the tubules, preserving the normal vascular architecture of the testis. Depiction of normal testicular vessels crossing the lesion is a useful adjunctive diagnostic criterion. PMID:26014335

  16. The expression of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) in testicular cancer: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Shapouri, Farnaz; Saeidi, Shaghayegh; Ashrafi Kakhki, Sara; Pouyan, Omid; Amirchaghmaghi, Elham; Aflatoonian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that malfunction of immune system may causes testicular cancer. Recently, our understanding of innate immune system has been expanded, by discovery of “Toll-Like Receptors” (TLRs). Some studies have shown that polymorphisms of TLR2 and 4 may affect on the risk of cancer. Also, the role of TLRs 3 and 9 have been shown in apoptosis and metastasis of cancer cells in animal models. Objective: Little information is available about the influence of innate immunity on testicular malignancy. Therefore, expression of TLRs 2, 3, 4 and 9 as main components of innate immunity has been investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, TLRs gene expression was examined by RT-PCR in normal testis and testicular cancer tissues. Real time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis was used to compare the relative expression of TLRs between the samples. Results: mRNAs of TLR 2, 3, 4 and 9 were expressed in all normal and cancer samples. Q-PCR reveals that cancer samples had stronger expression of these genes compared with normal ones. Conclusion: It seems that the different TLRs expression in testicular cancer cells may contribute to extensive signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis. PMID:24639717

  17. Male Pronuclear Formation using Dog Sperm Derived from Ectopic Testicular Xenografts, Testis, and Epididymis

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Abolfazl; Khadivi, Asma; Shams-Esfandabadi, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Background Testis tissue xenografting and the resultant sperm in a xenograft may provide a unique approach to rescue the genetic material of males that die prematurely and is a model for the study of human spermatogenesis and can represent an alternative approach for fertility preservation in cancer patients. This study was aimed to evaluate the xenogenic dog sperm in formation of male pronucleus following injection into the sheep oocytes. Methods The in vitro matured slaughterhouse derived sheep oocytes were subjected to Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) with epididymal, testicular, and xenogenic dog sperm. The ICSI was performed after scoring of the sperm midpiece using an IX71-Olympus inverted microscope with Nomarsky optics. Within 1 hr after injection, the injected oocytes in activated group were exposed to 5 µM ionomycin for 5 min. The data were analyzed by Chi-square and ANOVA using SigmaStat, version 3.5, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results The formation of female pronucleus after ICSI of xenogenic sperm was higher than epididymal and testicular sperm in non-activated oocytes. The corresponding rate in activated oocytes was higher or comparable with testicular and epididymal sperm. The rate of male pronucleus formation after ICSI of xenogenic sperm was comparable with injection of two other sperm sources. Oocyte activation had an inductive role in female and male pronuclear formation. Conclusion Dog xenogenic sperm was capable to induce oocyte activation and proportion of male pronucleous formation was comparable to the testicular and epididymal sperm. PMID:25215177

  18. [Dependence of serum hormones (T, FSH, LH) on morphometric testicular findings after chemo- and radiotherapy in patients with malignant testicular tumors].

    PubMed

    Barth, V; Schönfelder, M

    1990-01-01

    Correlations which exist between morphometric parameters of remaining testicular tissue, on the one hand, and serum hormones on the other (testosterone = T, follicle-stimulating hormone = FSH, luteinising hormone = LH), depending on therapeutic action taken on patients for malignant testicular tumours, seem to suggest that decline in epithelial thickness together with increase in wall thickness leads to rise in FSH. No unambiguous relations, on the other hand, were found to exist between testosterone or luteotrophic hormone and morphometric findings. Hence, FSH seems to characterise the severity of damage to germ epithelium and thus the degree of impairment to spermatogenesis. FSH may be accepted as a criterion for fertility disorders in sexually active men. PMID:2122615

  19. [Fertility preservation in boys: spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and testicular grafting].

    PubMed

    Goossens, E; Tournaye, H

    2013-09-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) are the founder cells of spermatogenesis and are responsible for the lifelong production of spermatozoa. The cryopreservation and transplantation of these cells has been proposed as a fertility preservation strategy for young boys at risk for stem cell loss, i.e. patients undergoing chemotherapy for cancer or as a conditioning treatment for bone marrow transplantation. To prevent lifelong sterility in boys, two fertility restoration strategies are being developed: the injection of SSC and the grafting of testicular tissue containing SSC. Depending on the disease of the patient one of these two approaches will be applicable. Grafting has the advantage that SSC can reside within their natural niche, preserving the interactions between germ cells and their supporting cells and may therefore be regarded as the first choice strategy. However, in cases where the risk for malignant contamination of the testicular tissue is real, e.g. leukemia, transplantation of SSC by injection is preferable over grafting. PMID:23972916

  20. NIR spectroscopy for the diagnosis of testicular pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, Eckhard; Hampel, Uwe; Zepnick, H.; Freyer, Richard

    2000-11-01

    NIR spectroscopy is a method principally capable of measuring tissue perfusion and oxygen saturation in subsurface and deeper tissue layers. In urology such perfusion related parameters are of some importance for the differentiation and evaluation of certain types of testicular pathologies. Among them are in the first place the differentiation between inflammations and torsion of the testis, both with similar symptoms, and the assessment of tissue viability in cases of torsion and necrosis, which is sometimes not sufficiently covered by sonography. Although NIR spectroscopy is the method of choice to measure blood oxygen saturation in tissue non- invasively the strong light scattering complicates spectroscopy quantification methods. Spatially-resolved spectroscopy (SRS) is one method to quantify absolute oxygen saturation and relative blood volume. To evaluate this method for in-vivo measurements we have developed a laser scanning device and evaluated quantification algorithms by help of numerical and experimental investigations. As first results suggest the method can in principle quantify absorption differences in tissue, oxygen saturation measurements, however, not work on the testis under the simplified assumptions made for other parts of the body.

  1. Experiment K-7-16: Effects of Microgravity or Simulated Launch on Testicular Function in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Clemens, J. W.; Deaver, D.; Folmer, J.; Zirkin, B.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Grills, G. S.; Gruppi, C. M.; Wolgemuth, D.; Serova, L. V.; Sapp, W. J.; Williams, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Fixed or frozen testicular tissues from five rats per group were analyzed by: subjective and quantitative evaluations of spermatogenesis; Northern-blot analysis for expression of selected genes; quantification of testosterone and receptors for LH; and morphometric analysis of Leydig cells. Based on observations of fixed tissue, it was evident that some rats in the flight and vivarium groups had testicular abnormalities unassociated with treatment, and probably existing when they were assigned randomly to the four treatment groups; the simulated-launch group contained no abnormal rat. Lesions induced in testes of caudal-elevation rats precluded discernment of any pre-existing abnormality. Considering rats without pre-existing abnormalities, diameter of seminiferous tubules and numbers of germ cells per tubule cross section were lower (E less than 0.05) in flight rats than in simulated-launch or vivarium rats. However, ratios of germ cells to each other, or to Sertoli cells, and number of homogenization-resistant spermatids did not differ from values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. There was no effect of flight on normal expression of testis-specific hsp gene products, or evidence for production of stress-inducible transcripts of the hsp70 or hsp90 genes. Concentration of receptors for rLH in testicular tissue, and surface densities of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes in Leydig cells, were similar in flight and simulated-launch rats. However, concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced (P less than 0.05) in flight rats to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Thus, spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed. Sequela of reduced androgen production on turnover of muscle and bone should be considered when interpreting data from mammals exposed to microgravity.

  2. Recidivous offence in sadistic homosexual pedophile with karyotype 48, XXXY after testicular pulpectomy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Lachman, M; Brzek, A; Mellan, J; Hampl, R; Starka, L; Motlik, K

    1991-01-01

    The case of recidivous sexual offender with genetically caused mental retardation and primary hypogonadism (Klinefelter's syndrome with karyotype 48, XXXY) is described. He was examined after sadistic abuse of a boy aged 13 that he had committed 19 years after performed testicular pulpectomy. Plasmatic level of testosterone was found 4x higher than mean level in men after orchidectomy. Histological examination of residual scrotal tissues proved that the source of androgens were hyperplastic nodules of extratesticular Leydig cells. PMID:1778231

  3. Immunization against recombinant GnRH-I alters testicular structure in an experimental boar model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunsheng; Liu, Ya; Su, Shiping; Pu, Yong; Zhang, Xiaorong; Fang, Fugui

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare testicular tissue in immunized and control boars. Eighteen male piglets, aged 12 weeks, were vaccinated twice intramuscularly with a maltose-binding protein-gonadotropin-releasing hormone I hexamer peptide (MBP-GnRH-I6). Blood samples were taken at 12, 18, 21 and 24 weeks of age. Serum concentrations of testosterone and GnRH-I antibodies were determined by radioimmunoassay. The pigs were sacrificed 6 weeks after the second immunization. Testicular weight and size were recorded and tissue samples were collected for histological examination. The results demonstrated that active immunization against MBP-GnRH-I6 increased serum GnRH-I antibody levels (P < 0.05) and reduced serum concentrations of testosterone (P < 0.05) when compared with controls. Histological studies performed on testicular tissue revealed clear signs of atrophy in the MBP-GnRH-I6 immunized pigs, and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in paired testes weight and size were seen in the treated boars. Microscopically, the mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules was markedly reduced (P < 0.01). Spermatogonia were visible, as well as few spermatocytes, but no spermatozoa were detected in the seminiferous tubules. Ultramicroscopic analysis of testicular tissue revealed an increase in the thickness of the basement membrane and extensive damage in the cell organelles of the treated animals, including small spermatogonial size, decreased number of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in the primary spermatocyte and spermatid, a shallow hollow for nuclear membranes in Sertoli cells and mitochondrial vacuolation in Leydig cells. We conclude that MBP-GnRH-I6 induces severe atrophy in the testes of immunized boars. PMID:23991935

  4. Automated sonographic evaluation of testicular perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierman, Jonathan S.; Clement, Gregory T.; Kalish, Leslie A.; O'Kane, Patrick L.; Frauscher, Ferdinand; Paltiel, Harriet J.

    2006-07-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) imaging is potentially applicable to the investigation of vascular disorders of the testis. We investigated the ability of two automated computer algorithms to analyse contrast-enhanced pulse inversion US data in a rabbit model of unilateral testicular ischaemia and to correctly determine relative testicular perfusion: nonlinear curve fitting of the US backscatter intensity as a function of time; and spectral analysis of the intensity time trace. We compared (i) five metrics based on the algorithmic data to testicular perfusion ratios obtained with radiolabelled microspheres, a reference standard; (ii) qualitative assessment of the US images by two independent readers blinded to the side of the experimental and control testes to the radiolabelled microsphere perfusion ratios; and (iii) results of the algorithmically-derived metrics to the qualitative assessments of the two readers. For the curve fit method, the algorithmically-derived metrics agreed with the reference standard in 54% to 68% of all cases. For the spectral method, the results agreed in 70% of all cases. The two readers agreed with the reference standard in 40% and 35% of all cases, respectively. These results suggest that automated methods of analysis may provide useful information in the assessment of testicular perfusion.

  5. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (premarket approval). (c) Date premarket approval application (PMA) or notice of product development protocol (PDP) is required. A PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food and... testicular prosthesis shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP in effect before being placed...

  6. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (premarket approval). (c) Date premarket approval application (PMA) or notice of product development protocol (PDP) is required. A PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food and... testicular prosthesis shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP in effect before being placed...

  7. Aesthetic plastic correction of incomplete testicular feminization.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, U T

    1979-12-01

    Surgery was performed for feminization of ambiguous (male) external genitalia in 1973 on a patient with incomplete testicular feminization (familial male hermaphroditism of mixed variety). Rhinoplasty and augmentation of the chin, the malar region, the breasts were also performed not only to improve the patient's sexual role but to enhance the aesthetic appearance, as an aid in better phychosocial adaptation. PMID:24173991

  8. Methyl farnesoate stimulates testicular growth in the freshwater crab Oziotelphusa senex senex fabricius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalavathy, Y.; Mamatha, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    The influence of methyl farnesoate (MF) on testicular growth in the fresh water crab Oziotelplusa senex senex was studied. MF stimulated testicular growth as evidenced by increased testicular weight, testicular index and testicular follicle diameter in MF injected crabs and provides evidence that MF acts as a male reproductive hormone in crustacea.

  9. Strategies for preservation of ovarian and testicular function after immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Pendse, Shona; Ginsburg, Elizabeth; Singh, Ajay K

    2004-05-01

    Gonadal toxicity as a side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy is a common long-term problem in the treatment of a variety of glomerular diseases. In both men and women treated with cyclophosphamide, the consequences of infertility can have great physical and emotional consequences; thus, this issue often has a critical role in the decision to decline treatment with cyclophosphamide. There exists a critical need for strategies for preservation of fertility in both men and women who require treatment with cyclophosphamide. This review explores emerging therapeutic options in this arena, which include sperm and oocyte cryopreservation, medical treatments such as testosterone therapy for men and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy for both men and women, and, finally, the relatively new strategy of germ-cell transplantation for both ovarian and testicular tissue, which still remains in the experimental stages. PMID:15112167

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Testicular Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of body tissues called a sonogram . Serum tumor marker test : A procedure in which a sample of ... levels in the blood. These are called tumor markers . The following tumor markers are used to detect ...

  11. Anchoring Ethinylestradiol Induced Gene Expression Changes with Testicular Morphology and Reproductive Function in the Medaka

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Hilary D.; Clark, Bryan W.; Hinton, David E.; Whitehead, Andrew; Martin, Stan; Kwok, Kevin W.; Kullman, Seth W.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental estrogens are ubiquitous in the environment and can cause detrimental effects on male reproduction. In fish, a multitude of effects from environmental estrogens have been observed including altered courting behavior and fertility, sex reversal, and gonadal histopathology. However, few studies in fish assess the impacts of estrogenic exposure on a physiological endpoint, such as reproduction, as well as the associated morphologic response and underlying global gene expression changes. This study assessed the implications of a 14 day sub-chronic exposure of ethinylestradiol (EE2; 1.0 or 10.0 µg/L EE2) on male medaka fertility, testicular histology and testicular gene expression. The findings demonstrate that a 14 day exposure to EE2 induced impaired male reproductive capacity and time- and dose-dependent alterations in testicular morphology and gene expression. The average fertilization rate/day following the exposure for control, 1.0 and 10.0 µg/L EE2 was 91.3% (±4.4), 62.8% (±8.3) and 28.8% (±5.8), respectively. The testicular morphologic alterations included increased germ cell apoptosis, decreased germinal epithelium and thickening of the interstitium. These changes were highly associated with testicular gene expression changes using a medaka-specific microarray. A pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes emphasized genes and pathways associated with apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation, collagen production/extracellular matrix organization, hormone signaling, male reproduction and protein ubiquitination among others. These findings highlight the importance of anchoring global gonadal gene expression changes with morphology and ultimately with tissue/organ function. PMID:23300682

  12. Shear wave elastography (SWE) is reliable method for testicular spermatogenesis evaluation after torsion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Lv, Faqing; Tang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate effect of torsion on testicular stiffness alteration in affected and concomitant testis using improved ultrasound method of shear wave elastography (SWE). We compared the morphology of the testicular spermatogenesis assessed with Johansen’s scale on histology specimens with a mean stiffness measured by SWE. A total of 18 New Zealand white male rabbits were divided into two groups (group A and group B), animals from group A were subjected to operation of right testicle torsion while left testicle remained intact. In group B both testicles were normal and right testicle was subjected to sham operation. The protocol of measurement for mean stiffness value was calculated from three elastographic images obtained from each testicle. Significant difference in mean stiffness value and Johnsen’ scaling was observed in both groups (A and B), as well as for normal and torted testicle in group A. The mean stiffness positively correlated with histologic grade on both sided testicles in group B, and left sided testicles in group A (P=0.045, r=0.43; group B; P=0.001, r=0.98), while histologic grade negatively correlated with mean stiffness in the group A, torted testicle (torsion P=0.012, r=-0.76). In this study testicular torsion, with consequently higher mean stiffness value determined by SWE, has qualitatively and quantitatively decreased spermatogenesis. Gradual morphology change in testicle unaffected by torsion has not been previously reported. This study confirmed that quantitative change in testicular tissue stiffness as well as change in testicular spermatogenesis can be reliably evaluated with SWE. PMID:26221246

  13. Grape juice concentrate (G8000(®) ) intake mitigates testicular morphological and ultrastructural damage following cadmium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Celina A; Gollücke, Andrea P B; Dolder, Heidi

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a well-known testicular toxicant, and parts of the world population are exposed chronically by inhalation or by food and water intake. Grape products have been highlighted as important sources of bioactive compounds, having anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and metal chelating properties. Since maintenance of tissue morphology is essential for testicular sperm development and hence male fertility, we analysed the protective effect of grape juice concentrate (GJC) (G8000(®) ) consumption on testicular morphology in rats exposed to cadmium. Thus, four groups of male Wistar rats (n = 6 per group), 50 days old, ingested either water or G8000(®) (2 g/kg/day) until they had completed one spermatogenic cycle in adult life (136 days old). Cadmium (1.2 mg / kg) was injected intraperitoneally when the animals were 80 days old into one of the water and one of the G8000 groups; intraperitoneal saline was used as a control in the other two groups. Animals anaesthetised and exsanguinated at 136 days and then perfused with Karnovsky's fixative and then the testes were collected for morphological analysis. We describe evident disruption of testicular morphology by cadmium, with alteration in tissue component proportions, reduced Leydig cells volume and initial signs of an inflammatory process. Ultrastructural analysis showed greater damage, suggesting spermatogenesis disruption. G8000(®) ingestion allowed tissue architecture to be re-established, as was corroborated by our stereological and morphometric findings. Animals from the group where G8000(®) had been administered together with cadmium revealed a significant reduction in macrophages and blood vessel volume, suggesting diminished inflammation, when compared to animals that received only cadmium. Moreover, smaller number of ultrastructural alterations was noted, revealing fewer areas of degeneration and disorganized interstitium. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that GJC consumption prevented the

  14. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date.  CASE REPORT This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  15. A case of Carney complex presenting as acute testicular pain

    PubMed Central

    Alleemudder, Adam; Pillai, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with testicular pain but was found to have bilateral testicular lesions later confirmed as Sertoli cell tumors. Genetic testing confirmed a PRKAR1A gene mutation consistent with Carney complex, a rare genetic disorder characterized by skin lesions, myxomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasms. A review of the condition is made highlighting the association with testicular tumors, particularly of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:27453662

  16. A case of Carney complex presenting as acute testicular pain.

    PubMed

    Alleemudder, Adam; Pillai, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with testicular pain but was found to have bilateral testicular lesions later confirmed as Sertoli cell tumors. Genetic testing confirmed a PRKAR1A gene mutation consistent with Carney complex, a rare genetic disorder characterized by skin lesions, myxomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasms. A review of the condition is made highlighting the association with testicular tumors, particularly of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:27453662

  17. Possible Role of GnIH as a Mediator between Adiposity and Impaired Testicular Function

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Shabana; Krishna, Amitabh; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the roles of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) as an endocrine link between increasing adiposity and impaired testicular function in mice. To achieve this, the effect of GnIH on changes in nutrients uptake and hormonal synthesis/action in the adipose tissue and testis was investigated simultaneously by in vivo study and separately by in vitro study. Mice were treated in vivo with different doses of GnIH for 8 days. In the in vitro study, adipose tissue and testes of mice were cultured with different doses of GnIH with or without insulin or LH for 24 h at 37°C. The GnIH treatment in vivo showed increased food intake, upregulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and increased uptake of triglycerides (TGs) in the adipose tissue. These changes may be responsible for increased accumulation of fat in white adipose tissue, resulting in increase in the body mass. Contrary to the adipose tissue, treatment with GnIH both in vivo and in vitro showed decreased uptake of glucose by downregulation of glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8) expressions in the testis, which in turn resulted in the decreased synthesis of testosterone. The GnIH treatment in vivo also showed the decreased expression of insulin receptor protein in the testis, which may also be responsible for the decreased testicular activity in the mice. These findings thus suggest that GnIH increases the uptake of glucose and TGs in the adipose tissue, resulting in increased accumulation of fat, whereas simultaneously in the testis, GnIH suppressed the GLUT8-mediated glucose uptake, which in turn may be responsible for decreased testosterone synthesis. This study thus demonstrates GnIH as mediator of increasing adiposity and impaired testicular function in mice. PMID:26869993

  18. Chlorpyrifos induced testicular damage in rats: ameliorative effect of glutathione antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Elsharkawy, Eman E; Yahia, Doha; El-Nisr, Neveen A

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the testes of adult rats exposed to chlorpyrifos (CPF). CPF was administered orally, in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to male rats for 90 days, twice weekly. Coadministration of water-soluble nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) was performed in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, orally, for the same period. Another two groups of male rats were administered GSH and corn oil, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase and GSH reductase were decreased while the levels of lipid peroxidation were increased in the testicular tissues of the exposed animals. Testosterone level in the serum was significantly decreased. A decrease in the histochemical determination of testicular alkaline phosphatase was observed in CPF-treated rats. A significant decrease in all stages of spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules was recorded in the exposed animals. Coadministration of GSH restored these parameters. PMID:23172834

  19. [Updated genomics of testicular germ cell tumor].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; He, An-bang; Cai, Zhi-ming; Wu, Song

    2015-04-01

    Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is a most common testicular malignancy with an increasing incidence, and its pathogenesis and mechanisms are not yet clear. The next generation sequencing has become the main tool to uncover the underlying mechanisms of TGCT. The differential gene expressions, gene mutation, predisposing gene-dominated signaling pathways, and changes of the relevant genes in the sex chromosome are largely involved in the occurrence and development of TGCT. Studies on the genomics of TGCT contribute a lot to identifying the pivotal pathogenic genes and paving a theoretical ground for the early screening and targeted therapy of TGCT. This paper summarizes the advances in the studies of the genomics of TGCT so as to reveal thetmechanisms of the disease at the genetic level. PMID:26027106

  20. Testicular cancer in US Navy personnel.

    PubMed

    Garland, F C; Gorham, E D; Garland, C F; Ducatman, A M

    1988-02-01

    Age-adjusted and age-specific incidence rates of testicular cancer in US Navy personnel did not differ significantly from those of the US population, and age-adjusted incidence rates did not increase with length of service in the Navy. There was a group of three occupations, however, which involved duties similar to those of the civilian occupation of automobile mechanic, and which had a significantly elevated age-adjusted rate of testicular cancer compared with the US population and the total Navy population. These occupations were aviation support equipment technician, engineman, and construction mechanic. All involve maintenance of internal combustion engines and exposure to the attendant lubricants, solvents, paints, and exhausts. PMID:3337092

  1. Testicular chloroma in a nonleukemic infant.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Michael B; Nafiu, Olubukola O; Valdez, Riccardo; Park, John M; Williams, James A; Wechsler, Daniel S

    2005-07-01

    Extramedullary myeloid cell tumors (EMCT) are localized collections of immature myeloid cells that occur outside of the bone marrow. Usually observed concurrently with bone marrow disease, EMCT also may occur in the absence of overt marrow leukemia. In this report, we describe an infant with a testicular mass that was identified as an EMCT after orchiectomy. Unlike the only previously reported case of infantile testicular chloroma, this patient did not exhibit bone marrow disease at diagnosis. Because systemic chemotherapy is considered to be superior to local control (surgery, radiation therapy), the patient was treated with intensively timed induction chemotherapy followed by 3 cycles of maintenance treatment (according to CCG protocol #2891) but no radiation therapy. The patient remains disease-free 18 months after diagnosis. PMID:16012331

  2. [Relationship between phthalates and testicular dysgenesis syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo-Rong; Dong, Lei; Ge, Ren-Shan; Hardy, Matthew P

    2007-03-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence demonstrates that boys born to women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy have an increased incidence of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, testicular cancer and spermatogenic dysfunction, which are collectively referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). TDS may be attributed to the dysfunction of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during their differentiation after exposure to phthalates in utero. Fox example, Leydig cell functions are significantly affected by phthalates, leading to the decrease of two Leydig cell products--insulin-like growth factor 3 (INSL3) and testosterone, which are critical factors for testis descent. The disorientation of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells in the adult testis may be the cause of spermatogenic dysfunction. PMID:17393778

  3. Slow Freezing, but Not Vitrification Supports Complete Spermatogenesis in Cryopreserved, Neonatal Sheep Testicular Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander J.; Costa, Guilherme M.; Escobar, Enrique N.; França, Luiz R.; Wildt, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to spur growth of early stage gametic cells recovered from neonates could lead to significant advances in rescuing the genomes of rare genotypes or endangered species that die unexpectedly. The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, the ability of two substantially different cryopreservation approaches, slow freezing versus vitrification, to preserve testicular tissue of the neonatal sheep and subsequently allow initiation of spermatogenesis post-xenografting. Testis tissue from four lambs (3-5 wk old) was processed and then untreated or subjected to slow freezing or vitrification. Tissue pieces (fresh, n = 214; slow freezing, then thawing, n = 196; vitrification, then warming, n = 139) were placed subcutaneously under the dorsal skin of SCID mice and then grafts recovered and evaluated 17 wk later. Grafts from fresh and slow frozen tissue contained the most advanced stages of spermatogenesis, including normal tubule architecture with elongating spermatids in ~1% (fresh) and ~10% (slow frozen) of tubules. Fewer than 2% of seminiferous tubules advanced to the primary spermatocyte stage in xenografts derived from vitrified tissue. Results demonstrate that slow freezing of neonatal lamb testes was far superior to vitrification in preserving cellular integrity and function after xenografting, including allowing ~10% of tubules to retain the capacity to resume spermatogenesis and yield mature spermatozoa. Although a first for any ruminant species, findings also illustrate the importance of preemptive studies that examine cryo-sensitivity of testicular tissue before attempting this type of male fertility preservation on a large scale. PMID:25923660

  4. Slow freezing, but not vitrification supports complete spermatogenesis in cryopreserved, neonatal sheep testicular xenografts.

    PubMed

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander J; Costa, Guilherme M; Escobar, Enrique N; França, Luiz R; Wildt, David E

    2015-01-01

    The ability to spur growth of early stage gametic cells recovered from neonates could lead to significant advances in rescuing the genomes of rare genotypes or endangered species that die unexpectedly. The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, the ability of two substantially different cryopreservation approaches, slow freezing versus vitrification, to preserve testicular tissue of the neonatal sheep and subsequently allow initiation of spermatogenesis post-xenografting. Testis tissue from four lambs (3-5 wk old) was processed and then untreated or subjected to slow freezing or vitrification. Tissue pieces (fresh, n = 214; slow freezing, then thawing, n = 196; vitrification, then warming, n = 139) were placed subcutaneously under the dorsal skin of SCID mice and then grafts recovered and evaluated 17 wk later. Grafts from fresh and slow frozen tissue contained the most advanced stages of spermatogenesis, including normal tubule architecture with elongating spermatids in ~1% (fresh) and ~10% (slow frozen) of tubules. Fewer than 2% of seminiferous tubules advanced to the primary spermatocyte stage in xenografts derived from vitrified tissue. Results demonstrate that slow freezing of neonatal lamb testes was far superior to vitrification in preserving cellular integrity and function after xenografting, including allowing ~10% of tubules to retain the capacity to resume spermatogenesis and yield mature spermatozoa. Although a first for any ruminant species, findings also illustrate the importance of preemptive studies that examine cryo-sensitivity of testicular tissue before attempting this type of male fertility preservation on a large scale. PMID:25923660

  5. A Rare Cause of Testicular Metastasis: Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Manav, Alper Nesip; Kazan, Ercan; Ertek, Mehmet Şirin; Amasyalı, Akın Soner; Çulhacı, Nil; Erol, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic testicular cancers are rare. Primary tumor sources are prostate, lung, and gastrointestinal tract for metastatic testicular cancers. Metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC) to the testis is extremely rare. Two-thirds of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is of invasive stage at diagnosis and metastatic sites are the pelvic lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone. We report a rare case of metastatic UTUC to the testis which has not been reported before, except one case in the literature. Testicular metastasis of UC should be considered in patients with hematuria and testicular swelling. PMID:25120937

  6. A rare cause of testicular metastasis: upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Manav, Alper Nesip; Kazan, Ercan; Ertek, Mehmet Şirin; Amasyalı, Akın Soner; Culhacı, Nil; Erol, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic testicular cancers are rare. Primary tumor sources are prostate, lung, and gastrointestinal tract for metastatic testicular cancers. Metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC) to the testis is extremely rare. Two-thirds of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is of invasive stage at diagnosis and metastatic sites are the pelvic lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone. We report a rare case of metastatic UTUC to the testis which has not been reported before, except one case in the literature. Testicular metastasis of UC should be considered in patients with hematuria and testicular swelling. PMID:25120937

  7. Role of the KATP channel in the protective effect of nicorandil on cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A; El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Rizk, Sherine M

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the role of the KATP channel in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats. Animals received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 consecutive days and then were untreated for the following 5 days. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered starting from the day of cyclophosphamide injection with or without glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Nicorandil administration significantly reduced the cyclophosphamide-induced deterioration of testicular function, as demonstrated by increases in the level of serum testosterone and the activities of the testicular 3β- hydroxysteroid, 17β-hydroxysteroid and sorbitol dehydrogenases. Furthermore, nicorandil significantly alleviated oxidative stress (as determined by lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity), as well as inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and testicular tissue. Finally, the therapy decreased the levels of fibrogenic markers (transforming growth factor-β and hydroxyproline) and ameliorated the histological alterations (as assessed by lung fibrosis grading and testicular Johnsen scores). The co-administration of glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. In conclusion, KATP channel activation plays an important role in the protective effect of nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity. PMID:26403947

  8. Role of the KATP channel in the protective effect of nicorandil on cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A.; EL-Maraghy, Shohda A.; Rizk, Sherine M.

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the role of the KATP channel in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats. Animals received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 consecutive days and then were untreated for the following 5 days. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered starting from the day of cyclophosphamide injection with or without glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Nicorandil administration significantly reduced the cyclophosphamide-induced deterioration of testicular function, as demonstrated by increases in the level of serum testosterone and the activities of the testicular 3β- hydroxysteroid, 17β-hydroxysteroid and sorbitol dehydrogenases. Furthermore, nicorandil significantly alleviated oxidative stress (as determined by lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity), as well as inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and testicular tissue. Finally, the therapy decreased the levels of fibrogenic markers (transforming growth factor-β and hydroxyproline) and ameliorated the histological alterations (as assessed by lung fibrosis grading and testicular Johnsen scores). The co-administration of glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. In conclusion, KATP channel activation plays an important role in the protective effect of nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity. PMID:26403947

  9. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 3-day Final Diagnosis: Ectopic right testis in anterior abdominal wall Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Testicular ultrasound and MRI abdomen Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date. Case Report: This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. Conclusions: Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  10. Perinatal testicular torsion and medicolegal considerations.

    PubMed

    Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S

    2014-06-01

    Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion. PMID:24826979

  11. Spermatogonial stem cells, infertility and testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shree Ram; Burnicka-Turek, Ozanna; Chauhan, Chhavi; Hou, Steven X

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are responsible for the transmission of genetic information from an individual to the next generation. SSCs play critical roles in understanding the basic reproductive biology of gametes and treatments of human infertility. SSCs not only maintain normal spermatogenesis, but also sustain fertility by critically balancing both SSC self-renewal and differentiation. This self-renewal and differentiation in turn is tightly regulated by a combination of intrinsic gene expression within the SSC as well as the extrinsic gene signals from the niche. Increased SSCs self-renewal at the expense of differentiation result in germ cell tumours, on the other hand, higher differentiation at the expense of self-renewal can result in male sterility. Testicular germ cell cancers are the most frequent cancers among young men in industrialized countries. However, understanding the pathogenesis of testis cancer has been difficult because it is formed during foetal development. Recent studies suggest that SSCs can be reprogrammed to become embryonic stem (ES)-like cells to acquire pluripotency. In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in SSCs biology and role of SSC in testicular cancer. We believe that studying the biology of SSCs will not only provide better understanding of stem cell regulation in the testis, but eventually will also be a novel target for male infertility and testicular cancers. PMID:21155977

  12. [Testicular epidermoid cyst: orchiectomy or enucleation resection?].

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, A; Zumbé, J; Vorreuther, R; Klotz, T; Vietsch, H; Engelmann, U H

    1996-01-01

    Our experience with 18 patients with simple epidermoid cysts of the testis is reported. In each patient the tumour was enucleated completely and two biopsies of the adjacent parenchyma were obtained for exclusion of associated germ cell cancer, scars or carcinoma in situ. There was no evidence of malignancy in any of the biopsy specimens. Preoperative evaluation included physical examination, testicular sonography, and determination of AFP and hCG serum levels. Although epidermoid cyst can be strongly suspected on sonography the ultrasound appearance is not specific, and inguinal testicular exploration was required in these patients. In 1 patient multiple epidermoid cysts of the right testis were associated with an adult teratoma containing embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma of the left testis; no similar case has been described in the literature. On the basis of our results and experience we consider tumour enucleation and biopsy of the adjacent parenchyma to be adequate treatment for benign epidermoid cyst. The world literature concerning organ-sparing surgery in testicular epidermoid cyst is reviewed. PMID:8851841

  13. Testicular self-examination and testicular cancer: a cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed

    Aberger, Michael; Wilson, Bradley; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Griebling, Tomas L; Nangia, Ajay K

    2014-12-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended against testicular self-examinations (TSE) or clinical examination for testicular cancer screening. However, in this recommendation there was no consideration of the significant fiscal cost of treating advanced disease versus evaluation of benign disease. In this study, a cost-utility validation for TSE was performed. The cost of treatment for an advanced-stage testicular tumor (both seminomatous and nonseminomatous) was compared to the cost of six other scenarios involving the clinical assessment of a testicular mass felt during self-examination (four benign and two early-stage malignant). Medicare reimbursements were used as an estimate for a national cost standard. The total treatment cost for an advanced-stage seminoma ($48,877) or nonseminoma ($51,592) equaled the cost of 313-330 benign office visits ($156); 180-190 office visits with scrotal ultrasound ($272); 79-83 office visits with serial scrotal ultrasounds and labs ($621); 6-7 office visits resulting in radical inguinal orchiectomy for benign pathology ($7,686) or 2-3 office visits resulting in treatment and surveillance of an early-stage testicular cancer ($17,283: seminoma, $26,190: nonseminoma). A large number of clinical evaluations based on the TSE for benign disease can be made compared to the cost of one missed advanced-stage tumor. An average of 2.4 to 1 cost benefit ratio was demonstrated for early detected testicular cancer versus advanced-stage disease. PMID:25103095

  14. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice reduces oxidative injury and improves sperm concentration in a rat model of testicular torsion-detorsion

    PubMed Central

    ATILGAN, DOGAN; PARLAKTAS, BEKIR; ULUOCAK, NIHAT; GENCTEN, YUSUF; ERDEMIR, FIKRET; OZYURT, HUSEYIN; ERKORKMAZ, UNAL; ASLAN, HUSEYIN

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) on oxidative stress (OS) and sperm concentration in a rat model of testicular torsion-detorsion. A total of 21 Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups, each consisting of seven rats, as follows: i) control group, which underwent sham surgery; ii) ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group, designed to determine the effects of the testicular torsion-detorsion process on rats; and iii) PJ+I/R group, designed to evaluate the effect of PJ on the OS and sperm cell concentrations induced by the torsion-detorsion process. In the PJ+I/R group, the rats were given 0.4 ml/day PJ orally over a period of eight weeks prior to surgery. Ipsilateral orchiectomy was carried out and 5-cm3 blood samples were obtained from the inferior vena cava of all rats. Biochemical analyses were performed to calculate the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the testicular tissue and serum. The concentrations of spermatids, spermatocytes and spermatogonia in the seminiferous tubules were assessed using histopathological methods. Serum and tissue SOD and MDA levels were significantly higher in rats from the I/R group compared with the control group (P<0.001). PJ treatment significantly decreased the SOD and MDA levels in both the serum and testicular tissue of the rats (P<0.001). The spermatid, spermatocyte and spermatogonia concentrations were significantly reduced in the I/R group compared with the control group (P<0.001). PJ treatment significantly improved the concentrations of spermatids, spermatocytes and spermatogonia compared with those in the I/R group (P=0.008). The experimentally established testicular torsion-detorsion model led to OS in the rat testes. Daily consumption of PJ prior to surgery reduced OS parameters and improved sperm cell concentrations. PMID:25009604

  15. TDRG1 functions in testicular seminoma are dependent on the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Gan, Yu; Tan, Zhengyu; Zhou, Jun; Kitazawa, Riko; Jiang, Xianzhen; Tang, Yuxin; Yang, Jianfu

    2016-01-01

    Human testis development-related gene 1 (TDRG1) is a recently identified gene that is expressed exclusively in the testes and promotes the development of testicular germ cell tumors. In this study, the role of TDRG1 in the development of testicular seminoma, which is the most common testicular germ cell tumor, was further investigated. Based on polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry tests, both gene and protein expression levels of TDRG1 were significantly upregulated in testicular seminoma tissues compared with normal testicular tissues. Additionally, the levels of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/p110 and Akt phosphorylation were dramatically upregulated in testicular seminoma tissues. Accordingly, in our cell experiment, seminoma TCam-2 cells were subjected to different treatments: the TDRG1 knockout, TDRG1 overexpression, PI3K inhibition (LY294002 administration), or PI3K activation (insulin-like growth factor-1 administration). Cell proliferation, the proliferation index, apoptosis rate, cell adhesive capacity, and cell invasion capability were assessed. Cells with both TDRG1 knockout and PI3K inhibition exhibited decreased cell proliferation, proliferation indexes, cell adhesion capacity, and cell invasion capability and increased apoptosis rates. Most of these effects were reversed by TDRG1 overexpression or PI3K activation, indicating that both TDRG1- and PI3K-mediated signaling promote proliferation and invasion of testicular seminoma cells. The knockout of TDRG1 significantly decreased the phosphorylation levels of PI3K/p85, PI3K/p110, Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser(2448)). Except for PI3K/p110, TDRG1 overexpression had the opposite effects on phosphorylation levels. Phosphorylated mTOR at Ser(2481) and Thr(2446) was not affected by TDRG1 or PI3K in our tests. Thus, these results indicate that TDRG1 promotes the development and migration of seminoma cells via the regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling

  16. A nationwide epidemiological study of testicular torsion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sol Min; Huh, Jung-Sik; Baek, Minki; Yoo, Koo Han; Min, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2014-12-01

    Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency in the field of urology. Knowledge of the epidemiology and pathophysiology is significant to an urologist. However, the epidemiology of testicular torsion in Korea has not been studied. We performed a nationwide epidemiological study to improve knowledge of the epidemiology of testicular torsion. From 2006-2011, the Korean Urologic Association began the patient registry service. The annual number of patients with testicular torsion from 2006 to 2011 were 225, 250, 271, 277, 345, and 210, respectively. The overall incidence of testicular torsion in males was 1.1 per 100,000; However, the incidence in men less than 25 yr old was 2.9 per 100,000. Adolescents showed the highest incidence. Total testicular salvage rate was 75.7% in this survey. There was no geographic difference of testicular salvage rate. Minimizing the possibility of orchiectomy for testicular torsion is important to improve public awareness to expedite presentation and provider education to improve diagnosis and surgery. PMID:25469070

  17. Multiple secondary malignancies following radiation therapy for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Sam; Kroczak, Tadeusz; Drachenberg, Darrel

    2015-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are a rare malignancy that affect primarily young men. We present an interesting case of non-seminoma testicular cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (RT), which subsequently resulted in two separate secondary malignancies decades after initial treatment. PMID:26834905

  18. Multiple secondary malignancies following radiation therapy for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Sam; Kroczak, Tadeusz; Drachenberg, Darrel

    2015-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are a rare malignancy that affect primarily young men. We present an interesting case of non-seminoma testicular cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (RT), which subsequently resulted in two separate secondary malignancies decades after initial treatment. PMID:26834905

  19. Interrelationships of cigarette smoking, testicular varicoceles, and seminal fluid indexes.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Pokoly, T B; Albert, A J; Howard, P J; Sherer, J F

    1987-03-01

    Data on cigarette smoking, testicular varicoceles, seminal fluid indexes, and oligospermia were examined in 160 young men without known disease and in 94 husbands in infertile couples. The combination of smoking and testicular varicoceles is strongly related to the incidence of oligospermia, defined as sperm count less than or equal to 20 X 10(6)/ml, in each sample. Smokers with testicular varicoceles, in each sample, had a disproportionately high incidence of oligospermia. In the combined sample of 254 men, the smokers with testicular varicoceles had an incidence of oligospermia approximately ten times greater than that in nonsmokers with testicular varicoceles and approximately five times greater than that in men who smoked but were without testicular varicoceles. This relationship of cigarette smoking and testicular varicoceles to oligospermia has not been previously reported. The pathophysiologic basis of the interaction between smoking and varicoceles was theorized to be due to an increased secretion of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla, induced by cigarette smoking. The elevated catecholamine concentrations in the renal vein would then reach the testes via retrograde flow down the internal spermatic vein in men with testicular varicoceles, resulting in seminiferous tubule damage. PMID:3556626

  20. Genetic variation in testis size and testicular development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breed differences in sperm production have been described in a number of studies with these differences reflecting variation in testicular size (Ford et al., 2006; Smital, 2008). Within a given breed or genetic line of boars, sperm production increases as testicular size increases. Furthermore, the...

  1. Non-seminomatous testicular metastasis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Beddy, P; Neary, P; Crotty, P; Keane, F B V

    2006-06-01

    This is the first report in the literature of a non-seminomatous metastasis from an occult testicular primary that presented as an acute appendicitis. The report highlights the necessity of testicular re-imaging in cases of occult malignancy and reviews the association of chromosome 12 with embryonal germ cell tumours. PMID:16764204

  2. [Bilateral testicular metastasis of cancer of the prostate].

    PubMed

    el Moussaoui, A; Sarf, I; Dakir, M; Zamiati, S; Benjelloun, S

    1997-01-01

    Testicular metastasis of prostate cancer rarely occurs. Bilateral localization is exceptional. We report a new case of prostate adenocarcinoma with bilateral testicular metastasis. The diagnosis was made on clinical and ultrasonic arguments, and confirmed on the pathological specimen. Treatment consisted in a bilateral orchidectomy, associated with nonsteroid androgens. PMID:9765784

  3. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) prevents lead-induced testicular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Salawu, Emmanuel O; Adeeyo, Olusola A; Falokun, Olutunde P; Yusuf, Uthman A; Oyerinde, Abiodun; Adeleke, Anthony A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lead, an example of heavy metals, has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems such that their functions are compromised. AIM: In the present study, the ability of lead to adversely affect the male reproductive system was investigated and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum: Source of antioxidants) paste (TP) was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen Sprague Dawley rats, randomised into three groups (n = 5), were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1% Pb (II) acetate (LA). Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml of TP/day. All treatments were for 8 weeks. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: A Mann–Whitney U-test was used to analyse the results obtained. RESULTS: The obtained results showed that Pb caused a significant reduction in the testicular weight, sperm count, life–death ratio, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology, and plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration. But, Pb did not cause any significant change in the serum testosterone level. TP, however, significantly reduced these adverse effects of Pb. CONCLUSION: These findings lead to the conclusion that TP significantly lowered the adverse effects of Pb exposure on the kidney as well as Pb-induced oxidative stress. PMID:19562072

  4. Teachers' Beliefs Concerning Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Royal E.; Kane, William M.

    1997-01-01

    This study compared secondary health teachers' beliefs concerning teaching about testicular cancer (TC) and self-examination (TSE) to actual instruction. TC and TSE education levels were low. Perceived barriers to teaching about TSE was the main predictor of TSE instruction. Teachers with previous preparation in TC and TSE provided the most…

  5. Effect of Pre-Fixation Delay and Freezing on Mink Testicular Endpoints for Environmental Research

    PubMed Central

    Spörndly-Nees, Ellinor; Ekstedt, Elisabeth; Magnusson, Ulf; Fakhrzadeh, Azadeh; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; Holm, Lena

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using wild animals to monitor the real-life cocktail effect of environmental chemicals on male reproduction. However, practical difficulties, such as long distances to the laboratory, generally prolong the time between euthanisation and specimen handling. For instance, tissue fixation is often performed on frozen material or on material where deterioration has started, which may affect tissue morphology. This study examined the effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints in order to determine robust endpoints in suboptimally handled specimens. Sexually mature farmed mink (n=30) selected at culling were divided into six groups and subjected to different time intervals between euthanisation and fixation or freezing: 0 hours (fixed immediately post mortem), 6 hours, 18 hours, 30 hours, 42 hours, or frozen 6 hours post mortem and thawed overnight. Unaffected endpoints when pre-fixation storage was extended to 30 hours included: area and diameter of the seminiferous tubules, length and weight of the testes, and acrosomes marked with Gata-4. Epithelial height, Sertoli cells marked with Gata-4 and cell morphology were affected endpoints after 6 hours of storage. Freezing the tissue prior to fixation severely altered cell morphology and reduced testicular weight, tubular diameter and area. Morphological changes seen after 6 hours included shredded germ cells and excess cytoplasm in seminiferous tubular lumen, chromatin rearrangements and increased germ cell death. Extended delay before fixation and freezing affected many endpoints in the mink testicular tissue. Some of these endpoints may mimic chemically induced effects, which is important to consider when evaluating specimens from wild animals for environmental toxicity. PMID:25933113

  6. Testicular microlithiasis and preliminary experience of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background Elastography of the testis can be used as a part of multiparametric examination of the scrotum. Purpose To determine the testicular stiffness using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) technique in men with testicular microlithiasis (TML). Material and Methods In 2013, 12 patients with diagnosed testicular microlithiasis in 2008 (mean age, 51 years; age range, 25–76 years) underwent a 5-year follow-up B-mode ultrasonography with three ARFI elastography measurements of each testis. We used a Siemens Acuson S3000 machine. Results No malignancy was found at the 5-year follow-up B-mode and elastography in 2013. However, we found an increase in TML; in the previous ultrasonography in 2008, eight men had bilateral TML, whereas in 2013, 10 men were diagnosed with bilateral TML. The mean elasticity of testicles with TML was 0.82 m/s (interquartile range [IQR], 0.72–0.88 m/s; range, 65–1.08 m/s). Conclusion Elastography velocity of testis with TML seems to be in the same velocity range as in men with normal testis tissue. PMID:27504193

  7. Correlation between retinoblastoma gene expression and differentiation in human testicular tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmeyer, T. Heinrich-Heine-Univ. of Duesseldorf ); Reissmann, P.; Slamon, D. ); Cordon-Cardo, C. ); Hartmann, M. ); Ackermann, R. )

    1991-08-01

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene (RB gene) is associated with the development of several human malignancies including retinoblastomas, come osteo- and soft tissue sarcomas, small cell lung cancer, and possibly breast and bladder cancers. To the authors' knowledge, this gene has not been evaluated in human germ-cell malignancies. In this study 67 primary testicular germ-cell tumors and 4 testicular non-germ-cell malignancies were examined to determine the prevalence and nature of RB gene alterations. Decreased expression of RB gene mRNA was found in all testicular germ-cell tumors examined. The RB protein could not be detected by immunohistochemical analysis in the undifferentiated cells of any germ-cell tumors whereas the differentiated malignant cells present in 14/15 teratocarcinomas expressed the protein. No gross alterations of the RB gene were found at DNA level in any of the examined specimens. This and the presence of the RB protein in the more differentiated tumor cells of teratocarcinomas suggest that changes in transcript levels rather than mutation(s) of the gene may be responsible for the absent of decreased RB expression in human germ-cell tumors. To date studies on the mechanism of RB regulation have demonstrated that it occurs at the protein level by phosphorylation of the p105 gene product. The findings presented here indicate that additional regulation might occur at the transcript level.

  8. Absence of microsatellite instability and BRAF (V600E) mutation in testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Cárcano, F M; Lengert, A H; Vidal, D O; Scapulatempo Neto, C; Queiroz, L; Marques, H; Baltazar, F; Berardinelli, G N; Martinelli, C M S; da Silva, E C A; Reis, R M; Lopes, L F

    2016-09-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common malignant neoplasm in young men. DNA mismatch repair deficiency can lead to microsatellite instability (MSI), an important mechanism of genetic instability. A mutation of the BRAF gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several solid tumors and has recently become an important therapeutic target. The role of MSI and BRAF gene mutation in TGCT, particularly in refractory disease, is poorly understood and reported findings are controversial. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency and clinical impact of MSI status and BRAF mutations in TGCT. DNA was isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue from 150 TGCT cases. The MSI phenotype was evaluated using multiplex PCR for five quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeat markers. Exon 15 of the BRAF oncogene (V600E) was analyzed by PCR, followed by direct sequencing. Sixteen percent of cases were considered to have refractory disease. In a small subset of cases (17 for MSI and 18 for BRAF), the quantity and quality of DNA recovery were poor and therefore, were unable to be analyzed. The remaining 133 TGCT cases showed a complete absence of MSI. Of the 132 cases successfully evaluated for BRAF mutations, all were V600E wild-type. In conclusion, despite a distinct response of testicular germ cell tumors to therapy, microsatellite instability, and the BRAF V600E mutation were absent in all testicular germ cell tumors tested in this study. PMID:27153176

  9. Evaluation of sperm retrieval rate with bilateral testicular sperm extraction in infertile patients with azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Moein, Mohammad Reza; Moein, Mahmoud Reza; Ghasemzadeh, Jalal; Pourmasoumi, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 10% to 15% of infertile men have azoospermia, which could be obstructive or non-obstructive. Diagnostic biopsy from the testis and recently testicular sperm extraction (TESE) are the most precise investigations in these patients. Testicular biopsy can be done unilaterally or bilaterally. The worth of unilateral or bilateral testicular biopsy in men with azoospermia is controversial. Objective: To evaluate the necessity of bilateral diagnostic biopsy from the testis in new era of diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the results of testis biopsy in 419 azoospermic men, referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility from 2009-2013. Patients with known obstructive azoospermia were excluded from the study. Results: In totally, 254 infertile men (60.6%) were underwent unilateral TESE, which in 175 patients (88.4%) sperm were extracted from their testes successfully. Bilateral testis biopsy was done in 165 patients (39.4%) which in 37 patients (22.4%), sperm were found in their testes tissues. Conclusion: Due to the low probability of positive bilateral TESE results especially when we can’t found sperm in the first side, we recommend that physicians re-evaluate the risk and benefit of this procedure in era of newer and more precise technique of sperm retrieval like micro TESE. PMID:26730246

  10. Protective effects of Fumaria parviflora L. on lead-induced testicular toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Dorostghoal, M; Seyyednejad, S M; Jabari, A

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the clinical importance of herbal drugs has received considerable attention in reducing free radical-induced tissue injury. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity that causes reproductive system failure in both human and animals. Fumaria parviflora L., a traditional herb, has been used to cure various ailments in Persian folk medicine. This study was carried out to investigate whether ethanolic extract of F. parviflora leaves could protect the male rats against lead-induced testicular oxidative stress. Adult Wistar rats were treated with 0.1% lead acetate in drinking water with or without 200 mg kg day(-1) F. parviflora extract via gavage for 70 days. Lead acetate treatment resulted in significant reduction in testis weight, seminiferous tubules diameter, epididymal sperm count, serum testosterone level, testicular content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Moreover, significant elevation was observed in content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in lead-treated rats. However, co-administration of F. parviflora extract showed a significant increase in selected reproductive parameters in lead-treated rats. The results indicated that ethanolic extract of F. parviflora leaves has a potential to restore the suppressed reproduction associated with lead exposure and prevented lead-induced testicular toxicity in male Wistar rats. PMID:23611729

  11. Primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Mário Maciel; de Lima, Mário Maciel; Granja, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    Testicular mucinous cystadenomas are rare in urological practice, and their histogenesis, course and management are debated. We report a primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma in a 54-year old male who presented with left testicular swelling and pain. He denied having a history of cryptorchidism, testicular trauma, infections, urinary complaints, or febrile illnesses. He did not have diabetes, but was on treatment for hypertension. The patient underwent a left inguinal radical orchiectomy, and histological examination of the resected tumour confirmed a primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma. The patient had an uneventful recovery, and is being followed up. Conclusively, urologists need to maintain a high index of suspicion of these tumours and their differentiation from metastatic tumours to ensure optimal therapeutic outcomes. PMID:26600891

  12. Choroid Metastasis from Testicular Carcinoma: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dig Vijay; Gupta, Vishali; Singh, Shrawan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this report is to contribute to the clinical understanding of choroid metastasis from testicular carcinoma. A young male patient presented with loss of vision in his left eye with ptosis and proptosis. Fundoscopy revealed bullous retinal detachment with dark hazy vitreous. The preliminary diagnosis of choroid carcinoma with vitreous involvement was made by an ophthalmologist. Later in the physical examination, there was a firm painless left testicular swelling. Testicular tumor markers were raised. Based on ultrasonography, MRI and PET-CT, a clinical diagnosis of left testicular carcinoma metastasizing to the left choroid and vitreous was made. A mixed germ cell tumor was reported on histopathological examination. After cisplatin-based chemotherapy, serum tumor markers normalized and vision improved. Exceptional choroidal and vitreous metastases with absence of other visceral and bony involvement constituted the presenting sign. Although rare, testicular carcinoma must be considered to metastasize to the eye, especially if loss of vision is the chief complaint. PMID:23969474

  13. Testicular cancer knowledge among deaf and hearing men.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Loren; Nakaji, Melanie; Harry, Kadie M; Oen, Marcia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-09-01

    Testicular cancer typically affects young and middle-aged men. An educational video about prostate and testicular cancer was created in American Sign Language, with English open captioning and voice overlay, so that it could be viewed by audiences of diverse ages and hearing characteristics. This study recruited young Deaf (n = 85) and hearing (n = 90) adult males to help evaluate the educational value of the testicular cancer portion of this video. Participants completed surveys about their general, testicular, and total cancer knowledge before and after viewing the video. Although hearing men had higher pre-test scores than Deaf men, both Deaf and hearing men demonstrated significant increases in General, Testicular, and Total Cancer Knowledge scores after viewing the intervention video. Overall, results demonstrate the value of the video to Deaf and hearing men. PMID:23813488

  14. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination Training for Patient Care Personnel: Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebis, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a…

  15. Barriers Identified by Swedish School Nurses in Giving Information about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination to Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudberg, Lennart; Nilsson, Sten; Wikblad, Karin; Carlsson, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent school nurses in Sweden inform adolescent men about testicular cancer (TC) and testicular self-examination (TSE). A questionnaire was completed by 129 school nurses from 29 randomly selected municipalities. All respondents were women, with a mean age of 42 years. The results showed that…

  16. Rare inactivating PDE11A variants associated with testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Anand; Stewart, Douglas R; Faucz, Fabio R; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Bass, Sara; Vogt, Aurelie; Zhang, Xijun; Boland, Joseph; Yeager, Meredith; Loud, Jennifer T; Nathanson, Katherine L; McGlynn, Katherine A; Stratakis, Constantine A; Greene, Mark H; Mirabello, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    Germline inactivating mutations of isoform 4 of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 11A (coded by the PDE11A gene) have been associated with familial adrenocortical tumors and familial testicular cancer. Testicular tissue is unique in expressing all four isoforms of PDE11A. In a prior candidate gene study of 94 familial testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) subjects, we identified a significant association between the presence of functionally abnormal variants in PDE11A and familial TGCT risk. To validate this novel observation, we sequenced the PDE11A coding region in 259 additional TGCT patients (both familial and sporadic) and 363 controls. We identified 55 PDE11A variants: 20 missense, four splice-site, two nonsense, seven synonymous, and 22 intronic. Ten missense variants were novel; nine occurred in transcript variant 4 and one in transcript variant 3. Five rare mutations (p.F258Y, p.G291R, p.V820M, p.R545X, and p.K568R) were present only in cases and were significantly more common in cases vs controls (P=0.0037). The latter two novel variants were functionally characterized and shown to be functionally inactivating, resulting in reduced PDE activity and increased cAMP levels. In further analysis of this cohort, we focused on white participants only to minimize confounding due to population stratification. This study builds upon our prior reports implicating PDE11A variants in familial TGCT, provides the first independent validation of those findings, extends that work to sporadic testicular cancer, demonstrates that these variants are uncommonly but reproducibly associated with TGCT, and refines our understanding regarding which specific inactivating PDE11A variants are most likely to be associated with TGCT risk. PMID:26459559

  17. Effect of Physalis peruviana L. on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mohamed S; Nada, Ahmed; Zaki, Hassan S; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and causes tissue damage. We investigated here the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced testes toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were used. They were divided into four groups (n=7). Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was orally treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh before cadmium for 5 days. Changes in body and testes weights were determined. Oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and testosterone level were measured. Histopathological changes of testes were examined, and the immunohistochemical staining for the proapoptotic (caspase-3) protein was performed. The injection of cadmium caused a significant decrease in body weight, while a significant increase in testes weight and testes weight index was observed. Pretreatment with MEPh was associated with significant reduction in the toxic effects of Cd as shown by reduced testicular levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase-3 expression and increased glutathione content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and testosterone were also increased. Testicular histopathology showed that Cd produced an extensive germ cell apoptosis, and the pretreatment of MEPh in Cd-treated rats significantly reduced Cd-induced testicular damage. On the basis of the above results, it can be hypothesized that P. peruviana L. has a protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat. PMID:24728876

  18. Smooth muscle and purinergic contraction of the human, rabbit, rat, and mouse testicular capsule.

    PubMed

    Banks, Frederick C L; Knight, Gillian E; Calvert, Robert C; Turmaine, Mark; Thompson, Cecil S; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Morgan, Robert J; Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2006-03-01

    The smooth-muscle cells of the testicular capsule (tunica albuginea) of man, rat, and mouse were examined by electron microscopy. They were characteristically flattened, elongated, branching cells and diffusely incorporated into the collagenous matrix and did not form a compact muscle layer. Contractile and synthetic smooth-muscle cell phenotypes were identified. Nerve varicosities in close apposition to smooth muscle were seen in human tissue. Contractions induced by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), alpha, beta-methylene ATP, noradrenaline (NA), acetylcholine (ACh), and electrical field stimulation (EFS) of autonomic nerves were investigated. Nerve-mediated responses of the rabbit and human tunica albuginea were recorded. The EFS-induced human responses were completely abolished by prazosin. In the rabbit, EFS-induced contractile responses were reduced by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid by 36% and by prazosin by 77%. Both antagonists together almost completely abolished all EFS-induced contractions. The human tunica albuginea was contracted by NA, ATP, and alpha, beta-methylene ATP, but not by ACh. The rabbit and rat tunica albuginea were contracted by NA, ATP, alpha, beta-methylene ATP, and ACh. The mouse tunica albuginea was contracted by ACh, ATP, and alpha, beta-methylene ATP, but relaxed to NA. Immunohistochemical studies showed that P2X1 (also known as P2RX1) and P2X2 (also known as P2RX2) receptors were expressed on the smooth muscle of the rodent testicular capsule, expression being less pronounced in man. The testicular capsule of the rat, mouse, rabbit, and man all contain contractile smooth muscle. ATP, released as a cotransmitter from sympathetic nerves, can stimulate the contraction of rabbit smooth muscle. Human, rat, and mouse testicular smooth muscle demonstrated purinergic responsiveness, probably mediated through the P2X1 and/or P2X2 receptors. PMID:16280417

  19. Testicular Sertoli cell function in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Breno Pires; Saad, Carla Gonçalves Schahin; Souza, Fernando Henrique Carlos; Moraes, Julio Cesar Bertacini; Nukumizu, Lucia Akemi; Viana, Vilma Santos Trindade; Bonfá, Eloísa; Silva, Clovis Artur

    2013-07-01

    To assess the testicular Sertoli cell function according to inhibin B levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and the possible effect of anti-TNF therapy on this hormone production, 20 consecutive AS patients and 24 healthy controls were evaluated. At study entry, AS patients were not receiving sulfasalazine/methotrexate and never have used biological/cytotoxic agents. They were assessed by serum inhibin B levels, hormone profile, urological examination, testicular ultrasound, seminal parameters, and clinical features. Ten of these patients received anti-TNF treatment and they were reevaluated for Sertoli function and disease parameters at 6 months. Four of them agreed to repeat sperm analysis. At study entry, the median of inhibin B (68 vs. 112.9 pg/mL, p = 0.111), follicle-stimulating hormone levels (3.45 vs. 3.65 IU/L, p = 0.795), and the other hormones was comparable in AS patients and controls (p > 0.05). Sperm analysis was similar in AS patients and controls (p > 0.05) with one AS patient presenting borderline low inhibin B levels. Further analysis at 6 months of the 10 patients referred for anti-TNF therapy, including one with borderline inhibin B, revealed that median inhibin B levels remained stable (116.5 vs. 126.5 pg/mL, p = 0.431) with a significant improvement in C-reactive protein (27.8 vs. 2.27 mg/L, p = 0.039). Sperm motility and concentration were preserved in the four patients who repeated this analysis after TNF blockage. In conclusion, this was the first study to report, using a specific marker, a normal testicular Sertoli cell function in AS patients with mild to moderate disease activity. PMID:23417428

  20. Testicular cancer: biology and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, Leendert H J; Stoop, Hans; Biermann, Katharina

    2014-03-01

    The term "human germ cell tumors" (GCTs) refers to a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, all with a defined histological appearance. They have specific epidemiological characteristics, clinical behavior, and pathogenesis. Histologically, GCTs contain various tissue elements, which are homologs of normal embryogenesis. We have proposed a subclassification of GCTs in five subtypes, three of which preferentially occur in the testis. These include teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants (type I), seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults (type II), and spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly (type III). Both spontaneous and induced animal models have been reported, of which the relevance for human GCTs is still to be clarified. Multidisciplinary studies have recently shed new light on the (earliest steps in the) pathogenesis of GCTs, mainly in regard of malignant type II GCTs (germ cell cancer (GCC)). This review discusses novel understanding of the pathogenesis of (mainly) GCC, focusing on identification of informative diagnostic markers suitable for application in a clinical setting. These include OCT3/4, SOX9/FOXL2, SOX17/SOX2, as well as embryonic microRNAs. These markers have been identified through studies on normal embryogenesis, specifically related to the gonads, including the germ cell lineage. Their strengths and limitations are discussed as well as the expected future approach to identify the group of individuals at highest risk for development of a GCC. The latter would allow screening of defined populations, early diagnosis, optimal follow-up, and potentially early treatment, preventing long-term side effects of systemic treatment. PMID:24487784

  1. Embryonic testicular regression sequence: A part of the clinical spectrum of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Marcantonio, S.M.; Fechner, P.Y.; Migeon, C.J.; Perlman, E.J.; Berkovitz, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on a group of 9 subjects who had a 46,XY karyotype, ambiguous genitalia, abnormalities of sexual duct formation, and lack of gonadal tissue on one or both sides. This is sometimes referred to as {open_quotes}embryonic testicular regression.{close_quotes} Previous investigators have suggested that this condition results from loss of testes at a critical stage in development. The authors examined the possibility that embryonic testicular regression is part of the clinical spectrum of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Four subjects totally lacked gonadal tissue, three of them having ambiguous genitalia, and one a micropenis. The development of incongruous sexual ducts (presence of Muellerian ducts in the subject with micropenis, and absence of Muellerian and Wolffian ducts in two subjects with ambiguous genitalia) suggests that the embryonic gonads were intrinsically functionally abnormal before their disappearance. Five subjects had unilateral gonadal tissue, ambiguous genitalia, and a mix of Wolffian and Muellerian structures. The development of incongruous sexual ducts in 3 of them, the presence of ambiguous external genitalia in 5, and the presence of abnormal gonadal histology in 2 patients all indicate an underlying abnormality of gonadal differentiation in these subjects. The occurrence of testicular regression in several subjects in the family of one patient suggests a genetic basis for the condition. The presence of multiple congenital anomalies in other subjects in the study suggests either a mutation in a single gene that functions in several developmental pathways, or a defect of multiple genes that might be the result of a chromosome deletion. The sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene was sequenced in five subjects and was normal in all of them, suggesting that the underlying genetic abnormality in these subjects is located in one of several genes that function subsequent to SRY in the early stages of testis differentiation. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Histology of Testicular Biopsies Obtained for an Experimental Fertility Preservation Protocol in Boys with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pietzak, Eugene J.; Tasian, Gregory E.; Tasian, Sarah K.; Brinster, Ralph L.; Carlson, Claire; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Kolon, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cryopreservation of testicular tissue with subsequent re-implantation after therapy has fertility perseveration potential for pre-pubertal boys with childhood cancer. We present the histology and the feasibility of testicular tissue procurement for this novel approach. Patients and Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of boys at significant risk for treatment-associated gonadotoxicity who were eligible for an experimental research protocol between 2008 and 2011. Open testicular biopsy was performed while they were anesthetized for another treatment related procedure. Half of the specimen was reserved for cryopreservation, while the other half was used for research purposes. Semi-thin sections of the biopsy specimens were evaluated for histological features and compared to age-adjusted reference values. Results Of the 34 boys who underwent biopsy between March 2008 and October 2011, 29 had solid tumors and 5 underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for benign disease. Of these, 27 had adequate tissue for histologic analysis. The median age of the boys was 8.7 years (IQR=2.2 – 11.5 years). All children had either normal (81.5%) or increased (18.5%) numbers of normal germ cells per tubules for their age. However, 18.5% (5/27) of boys had no evidence of Adult dark (Ad) spermatogonia, and 56% (9/16) of boys had no evidence of primary spermatocytes on biopsy, that would be expected for their age norms. These findings are suggestive of abnormal germ cell maturation. Conclusion The preliminary histologic findings of abnormal spermatogenesis maturation in testes of pre-pubertal boys with cancer warrants further investigation. PMID:26032139

  3. Effects of Microgravity or Simulated Launch on Testicular Function in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Deaver, D. R.; Zirkin, B. R.; Grills, G. S.; Sapp, W. J.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Clemens, J. W.; Banerjee, S. D.; Folmer, J.; Gruppi, C. M.; Wolgemuth, D. J.; Williams, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Testes from flight rats on COSMOS 2044 and simulated-launch, vivarium, or caudal-elevation control rats (5/group) were analyzed by subjective and quantitative methods. On the basis of observations of fixed tissue, it was evident that some rats had testicular abnormalities unassociated with treatment and probably existing when they were assigned randomly to the four treatment groups. Considering rats without preexisting abnormalities, diameter of seminiferous tubules and numbers of germ cells per tubule cross section were lower (P less than 0.05) in flight than in simulated-launch or vivarium rats. However, ratios of germ cells to each other or to Sertoli cells and number of homogenization-resistant spermatids did not differ from values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Expression of testis-specific gene products was not greatly altered by flight. Furthermore, there was no evidence for production of stress-inducible transcripts of the hsp7O or hsp9O genes. Concentration of receptors for rat luteinizing hormone in testicular tissue and surface density of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in Leydig cells were similar in flight and simulated-launch rats. However, concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced (P less than 0.05) in flight rats to less than 20% of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Thus spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed. Exposure to microgravity for more than 2 wk might result in additional changes. Sequelae of reduced androgen production associated with microgravity on turnover of muscle and bone should be considered.

  4. The hormonal control of testicular descent.

    PubMed

    Levy, J B; Husmann, D A

    1995-01-01

    Descent of the testes is a complex event mediated by hormonal and mechanical factors. At present we hypothesize that testicular descent occurs as the result of the secretion of descendin from a normal testicle. Descendin secretion results in selective growth of the gubernacular cells. Gubernacular outgrowth results in masculinization of the inguinal canal. At the beginning of testicular descent, the patent processus migrates into the inguinal canal, transmitting intraabdominal pressure to the gubernaculum. The gubernaculum in turn applies traction to the testicle to introduce the testicle into the inguinal canal. Descent of the testes into and through the inguinal canal is an interplay between intraabdominal pressure transmitted by a patent processus vaginalis and androgen-induced gubernacular regression. Specifically, we hypothesize that androgens under control of an intact fetal hypothalamic-pituitary axis alter the viscoelastic properties of the gubernaculum. Reductions in the turgidity of the gubernaculum allow intraabdominal pressure to push the testicle into the scrotum. Functional abnormalities in any of the above factors will result in cryptorchidism. PMID:8867594

  5. Testicular cancer in US Navy personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, F.C.; Gorham, E.D.; Garland, C.F.; Ducatman, A.M.

    1988-02-01

    Computerized career history and demographic information is obtained four times each year for all active-duty US Navy enlisted personnel by the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego, California. This system provided demographic, occupational (110 occupations), and service history information for enlisted men serving during 1974-1979 (2,275,829 person-years). This analysis is restricted to white males because of the relatively small number of events in nonwhites. Age-adjusted and age-specific incidence rates of testicular cancer in US Navy personnel did not differ significantly from those of the US population, and age-adjusted incidence rates did not increase with length of service in the Navy. There was a group of three occupations, however, which involved duties similar to those of the civilian occupation of automobile mechanic, and which had a significantly elevated age-adjusted rate of testicular cancer compared with the US population and the total Navy population. These occupations were aviation support equipment technician, engineman, and construction mechanic. All involve maintenance of internal combustion engines and exposure to the attendant lubricants, solvents, paints, and exhausts.

  6. [Clinical value of testicular lymphangiography in diagnosis of retroperitoneal metastases].

    PubMed

    Takasaki, N; Matsuse, K; Okada, S; Ra, S; Ueda, H; Ogita, T

    1984-11-01

    Testicular lymphangiography was performed before retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in 20 patients with testicular tumor. The clinical value of testicular lymphangiography in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal metastases was evaluated retrospectively in comparison with the findings obtained by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. In 12 patients who had no metastasis in the primary lymph nodes of the testis, testicular lymphangiography showed the lymph vessels to be diverged into 2 to 6 vessels (mean: 3.5) at the level between L2 and L4, and 4 to 10 lymph nodes (mean: 6.2) at the level between L1 and L4 were filled with contrast medium. On the other hand, in 8 patients who had metastases in the primary lymph nodes, several abnormal findings were observed in both lymph vessels and nodes, i.e., discontinuity, extravasation of contrast medium, dilatation, displacement and reflux to the distal side in the lymph vessels, and decrease in number (less than 2), non-visualization, filling defect, displacement and contrastfilling in the contralateral side in lymph nodes. Three to 5 of these abnormal findings were usually found in each case. The extravasation of contrast medium was not a finding specific to cases with lymph node metastases, because it was also found in a few cases without metastases. Testicular lymphangiography is a valuable method to detect primary lymph node metastases from testicular tumor. However, the combination of testicular and foot lymphangiography is imperative to demonstrate wide spread lymph node involvement in the retroperitoneum. PMID:6528843

  7. Heterophile Antibody Interference led to Unneeded Chemotherapy in a Testicular Cancer Patient.

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniele G; Millot, Françoise; Lacroix, Isabelle; Lotz, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Human heterophile antibodies may develop after infection or contact with animal tissues or animal serum products. These antibodies have the capacity to bind to the animal immunoglobulins used in immunoassays leading to erroneous results. We here report a case of a testicular germ cell tumor patient who developed heterophile antibodies during the surveillance period of his disease. Following false-positive results of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) he received unneeded chemotherapy. This article also stresses the problem of using serum tumor markers without no major imaging abnormalities to diagnose a patients' relapse. PMID:27617210

  8. Presumed Testicular Rupture During a College Baseball Game

    PubMed Central

    Freehill, Michael T.; Gorbachinsky, Ilya; Lavender, John D.; Davis, Ronald L.; Mannava, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Scrotal rupture during athletic competition is considered a rare occurrence; however, blunt trauma to the scrotum is relatively common. Protective athletic cups are strongly recommended for both children and adults engaging in contact sports as they likely limit the amount of serious injury to the scrotal contents. Nonetheless, should the on-field assessment by the athletic trainer, coach, or team physician indicate that the athlete has increased pain, ecchymosis, swelling, and tenderness to palpation after blunt trauma, testicular rupture should be suspected and prompt ultrasound and urologic assessment should be undertaken, as early operative intervention is necessary for testicular preservation. This report reviews testicular trauma during athletic competition. PMID:25984265

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of azoospermia resulting from testicular sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jason R; Flood, Diane; Mullen, J Brendan; Fischer, Marc Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Genitourinary sarcoidosis is uncommon, with only rare documented cases of testicular involvement reported. We detail the case of a 37-year-old male who initially presented for azoospermia and secondary infertility. A testicular biopsy revealed nonnecrotizing granulomas and a chest x-ray identified perihilar lymphadenopathy and granulomatous lung nodules. A corticosteroid regimen was administered, and routine semen analyses were conducted. Significant improvements were noted after prednisone treatments. A successful in vivo fertilization was obtained. This is the first known case of testicular sarcoidosis diagnosed during investigations into azoospermia and secondary infertility which, after treatment with corticosteroids, resulted in natural fertilization. PMID:21546613

  10. [Follow-up of contralateral intratesticular oxygen pressure in unilateral testicular torsion].

    PubMed

    Klotz, T; Homann, H H; Mathers, M; Vorreuther, R; Shekata, H H; Engelmann, U

    1995-03-01

    The intratesticular tissue oxygen tension (= IT-pO2) depends on the testicular perfusion. Polarographic microcatheter probes have recently become available and are suitable for continuous measurements of the tissue oxygen tension. In 20 adult albino rats flexible Clark-type oxygen electrodes (1.5 F) were used for simultaneous monitoring of IT-pO2 of the ipsi- and contralateral testicle during unilateral torsion. A counterclockwise 720 degrees torsion caused a decrease of IT-pO2 from 21 mm Hg (+/- 5 mm Hg) to 5 mm Hg (+/- 1.5 mm Hg) in the twisted testicle within 5-7 min. After detorsion the IT-pO2 returned to normal level in the following 25 min. The IT-pO2 of the contralateral testicle showed no significant changes during torsion for 1 h or after detorsion. Thus, if the oxygen utilization is unchanged a unilateral acute torsion for 1 h does not cause a decrease in perfusion in the contralateral testicle. It will probably also prove possible to use oxygen tissue tension measurements to improve our understanding of testicular perfusion in humans. PMID:7754586

  11. Macrophages and dendritic cells in the post-testicular environment.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Nicolas; Barton, Claire R

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages (MΦ) and dendritic cells (DCs) are heterogeneous families of functionally and developmentally related immune cells that play crucial roles in tissue homeostasis and the regulation of immune responses. During the past 5 years, immunologists have generated a considerable amount of data that challenge dogmas about the ontogeny and functions of these highly versatile cells. The male excurrent duct system plays a critical role in the establishment of fertility by allowing sperm maturation, transport and storage. In addition, it is challenged by pathogens and must establish a protective and tolerogenic environment for a continuous flow of autoantigenic spermatozoa. The post-testicular environment and, in particular, the epididymis contain an intricate network of DCs and MΦ; however, the immunophysiology of this intriguing and highly specialized mucosal system is poorly understood. This review summarizes the current trends in mouse MΦ and DC biology and speculates about their roles in the steady-state epididymis. Unraveling immune cell functions in the male reproductive tract is an essential prerequisite for the design of innovative strategies aimed at controlling male fertility and treating infertility. PMID:26337514

  12. Testicular acid phosphatase induces odontoblast differentiation and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwajung; Kim, Tak-Heun; Yun, Chi-Young; Kim, Jung-Wook; Cho, Eui-Sic

    2016-04-01

    Odontoblasts differentiate from dental mesenchyme during dentin formation and mineralization. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling odontoblast differentiation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that expression of testicular acid phosphatase (ACPT) is restricted in the early stage of odontoblast differentiation in proliferating dental mesenchymal cells and secretory odontoblasts. ACPT is expressed earlier than tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and partly overlaps with TNAP in differentiating odontoblasts. In MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells, expression of ACPT appears simultaneously with a decrease in β-catenin activity and is abolished with the expression of Phex and Dsp. Knockdown of ACPT in MDPC-23 cells stimulates cell proliferation together with an increase in active β-catenin and cyclin D1. In contrast, the overexpression of ACPT suppresses cell proliferation with a decrease in active β-catenin and cyclin D1. Expression of TNAP, Osx, Phex and Dsp is reduced by knockdown of ACPT but is enhanced by ACPT overexpression. When ACPT is blocked with IgG, alkaline phosphatase activity is inhibited but cell proliferation is unchanged regardless of ACPT expression. These findings suggest that ACPT inhibits cell proliferation through β-catenin-mediated signaling in dental mesenchyme but elicits odontoblast differentiation and mineralization by supplying phosphate during dentin formation. Thus, ACPT might be a novel candidate for inducing odontoblast differentiation and mineralization for dentin regeneration. PMID:26547858

  13. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: effects on semen quality and testicular changes.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M; Johnson, L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus bull calves of intratesticular administration of 1mL of either saline (n=9) or one of the two doses of zinc acetate (ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10 or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) on semen quality and testicular changes. Semen was collected by electroejaculation on Days 343, 524 and 783 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. Treatment reduced median maximum number of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm collected (P=0.001) and the percentage of animals in which sperm were recovered (saline: 100%, 9/9; ZA1: 44.9%, 4/9 and ZA2: 40.0%, 4/10; P=0.013). Compared to saline treated controls, treatment with ZA reduced the mean diameter of the testes after Day 34 of treatment (treatment×time, P=0.013) and total testicular weight at slaughter (treatment: mean±SEM; saline: 569.4±59.0g, ZA1: 249.3±72.9g, ZA2: 247.5±68.1g; P=0.004). Histological changes in testes of bulls treated with ZA were characterized by germ cell depletion, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, interstitial fibrosis, epididymal duct atrophy with variable remnants of testicular tissue and degeneration. We conclude that intratesticular administration of two doses of ZA in B. indicus calves is able to severely impair spermatogenesis and cause varying degrees of testicular degeneration and a reduction in testicular diameter and mass. Further investigation is required to determine ways of obtaining more consistent results from treatment. PMID:25752498

  14. Effect of bromine and chlorine positioning in the induction of renal and testicular toxicity by halogenated propanes.

    PubMed

    Låg, M; Søderlund, E J; Omichinski, J G; Brunborg, G; Holme, J A; Dahl, J E; Nelson, S D; Dybing, E

    1991-01-01

    A series of halogenated propanes were studied for renal and testicular necrogenic effects in the rat and correlated to their ability to induce in vivo renal and testicular DNA damage and in vitro testicular DNA damage. 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) and 1,2,3-tribromopropane were most potent in causing organ damage in both kidney and testes. Extensive necrosis was evident at 85 mumol/kg in kidney and at 170 mumol/kg in testis. The dibromomonochlorinated analogue 1,3-dibromo-2-chloropropane was less organ toxic than DBCP and 1,2,3-tribromopropane, but induced more organ damage than the dichloromonobrominated analogues 1-bromo-2,3-dichloropropane and 1,3-dichloro-2-bromopropane. Dihalogenated propanes were even less necrogenic. These observed differences in toxic potency between the halogenated propanes could not be explained by relative differences in tissue concentrations. The ability of the halogenated propanes to induce DNA damage in vivo correlated well with their ability to induce organ damage. However, DNA damage occurred at lower doses and at a shorter period of exposure than organ necrosis. This indicates that DNA damage might be an initial event in the development of organ necrosis by halogenated propanes in general. Further, testicular DNA damage induced by the halogenated propanes in vivo correlated well with the DNA damage observed in isolated testicular cells in vitro, showing that toxicity was due to in situ activation. The numbers, positions, and the types of halogen substituents appear to be important determinants in causing DNA damage and necrogenic effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1793801

  15. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E

    PubMed Central

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day) or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day). All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes. PMID:22892924

  16. Testicular Interposition Flap for Repair of Perineal Urinary Fistulae: A Novel Surgical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Raup, Valary T.; Eswara, Jairam R.; Marshall, Stephen D.; Brandes, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Rectourinary fistulae and urinary-cutaneous fistulae are a rare yet devastating complication. Current options for tissue interposition include rectus, gracilis, or gluteal muscle, omentum, or intestine for use in coloanal pull-through procedures. In elderly patients, testicular interposition flaps may be an excellent tissue option to use when vitalized tissue is necessary to supplement fistula repair. Elderly patients frequently have increased spermatic cord length, potentially offering a longer flap reach than use of a muscle flap. Additionally, mobilizing one of the testicles and developing it through the external inguinal ring may be a less morbid and less costly procedure than harvesting and tunneling a muscle flap. Longer follow-up and further studies are needed to determine the outcomes of this novel technique. PMID:26483985

  17. Reversible harmless interruption of testicular blood supply in the ram

    SciTech Connect

    van Vliet, J.; De Ruiter-Bootsma, A.L.; Oei, Y.H.; Hoekstra, A.; De Rooij, D.G.; Wensing, C.J.

    1987-03-01

    An effective method of interrupting testicular blood flow temporarily and repeatedly in the ram has been developed. Blockade of flow has been achieved mechanically by an inflatable occluder placed around the testicular artery at the level of the spermatic cord. The effect of the blockade on total testicular blood supply was investigated using Doppler flowmetry and a percutaneous Xenon-133 injection method. With both approaches, the blood flow changes after inflation or deflation of the occluders could be estimated satisfactorily. A substantial decrease of testicular blood flow was achieved in eight of the 10 testes with inflated occluders. However, there were indications that in the remaining two testes blockade of the arterial flow was not complete. After deflation of the occluders, blood flow was restored rapidly and completely in all testes. Macro- and microscopic examinations revealed no long-term damage to the testis after blood flow interruptions lasting 30 or 60 minutes.

  18. Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax in metastatic testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Gudbrandsdottir, Gigja; Sverrisdottir, Asgerdur; Thrainsson, Adolf; Einarsson, Gudmundur V; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax (SBSP) is a very rare condition, mainly detected in patients with underlying pulmonary disease. This study reports a case of SBSP following chemotherapy for metastatic testicular cancer. PMID:19140040

  19. Many Men Ignore Testicular Cancer Symptoms for Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Many Men Ignore Testicular Cancer Symptoms for Months Early diagnosis and treatment are tied to 99 ... something abnormal in a testicle wait a few months before seeing a doctor. But, when diagnosed while ...

  20. Segmental testicular infarction: sonographic findings and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Michael; Nghiem, Hanh; Jafri, Syed Zafar; Schwartz, John; Malhotra, Rajwant; Amin, Mitual

    2013-02-01

    Segmental testicular infarction can mimic testicular carcinoma on sonography and can lead to unnecessary orchiectomy. This case series describes and correlates sonographic and histologic findings of 7 pathologically proven segmental testicular infarction cases. Segmental testicular infarction should be suspected on sonography when a geographic lesion with low or mixed echogenicity has absent or near-absent flow in a patient with scrotal pain. A hyperechoic rim and peripheral hyperemia correspond to interstitial hemorrhage and inflammatory changes. As an infarct evolves, it becomes more discrete and hypoechoic as ghost outlines replace seminiferous tubules. Follow-up or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging or sonography can increase diagnostic confidence in suspected cases and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy. PMID:23341396

  1. Unexpected outcome after partial epididymectomy for chronic testicular pain.

    PubMed

    Nandwani, G M; Imasry, Y; Dabbagh, V; Chaplin, B J

    2012-01-01

    Cancer of the testis is uncommon in young males. It can present in unusual ways. We are presenting a case of testicular cancer presenting as an epididymal lesion that was diagnosed after epididymectomy. PMID:24669660

  2. Bilateral perinatal testicular torsion: successful salvage supports emergency surgery.

    PubMed

    Granger, Jeremy; Brownlee, Ewan M; Cundy, Thomas P; Goh, Day Way

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) has poor rates of testicular salvage. Although rare, bilateral PTT carries the risk of anorchia. We present a case of a 2-day-old term infant with acute onset right-sided scrotal discolouration and tenderness. The infant was promptly taken to the operating theatre for emergency scrotal exploration. Bilateral extravaginal testicular torsion was identified, with the right testis appearing to have a more established ischaemic appearance compared to that on the left side. Intraoperative findings were representative of metachronous PTT with a short time period of only several hours separating the torsion events. Both testes were detorted and fixated in the scrotum. The infant made an uneventful recovery. Outpatient clinic review at 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively confirmed no clinical evidence of testicular atrophy. Given the potential for contralateral torsion and the morbidity of anorchia, our experience supports the role for emergency scrotal exploration in suspected PTT. PMID:27307430

  3. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies. PMID:26482724

  4. Radiation therapy of testicular non-seminomas

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Werf-Messing, B.; Hop, W.C.J.

    1982-02-01

    The prognosis of 121 patients with a non-seminoma testicular tumor MTI or MTU was assessed. The clinical lymph node involvement and the T-category of the primary had a significant bearing on prognosis, which is completely determined by pulmonary relapse. The low-risk group (9% pulmonary relapse, all curable) is characterized by a primary category T/sub 1/ or T/sub 2/ with negative lymphangiography. The percentage of favorable patients is significantly higher if there is malignant teratoma intermediate (MTI) rather than malignant teratoma undifferentiated (MTU) histology. Systematic use of tumor markers (..beta../sub 1/-HCG and alpha fetoprotein), and perhaps an assessment of vascular invasion in the primary, might be useful to identify those patients in the unfavorable group who might benefit from elective chemotherapy.

  5. The chemosensitivity of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2014-04-01

    Although rare cancers overall, testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common type of cancer in young males below 40 years of age. Both subtypes of TGCTs, i.e., seminomas and non-seminomas, are highly curable and the majority of even metastatic patients may expect to be cured. These high cure rates are not due to the indolent nature of these cancers, but rather to their sensitivity to chemotherapy (and for seminomas to radiotherapy). The delineation of the cause of chemosensitivity at the molecular level is of paramount importance, because it may provide insights into the minority of TGCTs that are chemo-resistant and, thereby, provide opportunities for specific therapeutic interventions aimed at reverting them to chemosensitivity. In addition, delineation of the molecular basis of TGCT chemo-sensitivity may be informative for the cause of chemo-resistance of other more common types of cancer and, thus, may create new therapeutic leads. p53, a frequently mutated tumor suppressor in cancers in general, is not mutated in TGCTs, a fact that has implications for their chemo-sensitivity. Oct4, an embryonic transcription factor, is uniformly expressed in the seminoma and embryonic carcinoma components of non-seminomas, and its interplay with p53 may be important in the chemotherapy response of these tumors. This interplay, together with other features of TGCTs such as the gain of genetic material from the short arm of chromosome 12 and the association with disorders of testicular development, will be discussed in this paper and integrated in a unifying hypothesis that may explain their chemo-sensitivity. PMID:24692098

  6. Genistein mitigates radiation-induced testicular injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Sun; Heo, Kyu; Yi, Joo-Mi; Gong, Eun Ji; Yang, Kwangmo; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the radioprotective effect of a multifunctional soy isoflavone, genistein, with the testicular system. Genistein was administered (200 mg/kg body weight) to male C3H/HeN mice by subcutaneous injection 24 h prior to pelvic irradiation (5 Gy). Histopathological parameters were evaluated 12 h and 21 days post-irradiation. Genistein protected the germ cells from radiation-induced apoptosis (p < 0.05 vs vehicle-treated irradiated mice at 12 h post-irradiation). Genistein significantly attenuated radiation-induced reduction in testis weight, seminiferous tubular diameter, seminiferous epithelial depth and sperm head count in the testes (p < 0.05 vs vehicle-treated irradiated mice at 21 days post-irradiation). Repopulation and stem cell survival indices of the seminiferous tubules were increased in the genistein-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated irradiation group at 21 days post-irradiation (p < 0.01). The irradiation-mediated decrease in the sperm count and sperm mobility in the epididymis was counteracted by genistein (p < 0.01), but no effect on the frequency of abnormal sperm was evident. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated using DCFDA method and exposure to irradiation elevated ROS levels in the testis and genistein treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of radiation-induced ROS production. The results indicate that genistein protects from testicular dysfunction induced by gamma-irradiation by an antiapoptotic effect and recovery of spermatogenesis. PMID:22162311

  7. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Transverse Testicular Ectopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. Naresh; Venugopala, Kandgal

    2015-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism characterized by the presence of Mullerian duct structures in a normal male with 46, XY karyotype. Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is rare form of testicular ectopia in which two testes are located on one inguinal side. The opposite scrotum is empty. PMDS with TTE is rare. We report a case of PMDS with TTE discovered during surgery for a right inguinal hernia in a 25-year-old male. PMID:27512542

  8. Serum Levels of Trace Elements in Patients with Testicular Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mehmet; Pirinççi, Necip; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Demir, Murat; Akkoyun, HurremTuran; Demir, Halit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Trace elements are primary components of biological structures; however, they can be toxic when their concentrations are higher than those needed for biological functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study serum levels of trace elements were measured in 30 patients (mean age was 26.9±11.2 years) newly diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and 32 healthy volunteers (mean age: 27.4±10.8) by using furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum samples were stored at-20°C until assays. Results: In patients with germ cell testicular cancer, the diagnosis was seminoma in 15, mix germ cell tumor in 7, embryonal carcinoma in 4, yolk sac tumor in 2 and teratoma in 2 patients. There was stage I testicular tumor in 19 patients (63.3%) while stage II in 6 patients (20.0%), stage IIIA in 4 patients (13.3%) and stage IIIC in one patient (3.4%). It was found that serum Co, Cu, Mg and Pb levels were increased (p<0.05), whereas Fe, Mn, and Zn levels were decreased in patients with testicular cancer (p<0.05). Conclusions: These alterations may be important in the pathogenesis of testicular cancers; however, further prospective studies are needed to identify the relationship between testicular cancer and trace elements. PMID:26742967

  9. Cadmium induced testicular pathophysiology: prophylactic role of taurine.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of taurine against cadmium induced testicular pathophysiology. Cadmium (in the form of Cadmium chloride, CdCl(2)) administration at a dose of 4 mg/kg body weight for 6 days significantly decreased testicular Delta(5)-3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD activities along with the reduction in the plasma testosterone level. In addition, reductions in testicular sperm count as well as loss in sperm motility were also observed in Cd-intoxication. Cd increased the intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species and testicular Cd accumulation. Besides, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, glutathione disulfide and DNA fragmentation as well as decreased levels of the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, total thiols and reduced glutathione were also found to be associated with this toxicity. Taurine pretreatment at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 5 days, on the other hand, could prevent all the Cd-induced testicular pathophysiology and oxidative insult related studied parameters. Taurine treatment, in addition also increased the in vivo ferric reducing antioxidant power linearly up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Histological examination of testicular sections from experimental animals supported these results. The effect of a well established antioxidant, vitamin C has been included in the study as a positive control. Combining all, data suggest that being an antioxidant, taurine plays a beneficial role against Cd-induced adverse effects on the male reproductive system. PMID:18926901

  10. Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisterkamp, A.; Ripken, T.; Mamom, T.; Drommer, W.; Welling, H.; Ertmer, W.; Lubatschowski, H.

    In order to evaluate the potential for refractive surgery, fs laser pulses of 150-fs pulse duration were used to process corneal tissue of dead and living animal eyes. By focusing the laser radiation down to spot sizes of several microns, very precise cuts could be achieved inside the treated cornea, accompanied with minimum collateral damage to the tissue by thermal or mechanical effects. During histo-pathological analysis by light and transmission electron microscopy considerable side effects of fs photodisruption were found. Due to the high intensities at the focal region several nonlinear effects occurred. Self-focusing, photodissociation, UV-light production were observed, leading to streak formation inside the cornea.

  11. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE). For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day) orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice. PMID:21350610

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound evaluation of penile and testicular masses.

    PubMed

    Andipa, E; Liberopoulos, K; Asvestis, C

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the role of ultrasonography and MRI in the investigation of testicular and penile masses, as well as to review the literature. This article is based on our experience with 230 patients who presented with acute or subacute scrotal pain or painless enlargement of the scrotum or penis. Gray scale and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) were applied in all cases. In 73 cases, the final diagnosis was established by surgery and in 157 cases by follow-up. MRI was performed in 48 cases. Ultrasonography was the initial imaging modality in all cases. It provided detailed anatomic information with high sensitivity and accuracy in cases of torsion, inflammation, varicocele and trauma. In cases of tumor, US showed the presence of the mass in all cases, while it additionally revealed certain characteristic features of tissue constitution and blood supply. In most cases, differentiation between various types of tumors or differentiation between malignant and benign lesions was impossible. MRI, besides the detailed anatomic imaging, also provided a certain degree of tissue specificity. MRI could help in the detection and staging of penile cancer and in the evaluation of testicular and scrotal masses, especially when a diagnostic dilemma occurred on ultrasonographic examination. Ultrasonography, combining gray scale and color techniques, is irreplaceable in the diagnostic work-up of scrotal and penile masses, while MRI can serve as a problem solving diagnostic modality. PMID:15300391

  13. Different patterns of testicular in vitro metabolism of (/sup 14/C)testosterone in several Betta (Anabantoidei, Belontiidae) species

    SciTech Connect

    Leitz, T.

    1987-07-01

    Testicular tissues of Betta picta, Betta smaragdina, and the short-finned variety of Betta splendens were incubated with (/sup 14/C)testosterone at 27 degrees for 120 min and the metabolites were isolated and characterized by paper and thin-layer chromatography and eventually by crystallization to constant specific activity. The metabolic profiles of the species were totally different. The short-finned B. splendens formed mainly 11-ketotestosterone (51.4%) as does the veiltail variety. B. smaragdina was the only species which formed considerable amounts of conjugates (24.3%), whereas in B. picta almost exclusively reduced (5 beta-) compounds (66.2%) were metabolites of testosterone. The results are discussed to be attributable to differences in testicular steroid metabolism. The significance of this observation remains unclear.

  14. Effect of Ocimum basilicum extract on cadmium-induced testicular histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; Nooh, Hanna Z

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (basil) extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, against testicular toxicity induced by cadmium (Cd), which is one of the most important toxic heavy metals. The intoxicated rats showed significant alterations in the testicular tissue including decreased seminiferous epithelium height and changes in the arrangement of spermatogenic layers. Hypospermatogensis with cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei were observed. Intertubular hemorrahage and absence of spermatozoa were noted. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in Ki-67 expression, whereas the increase in apoptotic rate was associated with a decrease in the Bcl/Bax ratio. Concomitant treatment with aqueous basil extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical changes induced by Cd. The beneficial effects of basil extract could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. PMID:23869259

  15. Onco-testicular sperm extraction: birth of a healthy baby after fertility preservation in synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Roque, M; Sampaio, M; Salles, P G de Oliveira; Geber, S

    2015-05-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) represent 1%-1.5% of all male neoplasms, and they have the highest prevalence among men between 15 and 35 years old. Synchronous bilateral disease is a rare presentation, and the ratio of metachronous to synchronous bilateral disease is about 4 : 1. Several studies have suggested a correlation between male infertility and testicular cancer, with a 20-fold increase in the incidence of testicular cancer in infertile patients compared with the general population. At the time of diagnosis, 50%-75% of patients with unilateral TGCT present with subfertility; almost 13% of the patients are azoospermic before treatment, and up to two-thirds of patients become azoospermic following adjuvant cancer therapies. Therefore, fertility preservation should be considered in all oncological treatments. The only available option to preserve the reproductive potential in azoospermic patients with testicular cancer is to perform an onco-testicular sperm extraction (onco-TESE) before cancer treatment. In this paper, we describe a rare case of a patient with synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia who was submitted to onco-TESE, sperm cryopreservation, and which was followed by the delivery of a healthy baby after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), emphasising the importance of fertility preservation in oncology patients. PMID:24846759

  16. Testicular biopsy in psittacine birds (Psittaciformes): comparative evaluation of testicular reproductive status by endoscopic, histologic, and cytologic examination.

    PubMed

    Hänse, Maria; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Reitemeier, Susanne; Einspanier, Almuth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of the reproductive cycle of male parrots is important for examining the male genital tract and for successful breeding, especially of endangered species. To evaluate different diagnostic methods and criteria concerning the classification of reproductive stages, we examined 20 testicular samples obtained at necropsy in psittacine birds of different species and testicular biopsy samples collected from 9 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and 7 rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) by endoscopy 4 times over a 12-month period. The testicular reproductive status was assessed histologically and then compared with the macroscopic appearance of the testicles and cytologic results. The histologic examination was nondiagnostic in 19 of 59 testicular biopsy samples. By contrast, the cytologic preparations were diagnostic in 57 of 59 biopsy samples. The results of the cytologic examination coincided with the histologic results in 34 of 38 biopsy samples and 18 of 20 necropsy samples. Macroscopic parameters displayed some differences between reproductive stages but provided an unreliable indication of the reproductive status. These results suggest that microscopic examination of a testicular biopsy sample is a reliable method for evaluating the reproductive status of male parrots and is preferable to the macroscopic evaluation of the testicle. Cytologic examination provides fast preliminary results, even when the histologic preparation is not sufficient for evaluation, but results may be erroneous. Thus, a combination of histologic and cytologic examination is recommended for evaluating testicular reproductive status. PMID:24640925

  17. Testicular and epididymal pathology in Yankasa rams experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense

    PubMed Central

    Okubanjo, Oluyinka O; Sekoni, Victor O; Ajanusi, Ologunja J; Nok, Andrew J; Adeyeye, Adewale A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathological effect of experimental Trypanosoma congolense (T. congolense) infection on the testes and epididymis of Yankasa rams. Methods Nine intact un-castrated rams were obtained and divided into 2 groups of 6 infected with 1×106 T. congolense and 3 uninfected controls. Four infected and one uninfected control rams were sacrificed on Day 75 post infection and the remaining four rams (two each of infected and control groups) on Day 86 post infection. Results All infected rams became parasitaemic within 7-11 days post infection with clinical trypanosomosis characterized by peri-orbital oedema and a transient period of scrotal oedema, this was followed by progressive decrease in scrotal size. At postmortem, the organs from infected rams were pale and emaciated but no observable lesion was seen in the uninfected control group. At histology, the testes showed areas of necrosis on the interstitial tissue characterized by destruction of cellular structures within the tissues and seminiferous tubules. There was moderate to severe testicular degeneration manifested by loss of tissue architecture and infiltration with macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Fibrous connective tissues were also seen in the testes of the infected rams indicative of replacement of normal cells by fibrous connective tissue. The epididymis of the infected rams had collection of some spermatocytes and desquamated epithelial cells in the epithelial ducts although others were devoid of spermatocytes in their ducts leading to loss of epididymal sperm reserves. However, these were not seen in the uninfected control rams. Conclusions T. congolense causes testicular and epididymal damage which may render the rams infertile or sterile.

  18. Testicular development during long-distance spring migration.

    PubMed

    Bauchinger, Ulf; Van't Hof, Thomas; Biebach, Herbert

    2007-03-01

    In birds, gonadal size varies between fully functional and maximally sized during reproduction and a regressed state with limited function during the non-reproductive periods. Recent findings show that testicular mass of the long-distance migratory garden warbler begins to increase during spring migration. Therefore, we sampled garden warblers during spring migration from Tanzania to Ethiopia, and finally to Egypt to determine if this mass increase is functional in terms of sperm and hormone production. In addition, we compared these birds, with garden warblers sampled after a 9-day recovery period following the crossing of the Sahara Desert (simulation of stopover) in Egypt and a group sampled in breeding condition in the laboratory. During migration there was a significant increase in testicular mass that was correlated with seminiferous tubule area and the stage of spermatogenesis. Plasma testosterone levels were low during migration, but were significantly correlated with testicular mass. LH concentration was not related to testicular mass, and, surprisingly, remained constant during migration. We suggest that previous experiments that found a tight relationship between testicular growth and LH level in the laboratory may not reflect the situation during long-distance migration where the great physical and energetic demands of migration likely affect the reproductive axis and, consequently, the relationship between testicular growth and LH titer. However, testes do develop to a considerable extent during spring migration and the present data suggest that initiation of testicular maturation during spring migration is necessary to ensure full spermatogenetic development soon after arrival at the breeding area. PMID:17254583

  19. Ca(2+)-Calmodulin regulation of testicular androgen production in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Martins, Rute S T; Fuentes, Juan; Almeida, Olinda; Power, Deborah M; Canario, Adelino V M

    2009-06-01

    The Ca(2+)-Calmodulin (CaM) signaling pathway has previously been shown to be involved in the regulation of teleost fish ovarian steroidogenesis. However, a putative role of CaM in testicular steroidogenesis and potential targets has not been examined. To examine whether basal steroidogenesis is modulated by Ca(2+) and CaM levels in the testis of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) we have incubated testicular fragments in vitro under different conditions and analyzed steroid output. Calcium-free medium with or without EGTA did not affect testicular basal 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) secretion. However, addition of 80microM the CaM inhibitor W7 significantly reduced basal 11-KT, T and androstenedione secretion. Interestingly, the decreased androgen production by 80microM of W7 was accompanied by increased 11-desoxicortisol output and by the activation of cortisol synthesis in the testis, the latter undetected in untreated tissues. However, production of 17,20alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one was unaltered by W7. This suggests that C17,20 desmolase, 21-hydroxylase and possibly 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase are targets for CaM. In addition, androgen production was also found to be regulated by the level of cAMP since incubations with forskolin (FK) significantly increased 11-KT and T output. A cross-talk between the cAMP and Ca(2+)-CaM signaling pathways was detected since W7 administration also decreased FK stimulated androgen production. Altogether, these data show that both basal and cAMP stimulated androgen levels were modulated by intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent CaM and that possibly Ca(2+)-CaM determines the shift in steroidogenesis from C21 steroids to androgens. PMID:19341736

  20. [Importance of pathology for therapy planning of testicular germ cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, A; Knüchel-Clarke, R; Pfister, D

    2014-05-01

    Testicular tumors can be divided into germ cell tumors and sex cord stromal tumors. Malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) represent about 90-95 % of all testicular tumors and are the most common solid neoplasms in young men aged 20-40 years with an increasing incidence in industrialized countries. Treatment of TGCT is performed by an individual and risk-adapted approach taking primary tumor histology, histopathlogical and molecular prognostic risk factors, tumor stage and for metastasized tumors the response to systemic chemotherapy into consideration. Knowledge of the specific histopathology of the primary tumor and the prognostic factors is of utmost importance for the treating urologist and oncologist in order to avoid undertreatment or overtreatment. Established risk factors which have been validated in retrospective and prospective studies for clinical stage I non-seminomatous TGCT are the presence of vascular invasion and the percentage of embryonal carcinoma. In clinical stage I seminomas tumor size (> 4 cm) and presence of rete testis infiltration have been identified as risk factors in retrospective but not in prospective studies. Quantitative histopathology of the primary tumor is also important for the management of small residual masses following chemotherapy: if the masses are ≤ 1 cm, postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is only indicated if the primary tumor contains ≥ 50 % teratoma. Quantitative pathohistology of the resected residual masses is of importance for the decision-making process of a consolidating chemotherapy which is only of benefit if the amount of vital cancer tissue is > 10 %. Resection of residual hepatic and thoracic masses is indispensable. For gonadal stromal tumors knowledge of atypical nuclear forms, increased rate of mitosis and increased growth fractions are important for therapy planning. PMID:24771259

  1. In vitro toxicity of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane to isolated testicular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The biochemical basis for the antispermatogenic properties of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) was studied using hepatic and testicular mitochondria, as well as Sertoli cells and primary spermatocytes isolated from immature rats. Pyruvate-supported mitochondrial respiration was inhibited by DBCP with an ED/sub 50/ of 0.19 ..mu..mol/mg protein. Lactate production by cultured Sertoli cells was stimulated by 0.5-2.0 mM DBCP from 17-62% above that obtained with 1 ..mu..g/ml follicle stimulating hormone. Exposure of Sertoli cells to 0.5-2.0 mM DBCP also increased the specific activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from 18-35% above control. Aerobic /sup 14/C-lactate metabolism by spermatocytes was inhibited by 1.0-2.0 mM DBCP as demonstrated by /sup 14/C-CO/sub 2/ production that was 65-89% less than control. These data support the hypothesis that DBCP, by virtue of its disruptive effect on mitochondria, is selectively cytotoxic to immature germ cells due to their dependence on aerobic energy metabolism. DBCP, at a dose of 0.5 ..mu..mol/10/sup 16/ cells, was 3 times more cytotoxic to spermatocytes than epichlorohydrin (ECH), and 9 times more cytotoxic than 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB). These data argue against the involvement of ECH and ACH in DBCP-induced testicular toxicity, and further indicate that mitochrondrial dysfunction may disrupt spermatogenesis. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) in hepatic, renal, and testicular cytosol catalyzed glutathione (GSH) conjugation to DBCP with tissue-specific K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ values. This reaction did not enhance the mutagenicity of DBCP in the Ames assay. Mutagenic activation was produced by S9 or microsomal enzymes in the presence of NADPH, and was partially inhibited by GSH.

  2. Genotoxic effects of two-generational selenium deficiency in mouse somatic and testicular cells

    PubMed Central

    Graupner, Anne; Instanes, Christine; Andersen, Jill M.; Brandt-Kjelsen, Anicke; Dertinger, Stephen D.; Salbu, Brit; Brunborg, Gunnar; Olsen, Ann-Karin

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have investigated genotoxic effects of high Se diets but very few have addressed the genotoxicity of Se deprivation and its consequences in germ cells and none in somatic cells. To address these data gaps, C57BL/6 male mice were subjected to Se deprivation starting in the parental generation, i.e. before conception. Mice were given a diet of either low (0.01mg Se/kg diet) or normal (0.23mg Se/kg diet) Se content. Ogg1-deficient (Ogg1 −/−) mice were used as a sensitive model towards oxidative stress due to their reduced capacity to repair oxidised purines. Ogg1 −/− mice also mimic the repair characteristics of human post-meiotic male germ cells which have a reduced ability to repair such lesions. The genotoxicity of Se deficiency was addressed by measuring DNA lesions with the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (+ Fpg to detect oxidised DNA lesions) in somatic cells (nucleated blood cells and lung cells) and male germ cells (testicular cells). Total Se concentration in liver and GPx activity in plasma and testicular cells were measured. Gene mutation was evaluated by an erythrocyte-based Pig-a assay. We found that Se deprivation of F1 from their conception and until early adulthood led to the induction of DNA lesions in testicular and lung cells expressed as significantly increased levels of DNA lesions, irrespective of the mouse genotype. In blood cells, Se levels did not appear to affect DNA lesions or mutant cell frequencies. The results suggest that the testis was the most sensitive tissue. Thus, genotoxicity induced by the low Se diet in the spermatozoal genome has potential implications for the offspring. PMID:25358475

  3. Probiotic Microbes Sustain Youthful Serum Testosterone Levels and Testicular Size in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Levkovich, Tatiana; Qi, Peimin; Varian, Bernard J.; Lakritz, Jessica R.; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Alm, Eric J.; Erdman, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals. PMID:24392159

  4. Adaptive planning using megavoltage fan-beam CT for radiation therapy with testicular shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Poonam; Kozak, Kevin; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Ramasubramanian, V.; Paliwal, Bhudatt R.; Welsh, James S.; Rong, Yi

    2012-07-01

    This study highlights the use of adaptive planning to accommodate testicular shielding in helical tomotherapy for malignancies of the proximal thigh. Two cases of young men with large soft tissue sarcomas of the proximal thigh are presented. After multidisciplinary evaluation, preoperative radiation therapy was recommended. Both patients were referred for sperm banking and lead shields were used to minimize testicular dose during radiation therapy. To minimize imaging artifacts, kilovoltage CT (kVCT) treatment planning was conducted without shielding. Generous hypothetical contours were generated on each 'planning scan' to estimate the location of the lead shield and generate a directionally blocked helical tomotherapy plan. To ensure the accuracy of each plan, megavoltage fan-beam CT (MVCT) scans were obtained at the first treatment and adaptive planning was performed to account for lead shield placement. Two important regions of interest in these cases were femurs and femoral heads. During adaptive planning for the first patient, it was observed that the virtual lead shield contour on kVCT planning images was significantly larger than the actual lead shield used for treatment. However, for the second patient, it was noted that the size of the virtual lead shield contoured on the kVCT image was significantly smaller than the actual shield size. Thus, new adaptive plans based on MVCT images were generated and used for treatment. The planning target volume was underdosed up to 2% and had higher maximum doses without adaptive planning. In conclusion, the treatment of the upper thigh, particularly in young men, presents several clinical challenges, including preservation of gonadal function. In such circumstances, adaptive planning using MVCT can ensure accurate dose delivery even in the presence of high-density testicular shields.

  5. Discovery – Cisplatin and The Treatment of Testicular and Other Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Prior to the discovery of cisplatin in 1965, men with testicular cancer had few medical options. Now, thanks to NCI research, cisplatin and similar chemotherapy drugs are known for curing testicular and other forms of cancer.

  6. Demonstration of normal and dilated testicular veins by multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2011-04-01

    Recent advances in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) technology enabled better visualization of testicular (gonadal) vein using submillimeter slice thickness and three-dimensional images. Normally, the testicular vein measures 1-3 mm and drains into the inferior vena cava and left renal vein on the right and left sides, respectively. They can be seen in most patients during MDCT studies. Curved planar and volume-rendered images can be used to display testicular veins. We aim to demonstrate MDCT findings of normal testicular vein and its pathologies including varicocele, varices, the testicular vascular pedicle sign, and phlebolith. The testicular vein can be dilated owing to varicocele or portal hypertension and in patients with intraabdominal seminomas arising from undescended testis. The testicular vein can also cause ureteral compression at the crossing point. Understanding MDCT findings of the normal testicular vein and its various pathologies can allow a correct diagnosis, thereby avoiding further diagnostic tests. PMID:21519988

  7. NOVEL MOLECULAR TARGETS IMPLICATED IN TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS INDUCED BY GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate-induced Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome describes reproductive alterations in human males such as: hypospadias, cryptorchism, low sperm counts, and testicular cancer. This work is the first comprehensive evaluation of the rat fetal testis proteome following phthalate exp...

  8. Abdominal Implantation of Testicles in the Management of Intractable Testicular Pain in Fournier Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cyrus C.; Shahrour, Khaled; Collier, Ronald D.; Welch, Marlene; Chang, Shiliang; Williams, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Fournier gangrene (FG) is a necrotizing soft tissue infection involving the superficial and fascial planes of the perineum. In many cases of FG, debridement of the scrotum is necessary, leaving definitive management of the exposed testicles a significant surgical challenge. Frequent incidental trauma to the testicles can cause severe pain, especially in laborers. Practical surgical solutions are few and not well detailed. Various options exist, including creating a neoscrotum with adjacent thigh tissue, split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs), or even creating a subcutaneous thigh pocket. We describe a case of abdominal implantation of bilateral testicles for persistent testicular pain in a case where STSGs did not provide adequate protection, adjacent thigh skin was not available for creation of a neoscrotum, and significant cord contracture occurred. We detail the advantages and disadvantages of the commonly described techniques, including this approach, and how in select individuals this may be a suitable alternative. PMID:24229025

  9. Pattern of Testicular Biopies as Seen in a Tertiary Institution in Nnewi, Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oranusi, Chidi-Kingsley; Onyiaorah, Igwebuike V; Ukah, Cornelius O

    2014-01-01

    Background: Testicular biopsy is an acknowledged method of examination of the testes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We describe the pattern of testicular histologies in our environment. Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of testicular histology results from the Pathology Department of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, over a 5-year period, January 2008 to December 2012. Results: During the period, 285 testicular histologies were reported. Eighty-one (28.4%) specimens were pathological specimens, while 204 (71.6%) were nonpathological specimens. Thirty-seven (13.0%) of the histology reports were for diagnostic purpose while 248 (87.0%) were for therapeutic purpose. Based on the results, indications could also be categorized into three, benign testicular pathology, malignant testicular pathology, and testicular biopsy for male factor infertility. Thirty-seven cases (13.0%) were due to male factor infertility with complete spermatogenic arrest as the most common histological finding in 21 (56.8%) of the cases. Malignant testicular diseases accounted for 16 (5.6%) of the indications for testicular biopsies. Benign testicular diseases accounted for 28 (9.8%) of the indications for testicular biopsies. Hemorrhagic infarction from testicular torsion represented the commonest histology in 12 (42.9%) cases, followed by inflammations of the testes. Conclusion: Indications for testicular biopsy can be diagnostic and therapeutic. They can also be categorized into benign testicular diseases, malignant testicular diseases, and male infertility. Investigation for male factor infertility was the only diagnostic indication for testicular biopsy. The high incidence of locally and metastatic prostate cancer in males explains why therapeutic removal of the testis is common. PMID:25191093

  10. Nanobacteria may be linked to testicular microlithiasis in infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Hua; Lu, Gen-Sheng; Shen, Xue-Cheng; Zhou, Zhan-Song; Fang, Qiang; Zhang, Xin; Li, Long-Kun; Jin, Xi-Yu; Song, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Testicular microlithiasis (TM) in infertility is an uncommon pathologic condition of unclear etiology that is characterized by calcium deposits within the seminiferous tubules. Nanobacteria (NB), as novel microorganisms mediating tissue calcification, have been discovered in some diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that NB may participate in the pathogenesis of TM, particularly in infertility. Seventeen infertility patients with TM detected by scrotal color Doppler ultrasonography and 17 infertility patients without TM as controls were enrolled in the study. The NB were isolated and cultured from semen samples and urine samples. After 3 to 6 weeks of culture, 10 of 17 (58.8%) semen samples and 2 urine samples from infertile patients with TM showed the growth of white granular microbes that firmly attached to the bottom of the culture flask and were visible to the naked eye. In the control group, only 1 of 17 (5.9%) semen samples from infertile patients without TM showed the growth of white granular microbes. The cultured microbes were identified by indirect immunofluorescent staining (IIFS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 16s rRNA gene expression. IIFS and TEM revealed NB to be coccoid and 100 to 500 nm in diameter. The BLAST result revealed that the 16s rRNA gene sequence from the cultured microbes was 97% the same as that of the known NB. Our results showed that NB may be linked to the development of TM, which may provide a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility with TM. PMID:19779212

  11. Effects of testicular transfixation on seminiferous tubule morphology and sperm parameters of prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carina T; De Souza, Diogo B; Costa, Waldemar S; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2015-10-15

    Orchiopexy is performed as part of cryptorchidism and testicular torsion treatment. The inflammation caused by the needle and suture penetration has been suggested to be one of the possible causes of subfertility after parenchymal transfixation of the testicles. The purpose of the present study was to investigate testicular alterations after parenchymal transfixation sutures at different ages in rats. Prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats were submitted to parenchymal suturing (without tying the knots, thus avoiding local ischemic injury) of the right testicle, which was maintained for 4 hours. All animals were subjected to euthanasia on completion of 14 weeks of life. The right testicles were studied as the sutured testicles, whereas the left organs were studied as contralateral. One age-matched control group of rats that was not submitted to any procedure was used for comparison. During euthanasia, sperm were collected from the tail of the epididymal and evaluated for concentration, motility, and viability. Samples from testicular tissue were collected for morphologic analysis. Sperm analysis indicated that only the adult operated animals presented reductions in motility (38.2% of adult vs. 54.1% of control; P = 0.02) and viability (16.6% of adult vs. 24.6% of control; P = 0.003). Several morphologic alterations were noted both in sutured and in contralateral testes at all ages. For instance, the seminiferous epithelium volumetric density of right testicles was reduced from 50.4% in controls to 32.3% in prepubertal operated animals, 45.3% in pubertal operated animals, and 39.4% in adult operated animals (P < 0.05). The seminiferous epithelium volumetric density was also reduced to 39.9% and 39.0% in contralateral testicles of animals operated before and after puberty, respectively (P < 0.05). The animals operated on before puberty and in adulthood showed more testicular morphologic alterations, as seminiferous tubule volumetric density, seminiferous tubule length

  12. KIT mutations are common in testicular seminomas.

    PubMed

    Kemmer, Kathleen; Corless, Christopher L; Fletcher, Jonathan A; McGreevey, Laura; Haley, Andrea; Griffith, Diana; Cummings, Oscar W; Wait, Cecily; Town, Ajia; Heinrich, Michael C

    2004-01-01

    Expression of KIT tyrosine kinase is critical for normal germ cell development and is observed in the majority of seminomas. Activating mutations in KIT are common in gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis. In this study we examined the frequency and spectrum of KIT mutations in 54 testicular seminomas, 1 ovarian dysgerminoma and 37 non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT). Fourteen seminomas (25.9%) contained exon 17 point mutations including D816V (6 cases), D816H (3 cases), Y823D (2 cases), and single examples of Y823C, N822K, and T801I. No KIT mutations were found in the ovarian dysgerminoma or the NSGCTs. In transient transfection assays, mutant isoforms D816V, D816H, Y823D, and N822K were constitutively phosphorylated in the absence of the natural ligand for KIT, stem cell factor (SCF). In contrast, activation of T801I and wild-type KIT required SCF. Mutants N822K and Y823D were inhibited by imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, previously STI571) whereas D816V and D816H were both resistant to imatinib mesylate. Biochemical evidence of KIT activation, as assessed by KIT phosphorylation and KIT association with phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase in tumor cell lysates, was largely confined to seminomas with a genomic KIT mutation. These findings suggest that activating KIT mutations may contribute to tumorigenesis in a subset of seminomas, but are not involved in NSGCT. PMID:14695343

  13. Testicular tumors: oncologic imaging and diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, J.P.; Balfe, D.M.; McClennan, B.L.

    1984-02-01

    The extreme radiosensitivity of testicular seminomas plus recent advances in chemotherapy for nonseminomatous tumors and for advanced seminomas have made long term survival possible in the large majority of patients with testis cancer. Since choice of therapy is determined by tumor histology and extent of disease, accurate clinical staging is critical. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and chest is the imaging procedure of choice for staging testis cancer. Clinical staging accuracy of 80 to 90% can be achieved using CT in combination with radio-immunoassays for ..beta..-HCG and AFP. Ultrasonography (US), while less sensitive and specific than CT for determining nodal status, may be useful in thin patients with sparse retroperitoneal fat. Lymphangiography should be reserved for Stage I patients in whom elective treatment of the retroperitoneum is not planned. Follow-up should include serial radioimmunoassays for serum AFP and ..beta..-HCG and periodic CT examinations of the abdomen and chest. In addition, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and radionuclide imaging following injection of radioactively labelled antibodies to AFP and ..beta..-HCG are new techniques which offer great promise for the future.

  14. The testicular germ cell tumour transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Alagaratnam, S; Lind, G E; Kraggerud, S M; Lothe, R A; Skotheim, R I

    2011-08-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are characterized by young age of onset and a complex pattern of histological subtypes. Transcriptomic studies have tried to uncover the gene expression patterns underlying this. Here, we present a systematic review of transcriptome studies of TGCTs of adolescents and young adults and identify genes common across the various studies, both for TGCTs in general as well as the histological subtypes, hence elucidating both transcriptional changes associated with malignant transformation and differentiation patterns. A meta-analysis of this type adds power and significance to the genes thus found, where most studies have included only a limited number of samples. Both known (KRAS, MYCN and TPD52) and novel (CCT6A, IGFBP3 and SALL2) cancer genes are implicated in TGC tumorigenesis. Gene expression patterns characteristic to embryonic stem cells are also found deregulated in TGC tumorigenesis. This is reflected in how pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells commonly differentiate into a variety of embryonic and extra-embryonic histological types, each with unique transcriptomes. The embryonal carcinomas in particular are found to overexpress pluripotency genes, while gene signatures for seminomas, teratomas and yolk sac tumours were also identified. This underlines the distinctive transcriptomic programme across histological subtypes, especially striking given that the TGCT genome is largely similar across the same subtypes. PMID:21651573

  15. Molecular genetics of testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sheikine, Yuri; Genega, Elizabeth; Melamed, Jonathan; Lee, Peng; Reuter, Victor E.; Ye, Huihui

    2012-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common malignancy in young men. While most TGCT are potentially curable, approximately 5% of patients with TGCT may develop chemoresistance and die from the disease. This review article summarizes current knowledge in genetics underlying the development, progression and chemoresistance of TGCT. Most post-pubertal TGCT originate from intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (IGCNU), which are transformed fetal gonocytes. Development of IGCNU may involve aberrantly activated KITLG/KIT pathway and overexpression of embryonic transcription factors such as NANOG and POU5F1, which leads to suppression of apoptosis, increased proliferation, and accumulation of mutations in gonocytes. Invasive TGCT consistently show gain of chromosome 12p, typically isochromosome 12p. Single gene mutations are uncommon in TGCT. KIT, TP53, KRAS/NRAS, and BRAF are genes most commonly mutated in TGCT and implicated in their pathogenesis. Different histologic subtypes of TGCT possess different gene expression profiles that reflect different directions of differentiation. Their distinct gene expression profiles are likely caused by epigenetic regulation, in particular DNA methylation, but not by gene copy number alterations. Resistance of TGCT to chemotherapy has been linked to karyotypic aberrations, single-gene mutations, and epigenetic regulation of gene expression in small-scale studies. The study of TGCT genetics could ultimately translate into development of new molecular diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for these tumors and improve the care of patients with these malignancies. PMID:22432056

  16. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Trabert, Britton

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that exposures in utero or in early childhood are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolecence and adulthood are also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two occupational exposures—firefighting and aircraft maintenance—and one environmental exposure (to organochloride pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, six of the identified factors—diet, types of physical activity, military service as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide—are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures—to heat, polyvinylchloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use—require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  17. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because the risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that in utero exposures, or those in early childhood, are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolescence and adulthood is also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two adult occupational exposures-fire fighting and aircraft maintenance--and one environmental exposure (to organochlorine pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, seven of the identified factors--diet, types of physical activity, military service, police work as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide--are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures--to heat, polyvinyl chloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use--require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  18. Studies on the pathogenesis of the pseudohermaphroditism in the mouse with testicular feminization

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Joseph L.; Wilson, Jean D.

    1972-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the male pseudohermaphroditism in the mouse with X-linked testicular feminization (Tfm) has been investigated by comparing testosterone formation, the effects of androgen administration, and the metabolism of testosterone-1,2-3H in normal mice and Tfm mice of varying ages. First, it was established that the adult Tfm animal, in contrast to the human with testicular feminization, has both a low serum testosterone and a low rate of testosterone formation as assessed in slices of testes utilizing a variety of precursors. However, the formation of testosterone from pregnenolone-7α-3H was shown to be normal in newborn Tfm testes, suggesting that a defect in testosterone synthesis may not be primary to this mutation. Second, to establish that the pseudohermaphroditic state is due to androgen resistance rather than to diminished androgen biosynthesis during fetal life, the effect of the administration of dihydrotestosterone to pregnant animals was studied in male, female, and Tfm offspring. Whereas normal and carrier female littermates demonstrated striking virilization of the internal genital tract after such treatment, there was no sign of virilization in the Tfm animals. This finding provides direct experimental evidence in support of the view that male pseudohermaphroditism in testicular feminization is the result of resistance to androgen action during androgen-mediated sexual differentiation in embryos. Third, the metabolism of testosterone-1,2-3H was investigated both in tissue slices and in functionally hepatectomized animals. Dihydrotestosterone formation in tissue slices of the fetal anlage of the male organs of accessory reproduction is normal in the Tfm animal, suggesting that the primary defect in this disorder involves an intracellular event subsequent to this step and that the deficient dihydrotestosterone formation observed in the adult genital tract of the Tfm mouse is secondary to the failure of differentiation in these tissues

  19. Serum and testicular testosterone and androgen binding protein profiles following subchronic treatment with carbendazim.

    PubMed

    Rehnberg, G L; Cooper, R L; Goldman, J M; Gray, L E; Hein, J F; McElroy, W K

    1989-10-01

    While the general toxicity of the benzimidazole pesticides for mammals is low, one of these compounds, carbendazim (MBC), causes degeneration of testicular tissue and decreases spermatogenic activity at doses well below the LD50 value. A study conducted by S. D. Carter, R. A. Hess, and J. W. Laskey (1987, Biol. Reprod. 37, 709-717) showed that treatment with 400 mg/kg/day MBC resulted in severe seminiferous tubular atrophy and infertility. Since spermatogenesis is an androgen-dependent process, we characterized the effects of MBC (0-400 mg/kg/day) on the endocrine function of the rat testes. Following subchronic (85 day) exposure, serum hormones (TSH, LH, FSH, and Prl) were measured as were androgen binding protein (ABP) and testosterone in testicular fluids (interstitial fluid and seminiferous tubule fluid). In addition, the functional capacity of the Leydig cell to secrete testosterone was assessed in vitro following an hCG challenge. Subchronic treatment with MBC at doses of 50-100 mg/kg/day had no effect on pituitary or testicular hormone concentrations: 200 mg/kg/day elevated the testosterone concentration in the seminiferous tubule fluid and the ABP concentration in both the interstitial fluid and the seminiferous tubule fluid without affecting serum testosterone or ABP concentrations. The 400 mg/kg/day dose resulted in increased concentration of both testosterone and ABP in the interstitial fluid and seminiferous tubule fluid and elevated serum ABP, with no change in serum testosterone. This endocrine profile is consistent with the testicular atrophy and "Sertoli cell-only" syndrome seen in these animals as reported by Gray et al. (1987, Toxicologist 7, 717). We conclude that seminiferous tubule fluid testosterone may be a result of two factors: (1) increased interstitial fluid testosterone concentrations and (2) decreased testosterone outflow from the testis to the general circulation. Also, increased ABP in the interstitial fluid may reflect a change in

  20. Raxofelast, a hydrophilic vitamin E-like antioxidant, reduces testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Carmelo; Antonuccio, Pietro; Esposito, Maria; Marini, Herbert; Impellizzeri, Pietro; Turiaco, Nunzio; Altavilla, Domenica; Bitto, Alessandra; Zuccarello, Biagio; Squadrito, Francesco

    2004-10-01

    Testis torsion is a surgical emergency that lead to permanent gonad damage. The damage has been ascribed to mechanisms of ischemia-reperfusion similar to other tissues. The mechanisms involved are different, but the lipid peroxidation of plasma membrane, caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated particularly during reperfusion, is one of the most accredited. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of raxofelast, a vitamin E-like antioxidant with potent action and no systemic toxicity, on lipid peroxidation and histopathology in both testes after unilateral testicular torsion and detorsion. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to total occlusion (3 h) of the left testis followed by 4 hours of reperfusion (TI/R). Sham testicular ischemia-reperfusion rats (SHAM TI/R) were used as controls. The animals were then randomized to receive either vehicle (1 ml/kg/i.p. of a dimetylsulphoxide/NaCl 0.9% 1:10 v/v solution, injected either 15 min before detorsion and 15 min after detorsion) or raxofelast (20 mg/kg i.p. 15 min before detorsion and 15 min after detorsion). Conjugated dienes (CD) levels, an index of lipid peroxidation, and testis histopathology were evaluated. Testicular ischemia reperfusion (TI/R) in untreated rats produced high testicular levels of CD (3.6+/-0.3 DeltaABS/g protein on the left side and 2.5+/-0.2 DeltaABS/g protein on the right side). Furthermore, histological examination revealed marked damage to the testis interstitium with severe haemorrhage and edema. The administration of raxofelast lowered CD levels (2.8+/-0.2 DeltaABS/g protein on the left side and 1.9+/-0.1 DeltaABS/g protein in the right side) and significantly reduced histological damage. These data suggest that the hydrophilic vitamin E-like antioxidants are good candidates for designing a novel therapeutic strategy to halt the oxidative stress that follows acute testis torsion. PMID:15316698

  1. Familial tumoral calcinosis and testicular microlithiasis associated with a new mutation of GALNT3 in a white family

    PubMed Central

    Campagnoli, M F; Pucci, A; Garelli, E; Carando, A; Defilippi, C; Lala, R; Ingrosso, G; Dianzani, I; Forni, M; Ramenghi, U

    2006-01-01

    Background Familial tumoral calcinosis (FTC) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterised by the development of multiple calcified masses in periarticular soft tissues; GALNT3 gene mutations have recently been described in an African American and in a Druse Arab family with FTC. Objective To report the clinical and histological features caused by a new GALNT3 mutation in a white family. Results Homozygosity for the nonsense mutation Lys463X was found in both affected siblings, who displayed a classic phenotype, the male also having testicular microlithiasis. He is the first subject described with testicular microlithiasis in FTC. Conclusions The high testicular expression of GALNT3 suggests that the gene alteration could act locally by causing deposition of calcium, and the testis may be an underestimated site of calcification in FTC. Autoimmune diseases are present in several members of the family. Although immune disorders have been described in FTC, autoimmunity does not segregate with the GALNT3 mutation in this family. PMID:16567474

  2. Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals. PMID:21774835

  3. Antiapoptotic efficacy of seed of Eugenia jambolana on testicular germ cell in experimental diabetic rat: a genomic study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Jana, K; Pakhira, B P; Ghosh, D

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to focus the genetic regulation of diabetes-induced testicular hypofunction and its amelioration by ethyl acetate fraction of seed of Eugenia jambolana. In this regard, we have assessed relevant biosensors such as biochemical, spermiological, histological and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, germ cell apoptosis and androgenic key enzymes along with in situ end labelling and DNA fragmentation study. After 60 days administration of said fraction, significant recovery in the glycated haemoglobin, serum testosterone, sperm viability, hypo-osmotic swelling and nuclear chromatin decondensation were noted in fraction-treated diabetic group in comparison with diabetic control. Besides this, a significant recovery in the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-9, caspase-3, catalase, peroxidase, ∆(5) , 3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase genes was noted towards the control in ethyl acetate fraction-treated group. Testicular histology focused a significant recovery in the number of different generation of germ cells at stage VII of spermatogenesis in fraction-treated group. In situ end labelling and DNA fragmentation study of testicular tissues also showed a significant recovery in fraction-treated group towards the control. These findings indicate that the ethyl acetate fraction showed outstanding antiapoptotic activity by neutralising oxidative stress as well as by the improvement in glycaemic sensors. PMID:26040298

  4. Leydig cell damage after testicular irradiation for lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Shalet, S.M.; Horner, A.; Ahmed, S.R.; Morris-Jones, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of testicular irradiation on Leydig cell function has been studied in a group of boys irradiated between 1 and 5 years earlier for a testicular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Six of the seven boys irradiated during prepubertal life had an absent testosterone response to HCG stimulation. Two of the four boys irradiated during puberty had an appropriate basal testosterone level, but the testosterone response to HCG stimulation was subnormal in three of the four. Abnormalities in gonadotropin secretion consistent with testicular damage were noted in nine of the 11 boys. Evidence of severe Leydig cell damage was present irrespective of whether the boys were studied within 1 year or between 3 and 5 years after irradiation, suggesting that recovery is unlikely. Androgen replacement therapy has been started in four boys and will be required by the majority of the remainder to undergo normal pubertal development.

  5. Testicular torsion and the acute scrotum: current emergency management.

    PubMed

    Ta, Anthony; D'Arcy, Frank T; Hoag, Nathan; D'Arcy, John P; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    The acute scrotum is a challenging condition for the treating emergency physician requiring consideration of a number of possible diagnoses including testicular torsion. Prompt recognition of torsion and exclusion of other causes may lead to organ salvage, avoiding the devastating functional and psychological issues of testicular loss and minimizing unnecessary exploratory surgeries. This review aims to familiarize the reader with the latest management strategies for the acute scrotum, discusses key points in diagnosis and management and evaluates the strengths and drawbacks of history and clinical examination from an emergency perspective. It outlines the types and mechanisms of testicular torsion, and examines the current and possible future roles of labwork and radiological imaging in diagnosis. Emergency departments should be wary of younger males presenting with the acute scrotum. PMID:26267075

  6. Interaction of cadmium with hepatic and testicular microsomal enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, L.T.

    1982-01-01

    Cadmium, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, inhibits or activates a number of microsomal enzymes. Among the enzymes affected by cadmium are cytochrome P-450 containing mixed-function oxidases (MFO) which are present in both the liver and testis. Cadmium affects MFO activity, and as a result, cadmium-induced alterations in BP metabolism might alter BP toxicity in the liver or testis. In addition, MFO essential for testosterone production are located in the testis and cadmium-MFO interactions in the testis might alter androgen production. Therefore studies were carried out to evaluate the interaction of cadmium with heptic and testicular MFO. The results indicated that cadmium affected the activities of hepatic and testicular MFO and in so doing may influence the toxicity of BP and other chemicals in liver and testes. In addition, exposure to metals may also compromise testicular androgen biosynthesis.

  7. Assessment of protective and anti-oxidant properties of Tribulus terrestris fruits against testicular toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Hammouda, Ashraf Abd El-Khalik

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study was carried out to assess the protective and anti-oxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT) against sodium valproate (SVP)-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (n = 10). Group 1 was used normal (negative) control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg–1, orally) during the last week of the experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive) control, and Groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pre-treated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg–1 for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, semen picture, testicular anti-oxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Results: Oral pre-treatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular anti-oxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. Conclusion: The pre-treatment with METT has protective and anti-oxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue anti-oxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of T. terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that T. terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility. PMID:26401358

  8. Lonidamine affects testicular steroid hormones in immature mice

    SciTech Connect

    Traina, Maria Elsa . E-mail: Traina@iss.it; Guarino, Maria; Natoli, Alessia; Romeo, Antonella; Urbani, Elisabetta

    2007-05-15

    The effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis of the well-known antispermatogenic drug lonidamine (LND) has not been elucidated so far. In the present study, the possible changes of the testicular steroid hormones were evaluated in immature mice for a better characterization of the LND adverse effects both in its use as antitumoral agent and male contraceptive. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on postnatal day 28 (PND28) with LND single doses (0 or 100 mg/kg b.w.) and euthanized every 24 h from PND29 to PND32, on PND35 and on PND42 (1 and 2 weeks after the administration, respectively). Severe testicular effects were evidenced in the LND treated groups, including: a) significant testis weight increase, 24 h and 48 h after dosing; b) sperm head counts decrease (more than 50% of the control) on PND29-32; c) damage of the tubule morphology primarily on the Sertoli cell structure and germ cell exfoliation. All these reproductive endpoints were recovered on PND42. At the same time, a significant impairment of the testicular steroid balance was observed in the treated mice, as evidenced by the decrease of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (ADIONE) and the increase of 17OH-progesterone (17OH-P4) on the first days after dosing, while the testicular content of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) was unchanged. The hormonal balance was not completely restored afterwards, as levels of T, ADIONE and 17OH-P4 tended to be higher in the treated mice than in the controls, on PND35 and PND42. These data showed for the first time that LND affects intratesticular steroids in experimental animals. However further data are needed both to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the impairment of these metabolic pathways and to understand if the androgens decrease observed after LND administration could be partially involved in the testicular damage.

  9. Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Progressive, Refractory, or Recurrent Stage II or Stage III Testicular or Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Seminoma

  10. Pulmonary Metastatic Choriocarcinoma from a Burned-out Testicular Tumor.

    PubMed

    Nakazaki, Hirofumi; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Takemoto, Yu; Miura, Hiroshi; Yanai, Masaaki; Fukushima, Takehito; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    A 54-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of progressive dyspnea. Chest computed tomography showed multiple nodular shadows with a peripheral ground-glass halo. His clinical condition continued to deteriorate with the development of progressive respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. A histological examination of a transbronchial lung biopsy revealed choriocarcinoma. The patient died within nine days of admission. A histological examination of the right testis during an autopsy revealed a burned-out testicular tumor consisting of a teratoma and a fibrous scar. We herein report a rare case of pulmonary multiple metastatic choriocarcinoma originating from a burned-out testicular tumor. PMID:27250057

  11. Marijuana use and testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Trabert, Britton; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Strom, Sara S.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Since the early 1970's the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) in the U.S. has been increasing, however, potential environmental exposures accounting for this rise have not been identified. A prior study reported a significant association among frequent and long-term current users of marijuana and TGCT risk. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of marijuana use and TGCT in a hospital-based case-control study conducted at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Methods TGCT cases diagnosed between January 1990 and October 1996 (n=187) and male friend controls (n=148) were enrolled in the study. All participants were between the ages of 18 and 50 at the time of cases' diagnosis and resided in Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, or Oklahoma. Associations of marijuana use and TGCT were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, race, prior cryptorchidism, cigarette smoking and alcohol intake. Results Overall, TGCT cases were more likely to be frequent marijuana users (daily or greater) than were controls [OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 5.1]. In the histologic-specific analyses nonseminoma cases were significantly more likely than controls to be frequent users [OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 8.2] and long-term users (10+ years) [OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 6.1]. Discussion Our finding of an association between frequent marijuana use and TGCT, particularly among men with nonseminoma, is consistent with the findings of a previous report. Additional studies of marijuana use and TGCT are warranted, especially studies evaluating the role of endocannabinoid signaling and cannabinoid receptors in TGCT. PMID:20925043

  12. Protective roles of onion and garlic extracts on cadmium-induced changes in sperm characteristics and testicular oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ola-Mudathir, Kikelomo F; Suru, Stephen M; Fafunso, Michael A; Obioha, Udoka E; Faremi, Toyin Y

    2008-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to exert gonadotoxic and spermiotoxic effects. The present study was performed to assess the possible protective roles of onion (Allium cepa Linn) and garlic (Allium sativum Linn) extracts on Cd-induced testicular damage and spermiotoxicity. The control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd (1.5mg/100g BW/day) orally; extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5ml and 1.0ml/100g BW/day) orally for one week and then simultaneously challenged with Cd (1.5mg/100g BW/day) for additional three weeks. Testicular tissue oxidant/antioxidant status and sperm characteristics were determined. Cd caused a marked (p<0.001) rise in testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels whereas glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were decreased. Cd intoxication significantly (p<0.001) decreased epididymal sperm concentration and sperm progress motility, increased percent total sperm abnormalities and live/dead count. Both extracts successfully attenuated these adverse effects of Cd. Onion extract offers a dose-dependent protection. Our study demonstrated that aqueous extracts of onion and garlic could proffer a measure of protection against Cd-induced testicular oxidative damage and spermiotoxicity by possibly reducing lipid peroxidation and increasing the antioxidant defence mechanism in rats. PMID:18824205

  13. Presence of Arteriovenous Communication between Left Testicular Vessels and Its Clinical Significance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naveen; Swamy, Ravindra; Patil, Jyothsna; Guru, Anitha; Aithal, Ashwini; Shetty, Prakashchandra

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of testicular temperature below body temperature is essential for the process of spermatogenesis. This process of thermoregulation is mainly achieved by testicular veins through pampiniform venous plexus of the testis by absorbing the heat conveyed by the testicular arteries. However, this mechanism of thermoregulation may be hampered if an abnormal communication exists between the testicular vessels. We report herewith a rare case of arteriovenous communication between testicular artery and testicular vein on left side. The calibre of the communicating vessel was almost similar to left testicular artery. Such abnormal communication may obstruct the flow of blood in the vein by causing impairment in the perfusion pressure with the eventual high risk of varicocele. PMID:24716087

  14. The human testicular artery and the pampiniform plexus--where is the connection?

    PubMed

    Skowroński, Adam; Jedrzejewski, Kazimierz

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was the microscopic evaluation of the human spermatic cord vessels, with special attention to the connection between the testicular artery and the veins of the pampiniform plexus. We used the corrosive cast method to visualise the angioarchitecture of the spermatic cord. Casts were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope. We observed that there is a narrow space (previously filled with the testicular artery wall), between the casts of the testicular artery and the veins of the pampiniform plexus. This area contains a capillary vessel net, which connects the testicular artery with the veins of the pampiniform plexus. There were no direct anastomoses between the testicular artery and the pampiniform plexus. We hypothesise that the capillary net described is the means of connection between the testicular artery and the pampiniform plexus, and that there can be a testicular artery net of its own vessels (vasa vasorum). PMID:14507047

  15. Leydig-cell function in children after direct testicular irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Brauner, R.; Czernichow, P.; Cramer, P.; Schaison, G.; Rappaport, R.

    1983-07-07

    To assess the effect of testicular irradiation on testicular endocrine function, we studied 12 boys with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had been treated with direct testicular irradiation 10 months to 8 1/2 years earlier. Insufficient Leydig-cell function, manifested by a low response of plasma testosterone to chorionic gonadotropin or an increased basal level of plasma luteinizing hormone (or both), was observed in 10 patients, 7 of whom were pubertal. Two of these patients had a compensated testicular endocrine insufficiency with only high plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone. Testosterone secretion was severely impaired in three pubertal boys studied more than four years after testicular irradiation. A diminished testicular volume indicating tubular atrophy was found in all pubertal patients, including three who had not received cyclophosphamide or cytarabine. These data indicate that testosterone insufficiency is a frequent complication of testicular irradiation, although some patients continue to have Leydig-cell activity for several years after therapy.

  16. Mortality in patients with testicular cancer: report of the Anglia and Trent testicular tumour groups.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, M; Sikora, K

    1986-01-01

    The overall prognosis of patients with testicular cancer has improved dramatically over the past decade. Most patients are now treated in regional oncology centres in general hospitals. The cause of death was determined in 52 patients in the East Anglian and Trent regions who presented between 1980 and 1984. The overall mortality was 10.8%. Thirty four patients died with progressive disease, 12 of treatment related problems, two suddenly at home in between chemotherapy courses, and four of incidental causes. Reasons for treatment failure and for the deaths related to treatment were analysed and several recommendations made to reduce the death rate in this highly curable disease predominantly of young men. PMID:3947926

  17. Gravity Vector Changes Induce Alterations in Nervous and Testicular Cells in Cultures and in Testis Slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uva, B.; Strollo, F.; Ricci, F.; Masini, M. A.

    Cultured astrocytes, neurons and testicular cells (myoid, germ, Sertoli, Leydig cells) as well as rat testes and testes'slices, were subjected to modeled microgravity using a three dimensional Random Positioning Machine (10-6G) for 5min, 30min, 1h, 24h and 32h. Parallel cell cultures and tissues were submitted to hypergravity using an hyperfuge (2.5G) for the same period of time. At the end of the rotations the cultures and tissues were fixed, the tissue was sectioned (5 micron). All the specimens were processed for immunohistochemical identification of microtubules, mitochondria, 3 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, caspase 7, heat shock proteins and identification of DNA fragmentation. At 5min at modeled microgravity and hypergravity, the histology of the cells in culture and the tissues was altered, microtubules and mitochondria were disorganized. Numerous cells underwent apoptosis. Immunostaining for enzymes involved in ion transmembrane transport, as Na+/K+ATPase and cotransporter proteins, and in steroidogenesis diminished or was abolished. At 1h in modeled microgravity or hypergravity, HSPs were expressed and ion transport enzymes as well as steroidogenic enzymes were again immunostainable. These data show that microgravity and hypergravity cause only transient alterations, and tissues and cells in cultures are able to adapt to different gravity conditions.

  18. Epigenetic: a molecular link between testicular cancer and environmental exposures

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Aurelie; Baptissart, Marine; Caira, Françoise; Brugnon, Florence; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Volle, David H.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, studies in rodents have highlighted links between in utero and/or neonatal exposures to molecules that alter endocrine functions and the development of genital tract abnormalities, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and impaired spermatogenesis. Most of these molecules, called endocrine disrupters exert estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities. These data led to the hypothesis of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome which postulates that these disorders are one clinical entity and are linked by epidemiological and pathophysiological relations. Furthermore, infertility has been stated as a risk factor for testicular cancer (TC). The incidence of TC has been increasing over the past decade. Most of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ from fetal germ cells (primordial germ cell or gonocyte). During their development, fetal germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, several lines of evidence have shown that gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA and histone modifications) plays an important role in normal development as well as in various diseases, including TC. Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of TC; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures. PMID:23230429

  19. Unusually Located Stroke After Chemotherapy in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Braulio Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Testicular cancer is a type of malignancy that affects young adults and has high rates of cure; however, as any malignancy, it is associated with an increased risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease, given the systemic tumor effects or side effects of chemotherapy, which in turn increases morbidity, functional impairment, and additional risk of early death. PMID:26425644

  20. Testicular damage and farming environments - An integrative ecotoxicological link.

    PubMed

    Parelho, Carolina; Bernardo, Filipe; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo Santos; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-07-01

    The exposure to agrochemicals during farming activities affects the function of the reproductive system, as revealed by the increasing worldwide evidence of male infertility amongst farmers. The main objective of this study was to untangle the link between agricultural practices and male reproductive impairment due to chronic exposure to xenobiotics (such as agrochemicals) in conventional and organic farming environments. For this purpose, male wild mice (Mus musculus) populations from sites representing two distinct farming practices (conventional and organic farming systems) were used as bioindicators for observable effects of testicular damage, namely on a set of histological and cellular parameters: (i) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (ii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iii) apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results showed that mice from the conventional farming site bioaccumulated higher Pb hepatic loads, while mice from the organic farming site tend to bioaccumulate higher Cd hepatic loads. In general, for the analyzed testicular damage related parameters, mice from the organic farming site showed a similar performance than mice from the reference site. Mice from the conventional farming site stood out not only by underperforming in most studied parameters, while displaying an association between Pb hepatic loads and the observed testicular structural and functional disruption, but also by the increased stress index (Integrated Biomarker Response value). This study highlights the potential damaging effects of conventional farming practices on testicular structure and function, under natural conditions, raising concern about ensuing fertility risks for farmers. PMID:27108371

  1. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE TESTICULAR TOXICITY OF HALOACETIC ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic analysis of the testicular toxicity of haloacetic acids

    David J. Dix and John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, R...

  2. Recent advances in the genetics of testicular failure

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seung-Hun; Chiba, Koji; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Lamb, Dolores J

    2016-01-01

    Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples, and male factor is responsible for 30%–50% of all infertility. The most severe form of male infertility is testicular failure, and the typical phenotype of testicular failure is severely impaired spermatogenesis resulting in azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. Although the etiology of testicular failure remains poorly understood, genetic factor typically is an underlying cause. Modern assisted reproductive techniques have revolutionized the treatment of male factor infertility, allowing biological fatherhood to be achieved by many men who would otherwise have been unable to become father to their children through natural conception. Therefore, identifying genetic abnormalities in male is critical because of the potential risk of transmission of genetic abnormalities to the offspring. Recently, along with other intense researches ongoing, whole-genome approaches have been used increasingly in the genetic studies of male infertility. In this review, we focus on the genetics of testicular failure and provide an update on the advances in the study of genetics of male infertility. PMID:27048782

  3. Testicular ascent as a mechanism for intra-abdominal torsion.

    PubMed

    Plitt, David C; Fotos, Joseph S; Hulse, Michael A; Neutze, Janet A

    2010-01-01

    Testicular ascent, while uncommon, can occur. A testicle that has ascended out of the scrotum can torse and may present as an acute inguinal mass or acute abdomen. Testicle ascent can occur even if previous intra-scrotal location has been documented. PMID:27307855

  4. Recent advances in the genetics of testicular failure.

    PubMed

    Song, Seung-Hun; Chiba, Koji; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Lamb, Dolores J

    2016-01-01

    Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples, and male factor is responsible for 30%-50% of all infertility. The most severe form of male infertility is testicular failure, and the typical phenotype of testicular failure is severely impaired spermatogenesis resulting in azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. Although the etiology of testicular failure remains poorly understood, genetic factor typically is an underlying cause. Modern assisted reproductive techniques have revolutionized the treatment of male factor infertility, allowing biological fatherhood to be achieved by many men who would otherwise have been unable to become father to their children through natural conception. Therefore, identifying genetic abnormalities in male is critical because of the potential risk of transmission of genetic abnormalities to the offspring. Recently, along with other intense researches ongoing, whole-genome approaches have been used increasingly in the genetic studies of male infertility. In this review, we focus on the genetics of testicular failure and provide an update on the advances in the study of genetics of male infertility. PMID:27048782

  5. Tributyltin chloride induced testicular toxicity by JNK and p38 activation, redox imbalance and cell death in sertoli-germ cell co-culture.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sumonto; Srivastava, Ankit; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2013-12-01

    The widespread use of tributyltin (TBT) as biocides in antifouling paints and agricultural chemicals has led to environmental and marine pollution. Human exposure occurs mainly through TBT contaminated seafood and drinking water. It is a well known endocrine disruptor in mammals, but its molecular mechanism in testicular damage is largely unexplored. This study was therefore, designed to ascertain effects of tributyltin chloride (TBTC) on sertoli-germ cell co-culture in ex-vivo and in the testicular tissue in-vivo conditions. An initial Ca(2+) rise followed by ROS generation and glutathione depletion resulted in oxidative damage and cell death. We observed p38 and JNK phosphorylation, stress proteins (Nrf2, MT and GST) induction and mitochondrial depolarization leading to caspase-3 activation. Prevention of TBTC reduced cell survival and cell death by Ca(2+) inhibitors and free radical scavengers specify definitive role of Ca(2+) and ROS. Sertoli cells were found to be more severely affected which in turn can hamper germ cells functionality. TBTC exposure in-vivo resulted in increased tin content in the testis with enhanced Evans blue leakage into the testicular tissue indicating blood-testis barrier disruption. Tesmin levels were significantly diminished and histopathological studies revealed marked tissue damage. Our data collectively indicates the toxic manifestations of TBTC on the male reproductive system and the mechanisms involved. PMID:24055800

  6. Pineal and photoperiodic influences on fat deposition, pelage, and testicular activity in male meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Smale, L; Dark, J; Zucker, I

    1988-01-01

    Pinealectomy completely prevented gonadal regression as well as reduction in body weight and white adipose tissue content of the gonadal and retroperitoneal fat deposits in male meadow voles transferred from long to short day lengths. Pineal influences on pelage characteristics depended on which parameter was assessed. For instance, the increase in guard hair length observed in short-day control voles was blocked by pinealectomy; however, a similar increase in underhair length was unaffected by removal of the pineal gland. Photoperiod-dependent changes in fat deposition, testicular activity, and guard hair length presumably rely on altered pineal secretory activity to transduce the effects of day length on the neuroendocrine axis; however, mechanisms independent of pineal activity may be capable of mediating photoperiodic control of underhair growth. PMID:2979644

  7. Comparison of efficacy of two techniques for testicular sperm retrieval in nonobstructive azoospermia: multifocal testicular sperm extraction versus multifocal testicular sperm aspiration.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Ron; Yogev, Leah; Paz, Gedalia; Yavetz, Haim; Azem, Fuad; Lessing, Joseph B; Botchan, Amnon

    2006-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of 2 sperm-retrieval procedures, testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and testicular sperm aspiration (TESA), during the same procedure using the same subjects as their own controls. The presence of mature testicular sperm cells and motility were evaluated in 87 men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) by means of multifocal TESE and multifocal TESA, which were performed during the same procedure using the same subjects as their own controls. Sperm cells were recovered by TESE in 54 cases, but by TESA in only 36 cases. There were significantly more cases (n = 20) in which sperm cells were recovered by TESE only, compared with 2 cases in whom cells were recovered by TESA only (McNemar's test, P < .001). The mean number of locations in each testis in which sperm cells were detected was significantly higher in the TESE group. In significantly more cases (n = 27), motility was observed in TESE material only, compared with 3 cases in which motility was present in material extracted by TESA only (McNemar's test, P < .001). Mean number of locations in each testis with motile sperm cells was significantly higher in the TESE group. The TESE procedure yielded significantly more sperm cells, as was also reflected by the difference in number of straws with cryopreserved sperm. This comparative prospective clinical study revealed that multifocal TESE is more efficient than multifocal TESA for sperm detection and recovery in men with NOA and should be the procedure of choice for sperm retrieval for them. PMID:16400074

  8. Ameliorative effect of polydatin on oxidative stress-mediated testicular damage by chronic arsenic exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ince, S; Avdatek, F; Demirel, H H; Arslan-Acaroz, D; Goksel, E; Kucukkurt, I

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic causes lipid peroxidation leading to alterations in antioxidant status in organisms. In this study, the reproductive effects of chronic exposure to arsenic and the protective effects of polydatin (PD) were evaluated in 35 Wistar male rats, which were divided equally into five groups. The control group received a normal diet and tap water, arsenic (100 mg l(-1) , approximately 1/50 of oral LD50 ) was given via drinking water to experimental groups except control group, and PD was orally given to the other groups at dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. Arsenic administration decreased sperm motility, glutathione level, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in testicular tissue of rats. In contrast, malondialdehyde level and DNA damage were found to be high levels in arsenic-treated group. Histopathologically, it was observed that decreased sperm concentration and degeneration of Sertoli cells in testicular tissue. PD administration, partially 200 mg kg(-1) , reversed arsenic-induced lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, antioxidant enzyme activity and cell integrity in testis of rats. These results demonstrate that PD decreases arsenic-induced lipid peroxidation, enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerates tissue damage in testis of rats. PMID:26302725

  9. Treatment Options by Stage (Testicular Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of body tissues called a sonogram . Serum tumor marker test : A procedure in which a sample of ... levels in the blood. These are called tumor markers . The following tumor markers are used to detect ...

  10. Sesame effects on testicular damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats

    PubMed Central

    Khaneshi, Fereshteh; Nasrolahi, Ozra; Azizi, Shahriar; Nejati, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Reproductive dysfunction is a consequence of diabetes. Diabetes is associated with changes in testicular tissue. Sesame oil contains large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lignin with antioxidant activity, vitamin E, and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). The present study investigated the effects of sesame on testis histology and male reproductive parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty mature male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e., control (C), diabetic-control (DC), and sesame-treated diabetic rats (SD). Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg; i.p). The animals were treated by a single intraperitoneal sesame extract injection (100 mg/kg b.w.) once daily for 6 weeks. Results: The biochemical analysis revealed that the diabetes resulted in significant (p<0.05) reduction in spermiogenesis, testosterone, LH, and FSH levels. Light microscopic analysis showed remarkable (p<0.05) reduction in STD (seminiferous tubules diameter), SPI (spermatogenesis index) thickness of the epithelium, and significant increase in thickness of the interstitial tissue in the diabetic group compared with the control group. Simultaneous administration of the sesame could fairly up-regulate testosterone, LH, and FSH of the animals in this group. However, some differences were manifested with improved histological features as thickness of the epithelium, seminiferous tubules diameter, and spermatogenesis index. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that sesame significantly improved diabetes complication in rat testis. This study suggested that sesame might have a protective effect against oxidative stress-induced impaired testicular functions in diabetic rats. PMID:25050292

  11. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal testicular development and function in the Wistar rat: development/teratology/behavior/radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    It is evident that significant permanent tissue hypoplasia can be produced following radiation exposure late in fetal development. Because two organs, brain and testes, are developmentally and functionally interrelated, it was of interest to determine whether fetal testicular hypoplasia was a primary or a secondary effect of fetal brain irradiation. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and a laparotomy was performed on day 18 of gestation. The fetuses received sham irradiation, whole body irradiation, or only head/thorax or pelvic body irradiation at a dosage level of 1.5 Gy. Mothers were allowed to deliver and raise their offspring until postnatal day 30, when the offspring were weaned. At 60 days of age, 74 male offspring were allowed to mate with colony control females of similar age until successful insemination or until the males reached 90 days of age, when they were killed. Testes were weighed and processed for histologic examination. Direct radiation of testes, due to whole body or pelvic exposure, resulted in testicular growth retardation and significantly reduced spermatogenesis. Breeding activity of the males and the percent of positive inseminations were also slightly reduced. However, a significant percentage of male offspring receiving direct testicular radiation did produce offspring. Head/thorax-only irradiation did not adversely affect testicular growth or spermatogenesis. Therefore, the use of histologic analysis as the sole determinant of infertility may be misleading. This study indicates that testicular growth retardation and an increased infertility rate result from direct prenatal exposure of rat testes to X-radiation and are not necessarily mediated via X-irradiation effects on the central nervous system.

  12. Melatonin and Testicular Damage in Busulfan Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mirhoseini, Mehri; Saki, Ghasem; Hemadi, Masoud; Khodadadi, Ali; Mohammadi Asl, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Advancement in the treatment of various types of cancer has led to greater patient survival. These treatments essentially have toxic effects on different kinds of cells, such as germ cells. Infertility as one of the side effects of cancer treatment has changed the quality of life of young cancer survivors dramatically. Melatonin is an antioxidant with receptors in the reproductive systems. Objectives: We supposed that melatonin, as an antioxidant, may protect testis against the toxic effects of the drugs. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, three groups with seven mice each, were allocated. The control group received normal saline for two months, and the busulfan group received a single dose of 40 mg/kg busulfan intra-peritoneally, and the melatonin group received 20 mg/kg melatonin daily for two months, 45 days after a single dose of busulfan. Next, after decapitation and removal of the testis, tissues were fixed in Bouin's solution and stained by H&E and TUNEL. The sections were evaluated, assessing morphology and spermatogenesis. Results: In this research, a significant reduction in Johnson’s criteria in the busulfan group (Mean rank = 15.50) was found versus the control group (Mean rank = 45.50), P < 0.001 and in the melatonin group (Mean rank = 45.50) compared to the busulfan group (Mean rank = 15.50), P < 0.001. There was a significant difference between the melatonin and control groups, P < 0.05. In addition, a significant decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter was observed in the busulfan group (763.2 ± 104.41) versus the control group (855.4 ± 52.35), P < 0.01 and melatonin group (834.2 ± 87.26), P < 0.05. Testicular epithelium height was significantly decreased in the busulfan group (Mean rank = 14.60) compared to the control group (Mean rank = 26.40), P < 0.01 and in the busulfan group (Mean rank = 14.95) in comparison with the melatonin group (Mean rank = 26.05), P < 0.01. Also melatonin group (Mean rank = 25.42) showed

  13. Virtual azoospermia and cryptozoospermia--fresh/frozen testicular or ejaculate sperm for better IVF outcome?

    PubMed

    Hauser, Ron; Bibi, Guy; Yogev, Leah; Carmon, Ariella; Azem, Foad; Botchan, Amnon; Yavetz, Haim; Klieman, Sandra E; Lehavi, Ofer; Amit, Ami; Ben-Yosef, Dalit

    2011-01-01

    Men diagnosed as having azoospermia occasionally have a few mature sperm cells in other ejaculates. Other men may have constant, yet very low quality and quantity of sperm cells in their ejaculates, resulting in poor intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome. It has not been conclusively established which source of sperm cells is preferable for ICSI when both ejaculate and testicular (fresh or frozen) sperm cells are available. It is also unclear whether there is any advantage of fresh over frozen sperm if testicular sperm is to be used. We used ejaculate, testicular (fresh or frozen) sperm cells, or both for ICSI in 13 couples. Five of these couples initially underwent ICSI by testicular sperm extraction, because the males had total azoospermia, and in later cycles with ejaculate sperm cells. Ejaculate sperm cells were initially used for ICSI in the other 8 patients, and later with testicular sperm cells. The fertilization rate was significantly higher when fresh or frozen-thawed testicular sperm cells were used than when ejaculated sperm cells were used. Likewise, the quality of the embryos from testicular (fresh and frozen) sperm was higher than from ejaculated sperm (65.3% vs 53.2%, respectively, P < .05). The use of fresh testicular sperm yielded better implantation rates than both frozen testicular sperm and ejaculate. Therefore, fresh testicular sperm should be considered first for ICSI in patients with virtual azoospermia or cryptozoospermia because of their superior fertility. PMID:21164144

  14. Quantification of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA in testicular germ cell tumors by quantitative fluorescence real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Mark; Burger, Angelika M; Müller, Markus; Krause, Hans; Straub, Bernd; Smith, Gilian L; Newlands, Eward S; Miller, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme which is endogenously expressed in germ, stem and tumor cells, but absent in benign somatic cells. The two major telomerase components are human telomerase RNA (hTR) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). It has been shown that hTERT is rate-limiting for telomerase activity and that it plays a central role in human carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated the potential of hTERT and hTR gene expression as diagnostic markers in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). hTERT mRNA and hTR expression were quantified in 55 testicular germ cell tumors comprising 36 primary and 19 germ cell tumors from retroperitonal sides by fluorescence real-time RT-PCR using the LightCycler technology. Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) was used as housekeeping gene and to enable relative quantification. For comparison to TGCTs, 38 benign testicular biopsies from patients with fertility disorders were assayed. hTERT expression was detected in all examined undifferentiated TGCTs and in the benign testicular tissue specimens with germ cell content (N(hTERT) 38-127). In contrast, mature teratomas from primary and post-chemotherapy masses, which are characterized by well-differentiated tissue components showed a nearly complete downregulation of hTERT expression (N(hTERT) 2-4, p<0.001). hTR levels however, were high in all tumors and independently of the presence of germ cells also in the benign tissue control group. hTERT mRNA is expressed in all undifferentiated TGCTs but repressed in mature teratomas. This suggests an inverse correlation between the differentiation status of germ cell tumors and hTERT expression. Thus, detection of hTERT expression in tumors histopathologically classified as mature teratomas enables a molecular-diagnostic confirmation and might aid decision making for treatment of patients presenting with this tumor subtype. PMID:12168080

  15. Protective effects of udenafil citrate, piracetam and dexmedetomidine treatment on testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tuglu, D; Yuvanc, E; Ozan, T; Bal, F; Yilmaz, E; Atasoy, P; Kisa, U; Batislam, E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of udenafil citrate (1.4 mg kg(-1) -2.8 mg kg(-1) ), dexmedetomidine 25 μg kg(-1) and piracetam 200 mg kg(-1) administered on ipsilateral/contralateral testes after ischaemia in a rat model of testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D) and define its protective effect histologically. Fifty-six Wistar albino rats were included and randomly assigned into 6 groups. No intervention was performed in control group (Group 1, n = 8) and in torsion/detorsion group, (Group 2, n = 8). Udenafil 1.4 mg kg(-1) was given to torsion/detorsion group (Group 3, n = 10), udenafil 2.8 mg kg(-1) was given to torsion/detorsion group (Group 4, n = 10), piracetam 200 mg kg(-1) was given to torsion/detorsion group (Group 5, n = 10) and dexmedetomidine 25 μg kg(-1) was given to torsion/detorsion group (Group 6, n = 10) intraperitoneally after 60 mins of testicular torsion. Biochemical and histopathological testicular injury were evaluated. When the tissue was examined by TOS values, Group 3, Group 4 and Group 5 were significantly lower than Group 2. In contrary Group 6 values were significantly higher than Group 2. The increasing doses of udenafil demonstrated antioxidant properties on the testis tissue and histopathological that protects the testicles. PMID:26589469

  16. Radiation therapy for stage IIA and IIB testicular seminoma: peripheral dose calculations and risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theocharris; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to calculate the peripheral dose to critical structures and assess the radiation risks from modern radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB testicular seminoma. A Monte Carlo code was used for treatment simulation on a computational phantom representing an average adult. The initial treatment phase involved anteroposterior and posteroanaterior modified dog-leg fields exposing para-aortic and ipsilateral iliac lymph nodes followed by a cone-down phase for nodal mass irradiation. Peripheral doses were calculated using different modified dog-leg field dimensions and an extended conventional dog-leg portal. The risk models of the BEIR-VII report and ICRP-103 were combined with dosimetric calculations to estimate the probability of developing stochastic effects. Radiotherapy for stage IIA seminoma with a target dose of 30 Gy resulted in a range of 23.0-603.7 mGy to non-targeted peripheral tissues and organs. The corresponding range for treatment of stage IIB disease to a cumulative dose of 36 Gy was 24.2-633.9 mGy. A dose variation of less than 13% was found by altering the field dimensions. Radiotherapy with the conventional instead of the modern modified dog-leg field increased the peripheral dose up to 8.2 times. The calculated heart doses of 589.0-632.9 mGy may increase the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases whereas the testicular dose of more than 231.9 mGy may lead to a temporary infertility. The probability of birth abnormalities in the offspring of cancer survivors was below 0.13% which is much lower than the spontaneous mutation rate. Abdominoplevic irradiation may increase the lifetime intrinsic risk for the induction of secondary malignancies by 0.6-3.9% depending upon the site of interest, patient’s age and tumor dose. Radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB seminoma with restricted fields and low doses is associated with an increased morbidity. These data may allow the definition of a risk-adapted follow-up scheme for long

  17. Fluoride-elicited developmental testicular toxicity in rats: Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Chunyang; Liu, Hongliang; Guan, Zhizhong; Zeng, Qiang; Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Gao, Hui; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Zhang, Xiaofei; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Zhenglun; Wang, Aiguo

    2013-09-01

    Long-term excessive fluoride intake is known to be toxic and can damage a variety of organs and tissues in the human body. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity are not well understood. In this study, we used a rat model to simulate the situations of human exposure and aimed to evaluate the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory response in fluoride-induced testicular injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were administered with sodium fluoride (NaF) at 25, 50 and 100 mg/L via drinking water from pre-pregnancy to gestation, birth and finally to post-puberty. And then the testes of male offspring were studied at 8 weeks of age. Our results demonstrated that fluoride treatment increased MDA accumulation, decreased SOD activity, and enhanced germ cell apoptosis. In addition, fluoride elevated mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), inositol requiring ER-to-nucleus signal kinase 1 (IRE1), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), indicating activation of ER stress signaling. Furthermore, fluoride also induced testicular inflammation, as manifested by gene up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner. These were associated with marked histopathological lesions including injury of spermatogonia, decrease of spermatocytes and absence of elongated spermatids, as well as severe ultrastructural abnormalities in testes. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that ER stress and inflammation would be novel and significant mechanisms responsible for fluoride-induced disturbance of spermatogenesis and germ cell loss in addition to oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We used a rat model to simulate the situations of human fluoride (F) exposure. • Developmental F exposure induces testicular damage related with oxidative stress.

  18. Protective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    ALKHEDAIDE, ADEL; ALSHEHRI, ZAFER SAAD; SABRY, AYMAN; ABDEL-GHAFFAR, TULIP; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; ATTIA, HOSSAM

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is the most prevalent toxic metal present in livestock feed; therefore, the present study aimed to examine the ameliorative effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced testicular dysfunction of Wistar rats. Male adult Wistar rats (40 rats; n=10/group) were divided into four equal groups. Group one was used as a control, and was given ad libitum access to food and water. Groups 2–4 were treated with CdCl2 [5 mg/kg body weight (BW)], GSE (400 mg/kg BW, orally), and GSE plus CdCl2, respectively. Blood and testicular tissues were collected and assayed for biochemical and histopathological changes, respectively. Testicular genes were expressed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that there was a decrease in serum testosterone levels following CdCl2 toxicity, which were normalized after GSE co-administration. Furthermore, CdCl2 significantly increased the serum levels of malondialdehyde, and decreased levels of antioxidants. At the histopathological level, the testes of the CdCl2 group exhibited congestion, edema in the interstitial blood vessels, irregular arrangement of the epithelial lining of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and sloughing of the spermatogenic cells, which accumulated in the center of the seminiferous tubules. Such pathological alterations were ameliorated following treatment with GSE in the CdCl2 plus GSE group. The immunohistochemical expression of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein was high in the CdCl2 group, and low in the control and GSE groups. Co-treatment with GSE and CdCl2 exhibited ameliorative effects on the immunoreactivity of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein. CdCl2 toxicity induced a significant downregulation in the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450 17A1, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-HSD, androgen receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory

  19. Protective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Alshehri, Zafer Saad; Sabry, Ayman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Tulip; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Attia, Hossam

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is the most prevalent toxic metal present in livestock feed; therefore, the present study aimed to examine the ameliorative effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)‑induced testicular dysfunction of Wistar rats. Male adult Wistar rats (40 rats; n=10/group) were divided into four equal groups. Group one was used as a control, and was given ad libitum access to food and water. Groups 2‑4 were treated with CdCl2 [5 mg/kg body weight (BW)], GSE (400 mg/kg BW, orally), and GSE plus CdCl2, respectively. Blood and testicular tissues were collected and assayed for biochemical and histopathological changes, respectively. Testicular genes were expressed using semi‑quantitative RT‑PCR analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that there was a decrease in serum testosterone levels following CdCl2 toxicity, which were normalized after GSE co-administration. Furthermore, CdCl2 significantly increased the serum levels of malondialdehyde, and decreased levels of antioxidants. At the histopathological level, the testes of the CdCl2 group exhibited congestion, edema in the interstitial blood vessels, irregular arrangement of the epithelial lining of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and sloughing of the spermatogenic cells, which accumulated in the center of the seminiferous tubules. Such pathological alterations were ameliorated following treatment with GSE in the CdCl2 plus GSE group. The immunohistochemical expression of B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein was high in the CdCl2 group, and low in the control and GSE groups. Co‑treatment with GSE and CdCl2 exhibited ameliorative effects on the immunoreactivity of B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein. CdCl2 toxicity induced a significant downregulation in the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side‑chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450 17A1, 3β‑hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β‑HSD), 17β‑HSD, androgen receptor

  20. Genetic background but not metallothionein phenotype dictates sensitivity to cadmium-induced testicular injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Corton, C; Dix, D J; Liu, Y; Waalkes, M P; Klaassen, C D

    2001-10-01

    Sensitivity to cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular injury varies greatly among mouse strains. For instance, 129/SvJ (129) mice are highly sensitive while C57BL/6J (C57) mice are refractory to Cd-induced testicular injury. Metallothionein (MT), a Cd-binding protein, is thought to be responsible for the strain susceptibility to Cd toxicity. In this study, MT-I/II knockout (MT-null) and wild-type 129 mice were used to determine the role of MT in Cd-induced testicular injury. Two additional strains of mice (C57 and the C57 x 129 F1cross) were also used to help define the role of genetic background in Cd toxicity. Mice were given 5-20 micromol/kg ip CdCl(2) and testicular injury was examined 24 h later by histopathology and testicular hemoglobin concentration. Cd produced dose-dependent testicular injury in all strains of mice, except for C57 mice, in which testicular injury could not be produced. MT-null mice were more sensitive than C57 x 129 mice but were equally sensitive as 129 mice to Cd-induced testicular injury. Fourteen days after 15 micromol/kg ip Cd administration, testicular atrophy was evident in MT-null, 129, and C57 x 129 mice but was absent in C57 mice. The resistance of C57 mice to Cd-induced testicular injury could not be attributed solely to a decreased uptake of (109)Cd nor to a greater amount of testicular MT. Microarray analysis revealed a higher expression of glutathione peroxidase in the testes of C57 mice, as well as genes encoding antioxidant components and DNA damage/repair, but their significance to Cd-induced injury is not immediately clear. Thus, this study demonstrates that it is genetic strain, not MT genotype, that is mechanistically important in determining susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular injury. PMID:11578143

  1. A rare case of leaking abdominal aneurysm presenting as isolated right testicular pain.

    PubMed

    Sufi, P A

    2007-03-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of isolated right testicular pain. We describe a patient who did present with isolated acute right testicular pain as the sentinel feature of a leaking AAA. In the patient group with right testicular pain, consideration of a leaking AAA should be added to the differential diagnosis. An adverse outcome can be avoided by timely diagnosis and intervention. PMID:17391586

  2. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E treatment on some heavy metals-induced renal and testicular injuries in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2010-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals in water, air and soil are global problems that are a growing threat to humanity. Heavy metals are widely distributed in the environment and some of them occur in food, water, air and tissues even in the absence of occupational exposure. The antioxidant and protective influences of vitamin E on a mixture of some heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cd and Cu)-induced oxidative stress and renal and testicular injuries were evaluated in male mice. Exposure of mice to these heavy metals in drinking water for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of plasma creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations. The levels of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutases (SOD) in kidney and testis tissues were significantly declined. Moreover, the histopathological evaluation of kidney and testis showed severe changes in mice treated with these heavy metals. Administration of vitamin E protected the kidney and testis of mice exposed to heavy metals as evidenced by appearance of normal histological structures, insignificant changes in the values of plasma creatinine, urea and uric acid, and the levels of kidney GSH and SOD, while the levels of testis GSH and SOD were notably decreased. These data suggest that the administration of vitamin E protects against heavy metals-induced renal and testicular oxidative stress and injuries. PMID:23961105

  3. Iliopelvic radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy in patients with testicular cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, W.D.; Garnick, M.B.; Richie, J.P.

    1983-04-01

    The utility of iliopelvic lymphoscintigraphy was assessed in 21 patients with testicular cancer (six seminoma patients, 15 nonseminoma patients). Normal lymphoscintiscans demonstrated symmetric uptake of technetium-99m-labeled radiocolloid throughout the lymphatic chain, from the internal iliac nodes to the level of the renal hilum. Signs of abnormality included decreased or no uptake of radionuclide in consecutive nodes of a lymphatic chain or in an entire lymphatic chain, and diminished uptake at the level of the renal hilum. In the 15 patients with nonseminomatous germ cell cancer, correlation of the results of scanning with pathologic specimens obtained upon dissection of retroperitoneal lymph nodes revealed a sensitivity of 0.89 an a specificity of 0.83. In the six patients with seminoma, there was good correlaton between scan findings and results of other radiologic tests. This study suggests that iliopelvic lymphoscintigraphy is a sensitive means of determining whether lymph node metastases are present in patients with testicular cancer.

  4. Usefulness of gallium-67 citrate scanning in testicular seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Willan, B.D.; Penney, H.; Castor, W.R.; McGowan, D.G.

    1987-10-01

    An analysis of 77 consecutive patients with a histologic diagnosis of seminoma testis, assessed and treated at the Cross Cancer Institute between 1977 and 1982, is presented. Ga-67 citrate was first used in the assessment of patients with malignant testicular tumors in 1973. Following three years of study that supported the observation of the gallium-avid nature of seminoma, gallium scans became routine in the initial staging assessment and were used also when recurrence was suspected. From 1977 through 1982, 72 patients with biopsy-proven seminoma testis were assessed initially for extent of disease by Ga-67 scanning. Comparison with intravenous pyelography and bipedal lymphography was possible for accuracy of tumor assessment. The scan sensitivity was 83%, and the specificity was 95%. During the same period, gallium was studied in nonseminomatous testicular tumors but the results were disappointing and its use was discontinued. The gallium-avid nature of seminoma testis may be useful in determining the extent of disease.

  5. Human testicular insulin-like factor 3 and endocrine disrupters.

    PubMed

    Bay, Katrine; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

    2014-01-01

    The hormone insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) is produced by testicular Leydig cells. Production of INSL3 is dependent on the state of Leydig cell differentiation and is stimulated by the long-term trophic effects of luteinizing hormone. INSL3 is, along with the other major Leydig cell hormone testosterone, essential for testicular descent, which in humans should be completed before birth. The incidence of cryptorchidism (incomplete descent of the testis) may have increased in some developed countries during recent decades. Experimental studies have shown that maternal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as phthalates, can result in cryptorchidism among male offspring and that INSL3 production, like steroidogenesis, is susceptible to phthalate exposure. Inhibition of these hormones may occur via a general phthalate-induced impairment of Leydig cell development and maturation. Recent studies have also addressed the sensitivity of human Leydig cells to EDCs, though with varied conclusions. PMID:24388196

  6. Frequent complaints of testicular lumps by young prisoners.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Kailash C

    2008-05-01

    The definition of the age of young offenders was changed by an Act of Parliament (The Crime and Disorder Act 1998), which was implemented by the Home Office on 1 April 2000. This Act brought down the upper-age limit of young offenders from 20 to 17. Our objective was to investigate the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among this redefined group of young offenders. Among various types of STIs, we observed that a significant number of young prisoners had complaints of testicular lumps (35%), which were not reported in the past. We tried to find out the reason for this common complaint and believe that this was due to extra vigilance, and testicular self-examination in conjunction with sex and relationship programmes which ran alongside other programmes developed as a joint venture by Prisoner Learning and Skills Unit, Prison Health Policy Unit and Sex Education Forum. PMID:18482964

  7. The role of radioimmunodetection in the management of testicular cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Javadpour, N.; Kim, E.E.; DeLand, F.H.; Salyer, J.R.; Shah, U.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1981-07-03

    Five patients with testicular cancer received an intravenous injection of between 1 and 2.5 mCi of iodine 131-labeled antibody to human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), followed by total-body photoscanning to visualize areas of abnormal radioactivity. Blood-pool and nontarget sites of radioactivity were reduced by subtracting the images derived by injection of technetium Tc 99m-labeled components from the iodine 131 scans. The HCG-immune scintiscans proved helpful in tumor localization and in the selection of appropriate therapy, while the AFP scan presented corroborative evidence of widespread tumor. Elevated serum levels of these two markers did not hinder successful tumor detection and localization by this method of radioimmunodetection. Cancer radioimmunodetection with antibodies to HCG and to AFP appears to be a useful procedure for the pretreatment and posttreatment evaluation of patients with testicular cancer and can reveal sites of tumor not detected by other methods.

  8. Testicular metastasis from gastric carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Cai, Hui; Kang, Zheng-Chun; Wu, Hao; Hou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Li-Ye

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the most prevalent malignancy in the world, especially in China. GC has been postulated to spread via several different routes, including through hematogenous channels, lymphatic vessels, the seeding of peritoneal surfaces, direct extension through the gastric wall, and retrograde extension through the vas deferens or lymphatics. Testicular metastasis is rare. We show here a 53-year-old patient with GC who underwent a radical total gastrectomy approximately 22 mo ago after he presented with a sensation of heaviness and swelling of the right hemiscrotum. The diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma was made after a right-side orchiectomy. We report the first case of testicular metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma in mainland China and summarize the clinicopathologic features of the disease based on previously published papers. PMID:26074716

  9. Phthalate-induced testicular dysgenesis syndrome: Leydig cell influence.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Xin; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan; Hardy, Dianne O; Li, Xiao-Kun

    2009-04-01

    Phthalates, the most abundantly produced plasticizers, leach out from polyvinyl chloride plastics and disrupt androgen action. Male rats that are exposed to phthalates in utero develop symptoms characteristic of the human condition referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Environmental influences have been suspected to contribute to the increasing incidence of TDS in humans (i.e. cryptorchidism and hypospadias in newborn boys and testicular cancer and reduced sperm quality in adult males). In this review, we discuss the recent findings that prenatal exposure to phthalates affects Leydig cell function in the postnatal testis. This review also focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of how Leydig cell factors contribute to phthalate-mediated TDS. PMID:19278865

  10. Paratesticular liposarcoma-masquerading as a testicular tumour.

    PubMed

    Vinayagam, Kalaivani; Hosamath, Vijayakumar; Honnappa, Sridhar; Rau, Aarathi Ranga

    2014-02-01

    Paratesticular liposarcomas are rare tumours which account for 12% of all liposarcomas. Probably there are about 186 cases which have been reported till date. They must be differentiated from tumours of testicular origin which have extension to the spermatic cord. We are reporting a case of a 50-year-old male who had presented with a painless swelling in the right hemiscrotum, which was of 20 years' duration. Inititally, a clinical diagnosis of testicular tumour was made; however, CT of the scrotum revealed paratesticular tumour? liposarcoma and testis being normal and displaced postero-inferiorly. Metastatic work-up, which included CT of the abdomen and pelvis, thorax and whole body scan, did not reveal any distant metastasis. Patient underwent high orchidectomy, hemiscrotectomy. Histopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma (atypical lipomatous tumour of sclerosing type). PMID:24701520

  11. Increased expression of dermatopontin and its implications for testicular dysfunction in mice

    PubMed Central

    CAI, JUN; LIU, WEIJIA; HAO, JIE; CHEN, MAOXIN; LI, GANG

    2016-01-01

    An array of specific and non-specific molecules, which are expressed in the testis, have been demonstrated to be responsible for testicular function. Our previous study revealed that dermatopontin (DPT) is expressed in Sertoli cells of the testis, however, its roles in testicular function remains somewhat elusive. In the present study, CdCl2- and busulfan-induced testicular dysfunction models were used to investigate the implications of DPT expression for testicular function. The mRNA and protein expression levels of DPT were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. A negative correlation was observed between testicular damage and the expression of DPT, which suggested that an increase in DPT expression may be a marker for testicular dysfunction. This result was corroborated by the finding that transgenic mice exhibiting Sertoli cell-specific overexpression of DPT exhibited damage to their testicular morphology. Additionally, DPT overexpression in the testis affected the expression levels of claudin-11 and zonula occludens-1, which indicated that DPT may affect testicular function by affecting the integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB). In conclusion, the present study provided evidence to suggest that DPT may be indicative of mouse testicular dysfunction, since increased expression may be associated with damage to the BTB. PMID:26861869

  12. [Segmental testicular infarction. Unusual complication of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for multifocal motor neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Rüb, J; Rehmann, R; von Landenberg, N; Roghmann, F; Stude, P; Tegenthoff, M; Noldus, J; Pastor, J

    2015-10-01

    We describe the previously unknown case of segmental testicular infarction as an iatrogenic complication of intravenous immunoglobulin administration in a patient with multifocal motor neuropathy. PMID:26303740

  13. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    PubMed Central

    Stang, Andreas; Trabert, Britton; Rusner, Carsten; Poole, Charles; Almstrup, Kristian; Meyts, Ewa Rajpert-De; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term “testicular cancer” and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group and the participants’ major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 out of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen out of 27 hypotheses were related to exposures during pregnancy. Hypotheses with the highest mean plausibility ratings were either related to prenatal exposures or exposures that might have an effect during pregnancy and in post-natal life. The results of the survey may be helpful for triggering more specific etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer. PMID:25538016

  14. Effect of Picroliv on cadmium induced testicular damage in rat.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Neelam; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2008-02-01

    Ameliorative potential of Picroliv, a standardized extract of Picrorhiza kurroa on Cd induced early and advanced testicular damage was investigated in male rats. In the former experiment, the rats were administered Cd as CdCl(2) (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) 5days/week for 18 weeks and Picroliv at two doses (6 and 12 mg/kg, p.o.) was given for the last 4 weeks i.e. from week 15 to 18, to the Cd administered group. In the latter experiment, the Cd administration continued for 24 weeks and Picroliv was given from week 21 to 24. At 18 weeks, Cd caused alterations in oxidative stress indices like increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) and reduced levels of non protein sulphydryls (NPSH). They were found close to the control values by Picroliv treatment, suggesting its antioxidant potential. The increased levels of Zn and Ca were reduced by Picroliv, the Cd levels remained unaltered. The Cd induced testicular damage was also mitigated by Picroliv. The higher dose (12 mg/kg) being more effective than the lower dose. However, at 24 weeks of Cd exposure, the oxidative stress indicators in testis were more pronounced along with the morphological alterations. These parameters remained unaffected by Picroliv treatment. On comparative evaluation of the two studies, 18 weeks Cd exposure caused moderate testicular damage, which could be reversed significantly by Picroliv administration and correlated well with oxidative stress markers. Our results clearly demonstrate the ameliorative potential of Picroliv in Cd induced early testicular damage. PMID:17928123

  15. How should we monitor boys with testicular microlithiasis?

    PubMed

    Yesil, Sule; Tanyildiz, Hikmet Gulsah; Sahin, Gurses

    2016-04-01

    Testicular microlithiasis (TM), a rare condition characterized by calcification within the seminiferous tubules, is associated with benign and malignant disorders of the testis. We review current practices of following up pediatric patients diagnosed TM incidentally on scrotal ultrasonography (US). We analyzed retrospectively patient characteristics, family history, indications for US, pathological features, US findings, outcome, and follow-up. At our institution, 2875 scrotal US examinations were performed on 2477 children with various scrotal complaints from 2008 to 2015. Testicular microlithiasis was detected in 81 patients (i.e., an incidence of 3.27%). Every 6 months, each patient underwent a clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation as well as serum tumor markers determination to detect a potential malignancy. Seventy-eight patients who had undergone scrotal US at least twice were included in this study. We evaluated the US studies for the type of TM (diffuse and focal) and change in follow-up studies. Testicular microlithiasis was typically diffuse (n = 56, 71.8%) and bilateral (n = 45, 57.7%), and it was detected the most frequently in the 9-11-year age group (27 patients, 34.6%). The most common comorbid conditions included undescended testes (31 patients, 39.7%) and hydrocele (11 patients, 14.1%). We found that serum tumor markers were within normal limits both at diagnosis and upon follow-up. No testicular tumors or new abnormal symptoms developed during the clinical follow-up. There is no convincing evidence that TM alone is premalignant in a pediatric population. In terms of follow-up, we advise regular self-examinations and annual US in the absence of risk factors. PMID:27007453

  16. Risk of testicular cancer in cohort of boys with cryptorchidism.

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, A. J.; Higgins, C. D.; Pike, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of testicular cancer in relation to undescended testis and its treatment based on recorded details of the maldescent, treatment, and biopsy from case notes. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London. SUBJECTS: 1075 boys with cryptorchidism treated by orchidopexy or hormones at the hospital during 1951-64. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risk of testicular cancer in the cohort compared with men in the general population. RESULTS: 12 testicular cancers occurred in 11 of the patients during follow up to mid-1990 (relative risk of cancer in males with cryptorchidism = 7.5 (95% confidence interval 3.9 to 12.8)). The relative risk fell significantly beyond 15 years after orchidopexy but did not decrease with younger age at orchidopexy. Risk was significantly raised in testes that had had biopsy samples removed during orchidopexy (relative risk = 66.7 (23.9 to 143.3) compared with a testis in a man in the general population) and was significantly greater in these testes than in undescended testes that had not had biopsy samples taken at orchidopexy (6.7 (2.7 to 13.5)). No reasons for biopsy or distinguishing clinical aspects of the testes that had had biopsy samples taken and later developed malignancies were evident in the case notes. No histological abnormalities were evident at initial biopsy except in one testis that had features of dysgenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy seems to be a stronger risk factor for testicular cancer than any factor previously identified. The trauma of open biopsy may contribute substantially to risk of malignancy or the testes may have been selected for biopsy on the basis of clinical factors predictive of malignancy but not mentioned in the case notes. PMID:9169396

  17. Anti-Apoptotic and Anti-Oxidant Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Cadmium-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Erboga, Mustafa; Kanter, Mehmet; Aktas, Cevat; Bozdemir Donmez, Yeliz; Fidanol Erboga, Zeynep; Aktas, Emel; Gurel, Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a serious environmental and occupational contaminant and may represent a serious health hazard to humans and other animals. Cd is reported to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, and induces testicular damage in many species of animals. The goal of our study was to examine the anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on Cd-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and testicular injury in rats. A total of 40 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: control, CAPE alone, Cd-treated, and Cd-treated with CAPE; each group consisted of 10 animals. To induce toxicity, Cd (1 mg/kg body weight) was dissolved in normal saline and subcutaneously injected into rats for 30 days. The rats in CAPE-treated group were given a daily dose of 10 μmol/kg body weight of CAPE by using intraperitoneal injection. This application was continued daily for a total of 30 days. To date, no examinations of the anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant properties of CAPE on Cd-induced apoptosis, oxidative damage, and testicular injury in rat testes have been reported. CAPE-treated animals showed an improved histological appearance and serum testosterone levels in Cd-treated group. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the number of apoptotic cells in testis tissues of the Cd-treated group with CAPE treatment. Moreover, CAPE significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation, compensated deficits in the anti-oxidant defenses in testes tissue resulted from Cd administration. These findings suggest that the protective potential of CAPE in Cd toxicity might be due to its anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, which could be useful for achieving optimum effects in Cd-induced testicular injury. PMID:26424218

  18. Thallium-induced testicular toxicity in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Formigli, L.; Scelsi, R.; Poggi, P.; Gregotti, C.; Di Nucci, A.; Sabbioni, E.; Gottardi, L.; Manzo, L.

    1986-08-01

    Reproductive tract functions were studied in adult male Wistar rats given 10 ppm thallium as thallium sulfate in the drinking water. After 60 days of treatment, spermatozoa isolated from the cauda epididymides and vas deferens showed reduced motility and immature germ cells were found in the tubular lumen. Histological examination of testes in thallium-treated animals revealed disarrangement of the tubular epithelium and ultrastructural changes in the Sertoli cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation and distension of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The activity of testicular ..beta..-glucuronidase was significantly reduced whereas acid phosphatase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were unchanged. Plasma testosterone levels were within normal limits. No abnormalities in testicular morphology and biochemistry were seen in animals sacrificed at the end of the first month of thallium exposure. These findings indicate that the male reproductive system is a susceptible target site to toxic effects of thallium under chronic exposure. They also suggest a major involvement of Sertoli cells in the mechanism underlying thallium-induced testicular damage.

  19. Testicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Ratkal, Vishal; Chawla, Arun; Mishra, Dilip Kumar; Monappa, Vidya

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 27-year-old man who presented with a slowly growing left testicular swelling associated with mild pain over a period of 3 months. He was evaluated by his family physician with scrotal ultrasound and testicular tumour markers. He was diagnosed and treated as epididymo-orchitis and managed with antibiotics. When he later presented to us, he had an enlarged left testis with normal spermatic cord. Scrotal Doppler evaluation showed a globally enlarged left testis and epididymis with increased vascularity in the left testis, with the right testis being normal. Testicular tumour markers were normal. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the left testis was suggestive of lymphoma. Exploration through an inguinal approach was carried out and a Chevassu manoeuvre with frozen section study was performed, which was reported as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Left radical orchidectomy was performed. Histopathology reported diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, of a germinal centre type. Contrast CT of the abdomen, chest and brain were normal. Sperm cryopreservation was carried out. The patient was started on chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin, prednisone (CHOP) regime. PMID:25795748

  20. Causes, effects and molecular mechanisms of testicular heat stress.

    PubMed

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    The process of spermatogenesis is temperature-dependent and occurs optimally at temperatures slightly lower than that of the body. Adequate thermoregulation is imperative to maintain testicular temperatures at levels lower than that of the body core. Raised testicular temperature has a detrimental effect on mammalian spermatogenesis and the resultant spermatozoa. Therefore, thermoregulatory failure leading to heat stress can compromise sperm quality and increase the risk of infertility. In this paper, several different types of external and internal factors that may contribute towards testicular heat stress are reviewed. The effects of heat stress on the process of spermatogenesis, the resultant epididymal spermatozoa and on germ cells, and the consequent changes in the testis are elaborated upon. We also discuss the molecular response of germ cells to heat exposure and the possible mechanisms involved in heat-induced germ cell damage, including apoptosis, DNA damage and autophagy. Further, the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways that are involved in the intricate mechanism of germ cell apoptosis are explained. Ultimately, these complex mechanisms of apoptosis lead to germ cell death. PMID:25456164

  1. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes with cryopreserved testicular sperm aspiration samples.

    PubMed

    Roque, M; Valle, M; Marques, F; Sampaio, M; Geber, S

    2016-04-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be performed with testicular frozen-thawed spermatozoa in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Sperm retrieval can be performed in advance of oocyte aspiration, as it may avoid the possibility of no recovery of spermatozoa on the day of oocyte pickup. There are few studies available in the literature concerning the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained from testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). To evaluate the effects and the outcomes of ICSI with frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained by TESA, we performed a retrospective analysis of 43 ICSI cycles using frozen-thawed TESA. We obtained acceptable results with a fertilisation rate of 67.9%, an implantation rate (IR) of 17.1%, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates of 41.9% and 37.2% respectively. The results of this study suggest that performing ICSI using cryopreserved frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa with TESA as a first option is a viable, safe, economic and effective method for patients with NOA. PMID:25998234

  2. A Case of Bilateral Testicular Tumors Subsequently Diagnosed as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Yan-Kun; Sha, Yan-Wei; Ding, Lu; Liu, Wei-Wu; Song, Yue-Qiang; Lin, Jin; He, Xue-Mei; Qiu, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Ling; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) caused congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive genetic disorders resulting from mutations in genes involved with cortisol (CO) synthesis in the adrenal glands. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) are rarely the presenting symptoms of CAH. Here, we describe a case of simple virilizing CAH with TARTs, in a 15-year-old boy. The patient showed physical signs of precocious puberty. The levels of blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), urinary 17-ketone steroids (17-KS), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and serum progesterone (PRGE) were elevated, whereas those of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and CO were reduced. Computed tomography (CT) of the adrenal glands and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the testes showed a soft tissue density (more pronounced on the right side) and an irregularly swollen mass (more pronounced on the left side), respectively. Pathological examination of a specimen of the mass indicated polygonal/circular eosinophilic cytoplasm, cord-like arrangement of interstitial cells, and lipid pigment in the cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry results precluded a diagnosis of Leydig cell tumors. DNA sequencing revealed a hackneyed homozygous mutation, I2g, on intron 2 of the CYP21A2 gene. The patient’s symptoms improved after a three-month of dexamethasone therapy. Recent radiographic data showed reduced hyperplastic adrenal nodules and testicular tumors. A diagnosis of TART should be considered and prioritized in CAH patients with testicular tumors. Replacement therapy using a sufficient amount of dexamethasone in this case helps combat TART. PMID:26985347

  3. Cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of testicular cancer in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. 6594 matched controls were selected from the Danish Civil Registration System, which also provided the identity of 40,104 first-degree relatives of case and controls. Familial cancer was identified by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, and we used conditional logistic regression to analyse whether cancer among first-degree relatives was associated with higher risk of testicular cancer. Rate ratio (RR) for testicular cancer was 4.63 (95% CI: 2.41–8.87) when a father, 8.30(95% CI: 3.81–18.10) when a brother and 5.23 (95% CI: 1.35–20.26) when a son had testicular cancer compared with no familial testicular cancer. Results were similar when analyses were stratified by histologic subtypes of testicular cancer. Familial Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and oesophageal cancer were associated with testicular cancer; however these may be chance findings. The familial aggregation of testicular and possibly other cancers may be explained by shared genes and/or shared environmental factors, but the mutual importance of each of these is difficult to determine. PMID:21207375

  4. Cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of testicular cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2011-11-15

    Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population-based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3,297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. A total of 6,594 matched controls were selected from the Danish Civil Registration System, which also provided the identity of 40,104 first-degree relatives of case and controls. Familial cancer was identified by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, and we used conditional logistic regression to analyze whether cancer among first-degree relatives was associated with higher risk of testicular cancer. Rate ratio for testicular cancer was 4.63 (95% CI: 2.41-8.87) when a father, 8.30 (95% CI: 3.81-18.10) when a brother and 5.23 (95% CI: 1.35-20.26) when a son had testicular cancer compared to no familial testicular cancer. Results were similar when analyses were stratified by histologic subtypes of testicular cancer. Familial non-Hodgkin lymphoma and esophageal cancer were associated with testicular cancer; however, these may be chance findings. The familial aggregation of testicular and possibly other cancers may be explained by shared genes and/or shared environmental factors, but the mutual importance of each of these is difficult to determine. PMID:21207375

  5. Correlation of microscopic phenotype with genotype in a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded testicular germ cell tumor with universal DNA amplification, comparative genomic hybridization, and interphase cytogenetics.

    PubMed Central

    Speicher, M. R.; Jauch, A.; Walt, H.; du Manoir, S.; Ried, T.; Jochum, W.; Sulser, T.; Cremer, T.

    1995-01-01

    We present a strategy for the evaluation of numerical copy number changes of DNA segments within a solid tumor genome that allows the correlation of microscopic phenotype with genotype in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor material. Cells from a human testicular germ cell tumor and adjacent tissue areas with normal seminiferous tubules were selected separately from microscopically analyzed histological tissue sections, and DNA was extracted from the selected areas. After universal DNA amplification, the amplification products were subjected to comparative genomic hybridization. The results confirmed balanced chromosome copy numbers for the normal tissue area, although the analysis of the tumor tissue area revealed numerous gains and losses of chromosome segments. The comparative genomic hybridization results were used to select DNA probes for interphase cytogenetics on serial sections. We conclude that this technique allows the screening of selected tissue areas for numerical DNA alterations, thus enabling a direct phenotype-genotype comparison. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7778673

  6. GnRH-agonist implantation of prepubertal male cats affects their reproductive performance and testicular LH receptor and FSH receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Mehl, N S; Khalid, M; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S

    2016-03-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of GnRH-agonist implantation in prepubertal tomcats on sexual behavior, reproductive performance, and expression of testicular LH receptor (LHR) and FSH receptor (FSHR) and also to compare the testicular characteristics, LHR and FSHR expression between prepubertal and adult tomcats. In experiment 1, 3-month-old tomcats (n = 6/group) were either treated with or left without 4.7 mg deslorelin implants. Semen collection and evaluation were performed just before castration at 48 weeks after treatment; removed testes were analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of LHR and FSHR. We were able to collect semen from six non-treated cats, whereas in treated cats, semen was uncollectable. The results revealed that sexual behavior was absent in the implanted cats throughout the study period. Testicular volume was found to decrease from 30 weeks after treatment onward in the implanted cats compared to the controls (P < 0.05). Semen production was found only in non-implanted cats. Testicular tissue score, seminiferous tubule diameter, and LHR protein expression were found lower in the implanted cats (P < 0.05), but no differences were observed in mRNA expression of LHR and protein expression of FSHR between groups. The mRNA expression of FSHR was higher in the implanted (P < 0.05) compared to control cats. In experiment 2, testes from prepubertal (n = 6) and adult (n = 6) male cats were collected after castration and analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of LHR and FSHR. No differences were observed in the protein expression of LHR and FSHR between the two groups, whereas mRNA expression of FSHR was higher in prepubertal cats (P < 0.05). Testicular and epididymal weight, diameter of seminiferous tubules, and the testicular grade were higher in the adult compared to prepubertal cats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, deslorelin implants suppressed protein expression of LHR and enhanced mRNA expression of FSHR along with suppression

  7. Effects of Two Testicular Cancer Education Programs on Self-Examination Knowledge and Attitudes among College-Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    This study compared instructional outcomes of two education programs about testicular cancer and testicular self-examination. Instruction facilitated by a former testicular cancer patient was compared to information provided by printed materials. There was no difference in information dissemination, but possible differences in attitude resulted.…

  8. Testicular carcinoma in situ associated with rhabdomyosarcoma of the spermatic cord.

    PubMed

    Nistal, M; Fachal, C; Paniagua, R

    1989-08-01

    A 12-year-old boy had an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in the distal portion of the spermatic cord. The tumor partially surrounded the testis, infiltrated the testicular tunics and formed an intratesticular nodule near the rete testis. The unaffected testicular parenchyma exhibited the characteristic germ cells of carcinoma in situ. We describe an association between these 2 types of tumors. PMID:2746753

  9. Assessment of pubertal development of boars derived from ultrasonographic determination of testicular diameter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the onset of puberty, seminiferous tubules rapidly increase in diameter occupying a greater proportion of the testis with a consequent rapid increase in testicular size. The objective of the current studies was to evaluate the utility of ultrasonography to assess testicular diameter as a basis fo...

  10. Genetic background of resistance to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Hata, Iori; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Imamura, Yorishige

    2011-10-01

    We have previously reported that inbred Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular toxicity compared with inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats. The present study was to elucidate the genetic background of resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats. The genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity was conducted by using Cd-resistant WI and Cd-sensitive F344 strains as the parental rats and by using the testicular hemoglobin level as the indicator. In the frequency distribution of testicular hemoglobin levels in parental, first filial (F(1)) and second filial (F(2)) rats treated with Cd at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg, F(1) rats had testicular hemoglobin levels intermediate to WI and F344 rats, and F(2) rats segregated into three groups of low, intermediate, and high phenotypes at the expected ratio. Furthermore, the backcross progeny between WI and F(1) or between F344 and F(1) segregated into two groups with the expected ratio. Based on a simple Mendelian genetic analysis, these segregation patterns lead us to conclude that two codominant alleles at a gene locus are responsible for the susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in rats. This is the first report for the genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in inbred rat strains. PMID:21318357

  11. Development of a Testicular Self-Examination Program for College Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Sharon Kay; Rothenberger, James

    1985-01-01

    Personal responsibility for health is dependent upon accurate knowledge and skill in self-care. Testicular cancer incidence is the leading cancer in young adult males. This article describes the development and evaluation of a testicular cancer education program which is now available nationwide to college health services. (Author/MT)

  12. Spontaneous Idiopathic Arteritis of the Testicular Artery in Raccoons (Procyon lotor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The testes and the spermatic cord of raccoons (Procyon lotor, kits to adult breeders; n=48) were examined. Segmental arteritis confined to the extra-testicular portions of the testicular artery was present in raccoons of all ages. The arterial changes were seen in laboratory-confined experimental an...

  13. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors are highly concentrated in mitochondrial membranes of rat testicular interstitial cells.

    PubMed

    Calvo, D J; Ritta, M N; Calandra, R S; Medina, J H

    1990-10-01

    The binding of 3H-RO 5-4864 to the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors (PBZDR) in rat testicular interstitial cells (TIC) was characterized. The binding was saturable, reversible and showed a single high-affinity (Kd = 5.02 +/- 0.86 nM) class of binding sites. The maximal binding capacity (Bmax) in crude mitochondrial fractions (77.6 +/- 9.1 pmol/mg protein) represents the highest density of PBZDR in tissues thus far studied. In comparison with the crude mitochondrial fraction the subcellular fractionation of TIC revealed a 2-fold enrichment of 3H-RO 5-4864 binding sites to the purified mitochondria (Bmax = 140 +/- 23 pmol/mg protein). The ability of various drugs to displace 3H-RO 5-4864 from TIC binding sites was examined and the inhibition constants (Ki) for RO 5-4864, PK 11195, diazepam and flunitrazepam were 3.5, 4.4, 159, and 353 nM, respectively, whereas clonazepam and RO 15-1788 were inefficient in displacing 3H-RO 5-4864 (Ki greater than 10 microM). This pharmacological profile is characteristic of PBZDR described in other tissues. In conclusion, rat TIC possess a very high concentration of PBZDR primarily associated with mitochondrial membranes. PMID:2175849

  14. AR3 messenger ribonucleic acid expression and its functional implication in human primary testicular failure.

    PubMed

    Tian, F; Wu, Y-S; Zhao, J; Li, W

    2014-10-01

    AR3, a major one of androgen receptor (AR) splice variants, has been shown to play a pivotal role in concert with AR signalling in prostate cancer. The present study was undertaken to characterise the expression pattern of AR3 in normal and impaired spermatogenesis. Expression of AR3 mRNA showed significantly lower level in testicular tissues with impaired spermatogenesis when compared to normal tissues. This aberrant expression profile of AR3 in human pathological testes was further confirmed by immunoblotting analysis. Moreover, in situ hybridisation studies revealed that the transcripts of the gene were dominantly localised in the pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids, suggesting a potential involvement of this transcriptional regulator in the auto-/paracrine regulation of meiotic and post-meiotic differentiation. This hypothesis was strengthened by the observation that AR3 mRNA expression was positively correlated to average seminiferous tubule score and was negatively correlated to serum FSH level. To the best of our knowledge, such a distinct expression profile of AR3 has not been reported previously in human testis. Overall, our data are suggestive of a novel site of action of AR3 during human spermatogenesis and should shed light on the complicated circuit composed of AR and its splice variants. PMID:24124902

  15. Protective effects of carvacrol against methotrexate-induced testicular toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Daggulli, Mansur; Dede, Onur; Utangac, Mehmet Mazhar; Bodakci, Mehmet Nuri; Hatipoglu, Namık Kemal; Penbegul, Necmettin; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Bozkurt, Yaşar; Türkçü, Gül; Yüksel, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of carvacrol (CAR) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced testis damage in rats. Twenty-four male rats were equally divided into three groups: group I control treatment; group II MTX-treated; group III MTX + CAR-treated. A single dose of CAR was administered intraperitoneally to group III on the first day of the experiment and a single dose of MTX was administered intraperitoneally to groups II and III on the second day of the experiment. The total duration of the experiment was 8 days. Blood samples and testis tissue were obtained from each animal for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), Total oxidant status (TOS), Total Antioxidant Status (TAS), and Oxidative stress index (OSI). Light microscopy was used to complete the histopathological examination of testis specimens from each animal. Analysis of serum and testis sampled revealed that MDA, TOS and OSI levels were significantly greater in the group receiving MTX alone relative to the control treated animals while the TAS level was significantly reduced in the MTX group when compared with the control group. The administration of CAR was associated with significantly decreased MDA, TOS, and OSI levels and increased TAS levels relative to the rats treated with MTX alone. All of these quantitative values demonstrate that CAR alleviates deleterious effects of MTX on testicular tissue. Use of antioxidants such as CAR may protect germ cells against oxidative stress and apoptosis when used in combination with MTX. PMID:25664063

  16. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and expression of a testicular isoform of hormone-sensitive lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Holst, L.S.; Laurell, H.; Holm, C.

    1996-08-01

    By catalyzing the rate-limiting step in adipose tissue lipolysis, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is an important regulator of energy homeostasis. The role and importance of HSL in tissues other than adipose are poorly understood. We report here the cloning and expression of a testicular isoform, designated HSL{sub tes}. Due to an addition of amino acids at the NH{sub 2}-termini, rat and human HSL{sub tes} consist of 1068 and 1076 amino acids, respectively, compared to the 768 and 775 amino acids, respectively, of the adipocyte isoform (HSL{sub adi}). A novel exon of 1.2 kb, encoding the human testis-specific amino acids, was isolated and mapped to the HSL gene, 16 kb upstream of the exons encoding HSL{sub adi}. The transcribed mRNA of 3.9 kb was specifically expressed in testis. No significant similarity with other known proteins was found for the testis-specific sequence. The amino acid composition differs from the HSL{sub adi} sequence, with a notable hydrophilic character and a high content of prolines and glutamines. COS cells, transfected by the 3.9-kb human testis cDNA, expressed a protein of the expected molecular mass (M{sub r} {approximately}120,000) that exhibited catalytic activity similar to that of HSL{sub adi}. Immunocytochemistry localized HSL to elongating spermatids and spermatozoa; HSL was not detected in interstitial cells. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) as a male infertility factor. Case report.

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Marek; Joanna, Talarczyk; Piotr, JedrzejczaK

    2012-09-01

    Since testes and adrenal cortex derive from the same urogenital ridge, adrenal tissue with descending gonads may migrate in early embryonic period. Although most often ectopic tissue undergoes atrophy in some cases, when adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) overstimulation occurs, the adrenal remnants in the testes may become hypertrophic and form testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). The growth of TARTs in the testes leads to obstruction of the seminiferous tubules which can mechanically impair the function of the gonads and cause irreversible azoospermia. We describe a patient suffering since neonatal period from congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), disorder with defected pathway of cortisol production, which leads to increased ACTH production and to overstimulation of adrenal cortex. He had very poor disease control and therefore in late puberty he was diagnosed with TARTs. At the age of 19.5 he was diagnosed with azoospermia, most likely caused by TARTs. It is the first evidence of TARTs in Polish literature. Although not many cases have been published so far the incidence of TARTs seems to be highly underdiagnosed, so it seems reasonable to consider the disease in differential diagnosis of male infertility. PMID:23342900

  18. Unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism and its effect on the testicular morphology, histology, accessory sex organs, and sperm count in laboratory mice

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Soumita; Joshi, Keshab Raj; Sengupta, Pallav; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental unilateral cryptorchidism (ULC) and bilateral cryptorchidism (BLC) are excellent methods to study undescended testis in relation to spermatogenesis against a temperature gradient. OBJECTIVES: In case of ULC, it is possible to compare the testicular functions between normal condition and cryptorchidism in the same animal, whereas BLC shows the necessity of testicular androgens for proper maintenance of reproductive structures and functions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, experimental ULC and BLC was done on same-aged adult mature male mice and kept for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, to observe the changes due to the induced cryptorchidism on the different reproductive organs, viz., the testis and accessory sex organs along with epididymal sperm count. Reproductive tissues were collected from individual animals and histopathological studies of testis were done to investigate different cytological changes. RESULTS: The size of the testes and accessory sex organs were found to be significantly reduced in BLC mice, whereas only testicular weight reduction was observed in ULC mice. Histopathological studies showed degenerative changes throughout the seminiferous tubules. CONCLUSION: Thus, the present investigation showed compensatory androgen production in ULC mice, whereas absence of androgen mediated reproductive functions in BLC animals. PMID:24082651

  19. Corrective role of Eugenia jambolana on testicular impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat: an approach through genomic and proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Jana, K; Ali, K M; De, D; Chatterjee, K; Ghosh, D

    2014-04-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of hydro-methanolic (40 : 60) extract of seed of Eugenia jambolana on testicular impairment in diabetic rats. In this respect, biomarkers of oxidative stress, genomics and proteomics in testicular tissue were assessed. Side by side, glycated haemoglobin, serum testosterone, activities of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum, epididymal sperm count including reproductive organosomatic indices were evaluated. Results indicate that a significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the levels of these parameters in fraction-treated diabetic group in comparison with diabetic control. A significant recovery was noted (P < 0.05) in the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 gene towards the control after the treatment of said fraction. Histological study also focused a significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the number of different generation of germ cells at stage VII of spermatogenesis in fraction-treated diabetic group. The said fraction treatment to diabetic rat can recover the activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase significantly towards the control (P < 0.05). Finally, it may be concluded that ethyl acetate fraction of seed of E. jambolana has a promiseable remedial effect on diabetes-induced testicular dysfunctions in male rat without inducing any metabolic toxicity. PMID:23521341

  20. Evaluation of ameliorative potential of supranutritional selenium on enrofloxacin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rungsung, Soya; Khan, Adil Mehraj; Sood, Naresh Kumar; Rampal, Satyavan; Singh Saini, Simrat Pal

    2016-05-25

    The study was designed to assess the ameliorative potential of selenium (Se) on enrofloxacin-induced testicular toxicity in rats. There was a significant decrease in body weight and non-significant decrease in mean testicular weight of enrofloxacin treated rats. In enrofloxacin treated rats, total sperm count and viability decreased where as sperm abnormalities increased. Testicular histopathology revealed dose dependent dysregulation of spermatogenesis and presence of necrotic debris in seminiferous tubules which was marginally improved with Se. Enrofloxacin also produced a dose dependent decrease in testosterone level. The activity of testicular antioxidant enzymes decreased where as lipid peroxidation increased in a dose-dependent manner. Se supplementation partially restored oxidative stress and sperm damage and did not affect the plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacain. The results indicate that enrofloxacin produces a dose-dependent testicular toxicity in rats that is moderately ameliorated with supranutritional Se. PMID:27083143

  1. Characterization of the testicular cell types present in the rat by in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    van der Grond, J.; Van Pelt, A.M.; van Echteld, C.J.; Dijkstra, G.; Grootegoed, J.A.; de Rooij, D.G.; Mali, W.P. )

    1991-07-01

    Testes of vitamin A-deficient Wistar rats before and after vitamin A replacement, of rats irradiated in utero, and of control rats were investigated by in vivo 31P magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. The testicular phosphomonoester/ATP (PM/ATP) ratio ranged from 0.79 {plus minus} 0.05 for testes that contained only interstitial tissue and Sertoli cells to 1.64 {plus minus} 0.04 for testes in which spermatocytes were the most advanced cell types present. When new generations of spermatids entered the seminiferous epithelium, this ratio decreased. The testicular phosphodiester/ATP (PD/ATP) ratio amounted to 0.16 {plus minus} 0.06 for testes in which Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, or spermatocytes were the most advanced cell type present. When new generations of spermatids entered the seminiferous epithelium, the PD/ATP ratio rapidly increased and finally reached a value of 0.71 {plus minus} 0.06 for fully developed testes. Taken together, specific patterns of the PM/ATP ratio, the PD/ATP ratio, and pH were obtained that were correlated to the presence of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, and elongated spermatids or to the absence of spermatogenic cells. Hence, a good impression of the status of the seminiferous epithelium in the rat can be obtained by in vivo 31P MR spectroscopy.

  2. Prevention of di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate-induced Testicular Disturbance in Mice by Co-administration of L-carnitine

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Zohre; Mohammadi, Moslem; Eimani, Hossein; Shafaroudi, Majid Malekzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Background di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used in the plastic industry and can induce reproductive toxicity. On the other hand, L-carnitine (LC) plays a crucial role in sperm metabolism and maturation. This study evaluates the effect of LC on body and testis weight, testis tissue, count, motility, viability, morphology, and chromatin quality of epididymal sperm, testicular spermatid number (TSN) per gram testis and daily sperm production (DSP) in LC-treated mice. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, adult male NMRI mice (mean age: 4 weeks) were given doses of DEHP and LC by gavaging for 2 weeks. All samples were assessed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Sperm morphology was assessed using Papanicolaou staining and sperm chromatin quality by aniline-blue staining. The left testes were fixed in Bouinś solution for histological examination and the end slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The right testes were homogenized, and then TSN and DSP were calculated with an improved Neubauer haemocytometer and respective frames. Paired t-test, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were utilized for data analysis. Results Co-administration of DEHP and LC not only prevented significant gains in testicular weight, but also maintained the sperm’s normal morphology and chromatin quality (p<0.05). In addition, LC recovered histological changes, TSN, DSP, and sperm count. Conclusion These results demonstrated that oral administration of LC partially or generally protects spermatogenesis from DEHP-toxicity in mice. PMID:25101163

  3. Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Lymph Node Metastasis of a Testicular Teratoma: A Very Rare Occurrence.

    PubMed

    Ozturk Sari, Sule; Ozluk, Yasemin; Taskin, Orhun Cig; Polat, Beldan; Ozturk, Ilker; Ekenel, Meltem; Kilicaslan, Isin; Bilgic, Bilge

    2016-08-01

    We present a case of a teratoma with somatic type malignancy (TSM) in the form of papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) within supraclavicular and retroperitoneal lymph node metastases of a testicular pure teratoma. Resection of both masses revealed a teratoma without any other germ cell tumor component. A papillary carcinoma component was also detected intermingled with the teratomatous elements. The carcinoma cells displayed eosinophilic cytoplasm and prominent nucleoli. Groups of foamy histiocytes in the fibrovascular cores was a striking finding that brought pRCC to mind. Immunoreactivity for CK7, PAX8, AMACR, CD10, napsin, and vimentin along with morphologic findings confirmed renal cell differentiation. No radiological evidence of a primary renal cell carcinoma was found in the kidney. Consequently, pRCC arising in a teratoma was diagnosed. TSM is described as teratoma with a malignant component that is typically encountered in other organs and tissues. TSM in the form of pRCC is an extremely rare entity. Our case is the second example of a testicular germ cell tumor metastasis with a somatic malignancy in the form of pRCC. In conclusion, carcinomas of renal cell differentiation should be kept in mind as a rare form of TSM, especially in metastatic germ cell tumors. PMID:26936856

  4. Fertility, gonadal and sexual function in survivors of testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Huddart, R A; Norman, A; Moynihan, C; Horwich, A; Parker, C; Nicholls, E; Dearnaley, D P

    2005-07-25

    Modern treatments cure most testicular cancer patients, so an important goal is to minimise toxicity. Fertility and sexual functioning are key issues for patients. We have evaluated these outcomes in a cross-sectional study of long-term survivors of testicular cancer. In total, 680 patients treated between 1982 and 1992 completed the EORTC Qly-C-30(qc30) questionnaire, the associated testicular cancer specific module and a general health and fertility questionnaire. Patients have been subdivided according to treatment received: orchidectomy either alone (surveillance, S n = 169), with chemotherapy (C, n = 272), radiotherapy (R, n = 158), or both chemotherapy and radiotherapy (C/RT n = 81). In the surveillance group, 6% of patients had an elevated LH, 41% an elevated FSH and 11% a low (< 10 nmol l(-1)) testosterone. Hormonal function deteriorated with additional treatment, but the effect in general was small. Low testosterone was more common in the C/RT group (37% P = 0.006), FSH abnormalities were more common after chemotherapy (C 49%, C/RT 71% both P < 0.005) and LH abnormalities after radiotherapy (11% P < 0.01) and chemotherapy (10%, P < 0.001). Baseline hormone data were available for 367 patients. After treatment, compared to baseline, patients receiving chemotherapy had significantly greater elevations of FSH (median rise of 6 (IQR 3-9.25) iu l(-1) compared to 3 (IQR 1-5) iu l(-1) for S; P < 0.001) and a fall (compared to a rise in the surveillance group) in median testosterone levels (-2 (IQR -8.0 to -1.5) vs 1.0. (IQR -4.0-4.0) P < 0.001). Patients with low testosterone (but not elevated FSH) had lower quality of life scores related to sexual functioning on the testicular cancer specific module and lower physical, social and role functioning on the EORTC Qly C-30. Patients with a low testosterone also had higher body mass index and blood pressure. Treatment was associated with reduction in sexual activity and patients receiving chemotherapy had more

  5. Gonadoblastoma: ultrastructural evidence for testicular origin.

    PubMed

    Ishida, T; Tagatz, G E; Okagaki, T

    1976-04-01

    A gonadoblastoma arising in the dysgenetic gonad of a virilized 17-year-old Caucasian with a female phenotype and with a 45,X0/46, X-ring-Y genotype was studied by light microscopic histochemistry, electron microscopy, and ultrastructural histochemistry. The gonadoblastoma was composed of nests of cells containg large germ cells and small "granulosa-Sertoli-like cells," and stromal tissue containing "Leydig-like cells." The germ cells were identical to those found in normal fetal gonads and in germ cell tumors. Charcot-Böttcher crystalloids present in the "granulosa-Sertoli-like cells" strongly suggest that they are, in fact, Sertoli cells. Multilayered basal laminae located in the periphery of the tumor nests and in "hyaline bodies" were identical to those surrounding the seminiferous tubules of the adult testis. The "Leydig-like cells" present in the stroma contained occasional dense bodies and crystalloids which characterize the Leydig cells of the fetal testis. Delta 5-3 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was demonstrated in the periphery of lipid droplets and lysosome-like dense bodies of the Leydig cells, and in some Sertoli cells. The findings support the theory that gonadoblastoma arises in a dysgenetic testis rather than in a dysgenetic ovary. PMID:1260688

  6. R-Spondin 1/Dickkopf-1/Beta-Catenin Machinery Is Involved in Testicular Embryonic Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Maria; Ferranti, Francesca; Corano Scheri, Katia; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Ciccarone, Fabio; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Testicular vasculogenesis is one of the key processes regulating male gonad morphogenesis. The knowledge of the molecular cues underlining this phenomenon is one of today’s most challenging issues and could represent a major contribution toward a better understanding of the onset of testicular morphogenetic disorders. R-spondin 1 has been clearly established as a candidate for mammalian ovary determination. Conversely, very little information is available on the expression and role of R-spondin 1 during testicular morphogenesis. This study aims to clarify the distribution pattern of R-spondin 1 and other partners of its machinery during the entire period of testicular morphogenesis and to indicate the role of this system in testicular development. Our whole mount immunofluorescence results clearly demonstrate that R-spondin 1 is always detectable in the testicular coelomic partition, where testicular vasculature is organized, while Dickkopf-1 is never detectable in this area. Moreover, organ culture experiments of embryonic male UGRs demonstrated that Dickkopf-1 acted as an inhibitor of testis vasculature formation. Consistent with this observation, real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that DKK1 is able to slightly but significantly decrease the expression level of the endothelial marker Pecam1. The latter experiments allowed us to observe that DKK1 administration also perturbs the expression level of the Pdgf-b chain, which is consistent with some authors’ observations relating this factor with prenatal testicular patterning and angiogenesis. Interestingly, the DKK1 induced inhibition of testicular angiogenesis was rescued by the co-administration of R-spondin 1. In addition, R-spondin 1 alone was sufficient to enhance, in culture, testicular angiogenesis. PMID:25910078

  7. Testicular parenchymal abnormalities in Klinefelter syndrome: a question of cancer? Examination of 40 consecutive patients

    PubMed Central

    Accardo, Giacomo; Vallone, Gianfranco; Esposito, Daniela; Barbato, Filomena; Renzullo, Andrea; Conzo, Giovanni; Docimo, Giovanni; Esposito, Katherine; Pasquali, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a hypergonadotropic hypogonadism characterized by a 47, XXY karyotype. The risk of testicular cancer in KS is of interest in relation to theories about testicular cancer etiology generally; nevertheless it seems to be low. We evaluated the need for imaging and serum tumor markers for testicular cancer screening in KS. Participants were 40 consecutive KS patients, enrolled from December 2009 to January 2013. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin subunit (β-HCG) serum levels assays and testicular ultrasound (US) with color Doppler, were carried out at study entry, after 6 months and every year for 3 years. Abdominal magnetic resonance (MR) was performed in KS when testicular US showed micro-calcifications, testicular nodules and cysts. Nearly 62% of the KS had regular testicular echotexture, 37.5% showed an irregular echotexture and 17.5% had micro-calcifications and cysts. Eighty seven percent of KS had a regular vascular pattern, 12.5% varicocele, 12.5% nodules <1 cm, but none had nodules >1 cm. MR ruled out the diagnosis of cancer in all KS with testicular micro calcifications, nodules and cysts. No significant variations in LDH, AFP, and β-HCG levels and in US pattern have been detected during follow-up. We compared serum tumor markers and US pattern between KS with and without cryptorchidism and no statistical differences were found. We did not find testicular cancer in KS, and testicular US, tumor markers and MR were, in selected cases, useful tools for correctly discriminating benign from malignant lesions. PMID:25130577

  8. Incidental Testicular Irradiation From Prostate IMRT: It All Adds Up

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R.; Maxim, Peter G.; Hsu, Annie; Kapp, Daniel S.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To identify the technical aspects of image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for localized prostate cancer that could result in a clinically meaningful incidental dose to the testes. Methods and Materials: We examined three sources that contribute incidental dose to the testes, namely, from internal photon scattering from IMRT small field and large pelvic nodal fields with 6 or 15 MV, from neutrons when >10-MV photons are used, and from daily image-guided fiducial-based portal imaging. Using clinical data from 10 patients who received IMRT for prostate cancer, and thermo-luminescent dosimeter measurements in phantom, we estimated the dose to the testes from each of these sources. Results: A mean testicular dose of 172 and 220 cGy results from internal photon scatter for pelvic nodal fields and 68 and 93 cGy for prostate-only fields, for 6- and 15-MV energies, respectively. For 15-MV photon energies, the mean testicular dose from neutrons is 60 cGy for pelvic fields and 31 cGy for prostate-only fields. From daily portal MV image guidance, the testes-in-field mean dose is 350 cGy, whereas the testes-out-of-field scatter dose is 16 cGy. Dosimetric comparisons between IMRT using 6-MV and 15-MV photon energies are not significantly different. Worst-case scenarios can potentially deliver cumulative incidental mean testicular doses of 630 cGy, whereas best-case scenarios can deliver only 84 cGy. Conclusions: Incidental dose to the testes from prostate IMRT can be minimized by opting to restrict the use of elective pelvic nodal fields, by choosing photon energies <10 MV, and by using the smallest port sizes necessary for daily image guidance.

  9. Testicular nocardiosis accompanied by cutaneous lesions in an immunocompetent man.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Sekimoto, Etsuko; Shirakami, Atsuhisa; Shibata, Hironobu; Ozaki, Shuji; Shigekiyo, Toshio; Noda, Toshinori; Shikiji, Takanori; Kanda, Kazuya; Hirose, Takanori; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Gonoi, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 77-year-old man admitted for an acute cutaneous infection and persistent fever. A physical examination revealed systemic small blisters and scrotal swelling. He was suspected of having complications from chickenpox or bullous impetigo as the initial diagnosis. Nocardia was detected on an aspiration biopsy of the small blisters and the surgically removed testis at a later date. Testicular nocardiosis is a rare condition; however, we should consider nocardiosis in the differential diagnosis because delay in providing treatment may worsen a patient's general condition. PMID:23291688

  10. PET/CT in renal, bladder and testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Physician, Chief; Choyke, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Hybrid imaging with PET/CT is having a broad impact in oncology, and in recent years PET/CT is beginning to have an impact in uro-oncology as well. In both bladder and renal cancer there is a need to study the efficacy of other tracers than F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), particularly tracers with only limited renal excretion. Thus, new tracers are being introduced in these malignancies. This review focuses on the clinical role of FDG and other PET agents in renal, bladder and testicular cancer. PMID:26099672

  11. Transverse testicular ectopia: a rare association with inguinal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Dahal, Prakash; Koirala, Rabin; Subedi, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is a rare anomaly that is commonly associated with inguinal hernia. Most of the reported cases are in children with very few reported cases in adults. We report a case of 42 years, fertile male, who presented with left reducible inguinal hernia. During surgery, he was found to have a left indirect inguinal hernia with TTE with both testes on the left side. Hernioplasty and bilateral orchidopexy were performed. He had an uneventful recovery. Most of these cases are diagnosed intraoperatively, but imaging (ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging) has emerged as a promising tool for preoperative diagnosis although ultrasound missed it in this case. PMID:25287117

  12. Paternity in patients with bilateral testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, A; Vorreuther, R; Neubauer, S; Zumbe, J; Engelmann, U H

    1997-01-01

    We report on the finding of paternity in 1 patient with metachronous bilateral testis germ cell tumor (BTGCT) and in another patient with a unilateral testicular germ cell tumor and contralateral carcinoma in situ (CIS). These cases demonstrate that patients with BTGCT or CIS in their solitary testicle are not necessarily infertile. Surveillance might be a therapeutic modality in patients with contralateral CIS and active spermatogenesis and the desire for paternity assumed that they are included in close follow-up protocols. PMID:9076475

  13. Novel Approach for the Detection of the Vestiges of Testicular mRNA Splicing Errors in Mature Spermatozoa of Japanese Black Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Taichi; Sakase, Mitsuhiro; Fukushima, Moriyuki; Harayama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    There is a serious problem with the reduction of male reproductive performance of the livestock in the world. We have a hypothesis that the splicing error-caused derivation of aberrant sperm motility-related proteins may be one of its causal factors. It is thought that fresh testicular tissues are necessary for the detection of splicing errors of the mRNA. However, it is difficult to obtain testicular tissues from a number of agriculturally important bulls by surgical methods, because such procedures may have deleterious effects on bulls’ reproductive performance. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of mRNA fragments collected from ejaculated spermatozoa as alternative analytical samples for detection of the splicing errors. In the first experiment, we characterized the alternative splicing and splicing error of bull testicular ADCY10 mRNA which coded the synthase of the regulatory molecule for sperm motility “cAMP”. In testes, the exon 11-lacking variant coding the truncated ADCY10 was derived by alternative splicing. However, splicing errors, which accompanied the frame shift in the second cyclase domain, were occasionally observed in the exon 11-lacking variant. This aberrant variant retained intronic nucleotides (4 bases, CCAG) connecting the initial part of exon 10 due to splicing errors and consequently yielded the cleavage site for a restriction enzyme (Cac8I) which recognized the nucleotide sequences (GCNNGC). In the second experiment, we recovered residual testicular mRNA fragments from ejaculated spermatozoa and observed the splicing error-caused derivation of the aberrant variant of ADCY 10. Ejaculated spermatozoa conserved mRNA fragments of the exon 11-lacking variant coding exons 9, 10, 12 and 13. Moreover, the above-mentioned aberrant variant of ADCY10 mRNA fragment was detectable by Cac8I digestion treatment using the sperm mRNAs. These results indicate the utility of sperm mRNA fragments for the detection of splicing errors in

  14. The diagnosis of unilateral testicular obstruction in subfertile males.

    PubMed

    Hendry, W F; Parslow, J M; Stedronska, J; Wallace, D M

    1982-12-01

    Thirty-two subfertile males with sperms in the ejaculate and unilateral testicular obstruction are reported: the diagnosis was established by exploration of scrotum in 26, clinically in 2, 3 had had previous partially successful epididymovasostomies, and 1 had had an epispadias repair. The past medical history gave relevant information in 27 (84%), and useful findings were made on clinical examination in a further 3 cases. Fifteen patients had sperm counts over 20 million per ml, and 15 were less than 10 million per ml. Twenty-six (81%) had serum antisperm antibodies detected by tray agglutination test (TAT), 21 (81%) of whom had evidence of head-to-head (HH) agglutinins in pure or mixed form. Comparison with 162 vasectomised males and 160 naturally infertile males with antisperm antibodies showed that 55% of the former and 24% of the latter had HH agglutinins on TAT, differences that were highly significant on statistical analysis. Evidence of obstruction was found in 14 (37%) of 38 naturally infertile males with antisperm antibodies and HH or mixed agglutination, but only in 12 (10%) of 122 with TT agglutinins: this difference was also highly significant. Clinical history, physical examination and serum antisperm antibodies, especially if HH agglutinins are present, can suggest the possibility of unilateral testicular obstruction, but confirmation of the diagnosis requires exploration of scrotum. PMID:7150940

  15. Is mediastinal irradiation necessary for stage I testicular seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, B.; Perkins, L.P.; Kays, H.; Chu, A.M.; Sharma, S.C.

    1984-04-01

    This study is a review of 39 patients with testicular seminoma, Stage I, treated at the Department of Radiation Oncology, James Graham Brown Cancer Center from 1959 to 1978. The age of the patients ranged from 16 to 70 years with a median of 37. Thirty-two (82%) patients presented with swelling or mass in the testis, four patients with pain, and three patients had seminoma diagnosed incidentally. Twenty (51%) patients had the tumor on the right side and 19 (49%) patients had the tumor on the left side. All patients received irradiation to the ipsilateral inguinal, iliac, and bilateral para-aortic nodes with ''hockey stick'' type fields. The majority of the patients received a midplane dose of 3,200 to 3,600 rad in 3-4 weeks time. None of the patients received prophylactic irradiation to the mediastinum and supraclavicular region. The 5-year actuarial survival rate is 96%. There is no additional benefit in giving prophylactic irradiation to the mediastinum and supraclavicular regions in Stage I testicular seminoma. A brief review of the literature regarding the role of prophylactic irradiation in this group of patients is done.

  16. Predictors of sperm recovery after cryopreservation in testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, James M; Patel, Darshan P; Vendryes, Christopher; Lopushnyan, Natalya A; Presson, Angela P; Zhang, Chong; Muller, Charles H; Walsh, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to identify predictors of improved postthaw semen quality in men with testicular cancer banking sperm for fertility preservation. We reviewed 173 individual semen samples provided by 67 men with testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) who cryopreserved sperm before gonadotoxic treatment between 1994 and 2010 at our tertiary university medical center. Our main outcomes measures were independent predictors for the greater postthaw total motile count (TMC) in men with TGCT. Men with NSGCT were more likely to be younger (P < 0.01) and had high cancer stage (II or III, P < 0.01) compared with men with seminoma. In our multiple regression model, NSGCT histology, use of density gradient purification, and fresh TMC > median fresh TMC each had increased odds of a postthaw TMC greater than median postthaw TMC. Interestingly, age, advanced cancer stage (II or III), rapid freezing protocol, and motility enhancer did not show increased odds of improved postthaw TMC in our models. In conclusion, men with TGCT or poor fresh TMC should consider preserving additional vials (at least 15 vials) before oncologic treatment. Density gradient purification should be routinely used to optimize postthaw TMC in men with TGCT. Larger, randomized studies evaluating cancer stage and various cryopreservation techniques are needed to assist in counseling men with TGCT regarding fertility preservation and optimizing cryosurvival. PMID:25999362

  17. Predictors of sperm recovery after cryopreservation in testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, James M; Patel, Darshan P; Vendryes, Christopher; Lopushnyan, Natalya A; Presson, Angela P; Zhang, Chong; Muller, Charles H; Walsh, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to identify predictors of improved postthaw semen quality in men with testicular cancer banking sperm for fertility preservation. We reviewed 173 individual semen samples provided by 67 men with testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) who cryopreserved sperm before gonadotoxic treatment between 1994 and 2010 at our tertiary university medical center. Our main outcomes measures were independent predictors for the greater postthaw total motile count (TMC) in men with TGCT. Men with NSGCT were more likely to be younger (P < 0.01) and had high cancer stage (II or III, P < 0.01) compared with men with seminoma. In our multiple regression model, NSGCT histology, use of density gradient purification, and fresh TMC > median fresh TMC each had increased odds of a postthaw TMC greater than median postthaw TMC. Interestingly, age, advanced cancer stage (II or III), rapid freezing protocol, and motility enhancer did not show increased odds of improved postthaw TMC in our models. In conclusion, men with TGCT or poor fresh TMC should consider preserving additional vials (at least 15 vials) before oncologic treatment. Density gradient purification should be routinely used to optimize postthaw TMC in men with TGCT. Larger, randomized studies evaluating cancer stage and various cryopreservation techniques are needed to assist in counseling men with TGCT regarding fertility preservation and optimizing cryosurvival. PMID:25999362

  18. Carbon disulfide induces rat testicular injury via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yinsheng; Wang, Wei; Dong, Yu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Yijun; Chen, Guoyuan

    2014-08-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2), one of the most important volatile organic chemicals, was shown to have serious impairment to male reproductive system. But the underline mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we aim to investigate the male germ cell apoptosis induced by CS2 exposure alone and by co-administration with cyclosporin A (CsA), which is the inhibitor of membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP). It was shown that CS2 exposure impaired ultrastructure of germ cells, increased the numbers of apoptotic germ cells, accumulated intracellular level of calcium, elevated ROS level, and increased activities of complexes of respiratory chain. Meanwhile, exposure to CS2 dramatically decreased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and levels of ATP and MPTP opening. Exposure to CS2 can also cause a significantly dose-dependent increase in the expression levels of Bax, Cytc, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3, but decreased the expression level of Bcl-2. Moreover, co-administration of CsA with CS2 can reverse or alleviate the above apoptotic damage effects of CS2 on testicular germ cells. Taken together, our findings suggested that CS2 can cause damage to testicular germ cells via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and MPTP play a crucial role in this process. PMID:24582363

  19. Quercetin mitigates fenitrothion-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Saber, T M; Abd El-Aziz, R M; Ali, H A

    2016-06-01

    Fenitrothion (FNT) is a widely used organophosphorus pesticide in agriculture. Quercetin (QR), a plant-derived flavonoid, has a free radical scavenging property. This study investigated the protective effect of QR on FNT-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided into four groups. Group I (control) received normal saline. Group II was administered QR at the dose of 50 mg kg(-1) b.wt. Group III was orally administered FNT (20 mg kg(-1) b.wt). Group IV was gavaged FNT and QR together at the same doses. All administrations were performed daily by gavage and maintained for 70 days. Sperm parameters and histopathological changes in testes were investigated. Serum testosterone and luteinising hormone were estimated using radioimmunoassay kits. In testes, expressions of steroidogenic genes (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 6, 17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 and steroidogenic factor-1) and oxidative stress genes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) were determined using real-time PCR. FNT administration caused significant decreases in sperm count, motility and hormonal levels, a significant increase in abnormal sperm morphology and a significant down-regulation of steroidogenic and antioxidant genes in the testis. However, QR administration ameliorated FNT-induced toxic effects. Our results concluded that QR effectively mitigated testicular damage induced by FNT in rats. PMID:26264430

  20. Testicular and spermatozoan parameters in the pukeko (Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus).

    PubMed

    Gunn, M R; Champion, Z; Casey, M E; Teal, P; Casey, P J

    2008-12-01

    The pukeko (Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus) is widespread in New Zealand, and is the closest living relative to the endangered takahe (Porphyrio mantelli), which has a relatively high rate of infertility. In this study, sperm collected from a number of pukeko was analysed in order to model the reproductive physiology of the male takahe. In addition, testicular parameters were measured. To ascertain the best method of sperm collection five techniques for harvesting sperm were used on two occasions during the breeding season. All five techniques resulted in the successful recovery of sperm. However, the float-out technique produced the best quality samples. Following collection, the morphometry of unstained sperm was assessed. Our findings suggest that pukeko sperm is non-motile in the male reproductive tract. We found the mean sperm head length in the pukeko is 16.9mum, but sperm head length varied significantly between birds. Testicular weight and length was significantly correlated with bird weight (P<0.05). Within each bird, testes weights were asymmetric. However, testes length was significantly correlated (P<0.05). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in testes length between birds. The methodologies presented for obtaining and analysing pukeko sperm morphometry can be used to assist opportunistic studies of the reproductive biology of other New Zealand native birds. PMID:18162336

  1. Successful cure of dermatomyositis after treatment of nonseminomatous testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Atsushi; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Ohno, Rena; Watanabe, Toru; Yamada, Takumi

    2005-06-01

    Although the association between dermatomyositis and cancer is well recognized, there have been a limited number of reports of dermatomyositis associated with testicular cancer. We report the case of a 31-year-old man who was diagnosed with dermatomyositis. Because the patient's serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit were elevated, the patient was referred to our department. Physical examination revealed an induration (2 cm x 2 cm) in the left testis and the patient was diagnosed with stage IIIB left testicular cancer. A left high orchidectomy was then performed, and pathological examination revealed embryonal carcinoma. The patient was started on a systemic chemotherapeutic (etoposide, ifosfamide and cisplatin; VIP) regimen. After the third chemotherapy session, metastases had completely disappeared, the serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit had normalized and the dermatomyositis symptoms had improved. Cancer is known to be a trigger of dermatomyositis. This case illustrates the importance of palpation of the testes in young patients with dermatomyositis. PMID:15985087

  2. Chronic fluoride exposure-induced testicular toxicity is associated with inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ruifen; Luo, Guangying; Sun, Zilong; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Jundong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated that fluoride (F) can affect testicular toxicity in humans and rodents. However, the mechanism underlying F-induced testicular toxicity is not well understood. This study was conducted to evaluate the sperm quality, testicular histomorphology and inflammatory response in mice followed F exposure. Healthy male mice were randomly divided into four groups with sodium fluoride (NaF) at 0, 25, 50, 100 mg/L in the drinking water for 180 days. At the end of the exposure, significantly increased percentage of spermatozoa abnormality was found in mice exposed to 50 and 100 mg/L NaF. Disorganized spermatogenic cells, vacuoles in seminiferous tubules and loss and shedding of sperm cells were also observed in the NaF treated group. In addition, chronic F exposure increased testicular interleukin-17(IL-17), interleukin-17 receptor C (IL-17RC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in transcriptional levels, as well as IL-17 and TNF-α levels in translational levels. Interestingly, we observed that F treated group elevated testicular inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA level and nitric oxide (NO) concentration. Taken together, these results indicated that testicular inflammatory response could contribute to chronic F exposure induced testicular toxicity in mice. PMID:27031805

  3. The Effects of α-Lipoic Acid against Testicular Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ozbal, Seda; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Erbil, Guven; Tekmen, Isıl; Bagrıyanık, Alper; Cavdar, Zahide

    2012-01-01

    Testicular torsion is one of the urologic emergencies occurring frequently in neonatal and adolescent period. Testis is sensitive to ischemia-reperfusion injury, and, therefore, ischemia and consecutive reperfusion cause an enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species that result in testicular cell damage and apoptosis. α-lipoic acid is a free radical scavenger and a biological antioxidant. It is widely used in the prevention of oxidative stress and cellular damage. We aimed to investigate the protective effect of α-lipoic acid on testicular damage in rats subjected to testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury. 35 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control, sham operated, ischemia, ischemia-reperfusion, and ischemia-reperfusion +lipoic acid groups, 2 h torsion and 2 h detorsion of the testis were performed. Testicular cell damage was examined by H-E staining. TUNEL and active caspase-3 immunostaining were used to detect germ cell apoptosis. GPx , SOD activity, and MDA levels were evaluated. Histological evaluation showed that α-lipoic acid pretreatment reduced testicular cell damage and decreased TUNEL and caspase-3-positive cells. Additionally, α-lipoic acid administration decreased the GPx and SOD activity and increased the MDA levels. The present results suggest that LA is a potentially beneficial agent in protecting testicular I/R in rats. PMID:23193380

  4. Effect of atenolol on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Biswas, N M; Sen Gupta, R; Chattopadhyay, A; Choudhury, G R; Sarkar, M

    2001-01-01

    Cadmium-induced stress adversely affects testicular activity and causes sympathetic stimulation. To investigate the effect of atenolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker, on testicular androgen synthesis after cadmium treatment, adult Sprague-Dawley strain male rats were given a single sc dose of cadmium chloride 0.45 mg/kg BW. Animals were killed on day 3 after treatment. Adrenal weight, adrenal delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (delta 5-3 beta-HSD) activity, serum corticosterone, and brain noradrenaline were increased significantly while testicular delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activities, serum testosterone, and accessory sex organs weight were decreased. Oral coadministration of atenolol at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg body weight for 3 days resulted in complete protection of adrenal delta 5-3 beta-HSD, testicular delta 5-3 beta-HSD, and 17 beta-HSD activities, adrenal weight, serum corticosterone, and serum testosterone when compared with cadmium-only group and there were no significant differences in these parameters from the vehicle control values. Simultaneous administration of cadmium and atenolol also protected brain noradrenaline content and reduced the rise of testicular cadmium concentration. All the parameters were similar to control levels in rats treated with atenolol alone. We conclude that atenolol may protect testicular androgen synthesis by inhibiting the action of noradrenaline on testicular Leydig cells and adrenocortical hyperactivity in cadmium-treated rats. PMID:11738523

  5. Individual variation related to testicular biometry and semen characteristics in collared peccaries (Tayassu Tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Castelo, T S; Silva, A M; Bezerra, J A B; Souza, A L P; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this research was to study the individual variation with regard to the morphometry of the testes evaluated by ultrasonography and semen characteristics and to verify the existence of relationship between these variables in collared peccaries. In addition, the testes of the animals were evaluated by histology in order to determine the proportion occupied by the seminiferous tubules. A total of 52 ejaculates were obtained from ten adult specimens that had been restrained by anesthesia. The testicular measurements (length, height, and width) were performed by ultrasonography, and the testicular volume was calculated according to Lambert's formula. The scrotal circumference was measured by encircling the thickest portion of the testicle with a graduated nylon tape. The semen was collected by electroejaculation. Testicular fragments were analyzed through classic histology for the determination of the area occupied by the seminiferous tubules. The results show a great amount of individual variation with regard to testicular morphometry and semen characteristics. No significant correlations were obtained between testicular measurements and semen characteristics. The histometric analysis revealed that 67.8% of the testes are occupied by seminiferous tubules. Results show that the measurement of testicular dimensions does not serve as an indicator of the quality of semen obtained by electroejaculation in collared peccaries, as there is no correlation between testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in this species that presents large variations among individuals. PMID:22964034

  6. Enzymatic digestion improves testicular sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermic patients

    PubMed Central

    Modarresi, Tahereh; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Hosseinifar, Hani; Akhlaghi, Ali Asghar; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: In patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), vital spermatozoa from the tissue is obtained from testes by enzymatic treatment besides the mechanical treatment. Objective: To increase the sperm recovery success of testicular sperm extraction (TESE), with enzymatic digestion if no sperm is obtained from testis tissue by mechanical method. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples were collected from 150 men who presented with clinical and laboratory data indicating NOA by means of TESE and micro dissection TESE methods. Initially, mature spermatozoa were examined for by mechanical extraction technique shredding the biopsy fractions. In cases whom no spermatozoa was observed after maximum 30 min of initial searching under the inverted microscope, the procedure was followed by enzymatic digestion using DNaseI and collagenase type IV. Surgery type, pathology, AZF, karyotype, hormones and testis size were compared in patients. Results: Of 150 cases with NOA, conventional mincing method extended with enzymatic treatment yielded successful sperm recovery in 13 (about 9%) patients. Comparison of parameters revealed that level of FSH and LH were significantly different (p=0.04 and 0.08 respectively) between two groups that response negative and positive to enzymatic digestion. Conclusion: The combination of conventional TESE and enzymatic digestion is an effective method to recover spermatozoa. The benefit of the mincing combined with enzyme to sperm retrieval for NOA firstly shorten the mechanical searching time, leading to minimizing further cellular damage as well as exposure to external conditions, and secondly reduce the number of cases with sperm recovery failures. Also, the serum level of FSH and LH are factors that influence the chance of sperm retrieval. PMID:24639777

  7. Reproductive effects in hybrid sparrow from a polluted area in Tunisia: Oxidative damage and altered testicular histomorphology.

    PubMed

    Amri, Nahed; Hammouda, Abdessalem; Rahmouni, Fatma; Chokri, Med Ali; Chaabane, Rim; Selmi, Slaheddine; Rebai, Tarek; Badraoui, Riadh

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is a threat for human health and wildlife. The aim of this study is to assess the pathophysiological changes and the oxidative-antioxidative status in testicular tissues of 40 Hybrid sparrows collected from four areas in Gabès city, one of the most polluted areas in Tunisia. The testis histopathological analysis revealed alterations in birds from Ghannouche, the polluted area. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were higher in testis of birds from the contaminated site compared to less polluted areas indicating oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were lower in testis sparrows from the polluted site compared with the reference site, suggesting deficiency of the antioxidant system to compensate for oxidative stress. Overall, our results suggest that the hybrid sparrow offers a suitable model for biomonitoring programs of atmosphere pollutants and the selected biomarkers could be useful tool to evaluate pollution impacts in living organisms. PMID:27039245

  8. Percutaneous Revision of a Testicular Prosthesis is Safe, Cost-effective, and Provides Good Patient Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Cone, Eugene B; Lentz, Aaron C

    2015-09-01

    Office-based percutaneous revision of a testicular prosthesis has never been reported. A patient received a testicular prosthesis but was dissatisfied with the firmness of the implant. In an office setting, the prosthesis was inflated with additional fluid via a percutaneous approach. Evaluated outcomes included patient satisfaction, prosthesis size, recovery time, and cost savings. The patient was satisfied, with no infection, leak, or complication after more than 1 year of follow-up, at significantly less cost than revision surgery. Percutaneous adjustment of testicular prosthesis fill-volume can be safe, inexpensive, and result in good patient satisfaction. PMID:26793527

  9. Seminoma in a Man with Russell-Silver Syndrome Presenting with Testicular Torsion.

    PubMed

    Funada, Satoshi; Ikeuchi, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Toru; Segawa, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) is a type of primordial dwarfism. Only one case of testicular cancer in RSS has been reported, the pathology of which was nonseminoma. Here, we report a case of seminoma in a 36-year-old man who was diagnosed with RSS at birth. The seminoma was diagnosed when the patient presented with testicular torsion. This is the first report of testicular seminoma in an RSS patient in the literature. We also discussed the correlation between seminoma and RSS. PMID:27034882

  10. Testicular infarction and rupture: an uncommon complication of epididymo-orchitis

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Daniel; Penkoff, Peter; Stanowski, Matthew; Beattie, Kieran; Wang, Audrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Epididymo-orchitis is a common diagnosis in men presenting with unilateral testicular pain. It can be of an infectious or non-infectious aetiology. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations do not reliably differentiate testicular infarction secondary to epididymo-orchitis from uncomplicated epididymo-orchitis. Definitive diagnosis is usually made by ultrasound. Misdiagnosis and under-treatment can lead to poor outcome, such as infarction and loss of the affected testis. We present an uncommon case of epididymo-orchitis resulting in testicular infarction and rupture despite normal initial investigations. PMID:27165751

  11. Seminoma in a Man with Russell-Silver Syndrome Presenting with Testicular Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Ikeuchi, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Toru; Segawa, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) is a type of primordial dwarfism. Only one case of testicular cancer in RSS has been reported, the pathology of which was nonseminoma. Here, we report a case of seminoma in a 36-year-old man who was diagnosed with RSS at birth. The seminoma was diagnosed when the patient presented with testicular torsion. This is the first report of testicular seminoma in an RSS patient in the literature. We also discussed the correlation between seminoma and RSS. PMID:27034882

  12. Geographic clustering of testicular cancer incidence in the northern part of The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Sonneveld, D J; Schaapveld, M; Sleijfer, D T; Meerman, G J; van der Graaf, W T; Sijmons, R H; Koops, H S; Hoekstra, H J

    1999-12-01

    Geographic variations in testicular cancer incidence may be caused by differences in environmental factors, genetic factors, or both. In the present study, geographic patterns of age-adjusted testicular cancer incidence rates (IRs) in 12 provinces in The Netherlands in the period 1989-1995 were analysed. In addition, the age-adjusted IR of testicular cancer by degree of urbanization was evaluated. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. The overall annual age-adjusted IR of testicular cancer in The Netherlands in the period 1989-1995 was 4.4 per 100000 men. The province Groningen in the north of the country showed the highest annual IR with 5.8 per 100000 men, which was higher (P < 0.05) than the overall IR in The Netherlands (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.6). The highest IR in Groningen was seen for both seminomas and non-seminomas. In addition, Groningen showed the highest age-specific IRs in all relevant younger age groups (15-29, 30-44 and 45-59 years), illustrating the consistency of data. The province Friesland, also situated in the northern part of the country, showed the second highest IR of testicular cancer with 5.3 cases per 100000 men per year (IRR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.5, not significant). This mainly resulted from the high IR of seminoma in Friesland. Analysis of age-adjusted IRs of testicular cancer by degree of urbanization in The Netherlands showed no urban-rural differences at analysis of all histological types combined, or at separate analyses of seminomas and non-seminomas. Geographic clustering of testicular cancer seems to be present in the rural north of The Netherlands with some stable founder populations, which are likely to share a relatively high frequency of genes from common ancestors including genes possibly related to testicular cancer. Although this finding does not exclude the involvement of shared environmental factors in the aetiology of testicular cancer, it may

  13. Evaluation of the effectiveness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination training for patient care personnel: intervention study.

    PubMed

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebiş, Hatice

    2014-12-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled intervention study. The study included 96 patient care staff divided into two groups of 48 participants each: Group I, the interactive education group, and Group II, the pamphlet education group. The results demonstrated that TSE practice and TC knowledge significantly increased in both Group I and Group II. Significant differences were observed between the groups pre and post education. TSE and TC knowledge levels were higher for participants in Group I than those in Group II. There was a significant difference in the performance of TSEs between groups: the rates were 83.3% in Group I and 54.2% in Group II. Perceived confidence and perceived barriers increased significantly for both groups. Interactive education sessions should be used to train men at risk for TC to perform TSEs. PMID:25248831

  14. Noise exposure effect on testicular histology, morphology and on male steroidogenic hormone.

    PubMed

    Swami, Chandralekha G; Ramanathan, Jeganathan; Charan Jeganath, C

    2007-07-01

    The noise stress, after it passes through the hearing apparatus, not only affects the auditory apparatus but also other body functions. The alterations in the levels of cortical hormone, adrenocorticosterone, nor-epinephrine hormone (which are primarily considered as stress hormones) on follicular stimulating hormone, testosterone, and lutinizing hormone were reported in relation with stress. Male albino rats weighing 200 to 250 grams were exposed to 100 dB of noise for one hour and three hours in acute group and daily one hour exposure for 60 day, and 90 day in chronic group. The serum testosterone levels were measured in these animals. There was significant reduction in serum testosterone levels and this was similar with earlier reports. The tissues were collected for light and confocal microscopic study. 100dB of traffic noise exposure of varying duration had definite permanent effect on testicular histology and morphology and on the male sex hormone. The adaptation mechanism was noticed at the hormonal level only but the structural changes noticed were definite and permanent. The agglutinated dead sperms revealed the possibility of infertily when chronically exposed to noise stress. PMID:23515367

  15. Noise Exposure Effect on Testicular Histology, Morphology and on Male Steroidogenic Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Chandralekha G.; Ramanathan, Jeganathan; Charan Jeganath, C

    2007-01-01

    The noise stress, after it passes through the hearing apparatus, not only affects the auditory apparatus but also other body functions. The alterations in the levels of cortical hormone, adrenocorticosterone, nor-epinephrine hormone (which are primarily considered as stress hormones) on follicular stimulating hormone, testosterone, and lutinizing hormone were reported in relation with stress. Male albino rats weighing 200 to 250 grams were exposed to 100 dB of noise for one hour and three hours in acute group and daily one hour exposure for 60 day, and 90 day in chronic group. The serum testosterone levels were measured in these animals. There was significant reduction in serum testosterone levels and this was similar with earlier reports. The tissues were collected for light and confocal microscopic study. 100dB of traffic noise exposure of varying duration had definite permanent effect on testicular histology and morphology and on the male sex hormone. The adaptation mechanism was noticed at the hormonal level only but the structural changes noticed were definite and permanent. The agglutinated dead sperms revealed the possibility of infertily when chronically exposed to noise stress. PMID:23515367

  16. Effects of thymoquinone on testicular structure and sperm production in male obese rats.

    PubMed

    Tüfek, Nur Hande; Altunkaynak, Muhammad Eyüp; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Kaplan, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is a phytochemical compound found in the plant Nigella sativa. It has antioxidant and anti-cancer effects. This study investigated the effects of TQ on obesity and testicular structure of high-fat-diet (HFD) fed rats. Obese control (OC) and obese thymoquinone (OT) groups were fed a special diet containing 40% of total calories from fat. Non-obese control (NC) and non-thymoquinone (NT) groups were fed a standard diet for nine weeks. Then, intraperitoneal TQ injections were carried out to the OT and NT groups for six weeks and testes were removed. Catalase and myeloperoxidase activity were determined in rat testis tissue. Stereological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical changes were evaluated in the testes of the rats. In stereological studies, mean volumes of testis and seminiferous tubules, the number of spermatogenic cells and also Leydig cells in the OC group were reduced, but these values significantly increased in the OT group. Apoptotic cells were observed in the OC group in comparison to the OT group. The number of healthy sperms were reduced in the OC group, whereas the majority showed anomalies in the head, neck, and tail. The number of healthy sperm was increased and the anomalies significantly reduced by using TQ in both the NT, and especially the OT group. TQ like antioxidants may improve fertility by means of increasing the healthy sperm number and preventing sperm anomalies. PMID:26043060

  17. Mobile phone radiation during pubertal development has no effect on testicular histology in rats.

    PubMed

    Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Bas, Orhan; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2016-02-01

    Mobile phones are extensively used throughout the world. There is a growing concern about the possible public health hazards posed by electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phones. Potential health risk applies particularly to the most intensive mobile phone users-typically, young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile phone exposure to the testes, by assessing the histopathological and biochemical changes in the testicular germ cells of rats during pubertal development. A total of 12 male Sprague Dawley rats were used. The study group (n = 6) was exposed to a mobile phone for 1 h a day for 45 days, while the control group (n = 6) remained unexposed. The testes were processed with routine paraffin histology and sectioned. They were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, caspase 3, and Ki-67 and then photographed. No changes were observed between the groups (p > 0.05). The interstitial connective tissue and cells of the exposed group were of normal morphology. No abnormalities in the histological appearance of the seminiferous tubules, including the spermatogenic cycle stage, were observed. Our study demonstrated that mobile phones with a low specific absorption rate have no harmful effects on pubertal rat testicles. PMID:24097363

  18. [A Case of Metastatic Seminomatous Testicular Tumor with Complicated Diagnosis by FDG-PET].

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Akihito; Mizuno, Nobuhiko; Kawai, Masaki; Kishida, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    18F-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for evaluation of the post chemotherapy residual tumor of the seminomatous testicular germ cell tumor is recommended by several guidelines. We report a case whose residual tumor was evaluated by FDG PET but the results were difficult to interpret. A 41-year-old male with left seminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis and 60 mm retroperitoneal lymph node (RPLN) metastasis was referred to our hospital. The International Germ Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC) was good prognosis. After high orchiectomy, three cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy normalized the tumor marker and the RPLN decreased to 15 mm. The standardized uptake value (SUV) max at the RPLN by FDG-PET was 2.93. Although residual viable cells were suspected, the SUV max was relatively low. Thus surveillance without additional therapy was selected. After observation for 25 weeks, the tumor grew to 25 mm. Then four cycles of paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin (TIP) chemotherapy were indicated for the recurrence. The RPLN was decreased to 15 mm, but the SUV max was still as high as 2.67 at 6 weeks after the last chemotherapy. We dissected the residual tumor suspecting viable cancer, but the pathological examination revealed necrotic tissue without any viable cells. He has had no signs of recurrence for 1 year and 9 months after the operation. PMID:27569358

  19. Identification and characterization of 2 testicular germ cell markers, Glut3 and CyclinA2.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Brooke E; Brooks, James D; Jones, Sunita; Higgins, John P T

    2013-10-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common type of testicular tumor and encompass different histologic types that greatly influence treatment and prognosis. Immunohistochemical studies may be required for accurate classification, particularly when these tumors present at extragonadal sites, and to aid in distinguishing histologic types. Traditional markers for identifying and distinguishing TGCT include PLAP, CD117, AFP, and CD30. More recently, the addition of OCT3/4 and SALL4 has increased sensitivity for immunohistochemical detection of germ cell tumors. We examined gene expression data from a previously published microarray study that compared normal testis mRNA expression to various TGCT. We also performed a search of the literature to identify less well-characterized markers. Glut3 and cyclinA2 showed promise as TGCT markers. Therefore, we evaluated expression of glut3 and cyclinA2 by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays (TMAs). Of 66 seminomas included in the TMA, 64 (97%) showed positive nuclear staining for cyclinA2 and 58 (88%) were strongly positive. Strong positive staining for cyclinA2 was also seen in the spermatocytic seminoma. All 20 of the embryonal carcinomas stained positively with cyclinA2, and 19 (95%) displayed strong nuclear staining for cyclinA2. Twenty of the 20 embryonal carcinomas stained for glut3 in a strong membranous pattern. Of 8 yolk sac tumors, 100% stained with glut3. We also evaluated glut3 and cyclinA2 staining on a general TMA containing 486 samples representing 156 different tumors. CyclinA2 stained a number of other tumor types, but the majority of these were weak or focal staining. Glut3 was rarely positive in other tumors; interestingly, most of these were of ovarian origin. We conclude that glut3 is a sensitive (96%) and specific (92%) marker for embryonal carcinomas and yolk sac tumors. Although cyclinA2 is a sensitive marker of seminomas and embryonal carcinomas (98%), its specificity is lower if

  20. Teaching Breast and Testicular Self-Exams: Evaluation of a High School Curriculum Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Stephen L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A high school curriculum project was developed to teach students about the importance of breast and testicular self-examination. Questionnaires were used to evaluate the project. Results are discussed. (DF)

  1. Testicular trauma resulting in shock and systemic inflammatory response syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Okonkwo, Kingsley C; Wong, Kristin G; Cho, Cheng T; Gilmer, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute painful scrotum in children may be associated with torsion of the testis, hematocele, epididymitis and direct testicular injury with hematoma formation. More frequently, however, acute scrotum occurs without a precipitating factor. While most traumatic testicular injuries resolve with conservative management, many require surgical exploration and some are life-threatening. Case presentation A 13-year-old boy with a history of testicular trauma presented with severe scrotal swelling and shock. This case study examines the presentation and possible role of cytokines in the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in a child with acute traumatic epididymitis. Conclusion Post-traumatic epididymitis presenting as shock in boys is rarely reported. We advocate early recognition of the chain of events leading to clinical presentation of shock and prompt treatment to preserve testicular viability. PMID:18577243

  2. Current concepts in the pathophysiology of testicular undescent.

    PubMed

    Husmann, D A; Levy, J B

    1995-08-01

    At present, we believe that descent of the testes within the human is a complex event mediated by both hormonal and mechanical factors. We hypothesize that descent of the testes occurs as a result of the secretion of an androgen-independent factor from a normal testis (descendin). This paracrine factor is responsible for the rapid proliferation (outgrowth) of the ipsilateral gubernaculum. The development of the gubernaculum results in creating a dilated inguinal canal, the width of which matches the testicular width. Descent of the testes through the inguinal canal is an interplay between abdominal pressure, a patent processus vaginalis, and androgen-induced gubernacular regression. We hypothesize that androgens (under control of an intact hypothalamic pituitary axis) alter the viscoelastic properties of the gubernaculum, reducing the turgidity of the gubernaculum and allowing intra-abdominal pressure to push the testis into the scrotum. Cryptorchidism can therefore result when any one or more of the involved factors malfunction. PMID:7625001

  3. Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, M B; Sigurdson, A J; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Graubard, B I; Korde, L; Greene, M H; McGlynn, K A

    2008-01-18

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our hypothesis, we conducted a case-case analysis of seminomas and nonseminomas using the alkaline comet assay to quantify single-strand DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites. The Familial Testicular Cancer study and the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort provided 112 TGCT cases (51 seminomas & 61 nonseminomas). A lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured for each patient and the alkaline comet assay was used to determine four parameters: tail DNA, tail length, comet distributed moment (CDM) and Olive tail moment (OTM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Values for tail length, tail DNA, CDM and OTM were modeled as categorical variables using the 50th and 75th percentiles of the seminoma group. Tail DNA was significantly associated with nonseminoma compared to seminoma (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.00, 10.98; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 3.71, 95%CI: 1.04, 13.20; p for trend=0.039). OTM exhibited similar, albeit statistically non-significant, risk estimates (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.75, 6.87; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 2.40, 95%CI: 0.75, 7.71; p for trend=0.12) whereas tail length and CDM showed no association. In conclusion, the results for tail DNA and OTM indicate that endogenous DNA damage levels are higher in patients who develop nonseminoma compared with seminoma. This may partly explain the more aggressive biology and younger age-of-onset of this histologic subgroup compared with the relatively less aggressive, later-onset seminoma.

  4. Polygenic susceptibility to testicular cancer: implications for personalised health care

    PubMed Central

    Litchfield, Kevin; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Shipley, Janet; Huddart, Robert; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Houlston, Richard S; Turnbull, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Background: The increasing incidence of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) combined with its strong heritable basis suggests that stratified screening for the early detection of TGCT may be clinically useful. We modelled the efficiency of such a personalised screening approach, based on genetic risk profiling in combination with other diagnostic tools. Methods: We compared the number of cases potentially detectable in the population under a number of screening models. The polygenic risk scoring (PRS) model was assumed to have a log-normal relative risk distribution across the 19 currently known TGCT susceptibility variants. The diagnostic performance of testicular biopsy and non-invasive semen analysis was also assessed, within a simulated combined screening programme. Results: The area under the curve for the TGCT PRS model was 0.72 with individuals in the top 1% of the PRS having a nine-fold increased TGCT risk compared with the population median. Results from population-screening simulations only achieved a maximal positive predictive value (PPV) of 60%, highlighting broader clinical factors that challenge such strategies, not least the rare nature of TGCT. In terms of future improvements, heritability estimates suggest that a significant number of additional genetic risk factors for TGCT remain to be discovered, identification of which would potentially yield improvement of the PPV to 80–90%. Conclusions: While personalised screening models may offer enhanced TGCT risk discrimination, presently the case for population-level testing is not compelling. However, future advances, such as more routine generation of whole genome data is likely to alter the landscape. More targeted screening programs may plausibly then offer clinical benefit, particularly given the significant survivorship issues associated with the successful treatment of TGCT. PMID:26461055

  5. Development of interspecies testicular germ-cell transplantation in flatfish.

    PubMed

    Pacchiarini, Tiziana; Sarasquete, Carmen; Cabrita, Elsa

    2014-06-01

    Interspecific testicular germ cell (TGC) transplantation was investigated in two commercial flatfish species. Testes from donor species (Senegalese sole) were evaluated using classical histological techniques (haematoxylin-eosin staining and haematoxylin-light green-orange G-acid fuchsine staining), in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical analysis. Both Ssvasa1-2 mRNAs and SsVasa protein allowed the characterisation of TGCs, confirming the usefulness of the vasa gene in the detection of Senegalese sole TGCs. Xenogenic transplants were carried out using TGCs from one-year-old Senegalese sole into turbot larvae. Propidium iodide-SYBR-14 and 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining showed that 87.98% of the extracted testicular cells were viable for microinjection and that 15.63% of the total recovered cells were spermatogonia. The vasa gene was characterised in turbot recipients using cDNA cloning. Smvasa mRNA was confirmed as a germ cell-specific molecular marker in this species. Smvasa expression analysis during turbot ontogeny was carried out before Senegalese sole TGC transplants into turbot larvae. Turbot larvae at 18 days after hatching (DAH) proved to be susceptible to manipulation procedures. High survival rates (83.75±15.90-100%) were obtained for turbot larvae at 27, 34 and 42 DAH. These data highlight the huge potential of this species for transplantation studies. Quantitative PCR was employed to detect Senegalese sole vasa mRNAs (Ssvasa1-2) in the recipient turbot larvae. The Ssvasa mRNAs showed a significant increase in relative expression in 42-DAH microinjected larvae three weeks after treatment, showing the proliferation of Senegalese sole spermatogonia in transplanted turbot larvae. PMID:23735683

  6. Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hillelsohn, Joel H.; Duty, Brian D.; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Kavoussi, Louis R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (L-RPLND) was introduced over 20 years ago as a less invasive alternative to open node dissection. In this review we summarise the indications, surgical technique and outcomes of L-RPLND in the treatment of testicular cancer. Methods We searched MEDLINE using the terms ‘laparoscopy’, ‘laparoscopic’, ‘retroperitoneal lymph node dissection’, ‘RPLND’ and ‘testicular neoplasms’. Articles were selected on the basis of their relevance, study design and content, with an emphasis on more recent data. Results We found 14 pertinent studies, which included >1300 patients who received either L-RPLND (515) or open RPLND (788). L-RPLND was associated with longer mean operative times (204 vs. 186 min), but shorter hospital stays (3.3 vs. 6.6 days) and lower complication rates (15.6% vs. 33%). Oncological outcomes were similar between L-RPLND and open RPLND, with local relapse rates of 1.3% and 1.4%, incidence of distal progression of 3.3% and 6.1%, biochemical failure in 0.9% and 1.1% and cure rates of 100% and 99.6%, respectively. Conclusion There are no randomised controlled studies comparing L-RPLND with open RPLND. A review of case and comparative series showed similar perioperative and oncological outcomes. Patients undergoing L-RPLND on average have shorter hospital stays, a quicker return to normal activity and improved cosmesis. PMID:26558006

  7. Impact of Bep or Carboplatin Chemotherapy on Testicular Function and Sperm Nucleus of Subjects with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Marco; Berretta, Massimiliano; Bottacin, Alberto; Palego, Pierfrancesco; Sartini, Barbara; Cosci, Ilaria; Finos, Livio; Selice, Riccardo; Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Young males have testicular germ cells tumors (TGCT) as the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing in several countries. Besides unilateral orchiectomy (UO), the treatment of TGCT may include surveillance, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy (CT), basing on tumor histology and stage of disease. It is well known that both radio and CT may have negative effects on testicular function, affecting spermatogenesis, and sex hormones. Many reports investigated these aspects in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), after UO. In contrast no data are available on the side effects of carboplatin treatment in these patients. We included in this study 212 consecutive subjects who undergone to sperm banking at our Andrology and Human Reproduction Unit after UO for TGCT. Hundred subjects were further treated with one or more BEP cycles (BEP-group), 54 with carboplatin (CARB group), and 58 were just surveilled (S-group). All patients were evaluated for seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidy, sperm DNA, sex hormones, volume of the residual testis at baseline (T0) and after 12 (T1) and 24 months (T2) from UO or end of CT. Seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidies, DNA status, gonadic hormones, and testicular volume at baseline were not different between groups. At T1, we observed a significant reduction of sperm concentration and sperm count in the BEP group versus baseline and versus both Carb and S-group. A significant increase of sperm aneuploidies was present at T1 in the BEP group. Similarly, the same group at 1 had altered sperm DNA integrity and fragmentation compared with baseline, S-group and Carb group. These alterations were persistent after 2 years from the end of BEP treatment. Despite a slight improvement at T2, the BEP group had still higher percentages of sperm aneuploidies than other groups. No impairment of sperm aneuploidies and DNA status were observed in the Carb group both after 1 and 2 years from the end of treatment. Despite

  8. Impact of Bep or Carboplatin Chemotherapy on Testicular Function and Sperm Nucleus of Subjects with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, Marco; Berretta, Massimiliano; Bottacin, Alberto; Palego, Pierfrancesco; Sartini, Barbara; Cosci, Ilaria; Finos, Livio; Selice, Riccardo; Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Young males have testicular germ cells tumors (TGCT) as the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing in several countries. Besides unilateral orchiectomy (UO), the treatment of TGCT may include surveillance, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy (CT), basing on tumor histology and stage of disease. It is well known that both radio and CT may have negative effects on testicular function, affecting spermatogenesis, and sex hormones. Many reports investigated these aspects in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), after UO. In contrast no data are available on the side effects of carboplatin treatment in these patients. We included in this study 212 consecutive subjects who undergone to sperm banking at our Andrology and Human Reproduction Unit after UO for TGCT. Hundred subjects were further treated with one or more BEP cycles (BEP-group), 54 with carboplatin (CARB group), and 58 were just surveilled (S-group). All patients were evaluated for seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidy, sperm DNA, sex hormones, volume of the residual testis at baseline (T0) and after 12 (T1) and 24 months (T2) from UO or end of CT. Seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidies, DNA status, gonadic hormones, and testicular volume at baseline were not different between groups. At T1, we observed a significant reduction of sperm concentration and sperm count in the BEP group versus baseline and versus both Carb and S-group. A significant increase of sperm aneuploidies was present at T1 in the BEP group. Similarly, the same group at 1 had altered sperm DNA integrity and fragmentation compared with baseline, S-group and Carb group. These alterations were persistent after 2 years from the end of BEP treatment. Despite a slight improvement at T2, the BEP group had still higher percentages of sperm aneuploidies than other groups. No impairment of sperm aneuploidies and DNA status were observed in the Carb group both after 1 and 2 years from the end of treatment. Despite

  9. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors in dispersed rat testicular interstitial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Poyet, P.; Labrie, F.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate steroidogenesis and cyclic AMP formation in mouse Leydig cells in culture. To obtain information about the possible presence and the characteristics of a beta-adrenergic receptor in rat testicular interstitial cells, the potent beta-adrenergic antagonist (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol (CYP) was used as ligand. Interstitial cells prepared by collagenase dispersion from rat testis were incubated with the ligand for 2 h at room temperature. (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol binds to a single class of high affinity sites at an apparent KD value of 15 pM. A number of sites of 6,600 sites/cell is measured when 0.1 microM (-) propranolol is used to determine non-specific binding. The order of potency of a series of agonists competing for (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol binding is consistent with the interaction of a beta 2-subtype receptor: zinterol greater than (-) isoproterenol greater than (-) epinephrine = salbutamol much greater than (-) norepinephrine. In addition, it was observed that the potency of a large series of specific beta 1 and beta 2 synthetic compounds for displacing (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol in rat interstitial cells is similar to the potency observed for these compounds in a typical beta 2-adrenergic tissue, the rat lung. For example, the potency of zinterol, a specific beta 2-adrenergic agonist, is 10 times higher in interstitial cells and lung than in rat heart, a typical beta 1-adrenergic tissue. Inversely, practolol, a typical beta 1-antagonist, is about 50 times more potent in rat heart than in interstitial cells and lung.

  10. Unusually Aggressive Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Post Therapy Extensive Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shalini; Mohapatra, Ishani; Gajendra, Smeeta; Gupta, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma (PTL) is a rare intermediate to high grade tumour, diffuse large cell being the most common type. Unlike nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), testicular DLBCL has a less aggressive course and better prognosis. Metastasis is uncommon in testicular DLBCL. Commonly involved sites are contralateral testes, Waldeyer’s ring, skin, lung, Central Nervous System (CNS) and prostate, however the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, pleura and bones are more rarely involved. We report a case of testicular DLBCL which has metastasized to skin and bone marrow with an aggressive clinical course in a year, in-spite of combined modality of therapy given to the patient. Bone marrow infiltration is common and well documented with nodal DLBCL, however there is no published literature for simultaneous bone marrow and skin infiltration in testicular DLBCL till date. Other large studies done in the west have shown that distinct metastasis is usually common but the median progression-free survival is usually in years. This case stresses on shorter period of progression after standard treatment protocol in this part of the world, thus highlighting the need for other extensive studies to define specific treatment protocol for testicular DLBCL.

  11. Influence of Altered Mass Loading on Testosterone Levels and Testicular Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Tommy J.; Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Effects of altered load on testosterone levels and testicular mass in mammals are not well defined. Two separate studies (loading;centrifuged; +2G(sub z) and unloading;hindlimb suspension;HLS) were conducted to provide a better understanding of the effects of mass loading on testosterone levels and testicular mass. Daily urine samples were collected, and testicular mass measured at the end of the study. +2G(sub z): Sprague-Dawley rats (230-250 g) were centrifuged for 12 days at +2G(sub z): 8 centrifuged (EC) and 8 off centrifuge controls (OCC). EC had lower body mass, however relative testicular mass was greater. EC exhibited an increase in excreted testosterone levels between days 2 (T2) and 6 (T6), and returned to baseline at T9. HLS: To assess the effects of unloading Sprague-Dawley rats (125-150 g) were studied for 12 days: 10 suspended (Exp) and 10 ambulatory (Ctl). Exp had lower body mass during the study, with reduced absolute and relative testicular mass. Exp demonstrated lower excreted testosterone levels from T5-T12. Conclusions: Loading appears to stimulate anabolism, as opposed to unloading, as indicated by greater relative testicular mass and excreted testosterone levels. Reported changes in muscle mass during loading and unloading coincide with similar changes in excreted testosterone levels.

  12. Testicular fine-needle aspiration for the assessment of intratesticular hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ada P; Roth, Mara Y; Nya-Ngatchou, Jean-Jacques; Lin, Kat; Walsh, Thomas J; Page, Stephanie T; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Bremner, William J; Amory, John K; Anawalt, Bradley D

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of intratesticular sex steroid concentrations in men informs both the development of male hormonal contraceptives and the understanding of male infertility. Given the challenges of using invasive techniques to measure testicular hormone physiology, our group has used a minimally-invasive fine-needle aspiration technique to measure intratesticular hormones in normal healthy men. Herein, we present a post-hoc analysis of the safety and efficacy of testicular fine-needle aspiration (FNA) completed as part of six clinical trials. From 2001 through 2011, a total of 404 procedures were conducted among 163 research volunteers, 85.9% of which were successful in obtaining sufficient fluid for the measurement of intratesticular steroid concentrations. Pain was the most common side effect, with 36.8% of procedures associated with moderate procedural pain and 4.7% with severe procedural pain. Postprocedural pain was uncommon and abated within a few days. Mild local bruising occurred with 14.9% of procedures. Two serious adverse events (0.5%) required surgical intervention. The risk of an adverse event was not associated with age, body mass index, testicular size, or the volume of fluid aspirated. Testicular FNA to obtain fluid for measurement of intratesticular steroid concentrations frequently causes mild to moderate procedural pain, but serious adverse events occur rarely. Testicular FNA has been instrumental for defining human intratesticular hormone physiology and is a minimally-invasive, safe, effective method for obtaining fluid for research on testicular physiology and pathology. PMID:26208394

  13. Changes of testicular phosphorylated proteins in response to restraint stress in male rats*

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Supatcharee; Burawat, Jaturon; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Sampannang, Apichakan; Uabundit, Nongnut; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate male reproductive parameters via changes of potential testicular protein markers in restraint-stress rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups (non-immobilized control and restraint-immobilized/stress groups, n=8 each group). The stress animals were immobilized (12 h/d) by a restraint cage for 7 consecutive days. All reproductive parameters, morphology and histology were observed and compared between groups. In addition, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and phosphotyrosine proteins (previously localized in Sertoli and late spermatid cells) in testicular lysate was assayed by immuno-Western blotting. Results: Testosterone level, sperm concentration and sperm head normality of stress rats were significantly decreased while the corticosterone level was increased as compared with the control (P<0.05). Histologically, stress rats showed low sperm mass in epididymal lumen and some atrophy of seminiferous tubules. Although the expression of testicular StAR protein was not significantly different between groups, changed patterns of the 131, 95, and 75 kDa testicular phosphorylated proteins were observed in the stress group compared with the control group. The intensity of a testicular 95-kDa phosphorylated protein was significantly decreased in stress rats. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the alteration of testicular phosphorylated protein patterns, associated with adverse male reproductive parameters in stress rats. It could be an explanation of some infertility in stress males. PMID:26739523

  14. Testicular fine-needle aspiration for the assessment of intratesticular hormone concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ada P; Roth, Mara Y; Nya-Ngatchou, Jean-Jacques; Lin, Kat; Walsh, Thomas J; Page, Stephanie T; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Bremner, William J; Amory, John K; Anawalt, Bradley D

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of intratesticular sex steroid concentrations in men informs both the development of male hormonal contraceptives and the understanding of male infertility. Given the challenges of using invasive techniques to measure testicular hormone physiology, our group has used a minimally-invasive fine-needle aspiration technique to measure intratesticular hormones in normal healthy men. Herein, we present a post-hoc analysis of the safety and efficacy of testicular fine-needle aspiration (FNA) completed as part of six clinical trials. From 2001 through 2011, a total of 404 procedures were conducted among 163 research volunteers, 85.9% of which were successful in obtaining sufficient fluid for the measurement of intratesticular steroid concentrations. Pain was the most common side effect, with 36.8% of procedures associated with moderate procedural pain and 4.7% with severe procedural pain. Postprocedural pain was uncommon and abated within a few days. Mild local bruising occurred with 14.9% of procedures. Two serious adverse events (0.5%) required surgical intervention. The risk of an adverse event was not associated with age, body mass index, testicular size, or the volume of fluid aspirated. Testicular FNA to obtain fluid for measurement of intratesticular steroid concentrations frequently causes mild to moderate procedural pain, but serious adverse events occur rarely. Testicular FNA has been instrumental for defining human intratesticular hormone physiology and is a minimally-invasive, safe, effective method for obtaining fluid for research on testicular physiology and pathology. PMID:26208394

  15. Protective effect of diallyl disulfide on cyclophosphamide-induced testicular toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, In-Chul; Baek, Hyung-Seon; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced testicular toxicity in male rats. DADS was gavaged to rats once daily for 3 days at 100 mg/kg/day. One hour after the final DADS treatment, the rats were given a single intraperitoneal dose of 150 mg/kg CP. All rats were killed and necropsied on day 56 after CP treatment. Parameters of testicular toxicity included reproductive organ weight, testicular sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility and morphology, epididymal index, and histopathologic examinations. The CP treatment caused a decrease in body weight, testicular sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility, and epididymal index. The histopathological examination revealed various morphological alterations, characterized by degeneration of spermatogonia/spermatocytes, vacuolization, and decreased number of spermatids/spermatocytes in the testis, and cell debris and mild oligospermia in the ductus epididymis. In contrast, DADS pretreatment effectively attenuated the testicular toxicity caused by CP, including decreased sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility, and epididymal index and increased histopathological alterations in the testis and epididymis. These results indicate that DADS attenuates testicular toxicity induced by CP in rats. PMID:24396385

  16. Consequences of a low litter birth weight phenotype for postnatal lean growth performance and neonatal testicular morphology in the pig.

    PubMed

    Smit, M N; Spencer, J D; Almeida, F R C L; Patterson, J L; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Dyck, M K; Foxcroft, G R

    2013-10-01

    The consequences of a low litter average birth weight phenotype for postnatal growth performance and carcass quality of all progeny, and testicular development in male offspring, were investigated. Using data from 25 sows with one, and 223 sows with two consecutive farrowing events, individual birth weight (BW) was measured and each litter between 9 and 16 total pigs born was classified as low (LBW), medium (MBW) or high (HBW) birth weight: low and high BW being defined as >1 standard deviation below or above, respectively, the population mean for each litter size. Litter average BW was repeatable within sows. At castration, testicular tissue was collected from 40 male pigs in LBW and HBW litters with individual BW close to their litter average BW and used for histomorphometric analysis. LBW piglets had a lower absolute number of germ cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells in their testes and a higher brain : testis weight ratio than HBW piglets. Overall, LBW litters had lower placental weight and higher brain : liver, brain : intestine and brain : Semitendinosus muscle weight ratios than MBW and HBW litters. In the nursery and grow-finish (GF) phase, pigs were kept in pens by BW classification (9 HBW, 17 MBW and 10 LBW pens) with 13 males and 13 females per pen. Average daily gain tended to be lower in LBW than HBW litters in lactation (P = 0.06) and throughout the nursery and GF phases (P < 0.01), resulting in an increasing difference in body weight between LBW, MBW and HBW litters (P < 0.05). Average daily feed intake was lower (P < 0.001) in LBW than HBW litters in the nursery and GF phases. Feed utilization efficiency (feed/gain) was similar for LBW and HBW litters in the nursery, but was lower (P < 0.001) in HBW than LBW litters in the GF phase. By design, slaughter weight was similar between BW classifications; however, LBW litters needed 9 more days to reach the same slaughter weight than HBW litters (P < 0.001). BW classification did not affect carcass

  17. Protective role of Diospyros lotus on cisplatin-induced changes in sperm characteristics, testicular damage and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Saral, S; Ozcelik, E; Cetin, A; Saral, O; Basak, N; Aydın, M; Ciftci, O

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Diospyros lotus (DL) on cisplatin (CP)-induced testicular damage in male rats. Twenty-eight male rats were randomly divided into four groups: group 1 - control, given isotonic saline solution; group 2 - CP 7 mg kg(-1) given intraperitoneally as single dose; group 3 - DL 1000 mg kg(-1) per day given orally for 10 days; group 4 - CP and DL given together at the same doses. CP caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels in rats testis tissues compared to the control group. CP caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation in testis tissues compared to the control group, whereas DL led to a significant increase in SOD and GSH levels. However, there were no statistically significant changes in GPx and CAT levels. In addition, serum testosterone levels, sperm concentration and sperm motility were significantly decreased, but abnormal sperm rate and histological changes were increased with CP. However, these effects of CP on sperm parameters, histological changes and the tissue weights were eliminated by DL treatment. In conclusion, our study showed that the reproductive toxicity caused by CP may be prevented by DL treatment. PMID:26173854

  18. Testicular Metabolic Reprogramming in Neonatal Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Impairs Glycolytic Flux and Promotes Glycogen Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rato, L.; Alves, M. G.; Dias, T. R.; Cavaco, J. E.; Oliveira, Pedro F.

    2015-01-01

    Defects in testicular metabolism are directly implicated with male infertility, but most of the mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes- (T2DM) induced male infertility remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of T2DM on testicular glucose metabolism by using a neonatal-streptozotocin- (n-STZ) T2DM animal model. Plasma and testicular hormonal levels were evaluated using specific kits. mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Testicular metabolic profile was assessed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. T2DM rats showed increased glycemic levels, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Both testicular and serum testosterone levels were decreased, whereas those of 17β-estradiol were not altered. Testicular glycolytic flux was not favored in testicles of T2DM rats, since, despite the increased expression of both glucose transporters 1 and 3 and the enzyme phosphofructokinase 1, lactate dehydrogenase activity was severely decreased contributing to lower testicular lactate content. However, T2DM enhanced testicular glycogen accumulation, by modulating the availability of the precursors for its synthesis. T2DM also affected the reproductive sperm parameters. Taken together these results indicate that T2DM is able to reprogram testicular metabolism by enhancing alternative metabolic pathways, particularly glycogen synthesis, and such alterations are associated with impaired sperm parameters. PMID:26064993

  19. Testicular Metabolic Reprogramming in Neonatal Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Impairs Glycolytic Flux and Promotes Glycogen Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rato, L; Alves, M G; Dias, T R; Cavaco, J E; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2015-01-01

    Defects in testicular metabolism are directly implicated with male infertility, but most of the mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes- (T2DM) induced male infertility remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of T2DM on testicular glucose metabolism by using a neonatal-streptozotocin- (n-STZ) T2DM animal model. Plasma and testicular hormonal levels were evaluated using specific kits. mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Testicular metabolic profile was assessed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. T2DM rats showed increased glycemic levels, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Both testicular and serum testosterone levels were decreased, whereas those of 17β-estradiol were not altered. Testicular glycolytic flux was not favored in testicles of T2DM rats, since, despite the increased expression of both glucose transporters 1 and 3 and the enzyme phosphofructokinase 1, lactate dehydrogenase activity was severely decreased contributing to lower testicular lactate content. However, T2DM enhanced testicular glycogen accumulation, by modulating the availability of the precursors for its synthesis. T2DM also affected the reproductive sperm parameters. Taken together these results indicate that T2DM is able to reprogram testicular metabolism by enhancing alternative metabolic pathways, particularly glycogen synthesis, and such alterations are associated with impaired sperm parameters. PMID:26064993

  20. The evolutionary ecology of testicular function: size isn't everything.

    PubMed

    Ramm, Steven A; Schärer, Lukas

    2014-11-01

    Larger testes are considered the quintessential adaptation to sperm competition. However, the strong focus on testis size in evolutionary research risks ignoring other potentially adaptive features of testicular function, many of which will also be shaped by post-mating sexual selection. Here we advocate a more integrated research programme that simultaneously takes into account the developmental machinery of spermatogenesis and the various selection pressures that act on this machinery and its products. The testis is a complex organ, and so we begin by outlining how we can think about the evolution of testicular function both in terms of the composition and spatial organisation of the testis ('testicular histology'), as well as in terms of the logical organisation of cell division during spermatogenesis ('testicular architecture'). We then apply these concepts to ask which aspects of testicular function we can expect to be shaped by post-mating sexual selection. We first assess the impact of selection on those traits most strongly associated with sperm competition, namely the number and kind of sperm produced. A broad range of studies now support our contention that post-mating sexual selection affects many aspects of testicular function besides gross testis size, for example, to maximise spermatogenic efficiency or to enable the production of particular sperm morphologies. We then broaden our focus to ask how testicular function is affected by fluctuation in sperm demand. Such fluctuation can occur over an individual's lifetime (for example due to seasonality in reproduction) and may select for particular types of testicular histology and architecture depending on the particular reproductive ecology of the species in question. Fluctuation in sperm demand also occurs over evolutionary time, due to shifts in the mating system, and this may have various consequences for testicular function, for example on rates of proliferation-induced mutation and for dealing with

  1. Recurrent neomorphic mutations of MTOR in central nervous system and testicular germ cell tumors may be targeted for therapy.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Koichi; Fukushima, Shintaro; Totoki, Yasushi; Matsushita, Yuko; Otsuka, Ayaka; Tomiyama, Arata; Niwa, Tohru; Takami, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Taishi; Suzuki, Tomonari; Fukuoka, Kohei; Yanagisawa, Takaaki; Mishima, Kazuhiko; Nakazato, Yoichi; Hosoda, Fumie; Narita, Yoshitaka; Shibui, Soichiro; Yoshida, Akihiko; Mukasa, Akitake; Saito, Nobuhito; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Kanamori, Masayuki; Tominaga, Teiji; Kobayashi, Keiichi; Shimizu, Saki; Nagane, Motoo; Iuchi, Toshihiko; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Yoshimoto, Koji; Tamura, Kaoru; Maehara, Taketoshi; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Sakai, Keiichi; Kanemura, Yonehiro; Nonaka, Masahiro; Asai, Akio; Yokogami, Kiyotaka; Takeshima, Hideo; Kawahara, Nobutaka; Takayama, Tatsuya; Yao, Masahiro; Kato, Mamoru; Nakamura, Hiromi; Hama, Natsuko; Sakai, Ryuichi; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Matsutani, Masao; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Nishikawa, Ryo

    2016-06-01

    Germ cell tumors constitute a heterogeneous group that displays a broad spectrum of morphology. They often arise in testes; however, extragonadal occurrence, in particular brain, is not uncommon, and whether they share a common pathogenesis is unknown. We performed whole exome sequencing in 41 pairs of central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNS GCTs) of various histology and their matched normal tissues. We then performed targeted sequencing of 41 selected genes in a total of 124 CNS GCTs, 65 testicular germ cell tumors (tGCTs) and 8 metastatic GCTs to the CNS. The results showed that mutually exclusive mutations of genes involved in the MAPK pathway were most common (48.4 %), typically in KIT (27.4 %), followed by those in the PI3K pathway (12.9 %), particularly in MTOR (6.5 %), among the 124 CNS GCTs. Pure germinomas and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), as well as CNS and testicular GCTs, showed similar mutational profiles, suggesting that GCTs share a common molecular pathogenesis. Mutated MTOR identified in CNS GCTs upregulated phosphorylation of the AKT pathway proteins including AKT and 4EBP1 in nutrient-deprived conditions and enhanced soft-agar colony formation; both events were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by addition of the MTOR inhibitor pp242. Our findings indicate that the dominant genetic drivers of GCTs regardless of the site of origin are activation of the MAPK and/or PI3K pathways by somatic point mutations. Mutated MTOR represents a potential target for novel targeted therapies for refractory GCTs. PMID:26956871

  2. Cynomolgus monkey testicular cDNAs for discovery of novel human genes in the human genome sequence

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Naoki; Hida, Munetomo; Kusuda, Jun; Tanuma, Reiko; Hirata, Makoto; Suto, Yumiko; Hirai, Momoki; Terao, Keiji; Sugano, Sumio; Hashimoto, Katsuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Background In order to contribute to the establishment of a complete map of transcribed regions of the human genome, we constructed a testicular cDNA library for the cynomolgus monkey, and attempted to find novel transcripts for identification of their human homologues. Result The full-insert sequences of 512 cDNA clones were determined. Ultimately we found 302 non-redundant cDNAs carrying open reading frames of 300 bp-length or longer. Among them, 89 cDNAs were found not to be annotated previously in the Ensembl human database. After searching against the Ensembl mouse database, we also found 69 putative coding sequences have no homologous cDNAs in the annotated human and mouse genome sequences in Ensembl. We subsequently designed a DNA microarray including 396 non-redundant cDNAs (with and without open reading frames) to examine the expression of the full-sequenced genes. With the testicular probe and a mixture of probes of 10 other tissues, 316 of 332 effective spots showed intense hybridized signals and 75 cDNAs were shown to be expressed very highly in the cynomolgus monkey testis, but not ubiquitously. Conclusions In this report, we determined 302 full-insert sequences of cynomolgus monkey cDNAs with enough length of open reading frames to discover novel transcripts as human homologues. Among 302 cDNA sequences, human homologues of 89 cDNAs have not been predicted in the annotated human genome sequence in the Ensembl. Additionally, we identified 75 dominantly expressed genes in testis among the full-sequenced clones by using a DNA microarray. Our cDNA clones and analytical results will be valuable resources for future functional genomic studies. PMID:12498619

  3. Spontaneous regression of testicular germ cell tumors: an analysis of 42 cases.

    PubMed

    Balzer, Bonnie L; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2006-07-01

    Spontaneous regression of testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) is a well-recognized phenomenon but has been incompletely characterized. Many pathologists are not familiar with the findings that support a diagnosis of a "burnt-out" primary in a patient with metastatic GCT. We therefore report the clinical, gross, and histologic findings in 42 cases of testicular GCT that showed either complete (26) or greater than 50% scarring (16). Thirty-seven patients (88%) had either known GCT metastasis or some residual testicular GCT, and none had treatment before orchiectomy. The patients were 17 to 67 years old, with a median of 32. Thirty presented with symptoms of metastasis, 7 with a testicular mass, 2 with elevated human chronic gonadotropin, and 1 with testicular pain. In 2 patients the presentation was unknown. Two patients had prior orchiopexy; another had an intraabdominal testis, and 2 others had prior contralateral seminoma (20 and 42 years previously). Gross descriptions in 37 cases identified white to tan scars, 0.6 to 2.4 cm, in 33. These were circumscribed in 16, with 15 of these having nodular or multinodular configurations and 1 a band-like appearance. In 9 cases the scar was ill defined or stellate, and in 8 cases no further details concerning the scar configuration were available. In 4 cases no scar was apparent; 2 of these had received intraoperative biopsy. Microscopically, all cases showed circumscribed to irregular foci of scarring, distinct from the adjacent parenchyma, in association with widespread testicular atrophy. Other common features were lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the scars (37/42) and "ghost" tubules in scars (31/42). Less common features in the scars included angiomatous foci (22/42), siderophages (15/42), and coarse intratubular calcifications (6/42); in the surrounding testis they included intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified (IGCNU) (22/42), Leydig cell prominence (18/42), and necrosis (5/42). Tubular microliths occurred in

  4. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on heat stress-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor density in developing Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    Türk, Gaffari; Şimşek, Ülkü G; Çeribaşı, Ali O; Çeribaşı, Songül; Özer Kaya, Şeyma; Güvenç, Mehmet; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamon bark oil (CBO) on heat stress (HS)-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) density in developing Japanese quails. Fifteen-day-old 90 male chicks were assigned to two main groups. The first group (45 chicks) was kept in a thermoneutral room at 22 °C for 24 h/day. The second group (45 chicks) was kept in a room with high ambient temperature at 34 °C for 8 h/day (from 9 AM-5 PM) and at 22 °C for 16 h/day. Each of these two main groups was then divided into three subgroups (CBO groups 0, 250, 500 ppm) consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2 × 3 factorial order). Each of subgroups was replicated for three times and each replicate included five chicks. Heat stress caused significant decreases in body weight, spermatid and testicular sperm numbers, the density of testicular Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic marker) and AR immunopositivity, and significant increases in testicular lipid peroxidation level, the density of testicular Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositivity, and a Bax/Bcl-2 ratio along with some histopathologic damages. However, 250 and 500 ppm CBO supplementation provided significant improvements in HS-induced increased level of testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased number of spermatid and testicular sperm, decreased densities of Bcl-2 and AR immunopositivity, and some deteriorated testicular histopathologic lesions. In addition, although HS did not significantly affect the testicular glutathione level, addition of both 250 and 500 ppm CBO to diet of quails reared in both HS and thermoneutral conditions caused a significant increase when compared with quails without any consumption of CBO. In conclusion, HS-induced lipid peroxidation causes testicular damage in developing male Japanese quails and, consumption of CBO, which has antiperoxidative effect, protects their testes against HS. PMID:25913274

  5. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Kashlan, Akram M.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Hassan, Wafaa A.; Rizk, Sherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg-1), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300μg kg-1; i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg-1; i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones. PMID:26425844

  6. HMGA2 expression distinguishes between different types of postpubertal testicular germ cell tumour.

    PubMed

    Kloth, Lars; Gottlieb, Andrea; Helmke, Burkhard; Wosniok, Werner; Löning, Thomas; Burchardt, Käte; Belge, Gazanfer; Günther, Kathrin; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2015-10-01

    The group of postpubertal testicular germ cell tumours encompasses lesions with highly diverse differentiation - seminomas, embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumours, teratomas and choriocarcinomas. Heterogeneous differentiation is often present within individual tumours and the correct identification of the components is of clinical relevance. HMGA2 re-expression has been reported in many tumours, including testicular germ cell tumours. This is the first study investigating HMGA2 expression in a representative group of testicular germ cell tumours with the highly sensitive method of quantitative real-time PCR as well as with immunohistochemistry. The expression of HMGA2 and HPRT was measured using quantitative real-time PCR in 59 postpubertal testicular germ cell tumours. Thirty specimens contained only one type of tumour and 29 were mixed neoplasms. With the exception of choriocarcinomas, at least two pure specimens from each subgroup of testicular germ cell tumour were included. In order to validate the quantitative real-time PCR data and gather information about the localisation of the protein, additional immunohistochemical analysis with an antibody specific for HMGA2 was performed in 23 cases. Expression of HMGA2 in testicular germ cell tumours depended on the histological differentiation. Seminomas and embryonal carcinomas showed no or very little expression, whereas yolk sac tumours strongly expressed HMGA2 at the transcriptome as well as the protein level. In teratomas, the expression varied and in choriocarcinomas the expression was moderate. In part, these results contradict data from previous studies but HMGA2 seems to represent a novel marker to assist pathological subtyping of testicular germ cell tumours. The results indicate a critical role in yolk sac tumours and some forms of teratoma. PMID:27499908

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    El-Kashlan, Akram M; Nooh, Mohammed M; Hassan, Wafaa A; Rizk, Sherine M

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg(-1)), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1); i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg(-1); i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones. PMID:26425844

  8. Testicular Doses in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jun; Chen Zhe; Yu, James B.; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Peschel, Richard E.; Nath, Ravinder

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate testicular doses contributed by kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: An EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate three-dimensional dose distributions from kVCBCT on 3 prostate cancer patients. Absorbed doses to various organs were compared between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments and kVCBCT scans. The impact of CBCT scanning mode, kilovoltage peak energy (kVp), and CBCT field span on dose deposition to testes and other organs was investigated. Results: In comparison with one 10-MV IMRT treatment, a 125-kV half-fan CBCT scan delivered 3.4, 3.8, 4.1, and 5.7 cGy to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads, respectively, accounting for 1.7%, 3.2%, 3.2%, and 8.4% of megavoltage photon dose contributions. However, the testes received 2.9 cGy from the same CBCT scan, a threefold increase as compared with 0.7 cGy received during IMRT. With the same kVp, full-fan mode deposited much less dose to organs than half-fan mode, ranging from 9% less for prostate to 69% less for testes, except for rectum, where full-fan mode delivered 34% more dose. As photon beam energy increased from 60 to 125 kV, kVCBCT-contributed doses increased exponentially for all organs, irrespective of scanning mode. Reducing CBCT field span from 30 to 10 cm in the superior-inferior direction cut testicular doses from 5.7 to 0.2 cGy in half-fan mode and from 1.5 to 0.1 cGy in full-fan mode. Conclusions: Compared with IMRT, kVCBCT-contributed doses to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads are clinically insignificant, whereas dose to the testes is threefold more. Full-fan CBCT usually deposits much less dose to organs (except for rectum) than half-fan mode in prostate patients. Kilovoltage CBCT-contributed doses increase exponentially with photon beam energy. Reducing CBCT field significantly cuts doses to testes and other organs.

  9. Testicular distribution and toxicity of a novel LTA4H inhibitor in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, P.D. La, D.

    2014-07-01

    JNJ 40929837, a novel leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitor in drug development, was reported to induce testicular toxicity in rats. The mechanism of toxicity was considered to be rodent specific and not relevant to humans. To further investigate this finding in rats, the distribution and toxicokinetics of JNJ 40929837 and its two metabolites, M1 and M2, were investigated. A quantitative whole body autoradiography study showed preferential distribution and retention of JNJ 40929837-derived radioactivity in the testes consistent with the observed site of toxicity. Subsequent studies with unlabeled JNJ 40929837 showed different metabolite profiles between the plasma and testes. Following a single oral 50 mg/kg dose of JNJ 40929837, M2 was the primary metabolite in plasma whereas M1 was the primary metabolite in testes. The exposure of M1 was 386-fold higher in the testes compared to plasma whereas M2 had limited exposure in testes. Furthermore, the T{sub max} of M1 was 48 h in testes suggesting a large accumulation potential of this metabolite in testes compared to plasma. Following six months of repeated daily oral dosing, M1 accumulated approximately five-fold in the testes whereas the parent did not accumulate. These results indicate that the toxicokinetic profiles of JNJ 40929837 and its two metabolites in testes are markedly different compared to plasma and support the importance of understanding the toxicokinetic profiles of compounds and their metabolites in organs/tissues where toxicity is observed. - Highlights: • JNJ 40929837-derived radioactivity preferentially distributed into testes • Primary metabolite flip-flop in plasma and testes • The primary metabolite in testes accumulated 5-fold but not parent.

  10. Dysregulation of nectin-2 in the testicular cells: an explanation of cadmium-induced male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Lui, Wing-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Nectin-2, a junction molecule, is found at the basal and apical ectoplasmic specializations (ES) for the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) (constituted by tight junctions and basal ES) and Sertoli-spermatid adhesion. Loss of nectin-2 causes male infertility, suggesting nectin-2-based ES is crucial for spermatogenesis. Cadmium (Cd) has been known to induce severe testicular injury. Recent evidence has shown that the basal ES at the BTB and apical ES are the targets of Cd, suggesting that unique junction protein at the ES may explain why testis is more susceptible than other tissues. Since nectin-2 is expressed exclusively at the ES, it is highly possible that nectin-2 is the direct target of Cd. In this study, we investigate if nectin-2 is the target protein of Cd toxicity and the mechanism on how Cd down-regulates nectin-2 to achieve ES disruption. Our results revealed that Cd suppresses nectin-2 at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Inhibitor and shRNA knockdown have shown that Cd induces nectin-2 protein degradation via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Immunofluorescence staining and endocytosis assays further confirmed that nectin-2 internalization is promoted upon Cd treatment. Besides, Cd directly represses nectin-2 transcription. EMSA and ChIP assays showed that Cd inhibits the binding of positive regulators to nectin-2 promoter. siRNA and overexpression analyses have demonstrated that Cd reduces the expression and binding affinity of positive regulators for transcription. Taken together, nectin-2 is the direct molecular target of Cd and its disruptive effects are mediated via direct repressing nectin-2 transcription and endocytosis of nectin-2 for degradation. PMID:25046863

  11. Induction of testicular damage by daily methamphetamine administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ji-Fan; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Chia; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Chen, Hung-En; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2014-02-28

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced brain damage and apoptosis within the central nervous system are well documented. This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of daily METH administration on the testes in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5 weeks old, ~100 g, n = 64) were divided into two groups and treated with vehicle (saline, control) or METH (10 mg/kg) for 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. The results showed that daily administration of METH decreased the body, testicular and epididymis weights as well as the serum levels of total testosterone. The increased apoptotic index (Bad/Bcl2 expression ratio) and levels of cleaved caspase-3 indicated that apoptosis had occurred in the testes of the METH-treated rats. The oxidative stress levels increased as the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio decreased. The overall sperm counts decreased at 15 and 90 days, where- as morphologically abnormal sperm counts increased at 30, 60 and 90 days in the METH-treated rats. This study demonstrates that daily exposure to METH significantly reduced the number and quality of sperm in rats. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms likely include the reduction of serum testosterone levels and the increase of oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat testes. PMID:24621335

  12. Significance of DNA quantification in testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Codesal, J; Paniagua, R; Regadera, J; Fachal, C; Nistal, M

    1991-01-01

    A cytophotometric quantification of DNA in tumor cells was performed in histological sections of orchidectomy specimens from 36 men with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), 7 of them showing more than one tumor type. Among the variants of seminoma (classic and spermatocytic) the lowest DNA content were in spermatocytic seminoma. With respect to non-seminomatous tumors (yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, and choriocarcinoma), choriocarcinomas showed the highest DNA content, and the lowest value was found in teratomas. No significant differences were found between the average DNA content of seminomas (all types) and non-seminomatous tumors (all types). Both embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor showed similar DNA content when they were the sole tumor and when they were found associated with other tumors. In this study, except for the 4 cases of teratoma and the case of spermatocytic seminoma, all TGCT examined did not show modal values of DNA content in the diploid range. Such an elevated frequency of aneuploidism in these tumors may be helpful for their diagnosis. PMID:1666273

  13. Volcanogenic pollution and testicular damage in wild mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana F; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Many evidences have surfaced the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on male reproduction. Volcanogenic pollution is understudied, although it is a well-known source of hazardous contaminants. This study aims to assess the effects of chronic exposure to volcanogenic pollution on wild mice testes by studying: (i) diameter of seminiferous tubules; (ii) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (iii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iv) apoptotic level in the germinal epithelium. The mice from the polluted site showed higher levels of the selected heavy metals than those from the reference site. The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules and the relative volume occupied by spermatozoa and lumen in exposed mice were significantly lower than in the unexposed group. Contrarily, exposed mice showed a significantly higher relative volume occupied by interstitium, as well as, a higher degree of damage and a significantly higher number of apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results show that secondary manifestations of volcanic activity can pose a serious risk of testicular injury and therefore for male reproduction. PMID:25828918

  14. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg−1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26763544

  15. Aspects of the testicular toxicity of phthalate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, T.J.B.; Gangolli, S.D.

    1986-03-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) produced seminiferous tubular atrophy and reductions in seminal vesicle and prostate weight in 4-week-old, but not in 15 -week-old rats. Di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPP) did produce atrophy in the older rats but this developed more slowly than in young animals. Coadministration of testosterone or gonadotrophins did not protect against phthalate-induced testicular toxicity but did partly reverse the depression of seminal vesicle and prostate weight. Secretion of seminiferous tubule fluid and androgen binding protein by the Sertoli cells was markedly suppressed within 1 hr of a dose of DPP or mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in immature rats. This occurred less rapidly in mature rats. (/sup 14/C)mono-n-pentyl phthalate and (/sup 14/C)MEHP penetrated the blood testis barrier only to a very limited extent. These findings and the early morphological changes in the Sertoli cells produced by DPP suggest that phthalate esters may act initially to cause Sertoli cell injury, the subsequent loss of germ cells occurring as a consequence of this.

  16. Ebselen attenuates cadmium-induced testicular damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Ardais, Ana P; Santos, Francielli W; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2008-04-01

    This study was designed to examine if ebselen, an organoselenium compound with antioxidant and glutathione peroxidase-mimetic properties, attenuates testicular injury caused by intraperitoneal administration of CdCl(2). A number of toxicological parameters were evaluated in the testes of mice, such as delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activity, lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. Ebselen attenuated lipid peroxidation levels altered by CdCl(2). delta-ALA-D activity inhibited by the highest dose of CdCl(2) was attenuated by ebselen. A significant negative correlation between lipid peroxidation levels and delta-ALA-D activity was observed. Ebselen restored ascorbic acid levels reduced by CdCl(2). A significant negative correlation between ascorbic acid levels and delta-ALA-D activity reinforces the idea that ebselen attenuated the damage induced by CdCl(2) via its antioxidant property. The significant correlation between ALT and delta-ALA-D activity supports the assumption that ebselen prevented damage caused by CdCl(2). The results show that ebselen attenuated oxidative stress, a process important for CdCl(2) toxicity. PMID:17624921

  17. Testicular Cell Junction: A Novel Target for Male Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nikki P.Y.; Wong, Elissa W.P.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Even though various contraceptive methods are widely available, the number of unwanted pregnancies is still on the rise in developing countries, pressurizing the already resource limited nations. One of the major underlying reasons is the lack of effective, low cost, and safe contraceptives for couples. During the past decade, some studies were performed using animal models to decipher if the Sertoli-germ cell junction in the testis is a target for male fertility regulation. Some of these study models were based on the use of hormones and/or chemicals to disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (e.g., androgen-based implants or pills) and others utilized a panel of chemical entities or synthetic peptides to perturb spermatogenesis either reversibly or non-reversibly. Among them, adjudin, a potential male contraceptive, is one of the compounds exerting its action on the unique adherens junctions, known as ectoplasmic specializations, in the testis. Since the testis is equipped with inter-connected cell junctions, an initial targeting of one junction type may affect the others and these accumulative effects could lead to spermatogenic arrest. This review attempts to cover an innovative theme on how male infertility can be achieved by inducing junction instability and defects in the testis, opening a new window of research for male contraceptive development. While it will still take much time and effort of intensive investigation before a product can reach the consumable market, these findings have provided hope for better family planning involving men. PMID:19275601

  18. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage.

    PubMed

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg-1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26763544

  19. Comparative testicular structure and spermatogenesis in bony fishes

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Grier, Harry J; Mejía-Roa, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    In most bony fishes, testes are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. Histological examination of teleost testes, and also in all vertebrates, shows that the testes are formed of germ cells and somatic cells, comprising the germinal and interstitial compartments. Both compartments are separated by a basement membrane. The germ cells may be spermatogonia, meiotic spermatocytes and haploid spermatids that differentiate into spermatozoa. The process of spermatogenesis includes a sequen